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Sample records for astatine radon francium

  1. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M., E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.edu

    2013-09-15

    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently, thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  3. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-09-01

    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Collaboration: RITU-Gamma Gollaboration

    2011-11-30

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  5. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U.

    2011-11-01

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  6. Spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsson, U., E-mail: ulrjak@kth.se; Cederwall, B. [KTH, The Division of Nuclear Physics, AlbaNova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Uusitalo, J.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Cox, D. M.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Herzáň, A.; Konki, J.; Leino, M.; Mallaburn, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); and others

    2015-10-15

    Low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei have been studied by means of in-beam and delayed spectroscopy. The 13/2{sup +} state has been observed in francium nuclei with a similar down-sloping trend as in neighbouring astatine and bismuth isotopes, as a function of decreasing neutron number. A systematic trend can also now be seen for the 1/2{sup +} state both in astatine and francium nuclei, where the level energy decreases steeply as a function of neutron number when moving further away from the neutron shell closure. This trend is very similar between astatine nuclei and their francium isotones. Moreover, shape coexistence has been observed between the 13/2{sup +} state and the spherical 9/2{sup −} ground state in {sup 203}Fr and {sup 205}Fr.

  7. Spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, U.; Uusitalo, J.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Cederwall, B.; Cox, D. M.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; HerzáÅ, A.; Konki, J.; Leino, M.; Mallaburn, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.

    2015-10-01

    Low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei have been studied by means of in-beam and delayed spectroscopy. The 13/2+ state has been observed in francium nuclei with a similar down-sloping trend as in neighbouring astatine and bismuth isotopes, as a function of decreasing neutron number. A systematic trend can also now be seen for the 1/2+ state both in astatine and francium nuclei, where the level energy decreases steeply as a function of neutron number when moving further away from the neutron shell closure. This trend is very similar between astatine nuclei and their francium isotones. Moreover, shape coexistence has been observed between the 13/2+ state and the spherical 9/2- ground state in 203Fr and 205Fr.

  8. Electronic Structure Calculations for Heavy Elements: Radon (Z=86) and Francium (Z=87)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufos, Alexander; Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios

    2010-03-01

    Electronic structure calculations allow scientists to predict the properties of solids without the use of physical material. Although the ability to manipulate matter has improved dramatically within the past couple decades, some matter is still hard to study. Modern computers not only let us study this matter, but allow us to do it more quickly and just as accurately. The electronic structure of two rare and mostly unstudied elements, Radon (Z=86) and Francium (Z=87), has been calculated. The augmented plane wave (APW) method with local density approximation (LDA) functional as well as the linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method with both LDA and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals were used to perform the calculations. Francium total energy calculations gave the fcc structure slightly below the bcc structure with a minimal energy difference of δE=0.33mRy. The difference found is consistent with other alkali metal total energy calculations which do not verify the bcc structure to be the ground state. Radon was predicted to be an insulator with a gap of 0.931 Ry similar to the other noble gases.

  9. Radiochemistry of astatine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, T J; Dombsky, M; D' Auria, J M; Ward, T E

    1988-01-01

    This monograph is a review of the literature through 1987 and covers the methods of producing the radioisotopes of astatine and the inorganic, nuclear, and organic chemistry of astatine. The discussion is limited to chemical and physical chemical properties of astatine. The monograph, after the introduction, is divided into chapters titled: production methods, nuclear spectroscopy, chemistry of astatine, separation and isolation (dry and wet), and selected procedures. 209 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs. (DLC)

  10. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Measurement and Mitigation Professional Radon in Drinking Water Radon Hotlines and Resources ( En Español ) Radon Publications ( En Español ) En Español - Acerca del radón Home Buyers and Sellers Radon Protection: Buying a Home Radon Protection: Building a Home ...

  11. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forming a different element with different radioactive properties. Radium and then radon are formed midway through these ... the main source of health concerns. The main isotope of health concern is radon-222 ( 222 Rn). ...

  12. Light on francium

    CERN Document Server

    Liberman, S

    1978-01-01

    Till recently no emission spectrum of francium (an extremely rare radio-active element with atomic number 87) has been observed. Using laser spectroscopy with a swept wavelength laser source, and simultaneous observation of the signal from the atom detector, a first observation, requiring some hundreds of hours exposure has been made of a francium resonance by workers at CERN. The technique and its difficulties are discussed. (2 refs).

  13. Electron Structure of Francium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufos, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    This talk presents the first calculations of the electronic structure of francium for the bcc, fcc and hcp structures, using the Augmented Plane Wave (APW) method in its muffin-tin and linearized general potential forms. Both the Local Density Approximation (LDA) and Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA), were used to calculate the electronic structure and total energy of francium (Fr). The GGA and LDA both found the total energy of the hcp structure slightly below that of the fcc and bcc structure, respectively. This is in agreement with similar results for the other alkali metals using the same methodology. The equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus and superconductivity parameters were calculated. We found that under pressures, in the range of 1-5 GPa, Fr could be a superconductor at a critical temperature of about 4K.

  14. The Francium facility at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, S.; Behr, J. A.; Chen, G.; Collister, R.; Flambaum, V. V.; Gomez, E.; Gwinner, G.; Jackson, K. P.; Melconian, D.; Orozco, L. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Ruiz, M. C.; Sheng, D.; Shin, Y. H.; Sprouse, G. D.; Tandecki, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-04-01

    We present the current status of the Francium Trapping Facility at ISAC at TRIUMF. The facility will enable future experiments on the weak interaction with measurements of atomic parity non-conservation laser-cooled samples of artificially produced francium. These experiments require a precisely controlled environment, which the facility is designed to provide. The facility has been constructed and is being prepared for a series of commissioning runs.

  15. Efficient transfer of francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Seth; Behr, John; Gorelov, Alexander; Pearson, Matt; Tandecki, Michael; Collister, Robert; Gwinner, Gerald; Shiells, Kyle; Gomez, Eduardo; Orozco, Luis; Zhang, Jiehang; Zhao, Yanting; FrPNC Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We report on the progress of the FrPNC collaboration towards Parity Non Conservation Measurements (PNC) using francium atoms at the TRIUMF accelerator. We demonstrate efficient transfer (higher than 40%) to the science vacuum chamber where the PNC measurements will be performed. The transfer uses a downward resonant push beam from the high-efficiency capture magneto optical trap (MOT) towards the science chamber where the atoms are recaptured in a second MOT. The transfer is very robust with respect to variations in the parameters (laser power, detuning, alignment, etc.). We accumulate a growing number of atoms at each transfer pulse (limited by the lifetime of the MOT) since the push beam does not eliminate the atoms already trapped in the science MOT. The number of atoms in the science MOT is on track to meet the requirements for competitive PNC measurements when high francium rates (previously demonstrated) are delivered to our apparatus. The catcher/neutralizer for the ion beam has been tested reliably to 100,000 heating/motion cycles. We present initial tests on the direct microwave excitation of the ground hyperfine transition at 45 GHz. Support from NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and Fulbright from USA, and CONACYT from Mexico.

  16. Spectroscopy of Francium, recent developments at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Frpnc Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    We present the current results of our program of precision spectroscopy on Francium using the recently commissioned Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF during two runs. The measurements include 7P1 / 2 state hyperfine splitting of isotopes 206 - 213 , 221Fr as well as isotope shift measurements on the 7S1 / 2 --> 7 P11 / 2 (D 1) transition. The statistical and systematic errors are small enough that measurements can provide information needed to understand future work on weak interaction physics using microwave and optical excitation of parity non conserving transitions. Work supported by NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and DOE from USA, CONACYT from Mexico.

  17. The radon; Le radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This booklet is intended to answer briefly the most important questions about the nature and sources of radon, its pathways from environment to organism, as well as the ways to minimize its concentration in the habitat's atmosphere. The radon is a naturally appearing radioactive gas, produced through the decay of uranium and radium present in the terrestrial crust. It can be found everywhere on the planet's surface and it is emitted particularly from the granite and volcanic underground rocks as well as from certain construction materials. It is one of the agents producing pulmonary cancer, although not so dangerous as the tobacco is. The following items are elaborated in this booklet: - the place of radon in the average exposure to ionizing radiations of the French population; - the risk; - the radon in the environment (the meteorological conditions, the nature of the rocks); - radon in dwellings (radon measurements in the French dwellings, the entrance pathways of radon, the dependence of radon concentration on the profession and way of life of the inhabitants); - radon measurements; - how to reduce the radon concentration in dwellings.

  18. Collinear resonant ionization laser spectroscopy of rare francium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Neyens, G; Flanagan, K; Rajabali, M M; Le blanc, F M; Ware, T; Procter, T J

    2008-01-01

    We propose a programme of collinear resonant ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) of the francium isotopes up to and including $^{201}$Fr and $^{218,219}$Fr. This work aims at answering questions on the ordering of quantum states, and effect of the ($\\pi s_{1/2}^{-1}$)1/2$^{+}$ intruder state, which is currently believed to be the ground state of $^{199}$Fr. This work will also study the edge of the region of reflection asymmetry through measurement of the moments and radii of $^{218,219}$Fr. This proposal forms the first part of a series of experiments that will study nuclei in this region of the nuclear chart. Based on the success of this initial proposal it is the intention of the collaboration to perform high resolution measurements on the isotopes of radium and radon that surround $^{201}$Fr and $^{218}$Fr and thus providing a comprehensive description of the ground state properties of this region of the nuclear chart. Recent in-source spectroscopy measurements of lead, bismuth and polonium have demonstrated a...

  19. Commissioning of the Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF

    OpenAIRE

    Tandecki, M.; Zhang, J.; Collister, R.; Aubin, S.; Behr, J. A.; Gomez, E. (Emilio); Gwinner, G.; Orozco, L. A.; Pearson, M R.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the successful commissioning of the Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF. Large laser-cooled samples of francium are produced from a francium ion beam delivered by the ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. The ion beam is neutralized on an yttrium foil, which is subsequently heated to transfer the atoms into the magneto-optical trapping region. We have successfully trapped $^{207}$Fr, $^{209}$Fr and $^{221}$Fr, with a maximum of $2.5 \\times 10^5$ $^{209}$Fr atoms. The neutral cold ...

  20. Efficient inter-trap transfer of cold francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Collister, R.; Shiells, K.; Tandecki, M.; Aubin, S.; Behr, J. A.; Gomez, E.; Gorelov, A.; Gwinner, G.; Orozco, L. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhao, Y.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the status of the FrPNC experiments and summarize our plans for measurements of parity non-conservation (PNC) in a sample of cold francium. The FrPNC collaboration has commissioned a laser cooling apparatus at the TRIUMF accelerator that collects and cools francium atoms for PNC experiments. We have recently demonstrated the robust, high efficiency transfer (50 %) of laser cooled francium atoms to a second laser cooling apparatus, located 0.7 m below the first, where the PNC experiments will be conducted.

  1. Efficient inter-trap transfer of cold francium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. [University of Maryland and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Physics, Joint Quantum Institute (United States); Collister, R.; Shiells, K. [University of Manitoba, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Tandecki, M. [TRIUMF (Canada); Aubin, S., E-mail: saaubi@wm.edu [College of William and Mary, Department of Physics (United States); Behr, J. A. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gomez, E. [Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Instituto de Física (Mexico); Gorelov, A. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gwinner, G. [University of Manitoba, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Orozco, L. A. [University of Maryland and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Physics, Joint Quantum Institute (United States); Pearson, M. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Zhao, Y. [Shanxi University, State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy (China)

    2016-12-15

    We report on the status of the FrPNC experiments and summarize our plans for measurements of parity non-conservation (PNC) in a sample of cold francium. The FrPNC collaboration has commissioned a laser cooling apparatus at the TRIUMF accelerator that collects and cools francium atoms for PNC experiments. We have recently demonstrated the robust, high efficiency transfer (50 %) of laser cooled francium atoms to a second laser cooling apparatus, located 0.7 m below the first, where the PNC experiments will be conducted.

  2. Commissioning of the Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF

    CERN Document Server

    Tandecki, M; Collister, R; Aubin, S; Behr, J A; Gomez, E; Gwinner, G; Orozco, L A; Pearson, M R

    2013-01-01

    We report on the successful commissioning of the Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF. Large laser-cooled samples of francium are produced from a francium ion beam delivered by the ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. The ion beam is neutralized on an yttrium foil, which is subsequently heated to transfer the atoms into the magneto-optical trapping region. We have successfully trapped $^{207}$Fr, $^{209}$Fr and $^{221}$Fr, with a maximum of $2.5 \\times 10^5$ $^{209}$Fr atoms. The neutral cold atoms will be used in studies of the weak interaction through measurements of atomic parity non-conservation.

  3. Commissioning of the Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandecki, M.; Zhang, J.; Collister, R.; Aubin, S.; Behr, J. A.; Gomez, E.; Gwinner, G.; Orozco, L. A.; Pearson, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the successful commissioning of the Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF. Large laser-cooled samples of francium are produced from a francium ion beam delivered by the ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. The ion beam is neutralized on an yttrium foil, which is subsequently heated to transfer the atoms into the magneto-optical trapping region. We have successfully trapped 207Fr, 209Fr and 221Fr, with a maximum of 2.5 × 105 209Fr atoms. The neutral cold atoms will be used in studies of the weak interaction through measurements of atomic parity non-conservation.

  4. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, S; Antalic, S; Borschevsky, A; Capponi, L; Cocolios, T E; De Witte, H; Eliav, E; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V N; Fink, D A; Fritzsche, S; Ghys, L; Huyse, M; Imai, N; Kaldor, U; Kudryavtsev, Yu; Köster, U; Lane, J; Lassen, J; Liberati, V; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Nishio, K; Pauwels, D; Pershina, V; Popescu, L; Procter, T J; Radulov, D; Raeder, S; Rajabali, M M; Rapisarda, E; Rossel, R E; Sandhu, K; Seliverstov, M D; Sjödin, A M; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Venhart, M; Wakabayashi, Y; Wendt K D A

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of smallest quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the ionization threshold. The observed series of Rydberg states enabled the first determination of the ionization potential of the astatine atom, 9.317510(8) eV. New ab initio calculations were performed to support the experimental result. The measured value serves as a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations of the properties of astatine as well as for the theoretical prediction of the ionization potential of super-heavy element 117, the heaviest homologue of astatine.

  5. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, S; Andreyev, A N; Antalic, S; Borschevsky, A; Capponi, L; Cocolios, T E; De Witte, H; Eliav, E; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V N; Fink, D A; Fritzsche, S; Ghys, L; Huyse, M; Imai, N; Kaldor, U; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Köster, U; Lane, J F W; Lassen, J; Liberati, V; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Nishio, K; Pauwels, D; Pershina, V; Popescu, L; Procter, T J; Radulov, D; Raeder, S; Rajabali, M M; Rapisarda, E; Rossel, R E; Sandhu, K; Seliverstov, M D; Sjödin, A M; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Venhart, M; Wakabayashi, Y; Wendt, K D A

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of the minute quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the ionization threshold. The observed series of Rydberg states enabled the first determination of the ionization potential of the astatine atom, 9.31751(8) eV. New ab initio calculations are performed to support the experimental result. The measured value serves as a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations of the properties of astatine as well as for the theoretical prediction of the ionization potential of superheavy element 117, the heaviest homologue of astatine.

  6. Francium Spectroscopy for Weak Interaction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Francium, a radioactive element, is the heaviest alkali. Its atomic and nuclear structure makes it an ideal laboratory to study the weak interaction. Laser trapping and cooling in-line with the superconducting LINAC accelerator at Stony Brook opened the precision study of its atomic structure. I will present our proposal and progress towards weak interaction measurements at TRIUMF, the National Canadian Accelerator in Vancouver. These include the commissioning run of the Francium Trapping Facility, hyperfine anomaly measurements on a chain of Fr isotopes, the nuclear anapole moment through parity non-conserving transitions in the ground state hyperfine manifold. These measurements should shed light on the nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. This work is done by the FrPNC collaboration: S. Aubin College of William and Mary, J. A. Behr TRIUMF, R. Collister U. Manitoba, E. Gomez UASLP, G. Gwinner U. Manitoba, M. R. Pearson TRIUMF, L. A. Orozco UMD, M. Tandecki TRIUMF, J. Zhang UMD Supported by NSF and DOE from the USA; TRIUMF, NRC and NSERC from Canada; and CONACYT from Mexico

  7. Project Closeout Report Francium trapping facility at Triumf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco, Luis A [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This is a report of the construction of a Francium Trapping Facility (FTF) at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) of TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, where the Francium Parity Non Conservation (FrPNC) international collaboration has its home. This facility will be used to study fundamental symmetries with high-resolution atomic spectroscopy. The primary scientific objective of the program is a measurement of the anapole moment of francium in a chain of isotopes by observing the parity violation induced by the weak interaction. The anapole moment of francium and associated signal are expected to be ten times larger than in cesium, the only element in which an anapole moment has been observed. The measurement will provide crucial information for better understanding weak hadronic interactions in the context of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The methodology combines nuclear and particle physics techniques for the production of francium with precision measurements based on laser cooling and trapping and microwave spectroscopy. The program builds on an initial series of atomic spectroscopy measurements of the nuclear structure of francium, based on isotope shifts and hyperfine anomalies, before conducting the anapole moment measurements, these measurements performed during commissioning runs help understand the atomic and nuclear structure of Fr.

  8. Laser-cooled radioactive francium factory at CYRIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu, E-mail: kawamura.hirokazu@gmail.com [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, T.; Sato, T. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Aoki, T. [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Hatakeyama, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Hatanaka, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Imai, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Eenrgy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan); Murakami, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nataraj, H.S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India); Shimizu, Y. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Wakasa, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Yoshida, H.P. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Laser-cooled francium factory to search for the electric dipole moment of the electron. • Francium ion beam line was built and tested. • In pilot experiments using rubidium, the neutralization and trapping were achieved. -- Abstract: A factory of laser-cooled francium (Fr) atoms is being developed to search for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron. The factory has achieved the production of Fr ions of 9×10{sup 5} particles/s and transport with a transmission efficiency of 2%. In pilot experiments, the magneto-optical trapping of rubidium (Rb) has been performed using a new ion-to-atom converter. To achieve the Fr trap, the development and design of each of the factory’s components are in progress.

  9. Scopingsreport Radon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; Vaas LH; Hesse JM; Slooff W

    1989-01-01

    Dit scopingsrapport vormt een onderdeel van de voorbereiding tot het opstellen van het basisdocument radon. Het doel van dit rapport is het algemene kennisniveau van de deelnemers aan de scopingsbijeenkomst aangaande radon op eenzelfde peil te brengen en discussie- en beslispunten inzake de

  10. Francium trapping at the INFN-LNL facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, E.; Khanbekyan, A.; Marinelli, C.; Marmugi, L.; Moi, L.; Corradi, L.; Dainelli, A.; Calabrese, R.; Mazzocca, G.; Tomassetti, L.

    2014-05-01

    A brief review of the Francium trapping experiments at the INFN-LNL facility is presented in the wide context of Atomic Parity-Nonconservation (APNC), which, as long as acquiring more precise and new spectroscopic data on the Francium isotopes, is the ultimate goal of the experiment. Due to its instability, Francium atoms must be produced continuously by a nuclear fusion-evaporation reaction into a heated Gold target hit by a beam of accelerated oxygen ions. Francium is then extracted in the ionic form and guided by an electrostatic line to the actual science chamber, where the ions are neutralized. Atoms are then cooled down and trapped in a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) to ensure both the availability of a sufficiently populated and stable atomic sample and to eliminate the Doppler broadening which would affect the precision of the measurements. A review of the recent improvements to the experimental apparatus and to the detection techniques that led to a sensitivity better than five atoms is presented. The final part of this paper deals with a summary of the recent results obtained by our collaboration and a short outlook for the immediate future.

  11. Decay-Assisted Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, K M; Bissell, M L; Budincevic, I; Cocolios, T E; De Groote, R P; De Schepper, S; Fedosseev, V N; Flanagan, K T; Franchoo, S; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Procter, T J; Rossel, R E; Rothe, S; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Wendt, K D A

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the hyperfine-structure and radioactive-decay studies of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes $^{202-206}$Fr performed with the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The high resolution innate to collinear laser spectroscopy is combined with the high efficiency of ion detection to provide a highly-sensitive technique to probe the hyperfine structure of exotic isotopes. The technique of decay-assisted laser spectroscopy is presented, whereby the isomeric ion beam is deflected to a decay spectroscopy station for alpha-decay tagging of the hyperfine components. Here, we present the first hyperfine-structure measurements of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes $^{202-206}$Fr, in addition to the identification of the low-lying states of $^{202,204}$Fr performed at the CRIS experiment.

  12. Progress on the measurement of the francium anapole moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Dong; Hood, Jonathan; Lynam, Steven; Orozco, Luis; Gomez, Eduardo; Aubin, Seth; Gwinner, Gerald; Behr, John; Pearson, Matthew; Jackson, Peter; Melconian, Dan; Flambaum, Victor; Sprouse, Gene

    2010-03-01

    We present the current status of the experimental effort towards the measurement of the anapole moment in francium. The anapole is a parity violating, time-reversal conserving nuclear moment that arises from the weak interaction among nucleons. The anapole moment is nuclear spin dependent (nsd) and sensitive to the configuration of nuclear structure. Our experimental scheme is to perform a direct measurement of the nsd parity violation, by driving a parity forbidden E1 transition between hyperfine ground states in a series of francium isotopes inside a blue detuned dipole trap at the electric anti-node of a microwave cavity. We explore theoretical aspects and experimental requirements on the possible tests using rubidium isotopes. The experiment will be at the ISAC radioactive beam facility of TRIUMF. Work supported by NSF and DOE USA, NSERC and NRC Canada, CONACYT Mexico.

  13. Decay-Assisted Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Lynch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the hyperfine-structure and radioactive-decay studies of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes ^{202–206}Fr performed with the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS experiment at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The high resolution innate to collinear laser spectroscopy is combined with the high efficiency of ion detection to provide a highly sensitive technique to probe the hyperfine structure of exotic isotopes. The technique of decay-assisted laser spectroscopy is presented, whereby the isomeric ion beam is deflected to a decay-spectroscopy station for alpha-decay tagging of the hyperfine components. Here, we present the first hyperfine-structure measurements of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes ^{202–206}Fr, in addition to the identification of the low-lying states of ^{202,204}Fr performed at the CRIS experiment.

  14. Decay-Assisted Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K. M.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Budinčević, I.; Cocolios, T. E.; De Groote, R. P.; De Schepper, S.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Heylen, H.; Marsh, B. A.; Neyens, G.; Procter, T. J.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Strashnov, I.; Stroke, H. H.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the hyperfine-structure and radioactive-decay studies of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes Fr202-206 performed with the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The high resolution innate to collinear laser spectroscopy is combined with the high efficiency of ion detection to provide a highly sensitive technique to probe the hyperfine structure of exotic isotopes. The technique of decay-assisted laser spectroscopy is presented, whereby the isomeric ion beam is deflected to a decay-spectroscopy station for alpha-decay tagging of the hyperfine components. Here, we present the first hyperfine-structure measurements of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes Fr202-206, in addition to the identification of the low-lying states of Fr202,204 performed at the CRIS experiment.

  15. Towards the Measurement of the Electric-Dipole Moment of Radioactive Francium using Laser-Cooling and Trapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    An experiment to search for the electron electric dipole moment using francium is planned to test the new physics beyond the standard model. The optical lattice trapping of the francium that is produced through the nuclear fusion reaction at high heat may allow for a precise measurement of the electric dipole moment. The magneto-optical trapping of the francium is required as a precooling treatment. The factory of laser-cooled francium atoms has been developed for the magneto-optical trap. Currently, the apparatus that is able to trap a few atoms is constructed to identify the resonant frequency of francium.

  16. Calculation of Rydberg energy levels for the francium atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Zhong; Chu, Jin-Min

    2010-06-01

    Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of the np2Po1/2 (n = 7-50) and np2Po3/2 (n = 7-50) spectrum series for the francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 48 measured levels, and 40 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.

  17. Magic and tune-out wavelengths for atomic francium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammalapati, U.; Harada, K.; Sakemi, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The frequency dependent polarizabilities of the francium atom are calculated from the available data of energy levels and transition rates. Magic wavelengths for the state insensitive optical dipole trapping are identified from the calculated light shifts of the 7 s 2S1/2, 7 p 2P1/2,3/2, and 8 s 2S1/2 levels of the 7 s -7 p 2S1/2 2P1/2,3/2 and 7 s -8 s 2S1/2 2S1/2 transitions, respectively. Wavelengths in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared region are identified that are suitable for cooling and trapping. Magic wavelengths between the 600-700 nm and 700-1000 nm regions, which are blue and red detuned with the 7 s -7 p and 7 s -8 s transitions, are feasible to implement as lasers with sufficient power are available. In addition, we calculated the tune-out wavelengths where the ac polarizability of the ground 7 s 2S1/2 state in francium is zero. These results are beneficial as laser cooled and trapped francium has been in use for fundamental symmetry investigations like searches for an electron permanent electric dipole moment in an atom and for atomic parity nonconservation.

  18. Magic and tune-out wavelengths for atomic francium

    CERN Document Server

    Dammalapati, U; Sakemi, Y

    2016-01-01

    The frequency dependent polarizabilities of the francium atom are calculated from the available data of energy levels and transition rates. Magic wavelengths for the state insensitive optical dipole trapping are identified from the calculated light shifts of the $7s~^2S_{1/2}$, $7p~^2P_{1/2, 3/2}$ and $8s~^{2}S_{1/2}$ levels of the $7s~^{2}S_{1/2}-7p~^{2}P_{1/2,3/2}$ and $7s~^{2}S_{1/2}-8s~^{2}S_{1/2}$ transitions, respectively. Wavelengths in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared region is identified that are suitable for cooling and trapping. Magic wavelengths between 600-700~nm and 700-1000~nm region, which are blue and red detuned with the $7s-7p$ and $7s-8s$ transitions are feasible to implement as lasers with sufficient power are available. In addition, we calculated the tune-out wavelengths where the ac polarizability of the ground $7s~^{2}S_{1/2}$ state in francium is zero. These results are beneficial as laser cooled and trapped francium has been in use for fundamental symmetry investigations li...

  19. First experimentally determined thermodynamic values of francium: hydration energy, energy of partitioning, and thermodynamic radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmau, Lætitia H; Moine, Jérôme; Mirzadeh, Saed; Moyer, Bruce A

    2013-08-08

    The Gibbs energy of partitioning of Fr(+) ion between water and nitrobenzene has been determined to be 14.5 ± 0.6 kJ/mol at 25 °C, the first ever Gibbs energy of partitioning for francium in particular and the first ever solution thermodynamic quantity for francium in general. This value enabled the ionic radius and standard Gibbs energy of hydration for Fr(+) to be estimated as 173 pm and -251 kJ/mol, respectively, the former value being significantly smaller than previously thought. A new experimental method was established using a cesium dicarbollide as a cation-exchange agent, overcoming problems inherent to the trace-level concentrations of francium. The methodology opens the door to the study of the partitioning behavior of francium to other water-immiscible solvents and the determination of complexation constants for francium binding by receptor molecules.

  20. Managing Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA recommends testing all schools for radon. As part of an effective IAQ management program, schools can take simple steps to test for radon and reduce risks to occupants if high radon levels are found.

  1. Automated astatination of biomolecules - a stepping stone towards multicenter clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aneheim, Emma; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate multicentre clinical studies on targeted alpha therapy, it is necessary to develop an automated, on-site procedure for conjugating rare, short-lived, alpha-emitting radionuclides to biomolecules. Astatine-211 is one of the few alpha-emitting nuclides with appropriate chemical...

  2. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothe, S.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Borschevsky, A.; Capponi, L.; Cocolios, T. E.; De Witte, H.; Eliav, E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fink, D. A.; Fritzsche, S.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Imai, N.; Kaldor, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Koester, U.; Lane, J. F. W.; Lassen, J.; Liberati, V.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Nishio, K.; Pauwels, D.; Pershina, V.; Popescu, L.; Procter, T. J.; Radulov, D.; Raeder, S.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rapisarda, E.; Rossel, R. E.; Sandhu, K.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjoedin, A. M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of the minute quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical

  3. The FrPNC Experiment, weak interaction studies in Francium at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Collister, R.; Behr, J. A.; Gwinner, G.; Orozco, L. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Tandecki, M.; Sheng, D.; Zhang, J.

    2012-09-01

    Francium is an excellent system to study the nuclear weak force due to its large nucleus and relatively simple atomic structure. The FrPNC experiment has a facility to produce cold trapped atomic francium samples for parity non-conservation studies. We are preparing to measure both the nuclear spin independent and dependent parts of the weak interaction in francium. The first one gives information about weak neutral currents at low energies, while the second one is sensitive to weak interactions between nucleons. We present the current status of the experiment.

  4. Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, K T; Ruiz, R F Garcia; Budincevic, I; Procter, T J; Fedosseev, V N; Lynch, K M; Cocolios, T E; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Rossel, R E; Heylen, H; Billowes, J; Rothe, S; Bissell, M L; Wendt, K D A; de Groote, R P; De Schepper, S

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic moments and isotope shifts of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes Fr202-205 were measured at ISOLDE-CERN with use of collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy. A production-to-detection efficiency of 1\\% was measured for Fr-202. The background from nonresonant and collisional ionization was maintained below one ion in 10(5) beam particles. Through a comparison of the measured charge radii with predictions from the spherical droplet model, it is concluded that the ground-state wave function remains spherical down to Fr-205, with a departure observed in Fr-203 (N = 116).

  5. Calculation of the Rydberg Energy Levels for Francium Atom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shizhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of nsS21/2(n=8--50, ndD23/2(n=6--50, and ndD25/2(n=6--50 spectrum series for francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 74 known experimentally measured levels (the absolute difference is less than 0.03 cm-1 and 58 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.

  6. Laser-cooled radioactive francium factory at CYRIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, T.; Sato, T.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A factory of laser-cooled francium (Fr) atoms is being developed to search for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron. The factory has achieved the production of Fr ions of 9 × 105 particles/s and transport with a transmission efficiency of 2%. In pilot experiments, the magneto-optical trapping of rubidium (Rb) has been performed using a new ion-to-atom converter. To achieve the Fr trap, the development and design of each of the factory's components are in progress.

  7. Calculation of the Rydberg Energy Levels for Francium Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Shizhong; Sun Qiufeng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of nsS21/2(n=8--50), ndD23/2(n=6--50), and ndD25/2(n=6--50) spectrum series for francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 74 known experimentally measured levels (the absolute difference is less than 0.03 cm-1) and 58 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.

  8. Studies of atomic properties of francium and rubidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Galvan, Adrian

    High precision measurements of atomic properties are excellent probes for electroweak interaction studies at the lowest possible energy range. The extraction of standard model coupling constants relies on a unique combination of experimental measurements and theoretical atomic structure calculations. It is only through stringent comparison between experimental and theoretical values of atomic properties that a successful experiment can take place. Francium, with its heavy nucleus and alkali structure that makes it amenable to laser cooling and trapping, stands as an ideal test bed for such studies. Our group has successfully created, trapped and cooled several isotopes of francium, the heaviest of the alkalies, and demonstrated that precision studies of atomic properties, such as the measurement of the 8S 1/2 excited state lifetime of 210Fr presented here, are feasible. Further work in our program of electroweak studies requires a better control of the electromagnetic environment observed by the sample of cold atoms as well as a lower background pressure (10-10 torr or better). We have designed and adapted to our previous setup a new "science" vacuum chamber that fulfills these requirements and the transport system that will transfer the francium atoms to the new chamber. We use this new experimental setup as well as a rubidium glass cell to perform precision studies of atomic and nuclear properties of rubidium. Spectroscopic studies of the most abundant isotopes of rubidium, 85Rb and 87Rb, are a vital component in our program. Performing measurements in rubidium allows us to do extensive and rigorous searches of systematics that can be later extrapolated to francium. We present a precision lifetime measurement of the 5D 3/2 state of 87Rb and a measurement of hyperfine splittings of the 6S1/2 level of 87Rb and 85Rb. The quality of the data of the latter allows us to observe a hyperfine anomaly attributed to an isotopic difference of the magnetization distribution

  9. Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, K. T.; Lynch, K. M.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Budinčević, I.; Cocolios, T. E.; de Groote, R. P.; De Schepper, S.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Heylen, H.; Marsh, B. A.; Neyens, G.; Procter, T. J.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Strashnov, I.; Stroke, H. H.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2013-11-01

    The magnetic moments and isotope shifts of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes Fr202-205 were measured at ISOLDE-CERN with use of collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy. A production-to-detection efficiency of 1% was measured for Fr202. The background from nonresonant and collisional ionization was maintained below one ion in 105 beam particles. Through a comparison of the measured charge radii with predictions from the spherical droplet model, it is concluded that the ground-state wave function remains spherical down to Fr205, with a departure observed in Fr203 (N=116).

  10. Francium sources at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro: Design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancari, G.; Veronesi, S.; Corradi, L.; Atutov, S. N.; Calabrese, R.; Dainelli, A.; Mariotti, E.; Moi, L.; Sanguinetti, S.; Tomassetti, L.

    2006-03-01

    A facility for the production of radioactive francium is operating at the laboratories of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Legnaro, Italy. The goal is to collect a cold sample of radioactive atoms in a magneto-optical trap for studies in atomic, nuclear, and particle physics. Production of francium is achieved via the fusion-evaporation reaction Au197(O18,kn)215-kFr generated by a ˜100-MeV O6+18 beam on a thick gold target. The production target is heated to ˜1200K and kept at a potential of +3kV to enhance Fr diffusion and surface desorption. Average production rates are 0.7×106ions/s for Fr210 with a primary beam flux of 1012particles/s, with peaks of 2×106ions/s. Details are given on the design and construction of the production targets and on the measurements that characterize their performance.

  11. Static multipole polarisabilities and second-order Stark shift in francium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The multipole polarizability of the ground state of francium is calculated by utilizing both the variational technique of Davison and the quantum defect theory underlying the Bates-Damgaard method. This approach is also shown to yield reasonable results for other alkali atoms. Second-order Stark shift for the ground state of francium is presented as a function of field strength for possible future experimental comparison.

  12. An attempt to explore the production routes of Astatine radionuclides: Theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta

    2008-01-01

    In order to fulfil the recent thrust of Astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of $^{209-211}$At comprise both light and heavy ion induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to maximum 100 MeV energy. For this purpose, we have used the nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91 and PACE-II. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced throug...

  13. Radon Guide for Tenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide is for people who rent their apartments or houses. The guide explains what radon is, and how to find out if there is a radon problem in your home. The guide also talks about what you can do if there are high radon levels in your home.

  14. Advances in the Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Kossin, M. J.; Orozco, L. A.; Collister, R.; Shiells, K. L.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Gorelov, A.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Zhao, Y.; FrPNC Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We report the current status of the Francium Trapping Facility (FTF) at TRIUMF. We have successfully commissioned the science chamber of the FTF by demonstrating transfer of Fr atoms from the capture MOT to the science chamber, where weak-interaction experiments on Fr will be performed. The modular design of the science chamber allows for microwave studies of the nuclear anapole moment and optical studies of the weak-charge of the nucleus using atomic parity non-conservation. The 46.5 GHz microwave cavity, necessary for the anapole measurements in 210Fr, uses patterned aluminum on glass-blanks to control the transmission of the mirrors. This design enables Q factors > 40,000 in a Fabry-Perot configuration with mirrors separated by 12.5 cm. Work supported by NSF and DOE from USA, NSERC and NRC from Canada, and CONACYT from Mexico.

  15. The structural and decay properties of Francium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, M.; Mahapatro, S.; Singh, S. K.; Patra, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    We study the bulk properties such as binding energy (BE), root-mean-square (RMS) charge radius, quadrupole deformation etc. for Francium (Fr) isotopes having mass number A = 180-240 within the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) theory. Systematic comparisons are made between the calculated results from RMF theory, Finite Range Droplet Model (FRDM) and the experimental data. Most of the nuclei in the isotopic chain shows prolate configuration in their ground state. The α-decay properties like α-decay energy and the decay half-life are also estimated for three different chains of 198Fr, 199Fr and 200Fr. The calculation for the decay half-life are carried out by taking two different empirical formulae and the results are compared with the experimental data.

  16. Development of a Francium Electron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Charles T., Jr.; Feinberg, B.; Gould, Harvey; Kalnins, Juris; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Jentschura, Ulrich; Behr, John; Pearson, Matt

    2014-09-01

    An experiment to discover or rule out a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron, at a sensitivity well beyond the present experimental limit, is being developed. The experiment will use 211Fr, obtainable online at TRIUMF at rates of 109/s, in a laser-cooled fountain. The experiment is done in free space and free fall, with an electric field, but no applied magnetic field, between optical state preparation and analysis. The relation between an electron EDM and an EDM of a francium atom has recently been recalculated using field theory alone (Blundell, Griffith & Sapirstein, Phys. Rev. D 86, 025023 [2012]), confirming previous atomic physics calculations and removing any ambiguity in the experimental interpretation.

  17. Isotope shifts in francium isotopes Fr-213206 and 221Fr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; FrPNC Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present the isotope shifts of the 7 s1 /2 to 7 p1 /2 transition for francium isotopes 206 -213Fr with reference to 221Fr collected from two experimental periods. The shifts are measured on a sample of atoms prepared within a magneto-optical trap by a fast sweep of radio-frequency sidebands applied to a carrier laser. King plot analysis, which includes literature values for 7 s1 /2 to 7 p3 /2 isotope shifts, provides a field shift constant ratio of 1.0520(10) and a difference between the specific mass shift constants of 170(100) GHz amu between the D1 and D2 transitions, of sufficient precision to differentiate between ab initio calculations.

  18. Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF for weak interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Frpnc Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    We present the current status of the Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF. After successfully commissioning the capture chamber we are now in the process of finishing the science chamber where weak interaction measurements on Fr will be performed. We require transfer of the cold atoms from the capture chamber to the science chamber where they can be re-trapped for precision spectroscopy. The modular design of the science chamber allows for microwave studies for the anapole moment measurement and optical studies for the weak charge measurements using atomic parity non-conservation. We will present our current status and the plans for the commissioning run of the science chamber. Work supported by NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and DOE from USA, CONACYT from Mexico.

  19. Microwave Cavity for Anapole Moment Measurement in Francium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiehang; Sheng, Dong; Orozco, Luis

    2011-05-01

    We present a study of the Polka-Dot microwave plano-spherical mirror for a Fabry-Perot resonator. The microwave resonator is an essential element of the apparatus to measure the anapole moment in francium. A crucial requirement for the cavity is the mode-matching into the fundamental Gaussian TEM00 mode. We investigate new coupling mechanisms of the radiation into the cavity to suppress unwanted higher order modes. We are exploring the method of printing two dimensional array of holes and feeding in through horn antennas. According to a HFSS simulation, this method should improve significantly the mode purity in contrast to conventional antenna. We fabricate the mirrors on standard optical blank using standard film deposition techniques with lithographic method to print the pattern. Preliminary tests show resonances, with potential improvements of the Q factors. Work supported by DOE and NSF

  20. Microwave cavity study for Anapole measurement in francium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Jonathan; Sheng, Dong; Orozco, Luis

    2010-03-01

    We present a detailed study of the mode structure and diffraction loses of a microwave spherical resonator using analytical and numerical methods. The resonator is an essential part of the apparatus to measure the anapole moment in francium [1]. The sensitivity of the measurement to polarization, alignment, and mode purity requires a study beyond the well-established paraxial methods. Our studies have found regions of parameter space where it is possible to satisfy the experimental requirements. Investigations of the coupling mechanisms of the radiation into the cavity point towards quasi-optical methods that can suppress the existence of traveling waves to acceptable methods. [4pt] [1] E. Gomez, S. Aubin, G. D. Sprouse, L. A. Orozco, and D. P. DeMille, ``Measurement method for the nuclear anapole moment of laser-trapped alkali-metal atoms,'' Phys. Rev. A 75, 033418 (2007).

  1. Spectroscopy with Laser-cooled Francium and Progress on Atomic Parity Non-conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiehang

    Francium, the heaviest alkali, possesses a unique combination of structural simplicity and great sensitivity to effects such as atomic parity non-conservation (APNC). We report in this thesis our progress towards measuring weak-interaction physics in a low energy system: the francium atom. We have built a new generation of high-efficiency laser cooling and trapping facility at TRIUMF national laboratory in Canada. We constructed a precision science chamber and demonstrate francium atom transfer into the precision trap, where the electromagnetic field environments can be exquisitely controlled such that weak-interaction studies via optical and microwave excitations can take place. We perform laser spectroscopy measurements of the hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in a chain of francium isotopes near the neutron closed shell (N = 126), including both ground and isomeric nuclear states. These measurements provide a basis for benchmarking state of the art atomic theory, as well as future nuclear structure calculations in Fr, necessary for interpreting the weak-interaction studies. These developments lay important foundations for precision parity non-conservation measurements with francium.

  2. Synthesis and Evaluation of Astatinated N-[2-(Maleimido)ethyl]-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide Immunoconjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aneheim, Emma; Gustafsson, Anna; Albertsson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Effective treatment of metastasis is a great challenge in the treatment of different types of cancers. Targeted alpha therapy utilizes the short tissue range (50-100 μm) of α particles, making the method suitable for treatment of disseminated occult cancers in the form of microtumors or even sing...... of the in vivo distribution of the new immunoconjugate with other tin-based immunoconjugates in tumor-bearing mice, the MSB conjugation method was found to be a viable option for successful astatine labeling of different monoclonal antibodies....

  3. Indoor radon; Le radon dans les batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies.

  4. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  5. Radon-Instrumentation; Radon-Instrumentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104, Centro Historico 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  6. Radon Optical Processing in Radon Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-15

    and have been considered at length elsewhere (Rowland, 1979) (3arrett and Swindell , 1981) . Rather, we wish to investigate the use of the Radon... Swindell :1977, 1981) or Larrett (1984). We can also express the inverse Radon transform in operator notation (Barrett, 1984), expanding the operator PR...similar signal processing capability over a wide range of input frequencies ( Roberts , 1977). fe Linear FM, or chirp, SAW filters are easily made and have

  7. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  8. YAPILARDA RADON FENOMENY

    OpenAIRE

    OZAN, Sadik Sezgin; EKİNCİ, Cevdet Emin

    2011-01-01

    Bu çaly?mada, yapylarda Radon konusu irdelenmi?tir. Radon, günlük hayatta sürekli maruz kaldy?ymyz radyasyonun yakla?yk %50'sini olu?turan ve topraktaki Uranyum'un bozunma zincirinin bir halkasy olan renksiz, kokusuz ve duyu organlaryyla algylanamayan radyoaktif bir gazdyr. Kayaçlardaki Uranyumun bozunmasy sonucu ortaya çykan Radon gazy, difüzyon yoluyla topra?a, oradan da atmosfere veya ortama yayylmaktadyr. Gazyn birikmesiyle, Radon yo?unlu?u kapaly mekânlarda veya iyi havalandyrylmayan yer...

  9. YAPILARDA RADON FENOMENY

    OpenAIRE

    OZAN, Sadik Sezgin; EKİNCİ, Cevdet Emin

    2011-01-01

    Bu çaly?mada, yapylarda Radon konusu irdelenmi?tir. Radon, günlük hayatta sürekli maruz kaldy?ymyz radyasyonun yakla?yk %50'sini olu?turan ve topraktaki Uranyum'un bozunma zincirinin bir halkasy olan renksiz, kokusuz ve duyu organlaryyla algylanamayan radyoaktif bir gazdyr. Kayaçlardaki Uranyumun bozunmasy sonucu ortaya çykan Radon gazy, difüzyon yoluyla topra?a, oradan da atmosfere veya ortama yayylmaktadyr. Gazyn birikmesiyle, Radon yo?unlu?u kapaly mekânlarda veya iyi havalandyry...

  10. Assessment of radon equilibrium factor from distribution parameters of simultaneous radon and radon progeny measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Marro, Leonora

    2011-11-01

    In Canada, a radon and radon progeny survey was carried out in the 1970s in 19 cities. To the authors' knowledge, this is the only large survey of simultaneous radon and radon progeny measurements up to the present time. However, the survey was carried out for the purpose of establishing geographic variation of radon and radon progeny; therefore, radon equilibrium factors, F, were not assessed at that time. From the summary results of this large simultaneous radon and radon progeny survey, the characteristics of radon equilibrium factor were assessed. The average F factor assessed from this survey in 12,576 houses is 0.54. The current assessment may indicate that the typical F value of 0.4 recommended by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) could lead to a downward bias in the estimation of radon doses to the lung.

  11. Health Risk of Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... encouraged by WHO’s attention to this important public health issue. "Radon poses an easily reducible health risk to ... and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & ...

  12. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  13. Radon: Not so Noble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 7. Radon: Not so Noble-Radon in the Environment and Associated Health Problems. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 5 Issue 7 July 2000 pp 44-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  15. Radon: Not so Noble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electronic configuration. [ 5S25p65d106s26p6]. Deepanjan Majumdar. Radon is a radioactive noble gas that occurs naturally but becomes an environmental hazard when it remains con- centrated in enclosed places .... public water supplies. Rivers carry .... relationship between cancer incidence and radon exposure has.

  16. Atomic parity non-conservation: the francium anapole project of the FrPNC collaboration at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, S.; Behr, J. A.; Collister, R.; Flambaum, V. V.; Gomez, E.; Gwinner, G.; Jackson, K. P.; Melconian, D.; Orozco, L. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Sheng, D.; Sprouse, G. D.; Tandecki, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-03-01

    We present a method for measuring the nuclear anapole in a string of francium isotopes. The anapole is a parity non-conserving electromagnetic moment that enables parity-forbidden transitions between ground state hyperfine levels of an atom. The experiment is run by the FrPNC collaboration and relies on a beam of artificially-produced francium from the ISAC facility at TRIUMF.

  17. Atomic parity non-conservation: the francium anapole project of the FrPNC collaboration at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, S. [College of William and Mary, Dept. Physics (United States); Behr, J. A. [TRIUMF (Canada); Collister, R. [University of Manitoba, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Flambaum, V. V. [University of New South Wales, School of Physics (Australia); Gomez, E. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Fisica (Mexico); Gwinner, G. [University of Manitoba, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Jackson, K. P. [TRIUMF (Canada); Melconian, D. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute (United States); Orozco, L. A., E-mail: lorozco@umd.edu [University of Maryland, JQI, Dept. of Physics, and NIST (United States); Pearson, M. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Sheng, D. [Princeton University (United States); Sprouse, G. D. [Stony Brook University, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Tandecki, M. [TRIUMF (Canada); Zhang, J. [University of Maryland, JQI, Dept. of Physics, and NIST (United States); Zhao, Y. [Shanxi University, State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices (China)

    2013-03-15

    We present a method for measuring the nuclear anapole in a string of francium isotopes. The anapole is a parity non-conserving electromagnetic moment that enables parity-forbidden transitions between ground state hyperfine levels of an atom. The experiment is run by the FrPNC collaboration and relies on a beam of artificially-produced francium from the ISAC facility at TRIUMF.

  18. Laser photodetachment of radioactive ions: towards the determination of the electronegativity of astatine

    CERN Multimedia

    Rothe, Sebastian; Welander, Jakob Emanuel; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Fedosseev, Valentine; Fiotakis, Spyridon; Forstner, Oliver; Heinke, Reinhard Matthias; Johnston, Karl; Kron, Tobias; Koester, Ulli; Liu, Yuan; Marsh, Bruce; Ringvall Moberg, Annie; Rossel, Ralf Erik; Seiffert, Christoph; Studer, Dominik; Wendt, Klaus; Hanstorp, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Negatively charged ions are mainly stabilized through the electron correlation effect. A measure of the stability of a negative ion is the electron affinity, which the energy gain by attaching an electron to a neutral atom. This fundamental quantity is, due to the almost general lack of bound excited states, the only atomic property that can be determined with high accuracy for negative ions. We will present the results of the first laser photodetachment studies of radioactive negative ions at CERN-ISOLDE. The photodetachment threshold for the radiogenic iodine isotope 128I was measured successfully, demonstrating the performance of the upgraded GANDALPH experimental beam line. The first detection of photo-detached astatine atoms marks a milestone towards the determination of the EA of this radioactive element.

  19. Complexation study on no-carrier-added astatine with insulin: A candidate radiopharmaceutical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahiri, Susanta [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)], E-mail: susanta.lahiri@saha.ac.in; Roy, Kamalika [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Sen, Souvik [Berhampur Sadar Hospital, Berhampur, Murshidabad 742 101 (India)

    2008-12-15

    No-carrier-added astatine radionuclides produced in the {sup 7}Li-irradiated lead matrix were separated from bulk lead nitrate target by complexing At with insulin, followed by dialysis. The method offers simultaneous separation of At from lead as well as its complexation with insulin. The At-insulin complex might be a potential radiopharmaceutical in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The stability of At-insulin complex was checked by dialysis against deionized water and Ringer lactate (RL) solution. It has been found that the half-life of At-insulin complex is about {approx}12 h, when dialyzed against deionized water and is only 6 h, when dialyzed against RL solution having the same composition as blood serum. The 6 h half-life of this Insulin-At complex is perfect for killing cancer cells from external cell surfaces as the half-life of internalization of insulin molecule inside the cell is 7-12 h.

  20. Determination of the electron affinity of astatine and polonium by laser photodetachment

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to conduct the first electron affinity (EA) measurements of the two elements astatine (At) and polonium (Po). Collinear photo-detachment spectroscopy will allow us to measure these quantities with an uncertainty limited only by the spectral line width of the laser. We plan to use negative ion beams of the two radioactive elements At and Po, which are only accessible on-line and at ISOLDE. The feasibility of our proposed method and the functionality of the experimental setup have been demonstrated at ISOLDE in off-line tests by the clear observation of the photo-detachment threshold for stable iodine. This proposal is based on our Letter of Intent I-148.

  1. [Patients' exposure to electromagnetic fields and radon in radon spas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politański, Piotr; Olszewski, Jerzy; Mamrot, Paweł; Mariańska, Mlagda; Zmyślony, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Many patients of physiotherapeutic facilities using therapeutic radon are also referred to other treatments involving the use of electromagnetic field (EMF). However, in the light of the theory of EMF influence on free radicals, it is still an open question whether, application of EMF shortly after the radon treatment may alter the biological effects of radon or EMF. The aim of the study was to determine how large is the group of patients exposed to radon and EMF in Poland, and how high is the exposure of these patients to analyzed factors. The results of the study are to be used in the future assessment of the combined effects of radon and EMF in radon spas. Based on the statistical data and interviews held in the major Polish radon spas, the analysis of treatment structure was performed and exposure to radon and EMF was assessed by measuring radon concentrations and characteristic values of exposure to EMF. More than 8000 people per year are subjected to combined exposure to radon and EMF. Significant differences were found between measured radon concentrations (they ranged from approximately 61 kBq/m3 for inhalations with inhaler to only 290 Bq/m3 for graduation towers, p = 0.049) and EMF intensities corresponded to those observed in hazardous and dangerous zones for occupational exposure. The results of the study showed significant differences between radon concentrations during various radon treatments. There is a need to develop clear and universal procedures for the application of radon or radon combined with EMF in radon spas. The effects of patients' exposure to radon, especially combined with EMF need to be further studied.

  2. Radon i danske lejeboliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Skytte Clausen, Louise

    I denne undersøgelse kortlægges radonindholdet i indeluften og det undersøges, hvordan indholdet af radon i indeluften er fordelt og spredes i en ejendom, og om det er muligt at pege på en bygningsdel eller en bygningskomponent som en spredningsvej for radon i boliger. Boligerne er lejeboliger og...... ligger i etageejendomme, kæde- og rækkehuse tilhørende bygningstyper opført fra 1850 og frem. De udvalgte ejendomme ligger i områder af landet, hvor der ved tidligere undersøgelser har vist sig at være en stor andel af huse med et højt indhold af radon i indeluften. Koncentrationen af radon er målt over...

  3. Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the problem can be solved. EPA's national survey of schools produced some alarming results about concentrations in our children's classrooms. Public awareness must be raised about the hazards of radon ...

  4. ROE Radon Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The polygon dataset represents predicted indoor radon screening levels in counties across the United States. These data were provided by EPA’s Office of Radiation...

  5. Radon og boligen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    Radon er en radioaktiv og sundhedsskadelig luftart, som ved indånding øger risikoen for lungekræft. Der er ingen dokumenteret nedre grænse for, hvornår radon er ufarligt. Derfor anbefales det, at man tilstræber et så lavt radonindhold i indeluften som muligt. Man kan hverken lugte, se, høre eller...... smage radon, så vil du vide, om du har radon i din bolig, må du måle radonindholdet i indeluften. Radon forekommer naturligt i jorden og kan suges ind sammen med jordluft, hvis der inde er et undertryk, og hvis konstruktionerne mod jord er utætte. Jordluft trænger ind gennem revner og utætte samlinger......, fx omkring rør til kloak, vand og varmeforsyning. Koncentrationen af radon i jorden varierer meget fra sted til sted, også lokalt og gennem året. Tidligere undersøgelser har vist, at der kan forekomme høje koncentrationer i Sydgrønland, specielt i området syd for Narsalik ved Paamiut, 61°30’N....

  6. The FrPNC experiment at TRIUMF: Atomic parity non-conservation in francium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Sheng, D.; Zhang, J.; Collister, R.; Melconian, D.; Flambaum, V. V.; Sprouse, G. D.; Orozco, L. A.; Gwinner, G.

    2012-09-01

    The FrPNC collaboration has begun the construction of an on-line laser cooling and trapping apparatus at TRIUMF to measure atomic parity non-conservation (PNC) and the nuclear anapole moment in a string of artificially produced francium isotopes. Atomic PNC experiments provide unique high precision tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at very low energies. Furthermore, precision measurements of spin-dependent atomic PNC can determine nuclear anapole moments and probe the weak force within the nucleus. Francium is an excellent candidate for precision measurements of atomic PNC due to its simple electronic structure and enhanced parity violation: both the optical PNC and anapole moment signals are expected to be over an order of magnitude larger than in cesium.

  7. Radon in land use planning; Radon i arealplanlegging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Radon poses a health risk. Therefore, it is important that the municipality takes into account radon, in land use planning. This Radiation Info provides an overview of what makes an additional radon prone area and what tools are available to assess this. The background is the Planning and Building Act provisions on risk analysis (ROS) and zones. (eb)

  8. Enhanced Atomic Desorption of 209 and 210 Francium from Organic Coating

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Controlled atomic desorption from organic Poly-DiMethylSiloxane coating is demonstrated for improving the loading efficiency of 209,210Fr magneto-optical traps. A three times increase in the cold atoms population is obtained with contact-less pulsed light-induced desorption, applied to different isotopes, either bosonic or fermionic, of Francium. A six times increase of 210Fr population is obtained with a desorption mechanism based on direct charge transfer from a triboelectric probe to the a...

  9. Experimental search for the electron electric dipole moment with laser cooled francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kawamura, H.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Asahi, K.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Yoshimi, A.; Sakemi, Y.

    2015-04-01

    A laser cooled heavy atom is one of the candidates to search for the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron due to the enhancement mechanism and its long coherence time. The laser cooled francium (Fr) factory has been constructed to perform the electron EDM search at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The present status of Fr production and the EDM measurement system is presented.

  10. Experimental search for the electron electric dipole moment with laser cooled francium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T., E-mail: inoue-t@cyric.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Frontier Research Institute of Interdisciplinary Sciences (Japan); Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kawamura, H.; Uchiyama, A. [Tohoku University, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (Japan); Aoki, T. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Asahi, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Physics (Japan); Hatakeyama, A. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (Japan); Hatanaka, K. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics (Japan); Imai, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Murakami, T. [Kyoto University, Department of Physics (Japan); Nataraj, H. S. [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India); and others

    2015-04-15

    A laser cooled heavy atom is one of the candidates to search for the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron due to the enhancement mechanism and its long coherence time. The laser cooled francium (Fr) factory has been constructed to perform the electron EDM search at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The present status of Fr production and the EDM measurement system is presented.

  11. Decay-assisted collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy: Application to neutron-deficient francium

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. Lynch; Billowes, J.; M. L. Bissell; Budinčević, I.; T. E. Cocolios; R. P. De Groote; de Schepper, S.; V. N. Fedosseev; K. T. Flanagan; Franchoo, S.; R. F. Garcia Ruiz; Heylen, H.; B. A. Marsh; Neyens, G.; T. J. Procter

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the hyperfine-structure and radioactive-decay studies of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes $^{202-206}$Fr performed with the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The high resolution innate to collinear laser spectroscopy is combined with the high efficiency of ion detection to provide a highly-sensitive technique to probe the hyperfine structure of exotic isotopes. The technique of decay-assisted laser spectros...

  12. Preparing the measurement of anapole moment in a chain of francium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Dong

    This thesis presents the current status of the experimental efforts towards the measurement of the anapole moment in francium. The anapole moment is a parity violating, time-reversal conserving nuclear moment that arises from the weak interaction among nucleons. It is nuclear spin dependent and sensitive to the configuration of nuclear structure. Our experimental scheme is to perform a direct measurement of the anapole moment, by driving a parity forbidden E1 transition between ground hyperfine states in a series of francium isotopes inside a blue detuned dipole trap at the electric anti-node of a microwave cavity. We explore the tests using rubidium isotopes. The francium experiment will be moved to the ISAC radioactive beam facility of TRIUMF, Canada. During the preparation of the apparatus, we test the coherent control of the ground states via microwave and Raman beams, characterize the performance of a blue detuned dipole trap and study the atomic dynamics inside it using both classical and quantum methods. We also measure the lifetime of excited 5d states in Rb, with less than 1% uncertainty, to test and help to improve the current atomic structure theories.

  13. Towards an Atomic Parity Violation Measurement with Laser Trapped Francium at ISAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, R.; Tandecki, M.; Gwinner, G.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Gomez-Garcia, E.; Aubin, S.

    2012-10-01

    The neutral atom trap for parity violation measurements at TRIUMF has recently accepted its first radioactive beam. The longest lived francium isotopes have half-lives of minutes, requiring us to produce them with the online mass separator of the ISAC facility. The ion beam is embedded into a catcher made of yttrium foil where it is neutralized. Subsequently, the foil is rotated and heated to release a pulse of atomic francium into the laser trap cell. Francium isotopes 207, 209 and 221 have successfully been cooled and confined in a magneto-optical trap, a crucial first step for later experiments. The next online measurements are planned for November 2012 where two physics goals will be pursued. Firstly, the hyperfine anomaly will be probed via high precision spectroscopy on the atomic D1 transition in order to investigate the nuclear magnetization distribution. This will be followed by ionization cross-section measurements from the 7p3/2 state to evaluate this as a potential problematic trap loss mechanism for future parity violation measurements.

  14. Atomic spectroscopy study of nuclear properties of francium and cesium isotopes; Etude par spectroscopie atomique de proprietes nucleaires d'isotopes de francium et de cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coc, A

    1986-04-15

    This work is based on the study of cesium ({sup 118,146}Cs) and francium ({sup 207-213}Fr,{sup 220-228}Fr) isotopes by hyperfine atomic spectroscopy and on the interpretation of these results from the nuclear physics point of view. The measured nuclear quantities are: the spin, the magnetic moment, the electric quadrupole moment and the mean square charge radius. The experimental method which is based on hyperfine optical pumping with a tunable laser, followed by magnetic analysis of the atoms is described in the first part. Results related to atomic physics are also presented. In the second part, these data are interpreted in the framework of nuclear models. The deformation of light cesium isomers are compared to values obtained from a theoretical self-consistent calculation. Heavy francium isotopes are situated in an area where the existence of static octupole deformations have been predicted. The odd-even staggering measured on the mean square radius is abnormal in this region. However, on the basis of experimental data, no definitive conclusion can be drawn regarding the nature of these deformations. (author)

  15. Radon: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

  16. Adsorption of the astatine species on a gold surface: A relativistic density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Yuriy; Zaitsevskii, Andréi

    2018-01-01

    We report first-principle based studies of the adsorption interaction of astatine species on a gold surface. These studies are aimed primarily at the support and interpretation of gas chromatographic experiments with superheavy elements, tennessine (Ts, Z = 117), a heavier homologue of At, and possibly its pseudo-homologue nihonium (Nh, Z = 113). We use gold clusters with up to 69 atoms to simulate the adsorption sites and estimate the desorption energies of At & AtOH from a stable gold (1 1 1) surface. To describe the electronic structure of At -Aun and AtOH -Aun complexes, we combine accurate shape-consistent relativistic pseudopotentials and non-collinear two-component relativistic density functional theory. The predicted desorption energies of At and AtOH on gold are 130 ± 10 kJ/mol and 90 ± 10 kJ/mol, respectively. These results confirm the validity of the estimates derived from chromatographic data (147 ± 15 kJ/mol for At, and 100-10+20 kJ/mol for AtOH).

  17. Atmospheric radon: origin and transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Pena, P.; Gaso, I. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Mireles, F.; Davila, I.; Quirino, L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares

    1994-12-31

    Atmospheric indoor and outdoor radon surveys have been performed in several locations of Mexico. In order to estimate the radon transfer from different origins to the atmosphere, soil and ground water, together with the exhalation rate from bare and coated building materials have also been studied. The radon detection was performed with SSNTD, an automatic silicon-based radon monitor and the liquid scintillation technique. The results from several years of monitoring indicate that the atmospheric radon behaviour is different for the countryside as compared with more complex inhabited regions; transfer from soil being inhibited by the specific structures of the cities. The effect of wall coatings reduced from 50% to 90% the radon exhalation from bare building materials. A low radon content was observed in the ground water samples studied. (Author).

  18. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  19. Publications about Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no known safe level of exposure to radon. EPA strongly recommends that you fix your home if your test shows 4 picocuries (pCi/L) or more. These publications and resources will provide you with the information you need to fix your home.

  20. Radon Resources for Home Buyers and Sellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Home Radon-Resistant New Construction Radon and Real Estate Resources Home Buyer's/Seller's Guide to Radon Consumer's ... Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance Enforcement Laws and Executive Orders ...

  1. The NIST Primary Radon-222 Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Coll, R.; Hutchinson, J. M. R.; Unterweger, M. P.

    1990-01-01

    Within the United States, the national standard for radon measurements is embodied in a primary radon measurement system that has been maintained for over 50 years to accurately measure radon (222Rn) against international and national radium (226Ra) standards. In turn, all of the radon measurements made at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the radon transfer calibration standards and calibration services provided by NIST are directly related to this national radon ...

  2. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as a viable approach for cancer treatment because of its potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to malignant cell populations while sparing normal tissues. Alpha particles such as those emitted by 211At are particularly attractive for this purpose because of their short path length in tissue and high energy, making them highly effective in killing cancer cells. The current impact of targeted radiotherapy in the clinical domain remains limited despite the fact that in many cases, potentially useful molecular targets and labeled compounds have already been identified. Unfortunately, putting these concepts into practice has been impeded by limitations in radiochemistry methodologies. A critical problem is that the synthesis of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals provides additional challenges in comparison to diagnostic reagents because of the need to perform radio-synthesis at high levels of radioactivity. This is particularly important for {alpha}-particle emitters such as 211At because they deposit large amounts of energy in a highly focal manner. The overall objective of this project is to develop convenient and reproducible radiochemical methodologies for the radiohalogenation of molecules with the {alpha}-particle emitter 211At at the radioactivity levels needed for clinical studies. Our goal is to address two problems in astatine radiochemistry: First, a well known characteristic of 211At chemistry is that yields for electrophilic astatination reactions decline as the time interval after radionuclide isolation from the cyclotron target increases. This is a critical problem that must be addressed if cyclotrons are to be able to efficiently supply 211At to remote users. And second, when the preparation of high levels of 211At-labeled compounds is attempted, the radiochemical yields can be considerably lower than those encountered at tracer dose. For these reasons, clinical evaluation of promising 211At

  3. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  4. Accurate measurements of transition frequencies and isotope shifts of laser-trapped francium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, S; Calabrese, R; Corradi, L; Dainelli, A; Khanbekyan, A; Mariotti, E; de Mauro, C; Minguzzi, P; Moi, L; Stancari, G; Tomassetti, L; Veronesi, S

    2009-04-01

    An interferometric method is used to improve the accuracy of the 7S-7P transition frequencies of three francium isotopes by 1 order of magnitude. The deduced isotope shifts for 209-211Fr confirm the ISOLDE data. The frequency of the D2 transition of 212Fr--the accepted reference for all Fr isotope shifts--is revised, and a significant difference with the ISOLDE value is found. Our results will be a benchmark for the accuracy of the theory of Fr energy levels, a necessary step to investigate fundamental symmetries.

  5. Alpha decay studies of new neutron-deficient francium isotopes and their daughters

    CERN Document Server

    Ewan, G T; Jonson, B; Mattsson, M; Tidemand-Petersson, P

    1980-01-01

    Neutron-deficient francium isotopes were produced by proton-induced spallation reactions and investigated by alpha spectroscopy following on-line mass separation. The new isotopes /sup 202,202/Fr were identified and their half-lives measured. An improved value for the half-life of /sup 203/Fr was obtained. Alpha branching ratios were determined for /sup 198m, g,199/At. The derivation of the mass excess of /sup 202/Fr and the systematics of alpha energies and reduced widths are discussed. (17 refs).

  6. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracín, D.; Csige, I.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical models based on finite-difference or finite-element methods are used by various research groups in studies of radon-222 transport through soil and building materials. Applications range from design of radon remediation systems to morefundamental studies of radon transport. To ascertain ......, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommendedthat additional exercises are carried out....

  7. Infinite measure~preserving~transformations with Radon MSJ

    OpenAIRE

    Danilenko, Alexandre I.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce concepts of Radon MSJ and Radon disjointness for infinite Radon measure preserving homeomorphisms of the locally compact Cantor space. We construct an uncountable family of pairwise Radon disjoint infinite Chacon like transformations. Every such transformation is Radon strictly ergodic, totally ergodic, asymmetric (not isomorphic to its inverse), has Radon MSJ and possesses Radon joinings whose ergodic components are not joinings.

  8. Isotope shift measurements on the D1 line in francium isotopes at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, R.; Tandecki, M.; Gwinner, G.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    Francium is the heaviest alkali and has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived among them, with half-lives from seconds to a few minutes, are now available in the new Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF, Canada, for future weak interaction studies. We present isotope shift measurements on the 7S1 / 2 --> 7P1 / 2 (D 1) transition on three isotopes, 206, 207 and 213 in a magneto-optical trap. The shifts are measured using a c.w. Ti:sapphire laser locked to a stabilized cavity at the mid-point between two hyperfine transitions of the reference isotope 209Fr. Scanning tunable microwave sidebands locate transitions in the other isotopes. In combination with the D 2 isotope shifts, analysis can provide a separation of the field shift, due to a changing nuclear charge radius, and specific mass shift, due to changing electron correlations, in these isotopes. Work supported by NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and DOE from USA, CONYACT from Mexico.

  9. Probing parity nonconservation effects with laser cooled and trapped francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Mukut; Aubin, Seth; Behr, John; Collister, Robert; Dehart, Austin; Gorelov, Alexandre; Garcia, Eduardo; Gwinner, Gerald; Kossin, Michael; Livermore, David; Orozco, Luis; Pearson, Matt; FrPNC Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of parity nonconservation (PNC) effects in atomic systems test the Standard Model at low energies. We are developing an experiment to probe PNC effect in neutral francium atoms. Francium ions produced at the ISAC radioactive beam facility at TRIUMF are neutralized using a zirconium foil. The foil is momentarily heated and the released atoms are first trapped in a capture magneto optical trap (MOT). Then, the atoms are transported with about 50% efficiency to another MOT in a science chamber. In this chamber, in one experiment the 7S to 8S atomic transition will be probed using a laser beam, and in another experiment the ground state hyperfine transition will be probed using a microwave beam. In this talk I will report on recent developments towards the measurements. TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada. This work is also supported by NSERC from Canada, the DOE and NSF from the USA and CONACYT from Mexico.

  10. Probing the spatial distribution of nuclear magnetism in francium by optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, S.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Gomez, E.

    2013-10-01

    The recently commissioned Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada will enable experiments to study weak interactions in francium atoms. We have successfully trapped and cooled 206 , 207 , 209 , 213 , 221Fr isotopes in large quantities (104 to 105) with trap lifetimes comparable to the radioactive lifetimes of the shortest lived trapped isotope (t1/2 = 14.8s). We use a combination of radio-frequency and optical spectroscopy to determine the hyperfine splittings of the 7P1 / 2 level of isotopes 206 , 207 , 209 , 213Fr to the 100 ppm level. These measurements, in combination with the known hyperfine ground state splittings, can be used to study the hyperfine anomaly in these isotopes. Our results extend previous work on the neutron distribution to a closed neutron shell isotope (213) and to neutron deficient isotopes (206, 207). These spectroscopic measurements also allow us to extract the isotope shifts to study changes in the charge radius. Work supported by NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and DOE from USA, and CONACYT from Mexico.

  11. Radon Infiltration in Rented Accommodation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2017-01-01

    Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes located in 53 buildings, including 28 multi-occupant houses and 25 single-family terraced houses. The homes consisted of rented accommodation located in buildings recorded as being constructed before 2010 and after the year 1850. The radon level...

  12. Radon - The management of the risk related to radon; Le radon la gestion du risque lie au radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This leaflet briefly explains what radon is, where it comes from, and what it becomes. It indicates and briefly comments its concentrations in French departments, describes how radon can affect our health (lung cancer), describes how the risk can be reduced in buildings, and indicates the existing regulatory provisions

  13. The NIST Primary Radon-222 Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collé, R; Hutchinson, J M R; Unterweger, M P

    1990-01-01

    Within the United States, the national standard for radon measurements is embodied in a primary radon measurement system that has been maintained for over 50 years to accurately measure radon ((222)Rn) against international and national radium ((226)Ra) standards. In turn, all of the radon measurements made at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the radon transfer calibration standards and calibration services provided by NIST are directly related to this national radon standard. This primary radon measurement system consists of pulse ionization chambers and ancillary gas handling and gas purification equipment. The system is currently undergoing a significant upgrading and expansion which will replace the extant outdated system.

  14. CONTRIBUTION OF RADON FLOWS AND RADON SOURCES TO THE RADON CONCENTRATION IN A DWELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; STOOP, P; PUT, LW

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a model is presented for analysis of the radon concentrations in a compartment in terms of contributions from transport by flows of air between compartments and from radon sources in the compartment. Measurements were made to study the effect of increased natural ventilation of the

  15. Radon in Saudi houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 637 passive radon dosemeters (CR-39 nuclear track detectors in a closed chamber) were used in a survey in 400 houses in Saudi Arabia. The radon concentration was found to vary from 5 to 36 Bq.m/sup -3/ (0.13 to 0.98 pCi.l/sup -1/) with a mean of 16 Bq.m/sup -3/ (0.43 pCi.l/sup -1/). The unoccupied houses showed a concentration of 29+-7 Bq.m/sup -3/ (0.78+-0.19 pCi.l/sup -1/) double that of the occupied houses, 14+-1 Bq.m/sup -3/ (0.39+-0.02 pCi.l/sup -1/), in the same area. The radon daughter concentration measured with a Working Level monitor in 17 unoccupied houses was found to vary from 1.35x10/sup -3/ to 24x10/sup -3/ WL with an average of 6.9+-1.4x10/sup -3/ WL. The average exhalation rate measured in 37 houses by 95 passive detectors in cans sealed to the walls ranged from 0.013 to 0.044 Bq.m/sup -2/.h/sup -1/(0.35 to 1.2 pCi.m/sup -2/.h/sup -1/) with an average of 0.021+-0.003 Bq.m/sup -2/.h/sup -1/(0.56+-0.09 pCi.m/sup -2/.h/sup -1/). This survey is the first in Saudi Arabia (a hot climate) and can usefully be compared with similar surveys in countries with cold climates.

  16. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Sebastian

    2012-09-24

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  17. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion source RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE, CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, Sebastian; Nörtershäuser, W

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at ISOLDE, CERN, by the addition of an all-solid state tuneable titanium: sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE, CERN, and at ISAC, TRIUMF, radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  18. Guidance on Radon Resistant Construction and Radon Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Unnumbered Letter regarding radon gas mitigation applies to all housing and community facilities, low-rise buildings and dwellings for the mentioned programs. Its intention is to guide staff to best serve our borrowers and protect their health.

  19. Development of a radon standard source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shigeyasu; Ishimori, Yuu; Maruo, Yoshihiro

    2005-06-01

    The present paper describes the development of a radon standard source for use in establishing the traceability of radon concentration measurements in air. Previously, radon generated by bubbling air through a radium salt solution was widely used for calibration of radon measurement equipment; however, the handling of a solid-phase radon source is easier. In the present study, the radioactivity of radon released in a vapor phase was determined from the difference between the radioactivity of the radium and the residual radon progenies in the source. A germanium detector, calibrated using gamma reference sources, was used for these radioactivity measurements. Under equilibrium conditions the radioactivity of the radon released from the radium source was found to be 988 Bq. The source was sealed in a stainless-steel container having a nominal capacity of 6 l to produce a radon standard source of density of 167.5 [Bq/l].

  20. 30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section... Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator protection against radon gas shall be provided in addition to protection against radon daughters. Protection against radon...

  1. Development of Laser Light Sources for Trapping Radioactive Francium Atoms Toward Tests of Fundamental Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Ken-ichi; Ezure, Saki; Hayamizu, Tomohiro; Kato, Ko; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Inoue, Takeshi; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Aoki, Takahiro; Uchiyama, Aiko; Itoh, Masatoshi; Ando, Shun; Aoki, Takatoshi; Hatakeyama, Atsushi; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Imai, Kenichi; Murakami, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Sato, Tomoya; Wakasa, Tomotsugu; Yoshida, Hidetomo P.; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    We have developed laser light sources and a magneto-optical trap system for cooling and trapping radioactive francium (Fr) atoms. Because Fr is the heaviest alkali element, a Fr atom exhibits high sensitivity to symmetry violation effects such as atomic parity nonconservation (APNC) and the electron electric dipole moment (eEDM). A laser cooling and trapping technique reduces the systematic errors due to the Doppler effect and the motion-induced magnetic field effect caused by the velocity of atoms. Thus, optically cooled and trapped Fr atoms are among a few promising candidates considered for APNC and eEDM measurements. Frequency stabilization of laser light is required for any stable measurement involving trapped radioactive atoms, including Fr. Since the hyperfine splitting in iodine molecules (127I2) is close to the resonance frequency of the Fr D2 line, we performed frequency modulation spectroscopy of hyperfine structures of I2.

  2. Atomic Parity Non Conservation with Francium atoms in the FrPNC collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiehang; Aubin, Seth; Behr, John A.; Collister, Robert; Flambaum, Victor V.; Gomez, Eduardo; Gwinner, Gerald; Melconian, Dan; Orozco, Luis A.; Pearson, Matt R.; Shelbaya, Olivier; Sprouse, Gene D.; Tandecki, Michael; Voss, Annika

    2012-06-01

    The FrPNC collaboration is dedicated to the study of the nuclear weak interaction through measurements of Parity Violation in francium atoms. We are preparing to measure both the nuclear spin independent part of the interaction that results in the determination of the weak charge and the nuclear spin dependent part dominated by the anapole moment. The experiment has moved to TRIUMF in a room carefully shielded from RF noise. The Fr production at TRIUMF is on the isotope range of A=203-229 with yields up to 10^8 s-1, giving us access to both the neutron deficient and rich sides. An ion optics system at the end of the beam line delivers the Fr ions to the neutralizer. The trapping side has been successfully tested with rubidium. The complete system delivers cold and trapped atomic Fr in a robust way to the science chamber where the measurements will take place.

  3. Enhanced Atomic Desorption of 209 and 210 Francium from Organic Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustsson, Steinn; Bianchi, Giovanni; Calabrese, Roberto; Corradi, Lorenzo; Dainelli, Antonio; Khanbekyan, Alen; Marinelli, Carmela; Mariotti, Emilio; Marmugi, Luca; Ricci, Leonardo; Stiaccini, Leonardo; Tomassetti, Luca; Vanella, Andrea

    2017-06-23

    Controlled atomic desorption from organic Poly-DiMethylSiloxane coating is demonstrated for improving the loading efficiency of (209,210)Fr magneto-optical traps. A three times increase in the cold atoms population is obtained with contact-less pulsed light-induced desorption, applied to different isotopes, either bosonic or fermionic, of Francium. A six times increase of (210)Fr population is obtained with a desorption mechanism based on direct charge transfer from a triboelectric probe to the adatom-organic coating complex. Our findings provide new insight on the microscopic mechanisms of atomic desorption from organic coatings. Our results, obtained at room temperature so as to preserve ideal vacuum conditions, represent concrete alternatives, independent from the atomic species in use, for high-efficiency laser cooling in critical conditions.

  4. Radon risk in the house; Il rischio radon nelle abitazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia e Anestesiologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-04-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values. [Italian] Il radon fu scoperto nel 1900, ma solo nel 1950 si comprese la sua potenziale pericolosita' per l'uomo. Il radon e' particolarmente pericoloso essendo un gas naturale radioattivo. Esso proviene dalla lunga catena di decadimento di radionuclidi come il torio e di radio. Sorgenti di tale radionuclide sono da considerarsi principalmente alcune rocce ignee (graniti, tufi e lave) e il carbone. Diversi studi epidemiologici hanno evidenziato la cancerogenicita' di tale elemento, specie tra i minatori e soggetti esposti ad alti livelli in ambienti confinati quali scantinati, garage sotterranei, ecc.. Esistono comunque tecniche di intervento per la rimozione del gas radon in modo tale da ridurre l'esposizione a valori minimi.

  5. Towards the measurement of the electron EDM with laser cooled francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Yoshida, H. P.; Wakasa, T.; Sakemi, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle is a probe into new physics beyond the standard model. The electron EDM might be observed with an enhancement in heavier paramagnetic atoms. Francium (Fr), whose electron structure is useful for laser-cooling and trapping, has a large enhancement factor. Fr produced at high temperature via a fusion reaction will be laser-cooled and trapped in an optical lattice where the EDM is measured. The magneto-optical trapping of Fr is required in advance of the lattice trapping. The technique observing a small number of atoms makes it easy to search for the resonant frequency of Fr. The improvement of the beam purity should lead to a more efficient trap. The techniques towards Fr trapping and EDM measurement have been developed. The electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle is a probe into new physics beyond the standard model. The electron EDM might be observed with an enhancement in heavier paramagnetic atoms. Francium (Fr), whose electron structure is useful for laser-cooling and trapping, has a large enhancement factor. Fr produced at high temperature via a fusion reaction will be laser-cooled and trapped in an optical lattice where the EDM is measured. The magneto-optical trapping of Fr is required in advance of the lattice trapping. The technique observing a small number of atoms makes it easy to search for the resonant frequency of Fr. The improvement of the beam purity should lead to a more efficient trap. The techniques towards Fr trapping and EDM measurement have been developed. Supported by MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI Grants (21104005, 25610112 and 26220705) and Tohoku University's Focused Research Project.

  6. Evolution of radon dose evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kenzo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical change of radon dose evaluation is reviewed based on the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR reports. Since 1955, radon has been recognized as one of the important sources of exposure of the general public. However, it was not really understood that radon is the largest dose contributor until 1977 when a new concept of effective dose equivalent was introduced by International Commission on Radiological Protection. In 1982, the dose concept was also adapted by UNSCEAR and evaluated per caput dose from natural radiation. Many researches have been carried out since then. However, lots of questions have remained open in radon problems, such as the radiation weighting factor of 20 for alpha rays and the large discrepancy of risk estimation among dosimetric and epidemiological approaches.

  7. A Physician's Guide to Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    This booklet has been developed for physicians by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in consultation with the American Medical Association (AMA). Its purpose is to enlist physicians in the national effort to inform the American public about radon.

  8. Radon measurements in schools: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    The report provides school officials, groups such as Parent-Teacher Associations, and other interested person with interim information on how to measure radon in schools and what to do if elevated levels are found. The first sections of the document contain facts about radon and the health risks associated with radon exposure. The next sections summarize what is known about radon in schools and provide guidance for conducting radon measurements. The last sections describe how to interpret the measurement results and suggest techniques that can be used to reduce radon concentrations if elevated levels are found.

  9. Atomic parity violation in heavy alkalis: detection by stimulated emission for cesium and traps for cold francium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanguinetti, St

    2004-07-01

    The present work deals with the recent advances of atomic spectroscopy experiments on cesium and francium, which aim at precise parity violation (PV) measurements in these atoms. Within the framework of a 'double-badged thesis', the candidate devoted himself on the one hand to the preliminary PV measurement (8% accuracy) of the present Cs experiment at the Kastler-Brossel laboratory in Paris and on the other hand to the preparation of a Fr radioactive atomic sample (production and trapping) at the LNL (INFN) in Italy. The two experiments are at very different stages. The measurements reported for cesium were actually made possible thanks to the work initiated in 1991, for the PV detection by stimulated emission. The Italian experiment is instead in a beginning stage: in order to probe the properties of francium, which is unstable, a number of atoms large enough has to be first produced and collected. The PV schemes which proved to be well suited for cesium are a solid starting point for the case of francium. (author)

  10. Association of School District Policies for Radon Testing and Radon-Resistant New Construction Practices with Indoor Radon Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephanie; Everett Jones, Sherry

    2016-12-13

    Radon is a naturally occurring, colorless, odorless, and tasteless radioactive gas. Without testing, its presence is unknown. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study, we examined whether the prevalence of school district policies for radon testing and for radon-resistant new construction practices varied by district location in relation to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Map of Radon Zones. Among school districts located in counties with high predicted average indoor radon, 42.4% had policies for radon testing and 37.5% had policies for radon-resistant new construction practices. These findings suggest a critical need for improved awareness among policy makers regarding potential radon exposure for both students and school staff.

  11. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  12. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for

  13. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  14. Association of School District Policies for Radon Testing and Radon-Resistant New Construction Practices with Indoor Radon Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Foster; Sherry Everett Jones

    2016-01-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring, colorless, odorless, and tasteless radioactive gas. Without testing, its presence is unknown. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study, we examined whether the prevalence of school district policies for radon testing and for radon-resistant new construction practices varied by district location in relation to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Map of Radon Zones. Among school districts located in counti...

  15. The use of volunteer radon measurements for radon mapping purposes: an examination of sampling bias issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Orlaith; Murphy, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    National and regional radon surveys are used in many nations to produce maps detailing the spatial variation of indoor radon concentrations. National surveys which are designed to be representative use either a geographically-weighted or a population-weighted sampling scheme. Additionally, many countries collect a large number of data on indoor radon concentrations from volunteers who have chosen to have the indoor radon concentration measured in their own dwellings. This work examines the representativeness of volunteer-based samples in radon measurement and explores the effect of potential volunteer bias on radon mapping results. We also investigate the influence that media attention has on volunteer sampling of indoor radon concentrations. The result of our work indicates that volunteer measurements are biased due to over-sampling of high radon areas. Consequently such volunteer radon measurements should not be used for radon mapping purposes.

  16. Indoor radon, geogenic radon surrogates and geology - Investigations on their correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, H; Baumgartner, A; Bernreiter, M; Gräser, J; Gruber, V; Kabrt, F; Kaineder, H; Maringer, F J; Ringer, W; Seidel, C; Wurm, G

    2017-01-01

    The indoor radon concentration was measured in most houses in a couple of municipalities in Austria. At the same time the activity concentration of radium in soil, the soil gas radon concentration, the permeability of the ground and the ambient dose equivalent rate were also measured and the geological situations (geological units) were recorded too. From the indoor radon concentration and different house and living parameters a radon potential (Austrian radon potential) was derived which should represent the radon concentration in a standard room. Another radon potential (Neznal radon potential) was calculated from the soil gas radon concentration and the permeability. The aim of the investigation was to correlate all the different variables and to test if the use of surrogate data (e.g. geological information, ambient dose equivalent rate, etc.) can be used to judge the radon risk for an area without performing numerous indoor measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent topics on radon. Radiation dose estimation using radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimo, Michikuni [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Today, as exposure of radon was collected a large interest in resident environment, it was brought by a fact that yearly radiation dose of radon was determined 1.0 mSv in the report of UN science committee in 1982. Since then, as this value was received generally and widely, this value was found some differences due to thereafter UN science committee reports and to some countings. As not only concentration of radon but also some factors relate to its cause, it is important to know its cause and variation width. In this paper, by using the newest data in Japan on radon concentration, balance factor, presence time, respiration volume, and so forth as much as possible, an effective radiation dose of an adult per year was estimated. As a result, it was found to be about 0.45 mSv, which was more than a half less than the value of the UN science committee and so on. And, this was nearly equal to that of workers at 3 prefectures of that Tokai District and counted by using radon concentration, respiration volume and presence coefficient for variants. On counting the whole variation width under considering width of each coefficient, it can be estimated to be ranged from -70 to +80%. (G.K.)

  18. Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

    This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a…

  19. Modelling of radon transport in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.; Katase, A; Shimo, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the state of the art of modelling radon transport in soil on basis of multiphase radon transport equations. Emphasis is given to methods to obtain a consistent set of input parameters needed For such models. Model-measurement comparisons with the KVI radon transport

  20. Comparison of radon doses based on different radon monitoring approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupotič, Janja; Smrekar, Nataša; Žunić, Zora S

    2017-04-01

    In 43 places (23 schools, 3 kindergartens, 16 offices and one dwelling), indoor radon has been monitored as an intercomparison experiment, using α-scintillation cells (SC - Jožef Stefan Institute, Slovenia), various kinds of solid state nuclear track detectors (KfK - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany; UFO - National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan; RET - University College Dublin, Ireland) and active electronic devices (EQF, Sarad, Germany). At the same place, the radon levels and, consequently, the effective doses obtained with different radon devices differed substantially (by a factor of 2 or more), and no regularity was observed as regards which detector would show a higher or lower dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K.; Westerdale, S.

    2011-04-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  2. CONSEQUENCES OF USING HOME-MADE RADON SOURCES FOR MEASURING THE RADON DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolný, T; Jiránek, M

    2017-11-01

    The applicability of home-made radon sources for determining the radon diffusion coefficient of waterproofing materials was studied for three representatives of materials with a high radium content: uraninite, slag concrete and filter sand. The results of our investigation confirmed that the radon production rate of home-made radon sources is significantly lower than the radon production rate of artificial sources. Consequently, home-made sources are usually unable to generate concentrations higher than 100 kBq/m3 in the source container. Therefore, they cannot be used for determining radon diffusion coefficients lower than 1 × 10-12 m2/s. In addition, when home-made radon sources are used, only time-dependent mathematical solutions of the non-stationary radon diffusion can be used for determining the radon diffusion coefficient from the measured data. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Rb atomic magnetometer toward EDM experiment with laser cooled francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Ando, Shun; Aoki, Takahiro; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Hayamizu, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Itoh, Masatoshi; Kato, Ko; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Kosuke; Uchiyama, Aiko; Asahi, Koichiro; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle or an atom is a suited observable to test the physics beyond the standard model. We plan to search for the electron EDM by using the laser cooled francium (Fr) atom, since the Fr atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and the laser cooling techniques can suppress both statistical and systematic errors. In the EDM experiment, a fluctuation of the magnetic field is a main source of the errors. In order to achieve the high precision magnetometry, a magnetometer based on the nonlinear magneto-optical rotation effect of the Rb atom is under development. A long coherence time of Rb atom is the key issue for the highly sensitive detection of the field fluctuations. The coherence time is limited due both to collisions with an inner surface of a cell contained the Rb atom and to residual field in a magnetic shield. We prepared the cell coated with an anti-relaxation material and measured the relaxation time. A degauss of the shield was performed to eliminate the residual field. We will report the present status of the magnetometer. A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle or an atom is a suited observable to test the physics beyond the standard model. We plan to search for the electron EDM by using the laser cooled francium (Fr) atom, since the Fr atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and the laser cooling techniques can suppress both statistical and systematic errors. In the EDM experiment, a fluctuation of the magnetic field is a main source of the errors. In order to achieve the high precision magnetometry, a magnetometer based on the nonlinear magneto-optical rotation effect of the Rb atom is under development. A long coherence time of Rb atom is the key issue for the highly sensitive detection of the field fluctuations. The coherence time is limited due both to collisions with an inner surface of a cell contained the Rb atom and to residual field in a magnetic shield

  4. Radon activity in Saudi houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Physics)

    1984-01-01

    Long term measurements of radon's concentrations inside Saudi houses being studied using CR-39 Plastic Track Detectors fixed inside sealed plastic cups. The cups were left for about 7 months in the houses. The measurements were done in different cities of different provinces in the country. The analysis of 636 cups showed that the radon concentration in different cities was ranging from 0.27 pCi/l (in Khobar) to 0.98 pCi/l (in Taif). In exceptional places in Eastern Province, it is found that the lowest concentration was in the University offices (0.13 pCi/l) and the highest was in the University unoccupied houses (0.81 pCi/l). It is found that the ventilation is the main factor affecting the radon concentration in houses.

  5. Thermo-diffusional radon waves in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkin, Leonid, E-mail: lminkin@pcc.edu [Portland Community College, 12000 SW 49th Ave, Portland, OR 97219 (United States); Shapovalov, Alexander S. [Saratov State University, 83 Astrakhanskay Street, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A new theoretical framework for diurnal and seasonal oscillations of the concentration of radon in soil and open air is proposed. The theory is based on the existing temperature waves in soils and thermo-diffusional gas flux in porous media. As soil is a non-isothermal porous medium, usually possessing a large fraction of microscopic pores belonging to Knudsen's free molecular field, a thermo-diffusional gas flow in soil has to arise. The radon mass transfer equation in soil for sinusoidal temperature oscillations at the soil–atmosphere boundary is solved, which reveals that radon concentration behaves as a damped harmonic wave. The amplitude of radon concentration oscillations and phase shift between radon concentration oscillations and soil temperature depend on the radon diffusion coefficient in soil, rate of radon production, soil thermal conductivity, average soil temperature, decay constant, and heat of radon transfer. Primarily numerical calculations are presented and comparisons with experimental data are shown. - Highlights: • Temperature oscillations in atmosphere generate radon waves in soil. • Radon flux in atmosphere is a harmonic function of time. • Radon concentration waves in soil have the same frequency as the temperature waves.

  6. Radon og lungekreft i Norge

    OpenAIRE

    Enger, Ingvild-M.A

    2011-01-01

    Sammendrag Denne masteroppgaven ”Radon og lungekreft i Norge” inneholder to deler; den første delen inneholder en introduksjon til studien med utdypende empiri og teori i en større sammenheng. Den andre delen er artikkelen ” Sammenhengen mellom forekomst av lungekreft og radon målt i bolig hus – en økologisk studie”. Siste del skal sendes til Tidsskriftet for Den norske legeforening for publisering. Formålet med denne studien var å undersøke om det var høyere forekomst av lungekreft bla...

  7. Radon monitoring and hazard prediction in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elio, Javier; Crowley, Quentin; Scanlon, Ray; Hodgson, Jim; Cooper, Mark; Long, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which forms as a decay product from uranium. It is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation affecting the global population. When radon is inhaled, its short-lived decay products can interact with lung tissue leading to DNA damage and development of lung cancer. Ireland has among the highest levels of radon in Europe and eighth highest of an OECD survey of 29 countries. Every year some two hundred and fifty cases of lung cancer in Ireland are linked to radon exposure. This new research project will build upon previous efforts of radon monitoring in Ireland to construct a high-resolution radon hazard map. This will be achieved using recently available high-resolution airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (radiometric) and soil geochemistry data (http://www.tellus.ie/), indoor radon concentrations (http://www.epa.ie/radiation), and new direct measurement of soil radon. In this regard, legacy indoor radon concentrations will be correlated with soil U and Th concentrations and other geogenic data. This is a new approach since the vast majority of countries with a national radon monitoring programme rely on indoor radon measurements, or have a spatially limited dataset of soil radon measurements. Careful attention will be given to areas where an indicative high radon hazard based on geogenic factors does not match high indoor radon concentrations. Where such areas exist, it may imply that some parameter(s) in the predictive model does not match that of the environment. These areas will be subjected to measurement of radon soil gas using a combination of time averaged (passive) and time dependant (active) measurements in order to better understand factors affecting production, transport and accumulation of radon in the natural environment. Such mapping of radon-prone areas will ultimately help to inform when prevention and remediation measures are necessary, reducing the radon exposure of the population. Therefore, given

  8. 76 FR 72006 - Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... COMMISSION Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon... Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air and Demonstrations of Compliance with 10 CFR 20... that existing guidance does not sufficiently detail how the NRC staff reviews surveys of radon and...

  9. Relativistic multireference coupled-cluster theory based on a B -spline basis: Application to atomic francium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Bo; Lou, Bing-Qiong; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we report the relativistic Fock space multireference coupled-cluster method for atomic structure calculations. We use the no-pair Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian, together with a finite B -spline basis set to expand the large and small components of the Dirac wave function. Our method is applied to calculate ionization energies, reduced matrix elements, lifetimes, and polarizabilities for many states of atomic francium. To evaluate uncertainties of our results and investigate the role of electron correlation effects, we carry out calculations using approximated models at different levels. The quality of our calculations is assessed by comparing with available experimental results, showing a good agreement. In addition, the tune-out wavelengths of the ground state in the range of 340-800 nm, the magic wavelengths for the transition 7 s -8 s in the range of 800-1500 nm and the transition 7 s -7 p in the range of 600-1500 nm are determined by evaluating the dynamic polarizabilities of the 7 s , 8 s , and 7 p states for a linearly polarized light. These tune-out and magic wavelengths may be useful for laser cooling and trapping of the Fr atom, and for related high-precision trapping measurements.

  10. α-decay studies of the francium isotopes 198Fr and 199Fr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, J.; Sarén, J.; Juutinen, S.; Leino, M.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Ketelhut, S.; Leppänen, A.-P.; Nyman, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Scholey, C.; Semchenkov, A.; Sorri, J.; Steer, A.; Venhart, M.

    2013-06-01

    Very neutron deficient francium isotopes have been produced in fusion evaporation reactions using 60Ni ions on 141Pr targets. The gas-filled recoil separator RITU was employed to collect the fusion products and to separate them from the scattered beam. The activities were implanted into a position sensitive silicon detector after passing through a gas-counter system. The isotopes were identified using spatial and time correlations between the implants and the decays. Two α-particle activities, with Eα=7613(15) keV and T1/2 = (15-5+12) ms and Eα=7684(15) keV and T1/2 = (16-5+13) ms were identified in the new isotope 198Fr. In addition, the half-life and α-particle energy of 199Fr were measured with improved precision. The measured decay properties deduced for 199Fr and 198Fr suggest that there is an onset of ground-state deformation at N=112 in the Fr isotopes.

  11. Neutralizer for TRIUMF's experiment for measurements of parity non-conservation in francium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, Alexandre; Behr, J. A.; Kalita, M. R.; Pearson, M. R.; Tandecki, M.,; L, D.; Aubin, S.; Collister, R.; Dehart, A. C.; Gwinner, G.; Gomez, E.; Orozco, L. A.; Z, J.

    2016-09-01

    The experiment at TRIUMF for measurements of parity non-conservation (PNC) effects in magneto-optically trapped (MOT) isotopes of francium to test the Standard Model at low energies underwent significant development. In particular, we have overhauled the design of the neutralizer, which catches ionized atoms from the ISAC radioactive beam facility and releases them in neutral form for trapping. We have adopted the design idea, proposed by group of researchers from State University of New York, Stony Brook. It assumed sequential collecting of radioactive species on cold foil, transport them to capture cell and release during short time heating of the foil. We have modified original electric connections to the foil, the way of mounting foil and replaced yttrium foil by zirconium one, more robust. Such modifications allowed us to ensure an operation of the neutralizer through more than 500,000 cycles (this makes possible continuous taking of data during 2 months) with the release about 10% of embedded atoms per cycle. This work is supported by the DOE and NSF (USA), CONACYT (Mexico) and NSERC (Canada). TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada.

  12. Laser Cooled Francium Factory for the Electron Electric Dipole Moment Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Tomohiro; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Ezure, Saki; Harada, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Itoh, Masatoshi; Kato, Tomohiro; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Sato, Tomoya; Ando, Shun; Aoki, Takahiro; Kato, Ko; Uchiyama, Aiko; Aoki, Takatoshi; Furukawa, Takeshi; Hatakeyama, Atsushi; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Imai, Kenichi; Murakami, Tetsuya; Nataraj, Huliyar; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Wakasa, Tomotsugu; Yoshida, Hidetomo; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of an elementary particle is a candidate observable exhibiting CP violation beyond the standard model. In the present study, we plan to search for the electron EDM in francium (Fr), which is the heaviest alkali atom, captured in a far-off resonance optical trap. Since the number of Fr atoms is essential to high precision measurements, we have developed a cold Fr source called "Laser cooled Fr factory" in order to trap the radioactive Fr produced through a nuclear fusion reaction. The Fr produced was released as an ion from a gold production target in a Fr ion source, transported as an ion beam, and converted from ion to atom in a neutralizer. The neutralized Fr atom will be trapped in a magneto-optical trap(MOT) and then be transferred to an optical dipole trap. The rate of Fr atoms so far achieved was 1 × 106 ions/sec from the ion source and 1 atom/sec of the neutralized Fr atom from the neutralizer. In order to optimize performance of the Fr beam line, Rb atoms were trapped in the MOT. In addition to the beam-line experiment, in an off-line MOT system, polarization gradient cooling was applied to the trapped Rb atoms to cool them down to temperatures lower than the Rb Doppler-cooling limit. In this paper, we describe the present status of this experimental apparatus.

  13. Residential radon in Galicia: a cross-sectional study in a radon-prone area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-González, María; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Peón, Joaquín; Piñeiro, María; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2017-09-01

    Residential radon exposure is a major public health problem. It is the second greatest cause of lung cancer, after smoking, and the greatest in never-smokers. This study shows the indoor radon exposure distribution in Galicia and estimates the percentage of dwellings exceeding reference levels. It is based on 3245 residential radon measurements obtained from the Galician Radon Map project and from controls of two previous case-control studies on residential radon and lung cancer. Results show a high median residential radon concentration in Galicia (99 Bq m -3 ), with 49.3% of dwellings having a radon concentration above 100 Bq m -3 and 11.1% having a concentration above 300 Bq m -3 . Ourense and Pontevedra, located in South Galicia, are the provinces with the highest median indoor radon concentrations (137 Bq m -3 and 123.5 Bq m -3 , respectively). Results also show lower radon levels in progressively higher building storeys. These high residential radon concentrations confirm Galicia as a radon-prone area. A policy on radon should be developed and implemented in Galicia to minimize the residential radon exposure of the population.

  14. Evaluation of the uniformity of concentration of radon in a radon chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiongjie, Zhang; Ye, Zhang; Yang, Liu; Bin, Tang

    2016-04-01

    In order to solve the problem that the evaluation results of the uniformity of concentration of radon in a radon chamber via various methods were difficult to compare, according to its statistical properties, a mathematical model was built to analyze the uniformity of concentration of radon; an evaluation method for the overall uniformity of concentration of radon was proposed on the basis of single-factor multi-group ANOVA, and a detection method for nonuniform points in a radon chamber was proposed on the basis of single-factor two-group t-test; an evaluation process of the uniformity of concentration of radon in a radon chamber was established. The proposed method was applied to evaluate the HD-6 small and medium-sized radon chambers and achieved good results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. General Services Administration Childcare Radon Results in the Federal Radon Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    GSA made a commitment to support the FRAP’s radon risk goal by sampling for radon in its childcare centers. Over the past two years, the sampling has been performed by independent consultants using recommended standard methods and protocols.

  16. Time variation of radon daughters concentration in snowfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T; Aoki, M; Okabe, S

    1984-05-01

    Time variation of radon daughters concentration in snowfall was measured continuously. The relations of radon daughters concentration in snowfall to the precipitation and to atmospheric radon daughters concentration were investigated. It has become clear that when precipitation is small, radon daughters concentration in snowfall is distributed in a wide range, and that the quantity of radon daughters brought to ground surface by snowfall is proportional to precipitation. Washout effect of the snowfall on atmospheric radon daughters was also investigated.

  17. 9th Saxonian radon day. 11th meeting on radon safe structural engineering; 9. Saechsischer Radontag. 11. Tagung radonsicheres Bauen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The proceedings of the meeting in radon-safe structural engineering covers contributions on the following issues: implementation of the EU standards, radon protection in underground cavities, radon protection at working places, reports on experiences.

  18. Search for radon sources in buildings--kindergartens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupotic, J

    2002-01-01

    In ten high radon level kindergartens, radon sources were sought by applying a combination of several radon measuring techniques: etched track detectors to obtain average indoor air radon concentration, continuous devices to record radon concentration and see its diurnal variation, and alpha scintillation cells to determine radon concentration in the air entering a room from cracks, holes and sinks in the floor and from under-floor channels. In three cases, a strong local radon source was identified while, in the others, the bad quality of the basic concrete slab was responsible for the high indoor radon concentration.

  19. The radon: evaluation and risk management; Le radon: evaluation et gestion du risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, A.C. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Masse, R. [Academie des Technologies, 75 - Paris (France); Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Erich Wichmann, H. [Neuberberg Munich Univ. (Germany); Timarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Robe, M.Ch. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Baubron, J.C.; Bonijoly, D. [BRGM, 75 - Paris (France); Collignan, B. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 75 - Paris (France); Berrier, H. [Direction Gle de l' Urbanisme de l' Habitat et de la Construction, 75 - Paris (France); Jaouen, J. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de la Haute-Vienne (France); Caamano, D. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de l' Essonne, 91 (France); Guiot, F. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de la Haute-Marne (France); Grall, B. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de Bretagne (France); Frutos Vasquez, B.; Olaya Adan, M. [Istituto de Ciencias de la Construction (Italy); Garcia Cadierno, J.P.; Martin Matarranz, J.L.; Serrano Renedo, J.; Suarez Mahou, E. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, J.A. [ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas (Spain); Mjones, L.; Pirard, P. [Institut de veille sanitaire, 94415 - Saint-Maurice (France); Godet, J.L.; Rougy, Ch. [Direction Gle de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-06-15

    The radon exposure constitutes for the French population the first cause of natural irradiation among the different natural sources of irradiation. It is possible to have a significant action on it, either by making draught proof in order to avoid to radon to get inside houses, either by ventilating in order to dispel the radon and improve air quality. (N.C.)

  20. A perspective on risks from radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higson, D. J., E-mail: higsond@bigpond.net.a [Australasian Radiation Protection Society, PO Box 7108, Upper Ferntree Gully, Victoria 3156 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    In its Statement on Radon (November 2009), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has reduced the upper reference level for radon gas in dwellings to 300 Bq m{sup -3}. The recommended level for workplaces is 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. A risk coefficient of 8 x 10{sup -10} per Bq h m{sup -3} is recommended without reference to smoking habits. On the basis of these figures: 1) The estimated risk of fatal cancer from exposure to radon at home and at work could be greater than the observed risk of accidental death from travelling by car, which would be surprising if true. 2) The estimated risk of lung cancer from radon could be greater than the observed risk of lung cancer from all causes, which is actually known to be dominated by smoking. The author is not aware of any direct evidence of risks from inhaling radon in Australian dwellings, 99% of which have radon levels below 50 Bq m{sup -3}. Evidence available from other countries shows that: 1) The effects of radon in the incidences of lung cancer are uncertain at levels less then about 50-100 Bq m{sup -3}. 2) The estimation of risks at levels below 200 Bq m{sup -3} depends on extrapolation from risks observed at higher levels. 3) Risks to non-smokers from radon are 25 times less than risks to smokers. Its concluded that the ICRP Statement on Radon and radon policies in the US and UK have the potential to cause unwarranted concern. Some people may be made to feel they need to spend money modifying their homes and workplaces to protect occupants from exposure to radon when there is no compelling reason to show that this is necessary. The vast majority of non-smokers do not need to be protected from radon. (Author)

  1. Radon in water of Shu river valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Kuyanova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The values of radon and its daughter products in water of Shu River valley have been received, using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The radon concentration naturally increases in investigated water samples downstream the Shu River, reaching the maximum value in the Tashutkolsky basin. The radon and its daughter products in a human body of 15 % are in soft tissues have been calculated by a mathematical modeling method. The annual dose from radon and its daughter products calculated by a mathematical modeling method received by the residents living in Shu river valley is 0,03 mSv/year.

  2. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  3. Radon barrier: Method of testing airtightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2017-01-01

    The test method NBI 167/02 Radon membrane: Test of airtightness can be used for determining the airtightness of a radon barrier as a system solution. The test determines the air infiltration through the radon barrier for a number of levels of air pressure differences. The airflow through versus...... of the barrier with the low air pressure, through a well-defined opening, as a modification of the test method in general. Results, obtained using the improved test method, are shown for a number of radon barriers tested....

  4. Interpreting the radon transform using Prolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1992-03-01

    The Radon transform is an important method for identifying linear features in a digital image. However, the images which the Radon transform generates are complex and require intelligent interpretation, to identify lines in the input image correctly. This article describes how the images can be pre-processed to make the spots in the Radon transform image more easily identified and describes Prolog programs which can recognize constellations of points in the Radon transform image and thereby identify geometric figures within the input image.

  5. Radon as an Anthropogenic Indoor Air Pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Crockett, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Radon is generally regarded as a naturally occurring radiological hazard but we report here measurements of significant, hazardous radon concentrations that arise from man-made sources, including granite ornaments/artefacts, uranium glass and glazed objects as well radium dial watches. This presentation concerns an examination and assessment of health risks from radium and uranium found in historical artefacts, many of which were once viewed as everyday items, and the radon that emanates from them. Such objects were very popular in industrialised countries such as the USA, UK and European countries) particularly between and including the two World Wars but are still readily available. A watch collection examined gave rise to a hazardous radon concentration of 13.24 kBq•m-3 approximately 67 times the Domestic Action Level of 200 Bq•m-3.The results for an aircraft altimeter are comparable to those of the watches, indicating radon activity equivalent to several watches, and also indicate an equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room ca. 33 times the UK domestic Action Level. Results from a granite block indicate a radon emanation of 19.7 Bq•kg-1, but the indicated equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room is only ca. 1.7% of the UK domestic Action Level. Uranium-glazed crockery and green uranium glass were scoped for radon activity. The former yielded a radon concentration of ca. 44 Bq•m-3 in a small (7 L) sealed container. The latter yielded a lower radon concentration in a larger (125 L) sealed container of ca. 6 Bq•m-3. This is barely above the background radon concentration in the laboratory, which was typically ca. 1-2 Bq•m-3. Individual items then are capable of giving rise to radon concentrations in excess of the UK Domestic Action Level in rooms in houses, particularly if poorly ventilated. We highlight the gap in the remediation protocols, which are focused on preventing radon entering buildings from outside, with regard to internally

  6. Assessment and management of residential radon health risks: a report from the health Canada radon workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Bliss L; Krewski, Daniel; Chen, Jing; Zielinski, Jan M; Brand, Kevin P; Meyerhof, Dorothy

    2006-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies of uranium miners and other underground miners have consistently shown miners exposed to high levels of radon to be at increased risk of lung cancer. More recently, concern has arisen about lung cancer risks among people exposed to lower levels of radon in homes. The current Canadian guideline for residential radon exposure was set in 1988 at 800 Bq/m(3). Because of the accumulation of a considerable body of new scientific evidence on radon lung cancer risks since that time, Health Canada sponsored a workshop to review the current state-of-the-science on radon health risks. The specific objectives of the workshop were (1) to collect and assess scientific information relevant to setting national radon policy in Canada, and (2) to gather information on social, political, and operational considerations in setting national policy. The workshop, held on 3-4 March 2004, was attended by 38 invited scientists, regulators, and other stakeholders from Canada and the United States. The presentations on the first day dealt primarily with scientific issues. The combined analysis of North American residential radon and lung cancer studies was reviewed. The analysis confirmed a small but detectable increase in lung cancer risk at residential exposure levels. Current estimates suggest that radon in homes is responsible for approximately 10% of all lung cancer deaths in Canada, making radon the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. This was followed by a perspective from an UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) working group on radon. There were two presentations on occupational exposures to radon and two presentations considered the possibility of radon as a causative factor for cardiovascular disease and for cancer in other organs besides the lung. The possible contribution of environmental tobacco smoke to lung cancers in nonsmokers was also considered. Areas for future research were identified

  7. Systematic radon survey over active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Garcia Vindas, J.R. [Centre National de la Recherche Cientifique, Montpellier (France). Lab. GBE; Ricard, L.P.; Staudacher, T. [Observatoire Volcanologique Du Pitou de la Fournaise, La Plaine des Cafres (France)

    1999-08-01

    Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate.

  8. Removal of Radon from Household Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    By far, the greatest risk to health from radon occurs when the gas enters the house from underlying soil and is inhaled. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying ways to reduce radon in houses, including methods to remove the gas from water to prevent its release in houses when the water is used. While this research has not…

  9. Radon Measurements in Schools: An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation Programs.

    Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in soil, rocks, underground water, and air. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other scientific organizations have identified an increased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes. Schools in many…

  10. Radon Measurement in Schools. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other major national and international scientific organizations have concluded that radon is a human carcinogen and a serious environmental health problem. The EPA has conducted extensive research on the presence and measurement of radon in schools. This report provides school administrators and…

  11. Radon Reduction Methods: A Homeowner's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying the effectiveness of various ways to reduce high concentrations of radon in houses. This booklet was produced to share what has been learned with those whose radon problems demand immediate action. The booklet describes nine methods that have been tested successfully--by EPA and/or other…

  12. Decadal radon cycles in a hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Woith, Heiko; Wang, Rongjiang; Wang, Guangcai

    2017-09-21

    A high-fidelity record covering nearly 40 years of water-dissolved radon from the hot spring site of BangLazhang (BLZ), Southwestern China is presented to study multi-year periodicities of radon. Ancillary observational data, i.e., water temperature, spring discharge rate, barometric pressure, combined with regional rainfall, galactic cosmic rays (GCR flux is modulated by solar wind and thus a proxy for solar activity) and regional seismicity from the same period are considered to identify potentially influencing factors controlling the changes in radon. Variations in radon concentration and ancillary observational data are studied using continuous Wavelet Power Spectrum (WPS), Wavelet Coherence (WTC), and Partial Wavelet Coherence (PWC). The results show that the long-period radon concentration is characterized by a quasi-decadal (8-11 years) cycle, matching well with the concurrent periodicity in water temperature, spring discharge rates and GCR. PWCs of radon, discharge rate and water temperature suggest that water temperature variations explain most of the coherent variability of radon and the discharge rate. We tentatively conclude that radon variations are mainly explained by variations in water temperature and spring discharge, which are modified and modulated by earthquakes and quasi-decadal variations of an unidentified process. The influence of solar activity on the decadal periodicity is discussed.

  13. Estimation of Indoor Radon from Concrete Blocks Used In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radon gas is the most important source of natural radiation. Indoor radon concentration is the main path of human exposure to high radon concentration. Radon contribution from concrete block walls of typical Nigerian dwellings has been estimated from gamma ray spectroscopy measurements of radium concentration ...

  14. Find a Radon Test Kit or Measurement and Mitigation Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find a qualified radon service professional to fix or mitigate your home. If you have questions about a radon, you should contact your state radon contact and/or contact one or both of the two privately-run National Radon Proficiency Programs

  15. Final Report for research grant "Development of Methods for High Specific Activity Labeling of Biomolecules Using Astatine-211 in Different Oxidation States"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, D. Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2011-12-14

    The overall objective of this research effort was to develop methods for labeling biomolecules with higher oxidation state species of At-211. This was to be done in an effort to develop reagents that had higher in vivo stability than the present carbon-bonded At-211-labeled compounds. We were unsuccessful in that effort, as none of the approaches studied provided reagents that were stable to in vivo deastatination. However, we gained a lot of information about At-211 in higher oxidation states. The studies proved to be very difficult as small changes in pH and other conditions appeared to change the nature of the species that obtained (by HPLC retention time analyses), with many of the species being unidentifiable. The fact that there are no stable isotopes of astatine, and the chemistry of the nearest halogen iodine is quite different, made it very difficult to interpret results of some experiments. With that said, we believe that a lot of valuable information was obtained from the studies. The research effort evaluated: (1) methods for chemical oxidation of At-211, (2) approaches to chelation of oxidized At-211, and (3) approaches to oxidation of astatophenyl compounds. A major hurdle that had to be surmounted to conduct the research was the development of HPLC conditions to separate and identify the various oxidized species formed. Attempts to develop conditions for separation of iodine and astatine species by normal and reversed-phase TLC and ITLC were not successful. However, we were successful in developing conditions (from a large number of attempts) to separate oxidized forms of iodine ([I-125]iodide, [I-125]iodate and [I-125]periodate) and astatine ([At-211]astatide, [At-211]astatate, [At-211]perastatate, and several unidentified At-211 species). Information on the basic oxidation and characterization of At-211 species is provided under Objective 1. Conditions were developed to obtain new At-211 labeling method where At-211 is chelated with the DOTA and

  16. Result of the intercomparison exercise on radon measuring instruments and radon detectors 'bev- radon ring 2005'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, A. [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Atominstitut, Wien (Austria); Maringer, F.J.; Michai, P.; Kreuziger, M. [BEV-Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying, Wien (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    In spring 2005 the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (B.E.V.) invited all in Austria working radon measuring institutes to an intercomparison exercise at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal. The aim of this intercomparison was on the one hand an objective inquiry and documentation of the current metrological potential on the section of radon measurement in Austria - both quantitative and qualitative- and on the other hand an initiative for the participating laboratories to optimize and improve their applied calibration-, measurement and analyse technique. Ten contacted Austrian radon laboratories were prepared to participate on the radon intercomparison exercise. The intercomparison exercise was carried out from 14. till 29. June at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal of the B.E.V.. As radon emanation source a five stepped arranged, at the Arsenal built radon source was used. The source ( A.D.O.T.T.O. 1 is filled with a certified Ra- 226-standard solution of the Czech Metrological Institute (C.M.I.), Prag. A simple statistic based model was used for the evaluation and assessment of the results from the participants, which consider the statistic nature of the radioactive decay combined uncertainty. Altogether 183 measuring instruments participated the intercomparison exercise. Two reference measuring instruments, 22 active and 159 passive measuring instruments. The active measuring instruments formed 6 types of instruments and as passive radon detectors were 7 different types used from the participants. The positioning of the radon measuring instruments and detectors in the radon calibration laboratory was executed in regard to statistic points of view. From the active measuring instruments 17 could qualify and from the passive methods six from eight participants were in compliance to the given criteria. Radon measurements, which could have financial and economics relating implications (e.g. architectural redevelopment or

  17. Novel method of measurement of radon exhalation from building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awhida, A; Ujić, P; Vukanac, I; Đurašević, M; Kandić, A; Čeliković, I; Lončar, B; Kolarž, P

    2016-11-01

    In the era of the energy saving policy (i.e. more air tight doors and windows), the radon exhaled from building materials tends to increase its concentration in indoor air, which increases the importance of the measurement of radon exhalation from building materials. This manuscript presents a novel method of the radon exhalation measurement using only a HPGe detector or any other gamma spectrometer. Comparing it with the already used methods of radon exhalation measurements, this method provides the measurement of the emanation coefficient, the radon diffusion length and the radon exhalation rate, all within the same measurement, which additionally defines material's radon protective properties. Furthermore it does not necessitate additional equipment for radon or radon exhalation measurement, which simplifies measurement technique, and thus potentially facilitates introduction of legal obligation for radon exhalation determination in building materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radon and the system of radiological protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J F

    2012-01-01

    At its meeting in Porto, Portugal, in November 2009, the Main Commission of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) approved the formation of a new Task Group, reporting to Committee 4, to develop guidance on radiological protection against radon exposure. This article describes the Task Group's draft report entitled "Radiological Protection against Radon Exposure" which has been posted on the ICRP website for public consultation between January and June 2012. In this report, the Commission provides updated guidance on radiological protection against radon exposure. The report was developed considering the recently consolidated ICRP general recommendations, the new scientific knowledge about radon risk, and the experience gained by many organisations and countries in the control of radon exposure. The report describes the characteristics of radon exposure, covering sources and transfer mechanisms, nature of the risk, exposure conditions, similarities with other existing exposure situations, and challenges to manage radon exposure. In order to control radon exposure, the Commission recommends an integrated approach that is focused as much as possible on the management of the building or location in which radon exposure occurs, regardless of the purpose of the building and the category of the occupants. This approach is based on the optimisation principle, and a graded approach according to the degree of responsibilities at stake, notably in workplaces, and the level of ambition of the national authorities. The report emphasises the importance of preventive actions, and provides recommendations on how to control radon exposure in workplaces when workers' exposure can reasonably be regarded as being the responsibility of the operating management. In such a case, workers' exposures are considered to be occupational, and are controlled using the corresponding requirements on the basis of the optimisation principle, and application, as appropriate

  19. Diffusion of radon through concrete block walls: A significant source of indoor radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, R.S.; Goldberg, L.F.

    1999-01-01

    Basement modules located in southern Minnesota have been the site of continuous radon and environmental measurements during heating seasons since 1993. Concentrations of radon within the basement modules ranged from 70 Bq.m-3 to over 4000 Bq.m-3 between November to April during the three measurement periods. In the soil gas for the same times, concentrations of radon ranged between 25,000 and 70,000 Bq.m-3. Levels of radon within the basement modules changed by factors of five or more within 24 h, in concert with pressure gradients of 4 to 20 Pa that developed between the basement modules and their surroundings. Diffusion is identified as the principal method by which radon is transferred into and out of the basement modules, and appears to be relatively independent of insulating materials and vapour retarders. The variability of radon and correlations with differential pressure gradients may be related to air currents in the block walls and soil that interrupt radon diffusing inward. This yields a net decrease of radon in the basement modules by decay and outward diffusion. Levels of radon within the basement modules increase when the pressure differential is zero and air flow ceases, allowing diffusion gradients to be re-established. Radon levels in both the soil and the basement modules then increase until an equilibrium is achieved.

  20. Derivation of Soil Screening Guidelines for Gross Alpha/Beta Radioactivity for United States Air Force Deployment Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-19

    the emission of 7 alpha particles and 4 beta particles. Three radionuclides ( francium -223, astatine-215, and polonium-211) are not listed below...no no Uranium-233 159,200 y alpha yes no Thorium-229 7,300 y alpha yes no Radium-225 14.9 d beta no no Actinium-225 10.0 d alpha no no Francium

  1. Radon in the soil air of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersell, Valter; Täht-Kok, Krista; Karimov, Mark; Milvek, Heli; Nirgi, Siim; Raha, Margus; Saarik, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Several investigations in Estonia during 1996¬-1999 have shown that permissible level (200 Bq/m3) of radon (222Rn) in indoor air is exceeded in 33% of the inspected dwellings. This makes Estonia one of the five countries with highest radon risk in Europe (Fig 1). Due to correlation between the soil radon risk level and radon concentration in houses, small scale radon risk mapping of soil air was carried out (one study point per 70-100 km2). It turned out that one-third of Estonian mainland has high radon risk potential, where radon concentration in soil air exceeds safe limit of 50 kBq/m3. In order to estimate radon content in soil air, two different methods developed in Sweden were used simultaneously. Besides measuring radon content from soil air at the depth of 80 cm with an emanometer (RnM), maximum potential content of radon in soil (RnG) was estimated based on the rate of eU (226Ra) concentration in soil, which was acquired by using gamma-ray spectrometer. Mapping and following studies revealed that simultaneously measured RnG and RnM in study points may often differ. To inspect the cause, several monitoring points were set up in places with different geological conditions. It appeared that unlike the RnG content, which remains close to average level in repeated measurements, the RnM content may differ more than three times periodically. After continuous observations it turned out that concentration of directly measured radon depended on various factors being mostly controlled by mineral composition of soil, properties of topsoil as well as different factors influencing aeration of soil. The results of Rn monitoring show that reliable level of radon risk in Estonian soils can only be acquired by using calculated Rn-concentration in soil air based on eU content and directly measured radon content of soil air in combination with interpreting specific geological and geochemical situations in the study points. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Competition between pairing correlations and deformation from the odd-even mass staggering of francium and radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreim, S.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, Ch.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Cocolios, T. E.; Gottberg, A.; Herfurth, F.; Kowalska, M.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Lunney, D.; Manea, V.; Mendonca, T. M.; Naimi, S.; Neidherr, D.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Stora, Th.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.

    2014-08-01

    The masses of Fr222,224,226-233 and Ra233,234 have been determined with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the ISOLDE facility at CERN, including the previously unknown mass and half-life of Fr233. We study the evolution of the odd-even staggering of binding energies along the francium and radium isotopic chains and of its lowest-order estimator, Δ3(N). An enhancement of the staggering of Δ3(N) is observed towards neutron number N =146, which points to contributions beyond pairing correlations. These contributions are investigated in the Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approaches, emphasizing the connections to the single-particle level density and nuclear deformation.

  3. Radon, Smoking, and Lung Cancer: The Need to Refocus Radon Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, David; Philbert, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, and the risk is significantly higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. More than 85% of radon-induced lung cancer deaths are among smokers. The most powerful approach for reducing the public health burden of radon is shaped by 2 overarching principles: public communication efforts that promote residential radon testing and remediation will be the most cost effective if they are primarily directed at current and former smokers; and focusing on smoking prevention and cessation is the optimal strategy for reducing radon-induced lung cancer in terms of both public health gains and economic efficiency. Tobacco control policy is the most promising route to the public health goals of radon control policy. PMID:23327258

  4. Radon, smoking, and lung cancer: the need to refocus radon control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M; Mendez, David; Philbert, Martin A

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, and the risk is significantly higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. More than 85% of radon-induced lung cancer deaths are among smokers. The most powerful approach for reducing the public health burden of radon is shaped by 2 overarching principles: public communication efforts that promote residential radon testing and remediation will be the most cost effective if they are primarily directed at current and former smokers; and focusing on smoking prevention and cessation is the optimal strategy for reducing radon-induced lung cancer in terms of both public health gains and economic efficiency. Tobacco control policy is the most promising route to the public health goals of radon control policy.

  5. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano; Mediciones de radon y elementos quimicos: Volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. [UMR 5569 CNRS Hydrosciences, Montpellier (France)

    2002-07-01

    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  6. Uncertainties about health effects of radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-10-19

    The validity of the studies and the interpretation of these studies that are the basis of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s recommended action level of 4 pCi/liter of radon in residences are strongly questioned. The many assumptions that were made to arrive at this figure and the large amount of money necessary to attain this level in some residences are highlighted. The synergistic effect of smoking and radon exposure on human health is noted. One epidemiological study carried out by Bernard L. Cohn at the University of Pittsburgh has stored relevant data for about a third of the counties of the US, and multivariant analysis of the data led to the conclusion that at low doses of radon found in the average home, radon does not have an adverse effect on health. The author suggests that EPA should give priority to identifying rare circumstances, high permeability and radon content, where high levels of radon prevail and encourage remediation there rather than wholesale action where levels of radon are low.

  7. A study on the correlation between soil radon potential and average indoor radon potential in Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Ford, Ken L

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon is identified as the main source of natural radiation exposure to the population. Since radon in homes originates mainly from soil gas radon, it is of public interest to study the correlation between radon in soil and radon indoors in different geographic locations. From 2007 to 2010, a total of 1070 sites were surveyed for soil gas radon and soil permeability. Among the sites surveyed, 430 sites were in 14 cities where indoor radon information is available from residential radon and thoron surveys conducted in recent years. It is observed that indoor radon potential (percentage of homes above 200 Bq m(-3); range from 1.5% to 42%) correlates reasonably well with soil radon potential (SRP: an index proportional to soil gas radon concentration and soil permeability; average SRP ranged from 8 to 26). In five cities where in-situ soil permeability was measured at more than 20 sites, a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.68 for linear regression and R(2) = 0.81 for non-linear regression) was observed between indoor radon potential and soil radon potential. This summary report shows that soil gas radon measurement is a practical and useful predictor of indoor radon potential in a geographic area, and may be useful for making decisions around prioritizing activities to manage population exposure and future land-use planning. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Residential radon exposure and brain cancer: an ecological study in a radon prone area (Galicia, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Aragon?s, Nuria; Kelsey, Karl T.; P?rez-R?os, M?nica; Pi?eiro-Lamas, Mar?a; L?pez-Abente, Gonzalo; Juan M. Barros-Dios

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to know if radon concentration is associated with municipal mortality due to brain cancer in Galicia, Spain. We designed an ecological study taking as study unit Galician municipalities. To be included, municipalities had to have at least three radon measurements. We correlated radon concentrations with municipal mortality due to these malignant tumors during the period 1999?2008. We calculated the relative risk of dying of brain cancers for each municipality and correlated this valu...

  9. Nanomaterial containing wall paints can increase radon concentration in houses located in radon prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghani, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Faghihi, R; Mehdizadeh, S; Moradgholi, J; Darvish, L; Fathi-Pour, E; Ansari, L; Ghanbar-Pour, M R

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, extensive technological advancements have made it possible to use nanopaints which show exciting properties. In IR Iran excessive radon levels (up to 3700 Bq m-3) have been reported in homes located in radon prone areas. Over the past decades, concerns have been raised about the risk posed by residential radon exposure. This study aims at investigating the effect of using nanomaterial containing wall paints on radon concentration in homes. Two wooden model houses were used in this study. Soil samples from Ramsar high background radiation areas were used for simulating the situation of a typical house in radon-prone areas. Conventional water-soluble wall paint was used for painting the walls of the 1st house model; while the 2nd house model was painted with the same wall paint with montmorillonitenanoclay. Three days after sealing the house models, radon level was measured by using a portable radon survey meter. The mean radon level inside the 1st house model (conventional paint) was 515.3 ± 17.8 Bq/m(3) while the mean radon concentration in the 2nd house model (nano-painted house model) was 570.8 ± 18.5 Bq/m(3). The difference between these means was statistically significant (P<0.001). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation on the effect of nano-material containing wall paints on indoor radon concentrations.  It can be concluded that nano-material-containing wall paints should not be used in houses with wooden walls located in radon prone areas. Although the mechanism of this effect is not clearly known, decreased porosity in nano-paints might be a key factor in increasing the radon concentration in homes.

  10. Balance letter on information days on radon. The radon in question. To fight against radon; Lettre bilan des journees d'information sur le radon. Le radon en question. Lutter contre le radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelon, Th. [Ministere de la sante et des solidarites, Dir. Generale de la Sante, 75 - Paris (France); Queniart, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2002-05-15

    Since 1999 actions to detect radon in public building have been implemented, after three years, more than 13 000 establishments have been verified. These actions are going to be reinforced by the publication of a new regulatory frame that will give obligation to householder or operator of a place open to the public to carry out measures of exposure surveillance on geographic areas with a strong exhalation potential of radon. (N.C.)

  11. Comparison of four types of passive and integrated and sensitive radon monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Gui Zhi

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the sensitivity of radon measurement method, Fast and Multi-functional Radon Monitor with Electret, Sensitive Miner Radon Monitor, fast and Multifunctional Radon Monitor with High Voltage and PCMR-1 Passive and Continuous Radon Monitor were developed. Except Sensitive Miner Radon Monitor suits for radon concentration measurement only, the others can be used to measure both radon concentration and radon flux rate. Their measurement principles. specifications, quality assurance system, advantages and disadvantages are introduced. The simultaneous measurement results indicate that the errors among them are less than 5% and 10%, respectively, for the average radon concentration measurement and for the average radon flux rate measurement

  12. Review of high-sensitivity Radon studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G.; Simgen, H.

    2017-10-01

    A challenge in many present cutting-edge particle physics experiments is the stringent requirements in terms of radioactive background. In peculiar, the prevention of Radon, a radioactive noble gas, which occurs from ambient air and it is also released by emanation from the omnipresent progenitor Radium. In this paper we review various high-sensitivity Radon detection techniques and approaches, applied in the experiments looking for rare nuclear processes happening at low energies. They allow to identify, quantitatively measure and finally suppress the numerous sources of Radon in the detectors’ components and plants.

  13. Additional contamination when radon is in excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Ruano Sánchez, A B; Naranjo Correa, F L

    2013-11-01

    A study of the behavior of the (222)Rn progeny on clothes, skin and hair has been performed in a place with very high radon concentration. In the past, radon concentration was established to be about 32 kBq/m(3) in a very high humidity environment inside a tourist cave in Extremadura (Spain). The results show that (222)Rn daughters are adhered on clothes, skin and hair, adding some radioactive concentration to that due to radon and its progeny existing in the breathable air. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radon - kilder og måling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Wraber, Ida Kristina

    Når man skal vurdere en bygnings indeklima er det vigtigt at have viden om radonindholdet. Denne viden får man ved måling, da radon hverken kan ses, lugtes, høres, smages eller føles. Denne anvisning redegør for radons oprindelse og indvirkning på menneskers sundhed. Anvisningen beskriver metoder...... til måling og analyse af radonindholdet i en bygnings indeluft. Læseren får indsigt i, hvordan man relativt let med standardiserede metoder kan eftervise, om en bygning opfylder bygningsreglementets krav til radon i indeluften. Anvisningen henvender sig til bygningsejere, bygherrer, projekterende og...

  15. Soil radon levels across the Amer fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Ll. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: lluis.font@uab.cat; Baixeras, C.; Moreno, V. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bach, J. [Unitat de Geodinamica externa, Departament de Geologia, Edifici Cs, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    Soil radon levels have been measured across the Amer fault, which is located near the volcanic region of La Garrotxa, Spain. Both passive (LR-115, time-integrating) and active (Clipperton II, time-resolved) detectors have been used in a survey in which 27 measurement points were selected in five lines perpendicular to the Amer fault in the village area of Amer. The averaged results show an influence of the distance to the fault on the mean soil radon values. The dynamic results show a very clear seasonal effect on the soil radon levels. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the fault is still active.

  16. Indoor radon concentration forecasting in South Tyrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, L; Weber, A; Stoppa, G

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a modern statistical technique of multivariate analysis is applied to an indoor radon concentration data base. Several parameters are more or less significant in determining the radon concentration inside a building. The elaboration of the information available on South Tyrol makes it possible both to identify the statistically significant variables and to build up a statistical model that allows us to forecast the radon concentration in dwellings, when the values of the same variables involved are given. The results confirm the complexity of the phenomenon.

  17. Soil gas radon assessment and development of a radon risk map in Bolsena, Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, G; Tositti, L; Capaccioni, B; Brattich, E; Mostacci, D

    2015-04-01

    Vulsini Volcanic district in Northern Latium (Central Italy) is characterized by high natural radiation background resulting from the high concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium in the volcanic products. In order to estimate the radon radiation risk, a series of soil gas radon measurements were carried out in Bolsena, the principal urban settlement in this area NE of Rome. Soil gas radon concentration ranges between 7 and 176 kBq/m(3) indicating a large degree of variability in the NORM content and behavior of the parent soil material related in particular to the occurrence of two different lithologies. Soil gas radon mapping confirmed the existence of two different areas: one along the shoreline of the Bolsena lake, characterized by low soil radon level, due to a prevailing alluvial lithology; another close to the Bolsena village with high soil radon level due to the presence of the high radioactive volcanic rocks of the Vulsini volcanic district. Radon risk assessment, based on soil gas radon and permeability data, results in a map where the alluvial area is characterized by a probability to be an area with high Radon Index lower than 20 %, while probabilities higher than 30 % and also above 50 % are found close to the Bolsena village.

  18. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M I; Musazay, M S; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-01-01

    A passive "can technique" and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bqm(-2)h(-1) with an average of 1.35+/-1.40 Bqm(-2)h(-1). The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation.

  19. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman E-mail: fazalr@kfupm.edu.sa; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Musazay, M.S.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-12-01

    A passive 'can technique' and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1} with an average of 1.35{+-}1.40 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation.

  20. Residential radon exposure and brain cancer: an ecological study in a radon prone area (Galicia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Aragonés, Nuria; Kelsey, Karl T; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Piñeiro-Lamas, María; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Barros-Dios, Juan M

    2017-06-15

    We aimed to know if radon concentration is associated with municipal mortality due to brain cancer in Galicia, Spain. We designed an ecological study taking as study unit Galician municipalities. To be included, municipalities had to have at least three radon measurements. We correlated radon concentrations with municipal mortality due to these malignant tumors during the period 1999-2008. We calculated the relative risk of dying of brain cancers for each municipality and correlated this value with municipal radon concentration using Spearman's Rho. 251 municipalities were included, with close to 3,500 radon measurements and an average of 14 radon measurements at each municipality. We observed a significant correlation between residential radon with brain cancer mortality for males and females and the intensity of the correlation was higher for females. These results were reinforced when the analysis was restricted to municipalities with more than 5 radon measurements: Spearman's Rho 0.286 (p-value < 0.001) and Spearman's Rho 0.509 (p-value < 0.001) for males and females, respectively. These results suggest an association between residential radon and brain cancer mortality. More research using more robust epidemiological designs is needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m{sup −3} to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m{sup −3} to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m{sup −3}, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m{sup −3} to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m{sup −3}, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m{sup −3} to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m{sup −3} and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m{sup −3} to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m{sup −3}, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m{sup −3} and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the

  2. Observation of 7pP23/2→7dD2 optical transitions in 209 and 210 francium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustsson, S; Bianchi, G; Calabrese, R; Corradi, L; Dainelli, A; Khanbekyan, A; Marinelli, C; Mariotti, E; Marmugi, L; Mazzocca, G; Moi, L; Ricci, L; Stiaccini, L; Tomassetti, L

    2017-09-15

    We report on the direct experimental observation of the 7pP23/2→7dD2 optical transitions in 209 and 210 francium isotopes. By continuously monitoring the fluorescence emitted by the isotopes collected in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), the electric dipole transitions 7pP23/2→7dD25/2 of Fr209, not yet experimentally observed, and 7pP23/2→7dD25/2, 7pP23/2→7dD25/2 of Fr210 were detected as sub-Doppler depletion dips of the cold atom population. This approach allowed unambiguous identification of the excited state hyperfine structures, even in the absence of a large stable vapor. Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness and the flexibility of fluorescence monitoring of trap depletion upon laser excitation, and broaden the experimental knowledge of francium isotopes and their electronic and nuclear properties. These results will have a relevant impact on ongoing researches for low-energy testing of fundamental symmetries with francium, from atomic parity non-conservation to the electron dipole moment.

  3. Regressionanalysis of radon measurements; Regressionsanalysen von Radonmessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buermeyer, J.; Neugebauer, T.; Hingmann, H.; Grimm, V.; Breckow, J. [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen (THM), Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz (IMPS); Gundlach, M. [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen (THM), Giessen (Germany). Fachbereich fuer Mathematik, Naturwissenschaften und Informatik

    2016-07-01

    In the course of the renewal of the Radiation Protection Guidelines for Germany, radon becomes a more prominent concern. Thus, it is important to gain more information on the temporal behaviour of radon and its measureable parameters. This work focuses on the determination on possible influencing factors using regression-analysis methods. So far the radon concentration has been analysed and it was revealed, that the most important impact comes from the gradient of the temperature and pressure as the difference of the values in and outside the building. The carbon dioxide, which was logged as an indicator for the influences of the inhabitant does not show the high influence on the Radon levels as expected.

  4. Novel Radon Sub-Slab Suctioning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    A new principle for radon protection is currently presented which makes use of a system of horizontal pressurised air ducts located within the lower part of the rigid insulation layer of the ground-floor slab. The function of this system is based on the principles of pressure reduction within...... the zone below the ground-floor construction. For this purpose a new system of prefabricated lightweight elements is introduced. The effectiveness of the system is demonstrated for the case of a ground-floor reinforced concrete slab situated on top of a rigid insulation layer (consisting of a thermal...... a grid of horizontal air ducts with low pressure which are able to remove air and radon from the ground. Results showed the system to be effective in preventing radon infiltrating from the ground through the ground-floor slab, avoiding high concentrations of radon being accumulated inside houses...

  5. Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Higher incidence rates of childhood cancer and particularly leukemia have been observed in regions with higher radon levels, but case-control studies have given inconsistent results. We tested the hypothesis that domestic radon exposure increases the risk for childhood cancer. Methods......: We identified 2400 incident cases of leukemia, central nervous system tumor, and malignant lymphoma diagnosed in children between 1968 and 1994 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Control children (n = 6697) were selected from the Danish Central Population Registry. Radon levels in residences of children...... and the cumulated exposure of each child were calculated as the product of exposure level and time, for each address occupied during childhood. Results: Cumulative radon exposure was associated with risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with rate ratios of 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0...

  6. Distribution of indoor radon levels in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, G; Rickards, J; Gammage, R B

    1999-01-01

    Our laboratory has carried out a systematic monitoring and evaluation of indoor radon concentration levels in Mexico for ten years. The results of the distribution of indoor radon levels for practically the entire country are presented, together with information on geological characteristics, population density, socioeconomic levels of the population, and architectural styles of housing. The measurements of the radon levels were made using the passive method of nuclear tracks in solids with the end-cup system. CR-39 was used as the detector material in combination with a one-step chemical etching procedure and an automatic digital- image counting system. Wherever a high level was measured, a confirming measurement was made using a dynamic method. The results are important for future health studies, including the eventual establishment of patterns for indoor radon concentration, as it has been done in the USA and Europe.

  7. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary indoor radon measurements in a high-radon area of Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, Z.S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Belgrade (Serbia); Yarmoshenko, I.V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ivy@ecko.uran.ru; Kelleher, K. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Paridaens, J. [SCK.CEN Mol (Belgium); Mc Laughlin, J.P. [School of Physics, University College Dublin (Ireland); Celikovic, I.; Ujic, P. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Belgrade (Serbia); Onischenko, A.D. [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Jovanovic, S.; Demajo, A. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Belgrade (Serbia); Birovljev, A. [Radonlab Ltd., Oslo (Norway); Bochicchio, F. [Italian National Institute of Health, Rome (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    In Niska Banja, Serbia, which is a high-radon area, a comparison was made between two retrospective radon measuring methods and contemporary radon measurements. The two retrospective methods derive the radon concentrations that occurred in dwellings over longer periods in the past, based on the amount of trapped {sup 210}Po on the surface of glass objects (surface traps, ST) or in the bulk of porous materials (volume traps, VT). Both surface implanted {sup 210}Po in glass objects and contemporary radon in air were measured in 46 rooms, distributed in 32 houses of this radon spa-town, using a dual alpha track detector configuration (CR-39 and LR115) and CR-39 track etched detectors, respectively. In addition to the use of surface trap measurements, in 18 rooms (distributed in 15 houses) VT samples of suitable material were also collected, allowing to compare ST and VT retrospective radon concentration estimates. For each room, contemporary annual radon concentrations (CONT) were measured or estimated using seasonal correction factors. The distribution of the radon concentration in all data sets was found to be close to lognormal (Chi-square test > 0.05). Geometric means (GM) are similar, ranging from 1040 to 1380 Bq m{sup -3}, whereas geometric standard deviations (GSD) for both the retrospective methods are greater than for the CONT method, showing reasonable agreement between VT, ST and CONT measurements. A regression analysis, with respect to the lognormal distribution of each data set, shows that for VT-ST the correlation coefficient r is 0.85, for VT-CONT r is 0.82 and for ST-CONT r is 0.73. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary radon concentrations with regard to supposed long-term indoor radon changes further supports the principal agreement between the retrospective and conventional methods.

  8. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.drolet@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Martel, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Poulin, Patrick [Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), 945 avenue Wolfe, G1V 5B3 Quebec (Canada); Dessau, Jean-Claude [Agence de la santé et des services sociaux des Laurentides, 1000 rue Labelle, J7Z 5 N6 Saint-Jérome (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for

  9. SURVEY IN KRASNOKAMENSK CITY ON THE CONTENT OF INDOOR RADON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Marennyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Survey of dwellings and enterprises of the Krasnokamensk city on the indoor radon content were performed. The radon volume activity measurements were carried out by integral method with the help of track chambers. Chambers were exhibited in the heating and the warm periods of the year for the 3-4 months in the same premises. The values of equivalent equilibrium volume activity of radon and doses from radon were obtained. It is shown, that the situation with the radon irradiation of the population of Krasnokamensk city in general meets the requirements of the radiation safety standards. Seasonal relations of volume radon activity in the premises are presented.

  10. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published values оf total population carcinogenic risk from chemical carcinogens.Results: it is shown that the 304 cases of lung cancer per year (1. 85 10-3 on average from 2006 to 2011 (21280diseases for 70 years in addition to background level induced by radon; the differences in average trends of all lungcancer incidence in the districts can exceed 25%.Conclusion. The potential of risk reduction by measures of mitigation radon concentration exceeds 5 times the cost efficiency to reduce emissions from vehicles and can reduce cancer incidence, on average 236 cases per year; population risk 16520 cases over 70 years or save not less than 2832 person-years of life per year. The annual effect of reducing losses from not-survival of 12 years as a result of radon-induced lung cancer deaths exceeds 14160000 dollars. The evaluating of the carcinogenic risk from radon in accordance with the definition of population risk increases the predictive evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive measures more than twice.

  11. Occupational doses from radon in Spanish spas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, J; Gómez, J

    1999-04-01

    Recent international recommendations have included exposure to natural radiation as one of the sources to monitor in certain occupationally exposed groups. Among those mentioned are workers in thermal spas, who may be exposed to high radiation doses due to the high concentration of radon in the indoor air of the spa. This paper presents the methodology and the results of an evaluation of radiation doses to the staff in different thermal spas in Spain. Different series of samples were collected and measurements made for the radon concentrations in water in 54 spas and in air in 20 spas. In six of the latter group, the air radon concentration was studied in different working areas occupied by the employees. The radon concentrations in water were between radon concentrations in air were between radon concentration in their main working area. By means of an exposure-dose conversion factor of 1.43 Sv per J h m(-3), the estimated effective doses were found to lie between 1 and 44 mSv y(-1). This upper limit is higher than the recommended annual limit of 20 mSv y(-1) for an occupational dose.

  12. Development of high sensitivity radon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Y; Kajita, T; Tasaka, S; Hori, H; Nemoto, M; Okazawa, H

    1999-01-01

    High sensitivity detectors for radon in air and in water have been developed. We use electrostatic collection and a PIN photodiode for these detectors. Calibration systems have been also constructed to obtain collection factors. As a result of the calibration study, the absolute humidity dependence of the radon detector for air is clearly observed in the region less than about 1.6 g/m sup 3. The calibration factors of the radon detector for air are 2.2+-0.2 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 0.08 g/m sup 3 and 0.86+-0.06 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 11 g/m sup 3. The calibration factor of the radon detector for water is 3.6+-0.5 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3). The background level of the radon detector for air is 2.4+-1.3 counts/day. As a result, one standard deviation excess of the signal above the background of the radon detector for air should be possible for 1.4 mBq/m sup 3 in a one-day measurement at 0.08 g/m sup 3.

  13. Radon capture with silver exchanged zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstroem, H. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry; Foreman, M.; Ekberg, C. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Industrial Materials Recycling; Ramebaeck, H. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Industrial Materials Recycling; Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    To enable laboratory work with larger amounts of {sup 226}Ra and its decay products, e.g., {sup 222}Rn and its daughters, these need to be captured in order to avoid unnecessary alpha contamination of the laboratory work space and ventilation systems. In this study, radon gas was pumped through a column filled with the silver exchanged zeolite called 'silver exchanged molecular sieves 13X' (Ag{sub 84}Na{sub 2}[(AlO{sub 2}){sub 86}(SiO{sub 2}){sub 106}].xH{sub 2}O). After exposure to radon, the radioactivity of the zeolite was measured repeatedly using high resolution gamma spectrometry. It was shown that radon was captured and retained in the silver exchanged zeolite. The zeolites' ability to retain radon was decreased by formation of metallic silver, caused by ionizing radiation. However, the zeolite was regenerated by heating and its radon capture ability was restored. The daughters of radon are not in gas phase and will hence stay on the column. (orig.)

  14. Application of a radon model to explain indoor radon levels in a Swedish house

    CERN Document Server

    Font, L; Jönsson, G; Enge, W; Ghose, R

    1999-01-01

    Radon entry from soil into indoor air and its accumulation indoors depends on several parameters, the values of which normally depend on the specific characteristics of the site. The effect of a specific parameter is often difficult to explain from the result of indoor radon measurements only. The adaptation of the RAGENA (RAdon Generation, ENtry and Accumulation indoors) model to a Swedish house to characterise indoor radon levels and the relative importance of the different radon sources and entry mechanisms is presented. The building is a single-zone house with a naturally-ventilated crawl space in one part and a concrete floor in another part, leading to different radon levels in the two parts of the building. The soil under the house is moraine, which is relatively permeable to radon gas. The house is naturally-ventilated. The mean indoor radon concentration values measured with nuclear track detectors in the crawl-space and concrete parts of the house are respectively 75+-30 and 200+-80 Bq m sup - sup 3...

  15. Seasonal variation of radon level and radon effective doses in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inhalation of radon has been recognized as a health hazard. In the present work radon concentration was measured, in the atmosphere of the archaeological place, namely Catacomb of Kom El-Shuqafa, in Alexandria, Egypt, which is open to the public, using time-integrated passiveradon dosimeters containing LR-115 ...

  16. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing concern about health risks associated with exposure to indoor radon, a radioactive gas found in varying amounts in nearly all houses, has underscored the need for dependable radon reduction methods in existing and newly constructed houses. Responding to this need, the U....

  17. Radon exhalation rates of some granites used in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mladen D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address concern about radon exhalation in building material, radon exhalation rate was determined for different granites available on Serbian market. Radon exhalation rate, along with mass exhalation rate and effective radium content were determined by closed chamber method and active continuous radon measurement technique. For this research, special chambers were made and tested for back diffusion and leakage, and the radon concentrations measured were included in the calculation of radon exhalation. The radon exhalation rate ranged from 0.161 Bq/m2h to 0.576 Bq/m2h, the mass exhalation rate from 0.167 Bq/kgh to 0.678 Bq/kgh, while the effective radium content was found to be from 12.37 Bq/kg to 50.23 Bq/kg. The results indicate that the granites used in Serbia have a low level of radon exhalation.

  18. How to Ensure Low Radon Concentrations in Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Wraber, Ida Kristina

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on methods for measuring radon levels in the indoor air in buildings as well as on concrete solutions that can be carried out in the building to prevent radon leakage and to lower the radon concentration in the indoor air of new buildings. The radon provision in the new Danish...... Building Regulations from 2010 has been tightened as a result of new recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for its harmfulness. It is therefore important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible in new...... buildings. The airtightness is a major factor when dealing with radon in buildings. Above the ground it is important to build airtight in compliance with energy requirements and against the ground it is important to prevent radon from seeping into the building. There is a direct connection between...

  19. Measurement of radon diffusion length in thin membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, A; Lavi, N; Moinester, M; Nassar, H; Neeman, E; Piasetzky, E; Steiner, V

    2012-07-01

    Building regulations in Israel require the insulating of buildings against radon (222)Rn penetration from soil. In radon-prone areas membranes stretched between the soil and the building foundation are used, together with sealing other possible penetration routes. Designing the radon mitigation procedure requires checking that all sealing materials are practically, radon tight, having a thickness of at least three times the radon diffusion length. In this work, a very simple technique to evaluate the radon diffusion length in thin membranes, using a radon source of known activity and an activated charcoal canister as radon detector is presented. The theoretical formalism and measurement results for polyethylene membranes of different densities obtained in a recent comparison exercise are presented.

  20. Radon Spectrum and Its Application for Small Moving Target Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Radon Spectrum and Its Application for Small Moving Target Detection Yunhan Dong National Security...coherent processing, the concept of a Radon spectrum that is a kind of normalised Radon transform is proposed and used for radar non-coherent detection...One advantage of using the Radon transform for non-coherent processing is that integration in all directions is considered, and hence range migration

  1. Radon in the groundwater of Muehlviertel (Upper Austria); Radon im Grundwasser des Muehlviertels (Oberoesterreich)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Gerhard [Geologische Bundesanstalt, Wien (Austria). Abteilung Hydrogeologie; Alletsgruber, Irene [Triassic Geological Services, Northgate, Qld (Australia); Finger, Friedrich; Lettner, Herbert [Universitaet Salzburg (Austria). Fachbereich Materialforschung und Physik; Gasser, Veronika [Hydrogeologie Bohrwesen GmbH, Ferlach (Austria); Hobiger, Gerhard [Geologische Bundesanstalt, Wien (Austria). Abteilung Geochemie

    2010-03-15

    In the occurrence areas of selected crystalline rocks - mainly granites - the Radon-222 content of groundwater has been investigated. The results show a significant correlation with the Uranium concentrations in the rocks. The Uranium concentrations were between 1 and 15 ppm, while the Radon-222 concentrations were between 0.2 and 719.5 Bq/l. To identify Radon-decreasing effects like degasification and admixture of surface water, CO{sub 2} partial pressures and Oxygen-18 in water samples were determined and the local hydrological situation has been taken under consideration. Samples which showed clear evidence of Radon-decreasing effects were excluded from further evaluation because they would not represent the full empiric potential of Radon emanation in the aquifer. In combination with geological maps, petrologic information and airborne radiometry, Radon-222 analyses in groundwater can provide important data for Radon potential mapping. The significance of the groundwater Radon analyses can be improved by supplementary hydrochemical and hydrological isotope investigations. (orig.) [German] Im Muehlviertel wurde im Verbreitungsgebiet ausgewaehlter, gut definierter kristalliner Gesteine - vorwiegend Granite - das lokale Grundwasser gezielt auf Radon-222 beprobt. Das Ergebnis zeigt einen signifikanten Zusammenhang zwischen dem Urangehalt der Gesteine und dem Radongehalt der Grundwaesser auf. Die Messwerte lagen zwischen 1 und 15 ppm Uran im Gestein und zwischen 0,2 und 719,5 Bq/l Radon-222 im Grundwasser. Um im beprobten Grundwasser einen moeglichen Oberflaecheneinfluss, der den Radon-222-Gehalt herabsetzen wuerde, weitgehend ausschliessen zu koennen, wurde auch der CO{sub 2}-Partialdruck und der Sauerstoff-18-Gehalt bestimmt und die waehrend der Beprobung herrschende hydrologische Situation beruecksichtigt. Jene Proben, bei denen sich ein deutlicher Oberflaecheneinfluss abzeichnete, wurden nicht in die Auswertung mit einbezogen, da sie nicht das volle empirische

  2. Radon measures in the campus University of Alicante; Medidas de radon en el Campus de la Universidad de Alicante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedecausa Garcia, B.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work is the analysis and measurement the concentration of radon in underground spaces inside various buildings of the Campus of the University of Alicante, in order to determine the concentration of radon in existing facilities. (Author)

  3. Radon Measurements in Ghana: Health Risk Assessment at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to assess the risk of exposure to radon and its daughters stems from the reality that radon is a potential carcinogenic. We report Radon-222 risk assessment, from measurements on soil and sediments taken from six towns along the Lake Bosomtwi basin at two levels of 10cm and 20 cm. The current and future ...

  4. Moisture dependence of radon transport in concrete : Measurements and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, [No Value; van der Graaf, ER; de Meijer, RJ

    2003-01-01

    The moisture dependence of the radon-release rate of concrete was measured under well controlled conditions. It was found that the radon-release rate almost linearly increases up to moisture contents of 50 to 60%. At 70 to 80% a maximum was found and for higher moisture contents the radon-release

  5. The latest trend of the research on radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Hiroshi [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1996-12-01

    In June, 1995, the international conference of sixth Natural Radiation Environment was held in Montreal. More than 80% of more than 200 published researches were concerned with radon and thoron. The participants came from 32 countries. The classification of the research on radon and the number of the publication are shown. The contents of the researches in respective items of measuring method, concentration level and dose evaluation, indoor model and indoor and outdoor radon balance, the countermeasures for reducing indoor radon, radon potential, dose evaluation model, the particle size distribution of aerosol including the particle size distribution of free daughter nuclides and radon in the atmosphere are described. The research on the radon in water is excluded. The most remarkable trend is the theme of radon potential. The trend of connecting the research on radon in soil and the research on dissipation rate to radon potential and the forecast of indoor and outdoor radon concentration seems to become stronger. As to the research on concentration level, the detection of hot spots and the supplementary measurement for clarifying cause are carried out in the advanced countries concerning radon based on the results of survey in whole country. The researches in schools are conspicuous. (K.I.)

  6. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon.

  7. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and ...

  8. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpurdistricts of ...

  9. Determination of radon gas and respirable ore dust concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has estimated the concentrations of radon gas and respirable ore dust in the Merelani underground tanzanite mines. Two different portable monitors were used to measure the radon gas and respirable ore dust concentrations respectively. The mean radon gas concentration (disintegrations per second per cubic ...

  10. RESOLVING THE RADON PROBLEM IN CLINTON, NEW JERSEY HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the resolution of a radon problem in Clinton, New Jersey, where significantly elevated radon concentrations were found in several adjacent houses. The U.S. EPA screened 56 of the houses and selected 10 for demonstration of radon reduction techniques. Each of t...

  11. Assessment of indoor radon gas concentration change of college

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Jeong, Eui Hwan; Kim, Hak Jae; Lyu, Kang Yeul [Dept. of of Radiological Technology, Shingu College, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Songho College, Hoengseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact by comparing the concentration of indoor radon and look for ways to lower the concentration of indoor radon gas measurements of three variables, the year of completion, volume of the building and ventilation. Measurement target is six classrooms on the sixth floor of building that was constructed in 1973 and was extended in 2011. Selected classroom's volume is different. Four classrooms were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the year of completion, Classrooms that is same year of completion were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the volume, six classroom was performed closure and ventilation to compare radon concentration according to ventilation. Radon concentrations in accordance with the year of building completion showed a high concentration of radon in a building recently built. Also, Radon concentration in volume is high the smaller the volume. Radon concentration change according to ventilation showed a reduction of about 80% when the ventilation than during closing. Especially, The radon concentrations were high detected while the recently year of building completion and the smaller volume. Ventilation of the three variables is considered that can be expected to exposure reduction effect by radon affecting the greatest radon concentration reduction.

  12. Radon as a groundwater tracer in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolander, Sara

    2009-10-15

    Radon concentrations were measured in different water types in Forsmark and Laxemar during the site investigation and within this study. From these measurements it can be concluded that large differences between surface water, near surface groundwater and deep groundwater can be found in both Laxemar and Forsmark. The differences in radon concentrations between different water types are used in this study to detect interactions between surface water, near surface water and deep groundwater. From the radon measurements it can also be concluded that radon concentration in deep groundwater varies largely with depth. These variations with depth are probably caused by groundwater flow in conductive fracture zones in the bedrock. The focus of this study has been the radon concentration of near surface groundwater and the interaction between near surface groundwater and deep groundwater. Radon measurements have been done using the RAD-7 radon detector within this study. It could be concluded that RAD-7 is a good technique for radon measurements and also easy to use in field. The radon concentrations measured in near surface groundwater in Laxemar within this study were low and homogenous. The variation in radon concentration has been analyses and compared to other parameters. Since the hypothesis of this study has been that there are differences in radon concentrations between recharging and discharging groundwater, the most important parameter to consider is the recharge/discharge field classification of the wells. No correlation between the recharge/discharge classifications of wells and the radon concentrations were found. The lack of correlation between groundwater flow patterns and radon concentration means that it is not possible to detect flow patterns in near surface groundwater using radon as a tracer in the Laxemar area. The lack of correlation can be caused by the fact that there are just a few wells located in areas classified as recharge area. It can also be

  13. Radon in soil gas in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikaj, Dafina; Jeran, Zvonka; Bahtijari, Meleq; Stegnar, Peter

    2016-11-01

    An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to radon and gamma emitting radionuclides was conducted in southern Kosovo. This study deals with sources of radon in soil gas. A long-term study of radon concentrations in the soil gas was carried out using the SSNTDs (CR-39) at 21 different locations in the Sharr-Korabi zone. The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time, including at least three seasonal periods in a year and the sampling locations were chosen with respect to lithology. In order to determine the concentration of the natural radioactive elements 238 U and 226 Ra, as a precursor of 222 Rn, soil samples were collected from each measuring point from a depth of 0.8 m, and measured by gamma spectrometry. The levels (Bq kg -1 ) of naturally occurring radionuclides and levels (kBq m -3 ) of radon in soil gas obtained at a depth 0.8 m of soil were: 21-53 for 226 Ra, 22-160 for 238 U and 0.295-32 for 222 Rn. With respect to lithology, the highest value for 238 U and 226 Ra were found in limestone and the highest value for 222 Rn was found in metamorphic rocks. In addition, the results showed seasonal variations of the measured soil gas radon concentrations with maximum concentration in the spring months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radon background study in Super-Kamiokande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yuuki; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Super-Kamiokande (SK), a 50 kton water Cherenkov detector in Japan, observes 8B solar neutrinos with neutrino-electron elastic scattering. SK searches for distortions of the solar neutrino energy spectrum caused by the edge of the MSW resonance in the core of the Sun. The installation of new front-end electronics in 2008 marks the beginning of the 4th phase of SK (SK-IV). With the improvement of the water circulation system, calibration methods, reduction cuts, this phase achieved the lowest energy threshold thus far (3.5 MeV kinetic energy). To improve the sensitivity to the MSW effect, it is required to achieve lower energy threshold. For this purpose, understanding the origin of background events and reducing them are important. Currently, the main background is known as a beta decay of 214Bi in a Radon decay chain. So far, SK collaboration has developed several techniques for studying Radon contamination in the SK water. In this proceedings, a measurement system which can measure Radon concentration in the SK water with the accuracy of 0.1 mBq/m3 level is presented. In addition, an evaluation of Radon background events in SK injecting Radon rich water into the SK tank, as well as future prospects are also presented.

  15. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: CASE STUDIES OF RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMS INSTALLED BY EPA IN FOUR MARYLAND SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning -- HVAC-- system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  16. Radon exhalation rates corrected for leakage and back diffusion – Evaluation of radon chambers and radon sources with application to ceramic tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abo-Elmagd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural radon decay, leakage and back diffusion are the main removal processes of radon from its container. Ignoring these processes leads to underestimate the measured value of radon related parameters like exhalation rate and radium content. This work is aimed to evaluate two different radon chambers through determining their leakage rate λv and evaluation of radon source by determine its back diffusion rate λb inside the evaluated radon chambers as well as a small sealed cup. Two different methods are adapted for measuring both the leakage rate and the back diffusion rate. The leakage rate can be determined from the initial slope of the radon decay curve or from the exponential fitting of the whole decay curve. This can be achieved if a continuous monitoring of radon concentration inside the chamber is available. Also, the back diffusion rate is measured by sealing the radon source in the chamber and used the initial slope of the buildup curve to determine λb and therefore the exhalation rate of the source. This method was compared with simple equation for λb based on the ratio of the source to the chamber volume. The obtained results are applied to ceramic tile as an important radon source in homes. The measurement is targeted the ceramic glaze before and after firing as well as the obtained tile after adhere the glaze on the tile main body. Also, six different tile brands from Egyptian market are subjected to the study for comparison.

  17. Nuclear structure studies of neutron-rich heavy nuclei by mass measurements of francium and radium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbusch, Marco [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Collaboration: ISOLTRAP-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The mass is a unique property of an atomic nucleus reflecting its binding energy and thus the sum of all interactions at work. Precise measurements of nuclear masses especially of short-lived exotic nuclides provide important input for nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, tests of the Standard Model, and weak interaction studies. The Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE/CERN has been set up for precision mass measurements and continuously improved for accessing more exotic nuclides. The mass uncertainty is typically δm / m=10{sup -8} and the accessible half-life has been reduced to about 50 ms. In this contribution, the results of a measurement campaign of neutron-rich francium and radium isotopes will be presented, i.e. the masses of the isotopic chain of {sup 224-233}Fr and {sup 233,234}Ra, one of the most neutron-rich ensemble obtainable at ISOL facilities. The mass {sup 234}Ra denotes the heaviest mass ever measured with ISOLTRAP. Experimental data in the neutron-rich, heavy mass region is of great interest for studies of structural evolution far from stability, especially because the knowledge from nuclear mass models is scarce. The impact of the new data on the physics in this mass region as well as recent technical developments of ISOLTRAP are discussed.

  18. The use of track registration detectors to reconstruct contemporary and historical airborne radon ( sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn) and radon progeny concentrations for a radon-lung cancer epidemiologic study

    CERN Document Server

    Steck, D J

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies that investigate the relationship between radon and lung cancer require accurate estimates for the long-term average concentrations of radon progeny in dwellings. Year-to-year and home-to-home variations of radon in domestic environments pose serious difficulties for reconstructing an individual's long-term radon-related exposure. The use of contemporary radon gas concentrations as a surrogate for radon-related dose introduces additional uncertainty in dose assessment. Studies of glass exposed in radon chambers and in a home show that radon progeny deposited on, and implanted in, glass hold promise for reconstructing past radon concentrations in a variety of atmospheres. We developed an inexpensive track registration detector for the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study (IRLCS) that simultaneously measures contemporary airborne radon concentrations, surface deposited alpha activity density, and implanted sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po activity density. The implanted activity is used to reconstruct the cum...

  19. The European radon mapping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M., E-mail: tore.tollefsen@jrc.ec.europa.eu, E-mail: valeria.gruber@gmail.com, E-mail: marc.de-cort@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, VA (Italy). DG Joint Research Centre. European Commission

    2013-07-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  20. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.).

  1. Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Radon measurements aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.

    1995-01-01

    We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.

  3. Radon atlas of England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B.M.R.; Miles, J.C.H.; Bradley, E.J.; Rees, D.M

    2002-07-01

    This new report brings together and updates the information in three earlier reports on radon levels in English and Welsh homes. In particular, data from measurements in over 400,000 homes in England and Wales are presented in tabular format. The tables give the data by various administrative divisions, down to electoral wards for Cornwall, Devon and Somerset and council areas elsewhere and to sector level of the postcode system. The radon probability maps are based on the national grid system and show significantly more locational detail than the previous publications, an extra division in the probability banding to coincide with current Government initiatives on radon in England and, in southwest England, more detailed probability mapping than before - by 1 km grid squares in place of the 5 km grid squares used in Wales and the rest of England. (author)

  4. Indoor radon measurements and radon prognosis for the province of Kymi, southeastern Finland; Huoneilman radonmittaukset Kymen laeaenissae: Tilannekatsaus ja radonennuste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennanen, M.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Voutilainen, A.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the regional radon prognosis is to classify areas with different levels of radon risk. The radon prognosis gives the percentages of future homes expected to have indoor radon concentrations exceeding the levels of 200 and 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. It is assumed that no protection against the entry of radon is used in construction. In this study about 5900 indoor radon measurements made in single family houses, semi-detached houses and row houses were used. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined from maps and questionnaires. An empirical statistical model, the adjusted indoor radon measurements and geological data were used to assess the radon risk from soil and bedrock in different areas. The building sites of the province of Kymi were divided into thirteen sub-areas. The radon prognosis are calculated for the most radon-prone foundation types including (1) houses with a slab-on-grade and (2) houses with a basement or hillside houses with open stairwells between basement and first floor. The radon levels are generally greater in the western part of the area. The radon risk is highest in gravel-dominated esker areas in southwestern, western (in Pyhtaa, Kotka, Anjalankoski, litti, Valkeala) and central (Taipalsaari) parts of the area. The radon risk is also high in some bedrock and till areas, also in southwestern and western parts of the area. In these areas the level of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} will be exceeded in 80 % of new houses. About half of the future houses in these areas will have indoor radon concentrations exceeding 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The radon risk is lowest in the eastern part of the province of Kymi in every soil type. In this area the level of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} will be exceeded in 30 % of new houses. Below 10 % will exceed 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. (orig.) (14 refs.).

  5. Radon release from granites in south-west England

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, J

    2001-01-01

    accessory minerals. The enhancement of surface area was attributed to the alteration of feldspar to sericite. This has implications for the release of radon. It is thought that the large surface area provides a sink for the adsorption of radon, retaining it in the rock structure. This radon retention explains the paradoxical decline in radon release at small particle size/large specific surface area. Various mechanisms for radon emanation are discussed with reference to the Cornubian granites. It is shown that, based on the measured specific surface areas, inter-crystalline diffusion is a slow process and not a significant contributor to overall radon release (0.01%). Approximately 1% of the total radon produced can be attributed to direct recoil processes, based on the calculated recoil ranges (36 nm). The remainder was attributed to diffusion processes through crystal imperfections and dislocations. The microscopic scale model developed here is extended to the macroscopic scale through examination of the la...

  6. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of some regions in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrat, A.H. E-mail: akhayrat@yahoo.com; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman, X.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-06-01

    Indoor radon survey in a total of 241 dwellings, distributed in some regions of Yemen was performed, using CR-39 based radon monitors. The objective of this radon survey is to get representative indoor radon data of three regions, namely Dhamar, Taiz and Hodeidah, situated at different altitudes above sea level. The radon concentrations varied from 3 to 270 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 42 Bq m{sup -3}. It was found that the average radon concentration in the surveyed areas increases with altitudes. The highest average radon concentration of 59 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Dhamar city while the lowest average concentration of 8 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Hodeidah city.

  7. Radon in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A Martín; Pérez, J de la Torre; Sánchez, A B Ruano; Correa, F L Naranjo

    2012-05-01

    Indoor radon measurements are usually associated with housing. However, a typical person spends about one-third of the day at their workplace. A survey was made of radon levels in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain). More than 200 measurements were performed in some 130 firms and organizations of different sectors (urban wellness centres, spas, caves, mines, water management facilities, underground carparks, wine cellars, museums, etc.). Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. The results indicated the importance of performing this type of measurement because the exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    in the cylinder and in selected locations in the soil. In this paper, the test structure is described, and initial results concerning the transport of soil gas and radon under steady-state conditions are reported. It is found that the soil in the vicinity of the structure is partially depleted with respect......A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...

  9. Development of a quality assured calibration method for the PSI radon chamber reference atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, C.; Butterweck-Dempewolf, G.; Vezzu, G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-08-01

    Radon detectors and measuring instruments are calibrated at the PSI Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Concentration Measurements by exposing them to a calibrated radon reference atmosphere in the PSI radon chamber. A sophisticated and quality assured calibration technique was developed which guarantees the traceability of this radon chamber reference atmosphere to standards of internationally acknowledged primary laboratories. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  10. The role of confounding factors in a radon epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Onishchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A simulation of a large-scale epidemiological case-control study to identify the relationship between exposure to radon and lung cancer in the presence of factors that distort the results of the assessment of exposure to radon in homes. Materials and Methods: Analysis of sources of uncertainties arising during radon epidemiologic case-control studies. Evaluation of the uncertainties caused by the errors of the measurements of the long-term variations in the radon concentration, exposure to radon in other places of the human habitat, except dwellings, etc. Simulation by Monte Carlo technique of radon epidemiologic study, comparable to the combined European radon study, and assessment of uncertainties, which affect the evaluation of dose-effect dependence. Results: The multiplicative error in the assessment of individual exposure based on the radon concentration is shown generally caused by the combined effect of long-term variations of the radon concentration and the differences in the levels of the radon concentration in living houses and other places of the human habitat. The logarithmic standard deviation of this errors σerr is from 0,70 to 0,90. The estimated value of this error is 2,0 times higher than the value used for correction of the results of the combined European radon study. It is shown that for the σerr <0,9 regression calibration technique, there is a possibility to make a full correction of uncertainty. Conclusion: Errors in the assessment of uncertainties of the radon exposure based on the radon concentration in the combine European radon case-control study has led to an underestimation of the relative risk of lung cancer incidence at least with a factor of 1,5.

  11. Variations of radon concentration in the atmosphere. Gamma dose rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, D. E.; Solecki, A. T.

    2018-02-01

    The purposes of research were following: observation and interpretation of variations of radon concentration in the atmosphere - vertical, seasonal, spatial and analysis of relation between average annual radon concentration and ground natural radiation and gamma dose rate. Moreover we wanted to check the occurrence of radon density currents and the possibility of radon accumulation at the foot of the spoil tip. The surveys were carried out in Okrzeszyn (SW Poland) in the area of the spoil tip formed during uranium mining that took place in 60's of 20th century. The measurements were carried out in 20 measurements points at three heights: 0.2 m, 1 m and 2 m a.g.l. using SSNTD LR-115. The survey lasted one year and detectors were exchanged at the beginning of every season. Uranium eU (ppm), thorium eTh (ppm) and potassium K (%) contents were measured using gamma ray spectrometer Exploranium RS-230, ambient gamma dose rate using radiometer RK-100. The average radon concentration on this area was 52.8 Bq m-3. The highest radon concentrations were noted during autumn and the lowest during winter. We observed vertical variations of radon concentration. Radon concentrations decreased with increase of height above ground level. The decrease of radon with increase of height a.g.l. had logarithmic character. Spatial variations of radon concentrations did not indicate the occurrence of radon density currents and accumulation of radon at the foot of the spoil tip. The analysis of relation between average radon concentrations and ground natural radiation (uranium and thorium content) or gamma dose rate revealed positive relation between those parameters. On the base of results mentioned above we suggested that gamma spectrometry measurements or even cheaper and simpler ambient gamma dose rate measurements can be a useful tool in determining radon prone areas. This should be confirmed by additional research.

  12. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Residential radon exposure and esophageal cancer. An ecological study from an area with high indoor radon concentration (Galicia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Barros-Dios, Juan M

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the correlation between municipal esophageal cancer relative risk and municipal residential radon concentration in a high radon emission Spanish area. We performed an ecological study at municipal level in Galicia, Spain. For each municipality we estimated the median radon concentration and the relative risk (RR) for esophageal cancer mortality for males and females. The relative risk was calculated using a Bayesian approach. Homes with data on radon concentration were selected through stratified random sampling. To be included, each municipality had to have at least five radon measurements. We obtained Spearman's correlations for median residential radon concentration and esophageal cancer mortality RR for males and females, separately. We included 129 municipalities, covering the 79% of Galician population. 14% of municipalities had radon concentrations above the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level. We found a statistically significant correlation among residential radon and esophageal cancer mortality RR for males (p radon measurements the correlation pattern remained. This is the first study analyzing the association between residential radon and esophageal cancer. The results suggesting a possible effect of residential radon on esophageal cancer mortality should be explored through more robust epidemiological designs such as case-control studies.

  14. Seasonal variation of radon level and radon effective doses in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-10-01

    Oct 1, 2011 ... sion factor (effective dose received by adults per unit 222Rn activity per unit of air volume),. F is the equilibrium factor of radon indoors and T is the resident time in the tomb. Hence, the annual effective dose rate E (mSv y. −1) to the public from radon and its progeny in the different sits in the Catacomb is ...

  15. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  16. Protect Your Home and Family from Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (Jan. 11, 2016) Radon-the silent killer-is responsible for about 21,000 lung cancer deaths every year. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency encourages Americans around the country to test their homes for this naturally occurring radioac

  17. Radon concentrations in a spa in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manic, G; Petrovic, S; Vesna, Manic; Popovic, Dragana; Todorovic, Dragana

    2006-05-01

    The paper presents the results of indoor radon concentration survey in 201 homes and offices in Niska Banja (the Spa of Nis), a well-known health resort and a spa in the South-East of Serbia. Radon indoor concentrations were determined by active charcoal method, according to standard EPA procedure. The indoor radon concentrations were in the range of up to 200 Bq/m(3) (47%), from 200-600 Bq/m(3) (26%) and over 600 Bq/m(3) (27%). Three areas of extremely high average radon concentrations were found (1,340-4,340 Bq/m(3)), with a maximum above 13,000 Bq/m(3). The content of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, (235)U, (228)Ac, (212)Pb, (212)Bi, (208)Tl, (40)K) and (137)Cs, as well as the content of total uranium, thorium and potassium in mud used in peloidotherapy in the Health Institute "Niska Banja" was determined, too. The activities of the radionuclides were determined on an HPGe detector, by standard gamma spectroscopy. The results indicated considerably high amounts of total uranium and thorium (0.021 g/kg mud and 0.003 g/kg mud, respectively), due to the karsts origin of the soil.

  18. RADON REDUCTION IN A CRAWL SPACE HOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing ...

  19. Radon activity measurements around Bakreswar thermal springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Hirok [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Das, Nisith K., E-mail: nkdas@veccal.ernet.i [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Atomic Energy, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Bhandari, Rakesh K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Atomic Energy, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Sen, Prasanta [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Sinha, Bikash [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Atomic Energy, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India)

    2010-01-15

    {sup 222}Rn concentrations were measured in the bubble gases, spring waters, soil gases and in ambient air around the thermal springs at Bakreswar in West Bengal, India. This group of springs lies within a geothermal zone having exceptionally high heat flow about 230 mW/m{sup 2}, resembling young oceanic ridges. The spring gas has a high radon activity (approx885 kBq/m{sup 3}) and is rich in helium (approx1.4 vol. %) with appreciably large flow rate. The measured radon exhalation rates in the soils of the spring area show extensive variations from 831 to 4550/mBqm{sup 2} h while {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the different spring waters vary from 3.18 to 46.9 kBq/m{sup 3}. Surface air at a radius of 40 m around the springs, within which is situated the Bakreswar temple complex and a group of dwellings, has radon concentration between 450 and 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. In the present paper we assess the radon activity background in and around the spring area due to the different contributing sources and its possible effect on visiting pilgrims and the people who reside close to the springs.

  20. Optimizing laboratory-based radon flux measurements for sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyotha, Supitcha; Kranrod, Chutima; Kritsananuwat, Rawiwan; Lane-Smith, Derek; Burnett, William C

    2016-07-01

    Radon flux via diffusion from sediments and other materials may be determined in the laboratory by circulating air through the sample and a radon detector in a closed loop. However, this approach is complicated by the necessity of having to determine the total air volume in the system and accounting for any small air leaks that can arise if using extended measurement periods. We designed a simple open-loop configuration that includes a measured mass of wet sediment and water inside a gas-tight reaction flask connected to a drying system and a radon-in-air analyzer. Ambient air flows through two charcoal columns before entering the reaction vessel to eliminate incoming radon. After traveling through the reaction flask, the air passes the drier and the radon analyzer and is then vented. After some time, the radon activity will reach a steady state depending upon the airflow rate. With this approach, the radon flux via diffusion is simply the product of the steady-state radon activity (Bq/m(3)) multiplied by the airflow rate (mL/min). We demonstrated that this setup could produce good results for materials that produce relatively high radon fluxes. We also show that a modified closed system approach, including radon removal of the incoming air by charcoal filtration in a bypass, can produce very good results including samples with very low emission rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.A. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Energy Resources Div.)

    1988-01-01

    The application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurements is discussed. The ''Can Technique'', used for measuring radon emanation from building materials, walls and soil; the ''Working Level Monitor'', used for measuring short period working levels of radon daughters in houses; and ''Passive Radon Dosimeters'', used to measure radon levels in houses for long term (few months) periods are described. Application of nuclear track detectors for measuring the radon daughters plate-out on the surface of mixing fan blades and walls are discussed. The uranium content of some wall papers was found to be 6 ppm. The variation of radon progeny concentration in the same room was measured and supported by another study through Gas Chromatograph measurements. The independence of radon concentration on room level in high-rise buildings was established. The effect of sub-floor radon emanation on radon concentration in houses is dependent on whether there is sub-floor ventilation or not. (author).

  2. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.

    1996-01-01

    A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...... basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three...

  4. Identification of sources of high radon levels in Slovenian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupotic, J

    2002-01-01

    The sources of radon were investigated in twenty selected schools with high room levels of radiation. A combination of radon measuring techniques was applied: etched track and electret detectors to obtain average indoor air radon concentration. devices to record radon concentration continuously and thus characterise its diurnal variation, and alpha scintillation cells to analyse air from potential sources of radon entry. In some cases, a single strong source was identified (e.g. sinks, sub-floor channels), while in others the poor quality of the basic concrete slab was responsible for high indoor radon concentrations. The combination of etched track and electret detectors and alpha scintillation cells was essential for locating these sources.

  5. Measuring radon in soil gas and groundwaters: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Papastefanou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Instruments for the measurements of radon and its decay products in earthquake research are based mostly on the detection of alpha particles. The devices and methods used depend on whether the techniques measure radon or radon decay products, and the duration of the measurements, of which there are three types: i grab or instantaneous, ii integrating and iii continuous. Other criteria used in the design of these instruments are field measurements applicability, portability, convenience and reliability. With the recent increased demand for radon and radon decay products measurements, instruments development has focused on the design of appropriate devices for short-term measurements, as well as on more complex and sophisticated instruments for long-term measurements used in radon research for geophysical, geochemical and hydrological studies.

  6. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  7. Design Criteria for Achieving Low Radon Concentration Indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Design criteria for achieving low radon concentration indoors are presented in this paper. The paper suggests three design criteria. These criteria have to be considered at the early stage of the building design phase to meet the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization in most...... the radon concentration in the indoor air. In addition, a cheap and reliable method for measuring the radon concentration in the air indoors is described. The provision on radon in the Danish Building Regulations complies with the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause...... lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for when it is not harmful to human beings. Therefore, it is important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible indoors in buildings. Airtightness is an important factor when dealing with buildings. For the building envelope...

  8. Etched track radiometers in radon measurements: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, V A

    1999-01-01

    Passive radon radiometers, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, are very attractive for the assessment of radon exposure. The present review considers various devices used for measurement of the volume activity of radon isotopes and their daughters and determination of equilibrium coefficients. Such devices can be classified into 8 groups: (i) open or 'bare' detectors, (ii) open chambers, (iii) sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn chambers with an inlet filter, (iv) advanced sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn radiometers, (v) multipurpose radiometers, (vi) radiometers based on a combination of etched track detectors and an electrostatic field, (vii) radiometers based on etched track detectors and activated charcoal and (viii) devices for the measurement of radon isotopes and/or radon daughters by means of track parameter measurements. Some of them such as the open detector and the chamber with an inlet filter have a variety of modifications and are applied widely both in geophysical research and radon dosimetric surveys. At the...

  9. The transfer of radon from potable water into house air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, C.T.; Vietti, M.A.; Lachapelle, E.B.; Guillemette, J.F. (Univ. of Maine, Orono (USA))

    1988-09-01

    There have been very few comparisons of the radon in air due to use of potable water containing radon. To better determine the health risk due to radon in water in homes, 40 houses in southern and central Maine were measured for house characteristics such as building materials, volume and air exchange rate and for radon in water and air. The houses were all wood with basements and have wood, oil and solar heat. To increase the radon due to water use, a two hour water burst was used to simulate 24 hours of water use for the occupants. The water use was monitored along with the radon concentration in air for ten minute intervals.

  10. An automated flow system incorporating in-line acid dissolution of bismuth metal from a cyclotron irradiated target assembly for use in the isolation of astatine-211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Hara, Matthew J.; Krzysko, Anthony J.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Dorman, Eric F.; Scott Wilbur, D.

    2017-04-01

    Astatine-211 (211At) is a promising cyclotron-produced radionuclide being investigated for use in targeted alpha therapy of blood borne and metastatic cancers, as well as treatment of tumor remnants after surgical resections. The isolation of trace quantities of 211At, produced within several grams of a Bi metal cyclotron target, involves a complex, multi-step procedure: (1) Bi metal dissolution in strong HNO3, (2) distillation of the HNO3 to yield Bi salts containing 211At, (3) dissolution of the salts in strong HCl, (4) solvent extraction of 211At from bismuth salts with diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and (5) back-extraction of 211At from DIPE into NaOH, leading to a purified 211At product. Step (1) has been addressed first to begin the process of automating the onerous 211At isolation process. A computer-controlled Bi target dissolution system has been designed. The system performs in-line dissolution of Bi metal from the target assembly using an enclosed target dissolution block, routing the resulting solubilized 211At/Bi mixture to the subsequent process step. The primary parameters involved in Bi metal solubilization (HNO3 concentration and influent flow rate) were optimized prior to evaluation of the system performance on replicate cyclotron irradiated targets. The results indicate that the system performs reproducibly, having nearly quantitative release of 211At from irradiated targets, with cumulative 211At recoveries that follow a sigmoidal function. The predictable nature of the 211At release profile allows the user to tune the system to meet target processing requirements.

  11. Radon Assessment of Occupational Facilities, Homestead ARB, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    Consultative Letter 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) May 2013 – August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radon Assessment of Occupational Facilities...unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW-2013-4919, 21 Nov 2013 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT An assessment of indoor radon concentrations was...established in AFI 48-148 for long-term monitoring. Historical results indicate a radon risk characterization category of “medium,” requiring all

  12. Indoor radon measurements in the city of Valencia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, F; Ródenas, J; Querol, A; Ortiz, J; Juste, B

    2011-08-01

    The indoor radon risk in Valencia (Spain) was studied more than twenty years ago in two surveys using different methodologies and leading to contradictory results. We report here on new indoor radon measurements with the charcoal canister technique, which confirm the low average level of indoor radon in the city, with a geometrical mean of 24 Bq/m(3) and an arithmetic mean of 27 Bq/m(3). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A self-calibrating radon monitor with statistical discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Valcov, N

    2002-01-01

    A radon monitor, able to perform the measurement of the radon and its progeny volumic activity, in a gamma-ray or natural radiation background field, was developed. The instrument consists of a 10 l ionization chamber, a high voltage source, an integrating preamplifier, a data acquisition system and a personal computer. A new method for self-calibration of Radon volumic activity measurements, based on the alpha counting with an ionization chamber is also presented.

  14. Application of pylon radon daughter standard for calibration of radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruścielewski, Wojciech; Olszewski, Jerzy; Bogusz, Malgorzata

    2002-01-01

    Radiometers for measurements of radon daughter potential energy used in the surveillance of the work environment need a systematic calibration. This paper presents how a commercially available device produced by the Pylon Company can be applied. This device allows to produce, simply and directly, standard sources of radon daughters, corresponding with the energy, geometry and properties of radiation originated from an air sample. The calibration yielded the results that proved to be in agreement with those obtained previously by means of radon chamber.

  15. Radon mapping in south Tyrol: comparison between two different procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, L; Caldognetto, E; Trotti, F

    2004-01-01

    In this paper two different procedures for radon mapping have been compared on the same database referring to indoor radon records of South Tyrol. The first procedure is based on descriptive statistics applied to administrative units while the second one implies a more complicated statistical analysis applied to a regular grid: it involves floor level normalization of radon data, filling and smoothing algorithms for the territory cells.

  16. Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 2. Conjugation of anionic boron cage pendant groups to a protein provides a method for direct labeling that is stable to in vivo deastatination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, D Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K; Vessella, Robert L; Wedge, Timothy J; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Cancer-targeting biomolecules labeled with 211At must be stable to in vivo deastatination, as control of the 211At distribution is critical due to the highly toxic nature of alpha-particle emission. Unfortunately, no astatinated aryl conjugates have shown in vivo stability toward deastatination when (relatively) rapidly metabolized proteins, such as monoclonal antibody Fab' fragments, are labeled. As a means of increasing the in vivo stability of 211At-labeled proteins, we have been investigating antibody conjugates of boron cage moieties. In this investigation, protein-reactive derivatives containing a nido-carborane (2), a bis-nido-carborane derivative (Venus Flytrap Complex, 3), and four 2-nonahydro-closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives (4-7) were prepared and conjugated with an antibody Fab' fragment such that subsequent astatination and in vivo tissue distributions could be obtained. To aid in determination of stability toward in vivo deastatination, the Fab'-borane conjugates were also labeled with 125I, and that material was coinjected with the 211At-labeled Fab'. For comparison, direct labeling of the Fab' with 125I and 211At was conducted. Direct labeling with Na[125I]I and Chloramine-T gave an 89% radiochemical yield. However, direct labeling of the Fab' with Na[211At]At and Chloramine-T resulted in a yield of Studies to optimize the closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates for protein labeling are underway.

  17. Mapping geogenic radon potential by regression kriging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pásztor, László [Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Environmental Informatics, Herman Ottó út 15, 1022 Budapest (Hungary); Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna, E-mail: sz_k_zs@yahoo.de [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Science, Szent István University, Páter Károly u. 1, Gödöllő 2100 (Hungary); Szatmári, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária [Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Environmental Informatics, Herman Ottó út 15, 1022 Budapest (Hungary); Horváth, Ákos [Department of Atomic Physics, Eötvös University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, 1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-02-15

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) gas is produced in the radioactive decay chain of uranium ({sup 238}U) which is an element that is naturally present in soils. Radon is transported mainly by diffusion and convection mechanisms through the soil depending mainly on the physical and meteorological parameters of the soil and can enter and accumulate in buildings. Health risks originating from indoor radon concentration can be attributed to natural factors and is characterized by geogenic radon potential (GRP). Identification of areas with high health risks require spatial modeling, that is, mapping of radon risk. In addition to geology and meteorology, physical soil properties play a significant role in the determination of GRP. In order to compile a reliable GRP map for a model area in Central-Hungary, spatial auxiliary information representing GRP forming environmental factors were taken into account to support the spatial inference of the locally measured GRP values. Since the number of measured sites was limited, efficient spatial prediction methodologies were searched for to construct a reliable map for a larger area. Regression kriging (RK) was applied for the interpolation using spatially exhaustive auxiliary data on soil, geology, topography, land use and climate. RK divides the spatial inference into two parts. Firstly, the deterministic component of the target variable is determined by a regression model. The residuals of the multiple linear regression analysis represent the spatially varying but dependent stochastic component, which are interpolated by kriging. The final map is the sum of the two component predictions. Overall accuracy of the map was tested by Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation. Furthermore the spatial reliability of the resultant map is also estimated by the calculation of the 90% prediction interval of the local prediction values. The applicability of the applied method as well as that of the map is discussed briefly. - Highlights: • A new method

  18. Correction factors for determination of annual average radon concentration in dwellings of Poland resulting from seasonal variability of indoor radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, K., E-mail: Krzysztof.Kozak@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Mazur, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); KozLowska, B. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Karpinska, M. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); Przylibski, T.A. [WrocLaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze S. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 WrocLaw (Poland); Mamont-Ciesla, K. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warszawa (Poland); Grzadziel, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Stawarz, O. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warszawa (Poland); Wysocka, M. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Dorda, J. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zebrowski, A. [WrocLaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze S. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 WrocLaw (Poland); Olszewski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Sw.Teresy od Dzieciatka Jezus 8, 91-348 lodz (Poland); Hovhannisyan, H. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Dohojda, M. [Institute of Building Technology (ITB), Filtrowa 1, 00-611 Warszawa (Poland); KapaLa, J. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); Chmielewska, I. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); KLos, B. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Sw.Teresy od Dzieciatka Jezus 8, 91-348 lodz (Poland); Mnich, S. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); KoLodziej, R. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    The method for the calculation of correction factors is presented, which can be used for the assessment of the mean annual radon concentration on the basis of 1-month or 3-month indoor measurements. Annual radon concentration is an essential value for the determination of the annual dose due to radon inhalation. The measurements have been carried out in 132 houses in Poland over a period of one year. The passive method of track detectors with CR-39 foil was applied. Four thermal-precipitation regions in Poland were established and correction factors were calculated for each region, separately for houses with and without basements. - Highlights: > Using radon concentration results in houses we calculated the correction factors. > Factors were calculated for each month, 2 house types in different regions in Poland. > They enable the evaluation of average annual radon concentration in the house. > Annual average radon concentration basing on 1 or 3 months detector exposure.

  19. Traceability of radon-222 activity concentration in the radon chamber at the technical university of Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Ortega, X.; Martín Matarranz, J. L.

    2004-07-01

    In order to provide reference 222Rn activity concentration, a device based on the alpha spectrometric measurement of 218Po collected electrostatically on a PIPS detector, has been developed and characterised. Traceability is achieved by the use of primary 222Rn standard activity inside a glass bulb obtained from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Radon standard activity is then transferred to the instrument that measures the reference radon activity concentration. The instrument is used in the walk-in radon chamber of the Institute of Energy Technology at the Technical University of Catalonia in order to provide a reference atmosphere for the calibration of radon concentration detectors. Under typical environmental calibration conditions within the radon chamber, an expanded uncertainty of roughly 4% ( k=2) for radon concentration is usually estimated.

  20. Current international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Keizo [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1996-12-01

    The international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny was held between the EML of USDOE and several Japanese organisations, using the radon test chamber installed in EML. Japanese results of radon concentration by the active method using the ionization chamber or scintillation cell and the passive method using the solid track detector were about 5% small compared to that of EML. On the results of radon progeny, there were not any large systematic differences between EML and Japanese participants in spite of wide range of deviation except for the results at the condition of low aerosol density. (author)

  1. Management of radon: a review of ICRP recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Ludovic; Bataille, Céline

    2012-09-01

    This article proposes a review of past and current ICRP publications dealing with the management of radon exposures. Its main objective is to identify and discuss the driving factors that have been used by the Commission during the last 50 years so as to better appreciate current issues regarding radon exposure management. The analysis shows that major evolutions took place in very recent years. As far as the management of radon exposures is concerned, ICRP recommended, until ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP 2007 ICRP Publication 103; Ann. ICRP 37), to use action levels and to consider only exposures above these levels. The Commission has reviewed its approach and now proposes to manage any radon exposure through the application of the optimisation principle and associated reference levels. As far as the assessment of the radon risk is concerned, it appears that the successive changes made by ICRP did not have a strong impact on the values of radon gas concentration recommended as action levels either in dwellings or in workplaces. The major change occurred in late 2009 with the publication of the ICRP Statement on Radon, which acknowledged that the radon risk has been underestimated by a factor of 2, thus inducing a major revision of radon reference levels.

  2. Effect of internal wall covers on radon emanation inside houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Fremlin, J.H.

    1983-03-01

    Most types of paint for the internal walls of houses will reduce radon emanation from building materials. At the same time, the effect of paint will increase the concentration of radon inside the material itself and will increase the radon emanation from unpainted areas. One type of wall paper contains 6 and 0.3 ppm of uranium in its decorated and undecorated surfaces, respectively, the colouring being the main source of uranium. Other wallpapers appear to be free from uranium. Wallpaper, gypsum and plaster may increase the radon activity inside houses depending on their radium contents.

  3. Nonlinear Radon Transform Using Zernike Moment for Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziping Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the linear Radon transform to a nonlinear space and propose a method by applying the nonlinear Radon transform to Zernike moments to extract shape descriptors. These descriptors are obtained by computing Zernike moment on the radial and angular coordinates of the pattern image's nonlinear Radon matrix. Theoretical and experimental results validate the effectiveness and the robustness of the method. The experimental results show the performance of the proposed method in the case of nonlinear space equals or outperforms that in the case of linear Radon.

  4. Radon control systems in existing and new construction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Naureen Mahbub; Tracy, Bliss L

    2009-08-01

    In support of the implementation of the new Canadian radon guideline, a comprehensive review of radon mitigation techniques used in countries around the world was undertaken, with particular emphasis on North America and Europe that have climates and construction techniques similar to Canada. The results of this review are presented here as an aid to administrators of radon control programmes, companies offering radon testing and mitigation services and other concerned parties, both in Canada and elsewhere, who are facing issues of implementing a radon control strategy. A wide variety of radon mitigation strategies have been employed worldwide and all have achieved some success in reducing radon concentrations. Generally, active mitigation techniques involving physical alterations to a house (e.g. sub-slab depressurisation) are more effective in achieving a sustained and substantial radon reduction than passive techniques (e.g. improved ventilation or sealing of cracks). To a large extent, the choice of an optimal mitigation strategy will depend on the building type, soil conditions and climate. Radon levels should be measured at periodic intervals after remediation, perhaps once every 5 y, to ensure that concentrations continue to remain at acceptable levels.

  5. A theoretical investigation of the distribution of indoor radon concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, R.; Oufni, L.

    2017-05-01

    Inhalation of radon (222Rn) and its decay products are a major source of natural radiation exposure. It is known from recent surveys in many countries that radon and its progeny contribute significantly to total inhalation dose and it is fairly established that radon when inhaled in large quantity causes lung disorder. In recent times, numerical modelling has become the cost effective replacement of experimental methods for the prediction and visualization of indoor pollutant distribution. The aim of this study is to implement the Finite Volume Method (FVM) for studying the radon distribution indoor. The findings show that the radon concentration which is distributed in a non-homogeneous way in the room is due to the difference in the radon concentration of different sources (wall, floor and ceiling). Moreover, the radon concentration is much larger near walls, and decreases in the middle of the room because of the effect of air velocity. We notice that the simulation results of radon concentration are in agreement with the results of other experimental studies. The annual effective dose of radon in the model room has been also investigated.

  6. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Gautam Kumar; Das, Projit Kumar

    2012-02-01

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and its progeny. Taking this into account, an attempt has been made to estimate radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati using aluminium dosimeter cups with CR-39 plastic detectors. Results of preliminary investigation presented in this paper show that the mean concentration is 21.31 Bq m - 3.

  7. The effect of laterite density on radon diffusion behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongmei; Tan, Wanyu; Tan, Kaixuan; Liu, Zehua; Fang, Qi; Lv, Junwen; Duan, Xianzhe; Liu, Zhenzhong; Guo, Yueyue

    2018-02-01

    Radon generated in porous media such as soils and rocks migrates into indoor and outdoor air mainly by diffusion, possessing significant hazards to human health. In order to reduce these hazards of radon, it is of great importance to study the diffusion behavior of radon. In this study, we systematically measured the radon diffusion coefficient of laterite with the density ranging from 0.917gcm -3 to 2.238gcm -3 , and studied the effect of laterite density on the radon diffusion. The results show that the radon diffusion coefficient of the laterite generally decreases with the increasing laterite density. In addition, three possible relationships between the radon diffusion coefficient and the laterite density are found out as follows: (1) the linear correlation with a slope of -4.48 × 10 -6 for laterite with density ranging from 0.917 to 1.095gcm -3 , (2) the exponential correlation for laterite with density from 1.095 to 1.63gcm -3 , (3) linear correlation with a slope of -3.1 × 10 -7 for laterite with density from 1.63 to 2.238gcm -3 . The complex relationship between the radon diffusion coefficient and density is caused by the change of porosity and tortuosity of the laterite. Therefore, we suggest that a suitable density should be adopted while using the laterite to effectively cover uranium tailings or economically produce building materials that can curb the radon exhalation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radon exhalation from building materials used in Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, A. F.; Al-Awami, Hend H.; Hussein, N. A.

    2014-08-01

    Radon exhalation rates have been determined for various different samples of domestic and imported building materials available in the Libyan market for home construction and interior decoration. Radon exhalation rates were measured by the sealed-can technique based on CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The results show that radon exhalation rates from some imported building materials used as foundations and for decoration are extremely high, and these samples are the main sources of indoor radon emanation. Radium contents and annual effective doses have also been estimated.

  9. Strategy for the reduction of radon exposure in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Elevated indoor radon concentrations are a more extensive problem in Norway than in many other countries. It has been estimated that indoor radon causes approximately 300 deaths from lung cancer each year in Norway. On average, avoiding lung cancer increases life expectancy by 14 to 18 years. Radon is a radioactive noble gas formed continually is a decay product from uranium. Uranium is a natural constituent existing in varying concentrations in bedrock, minerals and soils. For this reason, both the soil air and groundwater contain radon. Radon in buildings normally originates from the soil air in the underlying ground. Indoor air pressure is often low, so that radon-containing air from the surrounding ground gets sucked in through cracks in the building foundations. Elevated indoor radon concentrations can be due to household water drawn from groundwater wells, and radon gas can also be emitted from building materials such as certain types of stone or concrete containing high levels of natural radioactivity. Norway, Sweden and Finland are among the the countries in the world with the highest average indoor radon concentrations. Geological conditions and the cool climate pose a big challenge, but the radon problem can be solved in a cost-effective way. Radon is the most common cause of lung cancer after active smoking. At a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m3, which is not far from the estimated average for Norwegian housing, the risks of dying of radon-induced lung cancer before the age of 75 are 0.1 % for non-smokers and 2 % for smokers, respectively. Many buildings in Norway have radon levels that exceed this. The most important health impact of radon exposure is the increased risk of lung cancer. This increase in risk is assumed to be linear in relation to radon concentration (i.e., the risk is 10 times higher at 1000 Bq/m3 compared to 100 Bq/m3). The risk also increases linearly with exposure time, i.e. there is a tenfold greater risk of contracting lung cancer

  10. Studies of Stable Octupole Deformations in the Radium Region

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present project is to locate and identify states in the atomic nuclei possessing stable pearshaped octupole deformation. Such states, formally related to the structures known in molecular physics, manifest themselves as families of parity doublets in odd nuclei.\\\\ \\\\ The best possibilities for observing stable octupole deformations are offered in the Ra-region. Both theoretical calculations and experimental indications support such expectations. Such indications are the non-observation of two-phonon octupole vibrational states in the ISOLDE studies of the even-even radium nuclei, and the reversed sign of the decoupling factor of the ground state band in |2|2|5Ra observed in the single-neutron transfer reactions. In order to establish the predicted strong E1 and E3-transitions between the parity doublets in odd nuclei with stable octupole deformations it is proposed to study conversion electrons in odd-mass francium radium and radon isotopes following the @b-decay of francium and astatine. \\...

  11. Radon in soil concentration levels in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M

    1991-09-15

    Radon in soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospectus and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping includes the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neo volcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of {sup 222} Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon in soil map covering one third of the Mexican territory is presented. The lowest mean values have been found in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (Author)

  12. Behavior of radon and its decay products in physical media; Comportamiento de radon y sus productos en medios fisicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A

    1990-06-15

    This study was carried out to know the radon behavior, it shows some of its decay products of short life, the same as the equations that describe the growth of the activity of each decay product in a source that initially is radon. The study threw results that they are applicable in geology, uranium prospecting, as well as in radiological safety. The use of membranes to filter the decay products of radon and the use of these for protection of the detector, it has opened a new line in the study of the radon. (Author)

  13. Design, construction and testing of a radon experimental chamber; Diseno, construccion y pruebas de una camara experimental de radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A.; Balcazar G, M

    1991-10-15

    To carry out studies on the radon behavior under controlled and stable conditions it was designed and constructed a system that consists of two parts: a container of mineral rich in Uranium and an experimentation chamber with radon united one to the other one by a step valve. The container of uranium mineral approximately contains 800 gr of uranium with a law of 0.28%; the radon gas emanated by the mineral is contained tightly by the container. When the valve opens up the radon gas it spreads to the radon experimental chamber; this contains 3 accesses that allow to install different types of detectors. The versatility of the system is exemplified with two experiments: 1. With the radon experimental chamber and an associated spectroscopic system, the radon and two of its decay products are identified. 2. The design of the system allows to couple the mineral container to other experimental geometries to demonstrate this fact it was coupled and proved a new automatic exchanger system of passive detectors of radon. The results of the new automatic exchanger system when it leave to flow the radon freely among the container and the automatic exchanger through a plastic membrane of 15 m. are shown. (Author)

  14. A study of radon indoor concentration; Un estudio de concentracion de radon intramuros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Ruiz, W.; Segovia, N.; Ponciano, G. [ININ, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    It was realized a study of radon concentration in houses of Mexico City and in a laboratory of the Nuclear Centre of Salazar, State of Mexico. The radon determination in air was realized with solid nuclear track detectors and with Honeywell and Alpha guard automatic equipment. The results show that the majority of houses have values under 148 Bq/m{sup 3} obtaining some housings with upper values located in the Lomas zone. A study in smokers houses and another of controls showed very similar distributions. It was studied the day time fluctuations finding that radon increases considerably during the dawn. Some upper values obtained in a laboratory of the Nuclear Centre were remedied with ventilation. (Author)

  15. Estimation of human dose to radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimo, Michikuni [Gifu Coll. of Medical Technology, Sekiichi, Gifu (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the paper is the estimation of the effective dose due to radon progeny for Japanese population. The estimation was performed by a modified UNSCEAR equation. The equation was needed the radon concentration annual occupancy time and the tidal volume on Japanese people and the dose conversion coefficient are needed. Furthermore, not only these figures but also unattached fraction and aerosol distribution data obtained in Japan and the factor related to the Japanese living style were used in the calculation. We used following figures as representative value in Japan; radon concentration: 13(6 - 25) Bq/m{sup 3} indoors and 6.7(3.5 - 13) Bq/m{sup 3} outdoors; the equilibrium factor: 0.45(0.35 - 0.57) indoors and 0.70(0.50 - 0.90) outdoors; the occupancy factor: 0.87 indoors, 0.09 outdoors and 0.04 in vehicle for male and 0.91 indoors, 0.06 outdoors and 0.03 in vehicle for female; the tidal volume: 7,000 (4,000 - 8,000) m{sup 3} for male, 6,200 (3,500 - 7,500) m{sup 3} for female. The effective doses due to radon progeny were estimated to be 0.45 mSv/y for male and 0.40 mSv/y for female, and the variance was -80 - +130%. These values were 1/2 - 1/3 as small as values shown by UNSCEAR 1993 Report and estimated by ICRP Publication 65. (author)

  16. Radon assay and radioactivity database in Kamioka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yasuo; Tasaka, Shigeki; Nakano, Yuuki

    2017-09-01

    A new cooperative program among underground experiments, theorists, and low-background researchers was started in 2014 in Japan. The purpose of this program is to achieve technical and scientific synergies among underground researchers. In this report, the R&D of radon assay technique as an activity in this program is shown. The current status of the radioactivity database system in Kamioka is also shown.

  17. Radon-Nikodym derivatives of quantum instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.

    1998-03-01

    A convenient representation for Radon-Nikodym derivatives of completely positive (c.p.) instruments on B(H) with respect to a scalar measure is suggested, similar to the Stinespring-Kraus representation for c.p. maps, but involving possibly nonclosable unbounded operators. The structure of covariant c.p. instruments is studied in detail. In particular, an exhaustive description is given to instruments covariant with respect to shifts or rotations, corresponding to "position" or "angle" measurements.

  18. Environmental radon with RAD7 detector; Radon ambiental con detector RAD7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, A.; Balcazar, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez G, I. M.; Capote F, E., E-mail: arturo.lopez@inin.gob.mx [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Carretera La Victoria II Km 2.5 e/ Monumental y Final, Guanabacoa, La Habana (Cuba)

    2016-09-15

    Experimental results of the radon detection with the equipment RAD7 are presented. The use of a solid state detector placed in a semi-spherical chamber with an electric field allows a high sensitivity of 0.4 cpm/P Ci/l. Radon detection is achieved by the spectroscopy of its decay products. In accordance with a table of errors for various ranges of counts and radon concentrations, reported by the manufacturer, an equation was obtained that allows establishing operation criteria of the equipment. For radon detection at ambient concentrations as low as 30 Bq m{sup -3}, is shown that short counts of 10 minutes are good enough to make decisions on radiation protection matter. In places where concentrations are close to 200 Bq m{sup -3}, counting intervals of the order of 0.5 hours will have an acceptable counting error of the order of 20%. The determination of radon in soil was, according to the expected, on the order of 10 kBq m{sup -3}, and was found that even with the recommended counting times of 5 minutes, there is a risk of increased humidity inside the detector above 20% Rh, with associated reduction of detection efficiency, if the desiccant is not used properly. The equipment was subjected to a radon exposure in air of 13, 373 Bq m{sup -3} ± 3.7%, contained within a controlled chamber, with a variation in temperature of (19-21) degrees Celsius and in the relative humidity of (5-7) %, the good stability of the chamber allows to propose calibration processes of these equipment s by assessing the concentration by means of a Ge (Hp) detector. (Author)

  19. Influence of architectural style on indoor radon concentration in a radon prone area: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, A; García-Paniagua, J; Guillén, J; Montalbán, B

    2018-01-01

    Indoor radon is a major health concern as it is a known carcinogenic. Nowadays there is a trend towards a greater energy conservation in buildings, which is reflected in an increasing number of regulations. But, can this trend increase the indoor radon concentration? In this paper, we selected a radon prone area in Spain and focused on single-family dwellings constructed in a variety of architectural styles. These styles ranged from 1729 up to 2014, with varying construction techniques (from local resources to almost universally standard building materials) and regulations in force (from none to the Spanish regulation in force). The (226)Ra concentrations in soil and surface radon exhalation rates were rather similar in this area, mean values ranging 70-126Bq/kg and 49-100mBq/m(2)·s, respectively. Indoor radon concentration was generally greater than the contribution from soil exhalation (surface exhalation rates), especially in New dwellings (1980-2014). Its concentration in dwellings built in the Traditional style (1729-1940) was significantly lower than in the new houses. This can be consequence of the air tightness of the dwellings as a consequence of the different regulations in force. In the period covered by the Traditional style, there was no regulation in force, and dwelling had loose air tight. Whereas in recent times, there are mandatory regulations assuring a better air tightness of the buildings. Refurbishment of Traditional dwellings also seems to increase the indoor radon concentration, as they must also comply with the regulations in force. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Residential radon remediation: performance over 17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Naomi H; Chittaporn, Passaporn; Marsicano, Anthony

    2011-05-01

    An exploratory radon measurement in 1990 identified 190 Bq m(-3) in the basement of a newly built home in Central New Jersey. Subsequently, the owner had a sub-slab remediation system installed in the basement, i.e. PVC duct through the basement floor connecting to an exhaust fan venting to the house roof. Sequential radon measurements began in 1992 using the NYU alpha-track detector. The homeowner wanted to insure the long-term durability of this remedial system. Seventeen years of measurements show the system functioned properly and reduced an established baseline concentration of 370 ± 8, 56 ± 1 and 67 ± 1 Bq m(-3) for the basement, first and second floors, respectively, to an average of 19 ± 4, 13 ± 3 and 10 ± 0.1 Bq m(-3). The last measurement, 2007-2008, with a newer NYU detector measured both (222)Rn (radon) and (220)Rn (thoron). The basement thoron concentration was 1.5 ± 0.9 Bq m(-3) or about 8 % of the (222)Rn value.

  1. Sex and smoking sensitive model of radon induced lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukovsky, M.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Radon and radon progeny inhalation exposure are recognized to cause lung cancer. Only strong evidence of radon exposure health effects was results of epidemiological studies among underground miners. Any single epidemiological study among population failed to find reliable lung cancer risk due to indoor radon exposure. Indoor radon induced lung cancer risk models were developed exclusively basing on extrapolation of miners data. Meta analyses of indoor radon and lung cancer case control studies allowed only little improvements in approaches to radon induced lung cancer risk projections. Valuable data on characteristics of indoor radon health effects could be obtained after systematic analysis of pooled data from single residential radon studies. Two such analyses are recently published. Available new and previous data of epidemiological studies of workers and general population exposed to radon and other sources of ionizing radiation allow filling gaps in knowledge of lung cancer association with indoor radon exposure. The model of lung cancer induced by indoor radon exposure is suggested. The key point of this model is the assumption that excess relative risk depends on both sex and smoking habits of individual. This assumption based on data on occupational exposure by radon and plutonium and also on the data on external radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the data on external exposure in Mayak nuclear facility. For non-corrected data of pooled European and North American studies the increased sensitivity of females to radon exposure is observed. The mean value of ks for non-corrected data obtained from independent source is in very good agreement with the L.S.S. study and Mayak plutonium workers data. Analysis of corrected data of pooled studies showed little influence of sex on E.R.R. value. The most probable cause of such effect is the change of men/women and smokers/nonsmokers ratios in corrected data sets in North American study. More correct

  2. A COMPARISON OF WINTER SHORT-TERM AND ANNUAL AVERAGE RADON MEASUREMENTS IN BASEMENTS OF A RADON-PRONE REGION AND EVALUATION OF FURTHER RADON TESTING INDICATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nirmalla G.; Steck, Daniel J.; Field, R. William

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the temporal variability between basement winter short-term (7 to 10 days) and basement annual radon measurements. Other objectives were to test the short-term measurement’s diagnostic performance at two reference levels and to evaluate its ability to predict annual average basement radon concentrations. Electret ion chamber (short-term) and alpha track (annual) radon measurements were obtained by trained personnel in Iowa residences. Overall, the geometric mean of the short-term radon concentrations (199 Bq m−3) was slightly greater than the geometric mean of the annual radon concentrations (181 Bq m−3). Short-term tests incorrectly predicted that the basement annual radon concentrations would be below 148 Bq m−3 12% of the time and 2% of the time at 74 Bq m−3. The short-term and annual radon concentrations were strongly correlated (r=0.87, pradon potential when the reference level is lowered to 74 Bq m−3. PMID:24670901

  3. Design Criteria for Achieving Acceptable Indoor Radon Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2016-01-01

    in most countries. The three design criteria are; first, establishing a radon barrier facing the ground; second, lowering the air pressure in the lower zone of the slab on ground facing downwards; third, diluting the indoor air with outdoor air. The first two criteria can prevent radon from infiltrating...

  4. Anomalous soil radon fluctuations – signal of earthquakes in Nepal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . (2005a) and Yang et al. (2005) carried out a study on the variation of radon-222 in sub-soil ... (1995) in Central America and. Mexico, Planinic et al. (2000) in Croatia studied the temporal variation of soil radon-222 concentra- tion in search of ...

  5. Radon in Rented Accommodation and Variables Determining Its Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2017-01-01

    Bq/m3 in 5.9% of the homes. Of the investigated variables, only homes in single-family terraced houses, were statistically significant. Approx. 75% of homes exceeding 100 Bq/m3 indoor radon level had levels between 100 and 200 Bq/m3 and 25% had indoor radon levels exceeding 200 Bq/m3. Significant...

  6. National Radon Awareness Month - Event Planning Kit Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals, groups, and organizations are the driving force in getting the message out to the public about the dangers of indoor radon. You will find information and materials in this Kit that you can use to get the word out about radon.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of radon accumulation in water and oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafong, Elvira; Drossel, Barbara [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas that can enter the human body from air or from ground water. Radon can accumulate to levels that considerably rise the risk of lung cancer while it is also known as a a treatment of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis. The accumulation of radon differs between tissues, with particularly high concentrations in fatty cells. In order to understand the mechanisms responsible for the different solubility of radon in water and fat, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radon gas at ambient conditions in contact with a bulk material consisting either of water or oil. We evaluate the diffusion coefficient of radon in both media as well as the equilibrium concentration. The crucial point here is to understand the hydrophobic interaction between water and radon as compared to the dispersive interaction between radon and oil. Therefore, we artificially vary the water charges (i.e., the hydrophobicity) as well as the parameters of the van-der-Waals interaction.

  8. Rotation-invariant fingerprint matching using radon and DCT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new set of promising rotation-invariant features based on radon and discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed for fingerprint matching. The radon and DCT of a tiny area in the region of core point of fingerprint image is computed. In the proposed method only 34% DCT coefficients are used for feature extraction.

  9. Environmental Radon Gas and Degenerative Conditions An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J. [Medical Physics Department, Northampton General Hospital, Northampton NN1 5BD (United Kingdom)]|[School of Health, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Denman, A.R. [Medical Physics Department, Northampton General Hospital, Northampton NN1 5BD (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C. [School of Health, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)]|[School of Applied Sciences, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Phillips, P.S. [School of Applied Sciences, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Phillips, C. [School of Health, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, has variable distribution in the environment as a decay product of uranium occurring in a wide range of rocks, soils and building materials. Although radon dissipates rapidly in outdoor air, it concentrates in the built environment, and inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its progeny {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po is believed to provide the majority of the radioactive dose to the respiratory system. While the connection between radon and lung cancer has long been recognised and investigated, recent studies have highlighted potential links between radon and other conditions, among them Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases, and Paget Disease of Bone. A strong case exists for clarifying the relationship between radon and these other conditions, not least since radon remediation to reduce lung cancer may conceivably have additional benefits hitherto unrecognized. The present status of the postulated links between environmental radon gas and degenerative conditions is reviewed, and recommendations for further research into levering current anti-radon campaigns are made. (authors)

  10. A national survey on radon remediation in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazza, Fabio Daniel; Murith, Christophe; Palacios, Martha; Gfeller, Walther; Christen, Emanuel

    2017-11-02

    We present and discuss the results of a national survey on radon remediation. The main purpose of the survey was the evaluation of the rate of radon remediation in Switzerland and to identify the main reasons for not taking action in cases of high radon levels. Switzerland is strongly affected by the radon problem and extensive efforts have been made to map the radon potential and to investigate the most effective methods to reduce radon levels in different buildings. However, since the radon remediation of buildings has been given over to experts in the private sector and since there is no obligation to report a finished remediation to the authorities, it is difficult for the Federal Office for Public Health (FOPH) to track the activities in this field. In order to improve this situation, the FOPH has launched a survey. We find a rate of radon remediation of 46%. The most often applied method is the aeration of the cellar and the improvement of the tightness of the floor slab. The respondents indicate that the most important reason for not taking action is the concern about the financial and/or invasive magnitude of the work. We discuss the different outcomes of the survey in the three linguistic regions in Switzerland and identify aspects of our communication with the public, which should be improved in view of our findings. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Soil Radon In The Nigerian Younger Granites | Dewu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... not had enough time to attain equilibrium with its daughters. In general, the results suggest that with proper control, soil radon measurements over the Younger Granite can be used for uranium exploration in the region. Keywords: Radon, younger granite, soil uranium, half-lifeand thorium. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol.

  12. Reporting on Radon: The Role of Local Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, James F.; And Others

    Noting that past local media coverage of environmental topics, including those dealing with radiation topics, has often been superficial, a study assessed press coverage of the radon problem in the Lehigh Valley region of Pennsylvania during the first nine months of 1985. The study explored whether local media coverage of radon--a colorless,…

  13. Measurements of radon activity concentration in mouse tissues and organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimori, Yuu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the biokinetics of inhaled radon, radon activity concentrations in mouse tissues and organs were determined after mice had been exposed to about 1 MBq/m(3) of radon in air. Radon activity concentrations in mouse blood and in other tissues and organs were measured with a liquid scintillation counter and with a well-type HP Ge detector, respectively. Radon activity concentration in mouse blood was 0.410 ± 0.016 Bq/g when saturated with 1 MBq/m(3) of radon activity concentration in air. In addition, average partition coefficients obtained were 0.74 ± 0.19 for liver, 0.46 ± 0.13 for muscle, 9.09 ± 0.49 for adipose tissue, and 0.22 ± 0.04 for other organs. With these results, a value of 0.414 for the blood-to-air partition coefficient was calculated by means of our physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The time variation of radon activity concentration in mouse blood during exposure to radon was also calculated. All results are compared in detail with those found in the literature.

  14. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  15. Methods for measuring diffusion coefficients of radon in building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, [No Value; van der Graaf, ER

    2001-01-01

    Two methods for determining the Rn-222 diffusion coefficient in concrete are presented. Experimentally, the flush and adsorption technique to measure radon release rates underlines both methods. Theoretically, the first method was developed fur samples of cubical geometry. The radon diffusion

  16. Demonstration of radon removal from SF6 using molecular sieves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeribe, A. C.; Lynch, W.; Gregorio, R. R. Marcelo; Mckeand, J.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.

    2017-09-01

    The gas SF6 has become of interest as a negative ion drift gas for use in directional dark matter searches. However, as for other targets in such searches, it is important that radon contamination can be removed as this provides a source of unwanted background events. In this work we demonstrate for the first time filtration of radon from SF6 gas by using a molecular sieve. Four types of sieves from Sigma-Aldrich were investigated, namely 3Å, 4Å, 5Å and 13X. A manufactured radon source was used for the tests. This was attached to a closed loop system in which gas was flowed through the filters and a specially adapted Durridge RAD7 radon detector. In these measurements, it was found that only the 5Å type was able to significantly reduce the radon concentration without absorbing the SF6 gas. The sieve was able to reduce the initial radon concentration of 3875 ± 13 Bqm-3 in SF6 gas by 87% when cooled with dry ice. The ability of the cooled 5Å molecular sieve filter to significantly reduce radon concentration from SF6 provides a promising foundation for the construction of a radon filtration setup for future ultra-sensitive SF6 gas rare-event physics experiments.

  17. Effect of environmental conditions on radon concentration-track ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, the effect of environmental conditions viz., temperature (Т) and relative humidity (RH) on the track density-radon concentrations calibration factor (K) has been studied for CR-39 and LR-115 track detectors. The factor K was determined using a reference radon chamber in the National Institute for ...

  18. Intercomparison 2003 for Radon measurement services at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Butterweck, G

    2003-01-01

    Twelve radon measurement services participated in the 2003 Radon Intercomparison Exercise performed at the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) during March 13th to 24th, 2003. Ten of these laboratories were approved by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health and their participation in the intercomparison exercise was a requirement to warrant quality of measurement. Radon gas detectors (etched-track and electret ionisation chambers) and instruments (ionisation chambers and electrostatic precipitation) were exposed in the PSI Radon Chamber in a reference atmosphere with an average radon gas concentration of 1950 Bqm sup - sup 3 leading to a radon gas exposure of 517 kBqhm sup - sup 3. Additional five electret-detectors of an approved measuring service were purchased by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health for a spot check. Two of these were exposed as described above, two had an exposure of 247 kBqhm sup - sup 3 at an average radon concen...

  19. Methods of radon remediation in Finnish dwellings; Asuntojen radonkorjauksen menetelmaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-12-01

    A study was made of remedial measures taken in dwellings with high indoor radon concentrations and the results obtained. The data regarding the remedial measures taken in 400 dwellings was obtained from a questionnaire study. The mean annual average indoor radon concentration before the remedies was 1.500 Bq/m{sup 3}, the concentration exceeding in nearly every house the action level of 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. After the measures were taken the mean indoor radon concentration was 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. The resulting indoor radon concentration was less than 400 Bq/m{sup 3} in 60 percent of the dwellings. The best results were achieved using sub-slab-suction and radon well. These methods effectively decrease both the flow of radon bearing air from soil into dwellings and the radon concentration of leakage air. Typical reduction rates in radon concentration were 70-95 percent. The action level was achieved in more than 70 percent of the houses. Sealing the entry routes and improvement of the ventilation resulted typically in reduction rates of 10-50 percent. The goal of the report is to give useful information for the house owners, the do-it-yourself-mitigators, the mitigation firms and the local authorities. The report includes practical guidance, price information and examples of remedial measures. (13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.).

  20. Unexpected levels and movement of radon in a large warehouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Espinosa, G. [IFUNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Alpha-track detectors, used in screening for radon, identified a large warehouse with levels of radon as high as 20 p Ci/l. This circumstance was unexpected because large bay doors were left open for much of the day to admit 1 8-wheeler trucks, and exhaust fans in the roof produced good ventilation. More detailed temporal and spatial investigations of radon and air-flow patterns were made with electret chambers, Lucas-cell flow chambers, tracer gas, smoke pencils and pressure sensing micrometers. An oval-dome shaped zone of radon (>4 p Ci/L) persisted in the central region of each of four separate bays composing the warehouse. Detailed studies of air movement in the bay with the highest levels of radon showed clockwise rotation of air near the outer walls with a central dead zone. Sub slab, radon-laden air ingresses the building through expansion joints between the floor slabs to produce the measured radon. The likely source of radon is air within porous, karst bedrock that underlies much of north-central Tennessee where the warehouse is situated.

  1. RADON REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR DETACHED HOUSES, TECHNICAL GUIDANCE (SECOND EDITION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended for use by State officials, radon mitigation contractors, building contractors, concerned homeowners, and other persons as an aid in the selection, design, and operation of radon reduction measurements for houses. It is the second edition of EPA's techn...

  2. Radon exhalation measurements for environmental and geophysics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immé, G.; Catalano, R.; Mangano, G.; Morelli, D.

    2014-02-01

    Transport of radon through materials is a process strongly influenced by several parameters characterizing the materials themselves, such as porosity, permeability, grain size, content of radionuclides and diffusion coefficient of this gas through the interstitial pores and/or fractures of material. In order to enlighten more on the radon transport mechanisms, we are carrying out a systematic study on both in-soil radon measurements and laboratory analysis. Laboratory measurements are carried out on different types of samples from geologically different sites in the East Sicily (Italy), to measure the exhalation rate of radon at different controlled physical conditions, varying the parameters of porosity and grain size, content of radio, in order to characterize the dependence of the process of radon transport by these parameters.We report in particular preliminary results of our study on radionuclide content and on the radon exhalation rate from building materials used in Mt. Etna and in the Hyblean Plateau villages.This study is important from the radioprotection point of view and could represent a contribution to better define the transport process of radon through fractured media to clarify on correlation between radon concentration and geodynamical, volcanic and tectonic, events.

  3. Applications of a silicon photodiode detector for radon progeny measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Voytchev, M; Chambaudet, A; Georgiev, G; Iovtchev, M

    1999-01-01

    An application of our developed silicon photodiode detector for radon progeny measurements is presented in this paper. It was determined the deposition velocity for free (3.6+-0.7)x10 sup - sup 3 m s sup - sup 1 and attached (1.0+-0.5)x10 sup - sup 5 m s sup - sup 1 fraction of short living radon progeny.

  4. Development of the Measurement System for the Search of an Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron with Laser-Cooled Francium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kato, T.; Kawamura, H.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We plan to measure the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron, which has the sensitivity to the CP violation in theories beyond the standard model by using the laser-cooled francium (Fr) atom. This paper reports the present status of the EDM measurement system. A high voltage application system was constructed in order to produce the strong electric field (100 kV/cm) needed for the experiment. After conditioning, the leakage current was 10 pA when a high voltage of 43 kV was applied. Also, a drift of an environmental field was measured at the planned location of the Fr-EDM experiment. The drift is suppressed at present down to the level of 10 pT by installing a 4-layermagnetic shield. Improvements are still needed to reach the required field stability of 1 fT.

  5. Development of the Measurement System for the Search of an Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron with Laser-Cooled Francium Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We plan to measure the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM of the electron, which has the sensitivity to the CP violation in theories beyond the standard model by using the laser-cooled francium (Fr atom. This paper reports the present status of the EDM measurement system. A high voltage application system was constructed in order to produce the strong electric field (100 kV/cm needed for the experiment. After conditioning, the leakage current was 10 pA when a high voltage of 43 kV was applied. Also, a drift of an environmental field was measured at the planned location of the Fr-EDM experiment. The drift is suppressed at present down to the level of 10 pT by installing a 4-layermagnetic shield. Improvements are still needed to reach the required field stability of 1 fT.

  6. The mathematical model of radon-222 accumulation in underground mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimshin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Necessity to control underground mine air radon level arises during building and operating mines as well as auto and railway tunnels including those for metros. Calculation of underground mine air radon level can be fulfilled for estimation of potential radon danger of area for underground structure building. In this work the new mathematical model of radon accumulation in underground mines has been suggested. It takes into consideration underground mine dimensions, air exchange factor and soils ability to emanate radon. The following assumptions have been taken for model development. It is assumed that underground mine is a cylinder of length L and of base area S. Due to ventilation atmosphere air of volume activity Catm, is coming in through one cylinder base and is going out of volume activity Cind from underground mine. Diffusion radon flux is coming in through side surfaces of underground mine. The sources of this flux are radium-226 atoms distributed evenly in rock. For simplification of the task it considered possible to disregard radon emanation by loosened rock and underground waters. As a result of solution of the radon diffusion equation the following expression for calculation of radon volume activity in underground space air has been got: 2·r0 ·λv ·Catm-·l·K0(r0/l)-+D-·K1(r0/l)·C0- Cind = 2·(λ+ λv)·r0 ·l·K0 (r0/l)+ D ·K1(r0/l) . The following designations are used in this expression: Kν(r) - the second genus modified Bessel's function, C0 - equilibrium radon volume activity in soil air, l - diffusion radon length in soil, D - radon diffusion factor, r0 - radius of underground tunnel, λv - factor of air exchange. Expression found may be used for calculation of the minimum factor of necessary air exchange for ensuring safe radon levels in underground spaces. With this worked out model expected levels of radon volume activity were calculated for air in the second metro line underground spaces in the city of Yekaterinburg, Russia.

  7. Flexible, inversion-based Matlab implementation of the Radon transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ryan; Jeffrey Gu, Yu

    2013-03-01

    This study reviews the theory, programming designs and merits of two new Matlab-based routines for the forward and inverse Radon transform. These routines offer users flexible choices of integration path functions to take advantage of improved Radon-domain identification and isolation of seismic phases. Least-squares inversion of frequency components and judicious choices of regularization techniques enables additional noise suppression and signal enhancement in the Radon domain. The forward Radon transform routine has the added benefit of spatial interpolation for irregularly sampled data. The accuracy and applicability of these two new routines are demonstrated using data sets containing long-period SS precursors and high-frequency receiver functions. With minimal modifications these two highly portable, carefully documented Radon-transform routines could be easily adapted for a broad range of applications.

  8. Radon diffusion through multilayer earthen covers: models and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, D.W.; Oster, C.A.; Nelson, R.W.; Gee, G.W.

    1981-09-01

    A capability to model and analyze the fundamental interactions that influence the diffusion of radon gas through uranium mill tailings and cover systems has been investigated. The purpose of this study is to develop the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion and to develop an understanding of the fundamental interactions that influence radon diffusion. This study develops the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion in one, two and three dimensions. The theory has been incorporated into three computer models that are used to analyze several tailings and cover configurations. This report contains a discussion of the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion, a discussion of the computer models used to analyze uranium mill tailings and multilayered cover systems, and presents the results that have been obtained.

  9. Comparison of seasonal variability in European domestic radon measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Groves-Kirkby

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of published data characterising seasonal variability of domestic radon concentrations in Europe and elsewhere shows significant variability between different countries and between regions where regional data is available. Comparison is facilitated by application of the Gini Coefficient methodology to reported seasonal variation data. Overall, radon-rich sedimentary strata, particularly high-porosity limestones, exhibit high seasonal variation, while radon-rich igneous lithologies demonstrate relatively constant, but somewhat higher, radon concentrations. High-variability regions include the Pennines and South Downs in England, Languedoc and Brittany in France, and especially Switzerland. Low-variability high-radon regions include the granite-rich Cornwall/Devon peninsula in England, and Auvergne and Ardennes in France, all components of the Devonian-Carboniferous Hercynian belt.

  10. The use of radon as tracer in environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quindos Poncela, Luis; Sainz Fernandez, Carlos; Fuente Merino, Ismael; Gutierrez Villanueva, Jose; Gonzalez Diez, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    Radon can be used as a naturally occurring tracer for environmental processes. By means of grab-sampling or continuous monitoring of radon concentration, it is possible to assess several types of dynamic phenomena in air and water. We present a review of the use of radon and its progeny at the University of Cantabria. Radon can be an atmospheric dynamics indicator related with air mass interchange near land-sea discontinuities as well as for the study of vertical variations of air parameters (average values of different types of stability: 131-580 Bq m-3). Concerning indoor gas, we present some results obtained at Altamira Cave (Spain): from 222 to 6549 Bq m-3 (Hall) and from 999 to 6697 Bq m-3 (Paintings Room). Finally, variations of radon concentration in soil (0.3 to 9.1 kBq m-3) and underground water (values up to 500 Bq l-1) provide relevant information about different geophysical phenomena.

  11. Uniformity in radon exhalation from construction materials using can technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Amri, E.A.; Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2003-06-01

    The uniformity in radon exhalation rates for 46 tiles of granite, marble and ceramic used as construction materials were determined using 'Can Technique' employing CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). On each tile, two sealed cans, each enclosing one NTD fixed at the center of the tile surface area covered by the can, were mounted at two different locations of each individual tiles. The track production rates on the NTDs representing radon exhalation rates were measured. The radon exhalation rates from the surface of individual tiles showed uniform exhalations within the calculated uncertainties of the measured values. This makes Can Technique an alternative simple method to measure radon exhalation rates. Calibration required to convert track production rates into radon exhalation rates for the used can and NTD was done using an active technique. The correlation between the measurements by the two techniques shows a good linear correlation coefficient (0.83)

  12. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of four Saudi Arabian cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Shukri, A

    2003-06-01

    An indoor radon survey of a total of 269 dwellings, with one dosimeter per house, distributed in four Saudi Arabian cities was carried out. The objective of this survey was to carry out indoor radon measurements of two cities in the Eastern Province, Khafji and Hafr Al-Batin and to compare this with two cities in the Western Province, Al-Madina and Taif. The survey provides additional information about indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia. The results of the survey in these cities showed that the overall minimum, maximum and average radon concentration were 7,137 and 30 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. The lowest average radon concentration (20 Bq m{sup -3}) was found in Hafr Al-Batin, while the highest average concentration was found in Khafji (40 Bq m{sup -3})

  13. Analysis of soil radon data in earthquake precursory studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prasad Jaishi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil radon data were recorded at two selected sites along Mat fault in Mizoram (India, which lies in the highest seismic zone in India. The study was carried out during July 2011 to May 2013 using LR-115 Type II films. Precursory changes in radon concentration were observed prior to some earthquakes that occurred around the measuring sites. Positive correlation was found between the measured radon data and the seismic activity in the region. Statistical analysis of the radon data together with the meteorological parameters was done using Multiple Regression Method. Results obtained show that the method employed was useful for removing the effect of meteorological parameters and to identify radon maxima possibly caused by seismic activity.

  14. Radon Mitigation Approach in a Laboratory Measurement Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Blanco-Rodríguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Radon gas is the second leading cause of lung cancer, causing thousands of deaths annually. It can be a problem for people or animals in houses, workplaces, schools or any building. Therefore, its mitigation has become essential to avoid health problems and to prevent radon from interfering in radioactive measurements. This study describes the implementation of radon mitigation systems at a radioactivity laboratory in order to reduce interferences in the different works carried out. A large set of radon concentration samples is obtained from measurements at the laboratory. While several mitigation methods were taken into account, the final applied solution is explained in detail, obtaining thus very good results by reducing the radon concentration by 76%.

  15. Least-squares reverse time migration with radon preconditioning

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav

    2016-09-06

    We present a least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) method using Radon preconditioning to regularize noisy or severely undersampled data. A high resolution local radon transform is used as a change of basis for the reflectivity and sparseness constraints are applied to the inverted reflectivity in the transform domain. This reflects the prior that for each location of the subsurface the number of geological dips is limited. The forward and the adjoint mapping of the reflectivity to the local Radon domain and back are done through 3D Fourier-based discrete Radon transform operators. The sparseness is enforced by applying weights to the Radon domain components which either vary with the amplitudes of the local dips or are thresholded at given quantiles. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in producing images with improved SNR and reduced aliasing artifacts when compared with standard RTM or LSRTM.

  16. Radon depletion in xenon boil-off gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Lindemann, S.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    An important background in detectors using liquid xenon for rare event searches arises from the decays of radon and its daughters. We report for the first time a reduction of {sup 222}Rn in the gas phase above a liquid xenon reservoir. We show a reduction factor of >or similar 4 for the {sup 222}Rn concentration in boil-off xenon gas compared to the radon enriched liquid phase. A semiconductor-based α-detector and miniaturized proportional counters are used to detect the radon. As the radon depletion in the boil-off gas is understood as a single-stage distillation process, this result establishes the suitability of cryogenic distillation to separate radon from xenon down to the 10{sup -15} mol/mol level. (orig.)

  17. Radon Mitigation Approach in a Laboratory Measurement Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Patricia; Fernández-Serantes, Luis Alfonso; Otero-Pazos, Alberto; Calvo-Rolle, José Luis; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier

    2017-05-11

    Radon gas is the second leading cause of lung cancer, causing thousands of deaths annually. It can be a problem for people or animals in houses, workplaces, schools or any building. Therefore, its mitigation has become essential to avoid health problems and to prevent radon from interfering in radioactive measurements. This study describes the implementation of radon mitigation systems at a radioactivity laboratory in order to reduce interferences in the different works carried out. A large set of radon concentration samples is obtained from measurements at the laboratory. While several mitigation methods were taken into account, the final applied solution is explained in detail, obtaining thus very good results by reducing the radon concentration by 76%.

  18. Calibration of scintillation cells for radon-222 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakko, Kyllikki; Oksanen, Eero

    The calibration, of a radon-222 measurement system is described. The detector of the system is based on ZnS(Ag) coated scintillation cell. Evacuated cells are used for grab sample measurements of radon-222 in air. Three types of radioactive sources were used to evaluate the calibration coefficient. Standard activities were generated from commercially available solid and liquid radium-226 sources, and from a self-made radon-222 source whose activity was crosschecked by gamma spectrometric measurements. Radium-226 sources are traceable to US National Institute of Standards and Technology reference standards. Sources of error on calibration are discussed. Best accuracy was obtained by gamma spectrometrically crosschecked radon source. Considerable difficulties were encountered with the traditional method of emanating a known activity of radon-222 from a standard liquid radium-226 source. Three separate solid radium-226 sources gave results with rather large deviations. The final error weighted coefficients agree well with international intercalibration results.

  19. Biological effects of radon in Drosophila; Efectos biologicos del radon en Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel P, A.E.; Tavera D, L.; Cruces M, M.P.; Arceo M, C.; Rosa D, M.E. de la

    1992-04-15

    The main objective of this investigation, is to study the biological effects of the Radon-222 at low dose in 'Drosophila melanogaster'. It is necessary to mention that these effects will analyze from the genetic point of view for: 1) To evaluate in which form the Radon-222 to low dose it influences in some genetic components of the adaptation in Drosophila, such as: fecundity, viability egg-adult and sex proportion. 2) To evaluate which is the genetic effect that induces the Radon to low dose by means of the SMART technique in Drosophila melanogaster, and this way to try of to identify which is the possible mechanism that causes the genetic damage to somatic level. The carried out investigation was divided in three stages: 1. Tests to the vacuum resistance. 2. Test of somatic mutation, and 3. Determination of the presence of radon daughters on the adult of Drosophila. It is necessary to point out that all the experiments were made by triplicate and in each one of them was placed detectors in preset places. Those obtained results are presented inside the 4 charts included in the present work. (Author)

  20. MODELNG RADON ENTRY INTO FLORIDA HOUSES WITH CONCRETE SLABS AND CONCRETE-BLOCK STEM WALLS, FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses results of modeling radon entry into a typical Florida house whose interior is slightly depressurized. he model predicts that the total radon entry rate is relatively low unless the soil or backfill permeability or radium content is high. ost of the factors c...

  1. Mapping of the geogenic radon potential in France to improve radon risk management: methodology and first application to region Bourgogne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G., E-mail: geraldine.ielsch@irsn.f [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DEI/SARG/BRN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Cushing, M.E., E-mail: edward.cushing@irsn.f [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DEI/SARG/BRN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Combes, Ph., E-mail: philippe.combes@geoter.f [GEOTER SAS, Geologie Tectonique Environnement et Risques, 3, rue Jean Monnet, 34830 Clapiers (France); Cuney, M., E-mail: michel.cuney@g2r.uhp-nancy.f [CREGU et UMR G2R 7566, Universite Henri Poincare - NANCY I, Domaine Scientifique Victor Grignard, Entree 3B, BP 70 239 - F54 506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2010-10-15

    In order to improve regulatory tools for radon risk management in France, a harmonised methodology to derive a single map of the geogenic radon potential has been developed. This approach consists of determining the capacity of the geological units to produce radon and to facilitate its transfer to the atmosphere, based on the interpretation of existing geological data. This approach is firstly based on a classification of the geological units according to their uranium (U) content, to create a radon source potential map. This initial map is then improved by taking into account the main additional parameters, such as fault lines, which control the preferential pathways of radon through the ground and which can increase the radon levels in soils. The implementation of this methodology to the whole French territory is currently in progress. We present here the results obtained in one region (Bourgogne, Massif Central) which displays significant variations of the geogenic radon potential. The map obtained leads to a more precise zoning than the scale of the existing map of radon priority areas currently based solely on administrative boundaries.

  2. Radon activity in the lower troposphere and its impact on ionization rate : a global estimate using different radon emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, K. .; Feichter, J.; Kazil, J.; Wan, H.; Zhuo, W.; Griffiths, A. D.; Sartorius, H.; Zahorowski, W.; Ramonet, M.; Schmidt, Martina; Yver, C.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Brunke, E. -G.; Schulz, M.

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive decay of radon and its progeny can lead to ionization of air molecules and consequently influence aerosol size distribution. In order to provide a global estimate of the radon-related ionization rate, we use the global atmospheric model ECHAM5 to simulate transport and decay

  3. Measurement of Radon Concentration in Selected Houses in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usikalu, M. R.; Olatinwo, V.; Akpochafor, M.; Aweda, M. A.; Giannini, G.; Massimo, V.

    2017-05-01

    Radon is a natural radioactive gas without colour or odour and tasteless. The World Health Organization (WHO) grouped radon as a human lung carcinogen. For this reason, there has been a lot of interest on the effects of radon exposure to people all over the world and Nigeria is no exception. The aim of this study is to investigate the radon concentration in selected houses in three local government areas of Ibadan. The indoor radon was measured in both mud and brick houses. Fifty houses were considered from the three Local government areas. A calibrated portable continuous radon monitor type (RAD7) manufactured by Durridge company was used for the measurement. A distance of 100 to 200 m was maintained between houses in all the locations. The living room was kept closed during the measurements. The mean radon concentration measured in Egbeda is 10.54 ±1.30 Bqm -3; Lagelu is 16.90 ± 6.31 Bqm -3 and Ona-Ara is 17.95 ± 1.72 Bqm -3. The mean value of the annual absorbed dose and annual effective dose for the locations in the three local government areas was 0.19 mSvy-1 and 0.48 mSvy-1 respectively. The radon concentration for location 10 in Ono-Ara local government exceeded the recommended limit. However, the overall average indoor radon concentration of the three local governments was found to be lower than the world average value of 40 Bqm -3. Hence, there is need for proper awareness about the danger of radon accumulation in dwelling places.

  4. Radon in Dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, Gustav (Aakerblom och Aakerblom HP, Skaerholmen (Sweden)); German, Olga; Soederman, Ann-Louise (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stamat, Ivan; Venkov, Vladimir (Research Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    2009-02-15

    The National Radon Survey in the Republic of Kalmykia, Russian Federation during 2006-2007 was carried out in a cooperation project between the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Russian Institute of Radiation Hygiene (RIRH). In August 2006 SSI, RIRH, federal and local authorities carried out a field study in Kalmykia when radon daughter measurements (equilibrium equivalent radon concentrations in the air) and gamma radiation measurements were made in 103 buildings. Gamma spectrometry measurements were made at several sites. During the visit the cooperating parties devoted some time to the education of local authorities on radon related issues. During three months in the winter season 2006-2007, long term radon trace measurements were made in 525 randomly chosen dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia. The radon gas activity varied between 3 and 973 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 122 Bq/m3. In 19 of a total of 835 measurement points, the radon activity exceeded the maximum permitted value in Russia of 200 Bq/m3 of EERC. The year-round radon trace measurement were made in 20 houses in Elista, the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia, for comparison with the three-month measurements. The year-round measurements showed some higher values for the radon activity, and a correction factor of 0.85 was applied. Using data on the number of people living in detached houses and apartments, and applying the radon activities measured, the number of new lung cancer cases caused by radon was calculated to be 20 to 40 of the 100 new cases reported annually. The methods of construction of the dwellings in Kalmykia is greatly influenced by the history and culture. Most of them were built after World War II and there are only a few that are newly built because of the poor economic situation and the low population growth rate in the Republic. Most people live in detached houses, one-storied with 3-5 rooms, built directly on the ground or on coquina blocks or on a cast

  5. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: a re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Moir, D.; Whyte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970s in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14 000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a log–normal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 11.2 Bq m–3 and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.9. Based on the information from that survey, it was estimated that ∼10 % of lung cancers in Canada resulted from indoor radon exposure. To gain a better understanding of radon concentrations in homes across the country, a national residential radon survey was launched in April 2009. In the recent survey, long-term (3 month or longer) indoor radon measurements were made in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada. The observed radon concentrations follow, as expected, a log–normal distribution with a GM of 41.9 Bq m–3 and a GSD of 2.8. Based on the more accurate radon distribution characteristics obtained from the recent cross-Canada radon survey, a re-assessment of Canadian population risk for radon induced lung cancer was undertaken. The theoretical estimates show that 16 % of lung cancer deaths among Canadians are attributable to indoor radon exposure. These results strongly suggest the ongoing need for the Canadian National Radon Program. In particular, there is a need for a focus on education and awareness by all levels of government, and in partnership with key stakeholders, to encourage Canadians to take action to reduce the risk from indoor radon exposure. PMID:22874897

  6. Comparison of Northern Ireland radon maps based on indoor radon measurements and geology with maps derived by predictive modelling of airborne radiometric and ground permeability data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J D; Miles, J C H; Young, M

    2011-03-15

    Publicly available information about radon potential in Northern Ireland is currently based on indoor radon results averaged over 1-km grid squares, an approach that does not take into account the geological origin of the radon. This study describes a spatially more accurate estimate of the radon potential of Northern Ireland using an integrated radon potential mapping method based on indoor radon measurements and geology that was originally developed for mapping radon potential in England and Wales. A refinement of this method was also investigated using linear regression analysis of a selection of relevant airborne and soil geochemical parameters from the Tellus Project. The most significant independent variables were found to be eU, a parameter derived from airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of radon decay products in the top layer of soil and exposed bedrock, and the permeability of the ground. The radon potential map generated from the Tellus data agrees in many respects with the map based on indoor radon data and geology but there are several areas where radon potential predicted from the airborne radiometric and permeability data is substantially lower. This under-prediction could be caused by the radon concentration being lower in the top 30 cm of the soil than at greater depth, because of the loss of radon from the surface rocks and soils to air. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Radon in indoor air of primary schools: a systematic survey to evaluate factors affecting radon concentration levels and their variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, F; Žunić, Z S; Carpentieri, C; Antignani, S; Venoso, G; Carelli, V; Cordedda, C; Veselinović, N; Tollefsen, T; Bossew, P

    2014-06-01

    In order to optimize the design of a national survey aimed to evaluate radon exposure of children in schools in Serbia, a pilot study was carried out in all the 334 primary schools of 13 municipalities of Southern Serbia. Based on data from passive measurements, rooms with annual radon concentration >300 Bq/m(3) were found in 5% of schools. The mean annual radon concentration weighted with the number of pupils is 73 Bq/m(3), 39% lower than the unweighted 119 Bq/m(3) average concentration. The actual average concentration when children are in classrooms could be substantially lower. Variability between schools (CV = 65%), between floors (CV = 24%) and between rooms at the same floor (CV = 21%) was analyzed. The impact of school location, floor, and room usage on radon concentration was also assessed (with similar results) by univariate and multivariate analyses. On average, radon concentration in schools within towns is a factor of 0.60 lower than in villages and at higher floors is a factor of 0.68 lower than ground floor. Results can be useful for other countries with similar soil and building characteristics. On average, radon concentrations are substantially higher in schools in villages than in schools located in towns (double,on average). Annual radon concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/m3 were found in 5% of primary schools (generally on ground floors of schools in villages). The considerable variability of radon concentration observed between and within floors indicates a need to monitor concentrations in several rooms for each floor. A single radon detector for each room can be used provided that the measurement error is considerable lower than variability of radon concentration between rooms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Radon as a natural tracer for underwater cave exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csondor, Katalin; Erőss, Anita; Horváth, Ákos; Szieberth, Dénes

    2017-07-01

    The Molnár János cave is one of the largest hypogenic caves of the Buda Thermal Karst (Budapest, Hungary) and mainly characterized by water-filled passages. The major outflow point of the waters of the cave system is the Boltív spring, which feeds the artificial Malom Lake. Previous radon measurements in the cave system and in the spring established the highest radon concentration (71 BqL(-1)) in the springwater. According to previous studies, the origin of radon was identified as iron-hydroxide containing biofilms, which form where there is mixing of cold and thermal waters, and these biofilms efficiently adsorb radium from the thermal water component. Since mixing of waters is responsible for the formation of the cave as well, these iron-hydroxide containing biofilms and the consequent high radon concentrations mark the active cave forming zones. Based on previous radon measurements, it is supposed that the active mixing and cave forming zone has to be close to the spring, since the highest radon concentration was measured there. Therefore radon mapping was carried out with the help of divers in order to get a spatial distribution of radon in the cave passages closest to the spring. Based on our measurements, the highest radon activity concentration (84 BqL(-1)) was found in the springwater. Based on the distribution of radon activity concentrations, direct connection was established between the spring and the István-room of the cave, which was verified by an artificial tracer. However, the distribution of radon in the cave passages shows lower concentrations (18-46 BqL(-1)) compared to the spring, therefore an additional deep inflow from hitherto unknown cave passages is assumed, from which waters with high radon content arrive to the spring. These passages are assumed to be in the active cave formation zone. This study proved that radon activity concentration distribution is a useful tool in underwater cave exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Impact of radon and combinatory radon/carbon dioxide spa on pain and hypertension: Results from the explorative RAD-ON01 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühle, Paul F; Klein, Gerhart; Rung, Tatjana; Tiep Phan, Hong; Fournier, Claudia; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S; Frey, Benjamin

    2018-02-16

    Therapies with low doses of radon have beneficial effects on patients suffering from chronic painful degenerative and inflammatory diseases. We already showed that this is accompanied by systemic immune modulations. We here focus on pain reducing effects of very low doses of radon by adding carbon dioxide water and its impact on heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure and free radicals. 100 patients receiving radon spa (1.200 Bq/l at 34°C or 600 Bq/l, 1 g/l CO 2 at 34°C) were monitored before and at three different time points after therapy. Individual pain perception was analyzed and the capability to process radicals. At each time point the hypertensive patients (n = 46) were examined over 24h for blood pressure and HRV. Long term pain reduction was observed in the majority of patients. A modulation of superoxide dismutase was identified, presumably representing a priming effect for lowering radiation stress. Further, lowering of blood pressure, especially in those patients who additionally received carbon dioxide, was seen. Radon did in particular impact on HRV implying lasting relaxation effects. Radon/carbon dioxide spa efficiently reduces pain. In particular, patients simultaneously suffering from painful and cardiovascular diseases should be treated by combination of radon and CO 2 .

  10. Radon mitigation by depressurization of concrete walls and slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, J K; Tso, M Y; Hung, L C

    1999-10-01

    A special laboratory, the Radioisotope Unit Radon Analysis Laboratory, has been built for the study of radon mitigation in high-rise buildings. Reduction of radon exhalation rate from concrete walls as a result of depressurizing the interior of the wall was studied by embedding tunnels in a wall and pumping away the radon in the wall. The reduction in exhalation rate was quantified against the applied depressurization, the separation of the tunnels, the depth of the tunnel, and the thickness of the wall. Results show that radon exhalation rate from a wall embedded with tunnels can be reduced significantly by applying depressurization. For example, the radon exhalation rate from a wall of 20 cm thickness containing tunnels separated by 0.7 m can be reduced by 60% at a depressurization of 67 kPa (20 in Hg). This paper summarizes the effect of depressurization and suggests practical ways of applying the technique in radon mitigation in high-rise commercial buildings.

  11. Radon transport in fractured soil. Laboratory experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, A.

    1997-10-01

    Radon (Rn-222) transport in fractured soil has been investigated by laboratory experiments and by modelling. Radon transport experiments have been performed with two sand columns (homogeneous and inhomogeneous) and one undisturbed clayey till column containing a net of preferential flow paths (root holes). A numerical model (the finite-element model FRACTRAN) and an analytic model (a pinhole model) have been applied in simulations if soil gas and radon transport in fractured soil. Experiments and model calculations are included in a discussion of radon entry rates into houses placed on fractured soil. The main conclusion is, that fractures does not in general alter transport of internally generated radon out of soil, when the pressure and flow conditions in the soil is comparable to the conditions prevailing under a house. This indicates the important result, that fractures in soil have no impact on radon entry into a house beyond that of an increased gas permeability, but a more thorough investigation of this subject is needed. Only in the case where the soil is exposed to large pressure gradients, relative to gradients induced by a house, may it be possible to observe effects of radon exchange between fractures and matrix. (au) 52 tabs., 60 ill., 5 refs.

  12. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mustafa, Hanan [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco P.O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm{sup -3}. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm{sup -3}. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm{sup -3}. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides.

  13. Radon and COPD mortality in the American Cancer Society Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel; Chen, Yue; Pope, C. Arden; Gapstur, Susan M.; Thun, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Although radon gas is a known cause of lung cancer, the association between residential radon and mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease has not been well characterised. The Cancer Prevention Study-II is a large prospective cohort study of nearly 1.2 million Americans recruited in 1982. Mean county-level residential radon concentrations were linked to study participants' residential address based on their ZIP code at enrolment (mean±sd 53.5±38.0 Bq·m−3). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for non-malignant respiratory disease mortality associated with radon concentrations. After necessary exclusions, a total of 811,961 participants in 2,754 counties were included in the analysis. Throughout 2006, there were a total of 28,300 non-malignant respiratory disease deaths. Radon was significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality (HR per 100 Bq·m−3 1.13, 95% CI 1.05–1.21). There was a significant positive linear trend in COPD mortality with increasing categories of radon concentrations (pradon may increase COPD mortality. Further research is needed to confirm this finding and to better understand possible complex inter-relationships between radon, COPD and lung cancer. PMID:22005921

  14. Radon Release and Its Simulated Effect on Radiation Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabi, Momen

    2017-03-01

    One of the main factors that affect the uncertainty in calculating the gamma-radiation absorbed dose rate inside a room is the variation in the degree of secular equilibrium of the considered radioactive series. A component of this factor, considered in this paper, is the release of radon (Rn) from building materials to the living space of the room. This release takes place through different steps. These steps are represented and mathematically formulated. The diffusion of radon inside the material is described by Fick's second law. Some of the factors affecting the radon release rate (e.g. covering walls, moisture, structure of the building materials, etc.) are discussed. This scheme is used to study the impact of radon release on the gamma-radiation absorbed dose rate inside a room. The investigation is carried out by exploiting the MCNP simulation software. Different building materials are considered with different radon release rates. Special care is given to Rn due to its relatively higher half-life and higher indoor concentration than the other radon isotopes. The results of the presented model show that the radon release is of a significant impact in some building materials.

  15. Occurrence of radon in the Polish underground tourist routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are about 200 underground tourist routes in Poland. There are caves, mines or underground structures. This paper presents the results of the research intended to identify the extent of the occurrence of radon concentrations in underground areas of tourist routes. Material and Methods: We conducted the measurement of periodic concentrations of radon (1–2 months in the summer using type Tastrak trace detectors. We determined the average concentrations of radon in air in 66 underground tourist routes in Poland. Results: The research results comprise 259 determinations of average radon concentrations in 66 routes. The arithmetic average of the results was 1610 Bqm–3, and the maximum measured concentration was over 20 000 Bqm–3. The minimum concentration was 100 Bqm–3 (threshold method considering the arithmetic average of the measurements. It was found that in 67% of the routes, the average concentration of radon has exceeded 300 Bqm–3 and in 22 underground routes it exceeded 1000 Bqm–3. Conclusions: Radon which occurs in many Polish underground tourist routes may be an organizational, legal and health problem. It is necessary to develop a program of measures to reduce radon concentrations in underground routes, especially routes located in the former mines. Med Pr 2015;66(4:557–563

  16. Typhoon and elevated radon level in a municipal water supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Cheng-Hsin [Nuclear Science and Development Center, National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Weng, Pao-Shan [Radiation Protection Association ROC, Taiwan (China)

    2000-05-01

    The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m{sup 3}/day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December 1999. Commercially available electret was used for water samples taken from the five ponds in the plant. This technique relies on the measurement of radon in air above a water sample enclosed in a sealed vessel. The concentration of airbone radon released from water was determined by means of the electret ion chamber. During the first sampling period there came two typhoons. One is called Magie during June 10-17, and the other called Sam during August 20-26. The first typhoon led to the radon level measured from the water samples as high as 705 Bq/m{sup 3}, while the second caused even higher radon level as high as 772 Bq/m{sup 3}. Similar results were obtained for the second sampling period after August till December 1999. For those measured without typhoon influence, the average radon was lower from the coagulation pond yet without coagulation process during March through August 1999. However, water samples taken from the pond after precipitation did not show similar results in radon level. (author)

  17. Long term performance of different radon remedial methods in Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Clavensjoe, B

    2002-01-01

    The object of this project was to investigate the long time effectiveness of different radon remedial methods. The ten years project started 1991. From start the investigation comprised of 105 dwellings (91 single-family houses and 14 flats in multi-family buildings). In all of the dwellings remedial measures were carried out in the eighties. Before and immediately after the reduction the local measured the radon concentrations. New measurements of the radon concentrations have been made every third year; in 1991, 1994, 1997 and in 2000. Twelve different radon remedial methods and method combinations were used. The radon sources were building materials as well as sub-soils. In all of the dwellings the radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track films during 3 months (January-March) measurements and in half of them the air change rates by passive tracer gas methods. The results of the 2000 and the 1991 (within brackets) studies showed that the radon concentration was up to 200 Bq/m sup 3 in 54 (54) sin...

  18. Radon in Ingleborough / Clapham Cave, North Yorkshire, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric radon concentration was measured at Ingleborough Cave, North Yorkshire during the summer of 2004, and the autumn / winter of 2004/5. Significantly, Ingleborough Cave forms part of a larger system which includes the world famous Gaping Gill pothole. This plunges 105 m (334 ft), contains the tallest unbroken waterfall in England and one of the largest known underground chambers in the UK. Measurements were taken to assess the effects of seasonal and spatial variation, elevation and ventilation on radon concentration in Ingleborough. In this study personal dose exposures for three groups of cave user were identified, and the performance of a variety of radon detection systems evaluated. Summer radon concentrations inside the cave peaked at around 7,000 Bq m-3, although average concentrations were less than 5,000 Bq m-3. During the winter measurement period, average concentrations were around 100 Bq m-3, and a winter / summer ration therefore of 47,4. The average annual radon concentration exceeded the legislative limitations for the workplace of 400 Bq m-3 due in part to a failed fan in the ventilation system. When the fan was running we noted an 80% reduction in radon concentrations although reliability of the fan was problematic due to extensive but relatively rare flooding of the cave system. The radon dose experienced by cave workers and guides in this study exceeded the Ionisation Radiation Regulations limit of 5 mSv/annum, and highlighted that for health and safety reasons the ventilation system should be fully operational during the high radon concentration summer months. Keywords: Radon, Cave, Ingleborough, Detection methods

  19. Radon and thoron concentrations in public workplaces in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A

    2015-06-01

    Radon and thoron are radioactive gases that can emanate from soil and building materials, and it can accumulate in indoor environments. The concentrations of radon and thoron in the air from various workplace categories in Brisbane, Australia were measured using an active method. The average radon and thoron concentrations for all workplace categories were 10.5 ± 11.3 and 8.2 ± 1.4 Bq m(-3), respectively. The highest radon concentration was detected in a confined area, 86.6 ± 6.0 Bq m(-3), while the maximum thoron level was found in a storage room, 78.1 ± 14.0 Bq m(-3). At each site, the concentrations of radon and thoron were measured at two heights, 5 cm and 120 cm above the floor. The effect of the measurement heights on the concentration level was significant in the case of thoron. The monitoring of radon and thoron concentrations showed a lower radon concentration during work hours than at other times of the day. This can be attributed to the ventilation systems, including the air conditioner and natural ventilation, which normally operate during work hours. The diurnal variation was less observed in the case of thoron, as the change in its concentration during and after the working hours was insignificant. The study also investigated the influence of the floor level and flooring type on indoor radon and thoron concentrations. The elevated levels of radon and thoron were largely found in basements and ground floor levels and in rooms with concrete flooring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radon emanation from backfilled mill tailings in underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekananda; Patnaik, R Lokeswara; Sethy, Narendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Coarser mill tailings used as backfill to stabilize the stoped out areas in underground uranium mines is a potential source of radon contamination. This paper presents the quantitative assessment of radon emanation from the backfilled tailings in Jaduguda mine, India using a cylindrical accumulator. Some of the important parameters such as (226)Ra activity concentration, bulk density, bulk porosity, moisture content and radon emanation factor of the tailings affecting radon emanation were determined in the laboratory. The study revealed that the radon emanation rate of the tailings varied in the range of 0.12-7.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1) with geometric mean of 1.01 Bq m(-2) s(-1) and geometric standard deviation of 3.39. An increase in radon emanation rate was noticed up to a moisture saturation of 0.09 in the tailings, after which the emanation rate gradually started declining with saturation due to low diffusion coefficient of radon in the saturated tailings. Radon emanation factor of the tailings varied in the range of 0.08-0.23 with the mean value of 0.21. The emanation factor of the tailings with moisture saturation level over 0.09 was found to be about three times higher than that of the absolutely dry tailings. The empirical relationship obtained between (222)Rn emanation rate and (226)Ra activity concentration of the tailings indicated a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). This relationship may be useful for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the backfill material of similar nature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of an underground radon detector using an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Iida, T.

    2003-08-01

    We developed and tested a new underground radon detector using an optical fiber. Previous underground radon detectors used a small-diameter photo-multiplier tube (PMT) behind the chamber, thus, the diameter of the underground radon detector was determined by the size of the PMT. The larger diameter of the detector resulted in considerable labor for drilling holes into soil. The new underground radon detector consists of a small chamber, an optical fiber, and a PMT. The small chamber is a scintillation detector using a ZnS(Ag) film. The optical fiber transfers the scintillated light produced in the chamber to the PMT that is positioned above the soil. In this configuration, the size of the detector was not determined by the size of the PMT. The diameter of the optical fiber used was 5 mm and the outside diameter of the detector was reduced to be 12 mm. Although the light lost from the optical fiber was about 90%, the level of the scintillation signal was much higher than the noise level produced by the PMT and electronics. Measuring the performance of the underground radon detector, we found that the energy response had a clear distribution due to alpha particles emitted by radon and its decay products. The temporal response of the detector was approximately 2 h. Sensitivity was approximately 0.01 counts/h/Bq/m/sup 3/, one third of the previous underground radon detector. These results indicate the developed radon detector can be used for continuous measurements of radon concentration in underground soil with easy handling.

  2. United role of radon decay products and nano-aerosols in radon dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerajec, M.; Vaupotič, J.

    2012-04-01

    The major part of human exposure to natural radiation originates from inhalation of radon (Rn) and radon short-lived decay products (RnDP: 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po). RnDP are formed as a result of α-transformation of radon. In the beginning they are positive ions which neutralize and form clusters with air molecules, and later partly attach to background aerosol particles in indoor air. Eventually, they appear as radioactive nano-aerosols with a bimodal size distribution in ranges of 1-10 nm (unattached RnDP) and of 200-800 nm (attached RnDP). When inhaled, they are deposited in the respiratory tract. Deposition is more efficient for smaller particles. Therefore, the fraction (fun) of the unattached RnDP, which appears to be influenced by the number concentration and size distribution of general (background) aerosols in the ambient air, has a crucial role in radon dosimetry. Radon, radon decay products and general aerosols have been monitored simultaneously in the kitchen of a typical rural house under real living conditions, also comprising four human activities generating particular matter: cooking and baking, as two typical activities in kitchen, and cigarette smoking and candle burning. In periods without any human activity, the total number concentration of general aerosol ranged from 1000 to 3000 cm-3,with the geometric mean of particle diameter in the range of 60-68 nm and with 0.1-1 % of particles smaller than 10 nm. Preparation of coffee changed the concentration to 193,000 cm-3, the geometric mean of diameter to 20 nm and fraction of particles smaller than 10 nm to 11 %. The respective changes were for baking cake: 503,000 cm-3, 17 nm and 19 %, for smoking:423,000 cm-3, 83 nm and 0.4 %, and forcandle burning: 945,000 cm-3, 8 nm and 85 %. While, as expected, a reduction of fun was observed during cooking, baking and smoking, when larger particles were emitted, fun did not increase during candle burning with mostly particles smaller than 10 nm

  3. Radon gas monitoring survey for the determination of Radon Prone Areas in Lombardia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolo, D. de; Alberici, A.; Gallini, R.; Maggioni, T.; Mondini, A.; Zini, E. [A.R.P.A. della Lombardia, Milano (Italy); Arrigoni, S.; Cazzaniga, P.; Cugini, A.; Gallinari, G.; Olivieri, F.; Romanelli, M. [A.R.P.A. della Lombardia, Dipt. di Bergamo, Bergamo (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Region Lombardia has carried out a radon gas monitoring survey on its territory to localize radon prone areas as by law 241/00 enacted. To plan the survey, the Lombardia territory has been divided into two different types according to the morphology as well as the presence of a substratum of rock. The area with hills and mountains has been investigated with more attention compared to the plain because we can assume higher variability in radon concentration distribution due to the geological and morphological characteristics. The territory subdivision was based on the standard grid.. of the techniregional cartography (8 x 5 km). To perform radon indoor concentration measurements about 3600 measuring points were selected. They are located at the ground floor of buildings with the characteristics to ensure the tests are representative and comparable. It has also been taken into account evaluations done with previous surveys in accordance with the defined specification of the sites. The measurements were carried out using C.R. 39 trace detector technique. The detectors were contained in closed plastic canisters and they were positioned in situ for one year and measured each semester. The detectors were chemically treated and the traces counted using the automated optical system installed at the Radiometric Laboratory of the A.R.P.A. Department in Bergamo. The instrument accuracy and precision were evaluated using data obtained with different methods: using detectors exposed to radon known concentrations, participating to an international intercomparison as well as exposing the detector in a national calibration centre. Due to the large amount of detectors involved, a particular attention was taken for the detector homogeneity response and for the optimization of the analysis parameters. For further investigating the reliability of the measurements, two detectors were used in parallel in 10% of the tests. The results show higher values in the areas of Bergamo, Brescia

  4. Determining the sample size required for a community radon survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Tracy, Bliss L; Zielinski, Jan M; Moir, Deborah

    2008-04-01

    Radon measurements in homes and other buildings have been included in various community health surveys often dealing with only a few hundred randomly sampled households. It would be interesting to know whether such a small sample size can adequately represent the radon distribution in a large community. An analysis of radon measurement data obtained from the Winnipeg case-control study with randomly sampled subsets of different sizes has showed that a sample size of one to several hundred can serve the survey purpose well.

  5. Radon in Groundwater of the Northeastern Gran Canaria Aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Alonso; Tatiana Cruz-Fuentes; Jesús G. Rubiano; Jonay González-Guerra; María del Carmen Cabrera; Miguel A. Arnedo; Alicia Tejera; Alejandro Rodríguez-Gonzalez; Francisco J. Pérez-Torrado; Pablo Martel

    2015-01-01

    222Rn has been detected in 28 groundwater samples from the northeast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) utilizing a closed loop system consisting of an AlphaGUARD monitor that measures radon activity concentration in the air by means of an ionization chamber, and an AquaKIT set that transfers dissolved radon in the water samples to the air within the circuit. Radon concentration in the water samples studied varies between 0.3 and 76.9 Bq/L. Spanish radiological protection regulations lim...

  6. Acute Exposure from RADON-222 and Aerosols in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, George Paul, IV

    Radon-222 in water is released when the water is aerated, such as during showering. As a result, a temporary burst of radon-222 can appear as a short term, or acute, exposure. This study looked at homes with radon-222 concentrations in water from 800 picocuries per liter (pCi/l) to 53,000 pCi/l to determine the buildup of radon gas in a bathroom during showering. Samples from the tap and drain, compared to determine the percentage of radon-222 released, showed that between 58% and 88% of radon-222 in the water was released. The resultant radon-222 increase in air, measured with a flow-through detector, ranged from 2 pCi/l to 114 pCi/l in bathrooms due to a 10 to 15 minute shower with water flow rates ranging from 3 l/min to 6 l/min. Significantly, these rates did not fall rapidly but stayed approximately the same for up to 15 minutes after the water flow ceased. In examining exposures, the true danger is in the radon-222 progeny rather than the radon itself. The progeny can be inhaled and deposited in the tracheobronchial passages in the lung. Filter samples of bathroom air measured in a portable alpha spectrometer showed an increase in radon-222 progeny, notably polonium-218 and -214, in the air after showering. These increases were gradual and were on the order of 0.5 pCi/l at the highest level. Tap samples measured in a portable liquid scintillator showed that the progeny are present in the water but are not in true secular equilibrium with the radon-222 in the water. Therefore, the radon-222 does not have to decay to produce progeny since the progeny are already present in the water. A two stage sampler was used to examine the percentage of radiation available in aerosols smaller than 7 microns. Repeated trials showed that up to 85% of the radiation available in the aerosols is contained in the smaller, more respirable particles.

  7. Radon-safe building in Finland; Radonturvallinen rakentaminen Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravea, T.; Arvela, H.

    1997-05-01

    The study concentrates on radon-safe building in Finnish low-rise residential buildings. The data regarding the preventive measures taken in 300 dwellings was obtained from a questionnaire study. The study also aims at finding the main defects in design and implementation and how the guidance given on radon-safe building has been followed. A reference value was estimated for each of the houses on the basis of former local indoor radon measurements in houses with no preventive measures. Geological and building aspects were considered when estimating the reference values. (12 refs.).

  8. Real Time and Multiple Location Radon (222Rn Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORARIU, G.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a Radon monitoring system. The system is designed for real time multiple location monitoring. The paper presents in the first part a method and an instrument for measuring radon concentration in air. Simulink simulations and implementation of the measurement principle are presented. Instrument position is determined by GPS and transmitted over GPRS along with the measurements results. Data management is accomplished by a software component of the system. The paper presents as an application, an investigation on nanomaterials to be used for Radon mitigation.

  9. A brief overview on radon measurements in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, Viktor; Altzitzoglou, Timotheos; Malo, Petya; Tanner, Vesa; Hult, Mikael

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present information about currently used standard and routine methods for radon analysis in drinking waters. An overview is given about the current situation and the performance of different measurement methods based on literature data. The following parameters are compared and discussed: initial sample volume and sample preparation, detection systems, minimum detectable activity, counting efficiency, interferences, measurement uncertainty, sample capacity and overall turnaround time. Moreover, the parametric levels for radon in drinking water from the different legislations and directives/guidelines on radon are presented. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal variation of radon concentration in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Fremlin, J.H.

    1984-05-01

    Estimating long-term exposure of populations to low levels of radon and its decay products in dwellings is a general problem. Some surveys measure the integrated value of radon over long periods of time using passive track detectors. The long-time integrated measurements should give a better estimation of population dose than short-time ones, since they give long-term average exposures for normal living conditions of dwelling inhabitants. Even measurements over a period of three months may not represent the average of the whole year because of possible seasonal variability. Recently, it was shown that winter-to-summer ratios in a few rooms range from 3 to 10, averaging 5.3 emphasizing the danger of brief readings taken in a single season and the importance and usefulness of integrating readings over a full year. In this note, long-term measurements which were carried out in 85 houses in Birmingham plus 19 houses in London are described.

  11. Environmental gamma and radon dosimetry in Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Sajo-Bohus, L; Urbani, F; Castro, D D; Greaves, E D; Liendo, J A

    1999-01-01

    Environmental gamma exposure and radon concentration levels measured in Venezuelan regions are presented. A new generation image analyser was used for alpha particle track counting in CR-39 detectors. Mineral water wells from where water is supplied for massive consumption have an alpha activity around 0.450 Bq L sup - sup 1 and few of them have concentrations above 50 Bq L sup - sup 1. Coastal potable water activity is on the average around 5.3 +- 12% Bq L sup - sup 1. Indoor radon national average is 36 +- 5% Bq m sup - sup 3; in two of the 36 monitored sites, the measured average is above 400 +- 5% Bq m sup - sup 3. In air gamma dose values are between 100 and 144 nGy h sup - sup 1. In soil, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs concentration is around 0.5 and 10 Bq kg sup - sup 1 at the depth of down to 20 cm. Building materials were included in this study. sup 7 Be and sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs were measured in low concentration in tropical plants on Tepuy-s (sacred mountains in the Amazonas State). Geological active faults w...

  12. SWOT analysis of the Czech Radon programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtíková, I

    2014-07-01

    Since the early 1990s, the Czech Republic has been one of the countries that carry out a radon programme on its territory, with the aim of protecting people from unnecessary long-term exposure in their homes. Since that time, many achievements have been registered, and many unexpected difficulties have cropped up. This may be the right moment to take some time out to analyse the state of the programme and to determine the direction for its future development. An extended SWOT analysis can serve as a useful tool for this purpose. Originally, SWOT analyses were used exclusively by for-profit organisations aiming to evaluate their perspectives, develop strategies and make plans in order to achieve their objectives. More recently, it has been used in a wide range of decision-making situations when a desired end-state is to be defined. Here, an extended SWOT analysis is used to formulate possible beneficial strategies for advancing anti-radon policy in the Czech Republic. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Standardised Radon Index (SRI: a normalisation of radon data-sets in terms of standard normal variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. M. Crockett

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of 2002, from late June to mid December, the University of Northampton Radon Research Group operated two continuous hourly-sampling radon detectors 2.25 km apart in the English East Midlands. This period included the Dudley earthquake (ML = 5, 22 September 2002 and also a smaller earthquake in the English Channel (ML = 3, 26 August 2002. Rolling/sliding windowed cross-correlation of the paired radon time-series revealed periods of simultaneous similar radon anomalies which occurred at the time of these earthquakes but at no other times during the overall radon monitoring period. Standardising the radon data in terms of probability of magnitude, analogous to the Standardised Precipitation Indices (SPIs used in drought modelling, which effectively equalises different non-linear responses, reveals that the dissimilar relative magnitudes of the anomalies are in fact closely equiprobabilistic. Such methods could help in identifying anomalous signals in radon – and other – time-series and in evaluating their statistical significance in terms of earthquake precursory behaviour.

  14. A study of indoor radon levels and radon effective dose in dwellings of some cities of Gezira State in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzain Abd-Elmoniem Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to natural sources of radiation, especially 222Rn and its short-lived daughter products has become an important issue throughout the world because sustained exposure of humans to indoor radon may cause lung cancer. The indoor radon concentration level and radon effective dose rate were carried out in the dwellings of Medani, El Hosh, Elmanagil, Haj Abd Allah, and Wad Almahi cities, Gezira State - Central Sudan, in 393 measurements, using passive integrated solid-state nuclear track devices containing allyl diglycol carbonate plastic detectors. The radon concentration in the corresponding dwellings was found to vary from (57 ± 8 Bq/m3 in Medani to 41 ± 9 Bq/m3 in Wad Almahi, with an average of 49 ± 10 Bq/m3. Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 and 0.4 for the equilibrium factor of radon indoors, we found that the annual effective dose rate from 222Rn in the studied dwellings ranges from 1.05 to 1.43 mSv per year and the relative lung cancer risk for radon exposure was 1.044%. In this research, we also correlated the relationship of radon concentration and building age. From our study, it is clear that the annual effective dose rate is larger than the “normal” background level as quoted by UNSCEAR, lower than the recommended action level of ICRP, and less than the maximum permissible dose defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  15. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: HVAC SYTEMS IN SCHOOLS TEND TO HAVE A GREATER IMPACT ON RADON LEVELS THAN HVAC SYSTEMS IN HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioing -- HVAC-- system design and operationg) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  16. Radon dosimetry occupational safety in working area of Sanpaolo IMI organization; Individuazione e dosimetria del radon presso i presidi operativi del gruppo Sanpaolo IMI: parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scielzo, Giuseppe; Bresciani, Sara [ASO Ordine Mauriziano, Torino (Italy); Coggiola, Maurizio [Torino Univ., Torino (Italy). DTP Traumatologia, ortopedia e medicina del lavoro; Magnone, Maurizio; Chiaberto, Enrico [Arpa Piemonte, Torino (Italy)

    2005-05-15

    The Radon 222 is a natural radioactive gas present inside rocks, soil and building materials. Its decay produce ionizing Alpha radiation. The OMS Organization classified the Radon as cancerogenic substance of group 1 at most high cancerogenicity. In Italy the Radon risk is regulated in law 230 and its modifications.

  17. Comparative risk assessment of residential radon exposures in two radon-prone areas, Stei (Romania) and Torrelodones (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Carlos; Dinu, Alexandra; Dicu, Tiberius; Szacsvai, Kinga; Cosma, Constantin; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2009-07-15

    Radon and radon progeny are present indoors, in houses and others dwellings, representing the most important contribution to dose from natural sources of radiation. Most studies have demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer at high concentration of radon for both smokers and nonsmokers. The work presents a comparative analysis of the radon exposure data in the two radon-prone areas, Stei, Transylvania, (Romania), in the near of old Romanian uranium mines and in the granitic area of Torrelodones town, Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain). Measurements of indoor radon were performed in 280 dwellings (Romania) and 91 dwellings (Spain) by using nuclear track detectors, CR 39. The highest value measured in Stei area was 2650 Bq m(-3) and 366 Bq m(-3) in the Spanish region. The results are computed with the BEIR VI report estimates using the age-duration model at an exposure rate below 2650 Bq m(-3). We used the EC Radon Software to calculate the lifetime lung cancer death risks for individuals groups in function of attained age, radon exposures and tobacco consumption. A total of 233 lung cancer deaths were observed in the Stei area for a period of 13 years (1994-2006), which is 116.82% higher than expected from the national statistics. In addition, the number of deaths estimated for the year 2005 is 28, which is worth more than 2.21 times the amount expected by authorities. In comparison, for Torrelodones was rated a number of 276 deaths caused by lung cancer for a period of 13 years, which is 2.09 times higher than the number expected by authorities. For the year 2005 in the Spanish region were reported 32 deaths caused by pulmonary cancer, the number of deaths exceeding seen again with a factor of 2.10 statistical expectations. This represents a significantly evidence that elevated risk can strongly be associated with cumulated radon exposure.

  18. Comparative risk assessment of residential radon exposures in two radon-prone areas, Stei (Romania) and Torrelodones (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, Carlos, E-mail: sainzc@unican.es [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, c/Herrera Oria s/n. 39011, Santander (Spain); Dinu, Alexandra; Dicu, Tiberius; Szacsvai, Kinga; Cosma, Constantin [Faculty of Environmental Science, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele, No. 3 Cluj Napoca 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Quindos, Luis Santiago [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, c/Herrera Oria s/n. 39011, Santander (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    Radon and radon progeny are present indoors, in houses and others dwellings, representing the most important contribution to dose from natural sources of radiation. Most studies have demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer at high concentration of radon for both smokers and nonsmokers. The work presents a comparative analysis of the radon exposure data in the two radon-prone areas, Stei, Transylvania, (Romania), in the near of old Romanian uranium mines and in the granitic area of Torrelodones town, Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain). Measurements of indoor radon were performed in 280 dwellings (Romania) and 91 dwellings (Spain) by using nuclear track detectors, CR 39. The highest value measured in Stei area was 2650 Bq m{sup -3} and 366 Bq m{sup -3} in the Spanish region. The results are computed with the BEIR VI report estimates using the age-duration model at an exposure rate below 2650 Bq m{sup -3}. We used the EC Radon Software to calculate the lifetime lung cancer death risks for individuals groups in function of attained age, radon exposures and tobacco consumption. A total of 233 lung cancer deaths were observed in the Stei area for a period of 13 years (1994-2006), which is 116.82% higher than expected from the national statistics. In addition, the number of deaths estimated for the year 2005 is 28, which is worth more than 2.21 times the amount expected by authorities. In comparison, for Torrelodones was rated a number of 276 deaths caused by lung cancer for a period of 13 years, which is 2.09 times higher than the number expected by authorities. For the year 2005 in the Spanish region were reported 32 deaths caused by pulmonary cancer, the number of deaths exceeding seen again with a factor of 2.10 statistical expectations. This represents a significantly evidence that elevated risk can strongly be associated with cumulated radon exposure.

  19. Radon Testing for Safe Schools Act. Report (To Accompany S. 1697) from the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works.

    This report was written to accompany the Radon Testing for Safe Schools Act (S.1697), a bill that provides for radon testing of schools located in high risk radon areas and provides limited financial assistance to schools for mitigation of high levels of radon. A description of radon, its harmful effects, and the radon levels detected in schools…

  20. Development of a low-level radon reference chamber; Entwicklung einer Low-Level-Radon-Referenzkammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linzmaier, Diana

    2013-01-04

    The naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas radon-222 exists worldwide in different activity concentrations in the air. During the decay of radon-222, decay products are generated which are electrically charged and attach to aerosols in the air. Together with the aerosols, the radon is inhaled and exhaled by humans. While the radon is nearly completely exhaled, ca. 20 % of the inhaled aerosols remain in the lungs in one breath cycle. Due to ionizing radiation, in a chain of events, lung cancer might occur. Consequently, radon and its decay products are according to the current findings the second leading cause of lung cancer. At the workplace and in the home measurements of radon activity concentration are performed to determine the radiation exposition of humans. All measurement devices for the determination of radon activity concentration are calibrated above 1000 Bq/m{sup 3}, even though the mean value of the present investigation in Germany shows only 50 Bq/m{sup 3}. For the calibration of measurement devices in the range below 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} over a long time period, the generation of a stable reference atmosphere is presented in this work. Due to a long term calibration (t>5 days) of the measurement devices, smaller uncertainties result for the calibration factor. For the calibration procedure, a so-called low-level radon reference chamber was set up and started operation. The generation of a stable reference atmosphere is effected by means of emanation sources which consist of a radium-226 activity standard. On the basis of {gamma}-spectrometry, the effective emanation coefficient ofthe emanation sources is determined. The traceability of the activity concentration in the reference volume is realized via the activity ofthe radium-226, the emanation coefficient and the volume. With the emanation sources produced, stable reference atmospheres within the range of 150 Bq/m{sup 3} to 1900 Bq/m{sup 3} are achieved. For the realization, maintenance and

  1. Radon and environmental radioactivity in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory; Radon y radiacion ambiental en el Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfrac (LSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandac, I.; Bettini, A.; Borjabad, S.; Nunez-Lagos, R.; Perez, C.; Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez, P.; Villar, J. A.

    2014-02-01

    The results of more than one year of measurements of Radon and environmental radioactivity in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are presented. Radon and atmospheric parameters have registered by an Alpha guard P30 equipment and the environmental radioactivity has been measured by means of UD-802A Panasonic thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) processed by an UD716 Panasonic unit. Series of results along with their possible correlations are presented. Both the Radon level and the ambient dose equivalent H (10) are much lower than the allowed ones so no radiological risk exists to persons working in the LSC. Also its excellent environmental radiological quality has been confirmed. (Author)

  2. Determination of radon levels in Mexico City; Determinacion de niveles de radon en la Ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena G, P

    1992-01-15

    The study of the determination of radon levels in the houses room in Mexico City is part of the project Emanometry of the radon. To carry out this study, the passive method was used, which consists of: thin film dosemeter of cellulose nitrate, container of the same one and spark accountant. The method is based on the mensurations of exhibition of the number of marks of alpha track is of the open type and it allows to average the radon activity along several weeks and it presents low concentrations. This study was carried out in 4 periods of exhibition of 3 months each one. (Author)

  3. A European-wide 222radon and 222radon progeny comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithüsen, Dominik; Chambers, Scott; Fischer, Bernd; Gilge, Stefan; Hatakka, Juha; Kazan, Victor; Neubert, Rolf; Paatero, Jussi; Ramonet, Michel; Schlosser, Clemens; Schmid, Sabine; Vermeulen, Alex; Levin, Ingeborg

    2017-04-01

    Although atmospheric 222radon (222Rn) activity concentration measurements are currently performed worldwide, they are being made by many different laboratories and with fundamentally different measurement principles, so compatibility issues can limit their utility for regional-to-global applications. Consequently, we conducted a European-wide 222Rn / 222Rn progeny comparison study in order to evaluate the different measurement systems in use, determine potential systematic biases between them, and estimate correction factors that could be applied to harmonize data for their use as a tracer in atmospheric applications. Two compact portable Heidelberg radon monitors (HRM) were moved around to run for at least 1 month at each of the nine European measurement stations included in this comparison. Linear regressions between parallel data sets were calculated, yielding correction factors relative to the HRM ranging from 0.68 to 1.45. A calibration bias between ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) two-filter radon monitors and the HRM of ANSTO / HRM = 1.11 ± 0.05 was found. Moreover, for the continental stations using one-filter systems that derive atmospheric 222Rn activity concentrations from measured atmospheric progeny activity concentrations, preliminary 214Po / 222Rn disequilibrium values were also estimated. Mean station-specific disequilibrium values between 0.8 at mountain sites (e.g. Schauinsland) and 0.9 at non-mountain sites for sampling heights around 20 to 30 m above ground level were determined. The respective corrections for calibration biases and disequilibrium derived in this study need to be applied to obtain a compatible European atmospheric 222Rn data set for use in quantitative applications, such as regional model intercomparison and validation or trace gas flux estimates with the radon tracer method.

  4. Anomalous radon emission as precursor of medium to strong earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoran, Maria [National Institute of R& D for Optoelectronics, MG5 Bucharest -Magurele, 077125 Romania (Romania)

    2016-03-25

    Anomalous radon (Rn{sup 222}) emissions enhanced by forthcoming earthquakes is considered to be a precursory phenomenon related to an increased geotectonic activity in seismic areas. Rock microfracturing in the Earth’s crust preceding a seismic rupture may cause local surface deformation fields, rock dislocations, charged particle generation and motion, electrical conductivity changes, radon and other gases emission, fluid diffusion, electrokinetic, piezomagnetic and piezoelectric effects as well as climate fluctuations. Space-time anomalies of radon gas emitted in underground water, soil and near the ground air weeks to days in the epicentral areas can be associated with the strain stress changes that occurred before the occurrence of medium and strong earthquakes. This paper aims to investigate temporal variations of radon concentration levels in air near or in the ground by the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) CR-39 and LR-115 in relation with some important seismic events recorded in Vrancea region, Romania.

  5. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol...

  6. ICRP draft publication on 'radiological protection against radon exposure'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J-F

    2014-07-01

    To control the main part of radon exposure, the Main Commission of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends an integrated approach focused as far as possible on the management of the building or location in which radon exposure occurs whatever the purpose of the building and the types of its occupants. This approach is based on the optimisation principle and a graded approach according to the degree of responsibilities at stake, notably in workplace, as well as the level of ambition of the national authorities. The report which is being developed by the Committee 4 is considering the recently consolidated ICRP general recommendations, the new scientific knowledge about the radon risk and the experience gained by many organisations and countries in the control of radon exposure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Indoor radon distribution in Switzerland: lognormality and Extreme Value Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuia, Devis [Institute of Geomatics and Analysis of Risk (IGAR), University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: devis.tuia@unil.ch; Kanevski, Mikhail [Institute of Geomatics and Analysis of Risk (IGAR), University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    Analysis and modeling of statistical distributions of indoor radon concentration from data valorization to mapping and simulations are critical issues for real decision-making processes. The usual way to model indoor radon concentrations is to assume lognormal distributions of concentrations on a given territory. While these distributions usually model correctly the main body of the data density, they cannot model the extreme values, which are more important for risk assessment. In this paper, global and local indoor radon distributions are modeled using Extreme Value Theory (EVT). Emphasis is put on the tails of the distributions and their deviations from lognormality. The best fits of distributions to real data set density have been computed and goodness of fit with Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) is evaluated. The results show that EVT performs better than lognormal pdf for real data sets characterized by high indoor radon concentrations.

  8. Long term continuous radon monitoring in a seismically active area

    CERN Document Server

    Piersanti, A; Galli, G

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a long term, continuous radon monitoring experiment started in April 2010 in a seismically active area, affected during the 2010-2013 data acquisition time window by an intense micro seismic activity and by several small seismic events. We employed both correlation and cross-correlation analyses in order to investigate possible relationship existing between the collected radon data, seismic events and meteorological parameters. Our results do not support the feasibility of a robust one-to-one association between the small magnitude earthquakes characterizing the local seismic activity and single radon measurement anomalies, but evidence significant correlation patterns between the spatio-temporal variations of seismic moment release and soil radon emanations, the latter being anyway dominantly modulated by meteorological parameters variations.

  9. Residential Radon Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study of lung cancer and residential radon exposure in which investigators carried out both standard year-long air measurements and CR-39 alpha detector measurements (call surface monitors)

  10. Radon transformation on reductive symmetric spaces:Support theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuit, Job Jacob

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a class of Radon transforms for reductive symmetric spaces, including the horospherical transforms, and derive support theorems for these transforms. A reductive symmetric space is a homogeneous space G/H for a reductive Lie group G of the Harish-Chandra class, where H is an open...... subgroup of the fixed-point subgroup for an involution σ on G. Let P be a parabolic subgroup such that σ(P) is opposite to P and let NP be the unipotent radical of P. For a compactly supported smooth function ϕ on G/H, we define RP(ϕ)(g) to be the integral of NP∋n↦ϕ(gn⋅H) over NP. The Radon transform RP...... is based on the relation between the Radon transform and the Fourier transform on G/H, and a Paley–Wiener-shift type argument. Our results generalize the support theorem of Helgason for the Radon transform on a Riemannian symmetric space....

  11. On the Bargmann-Radon transform in the monogenic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Fabrizio; Sabadini, Irene; Sommen, Franciscus

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study a Bargmann-Radon transform on the real monogenic Bargmann module. This transform is defined as the projection of the real Bargmann module on the closed submodule of monogenic functions spanned by the monogenic plane waves. We prove that this projection can be written in integral form in terms the so-called Bargmann-Radon kernel. Moreover, we have a characterization formula for the Bargmann-Radon transform of a function in the real Bargmann module in terms of its complex extension and then its restriction to the nullcone in Cm. We also show that the formula holds for the Szegő-Radon transform that we introduced in Colombo et al. (2016) and we define the dual transform and we provide an inversion formula. Finally, in Theorem 5.6, we prove an integral formula for the monogenic part of an entire function.

  12. Radon in Groundwater of the Northeastern Gran Canaria Aquifer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hector Alonso; Tatiana Cruz-Fuentes; Jesús G Rubiano; Jonay Gonzalez-Guerra; María del Carmen Cabrera; Miguel A Arnedo; Alicia Tejera; Alejandro Rodríguez-Gonzalez; Francisco J Perez-Torrado; Pablo Martel

    2015-01-01

    ... (Canary Islands, Spain) utilizing a closed loop system consisting of an AlphaGUARD monitor that measures radon activity concentration in the air by means of an ionization chamber, and an AquaKIT set that transfers dissolved...

  13. Limited Data Problems for the Generalized Radon Transform in Rn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikel, Jürgen; Quinto, Eric Todd

    2016-01-01

    We consider the generalized Radon transform (defined in terms of smooth weight functions) on hyperplanes in Rn. We analyze general filtered backprojection type reconstruction methods for limited data with filters given by general pseudodifferential operators. We provide microlocal characterizatio...

  14. National radon programmes and policies: the RADPAR recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, F; Hulka, J; Ringer, W; Rovenská, K; Fojtikova, I; Venoso, G; Bradley, E J; Fenton, D; Gruson, M; Arvela, H; Holmgren, O; Quindos, L; McLaughlin, J; Collignan, B; Gray, A; Grosche, B; Jiranek, M; Kalimeri, K; Kephalopoulos, S; Kreuzer, M; Schlesinger, D; Zeeb, H; Bartzis, J

    2014-07-01

    Results from epidemiological studies on lung cancer and radon exposure in dwellings and mines led to a significant revision of recommendations and regulations of international organisations, such as WHO, IAEA, Nordic Countries, European Commission. Within the European project RADPAR, scientists from 18 institutions of 14 European countries worked together for 3 y (2009-12). Among other reports, a comprehensive booklet of recommendations was produced with the aim that they should be useful both for countries with a well-developed radon programme and for countries with little experience on radon issues. In this paper, the main RADPAR recommendations on radon programmes and policies are described and discussed. These recommendations should be very useful in preparing a national action plan, required by the recent Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Radon Measurements in Kindergartens and Schools of Six Italian Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidolfi, L.; Malisan, M.R.; Bucci, S.; Cappai, M.; Bonomi, M.; Verdi, L.; Bochicchio, F

    1998-07-01

    Radon concentration in 2173 schools of six Italian regions was measured with passive dosemeters in representative surveys. Regional arithmetic and geometric means and geometric standard deviations range from 49 to 222 Bq.m{sup -3}, from 38 to 129 Bq.m{sup -3} and from 1.9 to 2.7, respectively. For the sake of comparison, measured values were corrected for the seasonal variations obtained from the national survey in dwellings. In some regions, schools exhibit a higher average concentration than dwellings. However, when the floor and the geographical location of measurements is accounted for, there is better agreement. Therefore, radon measurements in schools as well as in houses may be useful for radon mapping. In some regions, a significant proportion of schools, showed radon concentration exceeding the action levels established in other countries. (author)

  16. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2013-01-01

    of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect...... (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results: Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3...

  17. Radon levels in the volcanic region of La Garrotxa, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baixeras, C. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions. Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)]. E-mail: carmen.baixeras@uab.es; Bach, J. [Unitat de Geodinamica Externa. Departament de Geologia. Edifici Cs, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Amgarou, K. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions. Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Moreno, V. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions. Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Font, Ll. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions. Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2005-11-15

    A preliminary survey in the city of Olot, the main town of the volcanic region of La Garrotxa, showed that dwellings built on volcanic formations present higher indoor radon levels than dwellings on non-volcanic materials. The soil of the area is not especially rich in radium. However, some of the volcanic materials present very high permeability and therefore radon entering the houses might have travelled over long distances. In this paper we present indoor radon values measured in a larger survey carried out during April-July 2004. The influence of the volcanic materials found in the preliminary survey has been confirmed. The results obtained suggest the possibility that radon comes from the degassification of mantle through active faults. The values obtained in working places do not constitute a relevant radiological risk for workers.

  18. Radon 10 x 10 project: Implantation of geographic information systems in studies of radon in homes and geology catalans; Proyecto radon 10x10: aplicacion de los sistemas de informacion geografica en estudios de radon y geologia en viviendas catalanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado Sanjuan, J. L.; Bach Plaza, J.; Baixeras divar, C.; Font Guiteras, L. L.; Moreno Balta, V.

    2013-07-01

    This methodology provides a useful tool to establish relationships between different data in order to identify areas in which to assess the radiological risk that represents radon in the Catalan population and gagging. (Author)

  19. Radon Exposure: Using the Spectrum of Prevention Framework to Increase Healthcare Provider Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Jane; Gibson, Phillip; Allen, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    The radioactive properties of radon have been known for decades, but the risks of exposure have been understated in most professional healthcare curriculums. Healthcare providers in areas with low levels of radon exposure may not consider radon to be a main source of concern in the development of lung and other cancers. Just as nurses counsel patients to avoid tobacco exposure, they should advocate that patients have their homes tested for radon. This article aims to increase radon awareness and address opportunities for providers to work toward various objectives to reduce radon exposure.
.

  20. Mapping radon-prone areas using γ-radiation dose rate and geological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Talavera, M; García-Pérez, A; Rey, C; Ramos, L

    2013-09-01

    Identifying radon-prone areas is key to policies on the control of this environmental carcinogen. In the current paper, we present the methodology followed to delineate radon-prone areas in Spain. It combines information from indoor radon measurements with γ-radiation and geological maps. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it lessens the requirement for a high density of measurements by making use of commonly available information. It can be applied for an initial definition of radon-prone areas in countries committed to introducing a national radon policy or to improving existing radon maps in low population regions.

  1. Radon concentration levels in dwellings and mine atmospheres in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Pena, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Mireles, F.; Davila, I.; Quirino, L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares

    1993-12-31

    Atmospheric radon surveys have been conducted in dwellings and mine atmospheres from the city of Zacatecas and single family homes in Mexico City. The monitoring was performed with track detectors, LR115 type II. The radon concentration values in most of the atmospheres studied were less than 150 Bq/m{sup 3}; the maximum value at the top soil in mines reached 1200 Bq/m{sup 3}. (author).

  2. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuner, Elvira V., E-mail: ole@cancer.dk [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University (Denmark); Andersen, Claus E. [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Sorensen, Mette [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Gravesen, Peter [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ulbak, Kaare [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark); Hertel, Ole [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Camilla [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Overvad, Kim [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  3. Anomalous radon concentration in a nuclear research facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Pena, P., E-mail: miguel.balcazar@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    Radon monitoring in more than 60 selected points were part of surveillance radiation activities in the nuclear center of Mexico; three major facilities were inspected, the TRIGA Mark III research reactor, the Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator and the Pelletron electron Accelerator. During a major maintenance activities in the research reactor, the air extraction system was not functioning for more than a month causing of a radon build up exhaled from the massive concrete of the building, reaching concentrations in some places up to 2.1 kb m{sup -3}. The irradiation room at the Tandem Accelerator presented high radon concentrations up to nearly 5 kb m{sup -3}, manly in the trenches were pipes and electric wires are located, the radon source was identified as originated from small caves under the floor. Low radon concentrations were found inside a similar building where a Pelletron accelerator is located. The reasons for the abnormal radon concentrations and the mitigation actions to remove any risk for the worker are discussed in detail in this paper. (author)

  4. Natural radioactivity and radon specific exhalation rate of zircon sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righi, S.; Verita, S.; Bruzzi, L. [Bologna Univ., Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali and Dipt. di Fisica, Ravenna (Italy); Albertazzi, A. [Italian Ceramic Center, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The study focuses on the radon emanation from zircon sands and their derivatives, which are widely used in many sectors of industry. In particular, the results obtained by experimental measurements on samples of zircon sands and zircon flours commonly used in Italian ceramic industries are reported. Zircon sands contain a significant concentration of natural radioactivity because Th and U may substitute zirconium in the zircon crystal lattice. The relevant routes of exposure of workers to T.E.N.O.R.M. from zircon materials are external radiation and internal exposure, either by inhalation of aerosols in dusty working conditions or by inhalation of radon in workplaces. The main objective of this investigation is to provide experimental data able to better calculate the internal exposure of workers due to radon inhalation. Zircon samples were surveyed for natural radioactivity, radon specific exhalation rate and emanation fraction. Measurements of radioactivity concentration were carried out using {gamma}-spectrometry. Methods used for determining radon consisted in determining the {sup 222}Rn activity accumulated in a vessel after a given accumulation build-up time. The average activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in samples result about 2600 and 550 Bq kg-1, respectively; these concentrations are significantly higher than the world average noticed in soils, rocks and Earth crust. The {sup 222}Rn specific exhalation rates result very low probably due to the low porosity of the material and the consequent difficulty for radon to be released from the zircon crystal lattice. (author)

  5. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, I., E-mail: ivy@ecko.uran.ru [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Sophy Kovalevskoy, 20, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Vasilyev, A.; Malinovsky, G. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Sophy Kovalevskoy, 20, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Bossew, P. [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Berlin (Germany); Žunić, Z.S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Onischenko, A.; Zhukovsky, M. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Sophy Kovalevskoy, 20, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed. - Highlights: • Influence of lithosphere and anthroposphere on variance of indoor radon is found. • Level-by-level analysis reduces GSD by a factor of 1.9. • Worldwide GSD is underestimated.

  6. Radon action level for high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Ho, C.W. (Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Radioisotope Unit)

    1999-05-01

    Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. Many countries and radiological authorities have recommended radon action levels to limit the indoor radon concentrations, and, hence, the annual doses to the general public. Since the sources of indoor radon and the methods for reducing its concentration are different for different types of buildings, social and economic factors have to be considered when setting the action level. But so far no action levels are specifically recommended for cities that have dwellings and offices all housed in high-rise buildings. In this study, an optimization approach was used to determine an action level for high-rise buildings based on data obtained through previous territory-wide radon surveys. A protection cost of HK $0.044 per unit fresh air change rate per unit volume and a detriment cost of HK $120,000 per person-Sv were used, which gave a minimum total cost at an action level of 200 Bq m[sup [minus]3]. The optimization analyses were repeated for different simulated radon distributions and living environment, which resulted in quite significantly different action levels. Finally, an action level of 200 Bq m[sup [minus]3] was recommended for existing buildings and 150 Bq m[sup [minus]3] for newly built buildings.

  7. Radon action level for high-rise buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, J K; Tso, M Y; Ho, C W

    1999-05-01

    Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. Many countries and radiological authorities have recommended radon action levels to limit the indoor radon concentrations and, hence, the annual doses to the general public. Since the sources of indoor radon and the methods for reducing its concentration are different for different types of buildings, social and economic factors have to be considered when setting the action level. But so far no action levels are specifically recommended for cities that have dwellings and offices all housed in high-rise buildings. In this study, an optimization approach was used to determine an action level for high-rise buildings based on data obtained through previous territory-wide radon surveys. A protection cost of HK$0.044 per unit fresh air change rate per unit volume and a detriment cost of HK$120,000 per person-Sv were used, which gave a minimum total cost at an action level of 200 Bq m(-3). The optimization analyses were repeated for different simulated radon distributions and living environment, which resulted in quite significantly different action levels. Finally, an action level of 200 Bq m(-3) was recommended for existing buildings and 150 Bq m(-3) for newly built buildings.

  8. Preliminary results regarding the first map of residential radon in some regions in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, C; Cucoş Dinu, A; Dicu, T

    2013-07-01

    Radon represents the most important contribution of population exposure to natural ionising radiation. This article presents the first indoor radon map in some regions of Romania based on 883 surveyed buildings in the Ştei-BăiŢa radon-prone region and 864 in other regions of Romania. Indoor radon measurements were performed in the last 10 y by using CR-39 nuclear track detectors exposed for 3-12 months on ground floor levels of dwellings. Excluding the Ştei-BăiŢa radon-prone region, an average indoor radon concentration of 126 Bq m(-3) was calculated for Romanian houses. In the Ştei-BăiŢa radon-prone area, the average indoor concentration was 292 Bq m(-3). About 21 % of the investigated dwellings in the Ştei-BăiŢa radon-prone region exceed the threshold of 400 Bq m(-3), while 5 % of the dwellings in other areas of Romania exceed the same threshold. As expected, indoor radon concentration is not uniformly distributed throughout Romania. The map shows a high variability among surveyed regions, mainly due to the differences in geology. The radon emanation rate is substantially influenced by the soil characteristics, such as the soil permeability and soil gas radon concentration. Since higher permeability enables the increased migration of soil gas and radon from the soil into the building, elevated levels of indoor radon can be expected in more permeable soil environments.

  9. Preliminary Study for 3D Radon Distribution Modelling in the Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ChoongWie; Kim, HeeReyoung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radon exists in the form of noble gas, which comes from decay of {sup 238}U, becoming stable {sup 206}Pb going through 4 alpha and 4 beta decays. If this process occurred in human body after inhalation, lung could be damaged by interaction with these radiations causing lung cancer. Most radon in indoor air comes from soil (85 - 97%) through crack of the wall but it also came from wall (2 - 5%) itself in home. Due to its hazardous and unpredictable characteristic, radon became one of the concerning nuclides in indoor air. Hence, the number of survey and research about radon has been increased. Although accurate radon measurement is important to evaluate health risk, it is hard to actually achieve because radon is affected by many conditions, where its concentration can vary easily. Moreover, radon concentration can vary according to the height because of density of radon in the spatial aspect. 3D distribution modelling in the room of radon with aerodynamic features and sources variations was carried out to find average and maximum radon concentration. 3D radon distribution in the room would be find through this computational analysis and it is thought to be possible to correct measured radon concentration with spatial variation to fit the height of nose where inhalation occur. The methodological concept for 3D modelling was set up to solve transport equation for radon behavior by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software such as FLUENT.

  10. Radium and radon tracers in aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, S. B.

    2012-10-01

    Fourth International Ra-Rn Workshop;Narragansett, Rhode Island, 3-8 June 2012 Radium (Ra) and radon (Rn) are widely recognized as important geochemical tracers in the estimation of dispersion in aquatic environments, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean, water mass residence times, and air-sea and water- sediment exchange. More than 50 scientists, including graduate students and early- career scientists from 10 countries, recently participated in a workshop on Ra and Rn in Narragansett, R. I. The workshop was hosted by the University of Rhode Island and sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation Chemical Oceanography Program, ORTEC, Eichrom, and Durridge Company. The workshop provided a forum for presentations and open discussions regarding the latest developments and new directions in the application and measurement of isotopes 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 222Rn, as well as models used in the application of these tracers to a range of environmental problems.

  11. Diurnal variations in a sealed radon chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboy, W. B.; James, P. R.; Farmer, C. P.; Beard, J. E.

    1990-12-01

    During experiments to calibrate a radon-in-air counter, some unexpected diurnal variations have been observed. Inside the sealed stainless-steel chamber of a nominal volume of 3 litres, ionised 218Po atoms from the alpha-decay of 222Rn are attracted by an electric field to a ZnS(Ag) scintillation screen via which subsequent α-decay events are detected. Results for this configuration are presented and also for a modified version in which the scintillation screen is replaced by a high-resolution α-detector. Ambient temperature changes were suspected to be responsible for the observed counting-efficiency variation and this has been confirmed by operating the wall of the chamber at various temperatures between 0°C and about 40°C, which revealed a positive temperature coefficient of ˜1%/°C at 25°C. Possible reasons for this effect are considered.

  12. UTILITY OF SHORT-TERM BASEMENT SCREENING RADON MEASUREMENTS TO PREDICT YEAR-LONG RESIDENTIAL RADON CONCENTRATIONS ON UPPER FLOORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nirmalla; Steck, Daniel J; William Field, R

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated temporal and spatial variability between basement radon concentrations (measured for ∼7 d using electret ion chambers) and basement and upper floor radon concentrations (measured for 1 y using alpha track detectors) in 158 residences in Iowa, USA. Utility of short-term measurements to approximate a person's residential radon exposure and effect of housing/occupant factors on predictive ability were evaluated. About 60 % of basement short-term, 60 % of basement year-long and 30 % of upper floor year-long radon measurements were equal to or above the United States Environmental Protection Agency's radon action level of 148 Bq m(-3) Predictive value of a positive short-term test was 44 % given the year-long living space concentration was equal to or above this action level. Findings from this study indicate that cumulative radon-related exposure was more closely approximated by upper floor year-long measurements than short-term or year-long measurements in the basement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Variation with socioeconomic status of indoor radon levels in Great Britain: The less affluent have less radon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Gerald M; Miles, Jon C H; Rees, David; Wakeford, Richard; Bunch, Kathryn J; Vincent, Tim J; Little, Mark P

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a strong correlation between domestic radon levels and socio-economic status (SES) in Great Britain, so that radon levels in homes of people with lower SES are, on average, only about two thirds of those of the more affluent. This trend is apparent using small area measures of SES and also using individual social classes. The reasons for these differences are not known with certainty, but may be connected with greater underpressure in warmer and better-sealed dwellings. There is also a variation of indoor radon levels with the design of the house (detached, terraced, etc.). In part this is probably an effect of SES, but it appears to have other causes as well. Data from other countries are also reviewed, and broadly similar effects seen in the United States for SES, and in other European countries for detached vs other types of housing. Because of correlations with smoking, this tendency for the lower SES groups to experience lower radon levels may underlie the negative association between radon levels and lung cancer rates in a well-known ecological study based on US Counties. Those conducting epidemiological studies of radon should be alert for this effect and control adequately for SES. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Difference in the action mechanism of radon inhalation and radon hot spring water drinking in suppression of hyperuricemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etani, Reo; Kataoka, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2016-06-01

    Although radon therapy is indicated for hyperuricemia, the underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we herein examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation and hot spring water drinking on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemia in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m(3) for 24 h or were given hot spring water for 2 weeks. Mice were then administrated PO at a dose of 500 mg/kg. The results obtained showed that serum uric acid levels were significantly increased by the administration of PO. Radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking significantly inhibited elevations in serum uric acid levels through the suppression of xanthine oxidase activity in the liver. Radon inhalation activated anti-oxidative functions in the liver and kidney. These results suggest that radon inhalation inhibits PO-induced hyperuricemia by activating anti-oxidative functions, while hot spring water drinking may suppress PO-induced elevations in serum uric acid levels through the pharmacological effects of the chemical compositions dissolved in it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  15. Accelerated parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction with fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm and its application in parabolic Radon domain hybrid demultiple method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-xiao; Li, Zhen-chun

    2017-08-01

    Adaptive multiple subtraction is an important step for successfully conducting surface-related multiple elimination in marine seismic exploration. 2D adaptive multiple subtraction conducted in the parabolic Radon domain has been proposed to better separate primaries and multiples than 2D adaptive multiple subtraction conducted in the time-offset domain. Additionally, the parabolic Radon domain hybrid demultiple method combining parabolic Radon filtering and parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction can better remove multiples than the cascaded demultiple method using time-offset domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction and the parabolic Radon transform method sequentially. To solve the matching filter in the optimization problem with L1 norm minimization constraint of primaries, traditional parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction uses the iterative reweighted least squares (IRLS) algorithm, which is computationally expensive for solving a weighted LS inversion in each iteration. In this paper we introduce the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm (FISTA) as a faster alternative to the IRLS algorithm for parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction. FISTA uses the shrinkage-thresholding operator to promote the sparsity of estimated primaries and solves the 2D matching filter with iterative steps. FISTA based parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction reduces the computation time effectively while achieving similar accuracy compared with IRLS based parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction. Additionally, the provided examples show that FISTA based parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction can better separate primaries and multiples than FISTA based time-offset domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction. Furthermore, we introduce FISTA based parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction into the parabolic Radon domain hybrid demultiple method to improve its computation

  16. Development of a radon chamber and measurement of the radon solubility in tissues; Entwicklung einer Radonkammer und Messung der Radonloeslichkeit in Gewebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Andreas

    2015-04-22

    Every year thousands of patients with inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system undergo radon therapy, but the molecular mechanism and the risk of this therapy are not understood. To study the effects of radon exposure in vitro and in vivo we constructed a radon exposure chamber in the framework of the GREWIS project. With this device we are able to expose samples under controlled and reproducible conditions including the radon galleries in Austria and Germany. Adjustable parameters are radon activity-concentration, temperature, humidity and exposure time. These parameters are permanently monitored and controlled. During experiments with cell cultures it is also possible to adjust the CO{sub 2}-concentration. In addition, experiments with mice can be performed with this setup. To measure the radon kinetics in different types of tissue we exposed tissue samples like fat or muscle and mice in the radonchamber. Afterwards we measured the -spectra of the short living radon decay products lead-214 and bismuth-214 in the exposed samples with a HPGe-Detector. We recorded the spectra at different time points after exposure and calculated the initial amount of radon at the end of the exposure period in the sample and investigated the diffusion of the radon out of it. We compared the results from different types of tissue but also activated coal. In an activated coal sample the radon is bound to it via Van-der-Waals-force and the decay spectra are governed by the life time of the bound radon (3,8 days). In contrast in the biological samples the primary radon diffuses out of the samples in less than 20 minutes and the spectra follow the kinetics of the decay of the daughter products. These measurements where performed for the first time under therapy conditions like in radon galleries and also with higher radon concentration. In our experiments we could see an enhanced accumulation of radon and its decay products in fatty tissue compared to muscle tissue. Also in

  17. Measurement of radon potential from soil using a special method of sampling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cosma, Constantin; Papp, Botond; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Victor; Cindea, Ciprian; Suciu, Liviu; Apostu, Adelina

    2010-01-01

    Soil radon gas and/or its exhalation rate are used as indicators for some applications, such as uranium exploration, indoor radon concentration, seismic activity, location of subsurface faults, etc...

  18. Determination of radon flux rates in a uranium mine, Cluff Lake, Saskatchewan. Report No. INFO-0347

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    In 1986, the Atomic Energy Control Board completed a project in which a computer model (VENTRAD) was developed to model underground mine ventilation systems. The accuracy of the radon/radon daughter concentration predictions by the computer model depend on the input parameters describing the radon source term. At present, there is a lack of reliable data on radon sources in general and in uranium mines in particular. This study determined the flux of radon emitted per unit surface area in selected locations of Amok Ltd.'s underground Cluff Lake uranium mine; measured parameters that can have an influence on radon flux; tested the VENTRAD computer program using the input parameters measured in the mine; and determined the total flux of radon per unit surface area from the total amount of radon exhausted from the mine and the total surface area of the mine openings.

  19. Indoor radon exposure and lung cancer: a review of ecological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Ji Young; Lee, Jung-Dong; Joo, So Won; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has high mortality and incidence rates. The leading causes of lung cancer are smoking and radon exposure. Indeed, the World Health Organization (WHO) has categorized radon as a carcinogenic substance causing lung cancer. Radon is a natural, radioactive substance; it is an inert gas that mainly exists in soil or rock. The gas decays into radioactive particles called radon progeny that can enter the human body through breathing. Upon entering the body, these radioactive elements rel...

  20. Innovative radon detecting technique for locating underground heating areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Xue; Jianming Wu; Rao Balusu; Rhys Worrall [CSIRO Exploration & Mining (Australia)

    2003-09-01

    In Australia there is currently no remote sensing technique to locate underground spontaneous combustion of coal remotely from the surface. The main objectives of the project were to investigate and demonstrate a surface-based radon technique developed by Taiyuan University of Technology and used in Chinese coal mines to detect the location of underground spontaneous combustion (sponcom). Radon-222 gas occurs naturally as a decay product of the long-lived uranium-238 that is a common rare element in rock/coal/soil strata. In the event that spontaneous combustion of coal occurs underground, the radon emanation ratio from coal, and its migration through the overlying coal/rock strata increase significantly. The elevated radon concentrations are detected and used to locate the underground area of spontaneous combustion of coal. Field demonstration of the radon technique was carried out in two separate areas at Dartbrook mine to locate the suspected sponcom of coal in these areas. Test results in the LW7 area indicated that there existed four zones of coal heating. Results also indicated that the area of heatings might have been quite extensive prior to the treatments of the sponcom. This implied that the treatments of sponcom in the LW7 goaf were effective. These results are consistent with those based on analysis of gas monitoring data. Test results in the CDH003 area indicated that there existed one zone of coal heating. Results indicated that the heating in this zone was of fairly low intensity. It appears that the identified zone is about 50m off the likely heating location in the area. This discrepancy poses a challenge to the radon technique, however it also provides an opportunity to undertake further study on the radon technique.

  1. Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer: Evidence of an Inverse Association in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a descriptive study of lung cancer death rates compared to county levels of radon in Washington State. Age-specific death rates were computed for white female smokers according to radon exposure. A significant lung cancer excess was found in lowest radon counties. No significant difference was found between the proportion of…

  2. STATEWIDE MAPPING OF FLORIDA SOIL RADON POTENTIALS VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a statewide mapping of Florida soil radon potentials. Statewide maps identify Florida Regions with different levels of soil radon potential. The maps provide scientific estimates of regional radon potentials that can serve as a basis for implementing r...

  3. STATEWIDE MAPPING OF FLORIDA SOIL RADON POTENTIALS VOLUME 2. APPENDICES A-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a statewide mapping of Florida soil radon potentials. Statewide maps identify Florida Regions with different levels of soil radon potential. The maps provide scientific estimates of regional radon potentials that can serve as a basis for implementing r...

  4. Evidence for and implications of self-background of radon dosimeters with glass-fiber filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, L.W.; Lembrechts, J.; van der Graaf, E.R.; Stoop, P.

    The first national radon survey in the Netherlands was conducted in 1984 with passive radon dosimeters that contain glass-fiber diffusion filters. During the last few years, measurements of outdoor-radon concentrations and information in the literature suggested to us that these dosimeters may give

  5. Radon Concentration in the Cataniapo-Autana River Basin, Amazonas State, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Greaves, E. D.; Alvarez, H.; Liendo, J.; Vásquez, G.

    2007-10-01

    Radon activity concentration is measured in rivers of the Autana-Cataniapo hydrologic basin. The region experiments mining and it is forecasted that the basin will be perturbed. Radon activity monitoring is one of the methods to measure environmental changes. Values of radon concentration in water range between 0.4 and 30 Bq L-1.

  6. Results of the second Dutch national survey on radon in dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop P; Glastra P; Hiemstra Y; de Vries L; Lembrechts J; LSO

    1998-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, radon concentrations and effective air flows were measured in about 1500 Dutch dwellings built between 1985 and 1993. The goal of this investigation was to describe the trend in the average radon concentration and quantify the relative importance of the different sources of radon.

  7. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? Federal...

  8. Survey of Indoor Radon Concentrations in California Elementary Schools. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Joey Y.; Liu, Kai-Shen; Waldman, Jed

    This paper reports on the concentrations of radon found within a sample of 378 elementary schools in California. Long-term alpha-track radon detectors were placed in 6,485 classrooms within participating schools to detect radon levels for between 220 to 366 days. Only classrooms were tested. Results show that about 5.6 percent of the schools…

  9. EFFECTS OF NATURAL AND FORCED BASEMENT VENTILATION ON RADON LEVELS IN SINGLE FAMILY DWELLINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives, for the first time, results of an extensive study of the effect of ventilation on radon concentrations and radon entry rate in a single-family dwelling. Measurements of radon concentrations, building dynamics, and environmental parameters made in Princeton Unive...

  10. Measurement of soil-gas radon in some areas of northern Rajasthan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The health hazards of the radioactive gas radon on general public are well known. In order to understand ... Rn survey was carried out for the first time using RAD7, an electronic radon detector manufactured by. Durridge Company (USA), at ... to find a relationship between the soil-gas radon concentration and depth. 2.

  11. Soil radon survey to assess NAPL contamination from an ancient spill. Do kerosene vapors affect radon partition ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Gabriele; Lucchetti, Carlo; Pompilj, Francesca; Galli, Gianfranco; Tuccimei, Paola; Curatolo, Pierpaolo; Giorgi, Riccardo

    2017-05-01

    A soil radon-deficit survey was carried out in a site polluted with kerosene (Rome, Italy) in winter 2016 to assess the contamination due to the NAPL residual component in the vadose zone and to investigate the role of the vapor plume. Radon is indeed more soluble in the residual NAPL than in air or water, but laboratory experiments demonstrated that it is also preferentially partitioned in the NAPL vapors that transport it and may influence soil radon distribution patterns. Specific experimental configurations were designed and applied to a 31-station grid to test this hypothesis; two RAD7 radon monitors were placed in-series and connected to the top of a hollow probe driven up to 80-cm depth; the first instrument was directly attached to the probe and received humid soil gas, which was counted and then conveyed to the second monitor through a desiccant (drierite) cylinder capturing moisture and eventually the NAPL volatile component plus the radon dissolved in vapors. The values from the two instruments were cross-calibrated through specifically designed laboratory experiments and compared. The results are in agreement within the error range, so the presence of significant NAPL vapors, eventually absorbed by drierite, was ruled out. This is in agreement with low concentrations of soil VOCs. Accordingly, the radon-deficit is ascribed to the residual NAPL in the soil pores, as shown very well also by the obtained maps. Preferential areas of radon-deficit were recognised, as in previous surveys. An average estimate of 21 L (17 Kg) of residual NAPL per cubic meter of terrain is provided on the basis of original calculations, developed from published equations. A comparison with direct determination of total hydrocarbon concentration (23 kg per cubic meter of terrain) is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radon and ammonia transects across the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semprini, L.; Kruger, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radon and ammonia transects, conducted at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, involve measurement of concentration gradients at wells along lines of structural significance in the reservoir. Analysis of four transects showed radon concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 3.60 nCi/kg and ammonia concentrations from 17.6 to 59.3 mg/l. The data showed the lower concentrations in wells of lowest enthalpy fluid and the higher concentrations in wells of highest enthalpy fluid. Linear correlation analysis of the radon-enthalpy data indicated a strong relationship, with a marked influence by the two-phase conditions of the produced fluid. It appears that after phase separation in the reservoir, radon achieves radioactive equilibrium between fluid and rock, suggesting that the phase separation occurs well within the reservoir. A two-phase mixing model based on radon-enthalpy relations allows estimation of the fluid phase temperatures in the reservoir. Correlations of ammonia concentration with fluid enthalpy suggests an equilibrium partitioning model in which enrichment of ammonia correlates with higher enthalpy vapor.

  13. Measurement of radon concentration in super-Kamiokande's buffer gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Y.; Sekiya, H.; Tasaka, S.; Takeuchi, Y.; Wendell, R. A.; Matsubara, M.; Nakahata, M.

    2017-09-01

    To precisely measure radon concentrations in purified air supplied to the Super-Kamiokande detector as a buffer gas, we have developed a highly sensitive radon detector with an intrinsic background as low as 0.33 ± 0.07 mBq /m3 . In this article, we discuss the construction and calibration of this detector as well as results of its application to the measurement and monitoring of the buffer gas layer above Super-Kamiokande. In March 2013, the chilled activated charcoal system used to remove radon in the input buffer gas was upgraded. After this improvement, a dramatic reduction in the radon concentration of the supply gas down to 0.08 ± 0.07 mBq /m3 . Additionally, the Rn concentration of the in-situ buffer gas has been measured 28.8 ± 1.7 mBq /m3 using the new radon detector. Based on these measurements we have determined that the dominant source of Rn in the buffer gas arises from contamination from the Super-Kamiokande tank itself.

  14. Relationships between indoor radon concentrations, thermal retrofit and dwelling characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignan, Bernard; Le Ponner, Eline; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-12-01

    A monitoring campaign was conducted on a sample of more than 3400 dwellings in Brittany, France from 2011 to 2014. The measurements were collected using one passive dosimeter per dwelling over two months during the heating season, according to the NF ISO 11665-8 (2013) standard. Moreover, building characteristics such as the period of construction, construction material, type of foundation, and thermal retrofit were determined using a questionnaire. The final data set consisted of 3233 houses with the measurement results and the questionnaire answers. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to explore the relationships between the indoor radon concentrations and building characteristics, particularly the thermal retrofit. The geometric mean of the indoor radon concentration was 155 Bq m(-3) (with a geometric standard deviation of 3). The houses that had undergone a thermal retrofit had a higher average radon concentration than those that had not, which may have been due to a decrease in air permeability of the building envelope following rehabilitation work that did not systematically include proper management of the ventilation. Other building characteristics, primarily the building material and the foundation type, were associated with the indoor radon concentration. The indoor radon concentrations were higher in older houses built with granite or other stone, with a slab-on-grade foundation and without any ventilation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radon in Groundwater of the Northeastern Gran Canaria Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alonso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 222Rn has been detected in 28 groundwater samples from the northeast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain utilizing a closed loop system consisting of an AlphaGUARD monitor that measures radon activity concentration in the air by means of an ionization chamber, and an AquaKIT set that transfers dissolved radon in the water samples to the air within the circuit. Radon concentration in the water samples studied varies between 0.3 and 76.9 Bq/L. Spanish radiological protection regulations limit the concentration of 222Rn for drinking water to 100 Bq/L, therefore the values obtained for all the analyzed samples are below this threshold. The hydrogeological study reveals a significant correspondence between the radon activity concentration and the material characteristics of the aquifer. For a selected group of samples with high radon concentrations, gross alpha activity has been determined to have values higher than the prescriptive screening level (0.1 Bq/L.

  16. Radon exposure at a radioactive waste storage facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocchi, F H; Campos, M P; Dellamano, J C; Silva, G M

    2014-06-01

    The Waste Management Department of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) is responsible for the safety management of the waste generated at all internal research centers and that of other waste producers such as industry, medical facilities, and universities in Brazil. These waste materials, after treatment, are placed in an interim storage facility. Among them are (226)Ra needles used in radiotherapy, siliceous cake arising from conversion processes, and several other classes of waste from the nuclear fuel cycle, which contain Ra-226 producing (222)Rn gas daughter.In order to estimate the effective dose for workers due to radon inhalation, the radon concentration at the storage facility has been assessed within this study. Radon measurements have been carried out through the passive method with solid-state nuclear track detectors (CR-39) over a period of nine months, changing detectors every month in order to determine the long-term average levels of indoor radon concentrations. The radon concentration results, covering the period from June 2012 to March 2013, varied from 0.55 ± 0.05 to 5.19 ± 0.45 kBq m(-3). The effective dose due to (222)Rn inhalation was further assessed following ICRP Publication 65.

  17. Correlating precursory declines in groundwater radon with earthquake magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, T

    2014-01-01

    Both studies at the Antung hot spring in eastern Taiwan and at the Paihe spring in southern Taiwan confirm that groundwater radon can be a consistent tracer for strain changes in the crust preceding an earthquake when observed in a low-porosity fractured aquifer surrounded by a ductile formation. Recurrent anomalous declines in groundwater radon were observed at the Antung D1 monitoring well in eastern Taiwan prior to the five earthquakes of magnitude (Mw ): 6.8, 6.1, 5.9, 5.4, and 5.0 that occurred on December 10, 2003; April 1, 2006; April 15, 2006; February 17, 2008; and July 12, 2011, respectively. For earthquakes occurring on the longitudinal valley fault in eastern Taiwan, the observed radon minima decrease as the earthquake magnitude increases. The above correlation has been proven to be useful for early warning local large earthquakes. In southern Taiwan, radon anomalous declines prior to the 2010 Mw 6.3 Jiasian, 2012 Mw 5.9 Wutai, and 2012 ML 5.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes were also recorded at the Paihe spring. For earthquakes occurring on different faults in southern Taiwan, the correlation between the observed radon minima and the earthquake magnitude is not yet possible. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Earthquake forecasting studies using radon time series data in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Arvind; Fu, Ching-Chou; Lin, Shih-Jung; Chou, Kuang-Wu; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Cheng-Hong

    2017-04-01

    For few decades, growing number of studies have shown usefulness of data in the field of seismogeochemistry interpreted as geochemical precursory signals for impending earthquakes and radon is idendified to be as one of the most reliable geochemical precursor. Radon is recognized as short-term precursor and is being monitored in many countries. This study is aimed at developing an effective earthquake forecasting system by inspecting long term radon time series data. The data is obtained from a network of radon monitoring stations eastblished along different faults of Taiwan. The continuous time series radon data for earthquake studies have been recorded and some significant variations associated with strong earthquakes have been observed. The data is also examined to evaluate earthquake precursory signals against environmental factors. An automated real-time database operating system has been developed recently to improve the data processing for earthquake precursory studies. In addition, the study is aimed at the appraisal and filtrations of these environmental parameters, in order to create a real-time database that helps our earthquake precursory study. In recent years, automatic operating real-time database has been developed using R, an open source programming language, to carry out statistical computation on the data. To integrate our data with our working procedure, we use the popular and famous open source web application solution, AMP (Apache, MySQL, and PHP), creating a website that could effectively show and help us manage the real-time database.

  19. Radon epidemiology and nuclear track detectors: Methods, results and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, F. [Unit of Radioactivity and Related Health Effects, Technology and Health Department, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.bochicchio@iss.it

    2005-11-15

    An important achievement of nuclear track detectors is that they render it possible to measure a large number of radon concentrations. These are necessary for epidemiological studies aimed to estimate the lung cancer risk due to exposure to radon and its decay products in dwellings. Many case-control studies were conducted in the last 15 years in Europe, North America and China, in order to avoid the uncertainties associated with the risk extrapolation from epidemiological studies on miners exposed in underground mines. In this review paper, the main methodological issues of these studies are introduced: confounding factors, the impact of radon exposure uncertainties on the estimated risk, the retrospective assessment of radon exposure through the measurement of Po210 surface concentration on glass objects, the interaction between radon and smoking, statistical methods to analyze data and combine studies, etc. As regards the estimated risk of lung cancer, the main characteristics and results of each study are reported and discussed, together with the results of meta-analyses and, most importantly, of the three recently published analyses that pool 2 Chinese, 7 North American, and 13 European studies. Finally, some conclusions are given and a brief reference is made to ongoing studies.

  20. A radon daughter deposition model for low background experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rielage, K.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Mastbaum, A.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.

    2009-05-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground, such as dark matter searches and neutrinoless double-beta decay, aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly ^222Rn) and its subsequent daughters present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, more troublesome is the deposition of radon daughters on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by daughters supported by the long half life (22 y) of ^210Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of daughters onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon daughters on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model will be presented.

  1. Comparison of radon exposure assessment results: {sup 210}Po surface activity on glass objects vs. contemporary air radon concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, F. E-mail: francesco.bochicchio@iss.it; McLaughlin, J.P.; Walsh, C

    2003-06-01

    Radon exposure assessment in case-control studies on radon and lung cancer is generally based on contemporary radon concentration measurements, which can be affected by significant changes in the building structures or in living habits. Another method to estimate the radon exposure of the subjects is the recently developed retrospective dosimetry technique based on the {sup 210}Po surface activity from glass objects. In order to compare the results obtained by the two methods, a study has been carried out in a sample of 26 dwellings in Rome, with radon concentration values ranging from 28 to 623 Bq m{sup -3}. Retrospective detectors based on CR-39 and LR 115 were exposed on 50 glass objects in bedrooms and living rooms. The correlation factor between the two sets of data, after removing six extreme values, is 0.67, which is similar to results obtained in other validation studies of similar sample size. The correlation increases to 0.83 if the 21 objects exposed in non-smoky dwellings are selected, while it vanishes to -0.01 for the 23 objects exposed in smoky dwellings, suggesting quite larger variations of plate-out in presence of environmental tobacco smoke.

  2. Indoor and soil radon measurements in the Hyblean Foreland (South-East Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alessandro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor radon behavior in two sites of SE Sicily was studied as a function of the soil radon concentration. The chosen locations were Ragusa and Modica towns, placed in the Hyblean Plateau (northern margin of the African Plate. Soil samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry to determine the amount of radionuclides. Indoor air and soil gas radon measurements were simultaneously performed in both sites using active detectors. Radon in soil was measured one meter deep. A positive correlation was obtained between indoor radon concentration and the soil gas concentration.

  3. A cost-effect analysis of an intervention against radon in homes

    OpenAIRE

    Hein Stigum; Terje Strand; Per Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Background  Key words  : Radon exposure, lung cancer, cost-effect analysis, attributable risk, models-mathematical: Radon is a radioactive gas that may leak into buildings from the ground. Radon exposure is a risk factor for lung cancer. An intervention against radon exposure in homes may consist of locating homes with high radon exposure (above 200 Bq m-3) and improving these, and of protecting future houses. The purpose of this paper is to calculate the costs and the effects of this interve...

  4. Evaluation of radon occurrence in groundwater from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, 1986–2015, with application to potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.

    2017-05-11

    Results from 1,041 groundwater samples collected during 1986‒2015 from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, associated with 25 or more groundwater samples with concentrations of radon-222, were evaluated in an effort to identify variations in radon-222 activities or concentrations and to classify potential radon-222 exposure from groundwater and indoor air. Radon-222 is hereafter referred to as “radon.” Radon concentrations in groundwater greater than or equal to the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for public-water supply systems of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) were present in about 87 percent of the water samples, whereas concentrations greater than or equal to the proposed alternative MCL (AMCL) for public water-supply systems of 4,000 pCi/L were present in 14 percent. The highest radon concentrations were measured in groundwater from the schists, gneisses, and quartzites of the Piedmont Physiographic Province.In this study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, groundwater samples were aggregated among 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania to identify units with high median radon concentrations in groundwater. Graphical plots and statistical tests were used to determine variations in radon concentrations in groundwater and indoor air. Median radon concentrations in groundwater samples and median radon concentrations in indoor air samples within the 16 geologic units were classified according to proposed and recommended regulatory limits to explore potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air. All of the geologic units, except for the Allegheny (Pa) and Glenshaw (Pcg) Formations in the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, had median radon concentrations greater than the proposed EPA MCL of 300 pCi/L, and the Peters Creek Schist (Xpc), which is in the Piedmont

  5. A fast butterfly algorithm for generalized Radon transforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Jingwei

    2013-06-21

    Generalized Radon transforms, such as the hyperbolic Radon transform, cannot be implemented as efficiently in the frequency domain as convolutions, thus limiting their use in seismic data processing. We have devised a fast butterfly algorithm for the hyperbolic Radon transform. The basic idea is to reformulate the transform as an oscillatory integral operator and to construct a blockwise lowrank approximation of the kernel function. The overall structure follows the Fourier integral operator butterfly algorithm. For 2D data, the algorithm runs in complexity O(N2 log N), where N depends on the maximum frequency and offset in the data set and the range of parameters (intercept time and slowness) in the model space. From a series of studies, we found that this algorithm can be significantly more efficient than the conventional time-domain integration. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. The new social marketing challenge to promote radon testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPofi, J A; LaTour, M S; Henthorne, T L

    2001-01-01

    As part of a project funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, exploratory qualitative analysis was conducted to gain insight into perceptions of the threat of radon in the Karst geological region (i.e., Northern Alabama, Central Tennessee, Central Kentucky). Based on health practitioner input, it was clear that the tenets of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the probing afforded by focus group research would provide greatly needed theory-based insight into the public reactions (or lack thereof) to the threat posed by radon. Qualitative research findings of this project are discussed as well as preliminary recommendations are provided to advance the protection motivation theory research agenda for promoting awareness of the threat of radon and to influence appropriate response to that threat.

  7. Radon measurement of natural gas using alpha scintillation cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitto, Michael E; Torres, Miguel A; Haines, Douglas K; Semkow, Thomas M

    2014-12-01

    Due to their sensitivity and ease of use, alpha-scintillation cells are being increasingly utilized for measurements of radon ((222)Rn) in natural gas. Laboratory studies showed an average increase of 7.3% in the measurement efficiency of alpha-scintillation cells when filled with less-dense natural gas rather than regular air. A theoretical calculation comparing the atomic weight and density of air to that of natural gas suggests a 6-7% increase in the detection efficiency when measuring radon in the cells. A correction is also applicable when the sampling location and measurement laboratory are at different elevations. These corrections to the measurement efficiency need to be considered in order to derive accurate concentrations of radon in natural gas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity of a LR-115 based radon dosemeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagnoli, F.; Bochicchio, F.; Bucci, S

    1999-06-01

    The first results of a study on the sensitivity of a LR-115 based radon dosemeter as a function of the absorber thickness are presented. The theoretical sensitivity was analytically calculated considering a constant detector response to alpha particles within a given energy range and up to a critical angle of incidence. The results are presented in two extreme situations: i) both radon and its decay products uniformly distributed in the chamber volume; ii) radon decay products uniformly deposited on the chamber walls. The agreement with the experimental curve shape appears better in the former case, suggesting that either the parameter values of the model could be different from the chosen values, or the model was too simplified.

  9. Sensitivity of a LR-115 based radon dosemeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, F; Bucci, S

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a study on the sensitivity of a LR-115 based radon dosemeter as a function of the absorber thickness are presented. The theoretical sensitivity was analytically calculated considering a constant detector response to alpha particles within a given energy range and up to a critical angle of incidence. The results are presented in two extreme situations: i) both radon and its decay products uniformly distributed in the chamber volume; ii) radon decay products uniformly deposited on the chamber walls. The agreement with the experimental curve shape appears better in the former case, suggesting that either the parameter values of the model could be different from the chosen values, or the model was too simplified.

  10. The Italian national survey of indoor radon exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciocchetti, G; Scacco, F; Baldassini, P G; Battella, C; Bovi, M; Monte, L

    1985-10-01

    An investigation is being developed by the Comitato Nazionale per la Ricerca e per lo Sviluppo dell'Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative, ENEA, to assess the indoor exposure of the Italian population. The programme, which started in 1982, includes regional and local surveys in all the administrative districts and intensive investigations of factors which influence indoor radon levels. The survey is organized by statistical areas of sampling to obtain representative samples of houses. The definition of the areas takes into account basic parameters e.g. geolithological environments, radon soil gas from underlying soils and rocks, specific activities of local building materials, climatic and seasonal variations, building technology, types of houses and town planning. The collected data may also be used for the compilation of radon risk maps to plan special monitoring and remedial actions if needed. Preliminary results concerning the above items are discussed.

  11. Studies on the reduction of radon plate-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, M.; Nakib, M.; Calkins, R.; Cooley, J.; Sekula, S.

    2015-08-01

    The decay of common radioactive gases, such as radon, produces stable isotopes by a sequence of daughter particles with varied half-lives. These daughter particles are a significant source of gamma, neutron, and alpha (α) particle backgrounds that can mimic desired signals in dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. In the LUMINA Laboratory at Southern Methodist University (SMU), studies of radon plate-out onto copper samples are conducted using one of XIA's first five UltraLo 1800 alpha counters. We present results from investigations into various mitigation approaches. A custom-built copper holder (in either plastic or metal) has been designed and produced to maximize the copper's exposure to 220Rn. The 220Rn source is a collection of camping lantern mantles. We present the current status of control and experimental methods for addressing radon exposure levels.

  12. Development of high sensitive radon detector with electrostatic collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Machiko [Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Science; Tasaka, Shigeki; Hori, Hidemitsu; Okumura, Kimihiro; Kajita, Takaaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo

    1997-10-01

    One of the main purposes of Super-Kamiokande is the observation of solar neutrinos. The radon concentration in the detector water should be less than about 5 mBq/m{sup 3}, because low energy background events in this experiment are dominated by radon daughters. We developed a high sensitive radon detector with an electrostatic collection method and a PIN photodiode to measure the energy of {alpha} particles from the daughter nuclei of {sup 222}Rn. We constructed a calibration system to study high voltage dependence and absolute humidity dependence of the detector. As a result, the absolute humidity dependence was clearly observed at the region less than 1.6 g/m{sup 3}. The calibration factor at 0.08 g/m{sup 3} was 1.8{+-}0.1 (count/d)/(mBq/m{sup 3}). The detection limit was 13 mBq/m{sup 3} by the Curie`s method. (author)

  13. Estimate of radon exposure in geothermal spas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Olszewski, Jerzy; Zmyślony, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal waters may contain soluble, radioactive radon gas. Spa facilities that use geothermal water may be a source of an increased radiation dose to people who stay there. It has been necessary to assess the exposure to radon among people: workers and visitors of spa centers that use geothermal waters. In 2013, workers of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine measured concentrations of radon over the geothermal water surfaces in 9 selected Polish spa centers which use geothermal water for recreational and medicinal purposes. The measurements were performed by active dosimetry using Lucas scintillation cells. According to our research, the doses received by the personnel in Polish geothermal spas are geothermal spas, neither the workers nor the visitors are at risk of receiving doses that exceed the safe limits. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Radon control activities for lung cancer prevention in national comprehensive cancer control program plans, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Antonio; Stewart, Sherri L; Angell, William

    2013-08-08

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms "radon," "radiation," or "lung." Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program's most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n=21), remediation (n=11), support radon policy activities (n=13), and policy evaluation (n=1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n=21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs.

  15. Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Angell, William

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. Methods We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms “radon,” “radiation,” or “lung.” Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program’s most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Results Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n = 21), remediation (n = 11), support radon policy activities (n = 13), and policy evaluation (n = 1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n = 21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Conclusion Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs. PMID:23928457

  16. Geogenic and anthropogenic impacts on indoor radon in the Techa River region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I; Malinovsky, G; Vasilyev, A; Onischenko, A; Seleznev, A

    2016-11-15

    Indoor radon concentration was studied in the 14 settlements located near the Techa River, which was contaminated by radioactive wastes in 1950-s. Results of the radon survey were used for analysis of the relationship between the indoor radon and main geologic factors (Pre-Jurassic formations, Quaternary sediments and faults), local geogenic radon potential and anthropogenic factors. Main influencing factors explain 58% of the standard deviation of indoor radon concentration. Association of the air exchange influence over radon concentration with underlying geological media was related to different contributions of geogenic advective and diffusive radon entries. The properties of geological formation to transfer radon gas in interaction with the house can be considered within the radon geogenic potential concept. The study of the radon exposure of the Techa River population can be used to estimate the contribution of natural radon to the overall radiation exposure of the local population during the period of radioactive waste discharges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantile regression and Bayesian cluster detection to identify radon prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarra, Annalina; Fontanella, Lara; Valentini, Pasquale; Palermi, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    Albeit the dominant source of radon in indoor environments is the geology of the territory, many studies have demonstrated that indoor radon concentrations also depend on dwelling-specific characteristics. Following a stepwise analysis, in this study we propose a combined approach to delineate radon prone areas. We first investigate the impact of various building covariates on indoor radon concentrations. To achieve a more complete picture of this association, we exploit the flexible formulation of a Bayesian spatial quantile regression, which is also equipped with parameters that controls the spatial dependence across data. The quantitative knowledge of the influence of each significant building-specific factor on the measured radon levels is employed to predict the radon concentrations that would have been found if the sampled buildings had possessed standard characteristics. Those normalised radon measures should reflect the geogenic radon potential of the underlying ground, which is a quantity directly related to the geological environment. The second stage of the analysis is aimed at identifying radon prone areas, and to this end, we adopt a Bayesian model for spatial cluster detection using as reference unit the building with standard characteristics. The case study is based on a data set of more than 2000 indoor radon measures, available for the Abruzzo region (Central Italy) and collected by the Agency of Environmental Protection of Abruzzo, during several indoor radon monitoring surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on mechanism of detecting underground fire by radon measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Wu, J. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). College of Mining and Engineering

    2003-06-01

    The rules governing the distribution and migration of radon in the earth stratum and the emission law of radon when coal samples were heated are introduced. The distribution equation of radon concentration in the stratum under spontaneous fire is deduced and the boundary condition is determined. By calculation, the radon distribution function in the stratum above the fire is obtained. The result reveals that radon and its isotopes can migrate for a long distance in the stratum, and the radon emission ratio in coal and rock increases proportionally with the increase of temperature. Therefore it is possible to locate underground fire and calculate its temperature by isotopic radon measurement technique. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Radon measurements with CR-39 track detectors at specific locations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulug Asiye

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor radon concentration levels at three sites in Turkey were measured using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The annual mean of radon concentration was estimated on the basis of four quarter measurements at specific locations in Turkey. The measuring sites are on the active faults. The results of radon measurements are based on 280 measurements in doors. The annual arithmetic means of radon concentrations at three sites (Isparta Egirdir, and Yalvac were found to be 164 Bqm–3, 124 Bqm–3, and 112 Bqm–3 respectively, ranging from 78 Bqm–3 to 279 Bqm–3. The in door radon concentrations were investigated with respect to the ventilation conditions and the age of buildings. The ventilation conditions were determined to be the main factor affecting the in door radon concentrations. The in door radon concentrations in the new buildings were higher than ones found in the old buildings.

  20. Radon intercomparison measurements 2006 at PSI; Die Vergleichsmessung 2006 fuer Radongasmessgeraete am PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterweck, G.; Schuler, C

    2006-06-15

    Fifteen radon measurement services participated in the 2006 Radon Intercomparison Exercise performed at the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) during March 7th to 21st, 2006. Twelve of these laboratories were approved by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health and their participation in the intercomparison exercise was a requirement to warrant quality of measurements. Radon gas detectors (etched-track, electronic and electret ionisation chambers) and instruments (ionisation chambers and electrostatic precipitation) were exposed in the PSI Radon Chamber in a reference atmosphere with an average radon gas concentration of 1090 Bqm{sup -3} leading to a radon gas exposure of 366 kBqhm{sup -3}. (author)

  1. Calculation of lung cancer incidence in the Netherlands by smoking and radon exposure. Implications for the effect of radon; Berekening van de longkankerincidentie in Nederland door roken en blootstelling aan radon. Implicaties voor het effect van radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenhouts, H.P.; Brugmans, J.P. [Laboratorium voor Stralingsonderzoek, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-09-01

    Although the main cause of lung cancer is smoking cigarettes, part of the cases are subscribed to radon exposure, in particular {alpha}-radiation from daughter products. However, the relation between lung cancer and radon exposure is rather insecure. Based on international reports (e.g. BEIR VI) and extrapolation of lung cancer incidence in uranium mine workers to the population of the USA and subsequently to the Netherlands, the number of lung cancer cases in the Netherlands is estimated to be circa 800 per year, varying between 200-2000. Results of the analysis are summarized in this article. 10 refs.

  2. Radon Monitoring in Army Stand-Alone Housing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    damage lung tissue and lead I to increased risk of developing lang cancer . Your risk of developing lung cancer from exposure to radon depends upon the...of developing lung cancer than exposure to a significantly elevated level for a short time. In general, your risk increases as the level of radon and...000mm 0Mmm *000 OOO 0 0w 0 0 000 -0-0 *4 0 880 mama 0 0000000000 000 000Eca ( el cN) 00 9 ’ qqO .00 1(10 0 -U M w co SEE wSS SEES NSEwESO m v MM O v mm

  3. Residential radon and COPD. An ecological study in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Lorenzo, Raquel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Ramis, Rebeca; Aragonés, Nuria; Kelsey, Karl T; Carballeira-Roca, Consuelo; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Barros-Dios, Juan M

    2017-02-01

    Radon is a human lung carcinogen but it might be linked with other respiratory diseases. We aimed to assess the relationship between residential radon exposure and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) prevalence and hospital admissions at a municipal level. We designed an ecological study where we included those municipalities with at least three radon measurements. Using mixed Poisson regression models, we calculated the relative risk (RR) for COPD for each 100 Bq/m 3 of increase in radon concentration and also the relative risk for COPD using a cut-off point of 50 Bq/m 3 . We did not have individual data on cigarette smoking and therefore we used a proxy (bladder cancer standardized mortality rate) that has proved to account for tobacco consumption. We performed separate analyses for sex and also sensitivity analysis considering age and rurality. A total of 3040 radon measurements and 49,393 COPD cases were included. The relative risk for COPD prevalence was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92-0.97) while for hospital admissions the RR was 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00-1.10) for each 100 Bq/m 3 . Relative risks were higher for women compared to men. Using a categorical analysis with a cut-off point of 50 Bq/m 3 , the RR for COPD prevalence was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and for hospital admissions it was 1.08 (95% CI: 1.00-1.17) for women living in municipalities with more than 50 Bq/m 3 . All risks were also higher for women. No relevant differences were observed for age, rurality or other categories for radon exposure. While the influence of radon on COPD prevalence is unclear depending on the approach used, it seems that residential radon might increase the risk of hospital admissions in COPD patients. Women have a higher risk than men in all situations. Since this is an ecological study, results should be interpreted cautiously.

  4. Soil gas radon concentration across faults near Caracas, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Caracas (Venezuela); Flores, N.; Urbani, F. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Dept. de Geologia, Caracas (Venezuela); Carreno, R. [Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologia, Apdo. 47334, Caracas 1041A (Venezuela)

    2001-09-01

    SSNTD were used across tectonic features of different degree of activity and lithology in four localities north of Caracas, Venezuela. The homemade dosimeters with LR115 film were buried 20-30 cm in the ground. This cheap and low- tech method proved very useful to understand the tectonic features involved, measuring higher Radon concentration above traces of active faults while in old and sealed faults the results only show the effect of the surrounding lithology. Radon concentration range is 4.3 - 27.2 kB/m{sup 3}. (Author)

  5. Radon in the water from drilled wells. Results from an investigation in Oerebro; Radon i vatten fraan bergborrade brunnar. Resultat fraan en undersoekning i oerebro kommun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liden, E.; Andersson, Lennart [Regionsjukhuset, Oerebro (Sweden). Yrkes- och miljoemedicinska kliniken; Linden, A. [Svensk Geofysik AB, Falun (Sweden); Aakerblom, G. [Statens Straalskyddsinstitut, Stockholm (Sweden); Aakesson, T. [Miljoe- och haelsoskyddsfoervaltningen, Oerebro (Sweden)

    1995-09-01

    In 1991 a drilled well containing water with a radon count of about 20,000 Bq/l was found in the city of Oerebro in southern Sweden. A study was started to develop measures to decrease the radon content of water, investigate public health risks and determine the prevalence of high-radon waters in Sweden. 1991-94 various techniques were tested to reduce the concentration of radon in water. The efficiency of aerating high-radon drinking water was studied under field conditions using two modified aerators in a well, in a pressure tank, and in a column of pellets. The efficiency varied from 20 to 99%. A survey of radon in water from 269 drilled wells was conducted in the Municipality of Oerebro. In water from 78 wells, the mean concentration of radon was 1336 Bq/l. The emanation of radon during normal household activities was studied in a home supplied with water from a drilled well whose radon count was approx 20,000 Bq/l. A geological investigation revealed the presence of thin Uranium-loaded fissures in the bedrock (granite) surrounding the well. 130 refs, 16 figs, 14 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of the open vial method in the radon measurement; Evaluacion del metodo del vial abierto en la medicion de radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The open vial method is a simple technique, under-utilized but that take advantage of the great radon solubility in organic solvents, therefore applies in the measurement of the radon concentration exhaled in soil. The method consists on the exposition to the gas radon of an open vial with scintillating solution. An integral mathematical model for indoors that describes the emanation processes and gas radon exhalation was developed, as well as the radon dissolution in the scintillation liquid, besides obtaining the characteristic parameters of the experimental system proposed for the radon concentration calculation exhaled by soils. Two experimental arrangements were designed with exposition cameras of 12 and 6 L and quantity of different soil. The open vial was prepared with a mixture of 8 ml of deionized water and 12 ml of scintillation liquid OptiPhase Hi Safe 3 in polyethylene vials; the measurements of the dissolved radon were carried out in scintillation liquid equipment. As a result, on average 2.0% of the exhaled radon is dissolved in the open vial and the dissolved fraction is independent of the experimental arrangement. Also was observed that the exposition time does not affect the radon dissolution significantly, in correspondence with the reported in the literature. (Author)

  7. Mapping of gas radon in soil of the Fresnillo City, Zacatecas; Mapeo de gas radon en suelo de la Ciudad de Fresnillo, Zacatecas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Q, I. S.; Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    With the purpose of locating areas with high rates of gas radon exhalation, it has begun to measure the radon flow in soil for residence use in the Fresnillo City, Zacatecas State, Mexico, applying the method of the open vial and liquid scintillation. The gas radon accumulation is made in a camera situated to a depth between 25 and 35 cm. In this work the partial results of the research in course are presented. The values obtained for the radon exhalation have varied of <2.25 up to 14.42 Bq/m{sup 2}{center_dot}h. (Author)

  8. Radon in schools. An elevation measurement in schools in Baden-Wuerttemberg; Radon in Schulen. Eine Erhebungsmessung in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenbeck, I.; Naber, C.; Frank, G.; Wilhelm, C.; Schaller, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Sicherheit und Umwelt

    2016-07-01

    With an effective dose of about 1.1 mSv per year, radon and its secondary products have the biggest share in the population's natural radiation exposure. For implementation of the new EU directive 2013/59/EURATOM dated January 17, 2014, it is now planned to adapt the limit values of the Radiation Protection Ordinance and to extend the scope of validity in the EU member states. The ''Radon at Schools'' project is to cover an area-wide survey of radon concentrations in room air of schools in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Potential hazards caused by radon-222 and secondary products of radon are to be studied. For the project, 1600 schools were selected and requested to participate by an information letter. Half of the schools is distributed over the entire area of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The other half is located in areas of increased radon potential. Radon concentration in room air is determined passively by Karlsruhe radon exposimeters. Subsequently, active radon measurements will be made at conspicuous schools and information events will be offered for municipalities, teachers, interested parents, and pupils.

  9. Measurement of radon concentration in water by means of {alpha}, {gamma} spectrometry. Radon concentration in ground and spring water in Hiroshima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn, T{sub 1/2}=3.8235{+-}0.0003d) is {alpha}-ray releasing nuclide, so that it can not be detected by {gamma}-ray measurement. But, the daughter nuclides {sup 214}Pb (T{sub 1/2}=26.8 min) and {sup 214}Bi (T{sub 1/2}=19.9 min) release {gamma}-ray, accordingly they are measured by Ge detector. Their radioactive equilibrium is kept in the closed vessel, because their half-lives are shorter than that of radon. We developed a measurement method of radon concentration by means of {gamma}-spectrometry. We applied this method to catch radon in the atmosphere by active carbon. The same principle can be applied to radon in water. Radon concentrations in the ground water were measured in 22 points in the Higashi-Hiroshima city and 82 points in the Hiroshima prefecture. The efficiencies of {gamma}-ray were determined. The radon concentration showed between 11 and 459 Bq/l and the average was 123 Bq/l. The high concentration of radon was distributed in the spring of granitic layer and higher concentration of radon were observed in the ground water of fault. (S.Y.)

  10. Use of the radon gas as a natural geophysical tracer; Utilizacion del gas radon como un trazador geofisico natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Lopez M, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work it is denoted the applications of the radon gas like a natural geophysical radiotracer in the different branches of the Earth Sciences (Geology, geophysics and geochemistry). It importance resides in its employment like one additional tool to register the possible occurrence of seismic events by means of radon anomalies that are presented in land movements (volcanic eruptions and presence of geothermal areas), as well as its potential in environmental works whose purpose is the evaluation of the feather of contamination in the underground water and the porous media for spills of hydrocarbons. The measurement techniques to determine the concentration of radon was carried out by means of Solid Detectors of Nuclear tracks, as well as by Liquid scintillation, Clipperton, Honeywell, AlphaGUARD. The towns where these techniques its were applied were: Mexico City, Estado de Mexico (Toluca, ININ), Jalisco (The Spring), Guerrero coast. (Author)

  11. Risk of lung cancer by radon, disagreement in international regulation; Riesgo de cancer pulmonar por radon, discordancia en reglamentacion internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Pena, P.; Villamares, A.; Avelar, J. R., E-mail: miguel.balcazar@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Diverse international organizations have evaluated the risk of lung cancer starting from epidemic studies in miners of uranium mines, where the corresponding effective dose was determined relating with the dose received by the population during Hiroshima and Nagasaki events. Alternately, the equivalent dose has been calculated by means of based models on the energy deposited by the breathable radon fractions and its decay products in the breathing ducts. A unique factor agreed by the diverse organizations that allows converting radon concentration to effective dose does not exist. Neither an agreement exists among the different countries on which duty to be the value of the maximum concentration of radon, in interiors starting from which an intervention is required and if this intervention is standardized, recommended or nonexistent. In this work study cases in Mexico are presented and their interpretation alternative based on the international agreements absence. (Author)

  12. The use of SSNTDs in the retrospective assessment of radon exposure in high radon rural communities in Yugoslavia

    CERN Document Server

    Zunic, Z S; Walsh, C; Benderac, R

    1999-01-01

    A description is given of the field application of a technique using CR-39 and LR 115 detectors to determine alpha recoil implanted sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po surface activity on domestic glass artefacts in dwellings. These investigations took place in two small stable rural communities in uraniferous areas of Yugoslavia where between 32% and 74% of contemporary indoor radon levels were found to be above the commonly used Action Level of 200 Bq m sup - sup 3 and individual levels as high as 8700 Bq m sup - sup 3 were measured. The sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po data is used to retrospectively estimate radon exposures in these communities. Comparisons between the retrospectively estimated radon exposures and those being received at present are made.

  13. Description of the behavior of an aquifer by using continuous radon monitoring in a thermal spa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, Carlos, E-mail: sainzc@unican.es; Rábago, Daniel; Fuente, Ismael; Celaya, Santiago; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2016-02-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) levels in air and water have been analyzed continuously for almost a year in Las Caldas de Besaya thermal spa, north Spain. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas from the decay of radium ({sup 226}Ra) both constituents of radioactive uranium 238 series. It has been recognized as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Furthermore the Royal Decree R.D 1439/2010 of November, 2010 establishes the obligation to study occupational activities where workers and, where appropriate, members of the public are exposed to inhalation of radon in workplaces such as spas. Together with radon measures several physico-chemical parameters were obtained such as pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and air and water temperature. The devices used for the study of the temporal evolution of radon concentration have been the RTM 2100, the Radon Scout and gamma spectrometry was complementarily used to determine the transfer factor of the silicone tubes in the experimental device. Radon concentrations obtained in water and air of the spa are high, with an average of 660 Bq/l and 2900 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively, where water is the main source of radon in the air. Radiation dose for workers and public was estimated from these levels of radon. The data showed that the thermal processes can control the behavior of radon which can be also influenced by various physical and chemical parameters such as pH and redox potential. - Highlights: • Radon in water is the major source of indoor air radon concentration in thermal facilities. • Radon in water has been used to characterize the origin of water used for treatments in a spa. • Preliminary dose assessment from radon exposure has been performed.

  14. Geologic influence on indoor radon concentrations and gamma radiation levels in Norwegian dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundal, Aud Venche

    2003-09-01

    Indoor radon levels in 1618 Norwegian dwellings located in different geological settings were compared with geological information in order to determine potential correlations between geological factors and indoor radon concentrations in Norway and to establish whether geological information is useful in radon risk analysis. In two geographically limited areas, Kinsarvik and Fen, detailed geological and geochemical investigations were carried out in order to explain their elevated natural radiation environment. Significant correlations between geology and indoor radon concentrations in Norway are found when the properties of both the bedrock and the overburden are taken into account. Areas of high radon risk in Norway include 1) exposed bedrock with elevated levels of radium (mainly alum shale and granites) and b) highly permeable unconsolidated sediments derived from all rock types (mainly glaciofluvial and fluvial deposits) and moderately permeable sediments containing radium rich rock fragments (mainly basal till). More than 20 % of Norwegian dwellings located in the high-risk areas can be expected to contain radon levels exceeding 200 Bq/m3. The elevated radon risk related to penneable building grounds is illustrated in Kinsarvik where the highly permeable sediments and the large vadose zone underlying the Huse residential area enable the transport of radon from large volumes into the dwellings resulting in enhanced indoor radon concentrations. Subterranean air flows caused by temperature/pressure differences between soil air and atmospheric air and elevations differences within the Huse area are shown to strongly affect the annual variations in indoor radon concentrations. The marked contrasts in radon risk potential between different types of building grounds are clearly illustrated in the Fen area where outcrops of the radium rich Fen carbonatites represent areas of high radon risk while only low levels of both indoor radon concentrations and indoor gamma

  15. The use of mapped geology as a predictor of radon potential in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Robin J; Smethurst, Mark A; Ganerød, Guri V; Finne, Ingvild; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2017-01-01

    Radon exposure is considered to cause several hundred fatalities from lung-cancer each year in Norway. A national map identifying areas which are likely to be exposed to elevated radon concentrations would be a useful tool for decision-making authorities, and would be particularly important in areas where only few indoor radon measurements exist. An earlier Norwegian study (Smethurst et al. 2008) produced radon hazard maps by examining the relationship between airborne gamma-ray spectrometry, bedrock and drift geology, and indoor radon. The study was limited to the Oslo region where substantial indoor radon and airborne equivalent uranium datasets were available, and did not attempt to test the statistical significance of relationships, or to quantify the confidence of its predictions. While it can be anticipated that airborne measurements may have useful predictive power for indoor radon, airborne measurement coverage in Norway is at present sparse; to provide national coverage of radon hazard estimates, a good understanding of the relationship between geology and indoor radon is therefore important. In this work we use a new enlarged (n = 34,563) form of the indoor radon dataset with national coverage, and we use it to examine the relationship between geology and indoor radon concentrations. We use this relationship to characterise geological classes by their radon potential, and we produce a national radon hazard map which includes confidence limits on the likelihood of areas having elevated radon concentrations, and which covers the whole of mainland Norway, even areas where little or no indoor radon data are available. We find that bedrock and drift geology classes can account for around 40% of the total observed variation in radon potential. We test geology-based predictions of RP (radon potential) against locally-derived estimates of RP, and produce classification matrices with kappa values in the range 0.37-0.56. Our classifier has high predictive value

  16. Measurements of radon in dwellings with CR-39 track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, Benny

    1986-01-01

    A passive integrating dosemeter has been designed for measuring natural radiation in dwellings. The dosemeter contains one or two CR-39 track detectors to measure radon and three thermoluminescence dosemeters to measure external radiation. The dosemeter was investigated in a pilot study in 1983/8...

  17. Equivalence properties for the Radon-Nikodym property types and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We show that the types I- and II-Λ-Radon-Nikodym Property of Banach spaces on the one hand, and the I- and II-Λ-Complete Continuity Property on the other, are equivalent properties whenever Λ is an ordering subset of a discrete abelian group. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): Primary 46E40, 46G10; ...

  18. An iterative inversion of weighted Radon transforms along hyperplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, F. O.

    2017-12-01

    We propose iterative inversion algorithms for weighted Radon transforms R W along hyperplanes in {R}3 . More precisely, expanding the weight W=W(x, θ), x\\in {R}^3, θ\\in {S}^2, into the series of spherical harmonics in θ and assuming that the zero order term w0, 0(x)\

  19. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mended by Organization for Economic Coopera- tion and Development (OECD 1979). Hence, the result shows that this study area is safe as far as the health hazards of radium are concerned. It is recommended that the radon exhalation rate should be measured for all building materials and a standard code placed on all ...

  20. Radon exhalation studies in building materials using solid-state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inhalation of 222Rn and its daughter products, especially 218Po and 214Po attached to aerosols present in ambient air, causes significant radiological hazard to human lungs. Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin, following a-decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used.

  1. Recoil-deposited Po-210 in radon dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, C.

    1990-12-31

    Short-lived decay products of Rn-222 plate out on all surfaces in a house containing radon gas. Following the subsequent alpha decays of the mother nuclei, the daughter products Pb-214 and Pb-210 are superficially and permanently absorbed. Due to its long half-life (22 y) the activity of absorbed Pb-210 accumulates in the surface. The activity of Pb-210, or its decay products, can thus reflect the past randon daughter and plate-out history of a house over several decades. Our results and experience from measurements of Po-210 and Rn-222 in 22 dwellings will be presented. In these studies the Po-210 surface activity of one plane glass sheet per dwelling (window panes were not used) has been determined and compared with the period of exposure times the mean radon concentration measured over a two-month period. Considering the large uncertainty in the integrated radon exposure estimate the surface {sup 210}Po correlates well (r=0.73) with the accumulated radon exposure. The {sup 210}Po activity of the glass samples has been measured non-destructively using an open-flow pulse ionization chamber and this detector has also been successfully applied in field exercises.

  2. Recoil-deposited Po-210 in radon dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, C.

    1990-01-01

    Short-lived decay products of Rn-222 plate out on all surfaces in a house containing radon gas. Following the subsequent alpha decays of the mother nuclei, the daughter products Pb-214 and Pb-210 are superficially and permanently absorbed. Due to its long half-life (22 y) the activity of absorbed Pb-210 accumulates in the surface. The activity of Pb-210, or its decay products, can thus reflect the past randon daughter and plate-out history of a house over several decades. Our results and experience from measurements of Po-210 and Rn-222 in 22 dwellings will be presented. In these studies the Po-210 surface activity of one plane glass sheet per dwelling (window panes were not used) has been determined and compared with the period of exposure times the mean radon concentration measured over a two-month period. Considering the large uncertainty in the integrated radon exposure estimate the surface {sup 210}Po correlates well (r=0.73) with the accumulated radon exposure. The {sup 210}Po activity of the glass samples has been measured non-destructively using an open-flow pulse ionization chamber and this detector has also been successfully applied in field exercises.

  3. Radon exposure and tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Dacosta-Urbieta, Ana; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Kelsey, Karl T

    2017-03-15

    To review the published evidence of links between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors through a systematic review of the scientific literature. We performed a thorough bibliographic search in Medline (PubMed) and EMBASE. We combined MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms and free text. We developed a purpose-designed scale to assess the quality of the included manuscripts. We have included 18 studies, 8 performed on miners, 3 on the general population and 7 on children, and the results have been structured using this classification. The results are inconclusive. An association between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors has been observed in some studies on miners, but not in others. The results observed in the general adult population and in children are also mixed, with some research evincing a statistically significant association and others showing no effect. We cannot conclude that there is a relationship between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors. The available studies are extremely heterogeneous in terms of design and populations studied. Further research is needed in this topic, particularly in the general population residing in areas with high levels of radon. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Radon safety in terms of energy efficiency classification of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, A.; Yarmoshenko, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2017-06-01

    According to the results of survey in Ekaterinburg, Russia, indoor radon concentrations above city average level have been found in each of the studied buildings with high energy efficiency class. Measures to increase energy efficiency were confirmed to decrease the air exchange rate and accumulation of high radon concentrations indoors. Despite of recommendations to use mechanical ventilation with heat recovery as the main scenario for reducing elevated radon concentrations in energy-efficient buildings, the use of such systems did not show an obvious advantage. In real situation, mechanical ventilation system is not used properly both in the automatic and manual mode, which does not give an obvious advantage over natural ventilation in the climate of the Middle Urals in Ekaterinburg. Significant number of buildings with a high class of energy efficiency and built using modern space-planning decisions contributes to an increase in the average radon concentration. Such situation contradicts to “as low as reasonable achievable” principle of the radiation protection.

  5. RADON CONCENTRATION TIME SERIES MODELING AND APPLICATION DISCUSSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stránský, V; Thinová, L

    2017-11-01

    In the year 2010 a continual radon measurement was established at Mladeč Caves in the Czech Republic using a continual radon monitor RADIM3A. In order to model radon time series in the years 2010-15, the Box-Jenkins Methodology, often used in econometrics, was applied. Because of the behavior of radon concentrations (RCs), a seasonal integrated, autoregressive moving averages model with exogenous variables (SARIMAX) has been chosen to model the measured time series. This model uses the time series seasonality, previously acquired values and delayed atmospheric parameters, to forecast RC. The developed model for RC time series is called regARIMA(5,1,3). Model residuals could be retrospectively compared with seismic evidence of local or global earthquakes, which occurred during the RCs measurement. This technique enables us to asses if continuously measured RC could serve an earthquake precursor. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The effect of home weatherization on indoor radon concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egert, G.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kathren, R.L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Washington and Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, WA (United States); Cross, F.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Robkin, M.A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In an effort to reduce energy consumption costs, increasing numbers of homeowners are weatherizing their homes to minimize the loss of heated and cooled air to the outside. These house-tightening measures decrease the natural infiltration rate of fresh air into the house, potentially increasing the concentration of indoor pollutants, including the radioactive gas, radon. We measured radon concentrations with track-etch detectors in 17 wooden frame homes for a period of 3 months before and after weatherization. An additional 42 homes that were not weatherized were also sampled; they constituted the control group. The measured concentrations in the weatherized homes, the control group, and in both groups combined were described by log-normal distributions. The differences between final and initial concentrations approximate both a log-normal and a normal distribution. Student`s t-test and the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test of both log-normal and normal-data distributions at the 0.05 significance level show an increase in the indoor radon concentration following home weatherization of 40% and 60%, respectively. This suggests that standard weatherization techniques may increase indoor radon levels by approximately 50%.

  7. A note on the proofs of generalized radon inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yongtao; Gu, Xian-Ming; Xiao, Jianci

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce and prove the generalizations of Radon inequality. The proofs in the paper unify and are simpler than those in former work. Meanwhile, we also find mathematical equivalences among the Bernoulli inequality, the weighted AM-GM inequality, the H\\"{o}lder inequality, the

  8. Modeling Lung Carcinogenesis in Radon-Exposed Miner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teun van Dillen; Fieke Dekkers; Irene Brüske; Harmen Bijwaard

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological miner cohort data used to estimate lung cancer risks related to occupational radon exposure often lack cohort-wide information on exposure to tobacco smoke, a potential confounder and important effect modifier. We have developed a method to project data on smoking habits from a

  9. Generalized monotone convergence and Radon-Nikodym theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudder, S.; Zerbe, J.

    1981-11-01

    A measure and integration theory is presented in the quantum logic framework. A generalization of the monotone convergence theorem is proved. Counterexamples are used to show that the dominated convergence theorem, Fatou's lemma, Egoroff's theorem, and the additivity of the integral do not hold in this framework. Finally, a generalization of the Radon-Nikodym theorem is proved.

  10. Radon Reduction Techniques in Schools: Interim Technical Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This technical document is intended to assist school facilities maintenance personnel in the selection, design, and operation of radon reduction systems in schools. The guidance contained in this document is based largely on research conducted in 1987 and 1988 in schools located in Maryland and Virginia. Researchers from the United States…

  11. Radon Measurement in Schools: Self-Paced Training Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Disability Research and Training, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This workbook is designed to educate school personnel in randon detection. The workbook is intended for an audience of school officials, including administrators, business officers, facility managers, and maintenance and operations staff. It is meant to provide trainees with experience in planning a radon test, interpreting test results,…

  12. Radon Sub-slab Suctioning System Integrated in Insulating Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    This poster presents a new radon sub-slab suctioning system. This system makes use of a grid of horizontal pressurised air ducts located within the lower part of the rigid insulation layer of the ground floor slab. For this purpose a new system of prefabricated lightweight elements is introduced...

  13. CASE STUDIES OF RADON REDUCTION RESEARCH IN 13 SCHOOL BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report details 13 case studies covering radon mitigation research in school buildings from 1990 to 1992. The 13 schools are in Colorado, Maine, Minnesota, Ohio, South Dakota, Tennessee, and the State of Washington. Diagnostics were carried out in all of these schools, and s...

  14. Current knowledge on radon risk. Implications for practical radiation protection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie, Essen (Germany); Giussani, Augusto; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Ruehm, Werner [German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Lecomte, Jean-Francois [International Affaires Directorate, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, P.O. Box 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Harrison, John [Oxford Brookes University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Breckow, Joachim [THM University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m{sup -3}). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. (orig.)

  15. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, Oana A. [Department of Geology, Babeș-Bolyai University, Kogălniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Onac, Bogdan P. [School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Fornós, Joan J. [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Cosma, Constantin [Environmental Radioactivity and Nuclear Dating Center, Babeș-Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ginés, Angel; Ginés, Joaquín [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Merino, Antoni [Grup Espeleològic de Llubí, Federació Balear d' Espeleologia, c/Uruguai s/n, Palma Arena, 07010 Palma, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves. - Highlights: • A survey of radon was carried out in caves from Mallorca, Spain using CR 39 detectors. • Three different seasons are covered: spring, summer, and winter. • Radon level ranges from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. • Seasonal variation is evident (higher values in summer and lower during winter). • Particular recommendations were made to each cave administration.

  16. NATURAL BASEMENT VENTILATION AS A RADON MITIGATION TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a study of natural basement ventilation in two research houses during both the summer cooling season and the winter heating season. NOTE: Natural basement ventilation has always been recommended as a way to reduce radon levels in houses. However, its efficacy...

  17. A condensed water method for measuring the atmospheric radon

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Xin; Pan Xiao Qing; Yu Yi Ling

    1998-01-01

    The author summarizes the present situation of atmospheric Radon measurement, and introduces the working principle, working method and advantage and disadvantage of condensed water method in detail. The structure and function of the instrument used for this method, and the measuring result are discussed. The direction of further work is pointed out from now on

  18. Factors affecting yearly variations of indoor radon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steck, D.J.; Baynes, S.A. [John`s Univ., Collegeville, MN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Since indoor radon exposures take place over many years while radon measurement periods are shorter, we are studying the yearly variation of indoor radon concentrations in approximately 100 houses located throughout Minnesota. Most houses were initially measured for one or more years in the late 1980`s and for 5 consecutive years starting in 1990. Two houses have been monitored for 12 y. Each year, two alpha track detectors were placed on the two lowest livable levels. The year-to-year variations averaged about 35% (corrected for instrumental uncertainties) in both basements and first floors. The minimum observed variation was 5% and the maximum was 130%. Some homes have shown substantial variation associated with Structural modifications. While most homes show no obvious systematic trends, a few houses have shown temporal trends that may be associated with aging or climate. We are studying possible correlation between year-to-year radon variation, climatic variables (yearly-average and seasonal such as heating/cooling degree days, precipitation, soil moisture), and structural changes.

  19. Modelling radon progeny concentration variations in thermal spas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Vogiannis, Efstratios

    2007-02-01

    Radon and its short-lived progenies (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po) are well known radioactive indoor pollutants identified as the major radiation burden component of the thermal spa users. Monitoring of short-lived progeny concentration is of great importance for short-term dose estimations both for bathers and working personnel. A prediction model of the short-lived progeny concentration variations was developed and applied on published data of the thermal spas of Lesvos Island. The physical procedures involved were modeled in a set of differential equations describing radon progeny concentration variations on the basis of radon measurements. Published daughter data were fitted on model predictions adjusting non-measured parameters, e.g. attachment and deposition rate constants for attached and unattached progenies. Attachment rate constants were estimated between 50 and 200 h-1 while the deposition rate constants between 0.25 and 5 h-1 for attached progenies and 0.5 and 170 h-1 for the unattached ones. In addition, unattached 218Po, 214Pb and 214Bi progenies were found to be shifted forward in respect to radon approximately 0.001 h, 0.05 h and 0.40 h respectively, while attached 218Po, 214Pb and 214Bi progenies 0.05 h, 0.45 h and 0.65 h respectively.

  20. Radon concentration: A tool for assessing the fracture network at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2003-01-01

    Jan 1, 2003 ... geothermal systems. In: Ivanovich M and Harmon RS(eds.) Uranium. Series Disequilibrium: Applications to Earth, Marine and Environ- mental Sciences. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 631-668. LEVIN M (2000 ) The radon emanation technique as a tool in ground water exploration. Borehole Water J. 46 22-26.