WorldWideScience

Sample records for astatine radon francium

  1. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with elevated radon underwent changes to reduce radon pollution. 1 How Can Radon Be Detected? The only ... of Americans Live with Unhealthful Levels of Air Pollution News: 'State of the Air 2016' – Health of ...

  3. Organic chemistry of astatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper surveys the investigations on the chemical behaviour of astatine in organic systems and deals with the preparation and identification of its organic compounds. A discussion is given on some of the physico-chemical properties of these compounds determined by extrapolation techniques as well as by direct measurement. The biomedical importance of 211At-labelled compounds is briefly referred to. (authors)

  4. A francium-223 reservoir source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By improving and accelerating a method which had been earlier tried for caesium-rubidium separation on a cellulose column, i.e. elution with 2N HCl-equilibrated phenol, the author succeeded in obtaining consecutive and quasi-selective elutions of francium-223, starting with actinium-227 fixed at the top of a small cellulose column to which ZrO2 had been added. The francium-223, rapidly eluted under pressure, is extracted by water while the phenol is extracted by ether; it can easily be cleared of any residual traces of radioactive contaminants (thallium-207, radium-223, thorium-227) by two consecutive BaSO4 precipitations. The preparation of a Fr223 solution (HCl-H2SO4) requires approximately 20 min; the time noted for Fr223 was closer to 22 than to 21 min. (author)

  5. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three slide sets which can be used in lectures about radiation protection have been published by NRPB. The slide sets are based on publications in the NRPB's ''At-a-Glance'' series of broadsheets, which use illustrations as the main source of information, supported by captions; the series generally avoids the jargon of radiation protection, although each leaflet is based on scientific studies. Slide Set Number 2, ''Radon'', describes the characteristics of the gas, the means by which it builds up in homes, the nature and level of the risks and the remedies and preventative measures. It also summarises the problems posed by, and solutions to, radon in the workplace. (Author)

  6. Collinear resonant ionization laser spectroscopy of rare francium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Neyens, G; Flanagan, K; Rajabali, M M; Le blanc, F M; Ware, T; Procter, T J

    2008-01-01

    We propose a programme of collinear resonant ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) of the francium isotopes up to and including $^{201}$Fr and $^{218,219}$Fr. This work aims at answering questions on the ordering of quantum states, and effect of the ($\\pi s_{1/2}^{-1}$)1/2$^{+}$ intruder state, which is currently believed to be the ground state of $^{199}$Fr. This work will also study the edge of the region of reflection asymmetry through measurement of the moments and radii of $^{218,219}$Fr. This proposal forms the first part of a series of experiments that will study nuclei in this region of the nuclear chart. Based on the success of this initial proposal it is the intention of the collaboration to perform high resolution measurements on the isotopes of radium and radon that surround $^{201}$Fr and $^{218}$Fr and thus providing a comprehensive description of the ground state properties of this region of the nuclear chart. Recent in-source spectroscopy measurements of lead, bismuth and polonium have demonstrated a...

  7. Bibliography of astatine chemistry and biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overall bibliography is presented on astatine chemistry and on the biomedical applications of its 211At isotope. The references were grouped in the following chapters: General reviews; Discovery, Natural Occurence; Nuclear Data; Preparation, Handling, Radiation Risk; Physico-chemical Properties; Astatine Compounds and Chemical Reactions; Biological Effects and Applications. Entries are sorted alphabetically by authors name in each chapter, and cross-references to other chapters are provided if appropriate. (R.P.)

  8. Project Closeout Report Francium trapping facility at Triumf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco, Luis A [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This is a report of the construction of a Francium Trapping Facility (FTF) at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) of TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, where the Francium Parity Non Conservation (FrPNC) international collaboration has its home. This facility will be used to study fundamental symmetries with high-resolution atomic spectroscopy. The primary scientific objective of the program is a measurement of the anapole moment of francium in a chain of isotopes by observing the parity violation induced by the weak interaction. The anapole moment of francium and associated signal are expected to be ten times larger than in cesium, the only element in which an anapole moment has been observed. The measurement will provide crucial information for better understanding weak hadronic interactions in the context of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The methodology combines nuclear and particle physics techniques for the production of francium with precision measurements based on laser cooling and trapping and microwave spectroscopy. The program builds on an initial series of atomic spectroscopy measurements of the nuclear structure of francium, based on isotope shifts and hyperfine anomalies, before conducting the anapole moment measurements, these measurements performed during commissioning runs help understand the atomic and nuclear structure of Fr.

  9. Astatine-211: production and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalutsky, Michael R; Pruszynski, Marek

    2011-07-01

    The 7.2-h half life radiohalogen (211)At offers many potential advantages for targeted α-particle therapy; however, its use for this purpose is constrained by its limited availability. Astatine-211 can be produced in reasonable yield from natural bismuth targets via the (209)Bi(α,2n)(211)At nuclear reaction utilizing straightforward methods. There is some debate as to the best incident α-particle energy for maximizing 211At production while minimizing production of (210)At, which is problematic because of its 138.4-day half life α-particle emitting daughter, (210)Po. The intrinsic cost for producing (211)At is reasonably modest and comparable to that of commercially available (123)I. The major impediment to (211)At availability is attributed to the need for a medium energy α-particle beam for its production. On the other hand, there are about 30 cyclotrons in the world that have the beam characteristics required for (211)At production. PMID:22201707

  10. Recent advances in the organic chemistry of astatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation on the chemical behaviour of astatine in the last decade are surveyed. The survey covers the physical and chemical properties of astatine, synthesis and identification of organic astatine compounds, their physicochemical properties. A special chapter is devoted to biomedical applications, including inorganic 211At species, 211At-labelled proteins and drugs. An extensive bibliography of the related literature is given. (N.T.) 129 refs.; 12 figs.; 14 tabs

  11. The radon; Le radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This booklet is intended to answer briefly the most important questions about the nature and sources of radon, its pathways from environment to organism, as well as the ways to minimize its concentration in the habitat's atmosphere. The radon is a naturally appearing radioactive gas, produced through the decay of uranium and radium present in the terrestrial crust. It can be found everywhere on the planet's surface and it is emitted particularly from the granite and volcanic underground rocks as well as from certain construction materials. It is one of the agents producing pulmonary cancer, although not so dangerous as the tobacco is. The following items are elaborated in this booklet: - the place of radon in the average exposure to ionizing radiations of the French population; - the risk; - the radon in the environment (the meteorological conditions, the nature of the rocks); - radon in dwellings (radon measurements in the French dwellings, the entrance pathways of radon, the dependence of radon concentration on the profession and way of life of the inhabitants); - radon measurements; - how to reduce the radon concentration in dwellings.

  12. Decay-Assisted Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, K M; Bissell, M L; Budincevic, I; Cocolios, T E; De Groote, R P; De Schepper, S; Fedosseev, V N; Flanagan, K T; Franchoo, S; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Procter, T J; Rossel, R E; Rothe, S; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Wendt, K D A

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the hyperfine-structure and radioactive-decay studies of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes $^{202-206}$Fr performed with the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The high resolution innate to collinear laser spectroscopy is combined with the high efficiency of ion detection to provide a highly-sensitive technique to probe the hyperfine structure of exotic isotopes. The technique of decay-assisted laser spectroscopy is presented, whereby the isomeric ion beam is deflected to a decay spectroscopy station for alpha-decay tagging of the hyperfine components. Here, we present the first hyperfine-structure measurements of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes $^{202-206}$Fr, in addition to the identification of the low-lying states of $^{202,204}$Fr performed at the CRIS experiment.

  13. Magic and tune-out wavelengths for atomic francium

    CERN Document Server

    Dammalapati, U; Sakemi, Y

    2016-01-01

    The frequency dependent polarizabilities of the francium atom are calculated from the available data of energy levels and transition rates. Magic wavelengths for the state insensitive optical dipole trapping are identified from the calculated light shifts of the $7s~^2S_{1/2}$, $7p~^2P_{1/2, 3/2}$ and $8s~^{2}S_{1/2}$ levels of the $7s~^{2}S_{1/2}-7p~^{2}P_{1/2,3/2}$ and $7s~^{2}S_{1/2}-8s~^{2}S_{1/2}$ transitions, respectively. Wavelengths in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared region is identified that are suitable for cooling and trapping. Magic wavelengths between 600-700~nm and 700-1000~nm region, which are blue and red detuned with the $7s-7p$ and $7s-8s$ transitions are feasible to implement as lasers with sufficient power are available. In addition, we calculated the tune-out wavelengths where the ac polarizability of the ground $7s~^{2}S_{1/2}$ state in francium is zero. These results are beneficial as laser cooled and trapped francium has been in use for fundamental symmetry investigations li...

  14. Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, K T; Ruiz, R F Garcia; Budincevic, I; Procter, T J; Fedosseev, V N; Lynch, K M; Cocolios, T E; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Rossel, R E; Heylen, H; Billowes, J; Rothe, S; Bissell, M L; Wendt, K D A; de Groote, R P; De Schepper, S

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic moments and isotope shifts of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes Fr202-205 were measured at ISOLDE-CERN with use of collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy. A production-to-detection efficiency of 1\\% was measured for Fr-202. The background from nonresonant and collisional ionization was maintained below one ion in 10(5) beam particles. Through a comparison of the measured charge radii with predictions from the spherical droplet model, it is concluded that the ground-state wave function remains spherical down to Fr-205, with a departure observed in Fr-203 (N = 116).

  15. Direct mass measurements on rubidium, cesium and francium isotopes far from stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double focusing mass spectrometer has been set on line with the ISOLDE isotope separator at CERN in order to measure directly the masses of the short lived isotopes which are produced there. The first experiments have been performed on the heaviest alkali elements rubidium, cesium and francium. Unpublished results obtained for the francium isotopes 204-210, 224-228Fr are briefly presented. (orig./AH)

  16. Radon overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This tutorial presents the history of the radon industry, currently-used testing and mitigation techniques and future private industry and governmental plans. The significance of radon for homeowners, realtors and the construction industry is discussed. As a result of this tutorial, participants will: (1) Know how we became aware of the radon problem; (2) Learn what private industry and government officials are doing about it; (3) Understand the implications of radon for homeowners, realtors, builders and weatherization professionals

  17. Dosimetrical considerations in astatine-211 radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several dosimetrical quantities have been suggested for use in alpha-particle dosimetry. To evaluate the expected biological effect when using these quantities, a Monte Carlo program was set to register the single-event distribution of both specific energy and alpha-particle track length to a cell nucleus (r=5.6 μm). Distributions were acquired for both 'bound' (simulating the effect of 211At-labelled antibodies bound to antigens on cell surfaces (r=7.0 μm)) as well as 'non-bound' (simulating 211At-labelled antibodies that have not bound to a cell) astatine-211. From these distributions, various theoretical cell survival curves were established for 3 different dosimetrical quantities, i.e. specific energy, number of alpha-particle hits and total track length. The survival curves for all quantities are presented for the corresponding mean absorbed dose in order to facilitate comparisons of the expected effects of using the 3 different quantities for both distributions of 211At decays. The theoretical survival curves presented here could, combined with experiments using 'bound' and 'non-bound' 211At in a single-cell suspension, reveal which dosimetrical quantity is most suitable for 211 At-radioimmunotherapy. (author)

  18. Development of a Francium Electron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Charles T., Jr.; Feinberg, B.; Gould, Harvey; Kalnins, Juris; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Jentschura, Ulrich; Behr, John; Pearson, Matt

    2014-09-01

    An experiment to discover or rule out a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron, at a sensitivity well beyond the present experimental limit, is being developed. The experiment will use 211Fr, obtainable online at TRIUMF at rates of 109/s, in a laser-cooled fountain. The experiment is done in free space and free fall, with an electric field, but no applied magnetic field, between optical state preparation and analysis. The relation between an electron EDM and an EDM of a francium atom has recently been recalculated using field theory alone (Blundell, Griffith & Sapirstein, Phys. Rev. D 86, 025023 [2012]), confirming previous atomic physics calculations and removing any ambiguity in the experimental interpretation.

  19. The radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is intended to answer briefly the most important questions about the nature and sources of radon, its pathways from environment to organism, as well as the ways to minimize its concentration in the habitat's atmosphere. The radon is a naturally appearing radioactive gas, produced through the decay of uranium and radium present in the terrestrial crust. It can be found everywhere on the planet's surface and it is emitted particularly from the granite and volcanic underground rocks as well as from certain construction materials. It is one of the agents producing pulmonary cancer, although not so dangerous as the tobacco is. The following items are elaborated in this booklet: - the place of radon in the average exposure to ionizing radiations of the French population; - the risk; - the radon in the environment (the meteorological conditions, the nature of the rocks); - radon in dwellings (radon measurements in the French dwellings, the entrance pathways of radon, the dependence of radon concentration on the profession and way of life of the inhabitants); - radon measurements; - how to reduce the radon concentration in dwellings

  20. Extraction of astatine isotopes for development of radiopharmaceuticals using a 211Rn-211At generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to utilize a 211At isotope, a promising α-emitter for radionuclide therapy, the chemical properties of astatine isotopes are studied. We have examined wet chemistry methods through the distribution ratios of astatine in liquid-liquid extraction. The astatine isotopes have been found to be well extracted into DIPE and MIBK. We observed that the distribution ratio of astatine isotopes increases with concentrations of HCl greater than 3 M, while it decreases with the HCl concentration less than 2 M. The results will be useful for development of the 211Rn-211At generator. (author)

  1. Indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies

  2. Astatine-211-Labeled Targeted Radiotherapeutics: An Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy halogen 211At was first proposed for use in α-particle targeted radiotherapy more than 30 years ago and continues to be one of the most promising radionuclides for this purpose. Although its 7.2-h half life is not ideal for intravenously administered whole antibodies, it is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of antibody fragments, peptides, aptamers and organic molecules. Its diverse chemistry allows its incorporation into a wide array of targeting vehicles, relying on its chemical similarity to iodine to provide a useful point of departure. On the other hand, the relatively low carbon-astatine bond strength is challenging. In common with the other α-emitters being discussed at this symposium, lack of reliable availability is one of the biggest hurdles in the use of 211At for targeted radiotherapy. However, in the case of 211At, it is not a question of production cost or availability of target material, because 211At can be produced in reasonable yield from natural bismuth targets. Rather, the difficulty is the lack of cyclotrons equipped with the medium energy α-particle beams required for its production. If the infrastructure for producing 211At is to be improved to the stage where 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals can have a meaningful impact, several developments must occur. First, the ability to produce clinically relevant levels of 211At that can be shipped to remote locations in chemically tractable form must be demonstrated. Approaches under consideration include compensating for radiolysis-mediated effects and the consideration of alternative chemistries. Second, strategies for compensating for heterogeneities in dose deposition must be developed, hopefully in a way that is compatible with approval for human use. And third, it is essential that more clinical trials be performed with 211At-labeled therapeutics, particularly in settings of minimum residual disease where the radiobiological advantages of α-particles can be best exploited. Our

  3. Scopingsreport Radon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; Vaas LH; Hesse JM; Slooff W

    1989-01-01

    Dit scopingsrapport vormt een onderdeel van de voorbereiding tot het opstellen van het basisdocument radon. Het doel van dit rapport is het algemene kennisniveau van de deelnemers aan de scopingsbijeenkomst aangaande radon op eenzelfde peil te brengen en discussie- en beslispunten inzake de inho

  4. Project Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project started in March 1987. The objective is to perform radon monitoring in 2000 dwellings occupied by people employed by State Power Board and to continue to contribute to the development of radon filters. The project participates in developing methods for radon measurement and decontamination and in adapting the methods to large scale application. About 400 so called radon trace measurements (coarse measurement) and about 10 action measurements (decontamination measurement) have been made so far. Experience shows that methods are fully applicable and that the decontamination measures recommended give perfectly satisfactory results. It is also established that most of the houses with high radon levels have poor ventilation Many of them suffer from moisture and mould problems. The work planned for 1988 and 1989 will in addition to measurements be directed towards improvement of the measuring methods. An activity catalogue will be prepared in cooperation with ventilation enterprises. (O.S.)

  5. Electronic properties of Francium diatomic compounds and prospects for cold molecule formation

    OpenAIRE

    Aymar, Mireille; Dulieu, Olivier; Spiegelman, Fernand

    2006-01-01

    In this work we investigate the possibility to create cold Fr$\\_2$, RbFr, and CsFr molecules through photoassociation of cold atoms. Potential curves, permanent and transition dipole moments for the Francium dimer and for the RbFr and RbCs molecules are determined for the first time. The Francium atom is modelled as a one valence electron moving in the field of the Fr$^+$ core, which is described by a new pseudopotential with averaged relativistic effects, and including effective core polariz...

  6. Scrutinizing "Invisible" astatine: A challenge for modern density functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentu, Dumitru-Claudiu; David, Grégoire; Montavon, Gilles; Maurice, Rémi; Galland, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    The main-group 6p elements did not receive much attention in the development of recent density functionals. In many cases it is still difficult to choose among the modern ones a relevant functional for various applications. Here, we illustrate the case of astatine species (At, Z = 85) and we report the first, and quite complete, benchmark study on several properties concerning such species. Insights on geometries, transition energies and thermodynamic properties of a set of 19 astatine species, for which reference experimental or theoretical data has been reported, are obtained with relativistic (two-component) density functional theory calculations. An extensive set of widely used functionals is employed. The hybrid meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) PW6B95 functional is overall the best choice. It is worth noting that the range-separated HSE06 functional as well as the old and very popular B3LYP and PBE0 hybrid-GGAs appear to perform quite well too. Moreover, we found that astatine chemistry in solution can accurately be predicted using implicit solvent models, provided that specific parameters are used to build At cavities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27059181

  7. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, S; Antalic, S; Borschevsky, A; Capponi, L; Cocolios, T E; De Witte, H; Eliav, E; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V N; Fink, D A; Fritzsche, S; Ghys, L; Huyse, M; Imai, N; Kaldor, U; Kudryavtsev, Yu; Köster, U; Lane, J; Lassen, J; Liberati, V; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Nishio, K; Pauwels, D; Pershina, V; Popescu, L; Procter, T J; Radulov, D; Raeder, S; Rajabali, M M; Rapisarda, E; Rossel, R E; Sandhu, K; Seliverstov, M D; Sjödin, A M; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Venhart, M; Wakabayashi, Y; Wendt K D A

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of smallest quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the ionization threshold. The observed series of Rydberg states enabled the first determination of the ionization potential of the astatine atom, 9.317510(8) eV. New ab initio calculations were performed to support the experimental result. The measured value serves as a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations of the properties of astatine as well as for the theoretical prediction of the ionization potential of super-heavy element 117, the heaviest homologue of astatine.

  8. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  9. Synthesis and Evaluation of Astatinated N-[2-(Maleimido)ethyl]-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide Immunoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneheim, Emma; Gustafsson, Anna; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom; Jensen, Holger; Palm, Stig; Svedhem, Sofia; Lindegren, Sture

    2016-03-16

    Effective treatment of metastasis is a great challenge in the treatment of different types of cancers. Targeted alpha therapy utilizes the short tissue range (50-100 μm) of α particles, making the method suitable for treatment of disseminated occult cancers in the form of microtumors or even single cancer cells. A promising radioactive nuclide for this type of therapy is astatine-211. Astatine-211 attached to tumor-specific antibodies as carrier molecules is a system currently under investigation for use in targeted alpha therapy. In the common radiolabeling procedure, astatine is coupled to the antibody arbitrarily on lysine residues. By instead coupling astatine to disulfide bridges in the antibody structure, the immunoreactivity of the antibody conjugates could possibly be increased. Here, the disulfide-based conjugation was performed using a new coupling reagent, maleimidoethyl 3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide (MSB), and evaluated for chemical stability in vitro. The immunoconjugates were subsequently astatinated, resulting in both high radiochemical yield and high specific activity. The MSB-conjugate was shown to be stable with a long shelf life prior to the astatination. In a comparison of the in vivo distribution of the new immunoconjugate with other tin-based immunoconjugates in tumor-bearing mice, the MSB conjugation method was found to be a viable option for successful astatine labeling of different monoclonal antibodies. PMID:26791409

  10. Radon resistant new construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consist of the awareness about the ill effects of radon gas and the methods adopted to detect the presence of radon gas and to remove the radon gas. It explains the installation of radon resistant structures during home construction. Radon is commonly found in the air and water, where it poses little risk. But radon that creeps into your home from the soil can be a much greater risk. Radon-resistant construction combines common building techniques and materials to seal entry points and route the gases outdoors, helping to prevent radon from entering the home. The benefits due to radon resistant construction is also explained in this paper. (author)

  11. Scopingreport radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains general information on radon concerning the existing standards, sources and emissions, the exposure levels and effect levels. lt serves as a basis for the discussion during the exploratory melting to be held in November/December 1989, aimed at determining the contents of the Integrated Criteria Document Radon. Attention is focussd on Rn-222 (radon) and Rn-220 (thoron), presently of public interest because of radon gas pollution in private homes. In the Netherlands air quality standards nor product standards for the exhalation rate of building materials have been recommended. The major source of radon in the Netherlands is the soil gas (> 97%), minor sources are phosphate residues and building materials (> 2% in total). Hence, the major concern is the transfer through the inhalation of air, the lung being the most critical organ at risk to develop cancer. Compared to risks for humans, the risks of radon and its daughters for aquatic and terrestric organisms, as well as for agricultural crops and livestock, are assumed to be limited. In the Netherlands the average dose for man due to radon and thoron progeny is appr. 1.2 mSv per year, the estimated dose range being 0.1-3.5 mSv per year. This dose contributes for about 50% to rhe total exposure due to all sources of ionizing radiation. Of this dose respectively 80% is caused by radon and about 90% is received indoor. The estimated dose for the general population corresponds to a risk for inducing fatal cancers of about 15 x 10-6 per year, ranging from 1.2 x 10-6 to 44 x 10-6 which exceeds the risk limit of 1 x 10-6 per year -as defined in the standardization policy in the Netherlands for a single source of ionizing radiation-with a factor 15 (1- 44). Reduction of exposure is only possible in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been described to reduce the indoor dose, resulting from exhalation of the soil and building materials. )aut- hor). 37 refs.; 3 figs.; 8 tabs

  12. Astatine-211: production, injection into monoclonal antibodies radiological effect, possible application to cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods developed in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, for producing astatine-211 and injecting it into monoclonal antibodies are described. The use of its diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid complex is shown to be the most effective method of injecting astatine into a biomolecules. The biological effect of the α-particles emitted from the astatine-211 is investigated using Chinese hamster fibroblasts and Ehrlich carcinoma cells. It is established that the mitotic activity depression, number of degenerating cells, number of cells with chromosome aberrations, and cellular surviving fraction depend on the concentration of the radionuclide in the medium 'in vitro'. The RBE of α-particles in comparison with 60Co γ-rays is 3. Injection of astatine-211 absorbed on tellurium particles into mice with ascitic tumors resulted in prolongation of their life or elimination of the tumors. (author). 39 refs, 7 figs

  13. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Rothe, S.; A. N. Andreyev; Antalic, S; Borschevsky, A.; Capponi, L.; Cocolios, T.E.; Witte, H.; Eliav, E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fink, D. A.; Fritzsche, S.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Imai, N.

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of the minute quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the io...

  14. Automated astatination of biomolecules - a stepping stone towards multicenter clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneheim, Emma; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom; Jensen, Holger; Palm, Stig; Lindegren, Sture

    2015-07-01

    To facilitate multicentre clinical studies on targeted alpha therapy, it is necessary to develop an automated, on-site procedure for conjugating rare, short-lived, alpha-emitting radionuclides to biomolecules. Astatine-211 is one of the few alpha-emitting nuclides with appropriate chemical and physical properties for use in targeted therapies for cancer. Due to the very short range of the emitted α-particles, this therapy is particularly suited to treating occult, disseminated cancers. Astatine is not intrinsically tumour-specific; therefore, it requires an appropriate tumour-specific targeting vector, which can guide the radiation to the cancer cells. Consequently, an appropriate method is required for coupling the nuclide to the vector. To increase the availability of astatine-211 radiopharmaceuticals for targeted alpha therapy, their production should be automated. Here, we present a method that combines dry distillation of astatine-211 and a synthesis module for producing radiopharmaceuticals into a process platform. This platform will standardize production of astatinated radiopharmaceuticals, and hence, it will facilitate large clinical studies focused on this promising, but chemically challenging, alpha-emitting radionuclide. In this work, we describe the process platform, and we demonstrate the production of both astaine-211, for preclinical use, and astatine-211 labelled antibodies.

  15. Radon and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low levels outdoors. However, in areas without adequate ventilation, such as underground mines, radon can accumulate to ... radon levels. What have scientists learned about the relationship between radon and lung cancer? Scientists agree that ...

  16. Experimental search for the electron electric dipole moment with laser cooled francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kawamura, H.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Asahi, K.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Yoshimi, A.; Sakemi, Y.

    2015-04-01

    A laser cooled heavy atom is one of the candidates to search for the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron due to the enhancement mechanism and its long coherence time. The laser cooled francium (Fr) factory has been constructed to perform the electron EDM search at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The present status of Fr production and the EDM measurement system is presented.

  17. Experimental search for the electron electric dipole moment with laser cooled francium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser cooled heavy atom is one of the candidates to search for the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron due to the enhancement mechanism and its long coherence time. The laser cooled francium (Fr) factory has been constructed to perform the electron EDM search at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The present status of Fr production and the EDM measurement system is presented

  18. Experimental search for the electron electric dipole moment with laser cooled francium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T., E-mail: inoue-t@cyric.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Frontier Research Institute of Interdisciplinary Sciences (Japan); Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kawamura, H.; Uchiyama, A. [Tohoku University, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (Japan); Aoki, T. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Asahi, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Physics (Japan); Hatakeyama, A. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (Japan); Hatanaka, K. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics (Japan); Imai, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Murakami, T. [Kyoto University, Department of Physics (Japan); Nataraj, H. S. [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India); and others

    2015-04-15

    A laser cooled heavy atom is one of the candidates to search for the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron due to the enhancement mechanism and its long coherence time. The laser cooled francium (Fr) factory has been constructed to perform the electron EDM search at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The present status of Fr production and the EDM measurement system is presented.

  19. Mechanisms of radon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this new project, they conduct molecular, cellular and whole-animal research relevant to understanding the inhalation toxicology of radon and radon-daughter exposures. The work specifically addresses the exposure-rate effect in radon-daughter carcinogenesis; the induction-promotion relationships associated with exposure to radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures; the role of oncogenes in radon-induced cancers; the effects of radon on DNA as well as on DNA repair processes; and the involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced carcinogenesis. Preliminary experiments showed that oncogenes are activated in radon-induced lung tumors. They have therefore begun further exposures pertinent to the oncogene and growth-factor studies. An in vitro radon cellular-exposure system was designed, and cell exposures were initiated. Initiation-promotion-initiation studies with radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures have also begun; and they are compiling a radon health-effects bibliography

  20. BGS Radon Protective Measures GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Geological Survey Radon Protective Measures Geographical Information System is described. The following issues are highlighted: Identification of development sites where radon protection is required in new dwellings; Mapping radon potential on the basis of house radon and geology; Radon Protective Measures GIS; Radon site reports; and Follow-up radon protective measures sire reports

  1. Radon dynamics in underwater thermal radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a facility for underwater thermal radon therapy in Bad Hofgastein, experiments were carried out with the aim of establishing radon in the air exhaled by the treated patients and of radon decay products on the skin of the patients. The time course of radon concentration in the exhaled air shows a maximum a few minutes after entering the bath, then the Rn concentration remains constant over the remaining time spent in the bath. Taking into account several simplifying assumptions, the average dose to the epidermis from radon daughters is about 50 μGy. (A.K.)

  2. Automated astatination of biomolecules - a stepping stone towards multicenter clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aneheim, Emma; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom; Jensen, Holger; Palm, Stig; Lindegren, Sture

    2015-01-01

    vector, which can guide the radiation to the cancer cells. Consequently, an appropriate method is required for coupling the nuclide to the vector. To increase the availability of astatine-211 radiopharmaceuticals for targeted alpha therapy, their production should be automated. Here, we present a method......To facilitate multicentre clinical studies on targeted alpha therapy, it is necessary to develop an automated, on-site procedure for conjugating rare, short-lived, alpha-emitting radionuclides to biomolecules. Astatine-211 is one of the few alpha-emitting nuclides with appropriate chemical and...... challenging, alpha-emitting radionuclide. In this work, we describe the process platform, and we demonstrate the production of both astaine-211, for preclinical use, and astatine-211 labelled antibodies....

  3. Evaluation of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the indoor radon environment, building ventilation and indoor air quality problems are discussed. They take their origin from the building materials, and the ventilation rate, plate-out and recoil rate of radon daughters are effective in evaluating the concentration of indoor radon. The deposition processes depend on the physical properties of the free atoms and activity size distributions of the aerosols. The equilibrium factor, the radon daughter concentrations relative to the radon concentration, are influenced by the room specific parameters. This paper summarizes available information on indoor radon concentrations and on the physical characteristics of radon daughters. For evaluation fo the risk of radon, the measuring results of the degree of radioactive equilibrium, and its time variations, mean size of individual radon daughters are reported. (author)

  4. Study of Astatine (III) reactions with O, S and N ligands in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Astatine (At, Z=85: [Xe]4f145d106s26p5) belongs to the halogen group and is located below iodine in the periodic table. One of its isotopes (211At) appears promising as a therapeutic agent in nuclear medicine (Ref.1) owing to the energy of the alpha particles emitted during the disintegration of its nucleus and its short physical half-life (7.2 h). Since there are no stable isotopes of astatine, the chemistry of this element remains poorly understood. Generally, At is supposed to behave as a halogen (Ref.2) but it has been shown recently in our group that astatine presents a metallic behaviour in aqueous solution: it notably exists as At+ and AtO+ species under the oxidation states +I and +III (Ref.3). At the present time, the number of studies dealing with the complexation properties of the cationic forms of astatine remains limited (Ref.4), owing to its low availability. In this work, we have investigated the reactions of AtO+ species with different hetero-atomic (N, S, O) model ligands. A combined approach based on experimental and theoretical studies has been used (Ref.5). On account of the difficulties of experimental investigations of astatine species, the reactivity of AtO+ was explored using a competition method founded on astatine distributions between two distinct phases. Furthermore, for each AtO+/ ligand complex, the nature of the species formed and the associated thermodynamic constants were determined by computational modeling (DFT calculations). In this framework, an original computational methodology was developed to take into account the specificities of astatine, notably the associated relativistic effects. The computed equilibrium constants have been confronted with the experimental results. This comparison demonstrates an outstanding coherence between experience and theory. Furthermore, the analysis of the results shows a key role of solvent effects on astatine chemistry. Lastly, a specific reactivity for the

  5. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The av has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km2. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (av > 50 kBq/m3). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  6. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of methods for the radiation monitoring of radon in indoor air is given, together with guidelines for the investigation of building sites taking in consideration the radiation hazards from radon. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, a radioactive gas emitted from soils and construction materials, penetrates dwellings and is the principal source of natural background radiation. If they are inhaled continuously, radon and its daughter products may constitute a hazard for man

  8. Radon in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several projects in Austria deal with the problem of enhanced radon exposure to the public. The Austrian Radon Project is the largest project within this task, with the aim of investigating the radon concentrations in Austrian homes. Another project concerns mitigation methods. According to the EU directive EURATOM 96/29 it is also necessary to check working places for possibly enhanced radon concentrations. These projects are and will be funded by the government. The federal government of Upper Austria sponsored a project to test the indoor air quality in kindergartens including radon measurements. Within an EU research project, the radon concentrations in Austrian springs and groundwater were systematically listed and analyzed. Additional investigations will focus on methods to improve the radon potential maps from the Austrian Radon Project by including geological and other information. (author)

  9. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is intended to inform designers, householders and other building owners about the radon problem and to help in deciding if there is need to take any action to reduce radon levels in their homes or other buildings.It explains what radon is, how it enters buildings and what effect it may have on health. Reference is made to some of the usual ways of reducing the level of radon and guidance is given on some sources of assistance

  10. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The naturally occurring radioactive gas radon has been found at excessive levels in many workplaces other than mines throughout the country. Prolonged exposure to radon and its decay products increases the risk of developing lung cancer, and controls to protect employees from excessive exposure are included in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The control of occupational exposure to radon is discussed here. (author)

  11. Some aspects of the organic, biological and inorganic chemistry of astatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astatine has no stable isotopes and the radioactive isotopes with half-lives sufficiently long for chemical experiments (209At, 210At, 211At) must be produced artificially with a cyclotron or with a high energy accelerator by spallation of Th. This thesis deals with the synthesis and chemistry of At-compounds and the determination of some of their properties. (C.F.)

  12. Influence of aerosol upon radon concentration of radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of theoretical analysis, the influence on the radon concentration of radon chamber by the experiment of filling the radon chamber with aerosol, and the absorption of radon daughter on aerosol under the condition of different radon concentration and aerosol concentration was described. The results of experiment showed that: Aerosol did not affect the stability of the radon concentration of the radon chamber, but different aerosol concentration will change the combination state of radon daughter, thus it will affect the diffusion coefficient of radon daughter, so it will affect the results of the measure of the gross measuring instrument. (authors)

  13. Astatine-211 Pathway from Radiochemistry to Clinical Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particularly in clinical settings where tumour burden is low and cancers are located in close proximity to essential normal tissue structures, α-particle emitting radionuclides can offer significant advantages for targeted radionuclide therapy. One of the first alpha emitters to be evaluated for this purpose is the 7.2-h half-life radiohalogen Astatine-211 (211At). From a commercialization-potential perspective 211At, is less appealing than the longer half-life alpha particle emitters Radium-223, Actinium-225 and Thorium-227, which have become the focus of many laboratories. However, if methods for providing a better supply of 211At could be developed, this alpha emitter would be the radionuclide of choice for many potential therapeutic applications. With regard to the production of 211At, this can be readily be accomplished by bombarding natural bismuth targets with 28−29.5 MeV alpha particles via the 209Bi(α,2n)211At reaction. The goal is to utilize an alpha particle beam energy that provides the required balance for maximizing 211At production while minimizing creation of 210At, which is problematic because of its 138.4-day half life alpha-particle emitting daughter, 210Po. For most intended clinical applications, alpha particle beam energy of about 29 MeV offers the best compromise between maximizing yield and providing 211At with sufficient radionuclidic purity for clinical use. Clinically relevant levels of 211At have been produced at several institutions using both internal and external cyclotron targets

  14. Radon mitigation in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is produced in soil by radium decay, Ra-226 for radon (Rn-222) and Ra-224 for thoron (Rn-220). The radium content is about 40 Bq.kg-1 in crustal rocks and soils, 70 Bq.kg-1 in granite and only about 8 Bq.kg-1 in limestone. Being the heaviest gas in atmosphere, radon presents high concentration at surface and it is accumulating in closed or poorly ventilated places, both in underground cavities (caves or mines) and in dwelling. In comparison with the average radon concentration in atmospheric air of 8 Bq.m-3, the average indoor radon concentration reaches 10-100 Bq.m-3. International statistics indicate that radon contribution on natural irradiation is about 60%. The main sources of indoor radon are: radium content of the soil and of the concretes, water supply and natural gases

  15. Indoor radon: deadliest pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon in individual homes may be the greatest source of radiation that people are exposed to during a lifetime. In areas where radon concentrations in homes are high, people may be exposed to more radiation than were the Russian people living in the vicinity of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Studies indicate that the radon exposure contributes to 5000 to 20,000 deaths per year from lung cancer and that smoking may have a lethal interaction with the radon exposure. One study found an average annual concentration of radon in living spaces of 1.5 picocuries per liter. 7% of U.S. homes were found to have a radon concentration above the 4 picocuries per liter level set by the Environmental Protection Agency, and 1 - 3% of the homes have levels above 8 picocuries. Some ways are described for changing the air pressure in a house so that air is not constantly drawn from the permeable soil where the radon originates

  16. Radon dosimetry and radon risks in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some recollections are given regarding the introduction of alpha track etching detectors for integrating radon individual and environmental monitoring 25 years ago. The current status, and efforts to standardise these methods, are briefly described. However, more important than improving measurement techniques appears to be a balanced judgment of the potential health risks associated with radon, in particular in dwellings. New radio-epidemiological studies in former East Germany confirm earlier observations that there is little or no evidence of increased lung cancer risk for populations living in high-radon areas. Only among early uranium miners is there an increase in lung cancer, to be explained by synergistic effects of heavy smoking, ore dust, toxic fumes, etc., and extremely high radon exposures. The large scale and obviously effective worldwide application of radon for therapeutic reasons also indicates that lung cancer from early mining should not be used as a basis for risk estimates in buildings, and intervention levels (if required at all) should become substantially increased. Also, detectable differences in the genotoxic effects of radon and smoking in lung cancers deserve special attention in the discussion about potential radon health hazards. (author)

  17. Indoor radon; Le radon dans les batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies.

  18. Atmosphere purification of radon and radon daughter elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L.

    1974-01-01

    A method of removing radon and radon daughter elements from an atmosphere containing these elements by passing the atmosphere through a bed of fluorinating compound whereby the radon and radon daughters are oxidized to their respective fluorides is discussed. These fluorides adhere to the fluorinating compound and are thus removed from the atmosphere which may then be recirculated. A method for recovering radon and separating radon from its daughter elements is also described. (Official Gazette)

  19. Interim indoor radon and radon decay-product measurement protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides EPA's procedures for measuring radon concentrations in houses with continuous radon monitors, charcoal canisters, alpha-track detectors, and grab radon techniques. It also provides procedures for measuring radon decay-product concentrations with a continuous-working-level monitor, a radon-progeny integrating sampling unit (RPISU), and grab radon decay-product methods. Specifications for the location of the measurement, the house conditions during the measurement, and minimum requirements for quality control are included in each procedure

  20. Towards the measurement of the electron EDM with laser cooled francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Yoshida, H. P.; Wakasa, T.; Sakemi, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle is a probe into new physics beyond the standard model. The electron EDM might be observed with an enhancement in heavier paramagnetic atoms. Francium (Fr), whose electron structure is useful for laser-cooling and trapping, has a large enhancement factor. Fr produced at high temperature via a fusion reaction will be laser-cooled and trapped in an optical lattice where the EDM is measured. The magneto-optical trapping of Fr is required in advance of the lattice trapping. The technique observing a small number of atoms makes it easy to search for the resonant frequency of Fr. The improvement of the beam purity should lead to a more efficient trap. The techniques towards Fr trapping and EDM measurement have been developed. The electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle is a probe into new physics beyond the standard model. The electron EDM might be observed with an enhancement in heavier paramagnetic atoms. Francium (Fr), whose electron structure is useful for laser-cooling and trapping, has a large enhancement factor. Fr produced at high temperature via a fusion reaction will be laser-cooled and trapped in an optical lattice where the EDM is measured. The magneto-optical trapping of Fr is required in advance of the lattice trapping. The technique observing a small number of atoms makes it easy to search for the resonant frequency of Fr. The improvement of the beam purity should lead to a more efficient trap. The techniques towards Fr trapping and EDM measurement have been developed. Supported by MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI Grants (21104005, 25610112 and 26220705) and Tohoku University's Focused Research Project.

  1. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your Home Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. 2013 Consumers Guide to Radon Reduction (PDF) (20 pp, 424 ...

  2. Radon and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes an overview on what is known about the carcinogenic effect of radon. It recalls the origin of radon, its presence in the environment, and its radioactivity. It comments data on the relationship between exposure to radon and lung cancer, and with other forms of cancer. It discusses the role of the exposure level, and the cases of professional and domestic exposure with respect to these risks. It indicates the hazardous areas in France which are well identified, outlines that smokers are more likely victims of risks related to radon, that this risk is still underrated and underestimated (notably by the public). It gives an overview of existing regulations regarding exposure to radon, of public health policies and national plans concerning radon, and recalls some WHO recommendations

  3. National residential radon survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Superfund Amendments and reauthorization Act (SARA) which requires the EPA Administrator to conduct a national assessment of radon levels where people normally live and work, including educational institutions. The National Residential Radon Survey (NRRS) is the first comprehensive effort to estimate the frequency distribution of average annual radon concentrations nationwide. Also, the survey will provide data to correlate radon concentrations with construction characteristics. A stratified three stage area probability sample was used to randomly select approximately 12,000 homes. A questionnaire will provide information on living patterns, house construction, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) characteristics. Two to four alpha-track detectors were placed in each home. It is expected that approximately 5,000 residents will return detectors with readable radon concentrations. With this data, EPA will be able to accurately estimate the frequency distribution of annual average radon concentrations nationwide

  4. Conference on provisions against radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proceedings contain 20 contributions dealing with diverse aspects of the radon problem. Information is presented on the occurrence of radon on the territory of Czechoslovakia, and on natural radioactivity of rocks. The majority of contributions concentrate on ways of radon measurement, on determination of the radon content of building materials and on radon propagation through buildings. Various technologies for removing radon from homes and for preventing radon leaks are described and assessed. The effect of radon on human health is also dealt with. (M.D.). 16 tabs., 34 figs., 39 refs

  5. Atomic parity violation in heavy alkalis: detection by stimulated emission for cesium and traps for cold francium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the recent advances of atomic spectroscopy experiments on cesium and francium, which aim at precise parity violation (PV) measurements in these atoms. Within the framework of a 'double-badged thesis', the candidate devoted himself on the one hand to the preliminary PV measurement (8% accuracy) of the present Cs experiment at the Kastler-Brossel laboratory in Paris and on the other hand to the preparation of a Fr radioactive atomic sample (production and trapping) at the LNL (INFN) in Italy. The two experiments are at very different stages. The measurements reported for cesium were actually made possible thanks to the work initiated in 1991, for the PV detection by stimulated emission. The Italian experiment is instead in a beginning stage: in order to probe the properties of francium, which is unstable, a number of atoms large enough has to be first produced and collected. The PV schemes which proved to be well suited for cesium are a solid starting point for the case of francium. (author)

  6. Atomic parity violation in heavy alkalis: detection by stimulated emission for cesium and traps for cold francium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanguinetti, St

    2004-07-01

    The present work deals with the recent advances of atomic spectroscopy experiments on cesium and francium, which aim at precise parity violation (PV) measurements in these atoms. Within the framework of a 'double-badged thesis', the candidate devoted himself on the one hand to the preliminary PV measurement (8% accuracy) of the present Cs experiment at the Kastler-Brossel laboratory in Paris and on the other hand to the preparation of a Fr radioactive atomic sample (production and trapping) at the LNL (INFN) in Italy. The two experiments are at very different stages. The measurements reported for cesium were actually made possible thanks to the work initiated in 1991, for the PV detection by stimulated emission. The Italian experiment is instead in a beginning stage: in order to probe the properties of francium, which is unstable, a number of atoms large enough has to be first produced and collected. The PV schemes which proved to be well suited for cesium are a solid starting point for the case of francium. (author)

  7. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is intended to inform designers, contractors, householders and other building owners about radon in buildings and to provide guidance where it has been decided to take action to reduce radon levels. It gives some pointers to good practice insofar as it relates to non complex buildings of normal design and construction. Reference is made to the usual ways of reducing l;levels of radon and guidance is given on sources of further information. I

  8. Radon in Caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2005-01-01

    The physical characteristics of radon are reported as well as its sources,the transport in rock and its behaviour in caves. Then,the instruments,both active and passive, used for the measurement of radon concentration are discussed by taking into accounttheir respective advantages and disadvantages for the use in the cave environment. Since in many countries radon is the objectof regulations that were adopted for radiation protection purposes, this aspect is examined and the recommendations i...

  9. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the function of the ventilation by natural draught in three-storey houses. In some cases also the measurement of gamma radiation, radon and radon daughters was made. The investigation took place in Uppsala. The houses were built of light weight concrete made of alum-shale. The measurements showed that the contents of radon daughters were far below the provisional limits. (G.B.)

  10. Radon diffusion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P; Dimbylow, P J

    1985-10-01

    A mathematical model has been developed that examines the ingress of radon into houses, through a vertical crack in an otherwise impervious concrete floor. Initially, the model considered the diffusive flow of radon from its soil source and this simulation has highlighted the dependency of the flux of radon into the house on the magnitude of various parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of radon in soil. A preliminary investigation of the modelling of pressure-driven flow into a building is presented, and the potential of this type of analysis is discussed. PMID:4081719

  11. YAPILARDA RADON FENOMENY

    OpenAIRE

    OZAN, Sadik Sezgin; EKİNCİ, Cevdet Emin

    2011-01-01

    Bu çaly?mada, yapylarda Radon konusu irdelenmi?tir. Radon, günlük hayatta sürekli maruz kaldy?ymyz radyasyonun yakla?yk %50'sini olu?turan ve topraktaki Uranyum'un bozunma zincirinin bir halkasy olan renksiz, kokusuz ve duyu organlaryyla algylanamayan radyoaktif bir gazdyr. Kayaçlardaki Uranyumun bozunmasy sonucu ortaya çykan Radon gazy, difüzyon yoluyla topra?a, oradan da atmosfere veya ortama yayylmaktadyr. Gazyn birikmesiyle, Radon yo?unlu?u kapaly mekânlarda veya iyi havalandyrylmayan yer...

  12. Managing the radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies have shown a linear relationship between radon dose and lung cancer, first for miners and later for inhabitants. Lethal risk exists even at very low dose rates (nearing 200 Bq/m3) if the person has stayed in the building for a very long period (20 to 30 years). Studies on cohorts of uranium miners suggest a link between radon dose and leukemia. Other studies have shown the multiplier effect of smoking on the radon effect. The World Health Organisation proposes a maximal concentration of 100 Bq/m3 to minimize the radon risk in the habitat. In France and every year, between 1200 and 2900 deaths from lung cancer can be attributed to the exposure to radon. A new National Action Plan has been launched by French authorities, it concerns buildings that are open to the public in 31 departments where terrestrial radon concentration is important. Radon monitoring and ventilation measures will have to be implemented. The radon risk due to the presence of nearby tailings is considered through the 'Bessine case' in which a family has lived in a house that had been built on waste rocks and tailings from uranium mining activities. 20 European countries represented by people in charge of radioprotection, have taken part in a workshop to share their experience of the radon risk. (A.C.)

  13. Public perceptions of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon

  14. Radon in dwellings in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over ten years STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has performed systematic indoor radon mapping in Finland with health authorities in municipalities. The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m3 and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m3. Therefore STUK has made radon measurement plans and radon risk maps to identify radon-prone areas. During 1986 - 1996 the municipalities have ordered 33 000 dosemeters for radon measurements. Private persons have ordered 24 000 dosemeters and STUK has used for its own investigations 34 000 dosemeters. Today the basic radon database of STUK consists information of about 52 000 Finnish dwellings. This report is a summary of the radon measurements made by STUK in low-rise dwellings. The radon situation by provinces is presented in tables

  15. An attempt to explore the production routes of Astatine radionuclides: Theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta

    2008-01-01

    In order to fulfil the recent thrust of Astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of $^{209-211}$At comprise both light and heavy ion induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to maximum 100 MeV energy. For this purpose, we have used the nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91 and PACE-II. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced throug...

  16. Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radon Measurement in Schools Radon Prevention in the Design and Construction of Schools and Other Large Buildings (EPA 625- ... quality control and assurance to address complicated building designs and specialized airflow. What happens if your school fails the test? Every home should also take this ...

  17. Radon and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reviews the topics concerning the problem of the indoor radon and its measurement. The initial stage deals with the general features of radon, from the historical remarks about its discovery to the formation mechanisms in the soil, then passing to describe the transport processes that lead the radon to enter into the buildings. The mean radon concentration distribution among the Italian regions is reported and compared with the situation in the other countries of the world. A particular importance is given to present the national law concerning the radioprotection from the natural sources of ionizing radiations; a paragraph is completely devoted to this argument and to discuss the differences between the Italian approach and the regulations applied in the Test of Europe for both workplaces and dwellings. Chapter 3 describes the different detectors and methods to measure the radon and its short mean live decay products concentrations, together with the operative procedures and guides provided by the Italian law and by the international bodies. As an example of typical radon passive measurement device. the new ENEA detector developed at the Institute of Radioprotection is presented and discussed. Appendix 1 is entirely devoted to discuss the main remedial actions for decreasing the radon indoor concentration both for old and new buildings; appendix 2 reports the main quantities related to radon and radioprotection

  18. Radon surveys and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon surveys are made primarily for estimating the radon risk for the population of an area but also for predicting the risk for inhabitants of future buildings. Therefore it is of essential importance to know the uncertainties of such predictions. The outcome of radon surveys is strongly influenced b y many factors with partly large uncertainties. In most cases passive radon detectors are exposed for some weeks or months (up to one-year measurements). In these cases, the contribution of uncertainties in the calibration of the detectors to the total uncertainty is most often of less importance. The main contribution to the uncertainties comes from the unknown treatment of the detectors by the inhabitants during the exposure and by the natural fluctuation of the indoor radon concentration in time. The latter is also true for one-year-measurements. Additional uncertainties are introduced when the measured data are normalized to some time period (e. g. one-year mean) or to some standardized measurement situation. Generally, it is of crucial importance to know the probability for a possible underestimation of the radon risk for an area. The main contributions to the final uncertainties, their sizes and the mathematical procedures which were used during the Austrian Radon Project (ARP) to estimate the uncertainties in the final categorization of areas in radon potential classes will be discussed. In addition, procedures which can be used to reduce some uncertainties will be presented. (author)

  19. Radon in caves: clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Craven Stephen A.; Smit Berend J.

    2006-01-01

    Historical, experimental and clinical evidence is presented to suggest that radon constitutes a relatively small carcinogenic risk for casual visitors to caves. The risk is dependent on radon levels and the smoking of tobacco. Show cave guides, chronically exposed to radon, may be at increased risk for lung cancer due to the effects of radon, especially if they are smokers of tobacco.

  20. Indoor radon mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action limit for indoor radon concentration in Finnish dwellings is 400 Bq/m3 which is exceeded in 50.000 dwellings. In these dwellings indoor radon mitigation is needed. The most important reason for high concentration is the soil air with high radon concentrations that flows into living spaces through openings and gaps in the building foundation. Slab on ground is the most prevalent type of foundation in Finnish single family houses. Without preventive measures, this type of foundation promotes the flow of radon-bearing soil air into living spaces. In the second popular foundation type, semi-basement houses, the flow of soil air through the walls in contact with soil still increases radon leakages. The key aim of indoor radon mitigation is to prevent or decrease the harmful flows of radon-bearing soil air into dwellings. This guide gives the basic information on Finnish regulations on indoor radon, leakage routes, effect of air exchange and under-pressure as well as pre-mitigation studies of houses. The results on the efficiency of various mitigation methods are based on a questionnaire study in 400 Finnish dwellings and on-site studies in numerous houses. In the case of sub slab suction, the Finnish guide published by the Ministry of Environment has also been utilized. Best mitigation efficiency has been achieved using sub slab suction and radon well. Typical indoor radon reduction factors for both methods are 70 - 90%, and the best results are above 95%. Sub slab suction can be implemented through both floor slab and foundation wall. An exhaust fan coupled to suction pit and exhaust piping creates underpressure and ventilation beneath the slab. In case of a radon well an exhaust fan sucks air from the soil and ventilates the soil air volume through a well construction placed outside the house. The depth of a radon well is 4 - 5 metres. A single radon well can reduce radon concentration in many dwellings at the distance up to 20 - 30 metres. Mitigation work

  1. Indoor radon mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action limit for indoor radon concentration in Finnish dwellings is 400 Bq/m3 which is exceeded in 50.000 dwellings. In these dwellings indoor radon mitigation is needed. The most important reason for high concentration is the soil air with high radon concentrations that flows into living spaces through openings and gaps in the building foundation. Slab on-ground is the most prevalent type of foundation in Finnish single family houses. Without preventive measures, this type of foundation promotes the flow of radon-bearing soil air into living spaces. In the second popular foundation type, hill-side houses, the flow of soil air through the walls backing soil still increases radon leakages. The key aim of indoor radon mitigation is to prevent or decrease the harmful flows of radon-bearing soil air into dwellings. This guide gives the basic information on Finnish regulations on indoor radon, leakage routes, effect of air exchange and underpressure as well as pre-mitigation studies of houses. The results on the efficiency of various mitigation methods are based on a questionnaire study in 400 Finnish dwellings and on-site studies in numerous houses. In the case of sub-slab-suction the Finnish guide published by the Ministry of Environment has also been utilized. Best mitigation efficiency has been achieved using sub-slab-suction and radon well. Typical reduction factors for both methods are 70-90%, and the best results are above 95%. Sub-slab-suction can be implemented through both floor slab and foundation wall. An exhaust fan coupled to suction pit and exhaust piping creates underpressure and ventilation beneath the slab. In case of a radon well an exhaust fan sucks air from the soil and ventilates the soil air volume through a well construction placed outside the house. The depth of a radon well is 3-5 metres. A single radon well can reduce radon concentration in many dwellings at the distance up to 20-30 metres. Mitigation work based on ventilation aims at

  2. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU Member States have to implement the new Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS) by May 2000. The Title VII of the Directive applies in particular to radon in workplaces. The Member States are required to identify workplaces which may be of concern, to set up appropriate means for monitoring radon exposures in the identified workplaces and, as necessary, to apply all or part of the system of radiological protection for practices or interventions. The BSS provisions on natural radiation are based on the ICRP 1990 recommendations. These recommendations were considered in the Finnish radiation legislation already in 1992, which resulted in establishing controls on radon in all types of workplaces. In this paper issues are discussed on the practical implementation of the BSS concerning occupational exposures to radon basing on the Finnish experiences in monitoring radon in workplaces during the past seven years. (orig.)

  3. Radon and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume provides an interdisciplinary overview and analysis of radon and the environment, geared to both professional and lay perspectives. The radon issue spans many disciplines and has far-reaching implications for society. There are also many uncertainties stemming from a variety of sources. These include the often misleading and inconsistent media coverage of the topic, the newness of the issue, the lack of detailed scientific information and the way people perceive and respond to risk. While the effects of radon are still not fully understood as a public policy and health issue, there have been important new developments on the subject and this book brings together many of the key contributors our current knowledge. It attempts to clarify the policy issues, in a manner that will be of equal use to a radon professional, a government official, or a concerned citizen. Seven aspects of the radon issue are presented in the various sections of the book

  4. Rb atomic magnetometer toward EDM experiment with laser cooled francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Ando, Shun; Aoki, Takahiro; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Hayamizu, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Itoh, Masatoshi; Kato, Ko; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Kosuke; Uchiyama, Aiko; Asahi, Koichiro; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle or an atom is a suited observable to test the physics beyond the standard model. We plan to search for the electron EDM by using the laser cooled francium (Fr) atom, since the Fr atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and the laser cooling techniques can suppress both statistical and systematic errors. In the EDM experiment, a fluctuation of the magnetic field is a main source of the errors. In order to achieve the high precision magnetometry, a magnetometer based on the nonlinear magneto-optical rotation effect of the Rb atom is under development. A long coherence time of Rb atom is the key issue for the highly sensitive detection of the field fluctuations. The coherence time is limited due both to collisions with an inner surface of a cell contained the Rb atom and to residual field in a magnetic shield. We prepared the cell coated with an anti-relaxation material and measured the relaxation time. A degauss of the shield was performed to eliminate the residual field. We will report the present status of the magnetometer. A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle or an atom is a suited observable to test the physics beyond the standard model. We plan to search for the electron EDM by using the laser cooled francium (Fr) atom, since the Fr atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and the laser cooling techniques can suppress both statistical and systematic errors. In the EDM experiment, a fluctuation of the magnetic field is a main source of the errors. In order to achieve the high precision magnetometry, a magnetometer based on the nonlinear magneto-optical rotation effect of the Rb atom is under development. A long coherence time of Rb atom is the key issue for the highly sensitive detection of the field fluctuations. The coherence time is limited due both to collisions with an inner surface of a cell contained the Rb atom and to residual field in a magnetic shield

  5. The radon manual. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This second edition of the Radon Manual provides an overview of the problem of radon contamination of buildings and remedial measures which are recommended for overcoming this problem. The Council's Code of Practice for those engaged in the detection of radon or remedial work to reduce natural radon levels in industry and residential buildings is included as an Appendix. The Council aims to promote a self-regulatory role for the radon industry based on the recommendations produced here. (UK)

  6. Direct astatination of a tumour-binding protein, human epidermal growth factor, using nido-carborane as a prosthetic group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for direct astatine labeling of proteins has been investigated. Binding sites for astatine were created by coupling of a nido-carborane derivative to a protein, the human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), using two different conjugation methods - by glutaraldehyde cross-linking or by introduction of sulfohydryl groups by Traut's reagent with subsequent linking of ANC-1 with m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide ester. The conjugates were astatinated using the Chloramine-T method in high yield. The best labeling was obtained by the glutaraldehyde conjugate with an average yield of 68 ± 9%. In vitro stability tests indicated that the glutaraldehyde conjugated label was as stable as hEGF labeled with astatobenzoate. (author)

  7. Radon house doctor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term house doctor may be generalized to include persons skilled in the use of instruments and procedures necessary to identify, diagnose, and correct indoor air quality problems as well as energy, infiltration, and structural problems in houses. A radon house doctor would then be a specialist in radon house problems. Valuable experience in the skills necessary to be developed by radon house doctors has recently been gained in an extensive radon monitoring and mitigation program in upstate New York sponsored by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These skills, to be described in detail in this paper, include: (i) the use of appropriate instruments, (ii) the evaluation of the symptoms of a radon-sick house, (iii) the diagnostic procedures required to characterize radon sources in houses, (iv) the prescription procedures needed to specify treatment of the problem, (v) the supervision of the implementation of the treatment program, (vi) the check-up procedures required to insure the house cured of radon problems. 31 references, 3 tables

  8. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations deals with practical problems of radon in dwelllings. It is found that the estimation of risks is not satisfactory. It is evident that the main source of radon is the ground. The mechanisms which influence the radon inflow have been studied. The permeability and water content of the soil has the same importance as the contents of uranium and radium. Measuring methods need to be developed. The number of houses with radon daughters exceeding 400 Bq/m3 is estimated to approximately 40 000. A number of practical methods to eliminate the risk are presented, and the cost for preventing it might amount to 50 000 SEK per house. Some 10 % of the ground is to be considered high risk ground requiring expensive constructions. Recommendations have been made in consideration of radon content when starting new buildings. Special loans are to be granted to reconstruct houses with radon daughters exceeding 400 Bq/m3. It is stated that the follow up of the radon problems should be made by the National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection. (G.B.)

  9. Radon levels in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon levels in atmospheric and aquatic systems in Cyprus have recently been measured using the radon monitor Alpha Guard. Indoor and outdoor radon levels were obtained in situ, whereas analysis of radon concentrations in water was performed using tap and ground water samples collected from several areas of the island. The average value for outdoor and indoor radon concentration is 11±10 and 7±6 Bq m-3, respectively, and for tap and ground water 0.4 Bq l-1 and 1.4 Bq l-1, respectively. From these data the annual dose equivalent of airborne radon to the Cypriot population is about 0.19 mSv y-1, which is quite low compared to the total dose equivalent of natural and man-made ionising radiation in Cyprus. Radon levels in aquatic systems are relatively low due to an exhaustive utilisation of ground water resources and also to the increased input of desalinated sea water in the water distribution network and eventually into the ground water reservoirs

  10. The Austrian radon project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the completion of the Austrian Radon Project, the map of the annual mean radon concentrations in Austrian homes is available now. The extrapolation of the indoor data to a standard situation was used to create a 'radon potential' map, which should indicate the radon risk from the ground without the influence of house type, living situation and all other parameters, that could influence the indoor radon concentration. This map specifies areas where radon-safe building techniques should be applied. In the next future the main task for the Austrian radon program will be the transformation of recommendations into use, i. e. to inform the public as well as to teach the persons who are responsible for the construction of a house, how to make a house radon-safe. It seems essential that all people who are involved in the construction of a house, starting from the planning and ending with the people working at the building site, should be informed about the problems with radon because a lack of knowledge in one part of the chain could substantially reduce the effectiveness of any protective measure. The way we try to inform the public as well as several special target groups will be demonstrated. An important question is the effectiveness of such information campaigns. This means: does the information reach the target groups, are the people accepting this information and finally do they apply the recommendations? Therefore it seems necessary to test the methods of information distribution for their efficiency already during the information campaigns. (orig.)

  11. Indoor radon in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaupotič Janja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian Radon Programme started in 1990. Since then, radon and radon short-lived decay products have been surveyed in 730 kindergartens, 890 schools, 1000 randomly selected homes, 5 major spas, 26 major hospitals, 10 major municipal water supply plants, and 8 major wineries. Alpha scintillation cells, etched track detectors, electret-based detectors and various continuously measuring devices have been used. On the basis of estimated effective doses, decisions were made on appropriate mitigation. In total, 35 buildings have been appropriately modified. The programme is displayed and results reviewed chronologically and discussed.

  12. Measuring your radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its annual report for 1992/93, the NRPB has warned that tens of thousands of UK employees may be exposed to high levels of radon at work. In addition to those who work underground, employees at risk of radon-induced lung cancer are typically those who spend long periods indoors. This article reviews the implications for all employers especially those in low or unknown levels of radon who resist taking measurements in the belief that by not measuring, they are not liable. (UK)

  13. What Is Radon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Cancer » What Causes Cancer? » Other Carcinogens » Pollution » Radon Share this Page Close Push escape to ... Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features ...

  14. Radon in residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the geographic variation in the presence of radon at relatively high levels. Its focus is the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania but it considers the incidence of residential radon in adjoining counties in contiguous states, and by state throughout the nation. Cartographic analysis provides a robust assessment of the broad impact of physiography, the local effects of housing and lifestyle, and the quality of the best available spatial data. By promoting a fuller understanding of the pattern and magnitude of the risk, radon maps constitute a basis for a more effective and efficient prophylaxis. Further, county-unit maps of age-adjusted mortality rates for successive decades demonstrate inconsistent and puzzling linkages between the geographics of radon and cancer

  15. ROE Radon Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The polygon dataset represents predicted indoor radon screening levels in counties across the United States. These data were provided by EPA’s Office of Radiation...

  16. Radon i danske lejeboliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Skytte Clausen, Louise

    I denne undersøgelse kortlægges radonindholdet i indeluften og det undersøges, hvordan indholdet af radon i indeluften er fordelt og spredes i en ejendom, og om det er muligt at pege på en bygningsdel eller en bygningskomponent som en spredningsvej for radon i boliger. Boligerne er lejeboliger og...... ligger i etageejendomme, kæde- og rækkehuse tilhørende bygningstyper opført fra 1850 og frem. De udvalgte ejendomme ligger i områder af landet, hvor der ved tidligere undersøgelser har vist sig at være en stor andel af huse med et højt indhold af radon i indeluften. Koncentrationen af radon er målt over...

  17. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological assessment of the results of radon measurements in dwellings is not automatically applicable to workplaces due to different forms of utilization, constructional conditions, time of exposure, heating and ventilation conditions, additional aerosol sources, aerosol parameters, chemical substances, etc. In order to investigate the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings, long-time recordings of radon, attached radon progeny and unattached radon progeny concentrations (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi) are carried out at several categories of workplaces (e.g. offices, social establishments, schools, production rooms, workshops, kitchens, agricultural facilities). 36 workplaces have been investigated. There have been carried out at least 2-3 long-time recordings for each workplace during different seasons. At the same time the gamma dose rate, meteorological conditions, aerosol particle concentrations have been registered. Many special dates from the workplaces and the buildings have been recorded. Activity size distribution of the aerosol-attached and unattached fraction of short-lived radon decay products have been determinated in 20 workplaces. Mainly the following measurement systems were used: Radon- and Radon Progeny Monitor EQF 3020, SARAD GmbH, Germany. Alpha-Track Radon Detectors, BfS Berlin, Germany. Screen Diffusion Batteries with Different Screens, University of Goettingen, Germany. Low-Pressure Cascade Impactor, Type BERNER. Condensation Nuclei Counter, General Electric, USA. PAEC-fp-Rn-Monitor, University of Goettingen, Germany. Through the measurements, many peculiarities in the course of the radon-concentration, the equilibrium factor F, the unattached fraction fp and the activity size distribution have been determined. These amounts are influenced mainly by the working conditions and the working intervals. The influence of these peculiarities in workplaces on the dose have been

  18. Personal radon daughter dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation

  19. Radon-Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  20. Radon in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon 222 and its radioactive decay products can enter buildings and, through inhalation, expose the inhabitants' pulmonary tissues to ionizing radiation. Studies of radon levels in the US indicate that variations of 100-fold or greater exist among private dwellings. In one region, 55% of homes had levels exceeding 4 pCi/L (0.15 Bq/L), which is the guidance level recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Ventilation and tightness of construction are important determinants of radon levels. In some instances, fans or heat exchangers can reduce excessive concentrations, but in others more elaborate remedial measures may be required. Physicians may obtain information about radon through Environmental Protection Agency regional offices and state radiation control programs. The risk of radiogenic cancer is believed to increase with exposure to ionizing radiation. According to some estimates, concentrations of radon decay products in US homes could be responsible for several thousand cases of lung cancer per year. Studies of radon levels in representative buildings and guidelines are needed to ensure safe, effective, and cost-effective counter-measures. Architects, contractors, designers, building code administrators, health physicists, and biomedical investigators can help with solutions

  1. Radon og boligen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    Radon er en radioaktiv og sundhedsskadelig luftart, som ved indånding øger risikoen for lungekræft. Der er ingen dokumenteret nedre grænse for, hvornår radon er ufarligt. Derfor anbefales det, at man tilstræber et så lavt radonindhold i indeluften som muligt. Man kan hverken lugte, se, høre eller...... smage radon, så vil du vide, om du har radon i din bolig, må du måle radonindholdet i indeluften. Radon forekommer naturligt i jorden og kan suges ind sammen med jordluft, hvis der inde er et undertryk, og hvis konstruktionerne mod jord er utætte. Jordluft trænger ind gennem revner og utætte samlinger......, fx omkring rør til kloak, vand og varmeforsyning. Koncentrationen af radon i jorden varierer meget fra sted til sted, også lokalt og gennem året. Tidligere undersøgelser har vist, at der kan forekomme høje koncentrationer i Sydgrønland, specielt i området syd for Narsalik ved Paamiut, 61°30’N....

  2. Radon in Croatian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are ten thermal spas in Croatia and all of them provide health services for patients and visitors. Radon measurements were performed since there is a lack of data concerning natural radioactivity originated from radon and its short-lived progenies in such environments. The thermal water at two different sites (the indoor swimming pool with geothermal water and the spring) in each spa was sampled and radon concentrations were measured by AlphaGUARD radon measuring system. The obtained values were in the range of 0.7 to 19 Bq.dm-3 and 2 to 94 Bq.dm-3 for indoor swimming pools and springs, respectively. Integrated measurements of radon concentration in air were performed by two solid state nuclear track detectors LR-115 II (open and diffusion one) thus enabling estimation of equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters. The annual effective doses received by spa workers were found to be about 1 mSv/y (below the lower limit value of 3 mSv/y recommended by ICRP 65). The doses of patients and visitors were one or two order of magnitude lower than that of the personnel. (author)

  3. Radon and radon daughter monitoring (including thoron daughter monitoring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon/radon daughter and thoron daughter measurement techniques are outlined. The necessary precautions and critical assessments of each method are also presented with a view to providing a better understanding of the various measurement methods

  4. Labelling prospects of astatine-211 with immunoglobulins (IgG): some general considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tumour therapeutic potential of the short lived alpha emitting radiohalogen 211At has been already been well recognised in the field of radioimmuno therapy. There is no evidence as such to show that astatine itself is a tumour seeking isotope. Therefore it has to be tagged to tumour seeking compound such as a drug or a protein preferably an antibody (IgG). In this communication, the labelling parameters which are required to be investigated for obtaining a stable product which could be useful as radioimmuno therapeutic agent, are described. (author). 6 refs

  5. Determination of the electron affinity of astatine and polonium by laser photodetachment

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to conduct the first electron anity (EA) measurements of the two elements astatine (At) and polonium (Po). Collinear photodetachment spectroscopy will allow us to measure these quantities with an uncertainty limited only by the spectral linewidth of the laser. We plan to use negative ion beams of the two radioactive elements At and Po, which are only accessible on-line and at ISOLDE. The feasibility of our proposed method and the functionality of the experimental setup have been demonstrated at ISOLDE in o-line tests by the clear observation of the photodetachment threshold for stable iodine. This proposal is based on our Letter of Intent I-148 [1].

  6. Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air -- restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results

  7. Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air - restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in the indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results

  8. Radon as a hydrological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Takami [National Research Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The radon concentration in water is measured by a liquid scintillation method. After the radioactive equilibrium between radon and the daughter nuclides was attained, the radon concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation analyzer. {alpha}-ray from radon, then two {beta}- and two {alpha}-ray from the daughter nuclei group were released, so that 500% of the apparent counting efficiency was obtained. The detector limit is about 0.03 Bq/l, the low value, which corresponds to about 5.4x10{sup -15} ppm. By determining the radon concentration in groundwater, behavior of radon in hydrological process, the groundwater exchange caused by pumping and exchange between river water and groundwater were investigated. The water circulation analysis by means of radon indicator in the environment was shown. By using the large difference of radon concentration between in river water and in groundwater, arrival of injected water to the sampling point of groundwater was detected. (S.Y.)

  9. Extraction of 211At-astatine from hydrochloric acid solutions by means of TOPO, TBP, and triphenylphosphine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction behaviour of astatine was studied under defined conditions from hydrochloride acid solutions (cHCl>0.1 M or 1 and 2M). Therefore other effects like adsorption, reduction or hydrolysis can be excluded. The present work describes the extraction with tri- n- octylphosphinoxide (TOPO), tri- n-butylphosphate (TBP) and tri-phenylphosphine in chloroform. (orig.)

  10. No-carrier-added astatination of N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) via electrophilic destannylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The no-carrier-added synthesis of N-succinimidyl 3-[211At]astato-benzoate from N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE) is described. The nature of the solvent in which the 211At was isolated from the target was an important factor influencing both the radiochemical yields and the nature of the incorporated astatine activity. (orig.)

  11. Radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide has been prepared for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by the Building Research Establishment (BRE). Following the guidance is not compulsory and you are free to take other action. However if you do follow the guidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law. Health and Safety Inspectors seek to secure compliance with the law and may refer to this guidance as illustrating good practice. In the past, concern about exposure of employees to radon has largely centred on the mining environment. In recent times, with increased knowledge and mapping of radon levels in homes, attention has increasingly turned to radon exposure in buildings used for work purposes. Now there is a considerable fund of information to show that employees in some buildings can receive very significant radiation doses from radon. Surveys show that levels of radon tend to be higher in buildings with small rooms, such as offices rather than larger factory and warehouse constructions. The particular problem is that the nature of the work process gives no clue as to the radon hazard that may exist, and the employer may be unaware of its presence and how to deal with it. This Guide is aimed principally at employers and those who control buildings used for work purposes, or their representatives. It offers guidance on practical measures for reducing radon levels in workplaces. The guidance should also be of interest and assistance to those, such as surveyors and builders, concerned with specifying and carrying out the necessary remedial measures. Advice is provided for the majority of building types and construction situations likely to be encountered in larger non-domestic buildings. For buildings where construction is similar to that found in dwellings the guidance published by BRE on remedial measures for dwellings should be used. BRE prepared this Guide with assistance from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council under contract

  12. Intercomparison of retrospective radon detectors.

    OpenAIRE

    Field, R. W.; Steck, D J; Parkhurst, M A; Mahaffey, J A; Alavanja, M C

    1999-01-01

    We performed both a laboratory and a field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, (210)Pb, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha-emission of a (210)Pb-decay product, (210)Po. Th...

  13. Peculiar radon spot in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the public, radon in homes is the main source of exposure. Mostly rather steady radon exhalations have been experienced from rocks or building materials rich in uranium. But in a village of North-East Hungary high indoor radon concentrations have been observed, varying in time, due to the peculiar geochemical conditions. (author)

  14. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A precise retrospective assessment of long-term radon exposures in dwellings is essential for estimating lung-cancer risks. The objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions, (2) to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps

  15. Bavarian radon network und education of radon experts; Bayerisches Radon-Netzwerk und Ausbildung zur Radon-Fachperson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, S.; Kunte, A. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Augsburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Bavarian Environment Agency (LfU) initiated 2012 the Bavarian Radon Network and the training initiative to become a 'Radon-Fachperson' (radon specialist) to further the awareness concerning radon. The Bavarian Radon Network was established in summer 2012 by the LfU in cooperation with the 'Bauzentrum Muenchen' (Munich Building Center). The Bavarian Radon Network is meant to link radon specialists, specialists from the building and real estate sector, municipal and private building owners, stakeholders, government agencies and science. Meetings are held biannually. The four day course to become a Radon-Fachperson is primarily aimed at building specialists, e.g. architects, construction engineers, ventilation engineers and staff of private and public construction offices. The course imparts specialised knowledge of radon prevention for new buildings, realisation of radon mitigation, measurement instrumentation and methods as well as fundamentals of radiation protection. With the Radon-Fachperson there are henceforth qualified specialists in the field of radon in buildings available in Bavaria. (orig.)

  16. Radon in land use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon poses a health risk. Therefore, it is important that the municipality takes into account radon, in land use planning. This Radiation Info provides an overview of what makes an additional radon prone area and what tools are available to assess this. The background is the Planning and Building Act provisions on risk analysis (ROS) and zones(eb)

  17. Classification of radon exposed workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At this time the project 'Investigations of Radiation Exposure through Radon and Radon Progenies in Workplaces' is carried out in order to record the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings. Through examples of measurements, first knowledge from investigations are presented. (orig.)

  18. 211At-Rh(16-S4-diol) complex as a precursor for astatine radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    211At is one of the most promising radionuclides in α-radioimmunotherapy (α-RIT). Unfortunately, biomolecules labeled by direct electrophilic astatination are unstable due to the rapid loss of 211At under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The present paper describes the results of our studies on attaching At- to the rhodium(III) complex with thioether ligand: 1,5,9,13-etrathiacyclohexadecane-3,11-diol (16-S4-diol). Rh3+ was chosen as a moderately soft metal cation which should form very strong bonds with soft At- anions, but first of all because of the kinetic inertness of low spin rhodium(III) d6 complexes. The 16-S4-diol ligand was selected due to formation of stable complexes with Rh3+. The experiments related to optimization of the reaction conditions were performed with the 131I, basing on a chemical similarity of I- to At-. The experiments with 211At were then carried out under the conditions found optimal for I-. The preliminary results are promising, and indicate a possibility for astatination of biomolecules by using the 211At-Rh(16-S4-diol) complex

  19. Chemical properties of radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, L.

    1986-01-01

    Radon is frequently regarded as a totally inert element. It is, however, a ''metalloid'' - an element which lies on the diagonal of the Periodic Table between the true metals and nonmetals and which exhibits some of the characteristics of both. It reacts with fluorine, halogen fluorides, dioxygenyl salts, fluoro-nitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes to form ionic compounds. Several of the solid reagents can be used to collect radon from air but must be protected from moisture, since they hydrolyze readily. Recently, solutions of nonvolatile, cationic radon have been produced in nonaqueous solvents. Ion-exchange studies have shown that the radon can be quantitatively collected on columns packed with either Nafion resins or complex salts. In its ionic state, radon is able to displace H/sup +/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Ba/sup 2 +/ ions from a number of solid materials. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Towards a Brazilian radon map: consortium radon Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the idea of generating radon map of Brazil has emerged. First attempts of coordinating radon surveys-carried out by different groups across the country-and initial discussions on how to proceed on a larger scale were made at the First Brazilian Radon Seminary, Natal, September 2012. Conventionally, it is believed that indoor radon is no major problem in Brazil, because the overall benign climate usually allows high ventilation rates. Nevertheless, scattered measurements have shown that moderately high indoor radon concentrations (up to a few hundred Bq m-3) do occur regionally. Brazilian geology is very diverse and there are regions where an elevated geo-genic radon potential exists or is expected to exist. Therefore, a Brazilian Radon Survey is expected to be a challenge, although it appears an important issue, given the rising concern of the public about the quality of its environment. (authors)

  1. The householders' guide to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is a follow-up to the leaflet Radon in Houses which was issued previously by the Department of the Environment. It is intended for people who live in areas with high levels of radon. It is written particularly for householders whose homes have already been tested and found to have an appreciable level of radon. It explains what radon is, how it gets into houses and what the effects on health may be. It also outlines some of the ways of reducing the level of radon and gives guidance both on how to get the work done and likely costs. (author)

  2. Radon risk maps - correct applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Czech Republic has been surveyed for radon risk, and maps on the 1:200 000 scale have been set up based on results of field measurements of the volume activity of radon in soil air (4 800 measurements in total). The maps are used in territorial planning, in setting up strategies for financing remedial actions and in determining priorities for radon monitoring in buildings and in drinking water. The radon pathway from a rock is affected by soil permeability, tectonic defects and climatic factors. The radon risk assessment, however, cannot rely on regional maps solely; additional, more detailed measurements are necessary. (M.D.). 2 tabs., 3 refs

  3. Radon: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

  4. Radon: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given

  5. Dry radon gas generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radon gas standard with a source strength of 120037 pCi capable of delivering 121 pCi of radon gas successively to a large number of cells has been developed. The absolute source strength has been calibrated against two radium solution standards and is accurate to 4 percent. A large number of cells (approxiiately 50) may be calibrated conveniently on a daily basis with appropriate corrections for sequential changes in the amount of gas delivered, and a correction for the growth of radon in the standard on successive days. Daily calibration of ten cells or less does not require these corrections. The standard is suitable for field use and the source emanation rate is stable over extreme temperatue and pressure ranges and over six months

  6. Radon depth migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A depth migration method is presented that used Radon-transformed common-source seismograms as input. It is shown that the Radon depth migration method can be extended to spatially varying velocity depth models by using asymptotic ray theory (ART) to construct wavefield continuation operators. These operators downward continue an incident receiver-array plane wave and an assumed point-source wavefield into the subsurface. The migration velocity model is constrain to have longer characteristic wavelengths than the dominant source wavelength such that the ART approximations for the continuation operators are valid. This method is used successfully to migrate two synthetic data examples: (1) a point diffractor, and (2) a dipping layer and syncline interface model. It is shown that the Radon migration method has a computational advantage over the standard Kirchhoff migration method in that fewer rays are computed in a main memory implementation

  7. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222Rn and 226Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  8. Radon strategy in Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Free State of Saxony developed a strategy on radon protection in buildings. It is based on a decision of the Saxon parliament enacted in 2005 and triggered by the upcoming European Basic Safety Standards which will contain regulations on radon in dwellings for the first time. The strategy is focusing on information of the public and monitoring programs as well as on educational and training measures for the building construction trades. The conventional methods of radiation protection (keeping distance and avoiding contact) are not effective for radon protection. Thus investigation and development of adequate building construction measures and ventilation are the main principles for a successful strategy. Special attention is given to energy efficient construction measures. The activities of the free State of Saxony to implement these measures are introduced. (orig.)

  9. Radon Research Program, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny as well as to provide information useful in radon control strategies. Results generated under the Program were highlighted in a National Research Council report on radon dosimetry. The study concluded that the risk of radon exposure is 30% less in homes than in mines. This program summary of book describes the OHER FY-1991 Radon Research Program. It is the fifth in an annual series of program books designed to provide scientific and research information to the public and to other government agencies on the DOE Radon Research Program

  10. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

  11. Radon assay for SNO+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+

  12. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  13. A continuous measuring apparatus base on deduction arithmetic for environmental radon and radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous measuring for environmental radon and radon progeny is the premise to calculate the radiation dose from radon precisely. An intelligent measuring apparatus for environmental radon and radon progeny using scintillation cell and filter-sampling technique with deduction arithmetic is described. The measuring theory, structures of the apparatus and some measuring data of standard radon chamber and offices are given detail. (authors)

  14. Radon thematic days - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the Radon thematic days organized by the French society of radiation protection (SFRP). Twenty five presentations (slides) are compiled in the document and deal with: 1 - General introduction about radon (Sebastien Baechler, IRA); 2 - Survey of epidemiological studies (Dominique Laurier, IRSN); 3 - Dosimetric model (Eric Blanchardon, Estelle Davesne, IRSN); 4 - Radon issue in Franche-Comte: measurement of the domestic exposure and evaluation of the associated health impact (Francois Clinard, InVS); 5 - WHO's (World Health Organization) viewpoint in limiting radon exposure in homes (Ferid Shannoun, OMS); 6 - Radon measurement techniques (Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 7 - Quality of radon measurements (Francois Bochud, IRA); 8 - International recommendations (Jean-Francois Lecomte, IRSN); 9 - Radon management strategy in Switzerland - 1994-2014 (Christophe Murith, OFSP); 10 - 2011-2015 action plan for radon risk management (Jean-Luc Godet, Eric Dechaux, ASN); 11 - Radon at work place in Switzerland (Lisa Pedrazzi, SUVA); 12 - Strategies of radiation protection optimization in radon exposure situations (Cynthia Reaud, CEPN); 13 - Mapping of the radon potential of geologic formations in France (Geraldine Ielsch, IRSN); 14 - Radon database in Switzerland (Martha Gruson, OFSP); 15 - Radon 222 in taps water (Jeanne Loyen, IRSN); 16 - Buildings protection methods (Bernard Collignan, CSTB, Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 17 - Preventive and sanitation measures in Switzerland (Claudio Valsangiacomo, SUPSI); 18 - Training and support approach for building specialists (Joelle Goyette-Pernot, Fribourg engineers and architects' school); 19 - Status of radon bulk activity measurements performed between 2005-2010 in public areas (Cyril Pineau, ASN); 20 - Neuchatel Canton experiments (Didier Racine, SENE); 21 - Montbeliard region experience in the radon risk management (Isabelle Netillard, Pays de Montbeliard Agglomeration); 22

  15. Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime

  16. Development of a radon-aerosol system for testing radon and radon decay products measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposures to radon and its decay products may arise from NORM-related work activities. Employers are responsible for monitoring radon in their workplaces, and the methods and instruments used must be subjected to adequate quality assurance. A radon chamber is an important component of a quality assurance programme. In this study we developed a radon-aerosol chamber and used it to characterise the prototype version of a newly developed radon decay product measuring instrument. The system comprises a small radon chamber with dry radon source, aerosol chamber, monodisperse aerosol generator, and TSI aerodynamic particle sizer with its accessories. Radon-laden air mixed with aerosols is pumped from the radon-aerosol system through the radon decay product measuring instrument. The instrument's response is obtained continuously from alpha spectrometric analyses of the radon decay products, 218Po and 214Po, deposited on a membrane filter (0.8 - m pore sizes and 25 mm diameter) held close to a silicon surface barrier detector. A second couple of filter and detector is inserted downstream to check the efficiency and eventual leakage of the membrane filter. The results show that alpha activity on the filter nearer to the inlet was significantly higher than the activity on the second filter. There were also significant losses of aerosols to the inner wall of the instrument as air flows through. The implications of these observations on the response of the instrument are discussed. (author)

  17. Radon campaigns. Status report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon campaigns aim at activating citizens to make indoor radon measurements and remediation as well as increasing the common awareness of indoor radon questions. Indoor radon increases the risk of lung cancer. Through radon campaigns Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) also promotes the attainment of those goals that the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has set for municipal authorities in Finland for prevention of the harmful effects of radon. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health supports this campaign. Radon campaigns were started in autumn 2003. By autumn 2008 the campaigns have been organised already in 64 regions altogether in 160 municipalities. In some municipalities they have already arranged two campaigns. Altogether 14 100 houses have been measured and in 2 100 of these the action limit of radon remediation 400 Bq / m3 has been exceeded. When participating in radon campaigns the house owners receive a special offer on radon detectors with a reduced price. In 2008 a new practice was introduced where the campaign advertisements were distributed by mail to low-rise residential houses in a certain region. The advertisement includes an order / deposit slip with postage paid that the house owner can send directly to STUK to easily make an order for radon measurement. In the previous radon campaigns in 2003 - 2007 the municipal authorities collected the orders from house owners and distributed later the radon detectors. The radon concentrations measured in the campaign regions have exceeded the action limit of 400 Bq / m3 in 0 - 39% of houses, depending on the region. The total of 15% of all measurements made exceeded this limit. The remediation activities have been followed by sending a special questionnaire on remedies performed to the house owners. In 2006 - 2007 a questionnaire was sent to those households where the radon concentration of 400 Bq / m3 was exceeded during the two first campaign seasons. Among the households that replied

  18. EML indoor radon workshop, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop on indoor radon, held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) on November 30 and December 1, 1982, covered recent developments in radon daughter research and development. Thirty papers were presented dealing with standardization and quality assurance measurement methods, surveys, measurements strategy, physical mechanisms of radon and radon daughter transport and development of guidance standards for indoor exposures. The workshop concluded with a planning session that identified the following needs: (1) national and international intercomparisons of techniques for measuring radon and radon daughter concentrations, working level and radon exhalation flux density; (2) development and refinement of practical measurement techniques for thoron and its daughter products; (3) quantitative definition of the sources of indoor radon and the mechanisms of transport into structures; (4) better knowledge of the physical properties of radon daughters; (5) more complete and accurate data on the population exposure to radon, which can only be met by broadly based surveys; and (6) more international cooperation and information exchange among countries with major research programs

  19. A creeping suspicion about radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Who would expect an odorless, invisible gas that occurs nearly everywhere on earth to cause such trouble? Yet radon, the gas emitted by decay of uranium in the earth's crust, is one of America's most significant environmental risks, according to the EPA, which estimates that residential radon levels lead to approximately 13,600 lung cancer deaths each year. A new National Cancer Institute analysis of multiple studies of miners confirms early estimates, putting the number at 15,000. No other risk comes close, not even environmental tobacco smoke, which is estimates to cause some 3,000 deaths each year. Hot debate surrounds the assessment of risk from radon exposure to Americans via indoor air and water supplies. The primary culprit is not radon gas itself, but its decay products, including polonium-214 and polonium-218, which have long half-lives and emit alpha particles - positively charged particles - and lung cancer when inhaled. Radon seeps into homes from the ground or is present in water supplies. Waterborne radon may be inhaled as radon or its progeny during household use - cooking or showering - or it may be ingested. But the EPA estimates that water sources contribute only about 5% of total airborne radon exposure, leaving indoor air as the worst offender. While the EPA estimates that approximately 200 cancer cases per year result from exposure to radon from public groundwater systems, estimates of annual lung cancer deaths from indoor air radon range from 7,000 to 30,000

  20. Concentration variation of radon in the room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out to determine the variation of radon concentration in the room. Radon detector used was solid nuclear tracks detector (SSNTD) LR-115. From this result, suitable points to make radon measurement was determined

  1. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m3. In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m3. In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  2. Construction of radon/radon daughter calibraton chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon/radon daughter test chamber is a copper lined room 1.65x1.75x2.75m with an effective volume of 8000 litres. The air residence time is controlled by circulating the air in the chamber through absolute filters which remove 99.9% of particulates. Radon is drawn into the chamber from a 17 μCi 226RaCl source using the pressure differential across the blowers (<3 psi)

  3. Human perception of radon risk and radon mitigation: Some remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radon program in the Czech Republic has a relatively long and rich history. Procedures, which enable to evaluate the risk of radon penetration from the ground, to protect new buildings, to find existing buildings with elevated indoor radon levels and to realise remedial measures in such buildings, have been developed, published and tested. In some cases, the whole system may fail due to psychological or sociological reasons. Three types of problems (conflicts) will be presented: human behaviour affecting measurement results, conflict between individual and 'all-society' points of view, interpretation of radon risk itself. (authors)

  4. Compact anti-radon facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajt, L.; Kouba, P.; Mamedov, F.; Smolek, K.; Štekl, I., E-mail: ivan.stekl@utef.cvut.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horská 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Fojtík, P.; Hýža, M.; Hůlka, J.; Jílek, K. [SÚRO (NRPI) National Radiation Protection Institute, Bartoškova 1450/28, 140 00 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Stoček, P.; Veselý, J. [ATEKO a.s., Resslova 956/13, 501 01Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. (Czech Republic); Busto, J. [CPPM, Universite de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3, F-13288 Marseille (France)

    2015-08-17

    Suppression of radon background is one of main tasks in ultra-low background experiments. The most promising technique for suppression of radon is its adsorption on charcoal. Within the frame of the NEMO-3 experiment, radon trapping facility (RTF) was installed in Modane underground laboratory in 2004. Based on long-term experience with this facility a new compact transportable anti-radon facility was constructed in cooperation among IEAP CTU, SÚRO and ATEKO company. The device provides 20m{sup 3}/h of purified air (air radon activity at the output ∼10mBq/m{sup 3}). The basic features and preliminary results of anti-radon device testing are presented.

  5. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  6. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  7. Radon In BATAN Housing Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon in Batan Housing Complex. Indoor measurement of radon concentration in Batan housing complex in Pasar Minggu, Pasar Jumat and Batan Indah, Indonesia has been carried out using passive radon dosimeter with CR-39 (Baryotrack) nuclear track detector. Result of measurement shows that, radon concentration was between 5,5 - 55,5 Bq/m3 in Batan Indah, between 8,8 - 54,0 Bq/m3 in Pasar Jumat and Pasar Minggu complex, between 10,3 - 52,5 Bq/m3. The highest Radon concentration was found in the room with uncemented and floor from tegel with highest porosity, so that radon from the wall and can easily duffuse into the room. Also the effective dose which was received by the people who lived in the complex has been discussed

  8. Radon and the environment - 222Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having presented some physical and chemical characteristics of radon 222, this report describes the presence of radon in the environment (in the atmosphere and in soft waters), discusses the radio-toxic effect of radon on human health (exposure, epidemiology, dose calculation, share of radon in population exposure to ionizing radiations), comments the presence of radon in buildings, briefly describes actions aimed at reducing radon concentration within buildings, briefly addresses the issue of professional exposure to radon, evokes regulatory aspects (at the international level, in France, in Switzerland), and comments principles and practices of radon measurement in buildings, water, and underground cavities

  9. Radon and radiation biology of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main papers presented at the meeting dealt with the behaviour of radon and the indoor environment, radiation biology of the lung, lung dosis and the possible cancer risk caused by radon in homes, contamination of the room air. A series of special papers treated the radon problem in detail: sources and transport mechanisms of radon, geological aspects of the radon radiation burden in Switzerland, radon in homes, search for radon sources, and the Swiss radon-programme RAPROS. 67 figs., 13 tabs., 75 refs

  10. The therapeutic use of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spas with a somewhat elevated concentration of Radon222 (between 300 and 3000 Bq/l) are described to achieve good clinical results in the treatment of chronic rheumatic diseases. Recently a prospective randomized doubel-blind-study proved the pain reducing efficacy of Radon therapy in patients with cervical pain. Studies in experimental animal models have accumulated remarkable data in tissues and organs that provide a rationale to explain the observed effects of Radon therapy in patients. (orig.)

  11. Radon activities in natural gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon activities have been measured in gas samples used for residential heading, in Venezuela and in Hungary. Gas bottles were selected randomly in different regions, and radon activities were monitored with ionization clambers and solid stoke track detections. Radon concentrations in household natural gas are presented for regions in Venezuela and in Budapest, Hungary. The latter was found to be in the range of 88-135 Bq/m3. (R.P.)

  12. Radon exposure in Slovenia spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and gamma dose rates were surveyed in five Slovenian spas, at Rogaska Slatina, Radenci, Moravci, Podcetrtek, and Catez. Due to effective ventilation systems, the indoor air radon concentration rarely exceeds 200 Bq.m-3 and is usually lower. Under the present operational conditions and working regimes of the spas, there is no basis for concern about elevated exposure of personnel to radon. (author)

  13. Radon Research Program, FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research (DOE/OHER) is the principal federal agency conducting basic research related to indoor radon. The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. There still remains a significant number of uncertainties in the currently available knowledge that is used to estimate lung cancer risk from exposure to environmental levels of radon and its progeny. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny and to identify and understand biological mechanisms of lung cancer development and required copollutants at low levels of exposure. Information useful in radon control strategies is also provided by the basic science undertaken in this program

  14. Radon Research Program, FY-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has established a Radon Research Program with the primary objectives of acquiring knowledge necessary to improve estimates of health risks associated with radon exposure and also to improve radon control. Through the Radon Research Program, OHER supports and coordinates the research activities of investigators at facilities all across the nation. From this research, significant advances are being made in our understanding of the health effects of radon. OHER publishes this annual report to provide information to interested researchers and the public about its research activities. This edition of the report summarizes the activities of program researchers during FY90. Chapter 2 of this report describes how risks associated with radon exposure are estimated, what assumptions are made in estimating radon risks for the general public, and how the uncertainties in these assumptions affect the risk estimates. Chapter 3 examines how OHER, through the Radon Research Program, is working to gather information for reducing the uncertainties and improving the risk estimates. Chapter 4 highlights some of the major findings of investigators participating in the Radon Research Program in the past year. And, finally, Chapter 5 discusses the direction in which the program is headed in the future. 20 figs

  15. The health risk of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, second only to cigarette smoking, many members of the public are not aware that radon is one of the most serious environmental cancer risks in the US. Based on extensive data from epidemiological studies of underground miners, radon has been classified as a known human carcinogen. In contrast to most pollutants, the assessment of human risk from radon is based on human occupational exposure data rather than animal data. That radon causes lung cancer has been well established by the scientific community. More is known about radon than most other cancer causing environmental carcinogens. While there are some uncertainties involved when estimating radon risk to the public, it is important to recognize that the risk information is based on human data and that the uncertainties have been addressed in the risk assessment. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the number of annual US lung cancer deaths due to residential radon exposures is approximately 14,000 with an uncertainty range of 7,000 to 30,000. The abundant information on radon health risks that supports EPA's risk assessment indicates that recommendations for public action by the federal government and other public health organizations constitute prudent public policy

  16. Radon and geophysics: recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of radon data obtained before and after the M6.9 earthquake in the Reventador, Ecuador, area shows beyond doubt that both positive and negative radon anomalies were generated even at rather large distances from the epicenter. The influence of groundwater and fault networks is strongly suggested by the findings. Investigations using an additional radon source implanted at the experimental sites show that near surface radon anomalies are primarily due, if not exclusively, to deeper fluid motion acting as transport vectors. Such behaviour is likely to support the idea that pore collapse generates an upward motion of pore fluids acting as radon carriers. Considering only depth related radon concentration curves, moderately sized radon anomalies would be expected, contrary to observation. A theoretical model devised on the basis of the analysis of transient states shows that large amounts of radon are expected to show during a short duration prior to an earthquake or an eruption. It has been shown particularly that short term variations are induced in direct correlation with temperature variation and large term variations are induced in counter correlation with temperature variation. In addition, laboratory experiments and deep-well experiments have been carried out to investigate radon transport in groundwater as a function of depth. (author)

  17. Radon in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the investigation, a passive integrating radon dose meter developed at the KfK Karlsruhe was used. This institute also carried out the evaluation of all dose meters. The inquiry data were collected and statistically evaluated centrally by the Radiation Hygiene Institute of the German Health Authorities. Results obtained from almost 6.000 appartments show a distinct regional distribution of the measured values closely related to the geological conditions of the respected area. Surprisingly, there was little dependency on the building materials, with the exception of natural stone houses. The analysis showed that the structural characteristics of a building likely to influence the penetration of radon from the soil have a great effect on the Rn level. Generally, the frequency distribution of the measured values follows a logarithmic Gaussian distribution. Based on a median of 40 Bg/m3, the annual effective dose equivalent is about 1 mSv. (orig./HP)

  18. Radon - The management of the risk related to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This leaflet briefly explains what radon is, where it comes from, and what it becomes. It indicates and briefly comments its concentrations in French departments, describes how radon can affect our health (lung cancer), describes how the risk can be reduced in buildings, and indicates the existing regulatory provisions

  19. Exposure to radon and radon progeny in the indoor environment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the work done by the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies at Princeton University as part of the radon research program. It involves radon measurements in various buildings, as well as the use of natural ventilation to mitigate radon levels. The report is divided into four chapters: The use of radon entry rate measurements to understand radon concentration in buildings; Use of natural basement ventilation to control radon in single family dwellings; The effect of natural ventilation on radon and radon progeny levels in houses; and Comparison of natural and forced ventilation for radon mitigation in houses

  20. The significance of radon in radioactive pollution of environment. Pt. 2. Radon effect on living organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors review the history of radon monitoring. Epidemiological studies of lung cancer and its correlation to radon concentration in mines and buildings are described. The influence of radon on animals living in the buildings built from waste materials is described. Authors review plans concerning creation of radon monitoring system in Poland. The necessity of monitoring influence of radon on animals is described

  1. Radon measurement studies with indigenously developed continuous radon monitor (CRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of radon concentration measurements carried out with an indigenously developed microcontroller based Continuous Radon Monitor. The system uses a ZnS(Ag) detector and passive sampling method for estimation of radon concentration. A comparative study of the results recorded by present system with Genitron make Alphaguard was conducted at uranium mine environment at Jaduguda. The studies show that the continuous radon monitor can be very comprehensively and effectively used for radon concentration measurements with a minimum detectable concentration of ∼ 30 Bq/m3. The inter comparison of the system with the more standard Alphaguard system also indicate that the results recorded by the CRM yield a sensitivity of 0.3 counts per hour per Becquerel activity per unit volume. (author)

  2. Chemical methods for removing radon and radon daughters from air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L

    1972-03-31

    Liquid bromine trifluoride and the solid complexes ClF(2)SbF(6), BrF(2)SbF(6), BrF(4)Sb(2)F(11), IF(4)(SbF(6))(3) and BrF(2)BiF(6) react spontaneously with radon and radon daughters at 25 degrees C, converting the radioelements to nonvolatile ions and compounds. The reagents can be used in gas-scrubbing units to remove radon and radon daughters from air. The halogen fluoride-antimony pentafluoride complexes may be suitable for purifying air in uranium mines and analyzing radon in air, since they have low dissociation pressures at 25 degrees C and are less hazardous to handle than liquid halogen fluorides. PMID:5013675

  3. Radon in ground water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1986, the System Water Quality Department of the American Water Works Service Co. began conducting a radon survey that was designed to determine the levels of radon in American ground water supplies, and to assess the radon removal efficiency of existing treatment processes such as filtration through granular activated carbon (GAC) and various forms of aeration. The survey found that companies in the northeastern part of the country experienced the highest levels of radon in ground water supplies. The highest concentrations were in individual wells in New Hampshire, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and California. The analytical results from the occurrence phase of the survey seemed to correlate well with the known geology of the aquifer materials from which samples of ground water were drawn. The highest levels were associated with formations of uranium-bearing granitic rocks. GAC can effectively reduce radon concentrations in drinking water supplies to very low levels. However, the amount of contact time within the carbon bed required to do so would be prohibitive to many water utilities from an operational and economic standpoint. Further, disposal of the spent GAC as a low-level radioactive waste may be required. Aeration is very effective in the removal of radon from drinking water. Packed tower aerators achieved > 95% reduction in radon concentrations and conventional cascading tray aerators achieved > 75% reduction in radon concentrations. 7 refs., 6 tabs

  4. Radon - The management of the risk related to radon; Le radon la gestion du risque lie au radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This leaflet briefly explains what radon is, where it comes from, and what it becomes. It indicates and briefly comments its concentrations in French departments, describes how radon can affect our health (lung cancer), describes how the risk can be reduced in buildings, and indicates the existing regulatory provisions

  5. Radon and buildings: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noise from fan-assisted radon sump systems can be a problem in the home. This leaflet describes how to design a sump system with a view to minimising noise disturbance. It also includes advice on reducing noise from unsatisfactory existing systems. The leaflet will be of interest to householders, builders and designers dealing with noise from fan-assisted radon sump systems. (author)

  6. Radon awareness survey in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress has been made in reducing the risk from exposure to radon and its progeny all over the world as a result of efforts made by different organisations which are working together to educate public about the harmful effects of radon. During the past several surveys, it was found that uneducated people were totally ignorant of radon in Pakistan. Even a large number of science graduates knew very little about radon and its hazards. Therefore, a nationwide survey was conducted to measure general awareness and factual knowledge about radon and its health hazards. In this regard, a questionnaire was prepared and distributed among different classes of the society including students, government employees and general public throughout the country. A total of 7000 people with different educational backgrounds participated in this survey, which includes uneducated people (1000), science and humanities graduates (2000 each) and under graduate (2000). Statistical analysis, excluding uneducated people, revealed that 30.4% of the total respondents were aware of radon and 69.6% had even not heard of radon. Only ∼8.4% of the total respondents were knowledgeably aware of radon. (authors)

  7. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  8. Radon measurements in indoor workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements in several office buildings located in Tokyo were carried out with two types of device to study the time-dependent radon concentration in indoor workplaces. Both types of device use the electrostatic field for the collection of 218Po onto the electrode of the detector. One provides an average radon concentration throughout the day. The other, in which a weekly timer is installed in the circuit of the electrode of the device, provides an average radon concentration during working hours (9:00-17:00, Monday-Friday). Although radon concentrations in Japanese dwellings have been found to be generally low, relatively high concentrations were observed in the office buildings. No consistent seasonal variation was recognised in this study. Little difference of average radon concentrations between working hours and the whole day was found throughout the year in two offices. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed in other offices. The operation of an air conditioner might change the radon concentration during working hours. From the results of radon measurements the average effective dose in the workplace was estimated to be 0.23 mSv for 2000 working hours in a year. (Author)

  9. Radon concentration in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1000 dwellings, which can be assumed to be an reasonable representation of the average Dutch dwellings, time averaged radon concentrations, radon daughter concentrations and gamma-exposure tempi are determined during a year with passive dosemeters. They are also determined outdoor at circa 200 measure points. (Auth.)

  10. Radon measurements in hispaniola dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a national radon survey and a number of regional surveys of radon in spanish dwelling are reviewed. The best estimate of the geometric mean of indoor radon concentrations is 41.1. Bq/m-3 and single-family dwellings have been shown to be more at risk than apartments. Results need to be interpreted with some caution due to differences in survey methodologies and measurement procedures. The risks from radon exposure are put in perspective by comparison with other voluntary risks. Finally, although a number of 'high risk' areas have already been identified, it is concluded that implementation of a national programme to reduce radon exposure may await a better definition of the problem extent. (authors). 20 refs., 1 tab

  11. Radon levels in Oslo schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements using passive CR-39 detectors have been conducted in all schools in Oslo municipality during winter 2003/2004. Results are presented and discussed in the light of qualitative and quantitative factors, some of which are specific for schools as workplaces. Analysis is conducted with respect to factors relating to building construction type, ventilation principle, age of building, building size etc. The influence of ventilation type on radon levels is studied, and problems of investigations based purely on conventional passive radon detectors are noted. Over-estimation of radon concentration by passive detectors and day-night variations of indoor radon levels in buildings with mechanical ventilation systems are discussed. Several guiding principles for planning similar investigations based on above discussions are outlined. (author)

  12. Radon - To mobilise civil society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As radon is one of the two main sources of exposure of population to ionizing radiations in France, is notably said to be responsible of 1.000 to 3.000 deaths for lung cancer per year, and could be at the origin of other cancers like child leukaemia, this set of articles evokes the different factors which promote radon transfer from soils to buildings, studies performed to better identify geological sources of radon, actions implemented to assess radon presence in dwellings (distribution of 'radon kits' in Brittany), the performance of radiological expertise by the IRSN on the request of public authorities, the project of dwelling inventory and population information. A second article reports examples of intervention by the IRSN to inform local authorities, inhabitants, academics, public utilities, building professions, and even children. Technical solutions adopted in the United Kingdom are briefly evoked

  13. Environmental radon and cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, A.K.M.M.; Kirk, A.E. (South Bank Polytechnic, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    Data collected from the office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) statistics and those published by the Leukaemia Research Fund (LRF) have been analysed with a view to examining whether radon is a possible causative agent in the induction of leukaemias. Radon concentration values have been taken from a NRPB survey. Positive correlation has been observed between radon concentration and incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). Employing the method of BEIR IV, the lifetime probability of leukaemia incidence, R[sub o], of a non-exposed person (zero radon concentration) has been calculated for AML, CML, ALL and CLL, which agree well with those values obtained from extrapolation of linear graphs of leukaemia deaths versus radon concentration. (author).

  14. Radon availability in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR) in cooperation with the Radiation Licensing and Registration Section of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been evaluating geologic and soil conditions that may contribute to elevated levels of indoor radon throughout New Mexico. Various data have been integrated and interpreted in order to determine areas of high radon availability. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of these data for New Mexico and to discuss geologic controls on the distribution of radon. Areas in New Mexico have been identified from these data as having a high radon availability. It is not the intent of this report to alarm the public, but to provide data on the distribution of radon throughout New Mexico

  15. Radon dosimetry: a review of radon and radon daughter exposure conditions in dwellings and other structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the past few years several situations have been brought to light which indicate an increased radiation exposure of certain segments of the general population caused by human activities. The most widely publicized activities are those associated with the mining and milling of uranium in the western United States, the phosphate industry in Florida, and those potential problems represented by former Manhattan Engineer District sites. One of the primary problems involves exposure to radon and radon daughters which are released from large waste piles or, in some cases, evolve from backfill and construction materials used in homes, schools, and other buildings. This report presents a review of the available data on radon and radon daughter concentrations in dwellings and other structures. The primary objectives were to compile and tabulate pertinent radon exposure data and to prepare a statistical summary of the data which will be useful in the prediction of normal levels of radon and radon daughter concentrations in these structures. In addition, other parameters associated with radon exposure conditions are presented and discussed

  16. CONTRIBUTION OF RADON FLOWS AND RADON SOURCES TO THE RADON CONCENTRATION IN A DWELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; STOOP, P; PUT, LW

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a model is presented for analysis of the radon concentrations in a compartment in terms of contributions from transport by flows of air between compartments and from radon sources in the compartment. Measurements were made to study the effect of increased natural ventilation of the cra

  17. Citizen's Guide to Radon: The Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US EPA US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radon Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us You ... Your Family from Radon A Citizen's Guide to Radon: The Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family ...

  18. Asbestos and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the effects of inhaled agents on the lung, a characterization of both the lung and the inhaled agent is essential. Since deposition of the agent is the result of a dynamic process involving the particles as they move through the tracheobronchial tree, the authors' goal is to understand this interaction. To lay the groundwork for this they present basic tracheobronchial anatomy and physiology. Then they examine information on deposition and clearance of asbestos and radon and discuss how this relates to the resultant pathology

  19. Radon and energy efficient homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and its daughters in indoor air are presently responsible for dose equivalents of about 31 mSv/year (3 rem/year) to parts of the respiratory tract. Linear extrapolation from the dose response values of uranium miners heavily exposed to radon and its decay products would suggest that almost all lung cancers in the non-smoking population are caused by environmental 222Rn. Using epidemiological data on the types of lung cancer found in non-smokers of the general public as compared to the miners, a smaller effect of low level radon exposure is assumed, which would result in a lung cancer mortality rate due to radon of about 10 deaths per year and million or 25% of the non-smoker rate. Higher indoor radon concentrations in energy efficient homes mostly caused by reduced air exchange rates will lead to a several fold increase of the lung cancer incidence from radon. Based on the above assumption, about 100 additional lung cancer deaths/year-million will result both from an increase in radionuclide concentrations in indoor air and a concomitant rise in effectiveness of radiation to cause cancer with higher exposure levels. Possibilities to reduce indoor radon levels in existing buildings and costs involved are discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Radon Concentrations measurements in ENPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various national and international surveys have demonstrated an increase in radon (222Rn) levels in environment and consequently there is a continuous growing concern about its health effects on the population. Inhalation of indoor radon has long been recognized as a risk to health. The major sources of the indoor radon and its daughters are building materials, natural gas and an underground-derived water supply. In the present work, a set of radon measurements was carried out, using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector, in different sites in Experimental Nuclear Physics Department (ENPD), Nuclear Research Center (NRC), Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Egypt. The results showed that the radon concentration and exhalation rate in these sites varied from 10.81 to 264.80 Bq.m-3 and 1.45 to 33.95 mBq.m-2. h-1, respectively. The mean values of radon concentration in meeting rooms, laboratories, stores and bathroom) were 31.211, 198.22, 221.64 and 168.34 Bq.m-3, respectively. The mean values of exhalation rate were (in the same locations) 4, 25, 28.42 and 21.58 mBq.m-2.h-1 respectively. This data showed that stores and laboratories had a significantly higher radon concentration and exhalation rate compared with other rooms.

  1. Radiological Protection Against Radon Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At its meeting in Porto, Portugal, in November 2009, the Main Commission of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) approved the formation of a new Task Group, reporting to Committee 4, to develop guidance on radiological protection against radon exposure. The paper is a description of the Task Group’s draft report which has been posted on the ICRP website for public consultation. In this report, the Commission provides updated guidance on radiological protection against radon exposure. The report has been developed considering the recently consolidated ICRP general recommendations, the new scientific knowledge about the radon risk and the experience gained by many organizations and countries in the control of radon exposure. The report describes the characteristics of radon exposure, covering sources and transfer mechanisms, the nature of the risk, the exposure conditions, the similarities with other existing exposure situations and the challenges to manage radon exposure. To control the main part of radon exposure, the Commission recommends an integrated approach focused as far as possible on the management of the building or location in which radon exposure occurs, whatever the purpose of the building and the types of its occupants. This approach is based on the optimization principle and a graded approach according to the degree of responsibilities at stake, notably in workplaces, and the level of ambition of the national authorities. The report emphasizes the importance of preventive actions. The report also considers how to control radon exposure in workplaces when workers’ exposure can reasonably be regarded as being the responsibility of the operating management. In such a case, workers’ exposures are considered as occupational and controlled using the corresponding requirements on the basis of the optimization principle and the application, as appropriate, of the dose limit. (author)

  2. Cooperative usages of radon facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outlined are the structure and activity of the Radon Facilities, which, partly two storied, consists of a total floor space of about 300 m2 and is characteristic of high-ceilinged rooms. In the controlled area of the first floor, there are rooms of radium for radon source, sham environmental laboratory having the standard radon chamber of inner volume of 25 m3, monitoring room, etc. Radium is sintered in porous ceramic fiber so as to efficiently and stably release radon. In the radon chamber, W 3610 x D 2720 x H 2500 mm/controllable temperature of 5-30 deg. C and humidity of 30-90%, exposure to the constant level of radon is possible, of which reliability of absolute measurement by an ionization chamber, AlphaGUARD, is assured by periodical correction primarily in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) and secondarily by Physikalische-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany). The reliability has been also assured by cooperative comparative experiments with 6 Japanese facilities and 10 abroad. Decay products of radon for exposure are adsorbed on aerosol yielded from Sinclair-Lamer condensing particulate generator. In 2008, cooperative studies have been done with Niigata University of development of atmospheric radon/thoron measurement system with use of Cherenkov radiation, and with Tokyo University for calibration of measurement system of levels of radon, thoron and their decay products. Other non-controlled area includes a preparatory laboratory, a room for data analysis, etc. And on the second floor, air conditioning machineries for air supply and exhaust. (T.T.)

  3. Result of the intercomparison exercise on radon measuring instruments and radon detectors 'bev- radon ring 2005'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spring 2005 the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (B.E.V.) invited all in Austria working radon measuring institutes to an intercomparison exercise at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal. The aim of this intercomparison was on the one hand an objective inquiry and documentation of the current metrological potential on the section of radon measurement in Austria - both quantitative and qualitative- and on the other hand an initiative for the participating laboratories to optimize and improve their applied calibration-, measurement and analyse technique. Ten contacted Austrian radon laboratories were prepared to participate on the radon intercomparison exercise. The intercomparison exercise was carried out from 14. till 29. June at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal of the B.E.V.. As radon emanation source a five stepped arranged, at the Arsenal built radon source was used. The source ( A.D.O.T.T.O. 1 is filled with a certified Ra- 226-standard solution of the Czech Metrological Institute (C.M.I.), Prag. A simple statistic based model was used for the evaluation and assessment of the results from the participants, which consider the statistic nature of the radioactive decay combined uncertainty. Altogether 183 measuring instruments participated the intercomparison exercise. Two reference measuring instruments, 22 active and 159 passive measuring instruments. The active measuring instruments formed 6 types of instruments and as passive radon detectors were 7 different types used from the participants. The positioning of the radon measuring instruments and detectors in the radon calibration laboratory was executed in regard to statistic points of view. From the active measuring instruments 17 could qualify and from the passive methods six from eight participants were in compliance to the given criteria. Radon measurements, which could have financial and economics relating implications (e.g. architectural redevelopment or

  4. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  5. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  6. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Cork and Kerry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the third phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Cork and Kerry. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 76 Bq/m3 and 70 Bq/m3. The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m3. Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  7. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Galway and Mayo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the final phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Galway and Mayo. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 112 Bq/m3 and 100 Bq/m3, respectively. The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m3. Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  8. Unexpected Behavior of the Heaviest Halogen Astatine in the Nucleophilic Substitution of Aryliodonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérard, François; Lee, Yong-Sok; Baidoo, Kwamena; Gestin, Jean-François; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2016-08-22

    Aryliodonium salts have become precursors of choice for the synthesis of (18) F-labeled tracers for nuclear imaging. However, little is known on the reactivity of these compounds with heavy halides, that is, radioiodide and astatide, at the radiotracer scale. In the first comparative study of radiohalogenation of aryliodonium salts with (125) I(-) and (211) At(-) , initial experiments on a model compound highlight the higher reactivity of astatide compared to iodide, which could not be anticipated from the trends previously observed within the halogen series. Kinetic studies indicate a significant difference in activation energy (Ea =23.5 and 17.1 kcal mol(-1) with (125) I(-) and (211) At(-) , respectively). Quantum chemical calculations suggest that astatination occurs via the monomeric form of an iodonium complex whereas iodination occurs via a heterodimeric iodonium intermediate. The good to excellent regioselectivity of halogenation and high yields achieved with diversely substituted aryliodonium salts indicate that this class of compounds is a promising alternative to the stannane chemistry currently used for heavy radiohalogen labeling of tracers in nuclear medicine. PMID:27305065

  9. Radon measurement and mitigation activity in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon prevention, measurement and mitigation activities have been increasing in Finland during the 2000's. Nowadays, many municipal authorities, especially those located in high-radon areas, require radon prevention measures. This has activated radon measurements. Owners of new houses having radon piping installed under the floor slab are the most active group to measure and reduce the found high-radon values. Their radon awareness is apparently better than on the average, and the existing piping makes it easier and cheaper to reduce the radon levels. Local campaigns involving invitation flyers mailed to the residents have been a cost-effective means to activate measurements of older houses. So far 116 611 dwellings in low-rise residential buildings have been measured. At least 15 % of the 16 860 dwellings found to exceed the reference level of 400 Bq m-3 had their indoor radon level reduced below that. (authors)

  10. Evolution of radon dose evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kenzo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical change of radon dose evaluation is reviewed based on the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR reports. Since 1955, radon has been recognized as one of the important sources of exposure of the general public. However, it was not really understood that radon is the largest dose contributor until 1977 when a new concept of effective dose equivalent was introduced by International Commission on Radiological Protection. In 1982, the dose concept was also adapted by UNSCEAR and evaluated per caput dose from natural radiation. Many researches have been carried out since then. However, lots of questions have remained open in radon problems, such as the radiation weighting factor of 20 for alpha rays and the large discrepancy of risk estimation among dosimetric and epidemiological approaches.

  11. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracín, D.; Csige, I.;

    1999-01-01

    that results obtained with these models are of good quality, it is necessary that such models are tested. This document reports on a benchmark test organized by the EU project ERRICCA: European Researchinto Radon in Construction Concerted Action. The test comprises the following cases: (1) Steady...... transport of radon, flux calculations, and partitioning of radon between air and water in soilpores. Seven groups participated in the intercomparison. All groups submitted results without knowing the results of others. For these results, relatively large group-to-group discrepancies were observed. Because......, however, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommendedthat additional exercises are carried out....

  12. Communicating the risk from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prominent television station developed a special series of newscasts and public service announcements about radon. This was combined with their advertising of the availability of reduced-price radon test kits in a local supermarket chain. The large number of test kits sold was a success from a marketing perspective, but not from a public health perspective - especially because of the very small share of high readings that were mitigated. In contrast, a study of housing sales showed a much higher testing rate and corresponding mitigation when risk communication accompanied the housing transaction, rather than being directed toward the general public. This paper examined the relative effectiveness of these alternative approaches to radon risk communication, emphasizing the implications for developing and implementing radon programs

  13. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    CERN Document Server

    Guiseppe, V E; Hime, A; Rielage, K; Westerdale, S

    2011-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly Rn-222) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of Pb-210 on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to depos...

  14. Radon measurements in schools: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides school officials, groups such as Parent-Teacher Associations, and other interested person with interim information on how to measure radon in schools and what to do if elevated levels are found. The first sections of the document contain facts about radon and the health risks associated with radon exposure. The next sections summarize what is known about radon in schools and provide guidance for conducting radon measurements. The last sections describe how to interpret the measurement results and suggest techniques that can be used to reduce radon concentrations if elevated levels are found

  15. Organization of the radon associated risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This circular from the French state secretariats of public health, social action and lodging defines the limit acceptable values of radon concentration in buildings and gives some recommendations for the identification of areas exposed to radon and for the actions to be carried out in such identified areas (organization of a measurement campaign, mobilization of the government services for optimum information of the public concerned). Some general considerations about the risks linked with radon, the epidemiological studies about radon in residential and public buildings, the mapping of radon levels on the French territory and the techniques for radon measurement are described in appendixes. (J.S.)

  16. Ventilation influence upon indoor air radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level. Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition, although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level. Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level. Therefore, the total indoor air Rn levels are normal > ventilation > exhaust or in-draft > exhaust plus in-draft

  17. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  18. Radon risk communication research: Practical lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. There are now a number of completed studies that have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. This paper summarizes the research results that are most crucial for planning and implementing effective radon risk communication programs. We identify six reasons why people do not respond to radon as a serious threat and provide some remedies suggested by radon studies

  19. Exposure to radon daughters in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on the exposure to natural radiation at places of work, in the United Kingdom. Sources of natural radiation include: cosmic rays, radiation from the earth, internal body radioactivity, and radon daughters. These sources are described, along with exposure standards for radon daughters. Factors leading to the variability and unpredictability of radon daughter concentrations in work places, and recent studies of radon concentrations in UK buildings, are both discussed. Methods for measuring radon and its daughters, and measures to reduce radon concentrations in buildings, are also outlined. (U.K.)

  20. On the Inverse Radon Transform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chvála, František

    Praha : Humusoft, 2007, s. 1-6. ISBN 978-80-7080-658-6. [Annual Conference Proceedings - Technical Computing Prague 2007 /15./. Prague (CZ), 14.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : inverse Radon transform * Radon transform Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics www.humusoft.cz/akce/matlab07

  1. Radon gas measurement in Corum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of the natural radioactive sources in earth's crust which has long half-life and the degradation products of these in the environmental medium such as earth, rocks, foods, water, air, forms the basis of radiation which people are exposed to. Radon is the unique radioactive gas in the nature and it is made up of radium which is the result of uranium degradation. It is necessary to determine the radon concentration because of the difference in the concentration of uranium existence in different places. TAEK (Turkish Atomic Energy Authority) allows 400 Bq/m3 of radon concentration at houses, 1000 Bq/m3 at offices per year. In this attempt, government buildings, houses and offices were determined as the sampling places in Corum city center and towns to represent Corum. While disposing the radon measuring detectors, places which are close to the ground level were preferred. 74 radon detectors were left in those places for 60 days and in the end the detectors were collected while discontinuing the connection of environment and they were assessed. According to the results, the average radon gas concentration in 14 government buildings is 71,71 Bq/m3, in 15 offices 32,26 Bq/m3 and at houses 42,34 Bq/m3.

  2. Radon integral measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radon Integral Measurement System (SMIR) is a device designed specially to detect, to count and to store the data of the acquisition of alpha particles emitted by Radon-222 coming from the underground. The system includes a detection chamber, a radiation detector, a digital system with bateries backup and an auxiliary photovoltaic cell. A personal computer fixes the mode in which the system works, transmitting the commands to the system by the serial port. The heart of the system is a microprocesor working with interrupts by hardware. Every external device to the microprocessor sends his own interrupt request and the microprocessor handles the interrupts with a defined priority. The system uses a real time clock, compatible with the microprocessor, to take care of the real timing and date of the acquisition. A non volatile RAM is used to store data of two bytes every 15 minutes along 41 days as a maximum. After the setting up to the system by the computer, it can operate in stand alone way for up 41 days in the working place without the lose of any data. If the memory is full the next data will be written in the first locations of the memory. The memory is divided in pages corresponding every one of this to a different day of the acquisition. The counting time for every acquisition can be programmed by the user from 15 minutes to 65535 minutes but it is recommended to use a small time not to reach the limit of 65535 counts in every acquisition period. We can take information of the system without affecting the acquisition process in the field by using a lap top computer, then the information can be stored in a file. There is a program in the computer that can show the information in a table of values or in a bar graph. (Author)

  3. Radon as geological tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This work presents measurements of 222Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of 40K, 232Th and 23'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using 222Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m-3 recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  4. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m3, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m3. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m3. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m3. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m3, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m3. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated to be 60 Bq/m3. Using the detriment

  5. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m3. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for 50

  6. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, S; Iunes, P J; Navia, L M S; Neman, R S; Paulo, S R; Rodrigues, V C; Souza, W F; Tello, C A S; Zúñiga, A G

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied.

  7. Balance letter on information days on radon. The radon in question. To fight against radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1999 actions to detect radon in public building have been implemented, after three years, more than 13 000 establishments have been verified. These actions are going to be reinforced by the publication of a new regulatory frame that will give obligation to householder or operator of a place open to the public to carry out measures of exposure surveillance on geographic areas with a strong exhalation potential of radon. (N.C.)

  8. Annual variations of radon and thoron in residential houses at a high soil radon risk site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and thoron in air were measured during 1 year in 30 houses at a high soil radon risk site. Unlike thoron, radon concentrations exhibited seasonal variations – they were lowest in summer and highest in winter. The mean radon-to-thoron volume activity ratio was approximately 2.8. Although the majority of the homes were built on high-radon subsoil, mean annual radon activity levels higher than the indicative 400 Bq/m3 were observed in one house only. The effect of the subsoil on the radon concentration in the houses was highest in older built before 2000. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of individual radon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At the Institute for Radiation Protection of the Helmholtz Center Munich, recently, a new electronic radon exposure meter has recently been developed. The device is small and light and can therefore easily be carried on person. The battery life-time is about half a year. The device is suitable for measurement of individual public, medical and occupational radon exposures. As an example for public exposure, measurements have been performed on twenty-three members of the institute who agreed to place one exposure meter in their office and two exposure meters at home (sleeping room and living room). In addition, a fourth exposure meter was carried on person all the time, for about one week. Mean indoor radon concentrations in the sleeping rooms were between about 25 and 150 Bq/m3, those in the living rooms between 7 and about 110 Bq/m3, and those in the offices between 25 and about 1,900 Bq/m3. Individual mean radon concentrations as measured by the fourth exposure meter were between 26 and 170 Bq/m3. Note that, if individual exposures were calculated based on the radon concentrations in sleeping and living rooms and on typical residence times in these rooms - as was also done in epidemiological studies on lung cancer risk from indoor radon - individual radon concentrations that are about a factor two lower were obtained. As an example for occupational exposure, safe guards working in tombs of the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt, were asked to carry an exposure meter on person all the time, for about three days. During the same period of time, additional exposure meters were placed inside those tombs, to measure radon concentrations in air. Altogether, during this measurement campaign, 12 tombs were investigated. Measured radon concentrations in the tombs ranged from about 50 to almost 12,000 Bq/m3 depending on the investigated tomb. As a result, individual doses from radon inhalation were also high for some of the safe guards, and may exceed a value of

  10. Mapping of groundwater radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The domestic use of water with elevated radon concentration may represent a public health hazard, partly due to the release of radon to the indoor air. While only a limited number of countries have implemented regulations with respect to radon in water, many more are considering doing so. The compulsory limits proposed by Swedish authorities are 100 Bq/1 for public water, while water from private wells is not to exceed 1000 Bq/1. Furthermore, it is recommended that water with a radon content above 500 Bq/1 should not be given to children under five years of age. In Sweden, the estimated number of wells with radon levels above 1000 Bq/1 exceeds 10,000, with a considerable amount in excess of 10,000 Bq/1. The highest radon concentration in a well supplying drinking water encountered so far is 57,000 Bq/1. Radon levels exceeding 500 Bq/1 are almost exclusively found in wells drilled into bedrock and in springs with intramontaneous water. Elevated ground water radon levels require that the water has passed through bedrock with elevated concentration of uranium, or through fractures with coatings of minerals containing enhanced concentrations of radium-226. Intramontaneous water from areas with uranium-bearing rock types (e.g. uranium-rich granites, pegmatites and vulcanites) often manifests elevated radon levels. Routines for the establishment of risk maps focusing on water are currently under development. The backbone of the process is the access to high spatial resolution radiometric information together with bedrock and soil information on a detailed scale (1:50,000). This information is available from the Geological Survey of Sweden, which is routinely carrying out airborne measurements at an altitude of 30 m and a line spacing of 200 m. While some 60% of Sweden is covered up to now, 75 % is expected to be covered within the next ten years. Other available databases utilized in the risk mapping process include radon measurements in wells, geochemical data from

  11. Comparison of urinary excretion of radon from the human body before and after radon bath therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretically, the human body absorbs radon through the lungs and the skin and excretes it through the lungs and the excretory organs during radon bath therapy. To check this theory, the radon concentrations in urine samples were compared before and after radon bath therapy. During the therapy, the geometric mean (GM) and the geometric standard deviation of the radon concentration in air and in the bath water were 979 Bq m-3, 1.58 and 73.6 Bq dm-3, 1.1, respectively. Since radon was detected in each urine sample (GM around 3.0 Bq dm-3), urinary excretion of radon was confirmed. The results of this study can neither reject nor confirm the hypothesis of radon absorption through the skin. A 15 times higher increment of inhaled radon level did not cause significant changes in radon of urine samples. (authors)

  12. Development of continuous monitor for radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than a half of radiation exposure in natural environment is influenced from radon in air. With an important contribution of short-lived radon decay products called progeny to the human exposure, radon is regulated as an equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration that is equivalent to radon progeny concentration weighted with potential α energies of respective nuclide. Radon progeny concentration varies with atmospheric conditions. It is important on evaluation of progenies behavior and caused radiation exposure to obtain the change of radon progeny concentration with continuous measurement. We developed continuous monitor for each radon progeny of low level in outdoor with a long roll of filter and α ray spectra measured in vacuumed cell. (author)

  13. An overview of Ireland's National Radon Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Ireland radon is a significant public health issue and is linked to 150-200 lung cancer deaths each year. Irish National Radon Policy aims to reduce individual risk by identifying and remediating buildings with high radon concentrations and also to reduce collective dose through radon prevention as required by revised building regulations. Achievements to date are significant and include the completion of the National Radon Survey, the testing of every school in Ireland, the on-going testing of social housing, collaboration between the public health and radiation protection authorities and the inclusion of radon in inspections of workplaces. However, this work now needs to be drawn together centrally to comprehensively address the radon problem. The RPII and the relevant central governing department, the Dept. of Environment, Heritage and Local Government are currently working to constitute a group of key experts from relevant public authorities to drive the development of a National Radon Control Strategy. (authors)

  14. Thermo-diffusional radon waves in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S

    2016-09-15

    A new theoretical framework for diurnal and seasonal oscillations of the concentration of radon in soil and open air is proposed. The theory is based on the existing temperature waves in soils and thermo-diffusional gas flux in porous media. As soil is a non-isothermal porous medium, usually possessing a large fraction of microscopic pores belonging to Knudsen's free molecular field, a thermo-diffusional gas flow in soil has to arise. The radon mass transfer equation in soil for sinusoidal temperature oscillations at the soil-atmosphere boundary is solved, which reveals that radon concentration behaves as a damped harmonic wave. The amplitude of radon concentration oscillations and phase shift between radon concentration oscillations and soil temperature depend on the radon diffusion coefficient in soil, rate of radon production, soil thermal conductivity, average soil temperature, decay constant, and heat of radon transfer. Primarily numerical calculations are presented and comparisons with experimental data are shown. PMID:27155259

  15. Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

  16. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as a viable approach for cancer treatment because of its potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to malignant cell populations while sparing normal tissues. Alpha particles such as those emitted by 211At are particularly attractive for this purpose because of their short path length in tissue and high energy, making them highly effective in killing cancer cells. The current impact of targeted radiotherapy in the clinical domain remains limited despite the fact that in many cases, potentially useful molecular targets and labeled compounds have already been identified. Unfortunately, putting these concepts into practice has been impeded by limitations in radiochemistry methodologies. A critical problem is that the synthesis of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals provides additional challenges in comparison to diagnostic reagents because of the need to perform radio-synthesis at high levels of radioactivity. This is particularly important for {alpha}-particle emitters such as 211At because they deposit large amounts of energy in a highly focal manner. The overall objective of this project is to develop convenient and reproducible radiochemical methodologies for the radiohalogenation of molecules with the {alpha}-particle emitter 211At at the radioactivity levels needed for clinical studies. Our goal is to address two problems in astatine radiochemistry: First, a well known characteristic of 211At chemistry is that yields for electrophilic astatination reactions decline as the time interval after radionuclide isolation from the cyclotron target increases. This is a critical problem that must be addressed if cyclotrons are to be able to efficiently supply 211At to remote users. And second, when the preparation of high levels of 211At-labeled compounds is attempted, the radiochemical yields can be considerably lower than those encountered at tracer dose. For these reasons, clinical evaluation of promising 211At

  17. Study of radon diffusion through clay bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is generated in the earth's crust and is free to migrate through soil and be released to the indoor and outdoor atmosphere. Much attention has been given to the radiological health hazard posed by increased radon concentrations in the living and working environment. In order to study radon profiles for geophysical purposes and to predict its entry indoors, it is necessary to study its transport through building materials. The most common way of modeling radon flow through building materials is the advective transport by pressure-driven air flow from the source. The transport phenomenon of radon through diffusion is a significant contributor to indoor radon entry. The diffusion coefficient of radon gas in building materials is often used as an indication for radon transportability through a porous medium and, furthermore, as an essential tool for quantitative predictions of radon concentrations in dwellings by estimating the exhalation rates of the wall surfaces. Radon diffusion coefficients in bricks were determined by employing the two compartment method in which one compartment is kept at a high radon concentration while the other is initially at low concentration. The radon diffusion coefficient is then deduced by monitoring the radon in the second compartment by measuring the steady state radon flux into the compartment. In this case, a steady-state solution was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. The radon diffusion coefficients were found to vary from 0.32x10-6 m2/s to 0.48 x10-6 m2/s and the diffusion length were from 36x10-2 m to 42 x102 m in bricks. The results indicate that the bricks analyzed are fairly radon tight. (author)

  18. Resonance particularity of natural radon exhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radon flows exhalated by rocks as a result of vibrational effects at a frequency in the range of 0-45 Hz were measured under laboratory conditions. Variations of volumetric activity of subsurface radon under natural conditions at a frequency of 16.6 Hz were determined. It was ascertained that the intensity of radon flow exhaled by rocks depends on the frequency of vibration effects. The maximum yield of radon is observed at frequencies about 16 and 32 Hz

  19. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ≥148 Bq m-3. Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. (authors)

  20. RADON GENERATION AND TRANSPORT THROUGH CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an examination of radon generation and transport through Florida residential concretes for their contribution to indoor radon concentrations. Radium concentrations in the 11 concretes tested were all <2.5 pCi/g and radon emanation coefficients were all...

  1. The radon: evaluation and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon exposure constitutes for the French population the first cause of natural irradiation among the different natural sources of irradiation. It is possible to have a significant action on it, either by making draught proof in order to avoid to radon to get inside houses, either by ventilating in order to dispel the radon and improve air quality. (N.C.)

  2. The distribution of Radon concentration in caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2003-01-01

    Radon concentration in caves is known to vary within an extremely wide range. Here the distribution of the average values of radon concentration is examined and a power law describing is identified, i.e. radon concentration has a fractal dimension D=1.26. This fact means that concentrations are not grouped around a mean value, a characteristic common to many other phenomena.

  3. Control of radon in Finnish workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radiation in Finland is regulated in the Finnish Radiation Act from 1992. Occupational exposure to natural radiation is regulated by an amendment of the Radiation Decree in 1998. The most important issues in Finland are radon in workplaces, radioactivity in drinking water and in building materials, and mining and industrial processes. Radon levels in mines have been measured regularly since 1972. Finland has an action level for radon in workplaces of 400 Bq/m3. Radon prone areas have been identified primarily from measurements of radon in dwellings. Radon measurements are compulsory in workplaces in radon prone areas unless it can be shown by other means that radon levels are low. A programme focusing on radon in workplaces was initiated in 1992. To date, radon measurements have been carried out in 10,000 workplaces and remedial actions have been taken in 200 of these. The average reduction in radon concentration in remediated buildings is about 1,500 Bq/m3. Identification of NORM industries is based on the radionuclide content of the materials used (>1.4 Bq/g U and >0.4 Bq/g Th). The occupational exposure should not exceed 1 mSv/y (excluding radon)

  4. Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

    This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a…

  5. Modelling of radon transport in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.; Katase, A; Shimo, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the state of the art of modelling radon transport in soil on basis of multiphase radon transport equations. Emphasis is given to methods to obtain a consistent set of input parameters needed For such models. Model-measurement comparisons with the KVI radon transport Facil

  6. Radon reduction in house crawl space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing and demonstrating procedures to use in reducing the radon concentrations in a variety of house types. Until recently, research has focused on basement houses because of their great potential for radon entry; however, other housing substructures also present unique radon problems. Several radon reduction alternatives for crawl space houses are noted, and the successful demonstration of one of these alternatives, subplastic suction, is described in detail

  7. Indoor radon measurements in Turkey dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The 222Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m-3. The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m-3; the geometric mean was 57 Bq m-3 with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. (authors)

  8. Radon in the drinking water in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU guideline on the requirements for the protection of the public concerning radioactive matter in water was approved in October 2013, including mandatory regulations for radon in drinking water. The guideline has to be implemented into national laws within two years. The contribution includes an overview on the radon situation in the Bavarian drinking and ground water. Increased radon concentrations are observed only in the north-eastern basement rocks. The contribution also describes facts that can influence the radon concentration in drinking and ground water. Recommendations and measures in case of increased radon concentrations are summarized for decision making support in public health departments and water treatment plants.

  9. Ethanol as radon storage: applications for measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol as Radon Storage: Applications for Measurement Ethanol has a solubility for radon of 6 Bq/l per kBq/m3 air, 24 times higher than water. On filtration of ethanol, radon decay products are completely adsorbed on glass fiber filters, as previously reported for water. Hence: 1. A new simple method for measuring radon in soil air, without expensive equipment. 2. The production of mailable radon calibration sources ('radonol') with 50-100 kBq/l in PET-bottles with 3.8 days half-life, using uraniferous rocks as primary source. (orig.)

  10. Simulation of Radon Transport in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semprini, Lewis; Kruger, Paul

    1983-12-15

    Numerical simulation of radon transport is a useful adjunct in the study of radon as an in situ tracer of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic numerical model has been developed to assist in the interpretation of field experiments. The model simulates transient response of radon concentration in wellhead geofluid as a function of prevailing reservoir conditions. The radon simulation model has been used to simulate radon concentration response during production drawdown and two flowrate transient tests in vapor-dominated systems. Comparison of model simulation with experimental data from field tests provides insight in the analysis of reservoir phenomena such as propagation of boiling fronts, and estimates of reservoir properties of porosity and permeability thickness.

  11. Radon: radiation aspects of residential hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article attempts to outline the role that radon plays in the radiation hygiene of the living environment. The natural occurrence of 222Rn and the internal irradiation doses caused by the daughter products are discussed. The induction of lung cancer in various groups of mine workers exposed to radon and radon daughter products is considered and the factors affecting the concentration of radon in buildings, particularly houses, are presented. A number of case studies concerning the occurrence of radon in dwellings in different countries, are outlined. (C.F.)

  12. Radon exhalation from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new Israeli standard 5098 limits the total radiation dose of the general public from building materials to 0.45 mSv / year. A building material is accepted if it satisfies a criterion depending on the activity concentration of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and on the Radon (222Rn) exhalation rate. As compared with existing standards, which consider only the gamma dose, this standard includes the Radon contribution allowing thereby to rigorously control the radiation dose from this practice to the general public in Israel. While the radionuclide activity may be measured via standard HPGe gamma spectroscopy, the measurement of the Radon exhalation rate is not yet standardized. According to Standard 5098 the Ministry of the Environment is responsible to recommend the optimal technique

  13. Radon exchange dynamics in a Karst system investigated by radon continuous measurements in water: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008 the underground Karst Laboratory of Bossea Cave started research on radon exchange dynamics between bedrock, cave waters (main collector and percolations) and indoor underground atmosphere. Radon air concentrations, normally high, increase more and more during the collector's floods. An explanation of this is a radon-water solubilisation process more effective in flood events, because of a greater rock-water contact surface. Radon is then carried by water into the cave and released into the air. To verify this, continuous measurements of radon concentration are needed not only in the air, but also in the waters of the cave. So a new device for continuous radon monitoring in water was tested, connected to the AlphaGuard radon monitor. For the first 6 months of 2010, for different sections of the cave, the correlations between radon in the air, radon in the waters and the collector's stream flow fluctuations were presented and discussed. (authors)

  14. Variation of the unattached fraction of radon progeny and its contribution to radon exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Qiuju

    2016-06-01

    The unattached fraction of radon progeny is one of the most important factors for radon exposure evaluation through the dosimetric approach. To better understand its level and variation in the real environment, a series of field measurements were carried out indoors and outdoors, and radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was also measured. The dose contribution of unattached radon progeny was evaluated in addition. The results show that no clear variation trend of the unattached fraction of radon progeny is observed in an indoor or outdoor environment. The average unattached fraction of radon progeny for the indoors and outdoors are (8.7  ±  1.6)% and (9.7  ±  2.1)%, respectively. The dose contribution of unattached radon progeny to total radon exposure is some 38.8% in an indoor environment, suggesting the importance of the evaluation on unattached radon progeny. PMID:27171653

  15. Inverse method for determining radon diffusion coefficient and free radon production rate of fragmented uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate are important parameters for describing radon migration in the fragmented uranium ore. In order to determine the two parameters, the pure diffusion migration equation for radon was firstly established and its analytic solution with the two parameters to be determined was derived. Then, a self manufactured experimental column was used to simulate the pure diffusion of the radon, the improved scintillation cell method was used to measure the pore radon concentrations at different depths of the column loaded with the fragmented uranium ore, and the nonlinear least square algorithm was used to inversely determine the radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate. Finally, the solution with the two inversely determined parameters was used to predict the pore radon concentrations at some depths of the column, and the predicted results were compared with the measured results. The results show that the predicted results are in good agreement with the measured results and the numerical inverse method is applicable to the determination of the radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate for the fragmented uranium ore. - Highlights: • Inverse method for determining two transport parameters of radon is proposed. • A self-made experimental apparatus is used to simulate radon diffusion process. • Sampling volume and position for measuring radon concentration are optimized. • The inverse results of an experimental sample are verified

  16. Radon programme in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The framework of the Radon programme in the Czech republic includes both precautionary measures and interventions. The programme informally started in early eighties has been now incorporated in national legislation (Atomic Act, Radiation Protection Decree, etc.). Aim of precautionary measures is to avert construction of building above natural radiation guidance levels (200 Bq/m3 for indoor radon concentration and 0.5 Sv/h for gamma dose rate) by protection of new buildings against soil radon ingress, by regulation of natural radioactivity in building materials and supplied water. Aim of interventions is to identify buildings affected by enhanced natural radioactivity and help owners to put into effect reasonable remedial measures. Two sets of intervention levels for indoor natural exposure were established: guidance intervention levels 400 Bq/m3 (indoor radon), 1.0 Sv/h (indoor gamma dose rate) and limit values 4000 Bq/m3 and 10 Sv/h. The radon programme is based both on governmental and private activities. The governmental activities include representative and targeted indoor radon survey, subsidy for radon mitigation, mitigation test measurements and public information on radon issue. The private activities include radon measurement (radon index of building site, indoor measurements, radon diagnosis) and remedial measures. More than 100 commercial companies were authorised by Radiation Protection Authority (SUJB) to provide these measurements

  17. Indoor radon dose assessment for Osijek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After ten years' investigation of radon's seasonal variation at three very different locations, as well as radon concentration measurements in kindergartens, schools, air-raid shelters and cellars, systematic indoor radon measurements were undertaken in dwellings (residential buildings) of Osijek (East Croatia, 130andpuncsp; omitted000 citizens). Indoor radon was measured by means of the LR-115 SSNT detector at 48 town locations that gave an arithmetic mean of 71.6 Bq/m3, standard deviation of 44.0 Bq/m3 and geometric mean of 60.1 Bq/m3, for the radon concentration range from 22.7 to 185.6 Bq/m3. Radon measurements, performed by the silicon Radhome detector, did not differ significantly. The empirical frequency distribution of radon concentrations, with the class width of 20 Bq/m3, was in accordance with the theoretical log-normal distribution which was shown with the χ2-test. The radon map pointed out a region of higher radon concentrations (central part of the town) that was ascribed to the geological soil structure. The average equilibrium factor for radon and its progeny in the mentioned dwellings was 0.44. The effective dose equivalent assessment for a few radon models was near 2 mSv/year. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Transport of radon from soil into residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop effective monitoring and control programs for indoor radon it is important to understand the causes of the broad range of concentrations that has been observed. Measurements of indoor radon concentration and air-exchange rate in dwellings in several countries indicate that this variability arises largely from differences among structures in the rate of radon entry. Recent evidence further suggests that the major source of indoor radon in many circumstances is the soil adjacent to the building foundation and that pressure-driven flow, rather than molecular diffusion, is the dominant transport process by which radon enters the buildings. Key factors affecting radon transport from soil are radon production in soil, flow-inducing mechanisms, soil permeability, and building substructure type. 24 references, 1 figure

  19. Radon survey in Metropolitan Toronto schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon testing survey in Metropolitan Toronto public schools was the most intensive project of its kind ever undertaken in Canadian schools. It also included an extensive public education program on radiation and radon-in-schools. The radon levels at 632 schools were measured using the CAIRS Radon Monitors. Ninety percent of the locations measured were found to have a radon level equal to or less than 2 mWL. Two locations in two different schools were found to have a radon level at or above the Action Level (20 mWL). The remaining results were between the two extremes. Follow-up testing in those schools where more than 10 mWL of radon was found is in progress. (author)

  20. Membrane barriers for radon gas flow restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research was performed to assess the feasibility of barrier membrane substances, for use within mining or associated high risk environments, in restricting the diffusion transport of radon gas quantities. Specific tests were conducted to determine permeability parameters of a variety of membrane materials with reference to radon flow capabilities. Tests were conducted both within laboratory and in-situ emanation environments where concentrations and diffusion flows of radon gas were known to exist. Equilibrium radon gas concentrations were monitored in initially radon-free chambers adjacent to gas sources, but separated by specified membrane substances. Membrane barrier effectiveness was demonstrated to result in reduced emanation concentrations of radon gas within the sampling chamber atmosphere. Minimum gas concentrations were evidenced where the barrier membrane material was shown to exhibit lowest radon permeability characteristics

  1. Additional contamination when radon is in excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the behavior of the 222Rn progeny on clothes, skin and hair has been performed in a place with very high radon concentration. In the past, radon concentration was established to be about 32 kBq/m3 in a very high humidity environment inside a tourist cave in Extremadura (Spain). The results show that 222Rn daughters are adhered on clothes, skin and hair, adding some radioactive concentration to that due to radon and its progeny existing in the breathable air. - Highlights: • Adhered 222Rn progeny was studied in a place with high radon concentration. • Radioactive radon daughters are attached to clothing, skin and hair. • Proper clothing, hat and gloves must be used when radon concentration is high. • A shower with soap is advisable after exposition to high radon concentrations

  2. Characterizing the source of radon indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Average indoor radon concentrations range over more than two orders of magnitude, largely because of variability in the rate at which radon enters from building materials, soil, and water supplies. Determining the indoor source magnitude requires knowledge of the generation of radon in source materials, its movement within materials by diffusion and convection, and the means of its entry into buildings. This paper reviews the state of understanding of indoor radon sources and transport. Our understanding of generation rates in and movement through building materials is relatively complete and indicates that, except for materials with unusually high radionuclide contents, these sources can account for observed indoor radon concentrations only at the low end of the range observed. Our understanding of how radon enters buildings from surrounding soil is poorer, however recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that soil may be the predominant source in many cases where the indoor radon concentration is high. 73 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  3. Radon removal from the water resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning the presence of radioactive substances in groundwater used for public supply, particular attention is paid to radon removal in water treatment process. The processes based on water aeration are the most common methods for the reduction of radon concentrations in water. Simple spraying, bubble aeration in the deeper layers of water and various modifications of water aeration in a horizontal arrangement - Inka system and aeration towers - are used for radon removal from water. Vacuum de-aeration is another possibility of reducing the concentration of radon in water. However, this procedure is not widely used in practice as compared to the above methods. The article presents the results obtained from the pilot tests for radon removal by using the aeration tower and Inka aeration system in the water resource supplying the city of Istebné with drinking water. Key words: radon, radon removal , aeration tower , Inka aerator , water quality

  4. Investigation of radon level in Chongqing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents of radon in air in the urban district, building fields,diggings and hotel in Chongqing were investigated. Result shows that the mean concentration of radon is 10.8 Bq/m3 in air in the urban district, and the mean concentration of radon is 1193 Bq/m3 in soils on building fields. Radon level is obviously different in each of diggings, with the highest being in fluorite mine and the second in plumbum and zinc mine. The statistical mean value of radon concentration of 10 typles of diggings investigated is 65.2 Bq/m3, while the mean concentration of radon in fluorite mine is 369 Bq/m3, which is 35 times higher than in the urban area. The mean concentration of radon is 32.9 Bq/m3 in eight hotels. (authors)

  5. Radon and buildings: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective way of reducing the level of radon in dwellings is to extract air from beneath the ground floor. This is usually achieved by mechanical ventilation or by use of a radon sump. However, in some circumstances, these remedial measures may lower the air pressure inside the dwelling. In a small number of cases, this causes combustion gases from open-flued combustion appliances, such as open fires, to spill into the living spaces. Spillage of this type is potentially hazardous. This leaflet recommends ways to reduce the likelihood of spillage, and suggests solutions if spillage does occur. (author)

  6. Radon in ground water - Hydrogeologic impact and indoor air contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book focuses on: geologic and hydrogeologic controls that influence radon occurrence; monitoring radon, radium and other radioactivity from geologic sources; mining impacts on occurrence of radon, radium, and other radioactivity in ground water; sampling and analysis; radon and radium in water supply wells; predictive models for occurrence of radon and other radioactivity; and remedial action

  7. 30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section... Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator protection against radon gas shall be provided in addition to protection against radon daughters. Protection against...

  8. Radon monitoring and hazard prediction in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elio, Javier; Crowley, Quentin; Scanlon, Ray; Hodgson, Jim; Cooper, Mark; Long, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which forms as a decay product from uranium. It is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation affecting the global population. When radon is inhaled, its short-lived decay products can interact with lung tissue leading to DNA damage and development of lung cancer. Ireland has among the highest levels of radon in Europe and eighth highest of an OECD survey of 29 countries. Every year some two hundred and fifty cases of lung cancer in Ireland are linked to radon exposure. This new research project will build upon previous efforts of radon monitoring in Ireland to construct a high-resolution radon hazard map. This will be achieved using recently available high-resolution airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (radiometric) and soil geochemistry data (http://www.tellus.ie/), indoor radon concentrations (http://www.epa.ie/radiation), and new direct measurement of soil radon. In this regard, legacy indoor radon concentrations will be correlated with soil U and Th concentrations and other geogenic data. This is a new approach since the vast majority of countries with a national radon monitoring programme rely on indoor radon measurements, or have a spatially limited dataset of soil radon measurements. Careful attention will be given to areas where an indicative high radon hazard based on geogenic factors does not match high indoor radon concentrations. Where such areas exist, it may imply that some parameter(s) in the predictive model does not match that of the environment. These areas will be subjected to measurement of radon soil gas using a combination of time averaged (passive) and time dependant (active) measurements in order to better understand factors affecting production, transport and accumulation of radon in the natural environment. Such mapping of radon-prone areas will ultimately help to inform when prevention and remediation measures are necessary, reducing the radon exposure of the population. Therefore, given

  9. Effects of home ventilation systems on indoor radon--radon daughter levels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted in a house in Polk County, Florida, to determine the effects of normal home ventilation methods on radon, radon progeny, and working levels. Three ventilation conditions were studied which approximate those found during normal occupancy. The effects of the central air conditioner, the central blower without air conditioning, and outside air ventilation were studied, with radon, radon progeny, and working level measurements made sequentially until significant changes ceased to be observed. In all three experiments, radon, radon progeny, and working levels decreased, with the decreases corresponding to estimated increases in house ventilation rate

  10. Indoor radon levels and their relationship with radon exhalation rates from building surface in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indoor radon concentrations of more than 60 sites in Hong Kong is measured using activated charcoal canisters to identify the underlying distribution pattern. The strong relationship between the indoor radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rate from building surface has been investigated. It has been found that the indoor radon comes mainly from radium in building materials, and that the radon concentration depends on the radon exhalation rate from indoor building surface and on the ventilation. It is also asserted that the radioactivity level of building materials used in Hong Kong is increasing

  11. Geographical associations between radon and cancer: is domestic radon level a marker of socioeconomic status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, S.P. (University College, London (United Kingdom). Toxicology Lab. Middlesex School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)); Stern, G.

    1991-12-01

    Previous studies showing a geographical association between radon and various cancers, particularly the leukaemias and lymphomas, appear to be confounded by the role of radon levels as a surrogate for socioeconomic status. Higher socioeconomic status (at least at the UK county level) is correlated with higher levels of domestic radon. Controlling for the relationship between socioeconomic status and radon removes the correlation between radon exposure and lymphoproliferative disease. Reported associations between radon and lymphoproliferative disease (and possibly other cancers) may be secondary to socioeconomic variables. (author).

  12. 76 FR 72006 - Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... COMMISSION Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon... Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air and Demonstrations of Compliance with 10 CFR 20... that existing guidance does not sufficiently detail how the NRC staff reviews surveys of radon...

  13. Practical usefulness of radon risk maps and detailed in-situ classification of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation answers the frequent question about the practical usefulness, advantages and disadvantages of radon risk maps and detailed in-situ classification of radon risk. Czech Radon Programme derives the benefit from radon maps on various scales - 1:500 000, 1:200 000 and 1:50 000, as well as from the uniform method for direct detailed classification of radon risk. The reliability assessment of the practical usefulness is based on the direct comparison between the results obtained from detailed in-situ classification of radon risk of building sites and the corresponding reading from the radon risk map. Altogether almost one thousand of detailed radon risk assessments, i.e. tens of thousands of soil-gas radon concentration measurements, were compared with the expected radon risk categories in five radon risk map sheets on the scale 1:50 000. The new results more specify and correspond to the previous results from comparisons performed in 1992, 1995 and 2002. We can prepare quite consistent maps, which can be successfully used to direct the search of existing houses with higher indoor radon values. On the other hand, the risk of underestimation or overestimation in the case of deriving the radon risk classification of a specific building site from the map seems to be too high to use the maps for direct assessment of specific sites. For new buildings, it is recommended to use detailed in-situ measurements and classification. (authors)

  14. Why measure radon decay products?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined development in spectrometry, instrumentation and ventilation modelling with its dependence on short- and long-term weather fluctuations renders possible a new, economical metrology for radon decay products. Short-term measurements can, with few restrictions, be converted to annual exposures of an accuracy superior to that from conventional medium-term Rn gas measurements. (orig.)

  15. Nanodosimetry of radon alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is currently accepted that energy deposition at the nanometer level (rather than conventional microdosimetry) determines the biological effects of ionizing radiation. Many previously established experimental techniques (e.g., the Rossi proportional counter) or theoretical methods (e.g., simplified calculations using the continuous slowing-down approximation (CSDA)) are inapplicable to the study of nanodosimetry. The peculiarities of the geometry of exposure to radon progeny further complicate the problem. This is because the conditions under which several open-quotes classicalclose quotes models of radiation action are obtained (e.g., the alpha-beta formulation of the Theory of Dual Radiation Action, which is built on microdosimetry) are no longer valid. It thus becomes clear that not only new techniques but new concepts are required to describe the effects of radon alpha particles. In this paper we discuss a number of computational aspects specific to radon nanodosimetry. In particular, we describe the novel concept of open-quotes associated surfaceclose quotes (AS) which is necessary for efficiently converting Monte-Carlo-generated particle tracks to nanodosimetric spectra. The AS is the analog of Lea's associated volume, applied to radiation sources subject to the geometrical restrictions of internal exposure. We systematically analyze factors affecting the nanodosimetry of radon progeny, such as the distance between the radioactive source and the sensitive volume, the size of the sensitive volume, and CSDA versus full Monte-Carlo track generation

  16. Nanodosimetry of radon alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaider, M. [Columbia Univ. New York, NY (United States); Varma, M.N. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-12-31

    It is currently accepted that energy deposition at the nanometer level (rather than conventional microdosimetry) determines the biological effects of ionizing radiation. Many previously established experimental techniques (e.g., the Rossi proportional counter) or theoretical methods (e.g., simplified calculations using the continuous slowing-down approximation (CSDA)) are inapplicable to the study of nanodosimetry. The peculiarities of the geometry of exposure to radon progeny further complicate the problem. This is because the conditions under which several {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} models of radiation action are obtained (e.g., the alpha-beta formulation of the Theory of Dual Radiation Action, which is built on microdosimetry) are no longer valid. It thus becomes clear that not only new techniques but new concepts are required to describe the effects of radon alpha particles. In this paper we discuss a number of computational aspects specific to radon nanodosimetry. In particular, we describe the novel concept of {open_quotes}associated surface{close_quotes} (AS) which is necessary for efficiently converting Monte-Carlo-generated particle tracks to nanodosimetric spectra. The AS is the analog of Lea`s associated volume, applied to radiation sources subject to the geometrical restrictions of internal exposure. We systematically analyze factors affecting the nanodosimetry of radon progeny, such as the distance between the radioactive source and the sensitive volume, the size of the sensitive volume, and CSDA versus full Monte-Carlo track generation.

  17. Indoor radon and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the epidemiological literature on domestic exposure to radon and risk for childhood leukaemia. The results of 12 ecological studies show a consistent pattern of higher incidence and mortality rates for childhood leukaemia in areas with higher average indoor radon concentrations. Although the results of such studies are useful to generate hypotheses, they must be interpreted with caution, as the data were aggregated and analysed for geographical areas and not for individuals. The seven available case - control studies of childhood leukaemia with measurement of radon concentrations in the residences of cases and controls gave mixed results, however, with some indication of a weak (relative risk < 2) association with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The epidemiological evidence to date suggests that an association between indoor exposure to radon and childhood leukaemia might exist, but is weak. More case - control studies are needed, with sufficient statistical power to detect weak associations and based on designs and methods that minimise misclassification of exposure and provide a high participation rate and low potential selection bias. (authors)

  18. Groundwater radon measurements in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon contents of groundwater sources have led to a great interest in hydrological, hydrogeological and geological engineering. The most interesting applications are: The determination of the fluctuations of the piezometric levels in groundwater to evaluate hydrogeological resources, the study of recent hydrothermal manifestations, the study of oil- and gas-bearing regions, the estimation of uranium deposits and the study of the relationship between the radon concentration and the degree of stress of the earth's crust at different stages of seismic activity. Waters from springs and deep wells in the plateau of Tassili (southeast Algeria) were sampled, measured and radon quantified. Radon measurements were performed using two different methods. The first method, active, based on the use of a Lucas-type scintillation chamber in conjunction with a portable monitor (model Pylon AB-5); the second method, passive, using an electret ion chamber with a 4 l glass analysis bottle. The aim of this work is to develop a method for sampling, detecting, evaluating and measuring the 222Rn in groundwater using the scintillation cell method. A comparison of the two methods was carried out and both were found to be useful under environmental conditions in Algeria

  19. Indoor radon in Tunisian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in four well-known spas of Tunisia using nuclear track detectors. The radon concentrations in these spas were found to be in the range of 19 - 870 Bq.m-3. The equilibrium factor F between radon and its progeny was found to vary in the range of 0.2 - 0.5, depending upon the ventilation rates within the buildings of the spas. Using the exposure-dose conversion factor, the effective doses to patients and workers were estimated and the dose was found to vary in the range 3.7 x 10-3 - 12.5 x 10-3 mSv.y-1 and 0.45 - 1.5 mSv.y-1 for patients and workers, respectively. These values are well inside the limit recommended for the annual dose limit of 20 mSv.y-1 for an occupational worker. The radium content in the groundwater of all four spas was measured and the results showed no correlation between the 226Ra concentration in water and radon concentration in indoor air of the investigated spas. (authors)

  20. Radon and hydrotherapy: application to French spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owing to the use of thermal water for treatments, the dissolved radon ends up, through degassing, in the atmosphere of the various spa premises. According to the type of treatments, the radon activity concentration in the air is very variable; it depends on two factors, the supply of thermal water, and therefore of radon, and the ventilation of the various premises. In unfavourable, even non-existent, ventilation conditions, it is not uncommon to measure radon concentration reaching several thousands of becquerels per air cubic meter. These high values of radon activity concentration, with or without its short-lived daughters, may lead to a staff exposure of approximately ten or several tens of mSv per year. A French spa was subject to a radon 'expertise' during which the radon source terms, 'ground in contact with the buildings' and 'thermal water' were characterized. The radon mapping in the internal atmosphere of the various spa premises and the workstations' analysis resulted in an assessment of the exposure due to radon inhalation. This study showed that on workstations, notably linked to hydrotherapy, the staff exposure to radon is in the same range as the dose assessments from foreign studies. The implementation of an appropriate ventilation of the treatment rooms and a better management of the thermal water in the spa resulted in a significant reduction of staff exposure

  1. Indoor radon remediation : effect of ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. As per the ICRP recommendations, it becomes necessary to take remedial steps for the reduction of radon daughters in a dwelling place if the level is found to be more than 200 Bqm-3. Ventilation process can simulate the conditions generated through advection or diffusion, therefore it may be major factors that control the indoor radon concentration is the room. In the present investigations, the effects of natural ventilation in a room having an external source of radon have been studied. The variation in radon concentration with operative time of exhaust fan has also been studied. For radon concentration measurement the LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) were use. The radon reduction factor, which is the ratio of radon concentrations before and after remediation has been calculated. The radon reduction factor was found to vary 1.08 to 1.17 due to natural ventilation where as 1.17 to 3.01 due to forced ventilation. The results indicate that optimized ventilation (natural or forced) can be simple mean of radon remediation in dwellings. (author)

  2. Radon in groundwater in magmatic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the specifics of groundwater in magmatic rocks is a high level of radioactive components, such as radon and radium. First of all, radon has a negative influence on human health and leads to ecological and geological problems for territories with high levels of radon in groundwater. Radon-rich water has the highest therapeutic effect among curative mineral waters. Radon water is widespread in the world and is used in spas and sanatoriums very actively. Thirdly, radon is a very informative indicator of hydrogeological and geological processes. The Baltic Shield is the region with a high level of radon concentration. In Russia, the fi ssured water of the Baltic Shield is spread in Karelia, Murmansk and St.Petersburg region. Many of samples contain high levels of radon (200 Bq/l), sometimes more than 1700 Bq/l. Water from uranium-rich rock with maximum concentration of radon, e.g. uranium-rich granites and pegmatite, commonly have radon concentrations in excess of 500 Bq/l. The same situation as in Karelia can also be observed in Finland. Thus, the geochemical properties of fissured groundwater and their isotopic composition could be useful identificator to research the and to analyze the time of water circulation. (orig.)

  3. Studying of the radon risk in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Radon is the one of the most toxic and radioactive gases. According to the International Committee on Radiation Protection, 50-90 percent from common doze of people exposure by natural radioactive sources comes from radon and its decay products. Radon is colorless, odorless and tasteless gas, so it can not be detected without special equipment. Radon gas easily escapes from the ground into the air, where it decays into the short-lived products which are called radon decay products. In the decay process these products emit radioactive alpha particles and which are attached to aerosols, dust and other particles in the air. In 1987, radon and its decay products were identified by experts of the International Agency on Cancer Research to the group of carcinogenic elements for humans. Results of radiometric studies carried out in Azerbaijan , showed that natural radiation field on the territory of Azerbaijan is in the range typical for rocks and soils of the Earth and is about 6-8 mk R/h. However there are places where the radon distribution can offer dangerous. In Azerbaijan studying of natural levels of radon has not been conducted. As a result, the map of the distribution of radon volume activity for Azerbaijan has been drawn, which highlights the areas with the anomalous radon concentration, which are dangerous for human health.

  4. Risk Reassessment Based on Radon Exposure Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The paper deals with the risk assessment based on the field data obtained during the radon survey of the rural community Gornja Stubla (Kosovo) in 1998-1999. Results of the survey identify this region as the high natural radiation environment background area (average indoor radon concentration being 450 Bq/m3). The survey includes contemporary (SSNTDs) and retrospective (volume and surface traps) indoor radon and thoron gas long-term measurements. During the survey the questionnaires were completed with data on housing characteristics and habits occupants. To assess the radiation risk due to inhalation of radon and thoron progeny more precisely a model to reconstruct the lifetime radon exposure of the population in Gornja Stubla was developed. The model estimates the exposure in respect to two groups of factors: those known to influence significantly the indoor radon concentration itself (i.e. geographical factor, age of house and the floor level of the room) and the specific population characteristics (i.e. the temporal occupancy pattern of the rooms as a function of age and sex). The variations of radon level observed after comparison of radon measurements by contemporary and retrospective techniques are considered as well. Thus the lifetime exposure to radon and thoron progenies is assessed for the typically exposed part of the population and for dwelling occupants receiving the highest exposure in their houses due to the measured radon concentration. The approach developed and presented here permits an improved estimates of radiation risk to be made. (author)

  5. Instrumentation for a radon research house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly automated monitoring and control system for studying radon and radon-daughter behavior in residences has been designed and built. The system has been installed in a research house, a test space contained in a two-story wood-framed building, which allows us to conduct controlled studies of (1) pollutant transport within and between rooms, (2) the dynamics of radon daughter behavior, and (3) techniques for controlling radon and radon daughters. The system's instrumentation is capable of measuring air-exchange rate, four-point radon concentration, individual radon daughter concentrations, indoor temerature and humidity, and outdoor weather parameters (temperature, humidity, modules, wind speed, and wind direction). It is also equipped with modules that control the injection of radon and tracer gas into the test space, the operation of the forced-air furnace, the mechanical ventilation system, and the mixing fans located in each room. A microcomputer controls the experiments and records the data on magnetic tape and on a printing terminal. The data on tape is transferred to a larger computer system for reduction and analysis. In this paper we describe the essential design and function of the instrumentation system, as a whole, singling out those components that measure ventilation rate, radon concentration, and radon daughter concentrations

  6. Measurement of indoor radon levels in Bhubaneshwar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One dominant and almost inevitable natural source of airborne activity is Radon (222Rn) which is produced as a result of decay of U in the earth crust. Measurements of indoor radon are of importance because of the radiation dose to human population due to the inhalation of radon and its daughters, constitutes more than 50% of the total dose, including that from the natural sources [UNSCEAR, 1988]. The radon concentration in the environment depends upon the source term, ventilation rate and weather. India is so vast in extent and so varied geological formations that wide variations can be expected in indoor radon concentration levels. So it may be desirable to make extensive measurements of radon levels at various parts of the country. An attempt has been made to study the seasonal and geological variation of radon levels at various locations of Bhubaneshwar city using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The ongoing preliminary measurements of indoor radon exposure to population were discussed. Radon passive dosimeters loaded with CR-39 films have been used in this study. The minimum and maximum values of radon measured were 8.46 and 42.64 Bq/m3. A discussion of some results obtained is presented in the paper. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  7. Annual dose from radon in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the research of radon is one of the most important themes in nuclear physics and environmental science. Research in indoor air radon and outdoor air radon are very significant for hygiene. Outdoor air radon changes with geographical region, season, month and hours of day. And indoor air radon pertains from outdoor air radon, buildings material and ventilation. Experimental data of determination Rn222 by Scintillation method (SAC-4) in outdoor air, in premises of a microtron MT-22, other working rooms and dwellings (concrete, brick, wooden and Mongolian ger) are considered. With the purpose of research of radiation safety in indoor and outdoor of the microtron, we have developed a technique of determination radon and its short-lived decay product Po218 by the scintillation counter SAC-4. Concrete, brick, wooden, mongolian ger 4 buildings radon concentration in winter (November and December) of 6 years, measurements 400 points average to cause to out average and annual dose rate from radon are measured. Radon concentration has in outdoor air (winter) 18.7 (2.3/38.8) Bq/m3. Indoor air (concrete, brick, wooden, Mongolian ger) radon concentration has 26.0 (8.2/42.6) Bq/m3. Received dose rate annual to human of radon 0.8 (0.33/1.26) mSv/year. This concentration is less than maximum effective dose (2.5mSv/year) of human year. Mongolian National Standard 'Method of determination of radon concentration in air' (MNS5246:2003) is processed and certified. The work is carried out at the Nuclear Research Centre of the National University of Mongolia. (author)

  8. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion source RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE, CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, Sebastian; Nörtershäuser, W

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at ISOLDE, CERN, by the addition of an all-solid state tuneable titanium: sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE, CERN, and at ISAC, TRIUMF, radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  9. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Sebastian

    2012-09-24

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  10. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  11. A preliminary radon map for Canada according to health region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent publications of the combined analyses of residential radon studies in Europe and North America have shown that there is a significant risk of lung cancer at residential radon levels. In order to assess the population risk due to radon, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of indoor radon levels is essential. Here a preliminary radon map for Canada is presented, based on historical radon measurements collected in 6016 locations across Canada with the health region as the basic geographic units. (authors)

  12. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Nirmalla; Field, Dan W.; Steck, Daniel J.; Field, R. William

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the ...

  13. Indoor - soil gas radon relationshipin the Central Bohemian Plutonic Complex

    OpenAIRE

    I. Fojtíková; J. Miksová; I. Barnet

    2005-01-01

    The relationship of indoor radon measurements and radon in bedrock was studied in the granitoid Central Bohemian Plutonic Complex (CBPC). The indoor data were linked to vectorised geological and radon risk maps using the coordinates of particular dwellings. For each geological unit and rock type it was possible to calculate the statistical characteristics of indoor radon measurements. A clear relationship between indoor radon values and radon in bedrock was confirmed in al...

  14. Development of the Measurement System for the Search of an Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron with Laser-Cooled Francium Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We plan to measure the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM of the electron, which has the sensitivity to the CP violation in theories beyond the standard model by using the laser-cooled francium (Fr atom. This paper reports the present status of the EDM measurement system. A high voltage application system was constructed in order to produce the strong electric field (100 kV/cm needed for the experiment. After conditioning, the leakage current was 10 pA when a high voltage of 43 kV was applied. Also, a drift of an environmental field was measured at the planned location of the Fr-EDM experiment. The drift is suppressed at present down to the level of 10 pT by installing a 4-layermagnetic shield. Improvements are still needed to reach the required field stability of 1 fT.

  15. Remedial measures in Swedish and Norwegian houses - application of radon and radon decay product measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houses and apartments in Sweden and Norway with excessive indoor radon concentrations were studied in detail with a variety of methods, standard and novel ones recently developed. For suitable remediation it is necessary to distinguish soil radon and exhalation from blue (porous) concrete. Our CARBOTEST-S is a simple, sensitive, in-situ method to quantify radon exhalation from existing walls, as well as radon permeability of different protective foils and final quality control of foils applied to existing walls. (orig.)

  16. Second workshop on radon and radon daughters in urban communities associated with uranium mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A second meeting of Atomic Energy Control Board staff, federal and provincial government representatives, and consultants was held to discuss progress in reducing the concentrations of radon and its daughter products in houses in communities like Bancroft, Elliot Lake, Port Hope, and Uranium City. Participants discussed successful and unsuccessful remedial techniques, possible sources of radon, and methods of measuring radon and radon daughters in buildings

  17. Study on the solubility of radon in tissues; Untersuchung der Loeslichkeit von Radon in Gewebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Claudia; Kraft, Gerhard; Maier, Andreas; Beek, Patrick van [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    At the GSI Helmholtz Center in Darmstadt a radon chamber with conditions similar to the radon galleries was built for studies on the solubility of radon in tissues using cell cultures and animals. The samples are investigated using gamma spectroscopy following the radon exposure measuring Pb-214 and Bi-214. The original concentration of Rn-222 in the sample is determined by the time dependence of the decay rates of Rn-222. The experimental conditions and preliminary measurements are described.

  18. Application of sensitive and supersensitive radon detectors for radon flux density and radon concentration in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a review of principles and operational parameters of the latest instrumental development in sensitive and high sensitive radon detectors at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The focus is on advances in measurement technology of radon concentration in air and radon flux density. Two areas in which ANSTO is actively involved are discussed. The first area concerns radon in air monitoring at Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station. Results recorded at the Station with a supersensitive radon detector characterised by lower limit of detection down to few mBq m-3 with time resolution better than 90 minutes are presented to illustrate importance of the technique in global monitoring of airborne pollution. The second area concerns estimates of radon and thoron fluxes from large geographical areas. This is illustrated by results obtained during an Australia-wide survey of radon fluxes and from thoron flux measurements around the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. The radon flux estimates from Australia come from a coarse net of spot measurements combined with data from aerial gamma surveys. It is argued that as radon global flux and air concentration estimates improve, the data will provide progressively more stringent tests of global air transport models. (author)

  19. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the behavior of radon and its short-lived daughters in vivo are described and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and time after a meal is demonstrated. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon produced from skeletally-deposited radium was observed and a similar effect in exhalation rate of environmental radon by persons containing no radium was noted. Persons living in houses with elevated concentrations of radon may contain sufficient activity for its detection by external gamma-ray counting. Some of the activity observed is due to inhaled daughter-products in the chest, and some to daughter-products associated with and produced by the decay of radon throughout the body. 3 references, 8 figures. (MF)

  20. Radon reduction in crawl-space houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives results of an EPA study of radon-mitigation alternatives for crawl space houses in several houses in Nashville, TN. Application of one of these alternative mitigation options, suction under a polyethylene membrane, has been successful in significantly reducing radon levels in both the crawl space and the house. The large radon concentrations measured under unvented plastic ground covers and the moisture barriers found in many crawl spaces can act as radon-rich reservoirs capable of contaminating a crawl space and house during periods of depressurization. With the exhaust components of the mitigation system in place, radon levels below the plastic decreased by more than 95% under both passive and active suction conditions. Based on the study, the design of a cost-effective subplastic suction passive radon mitigation system for crawl spaces seems promising

  1. Indoor radon concentrations in Vushtrri, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air radon concentration was measured by exposing trac ketch detectors in the two elementary schools, one high school, a kindergarten and the hospital in the city of Vushtrri. Measurements were performed with the radon monitor PRM-145, which uses alpha scintillation cells and serves to determine the current concentration of radon. The results we obtained are in the range between the average values of radon for the interior spaces, and values that pose a potential risk for lung cancer. Measuring the concentration of radon was done in total of 34 rooms and came up with values which are between 28Bqm-3 and 398Bqm-3. In order to reduce the concentration of radon, we have built a ventilation pump, then we performed repeated measurements and finally came with results between 130-145Bqm-3.

  2. Diffusion of radon gas in soil cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the potential radon hazard of a new home construction site and the steps (if any) that should be taken to mitigate that hazard, the soil pore gas radon source strength S (i.e., the number of radon atoms emitted into a unit volume of pore gas per unit time), the pore gas radon diffusion length L, and the soil porosity p must be known. Methods exist for measuring the steady-state soil pore gas radon concentration. The purposes of this paper are to analyze the kinetics of the radon concentration in a cavity in the soil, to determine the parameters that affect the kinetics, and to establish and analyze an in situ method for measuring S, L, and p

  3. Radon in water aeration system operational performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North East Environmental Products, Inc. is a manufacturer of residential scale aeration systems for removal of radon and volatile organic chemicals from private water supplies. This paper is a review of the operational history of residential scale point of entry (POE) radon aeration systems. Emphasis is placed on the difficulties and solutions encountered in actual installations caused by both mechanical difficulties and water quality parameters. A summary of radon reduction efficiency is presented for wells with radon concentrations from 21,000 to 2,600,000 pCi/L. A discussion of customer concerns and attitudes is presented along with other areas for further technical improvement. Training techniques for dealers and installers are also discussed. An update of the current status of the radon in water industry includes current sales volumes as compared to the potential market and an update on the radon in water MCL standard setting process from an industry perspective

  4. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uezuelmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m-3. It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration. (authors)

  5. Geostatistics approach to radon potential mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil-gas radon potential assessment is an important component of the most of national radon programs. With regard to recent intensive advances in all fields of science and increasing demands on accuracy in data there is an urgent need to support current approaches by alternative methods. Important finding of this study is the benefit of variographic analysis based on random sampling for prediction of the overall radon potential, as a counterpart of a widely used regular sampling. In addition, as could be seen the temporal variability might be a crucial factor affecting consequent accuracy of radon risk assessment. We hope that introduced combination of geo-statistics tools, results of long-term radon activity monitoring and, in general, dealing with uncertainties affecting radon potential/risk assessment can bring synergic effect providing more exhaustive data treatment. (authors)

  6. Radiation load from radon exposure in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of monitoring of radon exposure in Slovakia by passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD ) (placed in about 6,000 selected dwellings, 1000 selected buildings of the kindergartens and basic schools, 12 selected spa buildings) and personal doses measured by SSNTD (130 miners from three ore mines and 13 tourist guides from seven show karst caves) are presented. The national survey results suggest that Slovak Republic may be among the countries with higher radon risk in Central Europe. The annual effective dose from indoor radon exposure is 2.1 mSv per inhabitants. The district with highest indoor radon concentrations and districts with high radon levels in spa buildings correlate with known presence of uranium in the soil. The soil is probably the main source of radon in Slovak dwellings, spa and school buildings too

  7. New devices for radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work includes the description of two new devices for radon surveys developed by the authors and produced in Kazakhstan. The first appliance is 'Ramon-Radon-01' used to measure 222Rn radon in various mediums such as air, water, soil, and radon exhalation. The major advantage of the appliance lies in the absence of radioactive pollution in it after measurements. The appliances widely used in the CIS such as 'RAA-01', 'Alpharad' (produced by 'MTM Zaschita', Russia) and 'Alphaguard' (Germany) take samples directly to the measuring camera. For instance, the activity concentration of samples after they are taken by 'RAA-01' and 'Alpharad' is measured by means of electrostatic precipitation of RaA (218 Po) atoms to the square of semiconductor detector with subsequent registration of RaA alpha decay. The obvious disadvantage is that the subsequent measurement of relatively small 222Rn activity concentration values after great values of 222Rn activity concentration have been obtained requires a considerable exposure of the appliance sometimes exceeding 10 hours. Therefore, appliances register a relatively low value of the top measurement range of 20 KBq/m3. 'Alphaguard' has similar limitation resulting from precipitation of radon daughter decay products on the walls of ionizing chamber where radon activity concentration is measured. The radioactive lag of 'RAA-01', 'Alpharad' and 'Alphaguard' makes them of little use as well for automatic monitoring in the conditions of abruptly time negative derivatives on change of radon activity concentration. The second advantage is that 'Ramon-Radon-01', as opposed to above described appliances, registers almost zero radioactive lag, thanks to its constructive peculiarities which enable an abrupt increase of top range of measured value up to 5x105 Bq/m3, only limited by velocity of electron units of the appliance. The third advantage is that measurement discontinuity is determined only by time of full measurement cycle adding up

  8. Workshop on radon and radon daughters in urban communities associated with uranium mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting of Atomic Energy Control Board staff, representatives of other government departments, and consultants was called to exchange information on steps taken to lower radiation levels in houses in communities such as Elliot Lake, Uranium City, and Port Hope. Discussions covered the sources of radon and radon daughters in these houses, radon measurement techniques, and remedial methods that worked or were not successful

  9. The radon: evaluation and risk management; Le radon: evaluation et gestion du risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, A.C. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Masse, R. [Academie des Technologies, 75 - Paris (France); Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Erich Wichmann, H. [Neuberberg Munich Univ. (Germany); Timarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Robe, M.Ch. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Baubron, J.C.; Bonijoly, D. [BRGM, 75 - Paris (France); Collignan, B. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 75 - Paris (France); Berrier, H. [Direction Gle de l' Urbanisme de l' Habitat et de la Construction, 75 - Paris (France); Jaouen, J. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de la Haute-Vienne (France); Caamano, D. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de l' Essonne, 91 (France); Guiot, F. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de la Haute-Marne (France); Grall, B. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de Bretagne (France); Frutos Vasquez, B.; Olaya Adan, M. [Istituto de Ciencias de la Construction (Italy); Garcia Cadierno, J.P.; Martin Matarranz, J.L.; Serrano Renedo, J.; Suarez Mahou, E. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, J.A. [ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas (Spain); Mjones, L.; Pirard, P. [Institut de veille sanitaire, 94415 - Saint-Maurice (France); Godet, J.L.; Rougy, Ch. [Direction Gle de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-06-15

    The radon exposure constitutes for the French population the first cause of natural irradiation among the different natural sources of irradiation. It is possible to have a significant action on it, either by making draught proof in order to avoid to radon to get inside houses, either by ventilating in order to dispel the radon and improve air quality. (N.C.)

  10. Characteristics of radon escaping and mode of ventilation for radon discharge in long blinding heading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ventilation for radon discharge in working face of long blind heading is described. Combined mode of ventilation is considered as a good method to reduce radon. Using the powerful air exhauster and the tubes of large diameter, the concentration of radon in heading face can be less than allowable

  11. Physics underlying the searching for radon sources in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon diagnostics of houses is briefly outlined. The aim of radon diagnostics consists in the identification of radon sources (subsoil, building material, water), location of the main and side pathways of radon inlet in the building, quantification of the amounts of radon passing through the pathways and spreading through the house. The stack effect of radon suction from the subsoil into the building due to the temperature difference or underpressure caused by wind is described. The radon risk is different in the different seasons of the year and also varies throughout the day. Good diagnosis of radon transfer into a house requires a great deal of skill. (M.D.). 1 fig

  12. Contribution of radon in tap water to indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of radon (222Rn) in domestic water supplies to the concentration of 222Rn in indoor atmospheres has been investigated and found to be significant for concentrations over a few thousand picocuries per liter in the water supply. A model predicting average indoor increments due to this source is presented and supported by a series of measurements made in the laboratory and in private homes in the vicinity of Houston, Texas. The efficiency with which radon is transferred from water to air was experimentally determined, and these efficiencies were combined with estimates of average indoor water use to produce a source term proportional to the concentration of 222Rn in the tap water. The importance of the dwelling volume and the air change rate is discussed

  13. The radon influence of SAGE results

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrin, V N; Mirmov, I N

    2002-01-01

    The method for evaluating systematic errors, connected with radon, is described in the experiment on determining the SAGE solar neutrino flux. The systematic error by the measured neutrino capture rate in the gallium 75 SNU target does not exceed 0.3 SNU. The obtained value (0.3 SNU) is the upper limit of the radon systematic error. Its low value means, that radon does not contribute significantly to the SAGE result

  14. The radon influence of SAGE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for evaluating systematic errors, connected with radon, is described in the experiment on determining the SAGE solar neutrino flux. The systematic error by the measured neutrino capture rate in the gallium 75 SNU target does not exceed 0.3 SNU. The obtained value (0.3 SNU) is the upper limit of the radon systematic error. Its low value means, that radon does not contribute significantly to the SAGE result

  15. Radon Survey in Hospitals in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Slovenia, several radon studies at workplaces have been carried out in last years, supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport, and the Ministry of Health. After radon surveys in kindergartens, schools and homes, within which about 2600 buildings were checked for radon and which provided the level of radon problem in the country, next investigations were focused on the workplaces with potentially higher radon risk. Hence, in the Postojna Cave permanent radon monitoring was introduced in 1995 and comprehensive radon studies were performed: in 5 bigger spas during 1996-1998, in major waterworks and wine cellars in 2001, and in major Slovene hospitals in 2002. This paper reports the results of radon study in 26 major Slovene hospitals, comprising radon concentrations in 201 rooms and dose estimates for 1025 persons working in these rooms. Radon survey in 201 rooms of 26 major hospitals in Slovenia revealed only 7 rooms in which monthly average radon concentration in the indoor air exceeded 400 Bqm-3. Generally, concentrations in basement were on average for about 30% higher than in ground floor, although exceptionally high values have also been found in the ground floor. For 966 persons (94.2%) of the total of 1025 persons working in the rooms surveyed, the annual effective dose, estimated according to the Basic Safety Standards was below 1 mSv, while for 59 it exceeded 1 mSv. In 7 rooms with more than 400 Bqm-3 in which 16 persons receive between 2.1 and 7.3 mSv per year radon monitoring is continued. (author)

  16. Status of radon monitoring in Haryana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is present in trace amounts almost everywhere (indoor and outdoor) on the earth, being distributed in the soil, the ground water and in the lower atmosphere. Radon migrates and appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following α- decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The influx of radon is a function of (1) Permeability of the underlying soil (2) Geological, meteorological and structural factor and (3) Permeability of the medium. The concentration of radon in the atmosphere varies depending on the place, time, and height above the ground and meteorological conditions. When radon decays it forms its progeny 218Po and 214Po, which are electrically charged and can attach themselves to tiny dust particles, water vapours, oxygen, trace gases in indoor air and other solid surfaces. These daughter products (aerosols) remain air-borne for a long time and can easily be inhaled into the lung and can adhere to the epithelial lining of the lung, thereby irradiating the tissue. Bronchial stem cells and secretion cells in airways are considered to be the main target cells for the induction of lung cancer resulting from radon exposure. The exposure of population to high concentrations of radon and its daughters for a long period may lead to pathological effects like the respiratory functional changes and the occurrence of lung cancer. Some studies have been carried out by different researchers for radon monitoring in Haryana state of India using alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The following studies have been carried out: 1. Indoor radon in different dwellings like cemented, soil bricks, mud and fly ash bricks. 2. Radon in industrial units like thermal power plants, gas power plants, LPG bottling plants and refineries 3. Radon exhalation rates measurements in building materials viz; soil, fly ash, cement, sand and stones. 4. Radon diffusion studies

  17. Study and treatment of situations implying radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon is a radioactive gas with a natural origin. It comes from a disintegration of uranium and radium present in the soils. It comes from granitic and volcanic subsoils. The radon can accumulate in buildings. It is the principal source of natural exposure and the second one after medical exposures. It is the only one source of radiations on which man is susceptible to act. Ventilation and airtightness are solutions to reduce radon concentration. (N.C.)

  18. Radon in the Hotels in Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon concentrations in the 16 hotels in Montenegro, well known by tourists, were measured in winter period by an integral method, with etch-track detectors. Radon concentrations obtained at the 30 measuring sites are in a range (22 - 90) Bq/m3, with an arithmetic mean of 43 Bq/m3. This means that the radon levels in the all surveyed hotels in Montenegro are much bellow the most stringent reference level internationally recommended. (author)

  19. A perspective on risks from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its Statement on Radon (November 2009), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has reduced the upper reference level for radon gas in dwellings to 300 Bq m-3. The recommended level for workplaces is 1000 Bq m-3. A risk coefficient of 8 x 10-10 per Bq h m-3 is recommended without reference to smoking habits. On the basis of these figures: 1) The estimated risk of fatal cancer from exposure to radon at home and at work could be greater than the observed risk of accidental death from travelling by car, which would be surprising if true. 2) The estimated risk of lung cancer from radon could be greater than the observed risk of lung cancer from all causes, which is actually known to be dominated by smoking. The author is not aware of any direct evidence of risks from inhaling radon in Australian dwellings, 99% of which have radon levels below 50 Bq m-3. Evidence available from other countries shows that: 1) The effects of radon in the incidences of lung cancer are uncertain at levels less then about 50-100 Bq m-3. 2) The estimation of risks at levels below 200 Bq m-3 depends on extrapolation from risks observed at higher levels. 3) Risks to non-smokers from radon are 25 times less than risks to smokers. Its concluded that the ICRP Statement on Radon and radon policies in the US and UK have the potential to cause unwarranted concern. Some people may be made to feel they need to spend money modifying their homes and workplaces to protect occupants from exposure to radon when there is no compelling reason to show that this is necessary. The vast majority of non-smokers do not need to be protected from radon. (Author)

  20. Radon and radon daughters in mine atmospheres and influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the total activity of radon daughters in the air of mines has become a routine procedure in order to control the radiation exposure in miners due to the inhalation of these radionuclides. Normally the measured concentration is given in terms of total potential α-energy of the short lived radon daughters. In addition, the degree of equilibrium between the daughter products in air and the fraction of daughter products not attached to aerosol particles (the unattached fraction) must be known. The concentrations of radon and daughter products may vary considerably during the day. Seasonal variations are also frequently found. It is therefore important to have knowledge of the magnitude of these variations and of the factors having the strongest influence upon the concentrations. In this paper the main results of a study on the radiological characteristics of non-uranium mines are summarized. The correlations between the unattached fraction of the potential α-energy and the unattached fraction of the individual daughters, and between the equilibrium factor F, and the individual daughter ratios are discussed

  1. Establishment of a radon test chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A walk-in type radon test chamber of 23 m3 has been built for testing and calibration of radon measurement instruments. The environmental conditions of the test chamber can be varied within a wide range of values. The design objectives specification, monitoring instruments and testing results of this chamber are discussed. This test chamber is available for domestic radon researchers and its accuracy can be traced to the international standard. A routine intercomparison study will be held annually by using this chamber. Other tests like radon progeny and thoron standard may also be performed in this chamber. (1 fig.)

  2. Measuring probe for radon concentration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation of radon emanation in mining excavation is caused by changes of stress in geologic layer, coal or other minerals are extracted from. To investigate this phenomenon, a model of an instrument for continuous monitoring of radon concentration in mine environment was developed. The measuring head constructed in the form of a cylinder operates with modified mining radiometer RGR-40. The instrument can measure radon concentration employing the method of natural diffusion of radon to the measuring head, or forced air sampling by an membrane air pump. The measuring results are stored in internal memory of the instrument and are displayed on LCD screen. (author)

  3. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  4. Radon concentrations in Taipei metropolitan railway station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For routine airborne radon monitoring, including use in field conditions, the technique based on electret ion chamber technology seems to be the most suitable choice in many applications. However, this simple and relatively inexpensive method has some specific drawbacks: poorer reproducibility at lower radon concentrations, some uncertainty in the use of manufacturer suggested gamma correction factors, and limited reusability. A modified electret ion chamber method has been proposed, but it is mainly for water borne radon measurement. Therefore, we still applied the simple method recommended by the manufacturer to survey radon concentrations in Taipei Railway Station. (author)

  5. Radon in the Environment: Friend or Foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is part of the Uranium decay series. Its Presence in the environment is associated mainly with trace amounts of uranium and its immediate parent, radium226, in rocks, soil and groundwater. About one-half of the effective doses from natural sources is estimated to be delivered by inhalation of the short lived radon progeny. Owing to this fact, radon is the most popular subject of studies on environmental radioactivity. The presence of high level of radon in indoor environment constitutes a major health hazard for man. The radon progeny is well established as causative agents of lung cancer and other types of caners. Radon unique properties as a naturally radioactive gas have led to its use as a geophysical tracer for locating buried faults and geological structures, in exploring for uranium, and for predicting earthquakes. Radon has been used as a tracer in the study of atmospheric transport process. There have been several other applications of radon in meteorology, water research and medicine. This paper summarizes the health effects and the potential benefits of radon and its progeny.

  6. Radon in Austria: metrology and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of radon mitigation and precaution standards needs continuously scientific attendance and research networking on international level. Otherwise the radon issue could degrade easily to a simplified techno-economical exercise without sustainable results in public health. In this paper the radon investigations in Austria which have been carried out in the last 20 years and the applied methods and derived standards for mitigation and precaution at home and workplaces are discussed. Future strategies, scientific and social necessities to solve the radon problem are outlined comprehensively. Strategies future research in Austria are discussed in consideration of the medium-term perspective of the European radiation protection. (orig.)

  7. Radon risk mapping using indoor monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An empirical statistical model is described for the use of indoor radon monitoring data as an indicator of the areal radon risk from soil and bedrock. The percentages of future homes expected to have radon concentrations exceeding the design level of 200 Bq/m3 unless constructed to provide protection against the entry of radon were assessed. The radon prognosis was made for different subareas, soil types and foundation types. This kind of report is used by the heath and building authorities. In this study, 2689 indoor radon measurements were made in one of Finland's most radon-prone areas, consisting of eleven municipalities with a total area of 4600 km2 and a population of 186,000. Radon concentrations were seasonally adjusted. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined from maps and questionnaires. The measurements covered different kinds of geological units in the area. The radon risk is highest in the gravel-dominated subarea in an ice-marginal formation and lowest in the northern half of the area in buildings constructed on bedrock. In these two areas, the design level of 200 Bq/m3 would be exceeded in 99% and 39% of new houses with slab-on-grade. (au) (6 refs.)

  8. Collection of radon with solid oxidizing reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it is generally considered to be inert, radon reacts spontaneously at ambient temperature with a number of fluorine-containing compounds, including dioxygenyl salts, fluoronitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes. A method for the collection of radon from air, using either dioxygenyl hexafluoroantimonate (O2+SbF6-) or hexafluoroiodine hexafluoroantimonate (IF6+SbF6-) reagent, is described. The air is passed though a drying tube and then through a bed of the reagent, which captures radon as a nonvolatile product. In tests with radon-air mixtures containing 45-210000 pCi/L of radon-222, more than 99% of the radon was retained by beds of powders (2.3-3.0 g of compound/cm2) and pellets (7.5-10.9 g of compound/cm2). The gas mixtures were designed to simulate radon-contaminated atmospheres in underground uranium mines. No dependence of collection efficiency upon radon concentration was observed. The method can be used for the analysis of radon-222 (by measurement of the γ emissions of the short-lived daughters, lead-214 and bismuth-214) and the purification of small volumes of air

  9. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published...

  10. Radon epidemiology: A guide to the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document was written as a comprehensive overview of the voluminous literature on both uranium miner and residential radon epidemiology studies. This document provides the reader with a fairly complete list of radon epidemiology publications and key features of each, so that readers may further pursue only those publications of interest in the vast body of radon literature. A companion document, exploring all on-going residential radon epidemiology studies will be published by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Department of Energy (DOE) in the spring of 1989

  11. Methods of radon measurement and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics and instrumentation are discussed: The quantity to be measured; Active measurement methods (scintillation cells, ionisation chambers, electrostatic collection of decay products); Passive measurement methods (charcoal detectors; electret ion chambers; etched track detectors); and Detector considerations for large-scale surveys ('always on' or 'switchable' detectors?; response to radon-220; avoidance of electrostatic effects; quality assurance for passive radon detectors; quality control within the laboratory; external quality assurance; detectors need to be easily deliverable). It is concluded that the ideal detector for large scale surveys of radon in houses is a small, closed detector in a conducting holder which excludes radon-220, supported by rigorous quality assurance procedures. (P.A.)

  12. Determination of radon in natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to develop the methodology for collection and analysis of radon from a natural gas pipeline. Activated charcoal was used as collection media. Two methods were designed for collecting radon gas samples from onshore and offshore production sites. For onshore sites a continuous gas sampling method from the pipeline was developed. In case of offshore sites, a batch sampling method was designed. Gamma spectroscopy was utilized to determine the concentration of radon by analysis of radon daughters on the charcoal. (author)

  13. Czech studies of lung cancer and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there is a significant evidence to classify radon as a carcinogen. Using extrapolations from occupational studies, it can be shown that for some countries environmental exposure to radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer in the general population after cigarette smoking. Czech studies among uranium miners, established in 1970 by Josef Sevc, and in the general population aim to contribute to knowledge on the risk from radon, particularly by evaluating temporal factors and interaction of radon exposure and smoking

  14. Instruments to measure radon-222 activity concentration or exposure to radon-222. Intercomparison 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organisational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (EPTIS) and from the BfS websites.

  15. Modeling of indoor radon concentration from radon exhalation rates of building materials and validation through measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building materials are the second major source of indoor radon after soil. The contribution of building materials towards indoor radon depends upon the radium content and exhalation rates and can be used as a primary index for radon levels in the dwellings. The radon flux data from the building materials was used for calculation of the indoor radon concentrations and doses by many researchers using one and two dimensional model suggested by various researchers. In addition to radium content, the radon wall flux from a surface strongly depends upon the radon diffusion length (L) and thickness of the wall (2d). In the present work the indoor radon concentrations from the measured radon exhalation rate of building materials calculated using different models available in literature and validation of models was made through measurement. The variation in the predicted radon flux from different models was compared with d/L value for wall and roofs of different dwellings. The results showed that the radon concentrations predicted by models agree with experimental value. The applicability of different model with d/L ratio was discussed. The work aims to select a more appropriate and general model among available models in literature for the prediction of indoor radon. -- Highlights: • The measurement of indoor radon concentration was carried out by pin hole based dosimeter. • The indoor radon concentration was calculated from different model available in the literature. A comparison of wall flux from two different approaches was carried out for different d/L ratio. • A more appropriate model for prediction of indoor radon concentration was validated

  16. Environmental radon and thoron monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large two-filter type monitor (ERM-3) has been developed for measuring environmental levels of radon and thoron to within several picocuries per cubic meter. The inlet filters of the monitor remove daughter activity from the entering air stream but permit radon and thoron to pass. Daughter activity formed in the 0.9 m3 decay chamber is collected by the fixed exit filter. The alpha activity of the filter is detected with a zinc sulfide scintillator and a 12 cm phototube, counted with an automatic timer and scaler, and is printed out on a teletypewriter for predetermined counting intervals. The teletypewriter also punches a tape to provide computer-compatible readout

  17. Integral measurement system for radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integral measurement system for Radon is an equipment to detect, counting and storage data of alpha particles produced by Radon 222 which is emanated through the terrestrial peel surface. This equipment was designed in the Special Designs Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. It supplies information about the behavior at long time (41 days) on each type of alpha radiation that is present into the environment as well as into the terrestrial peel. The program is formed by an User program, where it is possible to determine the operation parameters of a portable probe that contains, a semiconductor detector, a microprocessor as a control central unit, a real time clock and calendar to determine the occurred events chronology, a non-volatile memory device for storage the acquired data and an interface to establish the serial communications with other personal computers. (Author)

  18. Radon in the drinking water in Bavaria; Radon in Trinkwasser in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Simone; Reifenhaeuser, Christiane [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Augsburg (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    The EU guideline on the requirements for the protection of the public concerning radioactive matter in water was approved in October 2013, including mandatory regulations for radon in drinking water. The guideline has to be implemented into national laws within two years. The contribution includes an overview on the radon situation in the Bavarian drinking and ground water. Increased radon concentrations are observed only in the north-eastern basement rocks. The contribution also describes facts that can influence the radon concentration in drinking and ground water. Recommendations and measures in case of increased radon concentrations are summarized for decision making support in public health departments and water treatment plants.

  19. Radon prevention coating in hot and humid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon prevention performance of a new self-made radon prevention coating was researched in the radon contamination provided by the releasing radon modules. With coating thickness of 0.8 mm, the radon mitigation efficiency in 1# radon module concentration is optimal when the addition of defoaming agent is 0.3% (mass fraction). The radon mitigation efficiency increases with the coating thickness when the defoaming agent of 0.3% is added, but the radon mitigation efficiency tends to be stable as the coating thickness is more than 2.0 mm. The radon mitigation efficiency of radon prevention coating appended precipitated barium sulphate decreases obviously, and the addition of ash calcium, white cement and gesso don't decrease radon mitigation efficiency. The addition of white cement and gesso addition affects the radon prevention stability, while radon mitigation efficiency of radon prevention coating with ash calcium keeps a good performance. Under the hot and humid environment, the radon prevention coating still has good radon mitigation efficiency in 2# radon module concentration. (authors)

  20. Radon Concentration Intercomparison in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Law on Ionizing Radiation Protection and on Nuclear Safety radioactivity testing in Serbia may be performed only by accredited laboratories. Accredited laboratories ought to participate in interlaboratory comparison or proficiency-testing programme for each accredited method. The participants in radon concentration intercomparison in 2012 in Serbia were three laboratories. The laboratories are practicing the same method for radon measurement using charcoal canisters US EPA protocol 520/5-87-005, 1987. The results of intercomparison were evaluated by using the u-test which was calculated according to the IAEA criteria. Measurements with u-score lower than or equal to 2.58 are considered acceptable. Eight canisters were exposed at two sites in Vinèa Institute, four canisters were used in each location simultaneously. Exposure times were between 2 and 3 days. Difference in masses before and after exposure was measured in order to perform the correction for humidity. Standard and background canisters are used for the calibration of the measurement equipment. Standard canister is a sealed canister with the same matrix and geometry as the canisters used for measurements, but with the known activity of radon. All eight charcoal canisters were measured in all three participating laboratories on HP Ge detectors. Each laboratory corrects the results with calibration factor and with adjustment factor obtained from canisters manufacturer. The activities of radon concentrations were calculated independently. From the comparison of the performance of these 3 laboratories, it can be seen that all of them had an excellent performance in this intercomparison, which indicates the stability of the performance of the analytical systems in these laboratories.(author)

  1. Radon risk in ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground workers are exposed to various clastogenic agents. One of these agents, radon, attracts attention of recent research as it causes lung cancer in the population occupationally exposed to its various concentrations especially in mine air of uranium mines or ore mines. This paper is a pilot study in which the numbers of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes of ore mines (Nizna Slana-iron ore, Hnusta-talc ore) located in east central Slovakia were followed and related to the lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. Seventy miners volunteering after an informed consent served as donors of venous blood. Twenty healthy pro-bands, age matched with the miners, which never worked underground (mostly clerks) served as donors of control blood samples. The exposure to radon and smoking has been estimated according to working-records and personal anamnesis. The findings unequivocally showed a small but statistically significant clastogenic effect of the exposure to underground environment of the mines concerned. This study has shown also a small but significant influence of smoking, which in the subgroup of miners working underground less than 1500 shifts may have acted synergically with the underground exposure. It was concluded tat: (1) Significantly higher counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 70 miners than in an age matched control group of 20 white-collar workers were found; (2) The higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; (3) The positive dependence of the number of chromosomal aberrations from the exposure to smoking was loose and it was expressed by significantly higher chromosomal aberrations counts in the group of miners working less than 1500 shifts underground; (4) A dependence of chromosomal aberrations counts from the exposure to radon could not be assessed. At relatively low numbers of pro-bands in subgroups it was not ruled out the confounding

  2. Radon in Norwegian mines 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon and radon doughters contrations in 19 Norwegian mines are now routinely performed by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (SIS). Passive integration radon dosimeters combining activated corbon and TLD (dosemeters developed at SIS) are used. These dosemeters that measure the mean concentration values over a certain time are managed by the protection departments of the mines. The dosemeters are sent by post to the mines, and the mines return them to SIS after irradiation for reading-off at the SIS laboratories. The Norwegian State Labour Supervision has established a concentration of 30 pCi/l (1100Bq/m3) as the limit for occupationals staying under the ground. If measured values approach this limit, SIS and State Labour Supervision will visit the mines for working out a survey for the need for remedial actions. The mean annual effective dose equivalent of Norwegian miners is appr. 7% of the ICRP limit. The value of the highest doses are appr. 35% of the ICRP limit. Remedial actions in three mines may be considered

  3. Screening measurements of radon concentration levels at a school using passive type radon monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured the indoor radon concentration in our school of about 100 rooms using passive type radon monitors. The type of distribution of the radon concentration followed the logarithmic normal type distribution. The average concentration was about 30 Bq/m3, and the geometric average of it was 21 Bq/m3, respectively. The place of highest concentration was the terminal room of the computer center. The radon concentration of that area was about 200 Bq/m3. The second highest place was a closed off shelving room of the school library. The radon concentration values depended on the type of window frames. In the room with aluminum sash window frames, the value was relatively high. We also measured the radon concentration in the bedrooms of students' homes. We asked about 200 students to measure radon concentration in their bedrooms using the same type of radon monitors for six months. The obtained radon concentration also followed logarithmic normal type distribution. The average concentration was 8.6 Bq/m3. The students' home towns are located throughout Ibaraki-prefecture. Using the data, we got an average radon concentration for each of the cities and towns. The average radon concentrations for inland cities and towns were relatively higher than seaside towns. This experiment was a good opportunity to show students the existence of natural radioisotopes in their surroundings. (author)

  4. Screening measurements of radon concentration levels at a school using passive type radon monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzawa, Takao; Soeta, Takayuki; Mori, Shinji [Ibaraki National Coll. of Technology, Hitachinaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    We measured the indoor radon concentration in our school of about 100 rooms using passive type radon monitors. The type of distribution of the radon concentration followed the logarithmic normal type distribution. The average concentration was about 30 Bq/m3, and the geometric average of it was 21 Bq/m3, respectively. The place of highest concentration was the terminal room of the computer center. The radon concentration of that area was about 200 Bq/m3. The second highest place was a closed off shelving room of the school library. The radon concentration values depended on the type of window frames. In the room with aluminum sash window frames, the value was relatively high. We also measured the radon concentration in the bedrooms of students` homes. We asked about 200 students to measure radon concentration in their bedrooms using the same type of radon monitors for six months. The obtained radon concentration also followed logarithmic normal type distribution. The average concentration was 8.6 Bq/m3. The students` home towns are located throughout Ibaraki-prefecture. Using the data, we got an average radon concentration for each of the cities and towns. The average radon concentrations for inland cities and towns were relatively higher than seaside towns. This experiment was a good opportunity to show students the existence of natural radioisotopes in their surroundings. (author).

  5. Radon and radon daughter measurements at and near the former Middlesex Sampling Plant, Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the radon and radon daughter measurements made to date (1978) at the Middlesex Sampling Plant in Middlesex, New Jersey, are presented in this report. These measurements were one portion of a more comprehensive radiological survey conducted at this site and the surrounding area from 1976 to 1978. The surveyed property served as a uranium ore sampling plant during the 1940's and early 1950's and as a result contains elevated levels of surface an subsurface contamination. On-site indoor radon daughter and radon concentrations exceeded both the US Surgeon General Guidelines and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's maximum permissible concentration limits for radon (10 CFR Part 20) in all structures surveyed. Off-site structures showed concentrations of radon and radon daughters at or only slightly above background levels, except for one site where the radon levels were found to be above the 10 CFR Part 20 guidelines. Outdoor radon ad radon daughter concentrations, measured both on and off the site, were well below the guidelines, and the data give no indication of significant radon transport from the site

  6. Indoor radon: controlling factors, definition of the radon potential and its geographical distribution over Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For the last years indoor radon concentrations have been measured in several thousand Austrian buildings in the framework of the Austrian national radon project (OENRAP). The measured 222Rn concentrations do not only depend on local conditions related to geology and soil permeability but also on the types of the building or the room in which the measurement has been performed, like floor level or window type. Therefore, in order to produce comparable results a standardized quantity, called radon potential, must be defined. Furthermore, in order to be able to interpolate the radon potential between measured points and to draw radon maps it is necessary to quantify its spatial behaviour, like regional tendencies and spatial correlations of the radon potential of locations separated by different distances. The poster discusses the factors which control the indoor radon concentration. Among the main factors are the level of the building in which the room under consideration is located and if the building has a basement; indicating its isolation against soil gas. The poster presents a definition of the radon potential and investigates its geographical distribution over the area of Austria. It turns out that, in spite of seemingly erratic fluctuations of the radon potential which can often be observed on a local scale, on a regional scale there is a significant, systematic spatial behaviour. The resulting radon potential map is presented as well as a radon risk map based on the technique of indicator kriging. (author)

  7. Instruments and methods for measuring indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public concern about unusually high indoor concentrations of radon in the northeastern US has greatly increased the demand for reliable, inexpensive, and portable instrumentation. Different types of information are needed to completely assess the problem of indoor radon, such as: concentrations of radon, sources and emanation and health effects. Measurement accuracy, convenience and cost also merit consideration. The techniques presently used to monitor radon and progeny are sufficiently developed to meet most of these requirements and objectives for the assessment of the radiation exposure of the general public. The types of instruments used for these measurements depend on whether one is interested in a broad-based screening survey of the indoor environment for radon, an investigation to characterize radon sources and pathways, or to help establish standards and guidelines and compliance criteria. Measurement of the airborne concentrations of radon and progeny is the most important step in estimating indoor exposure levels and in identifying a potential problem. Therefore, in this paper the authors will review and evaluate the major measurement techniques, i.e., prompt or grab sampling (active and passive). Emphasis will be placed on portable, low cost instruments, both passive and active, and on proper calibration methods in atmospheres in which radon and progeny are traceable to a primary National Bureau of Standards source. Also described for the determination of radon input into the indoor environment are techniques for measuring radon exhalation from building surfaces and the underlying soil, radon in water, and radium in the soil. 36 references, 3 tables

  8. Radon as an Anthropogenic Indoor Air Pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Crockett, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Radon is generally regarded as a naturally occurring radiological hazard but we report here measurements of significant, hazardous radon concentrations that arise from man-made sources, including granite ornaments/artefacts, uranium glass and glazed objects as well radium dial watches. This presentation concerns an examination and assessment of health risks from radium and uranium found in historical artefacts, many of which were once viewed as everyday items, and the radon that emanates from them. Such objects were very popular in industrialised countries such as the USA, UK and European countries) particularly between and including the two World Wars but are still readily available. A watch collection examined gave rise to a hazardous radon concentration of 13.24 kBq•m-3 approximately 67 times the Domestic Action Level of 200 Bq•m-3.The results for an aircraft altimeter are comparable to those of the watches, indicating radon activity equivalent to several watches, and also indicate an equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room ca. 33 times the UK domestic Action Level. Results from a granite block indicate a radon emanation of 19.7 Bq•kg-1, but the indicated equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room is only ca. 1.7% of the UK domestic Action Level. Uranium-glazed crockery and green uranium glass were scoped for radon activity. The former yielded a radon concentration of ca. 44 Bq•m-3 in a small (7 L) sealed container. The latter yielded a lower radon concentration in a larger (125 L) sealed container of ca. 6 Bq•m-3. This is barely above the background radon concentration in the laboratory, which was typically ca. 1-2 Bq•m-3. Individual items then are capable of giving rise to radon concentrations in excess of the UK Domestic Action Level in rooms in houses, particularly if poorly ventilated. We highlight the gap in the remediation protocols, which are focused on preventing radon entering buildings from outside, with regard to internally

  9. Radon removal system for indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of radon gas using dynamic adsorption onto charcoal has received attention previously, but the method has not been used in houses because of practical considerations: (1) If the radon were retained long enough to decay away, excessive quantities of charcoal would be required. In addition, the gamma radiation from the decay products of radon would require shielding. (2) If the charcoal were regenerated using current technology, heated air would be required to strip off the radon. This regeneration method would be costly due to the energy requirements; the use of heated indoor air for regeneration followed by exhausting this air to the outdoors, would also depressurize the basement, tending to increase the influx of radon gas. In the work described here, the radon gas in a house's basement airspace is adsorbed onto charcoal; the removal efficiency is independent of the radon concentration at levels found indoors. The charcoal is regenerated by stripping off the radon with unheated outdoor air. If two adsorbent beds are used, one adsorbs radon while the other regenerates. Thus, the device can operate continuously, approaching a pseudo steady-state. A laboratory-scale prototype of this adsorption/stripping system was tested in the laboratory using various charcoals and operating conditions, including extremes of seasonal temperatures and relative humidities. Neither temperature nor relative humidity had a detrimental effect on removal efficiency. Once-through removal efficiencies were as high as 98% after multiple adsorption and stripping cycles. The efficacy of a full-scale system was evaluated in a high-radon house. The radon concentration was reduced by as much as 90%; further field tests will be done soon

  10. Remedial measures to reduce radon concentrations in a house with high radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures to reduce radon concentrations have been studied in an old house in which the radon decay-product concentration initially exceeded 0.3 Working Level (WL). Some of the measures were only partially successful. Installation of a concrete floor, designed to prevent ingress of radon in soil gas, reduced the radon decay-product concentration below 0.1 WL, but radon continued to enter the house through pores in an internal wall of primitive construction that descended to the foundations. Radon flow was driven by the small pressure difference between indoor air and soil gas. An under-floor suction system effected a satisfactory remedy and maintained the concentration of radon decay products below 0.03 WL

  11. Solar eruptions - soil radon - earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time a new natural phenomenon was established: a contrasting increase in the soil radon level under the influence of solar flares. Such an increase is one of geochemical indicators of earthquakes. Most researchers consider this a phenomenon of exclusively terrestrial processes. Investigations regarding the link of earthquakes to solar activity carried out during the last decade in different countries are based on the analysis of statistical data ΣΕ (t) and W (t). As established, the overall seismicity of the Earth and its separate regions depends of an 11-year long cycle of solar activity. Data provided in the paper based on experimental studies serve the first step on the way of experimental data on revealing cause-and-reason solar-terrestrials bonds in a series solar eruption-lithosphere radon-earthquakes. They need further collection of experimental data. For the first time, through radon constituent of terrestrial radiation objectification has been made of elementary lattice of the Hartmann's network contoured out by bio location method. As found out, radon concentration variations in Hartmann's network nodes determine the dynamics of solar-terrestrial relationships. Of the three types of rapidly running processes conditioned by solar-terrestrial bonds earthquakes are attributed to rapidly running destructive processes that occur in the most intense way at the juncture of tectonic massifs, along transformed and deep failures. The basic factors provoking the earthquakes are both magnetic-structural effects and a long-term (over 5 months) bombing of the surface of lithosphere by highly energetic particles of corpuscular solar flows, this being approved by photometry. As a result of solar flares that occurred from 29 October to 4 November 2003, a sharply contrasting increase in soil radon was established which is an earthquake indicator on the territory of Yerevan City. A month and a half later, earthquakes occurred in San-Francisco, Iran, Turkey

  12. Radon awareness in Ireland: a assessment of the effectiveness of radon road shows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In late 2004 the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) initiated a series of radon road shows in areas designated as High Radon Areas 1 in the R.P.I.I. s national radon survey of homes. The main objective of these road shows was to provide information to a local audience on the risks of exposure to radon. These road shows target both employers and householders. Each road show has the same general format. A presentation and/or meeting with a major employer representative group within the area. The purpose is to make employers aware of the risks associated with exposure to radon in the workplace and to highlight their obligations under current Irish health and safety legislation regarding radon in the workplace. An information stand on radon manned by R.P.I.I. staff members in a local shopping centre or other similar area. This provides those concerned about radon with accessible information on radon exposure risks, how to measure radon and the steps a home owner could take to reduce radon concentrations where necessary. Where possible R.P.I.I. staff members visit one or more schools in the general area. A short presentation on radon was given to students and students were given an opportunity to asks questions Maximizing media exposure to publicize our visits is vital to the success of these visits. Each visit is preceded by a Press Release whose main aim is to brief local and national media on the radon issue so as to achieve maximum publicity mainly through radio and television coverage. In general the media are very interested in the whole radon area and R.P.I.I. staff members have given 57 radio and 10 television interviews to date since the commencement of this initiative. The four road shows carried out to date have been successful in encouraging householders to carry out radon measurements. Since the start of the road shows to the present, the R.P.I.I. has seen a 44% increase in the number of householders requesting radon

  13. Development of a radon chamber and measurement of the radon solubility in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every year thousands of patients with inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system undergo radon therapy, but the molecular mechanism and the risk of this therapy are not understood. To study the effects of radon exposure in vitro and in vivo we constructed a radon exposure chamber in the framework of the GREWIS project. With this device we are able to expose samples under controlled and reproducible conditions including the radon galleries in Austria and Germany. Adjustable parameters are radon activity-concentration, temperature, humidity and exposure time. These parameters are permanently monitored and controlled. During experiments with cell cultures it is also possible to adjust the CO2-concentration. In addition, experiments with mice can be performed with this setup. To measure the radon kinetics in different types of tissue we exposed tissue samples like fat or muscle and mice in the radonchamber. Afterwards we measured the -spectra of the short living radon decay products lead-214 and bismuth-214 in the exposed samples with a HPGe-Detector. We recorded the spectra at different time points after exposure and calculated the initial amount of radon at the end of the exposure period in the sample and investigated the diffusion of the radon out of it. We compared the results from different types of tissue but also activated coal. In an activated coal sample the radon is bound to it via Van-der-Waals-force and the decay spectra are governed by the life time of the bound radon (3,8 days). In contrast in the biological samples the primary radon diffuses out of the samples in less than 20 minutes and the spectra follow the kinetics of the decay of the daughter products. These measurements where performed for the first time under therapy conditions like in radon galleries and also with higher radon concentration. In our experiments we could see an enhanced accumulation of radon and its decay products in fatty tissue compared to muscle tissue. Also in tendon

  14. Methods of radon remediation in Finnish dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of remedial measures taken in dwellings with high indoor radon concentrations and the results obtained. The data regarding the remedial measures taken in 400 dwellings was obtained from a questionnaire study. The mean annual average indoor radon concentration before the remedies was 1.500 Bq/m3, the concentration exceeding in nearly every house the action level of 400 Bq/m3. After the measures were taken the mean indoor radon concentration was 500 Bq/m3. The resulting indoor radon concentration was less than 400 Bq/m3 in 60 percent of the dwellings. The best results were achieved using sub-slab-suction and radon well. These methods effectively decrease both the flow of radon bearing air from soil into dwellings and the radon concentration of leakage air. Typical reduction rates in radon concentration were 70-95 percent. The action level was achieved in more than 70 percent of the houses. Sealing the entry routes and improvement of the ventilation resulted typically in reduction rates of 10-50 percent. The goal of the report is to give useful information for the house owners, the do-it-yourself-mitigators, the mitigation firms and the local authorities. The report includes practical guidance, price information and examples of remedial measures. (13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.)

  15. Radon diagnostics and tracer gas measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outline is presented of the tracer gas technique, which is used for continuous measurements of air ventilation rate (generally time-varying) and for simultaneous estimation of air ventilation rate and radon entry rate, and some of its limitations are discussed. The performance of this technique in the calculation of the air ventilation rate is demonstrated on real data from routine measurements. The potential for air ventilation rate estimation based on radon measurements only is discussed. A practical application is described of the tracer gas technique to a simultaneous estimation of the air ventilation rate and radon entry rate in a real house where the effectiveness of radon remedy was tested. The following main advantages of the CO tracer gas techniques are stressed: (i) The averaging method continuous determination of the ventilation rate with good accuracy (≤ 20 %). (ii) The newly presented and verified method based on simultaneous measurements of radon concentration and CO gas concentration enables separate continuous measurements of the radon entry rate and ventilation rate. The results of comparative measurements performed with the aim to estimate the inaccuracy in determination of radon entry rate showed acceptable and good agreement up to approximately 10 %. The results of comparative measurements performed with the aim to estimate the mutual commensuration of the method to the determination of the ventilation rate confirmed the expected unreliability the two parametric non-linear regression method, which is the most frequently used method in radon diagnostic in the Czech Republic

  16. Systematic radon survey over active volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate

  17. Radon Risk Communication Strategies: A Regional Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    Risk communication on the health effects of radon encounters many challenges and requires a variety of risk communication strategies and approaches. The concern over radon exposure and its health effects may vary according to people's level of knowledge and receptivity. Homeowners in radon-prone areas are usually more informed and have greater concern over those not living in radon-prone areas. The latter group is often found to be resistant to testing. In British Columbia as well as many other parts of the country, some homes have been lying outside of the radon-prone areas have radon levels above the Canadian guideline, which is the reason Health Canada recommends that all homes should be tested. Over the last five years, the Environment Health Program (EHP) of Health Canada in the British Columbia region has been using a variety of different approaches in their radon risk communications through social media, workshops, webinars, public forums, poster contests, radon distribution maps, public inquiries, tradeshows and conference events, and partnership with different jurisdictions and nongovernmental organizations. The valuable lessons learned from these approaches are discussed in this special report. PMID:26867298

  18. Quantitative framework for assessing indoor radon policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon gas in the indoor environment is recognized as a problem of considerable magnitude; likely responsible for 5,000 to 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year in the United States (Cohen, 1978; Nero, 1986). Radon is an inert, radioactive element in the decay chain or uranium-238 which occurs ubiquitously in soil and rock. Radon emanating from the ground enters houses through cracks and porous building materials in the substructure. Depending on characteristics of the housing design, construction and ventilation practices, dangerously high concentrations can result. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken a lead role in addressing the indoor radon problem. Their strategy is to work with the States and the private sector to characterize the extent of exposure in problem areas and identify alternative actions to reduce health risks. Since radon poses a risk that occurs in private homes, the responsibility for testing and remediation lies largely with the homeowner. This paper presents a quantitative framework to analyze indoor radon policy on a regional scale. A model is developed which describes regional radon risk reduction in terms of the percentage of homeowners in the region who decide to monitor their homes, the likelihood of homeowners taking alternative remedial actions, and the effectiveness of remediation methods in lowering radon concentrations. Different government policies are analyzed in terms of their potential effect on model parameters and resulting risk reductions

  19. Development of a portable radon progeny monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important nuclides in the radon family contributing to the effective dose are the members of the radon short-life progeny, 218Po and 214Po and direct measurement of these progenies is suitable for dosimetry. Survey of the radon progeny concentrations in a number of dwellings and offices is very difficult because we have no convenient instrument for the measurement. At present, radon dosimetry is carried out based on the concentration of the parent radon itself. Therefore, for accurate estimation of public or personal effective dose, it is necessary to develop a facile and portable radon progeny monitor. In this study, a portable radon progeny monitor (PRPM) was designed and developed to automatically estimate the individual progeny concentration in the natural environment. The properties of PRPM were investigated. The dimensions of the entire instrument were 65 x 145 x 170 mm and the total weight was 780 g. The portability of PRPM was much superior to the conventional instrument. The PRPM can operate automatically to estimate individual progeny concentration. All component materials of the monitor were selected based on the data of specified performance, cost performance and availability bon the market. The concentration of individual radon progeny was estimated by the build-up decay. It was concluded that PRPM is much suitable for outdoor study and personal dose estimation, as well as indoor measurement. In the field survey, especially in mines and caverns, PRPM is found as a valuable and convenient instrument. (M.N.)

  20. Locating and limiting radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 3,300 Swedish dwellings have an indoor radon daughter concentration above 400 Bq.m-3 (or 0.108 WL). It is considered to be unsafe to live in any of these dwellings and the radon daughter concentration has to be reduced. Before deciding what measures to take, it is important to determine the radon sources. Possible sources are exhalation from building materials and/or radon transport from the ground into the building through cracks and joints in the slab. Different methods of locating the sources have been developed. To locate cracks and joints in slabs the ventilation rate and the air pressure difference relative to the ground are changed while monitoring radon/radon daughter concentration. The effect of five different measures to reduce the indoor radon daughter concentration have also been evaluated: increased ventilation rate by mechanical ventilation, ventilation of the small spaces between the floor and the slab, sealing the surface of radon exhaling walls, sealing joints and cracks in the slab, and ventilation of the drainage under the slab. (author)

  1. Radon risk evaluation of building ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A screening of radon concentrations in houses of two quarters in the south of Dresden showed that in first floor dwellings the reference value of 250 Bq/m3 was exceeded in 10% and 30% of the cases, respectively, with maximum values of 5300 and 6300 Bq/m3, respectively. By instruction of the municipality of Dresden, department of environmental protection, investigations were carried out for predicting the radon risk of any building site inside the town's area. By evaluating of measured concentrations of radium 226 in soils and in bedrocks as well as radon in the soil air, by evaluating of geologic data and maps and by modelling based on geologic data the town's area of Dresden could be classified in areas of negligible, normal high and very high radon risk and in a radon risk area caused by former mining and burning of uranium contaminated pitch coal. On the basis of measured or calculated data on radium and radon concentrations, air permebailities of soils, effectiv migration length of radon in soils and soil thickness between the slab and the underlying bedrock a method was recommended for evaluating the radon risk of a given building ground. (orig.)

  2. Systematic radon survey over active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Garcia Vindas, J.R. [Centre National de la Recherche Cientifique, Montpellier (France). Lab. GBE; Ricard, L.P.; Staudacher, T. [Observatoire Volcanologique Du Pitou de la Fournaise, La Plaine des Cafres (France)

    1999-08-01

    Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate.

  3. Atmospheric radon families and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Committee on Investigation and Research Regarding the Effect of Radon in the Atmosphere Exerted on Environmental Radioactivity was organized, in 1982, in order to carry out the research and discussion on radon and joint observation. As the results, the following facts were revealed: (1) the effectiveness of various methods of measuring environmental radon and its daughters, for example, Track Etch Detectors for the deposition rate of airborne radon daughters, (2) the analysis of radon family concentration from the viewpoint of geophysical phenomena, for instance, the relationships among the concentration, wind speed, solar radiation, net radiation, atmospheric stability, precipitation snow cover, and diffusion equation. And it was also reveleaed that the exhalation rate of radon at Siberia in winter is not low in spite of low temperature, and that the scavenging effect of snowfall to radon daughters is large, from the comparison between the atmospheric radon daughters concentrations at the Japan Sea and at Fukui located at north part of Central Japan. (J.P.N.)

  4. Characterization of radon levels in indoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the different types of monitoring and sampling techniques that can determine the radiation burden of the general public from radon and its decay products. This is accomplished by measuring the range and distribution of radon and radon decay products through broad surveys using simple and convenient integrating monitoring instruments. For in-depth studies of the behavior of radon decay products and calculation of the radiation dose to the lung, fewer and more intensive and complex measurements of the particle size distribution and respiratory deposition of the radon decay products are required. For diagnostic purposes, the paper describes measurement techniques of the sources and exhalation rate of radon and the air exchange inside buildings. Measurement results form several studies conducted in ordinary buildings in different geographical areas of the United States, using the described monitoring techniques, indicate that the occupants of these buildings are exposed to radon and radon decay product concentrations, varying by as much as a factor of 20.

  5. Radon measurements in mines and dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements using a time integrating passive radon dosemeter (MAKROFOL track etch detector) have been performed in Brazilian and German mines and dwellings. The present state of the measurement technique is summarized. The results are presented together with exposure calculations and dose estimations for occupational exposure in open pit and underground mines and for the general public in houses. (orig./HP)

  6. Radon concentration in thermal waters of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon content in thermal waters of Venezuela has been measured, and a method for carrying out serial measurements has been developed. Besides radon, the thorium and radium content has also been measured. Drinking water sources in the area of Caracas has also been measured. (K.A.)

  7. Radon makes trouble between expert committees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article highlights the disagreement between 2 scientific commissions about the maximal acceptable concentration of radon. 1000 or 400 becquerels for each cubic-meter of air (Bq/m3). Information about the average concentration of radon in the different French departments is given by means of a map. (A.C.)

  8. Sources and protective measures of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the relative contribution to indoor radon 222Rn of various sources in twenty three rooms of three kinds in Taiyuan area. The results show that the major sources in this area are radon emanation from surfaces of soil and building materials and that from outdoor air, while the contribution of water and gas consumed in the rooms is less important. These results suggest a basis for taking suitable protective measures against indoor radon. Some materials are also recommended which are effective in restraining radon exhalation and low in price, by testing more than ten kinds of materials and comparing them using cost-effectiveness analysis technique, such as painting materials, polyvinyl alcohol (CH2:CHOH)n, etc. Their sealing effects on radon exhalation were examined with home-made REM-89 Radon Exhalation Monitor. The deposition effects of negative ion generator and humidifier on radon progeny were also tested. The maximum deposition may reach 70-90%, which proves they are also effective and economical in radon protection. (2 tabs., 3 figs.)

  9. Nuclear literacy in light of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1992 the RAD Lauder Laboratory has carried out a survey of indoor radon levels all over Hungary. The co-workers of RAD Lauder were pupils and teachers in local schools. More than 50,000 people have taken the survey and received detailed information on the radon levels in their homes. (authors)

  10. A complete low cost radon detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring the 222Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. - Author-Highlights: • Low cost radon detection. • Integrated GSM modem for early warning of radon anomalies. • Radon detection in environment

  11. Removal of Radon from Household Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    By far, the greatest risk to health from radon occurs when the gas enters the house from underlying soil and is inhaled. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying ways to reduce radon in houses, including methods to remove the gas from water to prevent its release in houses when the water is used. While this research has not…

  12. Radon Measurements in Schools: An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation Programs.

    Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in soil, rocks, underground water, and air. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other scientific organizations have identified an increased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes. Schools in many…

  13. Radon Measurement in Schools. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other major national and international scientific organizations have concluded that radon is a human carcinogen and a serious environmental health problem. The EPA has conducted extensive research on the presence and measurement of radon in schools. This report provides school administrators and…

  14. Radon Reduction Methods: A Homeowner's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying the effectiveness of various ways to reduce high concentrations of radon in houses. This booklet was produced to share what has been learned with those whose radon problems demand immediate action. The booklet describes nine methods that have been tested successfully--by EPA and/or other…

  15. Effects of radon in indoor air studied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is an odorless, tasteless and colourless radioactive noble gas that enters indoor air from the ground. Radon causes lung cancer. A committee set up to evaluate the health risks of chemical substances has been drafting a report on radon, which will compile the major research findings on the lung cancer risk posed by radon. Animal tests have shown that even small doses of radon can cause lung cancer. Smokers seem to contract radon-induced lung cancer more readily than non-smokers. Because research findings have been conflicting, however, it is not known exactly how high the risk of lung cancer caused by indoor radon exposure really is. Several major research projects are under way to obtain increasingly accurate risk assessments. An on-going European joint project brings together several studies - some already finished, some still being worked on. In this way it will be possible to get more accurate risk assessments than from individual studies. In order to prevent lung cancer, it is important to continue the work of determining and reducing radon connects and to combat smoking. (orig.)

  16. Drinking-water criteria document for radon (draft). Scientific review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Radon. The document is an extensive review of radon on the following topics: Physical and chemical properties; Toxicokinetics and human exposure; Health effects of radon; Mechanisms of toxicity of radon; Quantification of toxicological effects

  17. Determination of radon prone areas by optimized binary classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geogenic radon prone areas are regions in which for natural reasons elevated indoor radon concentrations must be expected. Their identification is part of radon mitigation policies in many countries, as radon is acknowledged a major indoor air pollutant, being the second cause of lung cancer after smoking. Defining and estimating radon prone areas is therefore of high practical interest. In this paper a method is presented which uses the geogenic radon potential as predictor and thresholds of indoor radon concentration for defining radon prone areas, from which thresholds for the geogenic radon potential are deduced which decide whether a location is flagged radon prone or not, in the absence of actual indoor observations. The overall results are different maps of radon prone areas, derived from the geogenic radon map, and depending (1) on the criterion which defines what a radon prone area is; and (2) on the choice of score whose maximization defines the optimal classifier. Such map is not the result of a transfer model (geogenic to indoor radon), but of the optimization of a classification rule. The method is computationally simple but has its caveats and statistical traps, some of which are also addressed. - Highlights: • A classification-based method for estimating radon prone areas. • Geogenic radon potential as predictor. • Optimization of ROC graphs

  18. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels. PMID:26335172

  19. Radon risk perception and testing: Sociodemographic correlates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While numerous health education campaigns have been carried out to alert the public to radon's potential dangers and to encourage testing and mitigation, there has been little follow-up to determine which segments of the public are now most aware of the possible hazards of radon. Using information from the 1990 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the authors have examined beliefs regarding radon and radon-testing activities among different sociodemographic groups. They used logistic regression to determine the relationship between these beliefs and actions and age, gender, education, income, minority status, and smoking status. The results suggest relatively superficial knowledge regarding radon, and very little testing, within the survey population. In particular, significantly less knowledge was observed among female and minority respondents, while less testing behavior was seen among older respondents. Lower educational levels and lower family income were associated with both decreased knowledge and testing. Recommendations for future education campaigns are discussed

  20. Indoor radon risk potential of Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive evaluation of radon risk potential in the State of Hawaii indicates that the potential for Hawaii is low. Using a combination of factors including geology, soils, source-rock type, soil-gas radon concentrations, and indoor measurements throughout the state, a general model was developed that permits prediction for various regions in Hawaii. For the nearly 3,100 counties in the coterminous U.S., National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) aerorad data was the primary input factor. However, NURE aerorad data was not collected in Hawaii, therefore, this study used geology and soil type as the primary and secondary components of potential prediction. Although the radon potential of some Hawaiian soils suggests moderate risk, most houses are built above ground level and the radon soil potential is effectively decoupled from the house. Only underground facilities or those with closed or recirculating ventilation systems might have elevated radon potential. (author)

  1. EPA's approach to assessment of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency has assessed the potential lung cancer risk to the general population due to radon based on the Agency's general principles of risk assessment. This is the same approach that has been used to assess the impact on public health of other carcinogenic environmental pollutants. This paper describes the application of this approach to radon. This paper includes a description of the method used by the Agency to estimate that 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year may be related to radon exposure. Also presented are the weight-of-evidence for classifying radon as a known human carcinogen and the uncertainties associated with estimating risks from radon exposure. These reflect the extent of the underlying support and context for these estimates

  2. Radon: implications for the health professional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is a colorless, odorless gas formed by radioactive decay of radium and uranium, which are naturally present in the earth's crust. When concentrated indoors, this invisible gas becomes a potential health hazard. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that up to 20,000 lung cancer deaths annually can be attributed to prolonged radon exposure. Radon is an important health issue that should be understood by all health care professionals. This paper discusses some of the important issues regarding radon, such as the incidences of lung cancer believed to be attributable to radon, the high-risk areas in the United States, federal safety guidelines, and public apathy. These issues and their impact on the health care required by professionals, especially nurse practitioners, are discussed

  3. How well do radon mitigation strategies work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radon in homes can't be completely avoided, but it can be minimized. Indoor air quality researchers compared results of six popular ways to mitigate radon in houses in the Spokane River Valley and New Jersey. Over the course of the past decade, Americans have become aware of the health hazards from radon, a naturally occurring gas that can enter a home through a variety of pathways from the surrounding terrain. Recent research carried out at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and elsewhere suggests that radon mitigation is feasible but requires long-term monitoring to ensure lasting effectiveness. These studies compare the selection, installation, and performance evaluations of several common radon mitigation strategies

  4. United Kingdom radon programme: policy and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Kingdom is pursuing a substantial and evolving programme towards minimising the problem of high radon levels in homes. Work focuses on those areas of the country which early surveys have shown to have a significant proportion of affected homes, and involves cooperation between central and local Government, research institutions and private companies. Elements of the programme include: radon measurements on demand from householders in areas of potentially high radon and systematic surveys to refine knowledge of these areas; research into geological, epidemiological, psychological and financial aspects of the problem; the development and dissemination of advice on remedial and preventive measures; and a comprehensive approach to communication with all parties involved in issues of domestic exposure to radon. An account of progress is given, and future options are outlined towards fulfilling the Government's intention that substantial progress towards dealing with the impact of radon should be made by the close of the century. (author)

  5. Radon risk map of the city Brno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data of radon risk mapping of the city Brno area from 1992 to 1999 were collected from databases of six private companies measuring radon risk there. The data sets are completed now. The first results are presented in this paper. In the city Brno area only low (385 measured sites) and medium (300) radon risk categories were found. The largest number of measured areas were situated in places with loess and loess loam (total quantity 344 sites, with medium radon risk category 158 sites), recent fluvial sediments (64, 32) and anthropogenous deposits (61, 23). High values of radon volume activity in soil gas were found predominantly in Quaternary sediments and in granodiorite, type Veverska Bityska, low values in leucotonalite and metabasalt. (author)

  6. Radon therapy in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Soviet Union approximately one million courses of radon treatment each lasting three weeks are prescribed every year. The curative application of radon used for cardiovascular diseases, including aftercare in cases of cardiac infarction, disorders of the locomotor system and joints and muscles, the male and female sexual system, diseases of the nervous system, endocrinology and metabolic diseases. Contraindication practice is similar to that in Central Europe. Radon is given to skin stimulation by wet and above all dry baths. The radiation exposure of patients from these three-week radon treatments is relatively low. The radon effect is interpreted as 'radiation flash' stimulating the nervous system. The skin plays a particular role in this process, acting as the stimulus acceptor. (orig./MG)

  7. Radon in houses and soil of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term indoor radon measurements in thousand Croatian homes, randomly selected, were performed by the LR-115 track etch detectors during a year 2003/2004. The obtained values of arithmetic means of radon concentrations in 20 Croatian counties were in range from 33 to 198 Bq/m3, while the arithmetic and geometric means for Croatia were 68 and 50 Bq/m3, respectively. Indoor radon concentrations follow log-normal distribution and the percentage of dwellings with concentrations above 400 Bq/m3 was 1.8 %. Radon concentrations in soil gas, at depth of 0.8 m, were measured by 'Alphaguard' measuring system. Association between levels of indoor and soil radon was investigated. (authors)

  8. Indoor radon survey in the Vojvodina region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an indoor radon survey in the Vojvodina region (Serbia) are presented. Long-term average radon measurements in an existing building can be measured relatively simply and inexpensively using a passive device, such as an alpha track detector. Houses in the suburbs were chosen as the target locations of the present investigations. Indoor radon concentrations were measured with CR-39 alpha track detectors at ∼1000 locations in Vojvodina during the winter period. Effect of floor level, space under the rooms, boarding and the heating system on radon accumulation are discussed in this paper. For the dwellings typical of such regions, we measure a mean annual radon activity concentration of 112 Bq/m3 (747 measurements using the alpha track detector CR-39). (authors)

  9. Radon emanation and control in Chinese underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of radon and the characteristics of radon emanation in uranium mines in China are discussed. Particular attention is directed to radon emanation that results from transport by air percolation (radon percolation for short), which exists widely in uranium mines. The emanation mechanism and the factors that influence radon percolation are considered and some relationships between percolation and ventilation based on test data are presented. The relationships demonstrate that ventilation not only dilutes the radon but also has the ability to control the rate of emanation. These findings have been reviewed, the principles and methods of radon control by ventilation are developed. (author)

  10. Fluid-based radon mitigation technology development for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the radon mitigation technology development effort is to develop an efficient and economical radon gas removal technology based on a fluid absorption process. The technology must be capable of cleaning up a wide range of radon gas stream concentrations to a level that meets EPA gas emission standards for residential and industrial applications. Argonne has recently identified a phenomenon that offers the possibility of radon recovery from the atmosphere with high efficiency at room temperature, and radon release at slightly elevated temperatures (50-60 degrees C.) such a device would offer numerous substantial advantages over conventional cryogenic charcoal systems for the removal of radon. Controlled sources of radon in Argonne's radon research facility are being used to quantitatively assess the performance of a selected class of absorbing fluids over a range of radon concentrations. This paper will discuss the design of laboratory- and engineering-scale radon absorption units and present some preliminary experimental test results

  11. Indoor radon and lung cancer in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon has long been known to contribute to risk of lung cancer, especially in undergound miners who are exposed to large amounts of the carcinogen. Recently, however, lower amounts of radon present in living areas have been suggested as an important cause of lung cancer. In an effort to clarify the relationship of low amounts of radon with lung cancer risk, we placed alpha-track radon detectors in the homes of 308 women with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 356 randomly selected female control subjects of similar age. Measurements were taken after 1 year. All study participants were part of the general population of Shenyang, People's Republic of China, an industrial city in the northeast part of the country that has one of the world's highest rates of lung cancer in women. The median time of residence in the homes was 24 years. The median household radon level was 2.3 pCi/L of air; 20% of the levels were greater than 4 pCi/L. Radon levels tended to be higher in single-story houses or on the first floor of multiple-story dwellings, and they were also higher in houses with increased levels of indoor air pollution from coal-burning stoves. However, the levels were not higher in homes of women who developed lung cancer than in homes of controls, nor did lung cancer risk increase with increasing radon level. No association between radon and lung cancer was observed regardless of cigarette-smoking status, except for a nonsignificant trend among heavy smokers. No positive associations of lung cancer cell type with radon were observed, except for a nonsignificant excess risk of small cell cancers among the more heavily exposed residents. Our data suggest that projections from surveys of miners exposed to high radon levels may have overestimated the overall risks of lung cancer associated with levels typically seen in homes in this Chinese city

  12. The use of track registration detectors to reconstruct contemporary and historical airborne radon (222Rn) and radon progeny concentrations for a radon-lung cancer epidemiologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies that investigate the relationship between radon and lung cancer require accurate estimates for the long-term average concentrations of radon progeny in dwellings. Year-to-year and home-to-home variations of radon in domestic environments pose serious difficulties for reconstructing an individual's long-term radon-related exposure. The use of contemporary radon gas concentrations as a surrogate for radon-related dose introduces additional uncertainty in dose assessment. Studies of glass exposed in radon chambers and in a home show that radon progeny deposited on, and implanted in, glass hold promise for reconstructing past radon concentrations in a variety of atmospheres. We developed an inexpensive track registration detector for the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study (IRLCS) that simultaneously measures contemporary airborne radon concentrations, surface deposited alpha activity density, and implanted 210Po activity density. The implanted activity is used to reconstruct the cumulative radon and radon progeny exposure from the age of the glass and the ratios of the contemporary deposited activities to airborne radon gas activity. We placed over 2500 of these detectors in more than 1000 homes and retrieved 97% of them after a one-year exposure period. A preliminary analysis of the 1280 detectors that have undergone quality assurance review shows that the modules are meeting their accuracy and precision goals (10%). There is good correlation (r2∼0.5) between the total radon exposure estimated from contemporary radon gas measurements and historical average reconstructed from the implanted 210Po surface activity. The linear regression slope of the airborne radon exposure to implanted activity is the same as the room model slope based on typical room parameters. This correlation improves (r2∼0.7) when the deposited surface activity measurements are added to the linear regression. Thus, track-registration detectors can contribute to accurate radon

  13. A comparison of contemporary and retrospective radon gas measurements in high radon dwellings in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little correlations has been found between contemporary radon gas measurements made in the past and retrospective radon gas measurements in Irish dwellings. This would suggest that these two techniques would result in two significantly different cumulative radon exposure estimates. Contemporary radon gas measurements made a few years apart in the same room of a dwelling were found to be significantly different. None of these differences could be explained by known changes to the rooms themselves., such ventilation or structural alterations to the room. This highlights the limitations of the contemporary radon gas measurements as a surrogate measurement for use in residential radon epidemiology. The contemporary radon gas measurements made by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) and University College of Dublin (U.C.D.) do not cover the same exposure period as the retrospective estimates and so the accuracy of the retrospective measurements cannot be demonstrated. A weak correlation can be seen between the retrospective radon gas estimates and a combination of the two contemporary radon gas estimates. It is not unreasonable to expect improvement in the correlation if further contemporary radon gas measurements were made in these rooms. (N.C.)

  14. Third workshop on radon and radon daughters in urban communities associated with uranium mining and processing. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This third meeting of Atomic Energy Control Board staff, contractors, federal and provincial government representatives, and delegates from outside Canada was held to discuss progress in reducing concentrations of radon and radon daughters in houses. Speakers talked about successful and unsuccessful remedial measures, methods of measuring and monitoring thoron and radon in houses, and indoor radon concentrations in Canada, Britain and Sweden

  15. Quality assurance and quality control in the radon measurement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the release of survey results by the consumer advocacy group BUYERS-UP, QA/QC has bee the buzz word among everyone involved with Radon/Radon Decay Product measurement. This paper presents a discussion in generality of the roles of Quality Assurance and Quality Control in the Radon Measurement Industry, the strengths and weaknesses of QA/QC in radon measurement and the significance of research in QA/QC for radon measurement

  16. Radon potential, geologic formations, and lung cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Yevgeniya Gokun; William M. Andrews Jr.; Bethany L. Overfield; Heather Robertson; Amanda Wiggins; Mary Kay Rayens

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to radon is associated with approximately 10% of U.S. lung cancer cases. Geologic rock units have varying concentrations of uranium, producing fluctuating amounts of radon. This exploratory study examined the spatial and statistical associations between radon values and geological formations to illustrate potential population-level lung cancer risk from radon exposure. Method: This was a secondary data analysis of observed radon values collected in 1987 from homes (N = ...

  17. Efficiency Analysis and Comparison of Different Radon Progeny Measurement Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Abdumomin Kadir; Lei Zhang; Qiuju Guo; Juncheng Liang

    2013-01-01

    Radon exposure to the public contributes more than half of all the radiation doses caused by natural radiation; accurate measurement of radon progeny is quite essential for the dose evaluation of radon exposure in environment. For the purpose of establishing a radon progeny standard and controlling measurement quality of commercial devices, it is quite important to analyze the efficiency of different measurement methods and determine which would be the most appropriate for radon progeny measu...

  18. The radon in the environment of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper presents the main aspects related to the problem of radon, a concern approached with great interest in the last 10-15 years by the scientific community. Though one of the first radioactive elements discovered and despite its implication in the irradiation of exposed population (especially the proof that most cases of lung cancer among workers in uranium mines are caused by radon), only lately have radon been studied intensively. As an element with great mobility, impossibly to be fixed through chemical reactions, and, on the other hand, being perpetually generated by radium sources in soil and building materials, radon is ubiquitous, therefore it is desirable to know more about one of the elements inextricably linked to our life. Radon in dwellings requires special attention because both individual and collective doses owing to radon and its descendants are higher than those deriving from any other sources. People spend more than eighty per cent of their time indoors, and more than fifty per cent of their irradiation from different sources is caused by radon. In many countries there are individual doses much higher than those accepted in professional exposure, as it is the case for certain regions in ex - Eastern Germany, where uranium mining led up to an extreme high level of radon in dwellings. Besides its major contribution to exposure to radiation, very important is the fact than its target is very precise - the lungs, especially the bronchial epithelium. There is therefore an increased risk of lung cancer occurrence, assumed to be proportional with the exposure to higher concentrations in dwellings. A number of on-going studies try to estimate the risk factors. It was shown that radon is the second risk factor after smoking. The exposure to radon in such cases should be amended through interventions and modifications of the dwellings and inhabitants' behavior. The International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICPR) recommended certain

  19. Measurements of radon in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: After the decades of systematic and numerous studies performed at different countries of the World, it has been concluded that radon as well as its progeny is the main cause of lung cancer. It is well known that more than 50% of the effective annual radiation dose received by a human being is related to the radon and its progenies. Among the principle mechanisms that bring the radon inside the dwelling is the soil exhalation as well as exhalation and release from the water. Radon concentration in the soil and its transport (emanation, diffusion, advection and adsorption) to the surface depends on different physical, geological and ambient parameters such as the geology of the area, geochemical composition of the soil, its porosity and permeability, grain size, soil humidity, bottom sediments and inputs from streams, temperature, atmospheric pressure, etc. Since the main part of indoor radon originates in the soil, the measurements of radon concentration in soil gas have to be considered as an important tool and indicator of probable high levels of radon inside the dwellings. Present work describes the radon in soil gas measurements performed during the last two years in cooperation between the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) and the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) from the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Following previously concluded measurements of radon concentration in dwellings and the measurements of 222Rn activity in drinking water collected at artesian bores of Curitiba urban area, present step of activities has been dedicated to measurements of radon concentration in soil gas. Experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (ALPHA GUARD) connected to specially developed for such measurements Soil Gas Probe through the air pump and filter system. The equipment was adjusted with air flow of 0.03 L

  20. Radon in coal power plant areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, the radioactive colourless and inodorous noble gas, represents more than 55% of the natural average radioactivity. It is permanently released from the soil and majority of building materials, it builds up in the mine galleries, in dwelling houses and in other closed rooms. Radon gained increasingly in importance, particularly after 1990 when was doubtless identified as the second cause of lung cancer if a given concentration threshold is surpassed. This threshold is established differentially by each country as a function of the particular site and generally ranges between 150 Bq.m-3 and 600 Bq.m-3. The telluric radon consists of two isotopes, 222Rn, a daughter of radium descending from uranium, which induces 90% of the effects, and 220Rn from thorium series which have too short a lifetime to count in the risk assessments of radon inhalation. The interest of the authorities and population for diminishing the radon effects was illustrated by specific studies which in USA were managed by the National Counsel of Research, the BEIR VI committee of which has issued a report concerning the lung cancer produced by radon and its descendants. Coal mining, the transport, processing, burning, slag and ash disposal are activities entailing radon release. The miners' dwellings are placed in areas with the high radon potential. The local building materials have a high content of radioactive elements from the uranium or thorium series so that radon can build up in the closed rooms of these buildings. Hence the social responsible authorities in the coal power industry zones should consider this aspect long time ignored in the Balkans macro zone so far. The radon issue must be differentially approached in different areas hence a zonal mapping of the radon emission should be first done. It is worth to underline that the gaseous radioactive emission from operational nuclear power plants amounts up to a few percents of the radon natural emissions what entails a corresponding

  1. Contribution of waterborne radon to home air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon-222 is a member of the uranium decay chain and is formed from the decay of radium-226. Radon and its decay products emit alpha particles during the decay process. If radon is inhaled, alpha particles emitted from inhaled radon and its daughters increase the risk of lung cancer. Radon is soluble in water; thus when radon comes in contact with groundwater it dissolves. The radon concentration in groundwater may range from 100 pCi/L to 1,000,000 pCi/L. When water with a high radon level is used in the home, radon is released from the water to the air and thus can increase indoor air radon concentration. Considering the estimated health risk from radon in public water supply systems, EPA has proposed a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 300 pCi/L for radon in public drinking water supplies. To address the health risks of radon in water and the proposed regulations, the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) initiated a study to determine the contribution of waterborne radon to radon levels in indoor household air

  2. Radon risk: the polonium effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atoms of radon present in the earth's crust give after disintegration atoms of polonium 210 and lead 210 having a strong toxicity by ingestion ( superior of a factor 2 to 10 comparatively to plutonium 239). We have to remember that polonium and lead 210 are present everywhere in very important quantities relatively to values quoted for ground pollution. This must reassure us for the risks run from the nuclear facilities for which important efforts are made in matter of radiation protection. (N.C.)

  3. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano; Mediciones de radon y elementos quimicos: Volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. [UMR 5569 CNRS Hydrosciences, Montpellier (France)

    2002-07-01

    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  4. Measurements of Radon Exhalation Flux and Atmospheric Radon in Uranium Mining and Processing Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) performs an environmental monitoring of areas around the different nuclear facilities. This environmental monitoring involves a periodical sampling and analysis in the areas surrounding the operating and decommissioned facilities for the mining and milling of uranium ores. This monitoring implies the sampling and measurements of natural uranium and 226Ra levels in surface waters, sediments and ground waters in each surrounding area. Moreover, radon exhalation flux measurements from uranium mill tailings and radon concentration in air are performed. Radon exhalation rate measurement is performed by activated charcoal adsorption followed by gamma spectrometry. In the case of radon gas measurements in air, they are carried out by several methods, mainly by nuclear track detectors (Makrofol and CR-39). In this work, the results related with radon exhalation flux measurements and radon concentration in air are presented and discussed. In addition, a full description of the methods used is presented. (author)

  5. Environmental Concentration of Radon and Radon Progeny in a Nuclear Facility in a Decommissioning Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the new European Directive 96/29/EURATOM the radiological risk due to natural radionuclides must be consider and the pertinent periodic control must be realized. During the works performed at CIEMAT an estimation of the effective average doses due to Radon inhalation in work places of the installation have been performed. Radon and Radon progeny concentration has been measured in continuous joint whit the meteorological conditions as temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Two different equipment has been used: Alpha-guard whit ionization chamber detector and Eda-wlm-300 whit a semiconductor detector. A passive Radon detector, E-perm has been simultaneously used in the monitoring system. The results obtained during the measuring of Radon and Radon progeny concentrations indoors and estimation of doses have been analyzed and are presented in the paper. (Author) 11 refs

  6. Air pollution. Actions to promote radon testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To promote radon testing, EPA initiated public information and awareness programs and provided grants to states to develop programs aimed at encouraging homeowners to test for radon. Nationwide telephone surveys, according to EPA, indicate that these efforts have raised the public awareness of radon to as high as 78 percent but that about only 9 percent of those surveyed have tested their homes for radon. Concerned about improving risk reduction through its radon program, EPA convened a review panel. The panel not only recommended in May 1992 that the current voluntary approach be continued but also called for program changes to encourage more testing. These changes include targeting public information and other resources to areas where radon levels are predicted to be high and promoting testing and mitigation at the time of real estate transactions. To support state radon efforts, the Congress authorized a grant program for yearly grants of $10 million for 3 years. Funds for this program were recently extended for a fourth year through fiscal year 1993. Information to measure states' success in promoting testing by homeowners was generally not available because (1) much of the grant funding has been used to identify the extent of the radon problem; (2) federally funded public information projects were often directed to large audiences, making it difficult to measure testing rates; and (3) EPA's evaluation process for the grant program did not contain a component to measure increases in testing. We did, however, identify some state projects that have increased radon testing by targeting program efforts to homes in areas with potentially high levels of radon. The results of the state projects would seem to support the EPA review panel's recommendations on promoting radon testing through targeting program resources. In two states we surveyed, the voluntary use of disclosure statements as part of a real estate sales contract was a frequent occurrence, and in one state

  7. Field demonstrations of radon adsorption units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four radon gas removal units have been installed in homes in the Northeast U.S. These units utilize dynamic adsorption of the radon gas onto activated charcoal to remove the radon from room air. Two beds of charcoal are used so that one bed removes radon while the second bed is regenerated using outdoor air in a unique process. The beds reverse at the end of a predetermined cycle time, providing continuous removal of radon from the room air. The process and units have undergone extensive development work in the laboratory as well as in homes and a summary of this work is discussed. This work showed that the system performs very effectively over a range of operating conditions similar to those found in a home. The field test data that is presented shows that scale up from the laboratory work was without problem and the units are functioning as expected. This unit provides homeowners and mitigation contractors with another option to solve the radon gas problem in homes, particularly in homes that it is difficult to prevent radon from entering

  8. American Lung Association's radon public information program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Lung Association (ALA), the nation's oldest voluntary health organization, is dedicated to the conquest of lung disease and the promotion of lung health. The objective of the ALA Radon Public Information Program is to reduce public exposure to elevated indoor radon levels through implementing grassroots-based radon public awareness campaigns by 22 local ALA groups. The program, which is funded by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was initiated in December 1989; the first phase will continue until May, 1991. Activities of local Lung Associations include distribution of free or reduced-cost radon kits; presenting programs in elementary and secondary schools; presenting information on TV news series and talk shows, and on radio Public Service Announcements and talk shows; presenting articles and feature stories in the print media; holding conferences, workshops, and displays at fairs and other exhibitions; distributing radon fact sheets through libraries and utility company mailings; and distributing videos through video chains and libraries. The local Lung Associations also serve as promoters for the EPA/Advertising Council Radon Public Service Announcement Campaign. We will highlight the activities of the groups in communicating radon health risks to the public; we will describe the results obtained and will attempt to evaluate the merits of the various approaches on the basis of the initial results

  9. Element of risk: The politics of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent history of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) approach to managing the risk of indoor radon offers a rich base from which to consider US practice in risk assessment, management, and communication. The biological evidence of risks from high-level exposure to radon is in many ways stronger--and the gap to be spanned by extrapolation from laboratory animal studies to ambient exposures narrower--than for many of the toxic and hazardous air pollutants that have been the focus of EPA regulatory attention. The epidemiological evidence about radon is complicated by a number of confounding variables, but this is often the state of epidemiological evidence. Radon has also been the focus of a considerable amount of research on risk communication. To complete the promising ingredients, disagreements between federal regulators at EPA and managers of federal nuclear programs run by the Department of Energy (DOE) concerning radon from uranium mill tailings, for example, and other issues in radiation health physics offer a rich array of opportunities to explore issues in federal bureaucratic politics. This book provides a straightforward report of much of the development of US policy on indoor radon over the past decade. As such, it gives readers unfamiliar with the evolution of radon regulation an opportunity to come quickly up to speed on many historical details

  10. Radon remedial measures in cold climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A view is taken that mitigation of an indoor radon problem is often more complex than usually assumed, and that additional factors should be considered to avoid situations in which after mitigation the radon problem may be solved, but other problems have been created. Emphasis is put on how the choice and design of radon remedial measures are influenced not only by effectiveness in reducing radon levels indoors, but also by climatic factors, energy-saving aspects, as well as economic and psycho-social factors. Climatic conditions give rise to several concerns when attempting to mitigate a radon problem in areas with large seasonal temperature variations. Problems with humidity, energy consumption and durability of sealing materials are probably the most prominent issues. Commonly used radon remedial measures and their effectiveness in Norway is reviewed. Discussion is focused on principles and technical solutions which produce good results, and those which don't perform so well in cold Norwegian climate. Innovative technical solutions which successfully resolve some of the main conflicting issues are discussed. Results of some preliminary tests showing performance of such solutions in reduction of radon levels are presented. Other aspects of mitigation systems, such as need and cost of maintenance, longevity, noise levels, 'additional benefits', etc., are briefly mentioned. Homeowners' perceptions and willingness to implement various mitigation solutions are briefly reviewed. Based on discussion, several guiding principles which may be adopted in search for optimal solutions are suggested. (author)

  11. Comparative study of radon in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted primarily to contribute radon data for radon map in Sudan and identify regions with elevated radon levels and improve data collection and analysis for the future radon levels evaluation. This study partially covered three states of Sudan ( Red Sea - Khartoum - South Khordofan). Previous work done has been considered in this study which focused and investigated the levels of radon concentration in ( indoor radon gas and water) by using gamma spectrometry equipped with ( HPGe detector) or (Na1 (T1) detector). The results obtained are within the acceptable levels and dose not poses any risk from radiation protection point of view. Red Sea state ( port-sudan): (124.39±6.21) Bq/m3. Khartoum state ( Suba): (151.52) Bq/m3. (Omdurman): ( 127±23) Bq/m3. Radon in water: (59) Bq/L. South Kordofan State: (102.8) Bq/m3. In water (Kadugli): (3139)) Bq/L.(Author)

  12. The Norwegian information campaign on radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsibility for providing an overview of 'all factors in the environment which are or may be having a direct or indirect influence on the health - -' rests with the municipal health authorities. In order to enable the municipal staff throughout Norway to accomplish local radon surveys, an information campaign on radon, including printed information material and training courses, was carried out in 1998-99, primarily directed towards municipal civil servants. The two-day training courses comprised of lectures and a compendium covering basic knowledge on ionizing radiation, sources of radon, measurement techniques, health risk, prophylactic and remedial measures, design and accomplishment of survey projects, and information strategy. The printed information material includes booklets providing general information on radon (health risks, measurements, and mitigation), methods for measuring radon in indoor air and construction sites, action levels, and design of municipal radon surveys. Two posters have been issued, one mainly intended for public offices and waiting rooms to motivate the public for radon measurements, the other one intended for municipal personnel and governmental offices, the latter also issued as a collection of fact sheets intended for schools etc. the booklets are displayed on the Internet (www.nrpa.no). The site also contains links to further information on mitigation techniques and economic support to remedial measures. (au)

  13. Sensitivity to thoron on passive radon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a lot of studies on radon have been done for a long time, there are few reports on thoron. It was considered that the presence of thoron could be negligible because of its own quality compared to that of radon. However, recent studies have shown high thoron levels in our living environment. In particular, thoron concentrations were occasionally observed in some areas, Japan. This fact made it clear that some of passive radon detectors were sensitive to the presence of thoron. They were used for indoor radon surveys. It is possible that such detectors will give false values unless they are placed properly. Therefore, it is important to understand the detector response to thoron before practical use. A compact thoron chamber system was set up for the purpose and the measurement technique using scintillation cells was discussed. With the technique, both radon and thoron concentrations could be determined within 15 min. In this study, the followings were shows: (1) configuration of the thoron chamber, (2) prompt measurement technique of thoron and radon concentrations and (3) thoron contribution of passive radon detectors commercially available. (author)

  14. Effects of residential radon on cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon activity concentrations of 1077 homes were surveyed in two villages of Northern Hungary to obtain the yearly averages. The distribution of indoor radon activity concentrations covered a wide range. Cancer incidences of all the 2680 inhabitants for the last 30 years were also studied in these villages in order to establish a possible correlation with radon exposure. The methods applied in the analysis allow to draw up statistically supported statements concerning the relative cancer risks of different radon level groups. The results show that among non-smoking middle-aged women the frequency of cancer, regardless to tumor types, is lower for those who live in residential radon activity concentrations of a level between 110 and 185 Bq x m-3 compared to those living in radon levels outside this range. A minimum value in the cancer frequency exists at a level of significance p<0.008 (determined with the help of Fisher's test). In general, the present study corroborates the outcome of other studies demonstrating the existence of a biopositive effect, and suggests a wider concept of radon health effects. (author)

  15. Radon measurements in association with earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A network of three radon stations has been established in the Langadas basin, North Greece. Newly made devices with plastic tubes are in operation with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTDs) in registering α-particles from radon and radon decay products exhaled from the ground every two weeks, starting from December 1996, by using LR-115 type II non strippable Kodak films. Simultaneous measurements are made by using Lucas α-scintillation cells for instantaneous measurements of radon in soil gas before and after setting the SSNTDs at the radon stations. The new devices used have the advantage of no use of heating systems and no need of electrical power in the nearly area of the stations. Radon flux registrations ranged between 507 and 85880 tr cm-2 or 1.5 and 255.6 tr cm-2h-1 in the period of measurements, while radon concentrations in soil gas ranged between 528 and 35095 Bq m-3 at the same time. (author)

  16. The radon transform. Theory and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis is the mathematical Radon transform, which is well suited for curve detection in digital images, and for reconstruction of tomography images. The thesis is divided into two main parts. Part I describes the Radon- and the Hough-transform and especially their discrete approximations with respect to curve parameter detection in digital images. The sampling relationships of the Radon transform is reviewed from a digital signal processing point of view. The discrete Radon transform is investigated for detection of curves, and aspects regarding the performance of the Radon transform assuming various types of noise is covered. Furthermore, a new fast scheme for estimating curve parameters is presented. Part II of the thesis describes the inverse Radon transform in 2D and 3D with focus on reconstruction of tomography images. Some of the direct reconstruction schemes are analyzed, including their discrete implementation. Furthermore, several iterative reconstruction schemes based on linear algebra are reviewed and applied for reconstruction of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images. A new and very fast implementation of 2D iterative reconstruction methods is devised. In a more practical oriented chapter, the noise in PET images is modelled from a very large number of measurements. Several packagers for Radon- and Hough-transform based curve detection and direct/iterative 2D and 3D reconstruction have been developed and provided for free. (au) 140 refs

  17. A Rapid Method for Radon Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkhbat, N.; Shin, S. G.; Key, Y. U.; Cho, M. H. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Norov, N. [National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Kim, G. [Kungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, W.; Lee, H. S. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Research carried out in last decades has shown that more than 70% of a total annual radioactive dose received by people originates from natural sources of ionizing radiation, whereby 40% is due to inhalation and ingestion of natural radioactive gas radon {sup 222}Rn and its progeny. Radon has 3.5 days of half-life. However, its progeny is dangerous than Radon in the view of radiation protection. Radon measurement is commonly used in controlling radon concentration in underground mine, closed room and in forecasting earthquake. Radon gas emission rate in the immediate opening of the west ventilation shaft depends on the operation of the ventilation system, duration of ventilation system operation, and the air flow rate through the underground development. Specific activity of radon progeny in air (RaA (Po-218), RaB (Pb-214) and RaC (Bi-214)) and Ra-222 in radioactive equilibrium was calculated by formula 1 and 2, respectively. We include result of measurement carried out in the air around a mining. In Fig.2 shown that the distribution of Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214 and Ra-222 isotopes releasing from west ventilation shaft in Gurvanbulag underground uranium mine in the eastern part of Mongolia.

  18. Relation between indoor radon and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Low level of exposures to residential radon and dosimetric uncertainties due to mobility have hampered the evaluation of lung cancer risk and the comparison to radon-exposed miners. To address these limitations, the authors conducted a case-control study in a predominantly rural area of China with low mobility and high radon levels. Methods: Cases studied including all lung cancer patients diagnosed between January 1994 and April 1998, aged 30-75 years, and resided in two prefectures of Gansu Province. Controls were randomly selected from census lists and matched on age sex and prefecture. Radon detectors were placed in all houses having been occupied two or more years in the past 5-30 years prior to enrollment. Measurements covered 77% of the possible exposure time. Results: Mean radon concentration were 230.4 Bq/m3 for the cases (n = 768) and 222.2 Bq/m3 for the controls (n = 1659). Lung cancer risk increased along with increasing of the radon level (P 3 was 0.19 (95% CI:0.05, 0.47) for all subjects, and 0.31(95% CI:0.10, 0.81) for subjects with 100% coverage of the exposure interval. Adjusting for exposure uncertainties increased estimates about 70%. Conclusion: The results support increased lung cancer risks with indoor radon exposures, which may equal to or exceed extrapolation-based risks from miner data

  19. Balance letter on information days on radon. The radon in question. To fight against radon; Lettre bilan des journees d'information sur le radon. Le radon en question. Lutter contre le radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelon, Th. [Ministere de la sante et des solidarites, Dir. Generale de la Sante, 75 - Paris (France); Queniart, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2002-05-15

    Since 1999 actions to detect radon in public building have been implemented, after three years, more than 13 000 establishments have been verified. These actions are going to be reinforced by the publication of a new regulatory frame that will give obligation to householder or operator of a place open to the public to carry out measures of exposure surveillance on geographic areas with a strong exhalation potential of radon. (N.C.)

  20. Radon - an angle of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from its radiation effects on living organism, radon induces the formation of atmospheric ions which are beneficial to man: some asthmatics can breathe more easily in an environment with elevated ion levels, the blood pH increases, the fraction of albumins is higher while the serotonin level is lower, sedimentation decreases and the leukocyte counts in peripherals diminish. The blood pressure, particularly in people suffering from hypertension, drops appreciably. The production of pituitary hormones as well as the overall sexual activity is stimulated by ions in air. Exposure to negative ions affects circulation through the skin, reduces skin temperature and improves overall resistance of the organism to infection. Negative ions also have a stimulating effect on mental activity and help against insomnia. Sites where radon is present in not too high concentrations are often famous as climatic spas. So, antiradon provisions, if exercised too thoroughly, may have adverse rather than positive consequences. All pros and cons should always be taken into account when deciding on antiradon steps. (P.A.)

  1. Safety at work: radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act, employers have a duty, so far as reasonably practicable, to maintain a safe working environment. To ensure that this occurs, the Health and Safety Commission defines standards and applies stimuli to make sure the standards are observed. The risk from radon ranks as one of the most severe industrial risks to be encountered in a hazardous industry. The Ionising Radiations Regulations specify a radon concentration above which the regulations apply, and various duties fall on the employer. Where an inspector finds radon concentrations above this level, he has the power to require remedial measures to be undertaken. (Author)

  2. Radon: a friend or a foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon has two facets. On the one hand, it poses grave health hazards to not only uranium miners but also people living in normal houses and buildings. On the other hand, it helps in mineral exploration, earthquake prediction, study of volcanic activities, and search for geothermal energy sources. Some of the characteristics of radon are now well known, while others are yet to be explored. It has proved to be a good friend and a powerful enemy at the same time. This paper is a brief introduction of the potential benefits and possible threats of radon and its daughters. (author)

  3. There's something rotten in radon carcinogenesis epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the cancer risk from radon exposure as determined from miner data is completely inconsistent with the data on environmental radon, over predicting the risk by at least one or two orders of magnitude. This discrepancy is real, it is very large, and it cannot be ignored. It means either that most of the lung cancer among miners is due to causes other than radon, or that the linear-no threshold dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogensis seriously over-predicts risks at low doses even for alpha particles. For the Swedish miners, whose exposures were essentially in the environmental dose region, the former explanation is required

  4. Lung cancer and radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positive correlations between radon and lung cancer have been found only for mine workers but not for the general population in dwellings. In this study we are looking for a connection between the mean radon values in 41 different regions of Switzerland and the corresponding lung cancer mortalities. For yound woman in general and young men and young women from rural areas a correlation was found. Such calculations, however, do not prove a causal connection, since they use only present day radon levels and can account neither for their temporal variations nor for the mobility and life habits of the population or for the real amount of time spent inside the dwellings. (orig.)

  5. Statistical analysis of radon flux measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon emerging from the earth's surface can be used in classifying lands for development purposes. Radon flux is subject to diurnal variation, weather variables, seasonal fluctuations. Statistical sampling procedures are applied to this problem to ascertain the proper spacing of sampling points, the number of samples taken at each point per day, and the number of days in the sampling program to establish the exhalation rate at a known precision. Results from small and large pieces of land showed that reliable radon flux measurements require extensive sampling programs

  6. Radon in underground work-places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon concentrations in Norwegian underground mines and hydropower stations are reported. The mean effective dose equivalent to Norwegian miners is assessed to 3.4 mSv/yr, and to 2.1 mSv/yr for workers in underground hydropower stations. In both mines and hydropower stations about 1% of the workers receive effective dose equivalents above 15 mSv/yr. In two of the hydropower stations very high radon concentrations were found. The main radon source was found to be leakage of ground water. Remedial actions are discussed

  7. Psychosocial aspects of Czech Radon Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 1999 a radon awareness survey was conducted among Czech republic residents to evaluate their general awareness and the factual knowledge about radon, radon measurements and radon mitigation. This survey, however, did not provide any detailed information on whether the respondents' knowledge is deep and structured or it is just a chaotic mixture of impressions. Therefore, a new survey was conducted from May to November 2001. About 20 respondents, in whose houses the long term testing for radon levels had just been finished, were interviewed. The in-depth interviews had several main aims: a) to obtain a more detailed understanding of their general awareness and factual knowledge about radon; b) to learn more about the sources of their knowledge and of their perception of the radon risk; c) to get information as to whether householders accept radon remediation, and to identify any personal, attitudinal or other variables that can influence the householder's decision; and d) to experience the direct risk communication and conceive its effectiveness. The interviews confirmed some results of the former quantitative study, e.g. increasing knowledge correlating with increasing education level. They showed that the public, overloaded with information, is not disposed to search actively for other information sources (e.g. on the Internet). People perceive their knowledge as adequate and sufficient. Their approach to gathering information is very passive. Therefore, to enhance public understanding of radiation phenomena it is necessary to make efforts, including the use of public media, otherwise radioactivity will remain shrouded in myths. These myths often lead to underestimation of the radon risk. A typical example of such underestimation is a contention that there exist long-aged healthy people who live in extreme radon concentrations. Together with the interviews, a questionnaire describing 11 presumably risky situations or practices was used. Among other

  8. Determination of radon levels in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the determination of radon levels in the houses room in Mexico City is part of the project Emanometry of the radon. To carry out this study, the passive method was used, which consists of: thin film dosemeter of cellulose nitrate, container of the same one and spark accountant. The method is based on the mensurations of exhibition of the number of marks of alpha track is of the open type and it allows to average the radon activity along several weeks and it presents low concentrations. This study was carried out in 4 periods of exhibition of 3 months each one. (Author)

  9. Radon - kilder og måling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Wraber, Ida Kristina

    Når man skal vurdere en bygnings indeklima er det vigtigt at have viden om radonindholdet. Denne viden får man ved måling, da radon hverken kan ses, lugtes, høres, smages eller føles. Denne anvisning redegør for radons oprindelse og indvirkning på menneskers sundhed. Anvisningen beskriver metoder...... til måling og analyse af radonindholdet i en bygnings indeluft. Læseren får indsigt i, hvordan man relativt let med standardiserede metoder kan eftervise, om en bygning opfylder bygningsreglementets krav til radon i indeluften. Anvisningen henvender sig til bygningsejere, bygherrer, projekterende og...

  10. Mapping the geogenic radon potential in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemski, J; Siehl, A; Stegemann, R; Valdivia-Manchego, M

    2001-05-14

    Mapping the geogenic radon potential in Germany is a research project initiated by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation and Reactor Safety. The project was aimed to develop a standard methodology for the estimation of a geogenic radon potential and to apply this method to map the region of Germany as an overview for planning purposes. The regionalisation results from a distance-weighted interpolation of the site-specific values of radon concentration in soil gas and in situ gas permeability of soils on a regular grid considering the corresponding geological units. The map of Germany in a scale of 1:2 million is based on the radon concentration in soil gas as an estimator of the geogenic radon potential assuming the 'worst case' of uniform highest permeability. The distribution is subdivided into categories of low ( 500 kBq/m3) radon concentration. High values occur especially in regions with granites and basement rocks of Paleozoic age, and are proven by measurements in 0.03% of the total area. Many of these regions are also known for their enhanced indoor values. The class with increased values takes a portion of 7.86% and likewise occurs mainly in regions with outcrops of folded and metamorphic basement, but also of some Meso- and Cenozoic sediments with increased uranium contents and/or higher emanation coefficients. For 67.3% of the country, the radon concentration is classified as 'medium', and an assignment to specific geological units cannot be made at the map scale considered. Low radon contents, where protective measures against radon are usually not considered, are found in the geologically rather homogeneous part of northern Germany with unconsolidated Cenozoic sediments, covering approximately 25% of the total country. It is of course not possible to predict the indoor radon concentration of single houses from these maps, because construction type and structural fabric of houses are essentially governing the extent to which

  11. Radon and radon daughters' concentration in spring and wells waters from Presidente Prudente: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the preliminary results about the concentration of radon and radon daughters in wells and springs water from Presidente Prudente. Six water samples were studied: three from well-water, two from springs water and one from potable water. For the determination of α-activity the samples were placed inside plastic containers where the CR-39 tracks detectors were outside the water. The track density of α-particles were measured by using optical microscopy. The results show that one sample from well-water presented higher concentration of radon and radon daughters than the other samples. (author)

  12. Stability and in vivo behavior of Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At complex: A potential precursor for astatine radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The heavy halogen 211At is of great interest for targeted radiotherapy because it decays by the emission of short-range, high-energy α-particles. However, many astatine compounds that have been synthesized are unstable in vivo, providing motivation for seeking other 211At labeling strategies. One relatively unexplored approach is to utilize prosthetic groups based on astatinated rhodium (III) complex stabilized with a tetrathioether macrocyclic ligand – Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo stability of this complex in comparison to its iodine analog – Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I. Methods: Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At and Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I complexes were synthesized and purified by HPLC. The stability of both complexes was evaluated in vitro by incubation in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum at different temperatures. The in vivo behavior of the two radiohalogenated complexes was assessed by a paired-label biodistribution study in normal Balb/c mice. Results: Both complexes were synthesized in high yield and purity. Almost no degradation was observed for Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I in PBS over a 72 h incubation. The astatinated analog exhibited good stability in PBS over 14 h. A slow decline in the percentage of intact complex was observed for both tracers in human serum. In the biodistribution study, retention of 211At in most tissues was higher than that of 131I at all time points, especially in spleen and lungs. Renal clearance of Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At and Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I predominated, with 84.1 ± 2.3% and 94.6 ± 0.9% of injected dose excreted via the urine at 4 h. Conclusions: The Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At complex might be useful for constructing prosthetic groups for the astatination of biomolecules and further studies are planned to evaluate this possibility

  13. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m{sup −3} to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m{sup −3} to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m{sup −3}, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m{sup −3} to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m{sup −3}, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m{sup −3} to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m{sup −3} and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m{sup −3} to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m{sup −3}, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m{sup −3} and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the

  14. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon gas (222Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the 226Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m−3 to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m−3, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m−3 to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m−3, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m−3 to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m−3, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m−3 to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m−3 and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m−3 to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m−3, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m−3, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m−3, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m−3 and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m−3, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m−3 proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0

  15. Blower door method in radon diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of the radon transfer factor is commonly presented as the ratio of the building indoor radon concentration to the subsoil radon concentration. Ventilation and the pressure field over the whole building envelope, which varies in a time over a very wide range even in the same building, poses a major problem. Therefore a new approach based on the controlled conditions determining the soil air infiltration was developed. Radon in soil gas infiltrates into the building indoor environment particularly through cracks and other leakages in the structure providing the building contact with its subsoil. The infiltration is driven by the air pressure difference on the two sides of the structure. The pressure difference is caused by the stack effect and its value ranges from 1-2 Pa in family houses to some tens of Pa in higher buildings. Unfortunately, the pressure difference is very unstable under normal conditions, being affected by a host of parameters such as the height of the building, distribution and geometry of leakages, outdoor-indoor temperature difference, etc. Wind direction and velocity of the wind plays a major role. In our research the blower door method was applied in combination with a monitoring of the indoor radon concentration. The indoor-outdoor pressure difference and the pressure difference at the two sides of the screen shutter of the blower door fan are also measured. The blower door ensures a constant, evaluable air exchange rate. The fan power is regulated to provide a stable pressure difference within the range of roughly 5-100 Pa. This approach provides very well defined conditions allowing us to apply a constant ventilation-constant radon supply model. In such circumstances the dynamical changes of radon concentrations are very fast, and therefore a unique continual radon monitor was applied. The radon supply rate is evaluated from the radon steady state of the time course of radon concentration. The dependence of the radon supply rate on

  16. On the way to an Austrian radon action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the draft of the new European Basic Safety Standards (EU-BSS) all member states are obliged to develop a national radon action plan, to control the long term risks from radon exposure in dwellings, public buildings and workplaces. The National Radon Centre, embedded in the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), was assigned by the Ministry for Environment (BMLFUW) to develop this Austrian action plan and the strategy behind. This conference contribution discusses where we still have a need for actions and how the new BSS will influence the Austrian radon legislation (reference levels, responsibilities, standards, building law). Currently running and planned projects regarding the radon action plan like developing a national radon data base, definition of radon prone areas by improving the radon map and strategies to increase public radon awareness and involve the building sector are presented. (orig.)

  17. Effect of fresh air ventilation on indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon concentration of laboratory for radon simulation (LRS) was measured by the RAD7 radon monitor, and the effect of the different fresh air ventilations on indoor radon concentration was studied and analyzed. The indoor radon concentration of LRS can be accumulated up to 2000 Bq/m3 and the average radon exhalation rate of the LRS is 14.5 Bq · m-2 . h-1. Furthermore, when the fresh air enters into the LRS continuously, the indoor radon concentration decreases exponentially with the increase of time. The equilibrium radon concentration and equilibrium time of LRS decrease exponentially with the increase of the rate of fresh air ventilation. In addition, the indoor radon concentration increases by accumulation with the decrease of the rate of fresh air ventilation. (authors)

  18. Characterisation of the Radon decay products in outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon progeny represent the major contributor to radiation dose to humans from natural sources. For estimation of the exposure and the dose by inhalation of the radon progeny different parameters are needed. First the equilibrium factor F, which is the ratio of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration C EEC and the radon gas concentration C0. Then the unattached fraction of the radon progeny expressed by fp, the ratio of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration of the unattached radon progeny CfEEC and the CEEC, and the relative activity size distribution of the aerosol attached radon decay products. In the following the results of measurements over a period of some weeks are reported. The aim was to find out the equilibrium factor F, the unattached fraction fp and the activity size distribution of the radon progeny aerosol and their variation with time (day/night)

  19. Exposure to radon/radon decay products in waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Referring to the Basic Standards of Radiation Protection issued by EURATOM and the recommendations of the Federal Commission of Radiation Protection (SSK) workplaces in drinking water supply systems in Baden-Wuerttemberg were examined in respect to the exposure of the employees to radon decay products. About 80 waterworks with more than 1,000 operating places like well houses, conditioning plants, reservoirs, pumping stations etc. were measured with instant working level meters. The statistical interpretation based on these measurements allow a reliable extrapolation concerning the expected numbers of workplaces in the water supply which exceed the recommended 'normal' limit of 2,000 h x 0.1 WL. These numbers are about 15% for the single operating places and about 10% for a complex water work composed statistically of about twelve operating places. In some cases where higher exposures were expected, detailed measurements with continuous monitors gave the basis for remedial actions or improvement measures. (orig.)

  20. Radon hazard and risk in Sussex, England and the factors affecting radon levels in dwellings in chalk terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was undertaken of radon levels in 1013 dwellings in Sussex, UK. A number of dwellings were identified with high radon levels in an area previously considered to offer low radon risk from geological sources. Multiple regression was used to determine the relative influence of the various geographical and building-related factors on indoor radon levels. The radon hazard, independent of building-related effects, was determined for each surveyed location by standardising radon measurements to a 'model' dwelling. These were entered into a geographic information system and related to surface geology. The highest radon levels were found to be associated with the youngest Chalk formations, Tertiary deposits and Clay-with-flints Quaternary deposits in the area. Radon potentials were also determined for the area which can be used to estimate radon risk and assist in environmental planning and development control. (authors)

  1. Utilisation of an Air-conditioning System to Control the Levels of Radon and Radon Progeny in a Workplace Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From long-term real-time radon and radon progeny measurements taken in a relatively large retail store, cyclical patterns were evident, which were found to relate to the overriding influence of the timed air-conditioning system. Concentration of radon, radon progeny and the variability of F factor were found to depend significantly on the intermittent operation of this ventilation-air-conditioning system. After pressure equalisation remedial measures proved ineffective, the air-movement system was utilised to reduce the levels of radon and radon progeny to well within established norms applicable during working hours. It is demonstrated that the average levels for radon and radon progeny are reduced in absolute terms. This amounted to less than 12% of the general level, during designated work periods. Where air movement systems are already installed, as well as other circumstances, their regulation provides an economical solution to meeting legal and other standards for radon in the workplace. (author)

  2. Intercomparison exercise of measurement techniques for radon, radon decay products and their particles size distributions at NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intercomparison exercise of radon, radon decay products and particle size distribution was carried out using the radon/aerosol chamber at National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 2002. Nine institutions participated in this exercise. Radon concentrations were first compared using a domestic ionization chamber, which was regarded as the primary standard equipment in Japan. Subsequently, several types of passive radon detectors were placed in the radon/aerosol chamber and their readings were compared with each other. Radon decay products concentrations were also intercompared, though the number of participants was small. After injection of Carnauba wax aerosols with the evaporation-condensation method, the particle size distribution of radon progeny was compared with three different sampling techniques: graded screen array, diffusion battery and cascade impactor. The present paper describes an overview of the experiment and the present status of correspondence on radon devices. (author)

  3. Real estate transaction radon test tampering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thousand-house study, over the past two years showed 35% of the houses were tampered with. This paper offers statistical charts representing the different methods of tampering; A slide presentation showing houses and the non-tamper controls used to monitor EPA closed-house conditions, movement of detectors and covering of detectors. A strong message must be conveyed now, that tampering will not be tolerated by radon technicians, when performing radon tests in the field. A message that incorporates non-tamper controls that are cost effective and provide for reasonably priced testing; A message that will lend credibility to our Radon industry by means of separating the professional test from a do-it-yourself homeowner test. This paper will address that message and offer a program for the prevention of tampering in a house during a PROFESSIONALLY done Radon test

  4. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  5. Radon measurements in Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few data are available on the dynamic of radon in the air for tropical climate conditions. The strong influence of the climatological characteristics on the transport of gases and particulates in air makes not adequate the use of data obtained at regions with different climate. Outdoor and indoor measurements of radon equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC) have been done for one-year period in Rio de Janeiro. Continuous measurements were performed using a radon monitor with an alpha spectrometry detector. Pluviometric index, temperature and humidity were registered. The paper presents the long term behaviour of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration results, their correlation with temperature and the influence of the pluviometric index. Maximum values were obtained during winter and minimum in summer, strongly influenced by the rain. A strong inverse correlation with temperature was found. (author)

  6. Distribution of indoor radon levels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our laboratory has carried out a systematic monitoring and evaluation of indoor radon concentration levels in Mexico for ten years. The results of the distribution of indoor radon levels for practically the entire country are presented, together with information on geological characteristics, population density, socioeconomic levels of the population, and architectural styles of housing. The measurements of the radon levels were made using the passive method of nuclear tracks in solids with the end-cup system. CR-39 was used as the detector material in combination with a one-step chemical etching procedure and an automatic digital- image counting system. Wherever a high level was measured, a confirming measurement was made using a dynamic method. The results are important for future health studies, including the eventual establishment of patterns for indoor radon concentration, as it has been done in the USA and Europe

  7. Soil radon response around an active volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N. E-mail: msa@nuclear.inin.mx; Valdes, C.; Pena, P.; Mena, M.; Tamez, E

    2001-06-01

    Soil radon behavior related to the volcanic eruptive period 1997-1999 of Popocatepetl volcano has been studied as a function of the volcanic activity. Since the volcano is located 60 km from Mexico City, the risk associated with an explosive eruptive phase is high and an intense surveillance program has been implemented. Previous studies in this particular volcano showed soil radon pulses preceding the initial phase of the eruption. The radon survey was performed with LR-115 track detectors at a shallow depth and the effect of the soil moisture during the rainy season has been observed on the detectors response. In the present state of the volcanic activity the soil radon behavior has shown more stability than in previous eruptive stages.

  8. Variation of radon exposure in Damascus dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, activity concentrations of 222Rn in air and 222Rn and 226Ra in drinking water were measured in Damascus city covering its old and modern parts. It was found that the average air radon activity concentration in the old part was higher than in the modern part, and in drinking water, radon was found to be 60±3 Bq/l, and less than 0.13 Bq/l for radium, which were lower than the recommended levels set by WHO. - Highlights: ► This work presents screening of natural radioactivity in dwellings in Damascus city. ► Radon, 226Rn and total alpha/beta in air and drinking water were measured. ► Most of the obtained results were within the recommended levels set by WHO. ► In general radon in the old part was higher than the modern part of the city.

  9. Measurement of Radon in Indoor Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Daniel M.; Simolunas, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment to teach the principles of air sampling, gamma ray spectroscopy, nuclear decay, and radioactive equilibrium. Analyzes radon by carbon adsorption and gamma ray counting. Provides methodology and rate of decay equations. (MVL)

  10. Radon in private drinking water wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At least 10 % of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq.l-1. This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. (authors)

  11. Soil radon response around an active volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil radon behavior related to the volcanic eruptive period 1997-1999 of Popocatepetl volcano has been studied as a function of the volcanic activity. Since the volcano is located 60 km from Mexico City, the risk associated with an explosive eruptive phase is high and an intense surveillance program has been implemented. Previous studies in this particular volcano showed soil radon pulses preceding the initial phase of the eruption. The radon survey was performed with LR-115 track detectors at a shallow depth and the effect of the soil moisture during the rainy season has been observed on the detectors response. In the present state of the volcanic activity the soil radon behavior has shown more stability than in previous eruptive stages

  12. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  13. From insulation contracting to radon mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the definition of house doctor has evolved over the past ten years and the field of energy services has grown more sophisticated, many contractors have expanded the services they offer their clients. This paper presents the story of one insulation contractor who has found a niche in radon testing and mitigation. The EPA now has a national program for the radon mitigator called the Radon Contractor Proficiency Program. The requirements include attending the Radon Technology for Mitigators course, passing an exam, and taking continuing education. In the Midwest, the most popular mitigation technique is the subslab depressurization system. To draw suction from under the slab, the system can take advantage of an existing sump crock or can penetrate the slab. Interior drain tiles collect water to empty into the crock, providing an excellent pathway to draw from. This mitigation process is explained

  14. Radon in the spas of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentrations in air and geothermal water of the spa pools in Croatia were measured and the average values of 40.3 and 4.5 kBq/m3 were obtained, respectively. Great difference between radon concentrations in pool and spring water was considered as a result of mixing normal and geothermal water in the pool as well as the radon decay. Estimation of an effective dose, received by the personnel in the Bizovac spa, gave the value of 0.27 mSv/y. At the location Stubica, the transfer factor of the radon for air and thermal water in the pool was calculated, and the value of 4.9 ± 0.7 x 10-3 was obtained

  15. Dosimetric properties of RM-1 radon monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RM-1 is a radon monitor which is based on electret ionization chambers. The dosimetric properties of this instrument were derived by analyzing the relationship between the radon concentration and the electret voltage decrease as specified by the manufacturer. In order to gain insight into the radon concentration profile in dependence on the initial electret surface voltage, the ionization characteristic of the chambers were measured using a point low-activity alpha source. The chambers were found to operate in the saturated region only if the alpha source was placed close enough to the surface of the collecting electrode. The sensitivity of the chambers to gamma radiation was also evaluated. The calculated electrostatic field profiles inside the chamber were used to estimate the field intensity which is still sufficient for the collection of ion pairs produced by the alpha particles that are emitted by radon and its daughter products inside the chambers of the RM-1 system

  16. Whole body counting of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on five adult males that were exposed for one hour to radon and radon daughter products in an exposure chamber and subsequently measured for radon daughter product activity in the chest region by whole body counting methods. The gamma-ray detection rate was approximated by a single exponential with a 35 minute half period, consistent with the physical decay of a mixture of RaB and RaC. About half of the deposited activity was associated with internal deposition and half with external deposition on clothing, skin and hair. The average counting rate from radon daughters on clothing was 10 times the average from skin and hair. Under as well as outer clothing contributed substantially to the counting rate. A strong correlation was found between internal and external deposition indicating that total activity provides a useful index of internal deposition

  17. Indoor Air '93. Particles, microbes, radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was held in Helsinki, Finland, July 4-8, 1993. The proceedings of the conference were published in 6 volumes. The main topics of the volume 5 are: (1) particles, fibers and dust - their concentrations and sources in buildings, (2) Health effects of particles, (3) Need of asbestos replacement and encapsulation, (4) Seasonal and temporal variation of fungal and bacterial concentration, (5) The evaluation of microbial contamination of buildings, (6) New methods and comparison of different methods for microbial sampling and evaluation, (7) Microbes in building materials and HVAC-systems, (8) Prevention of microbial contamination in buildings, (9) Dealing with house dust mites, (10) Radon measurements and surveys in different countries, (11) The identification of homes with high radon levels, (12) The measurement methods and prediction of radon levels in buildings, and (13) Prevention of radon penetration from the soil

  18. Dependency of radon entry on pressure difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon levels, ventilation rate and pressure differences were monitored continuously in four apartment houses with different ventilation systems. Two of them were ventilated by mechanical exhaust, one by mechanical supply and exhaust, and one by natural ventilation. The two-storey houses were constructed from concrete elements on a slab and located on a gravel esker. It was surprising to find that increasing the ventilation rate increased levels of radon in the apartments. Increased ventilation caused increased outdoor-indoor pressure difference, which in turn increased the entry rate of radon and counteracted the diluting effect of ventilation. The increase was significant when the outdoor-indoor pressure difference exceeded 5 Pa. Especially in the houses with mechanical exhaust ventilation the pressure difference was the most important factor of radon entry rate, and contributed up to several hundred Bq m-3h-1. (Author)

  19. Distribution of indoor radon levels in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, G; Rickards, J; Gammage, R B

    1999-01-01

    Our laboratory has carried out a systematic monitoring and evaluation of indoor radon concentration levels in Mexico for ten years. The results of the distribution of indoor radon levels for practically the entire country are presented, together with information on geological characteristics, population density, socioeconomic levels of the population, and architectural styles of housing. The measurements of the radon levels were made using the passive method of nuclear tracks in solids with the end-cup system. CR-39 was used as the detector material in combination with a one-step chemical etching procedure and an automatic digital- image counting system. Wherever a high level was measured, a confirming measurement was made using a dynamic method. The results are important for future health studies, including the eventual establishment of patterns for indoor radon concentration, as it has been done in the USA and Europe.

  20. Radon Transform and Light-Cone Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-05-01

    The relevance of Radon transform for generalized and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions is discussed. The new application for conditional (fracture) parton distributions and dihadron fragmentation functions is suggested.

  1. GEOMETRICALLY INVARIANT WATERMARKING BASED ON RADON TRANSFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Lian; Du Sidan; Gao Duntang

    2005-01-01

    The weakness of classical watermarking methods is the vulnerability to geometrical distortions that widely occur during normal use of the media. In this letter, a new imagewatermarking method is presented to resist Rotation, Scale and Translation (RST) attacks. The watermark is embedded into a domain obtained by taking Radon transform of a circular area selected from the original image, and then extracting Two-Dimensional (2-D) Fourier magnitude of the Radon transformed image. Furthermore, to prevent the watermarked image from degrading due to inverse Radon transform, watermark signal is inversely Radon transformed individually.Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to withstand a variety of attacks including common geometric attacks.

  2. Radon Exhalation Considered in Building Material Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In order to investigate the relationship between radon exhalation and specific activity of natural nuclides in building material, here different kinds of samples of building materials were measured by the

  3. Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Higher incidence rates of childhood cancer and particularly leukemia have been observed in regions with higher radon levels, but case-control studies have given inconsistent results. We tested the hypothesis that domestic radon exposure increases the risk for childhood cancer. Methods......: We identified 2400 incident cases of leukemia, central nervous system tumor, and malignant lymphoma diagnosed in children between 1968 and 1994 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Control children (n = 6697) were selected from the Danish Central Population Registry. Radon levels in residences of children...... and the cumulated exposure of each child were calculated as the product of exposure level and time, for each address occupied during childhood. Results: Cumulative radon exposure was associated with risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with rate ratios of 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0...

  4. Radon transport: laboratory and model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to exploit radon profiles for geophysical purposes and also to estimate its entry indoors, it is necessary to study its transport through porous soils. The great number of involved parameters and processes affecting the emanation of radon from the soil grains and its transport in the source medium has led to many theoretical and/or laboratory studies. The authors report the first results of a laboratory study carried out at the Radioactivity Laboratory of the Department of Physics and Astronomy (University of Catania) by means of a facility for measuring radon concentrations in the sample pores at various depths under well-defined and controlled conditions of physical parameters. In particular, radon concentration vertical profiles extracted in low-moisture samples for different advective fluxes and temperatures were compared with expected concentrations, according to a three-phase transport model developed by Andersen (Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark), showing, in general, a good agreement between measurements and model calculations. (authors)

  5. Measuring radon source magnitude in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of procedures used in residences for rapid grab-sample and time-dependent measurements of the air-exchange rate and radon concentration. The radon source magnitude is calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements of these parameters. Grab-sample measurements in three survey groups comprising 101 US houses showed the radon source magnitude to vary approximately log-normally with a geometric mean of 0.37 and a range of 0.01 to 6.0 pCi 1-1 h-1. Successive measurements in six houses in the northeastern United States showed considerable variability in source magnitude within a given house. In two of these houses the source magnitude showed a strong correlation with the air-exchange rate, suggesting that soil gas influx can be an important transport process for indoor radon

  6. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.drolet@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Martel, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Poulin, Patrick [Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), 945 avenue Wolfe, G1V 5B3 Quebec (Canada); Dessau, Jean-Claude [Agence de la santé et des services sociaux des Laurentides, 1000 rue Labelle, J7Z 5 N6 Saint-Jérome (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for

  7. SURVEY IN KRASNOKAMENSK CITY ON THE CONTENT OF INDOOR RADON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Marennyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Survey of dwellings and enterprises of the Krasnokamensk city on the indoor radon content were performed. The radon volume activity measurements were carried out by integral method with the help of track chambers. Chambers were exhibited in the heating and the warm periods of the year for the 3-4 months in the same premises. The values of equivalent equilibrium volume activity of radon and doses from radon were obtained. It is shown, that the situation with the radon irradiation of the population of Krasnokamensk city in general meets the requirements of the radiation safety standards. Seasonal relations of volume radon activity in the premises are presented.

  8. Radon in Finland: Building regulations and raising public awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New regulations of the National Finnish Building Code require consideration of radon risks and as a main rule radon technical design in the building permission documents. Slab-on-grade is the prevalent substructure in Finnish low-rise residential buildings. Without prevention the normal practices would result in high indoor radon concentrations in Finland. Guidance requires installation of protective sheet in the slab-on-ground foundation and a preparatory radon piping. Municipalities and STUK have launched a new campaign 'Radon bee' (Radontalkoot) in order to increase the measurement and mitigation activity. In 2003-2004 40 municipalities have started the campaign. The campaigns have already resulted in 6000 new radon measurements

  9. A review of radon pollution in buildings in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon concentrations, radon emanation rates from building surfaces, radioactivity contents of building materials and the indoor gamma dose rates for Hong Kong are all in general higher than values obtained elsewhere. An interesting phenomenon has been noted that the values of indoor radon concentrations and radon emanation rates from building surfaces in Hong Kong tend to decrease with the age of the buildings, while the absorbed gamma dose remains about the same. The total average annual effective dose equivalent, and contribution from radon, thoron and their daughters, and that related to building materials will be shown. The number of radon-induced lung cancer deaths will also be discussed. (Author)

  10. Radon levels and transport parameters in Atlantic Forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In natural forest soils, the radon transport processes can be significantly intensified due to the contribution of living organism activities to soil porosity. In this paper, the first results of the radon concentrations were obtained for soil gas from the Atlantic Forest, particularly in the Refugio Ecologico Charles Darwin, Brazil. The estimation of permeability and radon exhalation rate were carried out in this conservation unit. For forested soils, radon concentrations as high as 40 kBq m-3 were found. Based on the radon concentrations and on the permeability parameter, the results indicated considerable radon hazard for human occupation in the neighborhood. (author)

  11. Radon monitoring and Dosimetry in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the concentrations and radiation exposures to the inert and naturally occurring radioactive gas radon (222Rn) in Kilembe copper - cobalt mines and some selected residences around Kampala. The Kilembe copper-cobalt mines are generally deep underground mines situated on the South-Eastern slopes of Mt. Rwenzori in the midst of the western arm of the East African rift system. Kampala is the Capital city of Uganda. Radon gas is produced from the uranium and thorium decay series. Radon concentrations in the mines and residences were investigated using activity concentrations of uranium and thorium, and the radon exhalation rates of ore samples. Concentrations of uranium and thorium in rock samples were determined using the high purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometer. Concentrations of radon gas were determined using the Atmos Radon Gas Monitor. Activity concentrations of uranium and thorium in the Kilembe copper - cobalt mines ranged from 50 to 300 Bqkg-1 and from 5 to 50 Bqkg-1 respectively. Radon gas concentration in Kilembe copper-cobalt mines ranged from 330 to 6980 Bqm-3 and from 10 Bqm-3 to 420 Bqm-3 in residential houses in Kampala. Samples from Kilembe Copper Mines contained mainly pyrites and chalcopyrites. Some of these results are quite high and exceed action levels for concentrations of radon in mines or buildings set by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, International Atomic Energy Agency and several other countries. Radiation exposure to radon in Kilembe copper-cobalt mines and in some selected residences around Kampala ranges from 0.24 mSv/year to 34 mSv/year. Several results of radiation exposure to radon are above 1 mSv/year - the dose limit for the general public and 20 mSv/year - the dose limit for occupational radiation workers. The problem of radiological risk due to radiation exposure to radon affecting some miners and members of the public has been identified and remedies suggested. The concentrations of

  12. Factors Afrecting Passive Monitoring of Radon

    OpenAIRE

    浅野 智宏; Kahn, B.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in th...

  13. Radon measurement in Malaysia water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reported the results of the measurement of radon in local water. The water samples collected were rainwater, river water, seawater, well water or ground water at area of State of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The samples were collected in scintillation cell ZnS(Ag) through Radon Degassing Unit RDU 200. Alpha activity was counted with scintillation counters RD 200 at energy 5.5 MeV. (author)

  14. Radon in British mines: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the occupational hazards experienced by non-coal miners in British mines is presented, with emphasis on the radiation hazards of radon. Topics reviewed include legislation and radiation standards, radiation monitoring methods in Britain, the geology of the Pennine range wherein the tin and fluorspar mines are located, and survey and workplace monitoring results. Lung cancer risk coefficients are derived from radon decay product data and from British epidemiology on lung cancer

  15. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published values оf total population carcinogenic risk from chemical carcinogens.Results: it is shown that the 304 cases of lung cancer per year (1. 85 10-3 on average from 2006 to 2011 (21280diseases for 70 years in addition to background level induced by radon; the differences in average trends of all lungcancer incidence in the districts can exceed 25%.Conclusion. The potential of risk reduction by measures of mitigation radon concentration exceeds 5 times the cost efficiency to reduce emissions from vehicles and can reduce cancer incidence, on average 236 cases per year; population risk 16520 cases over 70 years or save not less than 2832 person-years of life per year. The annual effect of reducing losses from not-survival of 12 years as a result of radon-induced lung cancer deaths exceeds 14160000 dollars. The evaluating of the carcinogenic risk from radon in accordance with the definition of population risk increases the predictive evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive measures more than twice.

  16. Biological indicators of exposure to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of recent investigations into mutagenesis and carcinogenesis due to alpha irradiation by the radon progeny. Studies of the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations after alpha irradiation are given particular attention. In the author's opinion, up to now no useful biological indicator of response to high and low doses of alpha particles has been found, including those of radon on the molecular and cellular level. (A.K.)

  17. Radon in the air of wine cellars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon level differences between cellar types, variation of the radon concentration, the dose to the workers was studied. 222Rn activity concentration in the air of 60 wine cellars in the Tokajhegyalja and Villany wine regions of Hungary have been measured. 222Rn activity concentration in the air of wine cellars spreads over a wild range starting from ambient outdoor concentration of 6 Bqm-3 up to 6 kBqm-3 characteristic for natural caves. (N.T.)

  18. Radon in buildings: a simple detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural background radiation inside buildings can be studied using this simple detection method. Contaminated dust particles adhere readily to a membrane made of soft toilet paper placed across the collection pipe of a vacuum cleaner. Indirect evidence for the abundance of radon in the air can be inferred from measuring the radon daughters on the membrane using a Geiger-Muller tube. Experimental results are presented and discussed. (UK)

  19. Radon capture with silver exchanged zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enable laboratory work with larger amounts of 226Ra and its decay products, e.g., 222Rn and its daughters, these need to be captured in order to avoid unnecessary alpha contamination of the laboratory work space and ventilation systems. In this study, radon gas was pumped through a column filled with the silver exchanged zeolite called 'silver exchanged molecular sieves 13X' (Ag84Na2[(AlO2)86(SiO2)106].xH2O). After exposure to radon, the radioactivity of the zeolite was measured repeatedly using high resolution gamma spectrometry. It was shown that radon was captured and retained in the silver exchanged zeolite. The zeolites' ability to retain radon was decreased by formation of metallic silver, caused by ionizing radiation. However, the zeolite was regenerated by heating and its radon capture ability was restored. The daughters of radon are not in gas phase and will hence stay on the column. (orig.)

  20. Aerosol properties of indoor radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer risks attributable to indoor radon are highly dependent on the properties of radon progeny aerosols which, in turn, are dependent on the nature and concentration of small particles in indoor air. In clean filtered air, radon progeny are attached to small hygroscopic particles of high mobility which are rapidly deposited on surfaces. By contrast, radon progeny attached to cigarette smoke are on large particles of low mobility which persist in air. Radon progeny ingaled by smokers are largely associated with smoke particles from 0.5 to 4.0 μm diameter. Such particles are selectively deposited at bronchial bifurcations and are highly resistant to dissolution. The attached radon progeny undergo a substantial degree of radioactive decay at deposition sites before clearance which gives rise to large alpha radiation doses in small volumes of bronchial epithelium. These processes provide new insights on mechanisms of bronchial cancer induction and on relative risks of lung cancer in smokers, passive smokers, and other non-smokers. (Author)

  1. Dosimetry of inhaled radon and thoron progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews recent developments in modeling doses received by lung tissues, with particular emphasis on application of ICRP's new dosimetric model of the respiratory tract for extrapolating to other environments the established risks from exposure to radon progeny in underground mines. Factors discussed include: (1) the influence of physical characteristics of radon progeny aerosols on dose per unit exposure, e.g., the unattached fraction, and the activity-size distributions of clustered and attached progeny; (2) the dependence of dose on breathing rate, and on the exposed subject (man, woman or child); (3) the variability of dose per unit exposure in a home when exposure is expressed in terms of potential α energy or radon gas concentration; (4) the comparative dosimetry of thoron progeny; and (5) the effects of air-cleaning on lung dose. Also discussed is the apparent discrepancy between lung cancer risk estimates derived purely from dosimetry and the lung cancer incidence observed in the epidemiological studies of radon-exposed underground miners. Application of ICRP's recommended risk factors appears to overestimate radon lung-cancer risk for miners by a factor of three. ''Normalization'' of the calculated effective dose is therefore needed, at least for α dose from radon and thoron progeny, in order to obtain a realistic estimate of lung cancer risk

  2. Intercomparison of soil radon concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October last year the first intercomparison of measurements of the soil radon concentrations between various laboratories in Slovakia was realised. The organisation of this intercomparison was conducted by the Slovak Legal Metrology in Banska Bystrica together with the Slovak National Accreditation Service in Bratislava (SNAS). The scientific guarantee of the exercise was the State metrological Centre for radon quantities, which is working at the Research base of Slovak Medical University in Bratislava. The main objective of the intercomparison was to verify the correctness of the methods for the soil radon measurements of the authorised laboratories for radon volume activities in soil air. The intercomparison (signed as SLM ILC 3/03) was performed as a 'circular' metrology comparison, in accordance with a methodical directive MSA 0117-98, published by SNAS. Six laboratories were participating on the intercomparison and there have been two stages of the work one in the radon chamber of the State metrological Centre and the second in the real field conditions. The results of the exercise have confirmed the capability of the participating laboratories for licensing of their measurements as authorised laboratories. The achieved accuracy, as well as the level of technical skill of the participants are a significant step for quality assurance improvement and for optimisation of the soil radon measurements. (authors)

  3. Detailed radon emanation mapping in Northern Latium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed radon surveys over 5,000 km2 of Northern Latium, covering the northern part of the volcanic province of Central Italy, commenced in the mid eighties as part of a geothermal exploration programme; the surveys have subsequently been continued and amplified with environmental protection in mind. The area is now covered by ground emission maps, radon levels in water supplies, emissions from the different lithologies and concentrations in houses. The high uraniferous content of the volcanics, the porous nature of the ubiquitous pyroclastics, and active geothermal systems in the area combine to convey to ground level high concentrations of radon. The emissions show strong lateral variations which are geologically and tectonically controlled, such that only detailed surveys reveal the extent and locations of anomalous radon emanations. Unfortunately, long ago towns often developed in strategic locations. For Northern Latium this means on volcanic highs formed by faulted tuff blocks, two geological features associated with particularly high radon emissions. As a result, in contrast to the low average indoor radon concentrations for the greater part of Italy, in some of these town the average values exceed 450 Bq/m3. (author). 1 fig

  4. Radon in homes. Council on Scientific Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon 222 and its radioactive decay products can enter buildings and, through inhalation, expose the inhabitants' pulmonary tissues to ionizing radiation. Studies of radon levels in the United States indicate that variations of 100-fold or greater exist among private dwellings. In one region, 55% of homes had levels exceeding 4 pCi/L (0.15 Bq/L), which is the guidance level recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Ventilation and tightness of construction are important determinants of radon levels. In some instances, fans or heat exchangers can reduce excessive concentrations, but in others more elaborate remedial measures may be required. Physicians may obtain information about radon through Environmental Protection Agency regional offices and state radiation control programs. The risk of radiogenic cancer is believed to increase with exposure to ionizing radiation. According to some estimates, concentrations of radon decay products in US homes could be responsible for several thousand cases of lung cancer per year. Studies of radon levels in representative buildings and guidelines are needed to ensure safe, effective, and cost-effective countermeasures. Architects, contractors, designers, building code administrators, health physicists, and biomedical investigators can help with solutions

  5. Radon and lung cancer in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that the incidence of lung cancer is related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters. However, the magnitude of the risk and its dependence upon physiological and environmental factors are still not well defined either experimentally or epidemiologically. Occupational studies of underground miners are the only available human epidemiological information to estimate the risk of exposure to radon daughters in the indoor environment. The results are shown of a study carried out to determine whether lung cancer mortality rates in Spain are significantly correlated with the average indoor radon levels. For this purpose, we have used indoor radon data generated from the national survey carried out in 1989. Lung cancer distribution by cities and deaths, by year of death and sex, were retrieved for each of the different provinces of Spain for the period 1960-1985, showing the evolution and changes in the incidence of lung cancer in the population. Data referring to the evolution of lung cancer for males and females from 1940 until 1985 are also shown. Since cigarette smoking has been linked to lung cancer the effect of smoking habits in the Spanish population was also considered in this analysis. The first results of this study establish no clear evidence of any substantial association between lung cancer mortality rates and indoor radon for males. However, a relationship was evident for females. (author)

  6. Personal radon dosimetry from eyeglass lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyeglass lenses are commonly composed of allyl-diglycol carbonate (CR-39), an alpha-particle detecting plastic, thus making such lenses personal radon dosemeters. Samples of such lenses have been obtained, etched to reveal that radon and radon progeny alpha tracks can be seen in abundance, and sensitivities have been calibrated in radon chambers as a primary calibration, and with a uranium-based source of alpha particles as a convenient secondary standard. With one exception natural, environmental (fossil) track densities ranged from less than 3,000 to nearly 70,000 per cm2 for eyeglasses that had been worn for various times from one to nearly five years. Average radon concentrations to which those wearers were exposed are inferred to be in the range 14 to 130 Bq.m-3 (0.4 to 3.5 pCi.l-1). A protocol for consistent, meaningful readout is derived and used. In the exceptional case the fossil track density was 1,780,000 cm-2, and the inferred (24 h) average radon concentration was 6500 Bq.m-3 (175 pCi.l-1) for a worker at an inactive uranium mine that is used for therapy. (author)

  7. Sampling strategies for indoor radon investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent investigations prompted by concern about the environmental effects of residential energy conservation have produced many accounts of indoor radon concentrations far above background levels. In many instances time-normalized annual exposures exceeded the 4 WLM per year standard currently used for uranium mining. Further investigations of indoor radon exposures are necessary to judge the extent of the problem and to estimate the practicality of health effects studies. A number of trends can be discerned as more indoor surveys are reported. It is becoming increasingly clear that local geological factors play a major, if not dominant role in determining the distribution of indoor radon concentrations in a given area. Within a giving locale, indoor radon concentrations tend to be log-normally distributed, and sample means differ markedly from one region to another. The appreciation of geological factors and the general log-normality of radon distributions will improve the accuracy of population dose estimates and facilitate the design of preliminary health effects studies. The relative merits of grab samples, short and long term integrated samples, and more complicated dose assessment strategies are discussed in the context of several types of epidemiological investigations. A new passive radon sampler with a 24 hour integration time is described and evaluated as a tool for pilot investigations

  8. Radon measurements at the FEMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radon monitoring activities at the DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have been conducted extensively since the early 1980's. Monitoring has been conducted at ambient concentration levels (< 1 pCi/L Rn-222), inside buildings, and at significantly elevated levels (hundreds of thousands pCi/L Rn-222) within the K-65 silo that store concentrated radium bearing wastes. The purpose of this paper/presentation is to present and discuss some of the difficulties encountered/solutions (e.g. reliability, detection limits, affects of environmental factors, data transfer, etc.) that have been discovered while taking measurements using both alpha track-etch passive integrating detectors and alpha scintillation real-time detectors. A short summary and conclusion section is provided following each topic presented

  9. Radon in New York State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of extremely high radon levels in homes in Pennsylvania in 1985 has resulted in a public call for quick action to deal with the problem. Because of the shared geology of the Reading Prong and some common media, residents in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York turned toward their state and local governments looking for assistance. However, the approaches that the states have taken in addressing this problem have differed for a variety of reasons, including differences in the scope and intensity of the problem, the inherent differences in the geography and populations in the states and the nature of each state's governmental decision-making processes. The New York State strategy for addressing the issue is discussed in this report

  10. Airborne radon concentrations in different environments in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little information has been presented average radon concentrations in the living spaces in Korea to date although radon has become a great concern in recent years to the Korean population due to association with the lung cancer risk. Since radon related health risks depends on long-term exposure, it is vital to know the relationship between these short-term measurements and long-term radon concentrations in the different living spaces. Previous studies have shown that many factors may contribute to the temporal and geographic variation in radon entry and retention in living spaces. These factors may differ from one region of the country to another and over time. Thus, it is important that comparisons of different measurement protocols include samples drawn from a broad range of radon sources, different types of environments, and lifestyles. The present work compares the results of short-term and long-term surveys of radon measurements conducted in various areas in Korea that contains average radon-strength sources, different types of living spaces, and different seasons. Most of average airborne radon concentrations using track etch radon detectors were measured in different environments such as houses, subway stations, underground stores, indoor and outdoor office buildings. In addition to these studies, a series of radon surveys using passive integrating radon cup monitors were undertaken in different types of dwellings in Seoul for one year since April 1996, while the same survey using radon discriminative dosimeters were conducted in major six cities in Korea. Radon concentrations in basements in the selected dwellings were higher than those levels measured in the first floor, while indoor radon concentrations were significantly higher than the corresponding outdoor levels at six survey sites. The results suggest the need to more definitely assess sources of radon concentrations as well as to provide more information about technical measurements of different

  11. Evaluation of the effect of radon separators on radon in drinking water from drilled wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32 aeration radon separators, from nine different manufacturers, and one GAC-filter have been studied. They are all commercially available in Sweden. The aeration separators show good results with radon reduction from 95 to over 99 %. All separators have at least some disadvantages regarding the chosen technical solution. The price ranges from 1,000 USD to 2,500 USD. 18 refs

  12. Establishing a regional reference indoor radon level on the basis of radon survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of national reference levels is a new requirement of the ICRP radiological protection system. For protection against indoor radon exposure measures based on a common national reference level tend to be less effective in regions where the probability of high indoor radon concentrations is relatively low in comparison with the national average. Therefore it makes sense to establish individual indoor radon reference levels for large sub-national regions as well as for urban agglomerations separately. Analysis of indoor radon surveys of the territory, taking into account the type of building, year of construction, building material, floor and other factors influencing indoor radon concentration, provides essential and important data for defining the reference level. For Ekaterinburg, Russia it is suggested to set the reference indoor radon concentration to a level of 70 Bq m−3 which corresponds to the 90th percentile of radon concentration in a representative group of buildings constructed in the period 1970–89, in which the lowest average indoor radon concentration was observed. (paper)

  13. Exposure to radon in the radon spa Niška Banja, Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a well-known radon spa Niška Banja in south-east of Serbia. In Niška Banja spa there is a medical complex and radon is used for therapeutic purposes for many different diseases. This paper presents elevated radon levels in the Niška Banja spa. Indoor radon and radon in water activity concentration measurements in thermal pools and therapy rooms are presented. There are also results from gamma spectrometry measurements of soil, rock and therapy mud. A special attention is paid to the medical staff exposure to radon around thermal pools. The annual effective doses from radon for staff working around the thermal pools in Niška Banja spa are very high comparing to the maximum recommendation level. The maximal radon concentration of (22.90 ± 0.57) kBq m−3 was measured in the basement of the hotel-dispensary “Radon”. This hotel is settled on “bigar” rock – travertine, which has high content of 226Ra.

  14. The use of mechanical ventilation with heat recovery for controlling radon and radon-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An energy research house in Maryland was found to have radon concentrations far in excess of recommended guidelines. A mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery was installed in this house to test its effectiveness as an energy-efficient control technique for indoor radon. Radon concentration was monitored continuously for two weeks under varying ventilation conditions (0.07 to 0.8 air changes per hour (ach)) and radon daughter concentrations were measured by grab-sample techniques about nine times daily during this period. At ventilation rates of 0.6 ach and higher radon and radon daughter levels dropped below guidelines for indoor concentrations. Comparison with other studies indicates that indoor radon buildup may be a problem in a considerable portion of houses characterized by their low infiltration rates. The use of mechanical ventilation systems with air-to-air heat exchangers may offer a practical, cost-effective, and energy-efficient means of alleviating not only the radon problem specifically but also the general deterioration of indoor air quality in houses designed or retrofitted to achieve low infiltration

  15. Application of a radon model to explain indoor radon levels in a Swedish house

    CERN Document Server

    Font, L; Jönsson, G; Enge, W; Ghose, R

    1999-01-01

    Radon entry from soil into indoor air and its accumulation indoors depends on several parameters, the values of which normally depend on the specific characteristics of the site. The effect of a specific parameter is often difficult to explain from the result of indoor radon measurements only. The adaptation of the RAGENA (RAdon Generation, ENtry and Accumulation indoors) model to a Swedish house to characterise indoor radon levels and the relative importance of the different radon sources and entry mechanisms is presented. The building is a single-zone house with a naturally-ventilated crawl space in one part and a concrete floor in another part, leading to different radon levels in the two parts of the building. The soil under the house is moraine, which is relatively permeable to radon gas. The house is naturally-ventilated. The mean indoor radon concentration values measured with nuclear track detectors in the crawl-space and concrete parts of the house are respectively 75+-30 and 200+-80 Bq m sup - sup 3...

  16. Carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic effects of radon and radon daughters in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been previously established that lung cancer could be induced in rats by exposure to radon and radon daughters. Although the oat-cell carcinomas that are common in humans were not found in rats, other histological types of lung carcinomas, especially squamous cell carcinomas and primitive lung adenocarcinomas, were similar to those observed in humans. A dose-effect relationship was established for cumulative doses varying from 25 to 300 working-level-months (WLM), which was similar for medium and high cumulative doses to that observed in uranium miners. This experimental protocol was also used to study the potential cocarcinogenic effects of other environmental or industrial airborne pollutants such as tobacco smoke, mineral fibers, diesel exhausts, or minerals from metallic mine ores that may act synergistically with radon exposure. In rats exposed to radon and tobacco smoke combined, the incidence of malignant thoracic tumors was observed in rats exposed to radon and fibers combined, but synergistic effects resulted in additivity. With diesel exhausts or minerals from metallic ores, a slight, nonsignificant increase in the incidence of lung carcinomas was observed compared with rats exposed to radon alone. These results demonstrated that it is possible to establish the potential cocarcinogenic action, showing either multiplicative, additive, or no effect of various environmental or industrial airborne pollutants combined with radon exposure. This radon model is valid for investigating possible interactions between two occupational exposures. 62 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Radon in Africa: South African Lessons Learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon remained a chemical curiosity for decades, promoted at some stage as a health giving gas. Mining related history: (based on ICRP 65) dating back to 15 Century when high mortality from lung cancer was observed among miners in Schneeberg. After the Curies had extracted Radium from Jachymov ores (1898), radon was identified. When measurements were done in Schneeberger and Jachymov mines high concentrations of radon were found. Initially a link was assumed between lung cancer and high radon concentration based on the measurements. (The assumption was not generally accepted).In 1953 William F. Bale indicated that the causative agents of lung cancer was the radon progeny and not radon gas. A possible lung cancer risk to members of the public was discovered very recently (first published results were based on the indoor measurements done in Sweden in a study initiated by Rolf Sievert) Much attention has been given to radon as a radiological health hazard: Recently human exposure to radon progeny in buildings has emerged as an important issue. Lung cancer is the principal concern associated with Rn exposure. The principal concern is associated with radon progeny. These species are chemically reactive, and may be deposited on respiratory tract tissues when inhaled. Subsequent alpha particle decay may damage cells near the deposition site, contributing to increased risk of lung cancer Radon: In Occupational Exposure Protection against Rn Exposure is a Techno-Legal Legal Aspects: There has to be a national legislative framework for the protection of workers against radon The legal framework should entail, inter alia: - Set up of regulator, development of regulations and standards to enable compliance assurance and other protection issues, training of technical people. 10 Legislative Framework in South Africa National Nuclear Regulatory Act (1999) Enables the regulator (NNR) to exercise oversight for Rn protection Occupational Exposure is mainly in Mining and Mineral

  18. Radon as a groundwater tracer in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentrations were measured in different water types in Forsmark and Laxemar during the site investigation and within this study. From these measurements it can be concluded that large differences between surface water, near surface groundwater and deep groundwater can be found in both Laxemar and Forsmark. The differences in radon concentrations between different water types are used in this study to detect interactions between surface water, near surface water and deep groundwater. From the radon measurements it can also be concluded that radon concentration in deep groundwater varies largely with depth. These variations with depth are probably caused by groundwater flow in conductive fracture zones in the bedrock. The focus of this study has been the radon concentration of near surface groundwater and the interaction between near surface groundwater and deep groundwater. Radon measurements have been done using the RAD-7 radon detector within this study. It could be concluded that RAD-7 is a good technique for radon measurements and also easy to use in field. The radon concentrations measured in near surface groundwater in Laxemar within this study were low and homogenous. The variation in radon concentration has been analyses and compared to other parameters. Since the hypothesis of this study has been that there are differences in radon concentrations between recharging and discharging groundwater, the most important parameter to consider is the recharge/discharge field classification of the wells. No correlation between the recharge/discharge classifications of wells and the radon concentrations were found. The lack of correlation between groundwater flow patterns and radon concentration means that it is not possible to detect flow patterns in near surface groundwater using radon as a tracer in the Laxemar area. The lack of correlation can be caused by the fact that there are just a few wells located in areas classified as recharge area. It can also be

  19. A statistical evaluation of the geogenic controls on indoor radon concentrations and radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANOVA is used to show that approximately 25% of the total variation of indoor radon concentrations in England and Wales can be explained by the mapped bedrock and superficial geology. The proportion of the total variation explained by geology is higher (up to 37%) in areas where there is strong contrast between the radon potential of sedimentary geological units and lower (14%) where the influence of confounding geological controls, such as uranium mineralisation, cut across mapped geological boundaries. When indoor radon measurements are grouped by geology and 1-km squares of the national grid, the cumulative percentage of the variation between and within mapped geological units is shown to be 34-40%. The proportion of the variation that can be attributed to mapped geological units increases with the level of detail of the digital geological data. This study confirms the importance of radon maps that show the variation of indoor radon concentrations both between and within mapped geological boundaries.

  20. Multivariate signal processing in measurements of radon and radon daughters in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive measurements of radon and radon daughters concentration gauge in a radon chamber were carried out. Count rate 'spectra' against time at the output of radiation detectors were measured and registered. The count rate spectra were then processed employing Principal Component Regression (PCR). A root mean square error of the count rate was estimated. It was found that PCR processing removes a great part of count rate random fluctuations originating from the radiation statistics that results in a decrease of count rate random error. The root mean square error of count rate in a radon daughter monitor is about 3 times lower, which is equivalent to the error of the gauge with a 9 times higher air flow rate if no PCR processing is used. In case of the radon concentration gauge the increase of sensitivity is even higher and amounts to 5 times. (author)

  1. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: March 3, 2011 Page ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Contact Us: Agency for Toxic Substances and ...

  2. Intercomparison of active and passive instruments for radon and radon progeny in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intercomparison exercise for radon and radon progeny instruments and methods was held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) from April 22--May 2, 1994. The exercise was conducted in the new EML radon test and calibration facility in which conditions of exposure are very well controlled. The detection systems of the intercompared instruments consisted of. (1) pulse ionization chambers, (2) electret ionization chambers, (3) scintillation detectors, (4) alpha particle spectrometers with silicon diodes, surface barrier or diffused junction detectors, (5) registration of nuclear tracks in solid-state materials, and (6) activated carbon collectors counted by gamma-ray spectrometry or by alpha- and beta-liquid scintillation counting. 23 private firms, government laboratories and universities participated with a 165 passive integrating devices consisting of: Activated carbon collectors, nuclear alpha track detectors and electret ionization chambers, and 11 active and passive continuous radon monitors. Five portable integrating and continuous instruments were intercompared for radon progeny. Forty grab samples for radon progeny were taken by five groups that participated in person to test and evaluate their primary instruments and methods that measure individual radon progeny and the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) in indoor air. Results indicate that more than 80% of the measurements for radon performed with a variety of instruments, are within ±10% of actual value. The majority of the instruments that measure individual radon progeny and the PAEC gave results that are in good agreement with the EML reference value. Radon progeny measurements made with continuous and integrating instruments are satisfactory with room for improvement

  3. Radon exhalation rates of some granites used in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mladen D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address concern about radon exhalation in building material, radon exhalation rate was determined for different granites available on Serbian market. Radon exhalation rate, along with mass exhalation rate and effective radium content were determined by closed chamber method and active continuous radon measurement technique. For this research, special chambers were made and tested for back diffusion and leakage, and the radon concentrations measured were included in the calculation of radon exhalation. The radon exhalation rate ranged from 0.161 Bq/m2h to 0.576 Bq/m2h, the mass exhalation rate from 0.167 Bq/kgh to 0.678 Bq/kgh, while the effective radium content was found to be from 12.37 Bq/kg to 50.23 Bq/kg. The results indicate that the granites used in Serbia have a low level of radon exhalation.

  4. Assessment of radon levels in some water resources in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is produced by the radioactive decay of radium. Breathing high concentrations of radon can cause lung cancer. When radon gas migrates through the atmosphere, the solid radon progeny are deposited on the soil and water below, entering into the food chain. Radon generated from rocks containing its parents may escape to the underground or surface running water, which ultimately used as drinking water or for irrigation. In this work radon level was determined in different water resources in Egypt. Water from spring, tap water Nile and some commercially available drinking water were subjected to radon measurements using CR-39 detectors. Radon concentration in different water resources was found the range from 8.94 to 10.00 Bq/m3 while in trapped air above water was 9.3 to 10.38 Bq/m3

  5. Measurement of radon diffusion length in thin membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building regulations in Israel require the insulating of buildings against radon 222Rn penetration from soil. In radon-prone areas membranes stretched between the soil and the building foundation are used, together with sealing other possible penetration routes. Designing the radon mitigation procedure requires checking that all sealing materials are practically, radon tight, having a thickness of at least three times the radon diffusion length. In this work, a very simple technique to evaluate the radon diffusion length in thin membranes, using a radon source of known activity and an activated charcoal canister as radon detector is presented. The theoretical formalism and measurement results for polyethylene membranes of different densities obtained in a recent comparison exercise are presented. (authors)

  6. Radon exhalation from some finishing materials frequently used in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building materials are one of the main radon sources in dwellings. Therefore, the determination of radon exhalation from these materials will help in prediction the existence of dwelling with potential radon risk. Ceramic tiles and marble samples were collected from Syrian local market. The correlation between radon exhalation from these materials and radium-226 content was studied. Results showed that there is no clear relation between radium content and radon exhalation rate, and the exhalation of radon did not exceed the permissible limits of American Environment Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, the additional annual dose from radon and gamma of the natural radioactivity in ceramic and marble when used as finishing materials in houses was also estimated and found to be not exceeding 20 μSv and 35 μSv from radon and gamma respectively.

  7. How to Ensure Low Radon Concentrations in Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Wraber, Ida Kristina

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on methods for measuring radon levels in the indoor air in buildings as well as on concrete solutions that can be carried out in the building to prevent radon leakage and to lower the radon concentration in the indoor air of new buildings. The radon provision in the new Danish...... Building Regulations from 2010 has been tightened as a result of new recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for its harmfulness. It is therefore important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible in new...... buildings. The airtightness is a major factor when dealing with radon in buildings. Above the ground it is important to build airtight in compliance with energy requirements and against the ground it is important to prevent radon from seeping into the building. There is a direct connection between a...

  8. The reliability of radon as seismic precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilian Toader, Victorin; Moldovan, Iren Adelina; Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2016-04-01

    Our multidisciplinary network (AeroSolSys) located in Vrancea (Curvature Carpathian Mountains) includes radon concentration monitoring in five stations. We focus on lithosphere and near surface low atmosphere phenomena using real-time information about seismicity, + / - ions, clouds, solar radiation, temperature (air, ground), humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, telluric currents, variations of the local magnetic field, infrasound, variations of the atmospheric electrostatic field, variations in the earth crust with inclinometers, electromagnetic activity, CO2 concentration, ULF radio wave propagation, seismo-acoustic emission, animal behavior. The main purpose is to inform the authorities about risk situation and update hazard scenarios. The radon concentration monitoring is continuously with 1 hour or 3 hours sample rate in locations near to faults in an active seismic zone characterized by intermediate depth earthquakes. Trigger algorithms include standard deviation, mean and derivative methods. We correlate radon concentration measurements with humidity, temperature and atmospheric pressure from the same equipment. In few stations we have meteorological information, too. Sometime the radon concentration has very high variations (maxim 4535 Bq/m3 from 106 Bq/m3) in short time (1 - 2 days) without being accompanied by an important earthquake. Generally the cause is the high humidity that could be generated by tectonic stress. Correlation with seismicity needs information from minimum 6 month in our case. For 10605 hours, 618 earthquakes with maxim magnitude 4.9 R, we have got radon average 38 Bq/m3 and exposure 408111 Bqh/m3 in one station. In two cases we have correlation between seismicity and radon concentration. In other one we recorded high variation because the location was in an area with multiple faults and a river. Radon can be a seismic precursor but only in a multidisciplinary network. The anomalies for short or long period of

  9. Radon in drinking water in the Bialystok Region in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is one of the indoor sources of 222Rn. As radon is soluble in water, it is carried indoor by water supply and there it is released. The presence of radon in groundwaters is caused by direct migration of 222Rn from rocks and soil to waters as well as by radium content in water. Radon inflow indoor is possible in the areas where drinking water shows high radon concentration. Radon concentration changes significantly from low in natural surface water to relatively high from water in drilled wells. It is estimated that out of 10,000 Bq·m-3 of radon contained in water supply we can obtain radon concentration increase by 1 Bq·m-3 indoor. The aim of the study was to measure radon in water supply in the Bialystok region and also estimation of doses and investigation how the treatment influenced radon concentration in water. Water was collected from rural and municipal waterworks as well as from home wells. Measurements of radon concentration in particular stages of drawing and treatment of water in Bialystok waterworks were also conducted. A liquid scintillation method was used in the study. The arithmetic mean of radon concentrations in the samples was equal to 5800 Bq·m-3, median - 4800 Bq·m-3, and geometric mean - 4600 Bq·m-3. The lowest values of radon concentration were observed in surface waters (from surface intake). Radon concentrations in waters from drilled wells, shallow home wells and surface intake were compared and statistically significant differences were obtained at p < 0.05. The results of radon concentrations in drinking water in the Bialystok area revealed radon-poor waters (88%) and low-radon waters (12%). (authors)

  10. The standardisation of radon and thoron emanation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actinide in air monitoring has to be achieved against a background of airborne radon and thoron daughters which interfere with measurements. Radon and thoron originate in building materials and sub soil, and diffuse into the working air space. To reduce background levels the contribution from each source needs to be evaluated. This report critically examines techniques for measuring radon and thoron emanation rates from building materials and structures, and transmission efficiencies of radon and thoron through paints and other barriers. (author)

  11. Measurement of environmental radon at Mangalore Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil is the major contributing source for Radon. A comprehensive study has been carried out at Mangalore, Karnataka, under which radon soil gas concentration, radon surface and mass exhalation rate from the soil has been measured. Data generated in this study would be useful to obtain the multi parameter such as source term, radon diffusion length, soil properties etc. as well as to validate the diffusion-time model. (author)

  12. Anomalous radon emanation linked to preseismic electromagnetic phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Omori, Y.; Yasuoka, Y.; H. Nagahama; Kawada, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Tokonami, S.; Shinogi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous emanation of radon (222Rn) was observed preceding large earthquakes and is considered to be linked to preseismic electromagnetic phenomena (e.g. great changes of atmospheric electric field and ionospheric disturbances). Here we analyze atmospheric radon concentration and estimate changes of electrical conditions in atmosphere due to preseismic radon anomaly. The increase of radon emanation obeys crustal damage evolution, following a power-law of time-to-earthq...

  13. First results of the Austrian radon mitigation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives of the Austrian radon mitigation research project were to find cost-effective methods for characterizing the radon situation of dwellings and to evaluate the implementation of remedial actions for Austrian house types. Three houses in regions with elevated radon levels were closely examined. The methods used for radon diagnosis and the mitigation concept are described. The conception and implementation of proposed remedial actions are highlighted. Preliminary results of the investigations and remedial actions are presented. (A.K.)

  14. Slovenian approach in managing exposure to radon at workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon was surveyed in all the kindergartens and schools, major hospitals, water plants, wineries, spas, in a number of other public buildings, and karst caves with emphasis on the Postojna Cave (Slovenia). In addition to radon, also the concentration of radon short-lived decay products, equilibrium factor between radon and decay products, and unattached fraction of decay products have been monitored. Effective doses were calculated and used as a criterion to require remediation. (author)

  15. Are radon gas measurements adequate for epidemiological studies and case control studies of radon-induced lung cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lung dose derived from radon is not attributed to the radon gas itself, but instead to its short-lived progeny. However, in many epidemiological studies as well as in case control studies of the radon risk, the excess number of cancers are related to the radon gas exposure, and not to the radon progeny exposure. A justification for such an approach has resorted to the assumption that there is self-compensation between the radiation doses from the unattached and attached fractions. In the present study, we used the Jacobi model to calculate the radon progeny concentrations in a room by varying the attachment rate and then calculated the resulting lung dose. It was found that self-compensation was not fully realised, and the effective dose can vary by a factor up to ∼2 for the same radon gas concentration. In conclusion, the radon gas concentration alone does not provide adequate information on the effective dose. (authors)

  16. Assessment of indoor radon pollution released from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the indoor radon comes directly from soil beneath the basement or foundations. Recently, radon released from groundwater is found to contribute to the total inhalation risk from indoor air. This study presents the quantitative assessment of human exposures to radon released from the groundwater into indoor air. At first, a three compartment model is developed to describe the transfer and distribution of radon released from groundwater in a house through showering, washing clothes, and flushing toilets. Then, to estimate a daily human exposure through inhalation of such radon for an adult, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model is developed. The use of a PBPK model for the inhaled radon could provide the useful information regarding the distribution of radon among the organs of the human body. Indoor exposure patterns as input to the PBPK model are a more realistic situation associated with indoor radon pollution generated from a three compartment model describing volatilization of radon from domestic water into household air. Combining the two models for inhaled radon in indoor air can be used to estimate a quantitative human exposure through the inhalation of indoor radon for adults based on two sets of exposure scenarios. The results obtained from the study would help increase the quantitative understanding of risk assessment issues associated with the indoor radon released from groundwater

  17. The latest trend of the research on radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Hiroshi [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1996-12-01

    In June, 1995, the international conference of sixth Natural Radiation Environment was held in Montreal. More than 80% of more than 200 published researches were concerned with radon and thoron. The participants came from 32 countries. The classification of the research on radon and the number of the publication are shown. The contents of the researches in respective items of measuring method, concentration level and dose evaluation, indoor model and indoor and outdoor radon balance, the countermeasures for reducing indoor radon, radon potential, dose evaluation model, the particle size distribution of aerosol including the particle size distribution of free daughter nuclides and radon in the atmosphere are described. The research on the radon in water is excluded. The most remarkable trend is the theme of radon potential. The trend of connecting the research on radon in soil and the research on dissipation rate to radon potential and the forecast of indoor and outdoor radon concentration seems to become stronger. As to the research on concentration level, the detection of hot spots and the supplementary measurement for clarifying cause are carried out in the advanced countries concerning radon based on the results of survey in whole country. The researches in schools are conspicuous. (K.I.)

  18. Study of radon transport through concrete modified with silica fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of radon in soil usually varies between a few kBq/m3 and tens or hundreds of kBq/m3 depending upon the geographical region. This causes the transport of radon from the soil to indoor environments by diffusion and advection through the pore space of concrete. To reduce indoor radon levels, the use of concrete with low porosity and a low radon diffusion coefficient is recommended. A method of reducing the radon diffusion coefficient through concrete and hence the indoor radon concentration by using silica fume to replace an optimum level of cement was studied. The diffusion coefficient of the concrete was reduced from (1.63 ± 0.3) × 10−7 to (0.65 ± 0.01) × 10−8 m2/s using 30% substitution of cement with silica fume. The compressive strength of the concrete increased as the silica-fume content increased, while radon exhalation rate and porosity of the concrete decreased. This study suggests a cost-effective method of reducing indoor radon levels. -- Highlights: • Radon diffusion study through silica fume modified concrete was carried out. • Radon diffusion coefficient of concrete decreased with increase of silica fume contents. • Compressive strength increased with increase of silica fume. • Radon exhalation rates and porosity of samples decreased with addition of silica fume. • Radon diffusion coefficient decreased to 2.6% by 30% silica fume substitution

  19. From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan

    2004-01-01

    We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated.

  20. Ionization chamber radon monitor with pulse counting mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a special need for continuous radon meters in studying radon entry and possible countermeasures against high radon concentrations in existing houses. In these studies, a wide concentration range and a fast response are required, as is a movable sampling probe for active sampling. In addition, the meters have to be portable to be suited for field use