Sample records for astatine additions

  1. Astatine-211: production and availability. (United States)

    Zalutsky, Michael R; Pruszynski, Marek


    The 7.2-h half life radiohalogen (211)At offers many potential advantages for targeted α-particle therapy; however, its use for this purpose is constrained by its limited availability. Astatine-211 can be produced in reasonable yield from natural bismuth targets via the (209)Bi(α,2n)(211)At nuclear reaction utilizing straightforward methods. There is some debate as to the best incident α-particle energy for maximizing 211At production while minimizing production of (210)At, which is problematic because of its 138.4-day half life α-particle emitting daughter, (210)Po. The intrinsic cost for producing (211)At is reasonably modest and comparable to that of commercially available (123)I. The major impediment to (211)At availability is attributed to the need for a medium energy α-particle beam for its production. On the other hand, there are about 30 cyclotrons in the world that have the beam characteristics required for (211)At production.

  2. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, S; Antalic, S; Borschevsky, A; Capponi, L; Cocolios, T E; De Witte, H; Eliav, E; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V N; Fink, D A; Fritzsche, S; Ghys, L; Huyse, M; Imai, N; Kaldor, U; Kudryavtsev, Yu; Köster, U; Lane, J; Lassen, J; Liberati, V; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Nishio, K; Pauwels, D; Pershina, V; Popescu, L; Procter, T J; Radulov, D; Raeder, S; Rajabali, M M; Rapisarda, E; Rossel, R E; Sandhu, K; Seliverstov, M D; Sjödin, A M; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Venhart, M; Wakabayashi, Y; Wendt K D A


    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of smallest quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the ionization threshold. The observed series of Rydberg states enabled the first determination of the ionization potential of the astatine atom, 9.317510(8) eV. New ab initio calculations were performed to support the experimental result. The measured value serves as a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations of the properties of astatine as well as for the theoretical prediction of the ionization potential of super-heavy element 117, the heaviest homologue of astatine.

  3. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion source RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE, CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, Sebastian; Nörtershäuser, W

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at ISOLDE, CERN, by the addition of an all-solid state tuneable titanium: sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE, CERN, and at ISAC, TRIUMF, radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  4. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Sebastian


    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  5. Spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsson, U., E-mail:; Cederwall, B. [KTH, The Division of Nuclear Physics, AlbaNova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Uusitalo, J.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Cox, D. M.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Herzáň, A.; Konki, J.; Leino, M.; Mallaburn, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); and others


    Low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei have been studied by means of in-beam and delayed spectroscopy. The 13/2{sup +} state has been observed in francium nuclei with a similar down-sloping trend as in neighbouring astatine and bismuth isotopes, as a function of decreasing neutron number. A systematic trend can also now be seen for the 1/2{sup +} state both in astatine and francium nuclei, where the level energy decreases steeply as a function of neutron number when moving further away from the neutron shell closure. This trend is very similar between astatine nuclei and their francium isotones. Moreover, shape coexistence has been observed between the 13/2{sup +} state and the spherical 9/2{sup −} ground state in {sup 203}Fr and {sup 205}Fr.

  6. Automated astatination of biomolecules - a stepping stone towards multicenter clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aneheim, Emma; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom


    and physical properties for use in targeted therapies for cancer. Due to the very short range of the emitted α-particles, this therapy is particularly suited to treating occult, disseminated cancers. Astatine is not intrinsically tumour-specific; therefore, it requires an appropriate tumour-specific targeting......To facilitate multicentre clinical studies on targeted alpha therapy, it is necessary to develop an automated, on-site procedure for conjugating rare, short-lived, alpha-emitting radionuclides to biomolecules. Astatine-211 is one of the few alpha-emitting nuclides with appropriate chemical...

  7. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothe, S.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Borschevsky, A.; Capponi, L.; Cocolios, T. E.; De Witte, H.; Eliav, E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fink, D. A.; Fritzsche, S.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Imai, N.; Kaldor, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Koester, U.; Lane, J. F. W.; Lassen, J.; Liberati, V.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Nishio, K.; Pauwels, D.; Pershina, V.; Popescu, L.; Procter, T. J.; Radulov, D.; Raeder, S.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rapisarda, E.; Rossel, R. E.; Sandhu, K.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjoedin, A. M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wendt, K. D. A.


    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of the minute quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviou


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as a viable approach for cancer treatment because of its potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to malignant cell populations while sparing normal tissues. Alpha particles such as those emitted by 211At are particularly attractive for this purpose because of their short path length in tissue and high energy, making them highly effective in killing cancer cells. The current impact of targeted radiotherapy in the clinical domain remains limited despite the fact that in many cases, potentially useful molecular targets and labeled compounds have already been identified. Unfortunately, putting these concepts into practice has been impeded by limitations in radiochemistry methodologies. A critical problem is that the synthesis of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals provides additional challenges in comparison to diagnostic reagents because of the need to perform radio-synthesis at high levels of radioactivity. This is particularly important for {alpha}-particle emitters such as 211At because they deposit large amounts of energy in a highly focal manner. The overall objective of this project is to develop convenient and reproducible radiochemical methodologies for the radiohalogenation of molecules with the {alpha}-particle emitter 211At at the radioactivity levels needed for clinical studies. Our goal is to address two problems in astatine radiochemistry: First, a well known characteristic of 211At chemistry is that yields for electrophilic astatination reactions decline as the time interval after radionuclide isolation from the cyclotron target increases. This is a critical problem that must be addressed if cyclotrons are to be able to efficiently supply 211At to remote users. And second, when the preparation of high levels of 211At-labeled compounds is attempted, the radiochemical yields can be considerably lower than those encountered at tracer dose. For these reasons, clinical evaluation of promising 211At

  9. Laser photodetachment of radioactive ions: towards the determination of the electronegativity of astatine

    CERN Multimedia

    Rothe, Sebastian; Welander, Jakob Emanuel; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Fedosseev, Valentine; Fiotakis, Spyridon; Forstner, Oliver; Heinke, Reinhard Matthias; Johnston, Karl; Kron, Tobias; Koester, Ulli; Liu, Yuan; Marsh, Bruce; Ringvall Moberg, Annie; Rossel, Ralf Erik; Seiffert, Christoph; Studer, Dominik; Wendt, Klaus; Hanstorp, Dag


    Negatively charged ions are mainly stabilized through the electron correlation effect. A measure of the stability of a negative ion is the electron affinity, which the energy gain by attaching an electron to a neutral atom. This fundamental quantity is, due to the almost general lack of bound excited states, the only atomic property that can be determined with high accuracy for negative ions. We will present the results of the first laser photodetachment studies of radioactive negative ions at CERN-ISOLDE. The photodetachment threshold for the radiogenic iodine isotope 128I was measured successfully, demonstrating the performance of the upgraded GANDALPH experimental beam line. The first detection of photo-detached astatine atoms marks a milestone towards the determination of the EA of this radioactive element.

  10. Determination of the electron affinity of astatine and polonium by laser photodetachment

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to conduct the first electron affinity (EA) measurements of the two elements astatine (At) and polonium (Po). Collinear photo-detachment spectroscopy will allow us to measure these quantities with an uncertainty limited only by the spectral line width of the laser. We plan to use negative ion beams of the two radioactive elements At and Po, which are only accessible on-line and at ISOLDE. The feasibility of our proposed method and the functionality of the experimental setup have been demonstrated at ISOLDE in off-line tests by the clear observation of the photo-detachment threshold for stable iodine. This proposal is based on our Letter of Intent I-148.

  11. Ionization potentials, electron affinities, resonance excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and ionic radii of element Uus (Z = 117) and astatine. (United States)

    Chang, Zhiwei; Li, Jiguang; Dong, Chenzhong


    Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method was employed to calculate the first five ionization potentials, electron affinities, resonance excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and radii for the element Uus and its homologue At. Main valence correlation effects were taken into account. The Breit interaction and QED effects were also estimated. The uncertainties of calculated IPs, EAs, and IR for Uus and At were reduced through an extrapolation procedure. The good consistency with available experimental and other theoretical values demonstrates the validity of the present results. These theoretical data therefore can be used to predict some unknown physicochemical properties of element Uus, Astatine, and their compounds.

  12. Radiobiological Effects of Alpha-Particles from Astatine-211: From DNA Damage to Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claesson, Kristina


    In recent years, the use of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for radiotherapeutic applications has gained increased interest. Astatine-211 (211At) is an alpha-particle emitting radionuclide, promising for targeted radioimmunotherapy of isolated tumor cells and microscopic clusters. To improve development of safe radiotherapy using 211At it is important to increase our knowledge of the radiobiological effects in cells. During radiotherapy, both tumors and adjacent normal tissue will be irradiated and therefore, it is of importance to understand differences in the radio response between proliferating and resting cells. The aim of this thesis was to investigate effects in fibroblasts with different proliferation status after irradiation with alpha-particles from 211At or X-rays, from inflicted DNA damage, to cellular responses and biological consequences. Throughout this work, irradiation was performed with alpha-particles from 211A or X-rays. The induction and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human normal fibroblasts were investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and fragment analysis. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 211At for DSB induction varied between 1.4 and 3.1. A small increase of DSBs was observed in cycling cells compared to stationary cells. The repair kinetics was slower after 211At and more residual damage was found after 24 h. Comparison between cells with different proliferation status showed that the repair was inefficient in cycling cells with more residual damage, regardless of radiation quality. Activation of cell cycle arrests was investigated using immunofluorescent labeling of the checkpoint kinase Chk2 and by measuring cell cycle distributions with flow cytometry analysis. After alpha-particle irradiation, the average number of Chk2-foci was larger and the cells had a more affected cell cycle progression for several weeks compared with X-irradiated cells, indicating a more powerful arrest after 211At

  13. Final Report for research grant "Development of Methods for High Specific Activity Labeling of Biomolecules Using Astatine-211 in Different Oxidation States"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, D., Scott


    The overall objective of this research effort was to develop methods for labeling biomolecules with higher oxidation state species of At-211. This was to be done in an effort to develop reagents that had higher in vivo stability than the present carbon-bonded At-211-labeled compounds. We were unsuccessful in that effort, as none of the approaches studied provided reagents that were stable to in vivo deastatination. However, we gained a lot of information about At-211 in higher oxidation states. The studies proved to be very difficult as small changes in pH and other conditions appeared to change the nature of the species that obtained (by HPLC retention time analyses), with many of the species being unidentifiable. The fact that there are no stable isotopes of astatine, and the chemistry of the nearest halogen iodine is quite different, made it very difficult to interpret results of some experiments. With that said, we believe that a lot of valuable information was obtained from the studies. The research effort evaluated: (1) methods for chemical oxidation of At-211, (2) approaches to chelation of oxidized At-211, and (3) approaches to oxidation of astatophenyl compounds. A major hurdle that had to be surmounted to conduct the research was the development of HPLC conditions to separate and identify the various oxidized species formed. Attempts to develop conditions for separation of iodine and astatine species by normal and reversed-phase TLC and ITLC were not successful. However, we were successful in developing conditions (from a large number of attempts) to separate oxidized forms of iodine ([I-125]iodide, [I-125]iodate and [I-125]periodate) and astatine ([At-211]astatide, [At-211]astatate, [At-211]perastatate, and several unidentified At-211 species). Information on the basic oxidation and characterization of At-211 species is provided under Objective 1. Conditions were developed to obtain new At-211 labeling method where At-211 is chelated with the DOTA and

  14. Final Report for grant entitled "Production of Astatine-211 for U.S. Investigators"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, Daniel Scott


    Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides hold great promise in the therapy of cancer, but few alpha-emitters are available to investigators to evaluate. Of the alpha-emitters that have properties amenable for use in humans, 211At is of particular interest as it does not have alpha-emitting daughter radionuclides. Thus, there is a high interest in having a source of 211At for sale to investigators in the US. Production of 211At is accomplished on a cyclotron using an alpha-particle beam irradiation of bismuth metal. Unfortunately, there are few cyclotrons available that can produce an alpha particle beam for that production. The University of Washington has a cyclotron, one of three in the U.S., that is currently producing 211At. In the proposed studies, the things necessary for production and shipment of 211At to other investigators will be put into place at UW. Of major importance is the efficient production and isolation of 211At in a form that can be readily used by other investigators. In the studies, production of 211At on the UW cyclotron will be optimized by determining the best beam energy and the highest beam current to maximize 211At production. As it would be very difficult for most investigators to isolate the 211At from the irradiated target, the 211At-isolation process will be optimized and automated to more safely and efficiently obtain the 211At for shipment. Additional tasks to make the 211At available for distribution include obtaining appropriate shipping vials and containers, putting into place the requisite standard operating procedures for Radiation Safety compliance at the levels of 211At activity to be produced / shipped, and working with the Department of Energy, Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program, to take orders, make shipments and be reimbursed for costs of production and shipment.

  15. Production of Astatine-211 at the Duke University Medical Center for its regional distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalutsky, Michael [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)


    Systemic targeted radiation therapy and radioimmunotherapy continue to be important tools in the treatment of certain cancers. Because of their high energy and short path length, alpha particle emitters such as 211At are more effective than either external beam x- ray or in vivo beta radiation in delivering potentially curative doses of radiation. The limited clinical trials that have been conducted to date have yielded encouraging responses in some patients, e.g., malignant brain tumors. In order to escalate the additional necessary research and development in radiochemistry, radiobiology and efficacy evaluation of alpha particle radiotherapeutics, it is universally agreed that access to an affordable, reliable supply of 211At is warranted. In conjunction with the Department of Energy's intent to enhance stable and radioactive isotope availability for research applications, it is the primary objective of this project to improve 211At production and purification capabilities at Duke so that this radionuclide can be supplied to researchers at other institutions throughout the US.The most widely used 211At production method involves the α,2n reaction on Bismuth using a cyclotron with beams ≤ 28 MeV. Yields can be enhanced with use of an internal target that allows for a higher alpha fluence plus efficient heat dissipation in the target. Both of these items are in place at Duke; however, in order to support production for multi-institutional use, irradiation campaigns in excess of 50 µAp and four hours duration will be needed. Further, post-irradiation processing equipment is lacking that will enable the distribution process. Financial support is sought for i) a shielded, ventilated processing/containment hood; ii) development of a post-irradiation target retrieval system; iii) fabrication of a 211At distillation and recovery module and iv) a performance review and, where needed, an enhancement of seven

  16. An automated flow system incorporating in-line acid dissolution of bismuth metal from a cyclotron irradiated target assembly for use in the isolation of astatine-211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Hara, Matthew J.; Krzysko, Anthony J.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Dorman, Eric F.; Scott Wilbur, D.


    Astatine-211 (211At) is a promising cyclotron-produced radionuclide being investigated for use in targeted alpha therapy of blood borne and metastatic cancers, as well as treatment of tumor remnants after surgical resections. The isolation of trace quantities of 211At, produced within several grams of a Bi metal cyclotron target, involves a complex, multi-step procedure: (1) Bi metal dissolution in strong HNO3, (2) distillation of the HNO3 to yield Bi salts containing 211At, (3) dissolution of the salts in strong HCl, (4) solvent extraction of 211At from bismuth salts with diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and (5) back-extraction of 211At from DIPE into NaOH, leading to a purified 211At product. Step (1) has been addressed first to begin the process of automating the onerous 211At isolation process. A computer-controlled Bi target dissolution system has been designed. The system performs in-line dissolution of Bi metal from the target assembly using an enclosed target dissolution block, routing the resulting solubilized 211At/Bi mixture to the subsequent process step. The primary parameters involved in Bi metal solubilization (HNO3 concentration and influent flow rate) were optimized prior to evaluation of the system performance on replicate cyclotron irradiated targets. The results indicate that the system performs reproducibly, having nearly quantitative release of 211At from irradiated targets, with cumulative 211At recoveries that follow a sigmoidal function. The predictable nature of the 211At release profile allows the user to tune the system to meet target processing requirements.

  17. Food additives (United States)

    ... this page: // Food additives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food additives are substances that become part of a food ...

  18. Additivity dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin


    Full Text Available Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned. In support of this, skim milk (with major subtraction of fat is rated as more natural than whole milk with a small amount of natural vitamin D added. It is also noted that ``additives'' is a common word, with a synonym reported by a native speaker in 17 of 18 languages, whereas ``subtractive'' is lexicalized in only 1 of the 18 languages. We consider reasons for additivity dominance, relating it to omission bias, feature positive bias, and notions of purity.

  19. Potlining Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf Keller


    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  20. Additivity dominance



    Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA) that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned....

  1. Evaluation of Novel Wet Chemistry Separation and Purification Methods to Facilitate Automation of Astatine-­211 Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, Daniel Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    This research is a collaborative effort between the research groups of the PIs, Dr. D. Scott Wilbur in the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Washington (UW) and Matthew O’Hara at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In this report only those studies conducted at UW and the budget information from UW will be reported. A separate progress and financial report will be provided by PNNL. This final report outlines the experiments (Tasks) conducted and results obtained at UW from July 1, 2013 thru June 30, 2016 (2-­year project with 1 year no-­cost extension). The report divides the information on the experiments and results obtained into the 5 specific objectives of the research efforts and the Tasks within those objectives. This format is used so that it is easy to see what has been accomplished in each area. A brief summary of the major findings from the studies is provided below. Summary of Major Findings from Research/Training Activities at UW: Anion and cation exchange columns did not provide adequate 211At capture and/or extraction results under conditions studied to warrant further evaluation; PEG-­Merrifield resins containing mPEG350, mPEG750, mPEG2000 and mPEG5000 were synthesized and evaluated; All of the mPEG resins with different sized mPEG moieties conjugated gave similar 211At capture (>95%) from 8M HCl solutions and release with conc. NH4OH (~50-­80%), but very low quantities were released when NaOH was used as an eluent; Capture and release of 211At when loading [211At]astatate appeared to be similar to that of [211At]astatide on PEG columns, but further studies need to be conducted to confirm that; Capture of 211At on PEG columns was lower (e.g. 80-­90%) from solutions of 8M HNO3, but higher capture rates (e.g. 99%) can be obtained when 10M HNO3 is mixed with an equal quantity of 8M HCl; Addition of reductants to the 211

  2. Preparation of Rh[16aneS4-diol](211)At and Ir[16aneS4-diol](211)At complexes as potential precursors for astatine radiopharmaceuticals. Part I: Synthesis. (United States)

    Pruszyński, Marek; Bilewicz, Aleksander; Zalutsky, Michael R


    The goal of this study was to evaluate a new approach that can be applied for labeling biomolecules with (211)At. Many astatine compounds that have been synthesized are unstable in vivo, providing motivation for seeking different (211)At labeling strategies. The approach evaluated in this study was to attach astatide anions to soft metal cations, which are also complexed by a bifunctional ligand. Ultimately, this complex could in principle be subsequently conjugated to a biomolecule with the proper selection of ligand functionality. We report here the attachment of (211)At(-) and *I(-) (*I = (131)I or (125)I) anions to the soft metal cations Rh(III) and Ir(III), which are complexed by the 1,5,9,13-tetrathiacyclohexadecane-3,11-diol (16aneS4-diol) ligand. Radioactive *I(-) anions were used for preliminary studies directed at the optimization of reaction conditions and to provide a baseline for comparison of results with (211)At. Four complexes Rh[16aneS4-diol]*I/(211)At and Ir[16aneS4-diol]*I/(211)At were synthesized in high yield in a one-step procedure, and the products were characterized mainly by paper electrophoresis and reversed-phase HPLC. The influences of time and temperature of heating and concentrations of metal cations and sulfur ligand 16aneS4-diol, as well as pH on the reaction yields were determined. Yields of about 80% were obtained when the quantities of Rh(III) or Ir(III) cations and 16aneS4-diol ligand in the solutions were 62.5 nmol and 250 nmol, respectively, and the pH ranged 3.0-4.0. Syntheses required heating for 1-1.5 h at 75-80 degrees C. The influence of microwave heating on the time and completeness of the complexation reaction was evaluated and compared with the conventional method of heating in an oil bath. Microwave synthesis accelerates reactions significantly. With microwave heating, yields of about 75% for Rh[16aneS4-diol](131)I and Ir[16aneS4-diol](131)I complexes were obtained after only 20 min exposure of the reaction mixtures to

  3. [Food additives and healthiness]. (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina


    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  4. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor


    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  5. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing


    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.


    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  6. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing. (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W


    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  7. Additive Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duvenaud, David; Rasmussen, Carl Edward


    We introduce a Gaussian process model of functions which are additive. An additive function is one which decomposes into a sum of low-dimensional functions, each depending on only a subset of the input variables. Additive GPs generalize both Generalized Additive Models, and the standard GP models which use squared-exponential kernels. Hyperparameter learning in this model can be seen as Bayesian Hierarchical Kernel Learning (HKL). We introduce an expressive but tractable parameterization of the kernel function, which allows efficient evaluation of all input interaction terms, whose number is exponential in the input dimension. The additional structure discoverable by this model results in increased interpretability, as well as state-of-the-art predictive power in regression tasks.

  8. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick


    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  9. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland


    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  10. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.


    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  11. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System


    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul


    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  12. Additives for the Axe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On May 1,China will begin to ban the production and use of two food additives commonly used to "bleach" flour,benzoyl peroxide and calcium peroxide.The decision was made after 10 years of wrangling between the policy makers,manufacturers,scientists and consumers.The Ministry of Health said in a statement it was applying the ban in response to consumers’ concerns about chemical substances in food,and technical improvements that had made the two additives unnecessary in flour processing.Minister of Health Chen Zhu has also said

  13. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  14. From additivity to synergism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Christian; Streibig, Jens Carl


    Interest in synergistic or antagonistic effects through mixture experiments has grown immensely over the past two decades, not the least within in pharmacology and toxicology. Several definitions of reference models exist; one commonly used reference model is concentration or dose addition, which...... assumes compounds, when administrated simultaneously, do not interfere with each other at the site of action. We focus on statistical modelling that allows evaluation of dose addition. We will describe several statistical approaches that are suitable for analysis mixture data where synergistic...... or antagonistic effects may be present. The statistical models are defined and explained and some of the approaches exemplified. Code in open-source software is provided....

  15. Biobased lubricant additives (United States)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  16. Advances in Additive Manufacturing (United States)


    burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching ...Society for Machinery Failure Prevention Technology conference in Dayton, OH, on 23–26 May 2016. These 6 briefs were presented in the Additive...manufacturing (AM) at the 2016 conference in Dayton, Ohio, on May 24th, 2016. The presentations included work being performed within the Department of Defense

  17. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Bourell, David L.


    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  18. Sarks as additional fermions (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu


    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  19. The Additive Hazard Mixing Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Xiao-liang LING


    This paper is concerned with the aging and dependence properties in the additive hazard mixing models including some stochastic comparisons.Further,some useful bounds of reliability functions in additive hazard mixing models are obtained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean


    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  1. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils, (United States)

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  2. Additive interaction in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise


    is the relevant measure of interest. Multiplicative survival models, such as the Cox proportional hazards model, are often used to estimate the association between exposure and risk of disease in prospective studies. In Cox models, deviations from additivity have usually been assessed by surrogate measures...... of additive interaction derived from multiplicative models-an approach that is both counter-intuitive and sometimes invalid. This paper presents a straightforward and intuitive way of assessing deviation from additivity of effects in survival analysis by use of the additive hazards model. The model directly...... estimates the absolute size of the deviation from additivity and provides confidence intervals. In addition, the model can accommodate both continuous and categorical exposures and models both exposures and potential confounders on the same underlying scale. To illustrate the approach, we present...

  3. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.


    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  4. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk


    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  5. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis. (United States)

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui


    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  6. Density measures and additive property


    Kunisada, Ryoichi


    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  7. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper


    -chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  8. Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders

    This PhD thesis deals with the combination of topology optimization and additive man-ufacturing (AM, also known as 3D-printing). In addition to my own works, the thesis contains a broader review and assessment of the literature within the field. The thesis first presents a classification...... of the various AM technologies, a review of relevant manufacturing materials, the properties of these materials in the additively manufactured part, as well as manufacturing constraints with a potential for design optimization. Subsequently, specific topology optimization formulations relevant for the most im...... for scalable manufacturing. In relation to interface problems it is shown how a flexible void area may be included into a standard minimum compliance problem by employing an additional design variable field and a sensitivity filter. Furthermore, it is shown how the design of coated structures may be modeled...

  9. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard


    1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...... The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence...

  10. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options (United States)

    ... Cancer Upper GI Cancers Search x FIND A RADIATION ONCOLOGIST CLOSE TREATMENT TYPES Home / Treatment Types / Additional ... novel targeted therapies can act as radiosensitizers. Systemic Radiation Therapy Certain cancers may be treated with radioactive ...

  11. Adverse reactions to drug additives. (United States)

    Simon, R A


    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  12. Addition on a Quantum Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Draper, Thomas G


    A new method for computing sums on a quantum computer is introduced. This technique uses the quantum Fourier transform and reduces the number of qubits necessary for addition by removing the need for temporary carry bits. This approach also allows the addition of a classical number to a quantum superposition without encoding the classical number in the quantum register. This method also allows for massive parallelization in its execution.

  13. Food additives and preschool children. (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J


    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  14. Clinical effects of sulphite additives. (United States)

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V


    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  15. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing (United States)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.


    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives. (United States)


    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  17. Ruzsa's Constant on Additive Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Hui FANG; Yong Gao CHEN


    A function f:N → R is called additive if f(mn) =f(m)+f(n) for all m,n with (m,n) =1.Let μ(x) =maxn≤x(f(n)-f(n + 1)) and v(x) =maxn≤x(f(n + 1)-f(n)).In 1979,Ruzsa proved that there exists a constant c such that for any additive function f,μ(x) ≤ cv(x2) + cf,where cf is a constant depending only on f.Denote by Raf the least such constant c.We call Raf Ruzsa's constant on additive functions.In this paper,we prove that Raf ≤ 20.

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits (United States)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.


    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  19. The selective addition of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.; Hanefeld, U.


    Water is omnipresent and essential. Yet at the same time it is a rather unreactive molecule. The direct addition of water to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds is therefore a challenge not answered convincingly. In this perspective we critically evaluate the selectivity and the applicabi

  20. Business models for additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel


    Digital fabrication — including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing — has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model — describing the logic...

  1. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauthle, Ruben; Van Der Stok, Johan; Yavari, Saber Amin; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan


    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of it

  2. Protocol for ADDITION-PRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Nanna Borup; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jensen, Troels M;


    disease and microvascular diabetic complications. We also require a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and drive early changes in cardiometabolic physiology. The ADDITION-PRO study was designed to address these issues among individuals at different levels of diabetes risk recruited from...

  3. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  4. Ice cream with additional value


    Melicharová, Barbora


    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to summarise current knowledge about production and properties of ice cream with an additional value. Nowadays, incorporation of probiotics is considered as the most intensively studied possibility for functional ice cream manufacture. Their viability depends on the kind of a microorganism, for example bifidobacteria are mostly less stable than lactobacilli in ice cream matrix. Lactobacillus acidophilus AB518, AK414, Lactobacillus agilis AA1773, AC1888 and L...

  5. Tweaking Synchronisation by Link Addition

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Paul; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Ávila, G Marcelo Ramírez; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Kurths, Jürgen


    Natural and man-made networks often possess locally tree-like sub-structures. Taking such tree networks as our starting point, we show how the addition of links changes the synchronization properties of the network. We focus on two different methods of link addition. The first method adds single links that create cycles of a well-defined length. Following a topological approach we introduce cycles of varying length and analyze how this feature, as well as the position in the network, alters the synchronous behaviour. We show that in particular short cycles can lead to a maximum change of the Laplacian's eigenvalue spectrum, dictating the synchronization properties of such networks. The second method connects a certain proportion of the initially unconnected nodes. We simulate dynamical systems on these network topologies, with the nodes' local dynamics being either a discrete or continuous. Here our main result is that a certain amount of additional links, with the relative position in the network being cruci...

  6. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon. (United States)

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo


    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adib Adhi Prabowo


    Full Text Available Abstrak Seiring dengan perkembangan sistem operasi android, telah banyak aplikasi yang memanfaatkan fasilitas GPS dan Google Map, seperti untuk mencari rute, mendapatkan peta, mencari lokasi tertentu pada sebuah tempat. Akan tetapi seringkali pengguna perangkat bergerak kesulitan ketika ingin mengetahui beberapa tempat dan lokasi tertentu karena belum ada fasilitas yang menyediakan informasi lokasi suatu tempat. Walaupun ada informasi lokasi pada peta biasanya informasi yang diberikan lokasi tempat berskala besar, misalnya lokasi tempat wisata atau stasiun kereta api. Pengembangan aplikasi untuk skala kecil ini akan memberikan informasi yang dipresentasikan pada google map. Selama ini belum ada yang memberikan sebuah informasi lokasi tempat penting yang berskala kecil. Misalnya informasi lokasi  tambal ban, lokasi warung makan, lokasi laundry, dan lokasi bengkel motor. Oleh karena itu kami mencoba untuk mengembangkan aplikasi additional street berbasis android via App Inventor dengan bantuan google maps. Aplikasi additional street ini dapat memberikan informasi letak objek pada peta serta memberikan informasi jalan menuju lokasi tersebut dan detail informasi lokasi tersebut serta lokasi dari pengguna aplikasi tersebut. Kata Kunci: additional street, android, google maps, app inventor, GPS

  8. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.


    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives. (United States)


    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  10. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review (United States)

    Frazier, William E.


    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  11. Individualized additional instruction for calculus (United States)

    Takata, Ken


    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  12. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data. (United States)

    Hughes, John R.


    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  13. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  14. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact. (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan


    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  15. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing (United States)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.


    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  16. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing. (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J


    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder.

  17. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing. (United States)

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K


    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  18. Children's understanding of additive concepts. (United States)

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann


    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  19. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations. (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J


    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert


    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  1. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity? (United States)

    ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and their possible effects is controversial. Some studies indicate that certain food ...

  2. [Safety of food additives in Japan]. (United States)

    Ito, Sumio


    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  3. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James


    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  4. Building a Competitive Edge with Additive Manufacturing (United States)


    construct ceramic molds for complex metal parts using a 3D printing technique. They estimate the new 6 technique could eliminate all of the...processes. They include 3D printing and Additive Beam Techniques.15 Most Additive Manufacturing techniques are specific to certain classes of materials...9 Example Additive Manufacturing Techniques16 3D Printing Additive Beam Stereolithography (SLA) Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS

  5. Navy Additive Manufacturing: Adding Parts, Subtracting Steps (United States)



  6. The identities of additive binary arithmetics

    CERN Document Server

    Klyachko, Anton A


    Operations of arbitrary arity expressible via addition modulo 2^n and bitwise addition modulo 2 admit a simple description. The identities connecting these two additions have finite basis. Moreover, the universal algebra with these two operations is rationally equivalent to a nilpotent ring and, therefore, generates a Specht variety.

  7. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  8. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  9. Lubricant additive concentrate containing isomerized jojoba oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, G.


    This patent describes a crankcase motor oil additive concentrate intended to be added to a conventional crankcase motor oil to improve its ability to lubricate and protect the engine. The additive concentrate comprises the following components: A petroleum base stock of lubricating quality and viscosity. The base stock comprises from about 13.5 to 90 weight percent of the additive concentrate; a detergent-inhibitor package. The package is present at from about 7 to about 40 weight percent of the concentrate; a supplemental antiwear additive selected from the salts of dialkyl dithiophosporic acids. The additive is present at a level of from about 1 to about 10 weight percent of the concentrate; and a supplemental antiwear additive selected from the class of sulfurized olefins. The additive is present at a level of from about 1 to about 10 weight percent of the concentrate.

  10. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  11. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food......

  12. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuening; YANG; Yong; ZHAN


    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods,preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life,increasing varieties of foods,enhancing convenience of foods,facilitating food processing,and satisfying other demands. However,excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security.Therefore,it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food additives into full play,and get rid of their demerits.

  13. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives. (United States)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul


    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  14. DNA addition using linear self-assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian; QIAN LuLu; LIU Qiang; ZHANG ZhiZhou; HE Lin


    This paper presents a DNA algorithm which adds two nonnegative binary integers using self-assembly in constant steps. The approach has the benefit of greater experimental simplicity when compared with previous DNA addition algorithms. For the addition of two binary n-bit integers, O(n) is different from DNA strands and only O(1) biochemical experimental procedures are required.

  15. 75 FR 8927 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition (United States)


    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add to the Procurement List products to be provided by a...

  16. 78 FR 7412 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions (United States)


    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be furnished by...

  17. 78 FR 7413 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit...

  18. 78 FR 5423 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products to the Procurement List that will be furnished by the nonprofit agency...

  19. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition (United States)


    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by a nonprofit agency employing...

  20. 75 FR 8926 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List products and a service to be furnished by nonprofit...

  1. 78 FR 5423 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions (United States)


    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee... Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be... have other severe disabilities. The following products are proposed for addition to the...

  2. 76 FR 7824 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions (United States)


    ... PEOPLE WHO AREBLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be furnished by...

  3. Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction (United States)

    Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen


    In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by…

  4. 75 FR 60739 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions (United States)


    .... NPA: CW Resources, Inc., New Britain, CT. Contracting Activity: Dept. of the Army, XRA W7NN USPFO... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the procurement...

  5. 48 CFR 1603.7002 - Additional guidelines. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Additional guidelines. 1603.7002 Section 1603.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7002 Additional guidelines....

  6. French and English Together: An "Additive" Experience (United States)

    Wiltshire, Jessica; Harbon, Lesley


    This paper examines the nature of the "additive" experience of a bilingual French-English curriculum at Killarney Heights Public School in New South Wales. Predictably, the well-supported "additive" nature of the languages program model elicited positive reactions regarding educational success. The paper also explores issues…

  7. 78 FR 4133 - Procurement List; Addition (United States)


    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by a nonprofit...

  8. 78 FR 2378 - Procurement List, Addition (United States)


    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a product to the Procurement List that will be furnished by a nonprofit agency employing...

  9. 75 FR 4784 - Procurement List; Addition (United States)


    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List a service to be furnished by a nonprofit agency employing persons who...

  10. 75 FR 6869 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ...; ] COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List products and a service to be furnished...

  11. 12 CFR 619.9010 - Additional security. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional security. 619.9010 Section 619.9010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9010 Additional security. Supplementary collateral to the primary security taken in connection with the loan....

  12. Additions to the Avifauna of suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.


    It is self-evident that as the avifauna of a country becomes better known, the number of additions to its avifauna one can expect to make in a given period, must decrease. On the other hand, it may be said that for the same reason the value of each addition increases. During a stay in Suriname of ab

  13. Developing Multiplicative Thinking from Additive Reasoning (United States)

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.


    As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …

  14. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine. (United States)

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina


    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference.

  15. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.


    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  16. Graphite and Hybrid Nanomaterials as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu J. Zhang


    Full Text Available Lubricant additives, based on inorganic nanoparticles coated with organic outer layer, can reduce wear and increase load-carrying capacity of base oil remarkably, indicating the great potential of hybrid nanoparticles as anti-wear and extreme-pressure additives with excellent levels of performance. The organic part in the hybrid materials improves their flexibility and stability, while the inorganic part is responsible for hardness. The relationship between the design parameters of the organic coatings, such as molecular architecture and the lubrication performance, however, remains to be fully elucidated. A survey of current understanding of hybrid nanoparticles as lubricant additives is presented in this review.

  17. Fine-grained concrete with organomineral additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solovyov Vitaly


    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues concerning the formation of the structure and properties of fine-grained concrete with organomineral additive produced through mechanochemical activation of thermal power plant fly ash together with superplasticizer. The additive is produced in a high-speed activator at the collision particles’ speed of about 80 m/s. The use of the additive in fine-grained concrete in the amounts of 0.5-1% increased the strength by 30-50% and reduced the size and volume of pores. The cement consumption in such concrete is close to the cement consumption in common concrete of equal resistance.

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Ion Thruster Optics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma Controls will manufacture and test a set of ion optics for electric propulsion ion thrusters using additive manufacturing technology, also known as 3D...

  19. Non-additive measure and integral

    CERN Document Server

    Denneberg, Dieter


    Non-Additive Measure and Integral is the first systematic approach to the subject. Much of the additive theory (convergence theorems, Lebesgue spaces, representation theorems) is generalized, at least for submodular measures which are characterized by having a subadditive integral. The theory is of interest for applications to economic decision theory (decisions under risk and uncertainty), to statistics (including belief functions, fuzzy measures) to cooperative game theory, artificial intelligence, insurance, etc. Non-Additive Measure and Integral collects the results of scattered and often isolated approaches to non-additive measures and their integrals which originate in pure mathematics, potential theory, statistics, game theory, economic decision theory and other fields of application. It unifies, simplifies and generalizes known results and supplements the theory with new results, thus providing a sound basis for applications and further research in this growing field of increasing interest. It also co...

  20. Additions to the fern flora of Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenkamp, P.H.; Joncheere, de G.J.


    A number of additions to the fern flora of Celebes are given here, including also the description of 15 new taxa in the Polypodiaceae, Cyatheaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Aspleniaceae, and Davalliaceae.

  1. 77 FR 32592 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ... notices of proposed additions to the Procurement List. After consideration of the material presented to it... CONS LGC, Beale AFB, CA. Service Type/Location: Contractor-Operated Civil Engineer Supply Store...

  2. 77 FR 51521 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ... certification were: 1. The action will not result in any additional reporting, recordkeeping or other compliance...: Operation Support Service, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC), Rivanna... Patricia Briscoe, Deputy Director, Business Operations, (Pricing and Information Management). BILLING...

  3. 77 FR 44218 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/11/2012 (77 FR 27737-27738) and 6/1/2012 (77 FR 32591-32592), the...: 3895-00-NIB-0002--Asphalt Lute, Aluminum Head, Industrial Grade, 67'' Fiberglass Handle,...

  4. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. (United States)


    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  5. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities (United States)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael


    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  6. Additional renal arteries: incidence and morphometry. (United States)

    Satyapal, K S; Haffejee, A A; Singh, B; Ramsaroop, L; Robbs, J V; Kalideen, J M


    Advances in surgical and uro-radiological techniques dictate a reappraisal and definition of renal arterial variations. This retrospective study aimed at establishing the incidence of additional renal arteries. Two subsets were analysed viz.: a) Clinical series--130 renal angiograms performed on renal transplant donors, 32 cadaver kidneys used in renal transplantation b) Cadaveric series--74 en-bloc morphologically normal kidney pairs. The sex and race distribution was: males 140, females 96; African 84, Indian 91, White 43 and "Coloured" 18, respectively. Incidence of first and second additional arteries were respectively, 23.2% (R: 18.6%; L: 27.6%) and 4.5% (R: 4.7%; L: 4.4%). Additional arteries occurred more frequently on the left (L: 32.0%; R: 23.3%). The incidence bilaterally was 10.2% (first additional arteries, only). The sex and race incidence (first and second additional) was: males, 28.0%, 5.1%; females, 16.4%, 3.8% and African 31.1%, 5.4%; Indian 13.5%, 4.5%; White 30.9%, 4.4% and "Coloured" 18.5%, 0%; respectively. Significant differences in the incidence of first additional arteries were noted between sex and race. The morphometry of additional renal arteries were lengths (cm) of first and second additional renal arteries: 4.5 and 3.8 (right), 4.9 and 3.7 (left); diameters: 0.4 and 0.3 (right), 0.3 and 0.3 (left). Detailed morphometry of sex and race were also recorded. No statistically significant differences were noted. Our results of the incidence of additional renal arteries of 27.7% compared favourably to that reported in the literature (weighted mean 28.1%). The study is unique in recording detailed morphometry of these vessels. Careful techniques in the identification of this anatomical variation is important since it impacts on renal transplantation surgery, vascular operations for renal artery stenosis, reno-vascular hypertension, Takayasu's disease, renal trauma and uro-radiological procedures.

  7. [Intolerance to food additives: an update]. (United States)

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L


    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  8. Testing for additivity with B-splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-jian CUI; Xu-ming HE; Li LIU


    Regression splines are often used for fitting nonparametric functions, and they work especially well for additivity models. In this paper, we consider two simple tests of additivity: an adaptation of Tukey's one degree of freedom test and a nonparametric version of Rao's score test. While the Tukey-type test can detect most forms of the local non-additivity at the parametric rate of O(n-1/2), the score test is consistent for all alternative at a nonparametric rate. The asymptotic distribution of these test statistics is derived under both the null and local alternative hypotheses. A simulation study is conducted to compare their finite-sample performances with some existing kernelbased tests. The score test is found to have a good overall performance.

  9. Mass Additivity and A Priori Entailment

    CERN Document Server

    McQueen, Kelvin J


    The principle of mass additivity states that the mass of a composite object is the sum of the masses of its elementary components. Mass additivity is true in Newtonian mechanics but false in special relativity. Physicists have explained why mass additivity is true in Newtonian mechanics by reducing it to Newton's microphysical laws. This reductive explanation does not fit well with deducibility theories of reductive explanation such as the modern Nagelian theory of reduction, and the a priori entailment theory of reduction that is prominent in the philosophy of mind. Nonetheless, I argue that a reconstruction of the explanation that incorporates distinctively philosophical concepts in fact fits both theories. I discuss the implications of this result for both theories and for the reductive explanation of consciousness.

  10. Non-additive measures theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Narukawa, Yasuo; Sugeno, Michio; 9th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2012)


    This book provides a comprehensive and timely report in the area of non-additive measures and integrals. It is based on a panel session on fuzzy measures, fuzzy integrals and aggregation operators held during the 9th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2012) in Girona, Spain, November 21-23, 2012. The book complements the MDAI 2012 proceedings book, published in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) in 2012. The individual chapters, written by key researchers in the field, cover fundamental concepts and important definitions (e.g. the Sugeno integral, definition of entropy for non-additive measures) as well some important applications (e.g. to economics and game theory) of non-additive measures and integrals. The book addresses students, researchers and practitioners working at the forefront of their field.  

  11. Testing for additivity with B-splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Regression splines are often used for fitting nonparametric functions, and they work especially well for additivity models. In this paper, we consider two simple tests of additivity: an adaptation of Tukey’s one degree of freedom test and a nonparametric version of Rao’s score test. While the Tukey-type test can detect most forms of the local non-additivity at the parametric rate of O(n-1/2), the score test is consistent for all alternative at a nonparametric rate. The asymptotic distribution of these test statistics is derived under both the null and local alternative hypotheses. A simulation study is conducted to compare their finite-sample performances with some existing kernel-based tests. The score test is found to have a good overall performance.

  12. Evaluation of advanced polymers for additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morrison, Crystal [PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and is inherently low-cost.

  13. Combustion enhancing additives for coal firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Le Manquais; Colin Snape; Ian McRobbie; Jim Barker [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering (SChEME)


    For pulverised fuel (pf) combustion, the level of unburnt carbon in fly ash is now considerably more problematic worldwide than a decade ago, because of the introduction of low NOx burners and the increased level of high inertinite in internationally traded coals. Thus, there is a major opportunity to develop an effective additive to improve carbon burnout and obviate the need for post-treatment of fly ash, which endeavours to meet specifications for filler/building materials applications and thereby avoid landfill. A robust comparison of the reactivity of different coals and their corresponding chars is necessary, in order to estimate the effects of such an additive on pf combustion. Coal chars have been generated on a laboratory scale using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and on a larger scale using a drop tube furnace (DTF), which is more representative of the rapid heating rates and mixing achieved on pf combustion. The TGA results indicate that chars have varying levels of reactivity, dependent on the parent coal properties. When physically mixed with a propriety metal additive, the degree of enhancement to the reactivity of these chars also appeared reliant on the parent coal characteristics. Additionally it was demonstrated that DTF chars, whilst showing similar reactivity trends, are less reactive than the equivalent coal chars produced by the TGA. However, when mixed with the metal additive the DTF chars show a significantly greater improvement in reactivity than their analogous TGA chars, indicating the additive may have the greatest impact on the most unreactive carbon in the coal. 42 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Theory of atomic additivity in molecular hyperpolizabilities (United States)

    Baird, James K.


    Hyperpolarizability is a function of frequency. This is called dispersion. Because of the Kramers-Kronig relations, researchers expect that a material that is dispersing light is also absorbing it. Where there is both dispersion and absorption, the molecular polarizabilities are complex functions of the frequency. This led researchers to consider atomic additivity in both the real and imaginary parts of the ordinary and hyperpolarizabilities. This effort is desirable not only from a theoretical point of view, but also because of the existence of a large body of complex refractive index data, which may be used to test the additivity principle with the complex valued ordinary dipole polarizability.

  15. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt


    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  16. Local Time of Additive Levy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We studied the problem of existence of jointly continuous local time for an additive process.Here, “local time” is understood in the sence of occupation density, and by an additive Lévy process we mean a process X={X(t), t∈Rd+)} which has the decomposition X= X1 X2 … XN. We prove that if the product of it slower index and N is greater than d, then a jointly continuous local time can be obtained via Berman's method.

  17. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL


    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  18. 77 FR 71400 - Procurement List, Additions (United States)


    ..., Vinyl, Adjustable 31'' to 55'', Fluorescent Green NSN: 4240-00-NIB-0052--Reflective Safety Belt, Vinyl, Adjustable 31'' to 55'', Dark Green NPA: Envision, Inc., Wichita, KS. Contracting Activity: DEFENSE LOGISTICS... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 8/24/2012 (77 FR 51522-51523) and 10/5/2012 (77 FR 60969), the...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The perturbation of semigroup by a multiplicative functional with bounded variation is investigated in the frame of weak duality. The strong continuity and Schrodinger type equation of the perturbated semigroup are discussed. A few switching identities and formulae conerning dual additive functionals and Revuz measures are given.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The perturbation of semigroup by a multiplicative functional with bounded variation is investigated in the frame of weak duality. The strong continuity and SchrSdinger type equation of the perturbated semigroup are discussed. A few switching identities and formulae conerning dual additive functionais and Revuz measures are given.

  1. Release of additives from packaging plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, I.E.


    Keywords : migration, diffusion, additives, polymer, low density polyethylene, polymer swelling, Fick, stochastic modellingThe diffusion of small molecules from polymers into food is studied. A better understanding of this process is important for the development of mathematical models to predict mi

  2. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik


    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...

  3. Fully additive chip packaging: science or fiction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, G.; Zon, C.M.B. van der; Maalderink, H.H.


    The current trend in IC packaging towards an ever increasing degree of integration, combined with a high level of production flexibility calls for novel approaches in manufacturing. To address these challenges in a flexible manufacturing setting, TNO investigated to what extend mask-less additive ma

  4. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight (United States)

    Prater, Tracie


    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  5. Additive strengthening mechanisms in dispersion hardened polycrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Ralph, B.


    the addition of strength components from various elements of the microstructure and substructure might explain this behaviour are investigated. It is shown that a linear combination of a matrix friction stress, an Orowan bowing stress, a matrix mean stress from the particles and a combined dislocation...

  6. [Information about phosphorus additives and nutritional counseling]. (United States)

    Kido, Shinsuke; Nomura, Kengo; Sasaki, Shohei; Shiozaki, Yuji; Segawa, Hiroko; Tatsumi, Sawako


    Hyperphosphatemia is a common disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) , and may result in hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Hyperphosphatemia also may contribute to deterioration vascular calcification and increase mortality. Hence, correction and prevention of hyperphosphatemia is a main component of the management of CKD. This goal is usually approached both by administering phosphorus binders and by restricting dietary phosphorus (P) intake. Dietary intake of phosphorus (P) is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives and is an important determinant of P balance in patient with CKD. Food additives (PO4) can dramatically increase the amount of P consumed in the daily diet, especially because P is more readily absorbed in its inorganic form. In addition, information about the P content and type in prepared foods is often unavailable or misleading. Therefore, during dietary counseling of patients with CKD, we recommended that they consider both the absolute dietary P content and the P-to-protein ratio of foods and meals including food additives.

  7. Finding phosphorus containing additives in manufactured foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Lloyd


    This reflects manufactured foods in NZ and it is likely that these results could be generalized to countries with similar food patterns and supplies. Quantitative data in manufactured foods is unlikely to be available to guide patient choice so qualitative information of where to find P additives can be helpful.

  8. 7 CFR 955.91 - Additional parties. (United States)


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Marketing Agreement § 955.91 Additional parties. After the effective date thereof, any handler may become a... delivered to the Secretary, and the benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by this agreement...

  9. Children's Understanding of Addition and Subtraction Concepts (United States)

    Robinson, Katherine M.; Dube, Adam K.


    After the onset of formal schooling, little is known about the development of children's understanding of the arithmetic concepts of inversion and associativity. On problems of the form a+b-b (e.g., 3+26-26), if children understand the inversion concept (i.e., that addition and subtraction are inverse operations), then no calculations are needed…

  10. 76 FR 55883 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for... Center (SPOC), 5015 S. IH-35, Austin, TX. NPA: Austin Task, Inc., Austin, TX. Contracting Activity:...

  11. 76 FR 70422 - Procurement List Additions (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From... Center (SPOC), 5015 S. IH-35, Austin, TX NPA: Austin Task, Inc., Austin, TX. Contracting Activity:...

  12. Leaching of Plastic Additives to Marine Organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Besseling, E.; Foekema, E.M.


    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Areni

  13. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos


    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further developm

  14. Efficient classification for additive kernel SVMs. (United States)

    Maji, Subhransu; Berg, Alexander C; Malik, Jitendra


    We show that a class of nonlinear kernel SVMs admits approximate classifiers with runtime and memory complexity that is independent of the number of support vectors. This class of kernels, which we refer to as additive kernels, includes widely used kernels for histogram-based image comparison like intersection and chi-squared kernels. Additive kernel SVMs can offer significant improvements in accuracy over linear SVMs on a wide variety of tasks while having the same runtime, making them practical for large-scale recognition or real-time detection tasks. We present experiments on a variety of datasets, including the INRIA person, Daimler-Chrysler pedestrians, UIUC Cars, Caltech-101, MNIST, and USPS digits, to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for efficient evaluation of SVMs with additive kernels. Since its introduction, our method has become integral to various state-of-the-art systems for PASCAL VOC object detection/image classification, ImageNet Challenge, TRECVID, etc. The techniques we propose can also be applied to settings where evaluation of weighted additive kernels is required, which include kernelized versions of PCA, LDA, regression, k-means, as well as speeding up the inner loop of SVM classifier training algorithms.

  15. 77 FR 60969 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ...-0655, or email . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 8/3/2012 (77 FR...: 7510-00-NIB-1855--Correction Tape, Pen Style, Retractable. NPA: Industries for the Blind, Inc., West.../Location: Janitorial Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources, Conservation...

  16. Clinica use of platelet additive solutions. (United States)

    van Rhenen, Dick J


    Randomised clinical trial (RCT) to study the clinical efficacy and safety of new platelet products using platelet additive solutions are scarce. In this paper a number of recent RCT's is discussed. It can be the start of a development where new transfusion products enter a RCT before the product is applied in clinical practice.

  17. Boolean analysis of addition and multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltin, F. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY); Metropolis, N.; Ross, B.; Rota, G.-C.


    The notions of binary string and binary symmetric function are introduced, and basic results presented. Boolean algorithms are given for binary addition and multiplication. An analysis of the redundancies involved is straightforward. The examination of carry propagation which arises in the Boolean analysis of functions may lead to a new interpretation of the notion of computational complexity.

  18. Highly stereoselective addition of stannylcuprates to alkynones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Eiland; de Dios, M.A.C.; Tanner, David Ackland


    The addition of stannylcuprate reagents such as (Bu3Sn)(PhS)CuLi to alkynones has been found to proceed in high yield and with excellent stereoselectivity for the Z isomer of the product (>95%). The behavior of the stannylcuprates is thus very different from that of their "carbocuprate" counterpa...

  19. 77 FR 42700 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ... Contracting Command--Aberdeen Proving Ground, Natick Contracting Division, Natick MA. Comments were received...--Aberdeen Proving Ground, Natick Contracting Division, Natick MA. Services Service Type/Location: Laundry... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/18/2012 (77 FR 29596) and 5/25/2012 (77 FR 31335-31336), the...

  20. 76 FR 18189 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ... Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. Patricia Briscoe, Deputy Director, Business Operations Pricing and... INFORMATION: Additions On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... Contracting Center--Aberdeen, MD, (Off-site: 507 Kent Street, Utica NY). NPA: Central Association for...

  1. 31 CFR 306.125 - Additional requirements. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements. 306.125 Section 306.125 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  2. 47 CFR 68.318 - Additional limitations. (United States)


    ... TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.318 Additional... receipt of CO ground start at the network demarcation point. (c) Line seizure by automatic telephone... proceeding to dial another number. (6) Network addressing signals shall be transmitted no earlier than:...


    An Azerbaidzhan SSR. Institute of additive chemistry additives to lubricating oils . Problems of synthesis, investigation and use of oil additives; fuels and polymer materials (Selected articles)--Translation.

  4. Inhomogenous quantum codes (Ⅰ):additive case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper,the quantum error-correcting codes are generalized to the inhomogenous quantumstate space Cq1  Cq2 ··· Cqn,where qi(1 i n) are arbitrary positive integers.By attaching an abelian group Ai of order qi to the space Cqi(1 i n),we present the stabilizer construction of such inhomogenous quantum codes,called additive quantum codes,in term of the character theory of the abelian group A = A1⊕A2⊕···⊕An.As usual case,such construction opens a way to get inhomogenous quantum codes from the classical mixed linear codes.We also present Singleton bound for inhomogenous additive quantum codes and show several quantum codes to meet such bound by using classical mixed algebraic-geometric codes.

  5. Identifying confounders using additive noise models

    CERN Document Server

    Janzing, Dominik; Mooij, Joris; Schoelkopf, Bernhard


    We propose a method for inferring the existence of a latent common cause ('confounder') of two observed random variables. The method assumes that the two effects of the confounder are (possibly nonlinear) functions of the confounder plus independent, additive noise. We discuss under which conditions the model is identifiable (up to an arbitrary reparameterization of the confounder) from the joint distribution of the effects. We state and prove a theoretical result that provides evidence for the conjecture that the model is generically identifiable under suitable technical conditions. In addition, we propose a practical method to estimate the confounder from a finite i.i.d. sample of the effects and illustrate that the method works well on both simulated and real-world data.

  6. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics. (United States)

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A


    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  7. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing. (United States)

    Wei, H L; Mazumder, J; DebRoy, T


    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.

  8. Addition of malodorants to lighter gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neela, Vasu; von Solms, Nicolas


    to lighter gas components. The aim is to find substances that not only have the correct physiological effect (discourage abuse) but also the correct physical behavior upon addition to lighter gas (solubility, phase behavior). Specifically the way the malodorant partitions between the vapor and liquid phase......Relevant thermodynamic and phase behavior of mixtures created by adding malodorants to lighter gas to discourage its abuse have been studied. The influence of physical factors such as temperature, pressure and concentration of the selected substances with lighter gas is studied. This work...... represents one component in a larger study examining the feasibility of adding malodorants to lighter gas and focuses on the physical chemistry or chemical engineering aspects of the problem. An initial set of 27 compounds was selected based on deterrent effect (odor) in order to find suitable additives...

  9. Weldability of Additive Manufactured Stainless Steel (United States)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Pekkarinen, Joonas; Salminen, Antti

    Part size in additive manufacturing is limited by the size of building area of AM equipment. Occasionally, larger constructions that AM machines are able to produce, are needed, and this creates demand for welding AM parts together. However there is very little information on welding of additive manufactured stainless steels. The aim of this study was to investigate the weldability aspects of AM material. In this study, comparison of the bead on plate welds between AM parts and sheet metal parts is done. Used material was 316L stainless steel, AM and sheet metal, and parts were welded with laser welding. Weld quality was evaluated visually from macroscopic images. Results show that there are certain differences in the welds in AM parts compared to the welds in sheet metal parts. Differences were found in penetration depths and in type of welding defects. Nevertheless, this study presents that laser welding is suitable process for welding AM parts.

  10. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics (United States)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.


    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  11. The addition of disilanes to cumulenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiyuan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The syntheses of silicon-containing compounds and the studies of their rearrangements have been active research areas in the Barton research group. Previously, the addition of disilanes to acetylenes was studied in the group and an intramolecular 2S + 2A mechanism has been proposed. In this thesis, the work is focused on the addition of disilanes to cumulenes. The syntheses of the precursors are discussed and the possible mechanisms for their thermal, photochemical and catalytic rearrangements are proposed. Conjugated organic polymers have been studied in the group since 1985 because of their potential for exhibiting high electroconductivity, photoconductivity, strong non-linear optical response and intense fluorescence. In the second section of this dissertation, the synthesis and property studies of poly(phenylene vinylene) analogues are discussed.

  12. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.


    Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen......, as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity....

  13. Laboratory tests of sludge-control additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatnall, R.E. [MIC Associates, Inc., Chadds Ford, PA (United States)


    Laboratory {open_quotes}jar{close_quotes} tests compared eleven different fuel oil and diesel fuel sludge-control additives. Factors studied included (1) ability to disperse and prevent buildup of sludge deposits on surfaces, (2) ability to protect steel from corrosion, (3) ability to inhibit growth and proliferation of bacteria, and (4) ability to disperse water. Results varied greatly, and it was found that many commercial products do not do what they claim. It is concluded that fuel retailers should not believe manufacturers` claims for their additive products, but rather should test such products themselves to be sure that the benefits of treatment are real. A simplified form of the procedure used here is proposed as one way for dealers to do such testing.

  14. Rare Earth Additions in Continuously Cast Steel (United States)

    Wilson, William G.; Heaslip, L. J.; Sommerville, I. D.


    Rare earth (lanthanide metals) addiiions to continuously cast steel are particularly advantageous because of their ability to refine as-cast structures, reduce segregation and increase hot ductility at temperatures just below that of solidification. The complete shape control of sulfides in steels containing Rare Earth Metals (REM), whether continuously cast or ingot cast, is primarily responsible for improvements in ductility related mechanical properties, weldability, fatigue resistance and resistance to hydrogen damage. Complete sulfide shape control can be obtained with REM additions at sulfur levels as high as.020%. The greatest improvements, however, are obtained with REM additions to low sulfur steels. However, to achieve full operational advantages afforded by REM, nozzle blockage problems must be circumvented. Water model studies indicate a possible solution.

  15. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten (United States)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei


    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  16. [Trends in the utilization of food additives]. (United States)

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána


    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice.

  17. The teratology testing of food additives. (United States)

    Barrow, Paul C; Spézia, François


    The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level above which developmental or reproduction studies are required depends on the structure-alert category. For food additives of concern, both developmental (prenatal) and reproduction (multigeneration) studies are required. The developmental studies are performed in two species, usually the rat and the rabbit. The reproduction study is generally performed in the rat. The two rat studies are preferably combined into a single experimental design, if possible. The test methods described in the FDA Redbook are similar to those specified by the OECD for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals.

  18. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries. (United States)

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M


    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed.

  19. Sintering of magnesia: effect of additives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satyananda Behera; Ritwik Sarkar


    Effect of different additives, namely Cr2O3, Fe2O3 and TiO2, up to 2 wt% was studied on the sintering and microstructural developments of the chemically pure magnesia using the pressureless sintering technique between 1500 and 1600° C. Sintering was evaluated by per cent densification and microstructural developments were studied by electron microscopy and elemental distribution of the additives in the sintered products was also investigated for their distribution in the matrix. Cr2O3 and TiO2 were found to deteriorate the densification associated with grain growth. Fe2O3 was found to improve the densification and well-compacted grain distribution was observed in the microstructure.

  20. An Additive Definition of Molecular Complexity. (United States)

    Böttcher, Thomas


    A framework for molecular complexity is established that is based on information theory and consistent with chemical knowledge. The resulting complexity index Cm is derived from abstracting the information content of a molecule by the degrees of freedom in the microenvironments on a per-atom basis, allowing the molecular complexity to be calculated in a simple and additive way. This index allows the complexity of any molecule to be universally assessed and is sensitive to stereochemistry, heteroatoms, and symmetry. The performance of this complexity index is evaluated and compared against the current state of the art. Its additive character gives consistent values also for very large molecules and supports direct comparisons of chemical reactions. Finally, this approach may provide a useful tool for medicinal chemistry in drug design and lead selection, as demonstrated by correlating molecular complexities of antibiotics with compound-specific parameters.

  1. Modifying network connectivity with a subgraph addition

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Dane


    The principal eigenvalue $\\lambda$ of a network's adjacency matrix often determines dynamics on the network (e.g., in synchronization and spreading processes) and some of its structural properties (e.g., robustness against failure or attack), and is therefore a good indicator for how "strongly" a network is connected. We study how $\\lambda$ is modified by the addition of a subgraph. This type of modification has broad applications, ranging from those involving a single modification (e.g., introduction of a drug into a biological process) to those involving repeated subnetwork additions (e.g., power-grid and transit development). We describe how to optimally connect the subgraph to the network to either maximize or minimize the shift in $\\lambda$, noting several applications.

  2. [Additive Manufacturing and Its Medical Applications]. (United States)

    Song, Zewen; Wang, Guohui; Gao, Qin; Zhu, Shaihong


    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a collection of technologies based on the layer-by-layer manufacturing. Characterized by its direct manufacturing and rapidity, it has been regarded by the Economist Journal as one of the key techniques which will trigger the third industry reformation. The present article, beginning with a brief introduction of the history of AM and the process of its major technologies, focuses on the advantages and disadvantages and medical applications of the technique.

  3. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines (United States)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty


    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  4. Materials as additives for advanced lubrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol, Vilas G.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Mistry, Kuldeep; Erdemir, Ali


    This invention relates to carbon-based materials as anti-friction and anti-wear additives for advanced lubrication purposes. The materials comprise carbon nanotubes suspended in a liquid hydrocarbon carrier. Optionally, the compositions further comprise a surfactant (e.g., to aid in dispersion of the carbon particles). Specifically, the novel lubricants have the ability to significantly lower friction and wear, which translates into improved fuel economies and longer durability of mechanical devices and engines.

  5. Additive manufacturing – a sustainable manufacturing route


    Frăţilă Domniţa; Rotaru Horaţiu


    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies allow developing and manufacturing very complex shaped parts and functional products with a high level of customization, being a great alternative to Traditional Manufacturing (TM) methods like injection molding, die-casting or machining. Due to the importance of cleaner production in the field of manufacturing processes, sustainability of AM processes needs to be assessed in order to make easier its acceptance and implementation in the industry. Furth...

  6. Designing for Color in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Luongo, Andrea; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall


    In this paper we present a color design pipeline for 3D printed or additively manufactured parts. We demonstrate how to characterize and calibrate a commercial printer and how to obtain its forward and backward color transformation models. We present results from our assistive color design tool......, allowing for colorimetric accurate prints and visualization of the printed outcome, prior to print. Lastly, we demonstrate our pipeline by accurately reproducing a real physical object....

  7. Navy additive manufacturing: adding parts, subtracting steps


    Cunningham, Victor; Schrader, Christopher A.; Young, James


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study examines additive manufacturing (AM) and describes its potential impact on the Navy’s Supply Chain Management processes. Included in the analysis is the implementation of 3D printing technology and how it could impact the Navy’s future procurement processes, specifically based on a conducted analysis of the automotive aerospace industry. Industry research and development has identified multiple dimensions of AM technology, i...

  8. Conferences on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory

    CERN Document Server


    This proceedings volume is based on papers presented at the Workshops on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory (CANT), which were held at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 2011 and 2012. The goal of the workshops is to survey recent progress in combinatorial number theory and related parts of mathematics. The workshop attracts researchers and students who discuss the state-of-the-art, open problems, and future challenges in number theory.

  9. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method (United States)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar


    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  10. Additive Manufacturing: From Form to Function (United States)


    AM into the role of logistics and sustainment creates three opportunities: • AM can be used to reverse engineer replacement parts for legacy...move additive manufacturing technology from form to function. In this way, AM can be increasingly used in military mission areas such as logistics ...agencies. The article begins by exploring the growth of AM within the military and then ventures into the role of AM in logistics and sustainment


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysenko Y. A.


    Full Text Available The new feed additives for animals based on milk whey, enriched with sprouting wheat, barley, maize grains and lactic-acid bacterium have been presented in this article. This study explores the possibility of combining the prebiotics ability of milk whey and sprouting grains with feed probiotic attributes of microbe to enhance gut health of animals and digestibility of the feed. Twelve variants of products were tested in the study using the microbial and physical-chemical approaches. All the assays showed high count of microorganism and high content of reducing sugar. The results of investigation indicate that selected feed additive show high quality. An additional point is that it contains useful organic acids (lactic, acetic and propionic acids and 2,1×109 colony-forming unit of probiotics microorganism that hold the concentration for 4 months. There are not yeast, must, coliform bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus in the developed functional feed product. It contributes to the normalization of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of animal, suppression of conditionally pathogenic and putrefactive microflora. The elaborated feed component will help to provide combined feed companies with accessible high-quality raw material

  12. The value of additional videorecordings on defecography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Ki; Choi, Sang Hee; Kim, Seung Hoon; Kim, Seung Kwon; Lim, Hyo Keun; Lee, Soon Jin; Kim, Bo Hyun [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the value of additional videorecording during defecography. Ninety-nine consecutive patients (20 males, 79 females;mean age:48 yrs) who between august 1996 and June 1997 had undergone defecography due to defecation difficulty were included in this study. In all patients, spot filming(at rest, during squeezing, during straining) and videorecording during defecography were simultaneously performed. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed spot films and video images, analyzed discrepancies between the two methods, and reached a consensus. In 52% of patients (51/99), the results of the two examinations were discrepant. The most common finding was anterior rectocele (n=3D33), followed by spastic pelvic floor syndrome (n=3D16), rectal intussusception (n=3D5), posterior rectocele (n=3D3), mucosal prolapse (n=3D2), descending perineal syndrome (n=3D2), and rectal prolapse (n=3D1). All findings except spastic pelvic floor syndrome were additionally found on videorecording. Because videorecording during defecography showed additional findings in 52% of patients, it is a necessary procedure for the diagnosis and management of patients with defecation difficulty.=20.

  13. Laser Additive Manufacturing of Magnetic Materials (United States)

    Mikler, C. V.; Chaudhary, V.; Borkar, T.; Soni, V.; Jaeger, D.; Chen, X.; Contieri, R.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Banerjee, R.


    While laser additive manufacturing is becoming increasingly important in the context of next-generation manufacturing technologies, most current research efforts focus on optimizing process parameters for the processing of mature alloys for structural applications (primarily stainless steels, titanium base, and nickel base alloys) from pre-alloyed powder feedstocks to achieve properties superior to conventionally processed counterparts. However, laser additive manufacturing or processing can also be applied to functional materials. This article focuses on the use of directed energy deposition-based additive manufacturing technologies, such as the laser engineered net shaping (LENS™) process, to deposit magnetic alloys. Three case studies are presented: Fe-30 at.%Ni, permalloys of the type Ni-Fe-V and Ni-Fe-Mo, and Fe-Si-B-Cu-Nb (derived from Finemet) alloys. All these alloys have been processed from a blend of elemental powders used as the feedstock, and their resultant microstructures, phase formation, and magnetic properties are discussed in this paper. Although these alloys were produced from a blend of elemental powders, they exhibited relatively uniform microstructures and comparable magnetic properties to those of their conventionally processed counterparts.

  14. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs. (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos


    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further development of patient-specific healthcare solutions. Customization of many healthcare products and services, such as implants, drug delivery devices, medical instruments, prosthetics, and in vitro models, would have been extremely challenging-if not impossible-without AM technologies. The current special issue of the Annals of Biomedical Engineering presents the latest trends in application of AM techniques to healthcare-related areas of research. As a prelude to this special issue, we review here the most important areas of biomedical research and clinical practice that have benefited from recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques. This editorial, therefore, aims to sketch the research landscape within which the other contributions of the special issue can be better understood and positioned. In what follows, we briefly review the application of additive manufacturing techniques in studies addressing biomaterials, (re)generation of tissues and organs, disease models, drug delivery systems, implants, medical instruments, prosthetics, orthotics, and AM objects used for medical visualization and communication.

  15. Additive Technology for EU Ecolabel Formulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Nehls; Tassilo Habereder; Edward Ng


    Currently, Bio -lubricants are still regarded as niche products. Within the global lubricant market, however, the ar-ea of environmentally acceptable fluids represents one of the fast growing markets with an estimated annual growth of more than 6% per year. This growth is supported by various market drivers such as legal regulations, public subsidies and the im-plementation of national or international labeling schemes.With the implementation of the European Ecolabel for lubricants in 2005, a common standard specifying ecological and performance requirements for Bio - lubricants was defined. Applying for the EU Ecolabel requires a comprehensive assess-ment, not only of the final formulation, but also of the additives used. Additives are required to meet specifications for oxi-dation and thermal stability, as well as to impart metal protection (of both steel and yellow metals), thus improving corro-sion protection and wear performance of the formulation. Therefore, it is challenging in terms of formulation technology to develop the right formulation that meets the technical specifications as well as the stringent requirements of the EU - Ecola-bel.The paper describes how, by using ester base fluids and additives currently available in the market, lubricants can be developed to meet the technical and eco - toxicological requirements of the EU - Ecolabel, approaching the performance lev-els of lubricants formulated with traditional base fluids.

  16. The Porosity of Additive Noise Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Vinith


    Consider a binary additive noise channel with noiseless feedback. When the noise is a stationary and ergodic process $\\mathbf{Z}$, the capacity is $1-\\mathbb{H}(\\mathbf{Z})$ ($\\mathbb{H}(\\cdot)$ denoting the entropy rate). It is shown analogously that when the noise is a deterministic sequence $z^\\infty$, the capacity under finite-state encoding and decoding is $1-\\bar{\\rho}(z^\\infty)$, where $\\bar{\\rho}(\\cdot)$ is Lempel and Ziv's finite-state compressibility. This quantity is termed the \\emph{porosity} $\\underline{\\sigma}(\\cdot)$ of an individual noise sequence. A sequence of schemes are presented that universally achieve porosity for any noise sequence. These converse and achievability results may be interpreted both as a channel-coding counterpart to Ziv and Lempel's work in universal source coding, as well as an extension to the work by Lomnitz and Feder and Shayevitz and Feder on communication across modulo-additive channels. Additionally, a slightly more practical architecture is suggested that draws a...

  17. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. F. Melius; M. D. Allendorf


    In the 1980's, the authors developed a bond-additivity correction procedure for quantum chemical calculations called BAC-MP4, which has proven reliable in calculating the thermochemical properties of molecular species, including radicals as well as stable closed-shell species. New Bond Additivity Correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid DFT/MP2 method, BAC-Hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-Hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-Hybrid method should scale well for large molecules. The BAC-Hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 as an indicator of the method's accuracy, while the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to provide an indicator of its accuracy. Indications of the average error as well as worst cases are provided for each of the BAC methods.

  18. Microbial analyses of cement and grouting additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, L.; Jaegevall, S.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, S. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)


    During sampling in the ONKALO tunnel in 2006, heavy growth of a slimy material was observed in connection with grouting. It was suggested to be microbial growth on organic additives leaching from the grout. Two sampling campaigns resulted in the isolation of several aerobic bacterial strains. Some of these strains were used in biodegradation studies of three solid cement powders, eight liquid grout additives, and six plastic drainage materials. Degradation was also studied using ONKALO groundwaters as inoculums. The isolated strains were most closely related to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. The biodegradation of seven of the products was tested using microorganisms isolated from the ONKALO slime in 2006; none of these strains could degrade the tested products. When ONKALO drillhole groundwaters were used as inoculums in the degradation studies, it was demonstrated that Structuro 111X, Mighty 150, and Super-Parmix supported growth of the groundwater microorganisms. Structuro 111X is a polycarboxylate condensate while Mighty 150 and Super-Parmix are condensates with formaldehyde and naphthalene. Some of the isolated microorganisms belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, many strains of which can degrade organic molecules. None of the plastic drainage materials supported growth during the degradation studies. Microorganisms were present in two of the liquid products when delivered, GroutAid and Super-Parmix. The potential of the organic compounds in grout additives to be degraded by microorganisms, increasing the risk of biofilm formation and complexing compound production, must be considered. Microbial growth will also increase the possibility of hydrogen sulphide formation. (orig.)

  19. Improvements in China's Food Additive Laws-Fermented Flour Paste Additive in Beijing Roast Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianglian; Zhao Xin


    About half of the food safety incidents in 2005 and 2006 were related to food additives. Early in 2007,the main problem for administrative enforcement is the issue of food additives.This paper analyzes one such incident:the fermented flour paste incident in Beijing roast duck that occurred in early 2007.We put forward suggested ways to perfect the legal system regarding Chinese food additives by focusing on legal and management mechanisms.This includes optimizing higher-level laws for food additives,improving the standards system,cultivating the appropriate concepts,implementing preventive measures,and facilitating routine law enforcement.

  20. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs. (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A


    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs.

  1. The addition of iodine to tetramethylammonium iodide (United States)

    Foote, H.W.; Fleischer, M.


    The system tetramethylammonium iodide-iodine-toluene has been studied by the solubility method at 6 and at 25??. The compounds (CH3)4NI3, (CH3)4NI5 and (CH3)4NI11 were found to be stable phases at both temperatures. In addition, the compound (CH3)4NI10 was found at 6?? and the compound (CH3)4NI9 at 25??. The dissociation pressures of the compounds at these temperatures were calculated from the solubility data.

  2. Additive manufacturing – a sustainable manufacturing route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frăţilă Domniţa


    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM technologies allow developing and manufacturing very complex shaped parts and functional products with a high level of customization, being a great alternative to Traditional Manufacturing (TM methods like injection molding, die-casting or machining. Due to the importance of cleaner production in the field of manufacturing processes, sustainability of AM processes needs to be assessed in order to make easier its acceptance and implementation in the industry. Furthermore, the manufacturers can improve their competitiveness and profitability by considering the ecological aspects during the manufacturing step of a product. This paper gives a survey on sustainability issues related to AM.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division. Polymers and Coatings


    Additive manufacturing has become a tool of choice for the development of customizable components. Developments in this technology have led to a powerful array of printers that t serve a variety of needs. However, resin development plays a crucial role in leading the technology forward. This paper addresses the development and application of printing hierarchical porous structures. Beginning with the development of a porous scaffold, which can be functionalized with a variety of materials, and concluding with customized resins for metal, ceramic, and carbon structures.

  4. Dust-Firing of Straw and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming;


    In the present work, the ash chemistry and deposition behavior during straw dust-firing were studied by performing experiments in an entrained flow reactor. The effect of using spent bleaching earth (SBE) as an additive in straw combustion was also investigated by comparing with kaolinite. During...... dust-firing of straw, the large (>∼2.5 μm) fly ash particles generated were primarily molten or partially molten spherical particles rich in K, Si, and Ca, supplemented by Si-rich flake-shaped particles. The smaller fly ash particles (...

  5. Custom surgical implants using additive manufacturing


    POUKENS, Jules; Laeven, Paul; BEERENS, Maikel; Koper, David; Lethaus, Bernd; Kessler, Peter; Vander Sloten, Jos; Lambrichts, Ivo


    CAD/CAM and Additive Manufacturing (AM) are getting more attention in the medical sector, especially in cranio-maxillofacial surgery where defects of the face (e.g., absence of a nose, ear, or eye) have a very big psycho-social impact. Radiological, optical, and laser scans of the patient are converted into a virtual three-dimensional patient with subsequent virtual design of the medical device. AM methods enable the production of custom implants made in a solid or resorbable material, or eve...

  6. Influence of Additives on Reinforced Concrete Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neverkovica Darja


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on carbonation and chloride induced corrosion mechanisms in reinforced concrete structures, based on three commercially available concrete admixtures: Xypex Admix C-1000, Penetron Admix and Elkem Microsilica. Carbonation takes place due to carbon dioxide diffusion, which in the required amount is present in the air. Chlorides penetrate concrete in case of the use of deicing salt or structure exploitation in marine atmosphere. Based on the implemented research, Elkem Microsilica is the recommended additive for the use in aggressive environmental conditions. Use of Xypex Admix C-1000 and Penetron Admix have only average resistance to the aggressive environmental impact.

  7. 10 conjectures in additive number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cloitre, Benoit


    Following an idea of Rowland we give a conjectural way to generate increasing sequences of primes using algorithms involving the gcd. These algorithms seem not so useless for searching primes since it appears we found sometime primes much more greater than the number of required iterations. In an other hand we propose new formulations of famous conjectures from the additive theory of numbers (the weak twin prime conjecture, the Polignac conjecture, the Goldbach conjecture or the very general Schinzel's hypothesis H). For the moment these are experimental results obtained using pari-gp.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng YAN; Jianqi YANG; Limin LIU


    Assume that there is additional market information in the financial market, which is represented by n given T-contingent claims. The special claims with observed prices at time 0 can only be traded at time 0. Hence, investment opportunities increase. By means of the techniques developed by Gourierout et al. (1998), the mixed hedging problem is considered, especially, the price of contingent claim and the optimal hedging strategy are obtained. An explicit description of the mean-variance efficient solution is given after arguing mean-variance efficient frontier problem.

  9. Structural dynamic modification using additive damping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Nakra


    In order to control dynamic response in structures and machines, modofications using additive viscoelastic damping materials are highlighted. The techniques described for analysis include analytical methods for structural elements, FEM and perturbation methods for reanalysis or structural dynamic modifications for complex structures. Optimisation techniques are used for damping effectiveness include multi-parameter optimisatoin techniques and a technique using dynamic sensitivity analysis and structural dynamic modification. These have been applied for optimum dynamic design of structures incorporating viscoelastic damping. Some current trends for vibraton control are also discussed.

  10. Mechanism and kinetics of addition polymerizations

    CERN Document Server

    Kucera, M


    This volume presents an up-to-date survey of knowledge concerning addition type polymerizations. It contains nine chapters, each of which covers a particular basic term. Whenever necessary, the phenomena are discussed from the viewpoint of both stationary and non-stationary state of radical, ionic (i.e. anionic and cationic) and coordination polymerization. Special attention has been paid to the propagation process. It provides not only a general overview but also information on important special cases (theoretical conditions of propagation, influence of external factors, controlled propagatio

  11. Characteristics of asphalt mixes with FT additive (United States)

    Štefunková, S.


    This article is focused on low-temperature asphalt mixture technologies using FT additive and RAP. The modern production and use of asphalt mixture technologies with reduced temperatures has many advantages. These advantages mainly help to save energy and the environment. Lower temperatures enable a reduction in energy consumption, a more acceptable working environment for workers, a reduction in negative environmental effects, such as greenhouse gas emissions, and an improvement in the workability of mixtures and a prolongation of their duration. This technology is currently becoming popular in many countries.

  12. Energy additivity in branched and cyclic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H.; Bader, R.F.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Cortes-Guzman, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica


    This paper reported on a study of the energetic relationships between hydrocarbon molecules and the heats of formation. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to investigate the degree to which branched hydrocarbons obey a group additivity scheme for energy and populations. The QTAIM defined the properties of the chemical groups. The experimental and theoretical transferability of the methyl and methylene groups of the linear hydrocarbons was also explored. The calculations were performed using a large basis set at the restricted Hartree-Fock and MP2(full) levels of theory. The study also investigated the deviations from additivity, noted for small ring hydrocarbons leading to the definition of strain energy. The QTAIM energies recovered the experimental values. The paper included details regarding the delocalization of the electron density over the surface of the cyclopropane ring, responsible for its homoaromatic properties. The calculations presented in this study satisfied the virial theorem for the atomic definition of energy. The paper discussed the problems associated with the use of the density functional theory (DFT) resulting from its failure to satisfy the virial theorem. 44 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Value addition to bamboo shoots: a review. (United States)

    Choudhury, Debangana; Sahu, Jatindra K; Sharma, G D


    Bamboo shoot forms a traditional delicacy in many countries. Being low in fat content and high in potassium, carbohydrate, dietary fibres, Vitamins and active materials, bamboo shoots are consumed in raw, canned, boiled, marinated, fermented, frozen, liquid and medicinal forms. Although the fresh bamboo shoots of species like Dendraocalamus giganteus are healthier and nutritionally rich, the young shoots, after fortification, can be consumed by processing into a wide range of food products with longer shelf-life and better organoleptic qualities. However, the consumption pattern of bamboo shoots in most of the countries is traditional, non-standardized, seasonal and region-specific with little value addition. Therefore, there exists a great opportunity, especially for the organized food processing sectors to take up the processing of bamboo shoot-based food products in an organized manner. The present article gives an insight into the global scenario of bamboo shoot-based food products and their consumption pattern, the quality attributes, and the opportunities for value addition along with future prospects in view of international food safety, security and nutrition.

  14. Additive and Photochemical Manufacturing of Copper (United States)

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Meng, Zhengong; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung


    In recent years, 3D printing technologies have been extensively developed, enabling rapid prototyping from a conceptual design to an actual product. However, additive manufacturing of metals in the existing technologies is still cost-intensive and time-consuming. Herein a novel platform for low-cost additive manufacturing is introduced by simultaneously combining the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) method with photochemical reaction. Using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer as the sacrificial layer, sufficient ejection momentum can be generated in the LIFT method. A low-cost continuous wave (CW) laser diode at 405 nm was utilized and proved to be able to transfer the photochemically synthesized copper onto the target substrate. The wavelength-dependent photochemical behaviour in the LIFT method was verified and characterized by both theoretical and experimental studies compared to 1064 nm fiber laser. The conductivity of the synthesized copper patterns could be enhanced using post electroless plating while retaining the designed pattern shapes. Prototypes of electronic circuits were accordingly built and demonstrated for powering up LEDs. Apart from pristine PDMS materials with low surface energies, the proposed method can simultaneously perform laser-induced forward transfer and photochemical synthesis of metals, starting from their metal oxide forms, onto various target substrates such as polyimide, glass and thermoplastics.

  15. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing. (United States)

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A


    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future.

  16. The Electrophilic Addition to Alkynes Revisited (United States)

    Tidwell, Thomas T.


    A recent claim (Weiss, H. J. Chem. Ed. 1993, 70, 873 - 874) that vinyl cations are not the predominant intermediates in the electrophilic addition to alkynes in disputed on the following grounds: (1) these is a linear free energy correlation between the rates of acid-catalyzed hydration of alkenes and alkynes, and since carbocations are accepted as intermediates in the former reaction, they are implicated in the latter as well; (2) rearrangements are known to be energetically less favorable in vinyl cations compared to alkyl cations, and so the lesser observed tendency for rearrangement in the former case does not argue for the absence of vinyl cation intermediates; (3) there is evidence that alkenes and alkynes react with HBr and HCl in some cases with anti addition and a kinetic term in [HX]2, but this is not an argument for a difference in behavior between the two, or for a pi-complex mechanism; (4) thermochemical calculations show that vinyl cations are not prohbitively destabilized compared to analogous alkyl cations; (5) the observation of an HCl/acetylene pi-complex in the gas phase is not an argument that this represents a rate-limiting transition state in solution.

  17. Additive manufacturing of glass for optical applications (United States)

    Luo, Junjie; Gilbert, Luke J.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Kinzel, Edward C.


    Glasses including fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Additive manufacturing has several potential benefits including increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research in AM of glasses is limited and has focused on non-optical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz also has a higher working temperature than soda lime glass which poses a challenge for AM. In this work, fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the work piece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed fused quartz. A spectrometer is used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the melt pool. Thin-walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. Finally, a 3D fused quartz cube is printed using the newly acquired layer height and polished on each surface. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the polished cube are both measured. These results show that the filament fed process has the potential to print fused quartz with optical transparency and of index of refraction uniformity approaching bulk processed glass.

  18. Gas hydrate inhibition of drilling fluid additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaolan, L.; Baojiang, S.; Shaoran, R. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Dongying (China). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering


    Gas hydrates that form during offshore well drilling can have adverse impacts on well operational safety. The hydrates typically form in the risers and the annulus between the casing and the drillstring, and can stop the circulation of drilling fluids. In this study, experiments were conducted to measure the effect of drilling fluid additives on hydrate inhibition. Polyalcohols, well-stability control agents, lubricating agents, and polymeric materials were investigated in a stirred tank reactor at temperatures ranging from -10 degree C to 60 degrees C. Pressure, temperature, and torque were used to detect onset points of hydrate formation and dissociation. The inhibitive effect of the additives on hydrate formation was quantified. Phase boundary shifts were measured in terms of temperature difference or sub-cooling gained when chemicals were added to pure water. Results showed that the multiple hydroxyl groups in polyalcohol chemicals significantly inhibited hydrate formation. Polymeric and polyacrylamide materials had only a small impact on hydrate formation, while sulfonated methyl tannins were found to increase hydrate formation. 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  19. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 (formerly Docket No. 2002F-0316) Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage Preparation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; response to objections and denial of...

  20. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food...

  1. The retro Grignard addition reaction revisited: the reversible addition of benzyl reagents to ketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stig Holden; Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Robert


    The Grignard addition reaction is known to be a reversible process with allylic reagents, but so far the reversibility has not been demonstrated with other alkylmagnesium halides. By using crossover experiments it has been established that the benzyl addition reaction is also a reversible transfo...

  2. Additive functionals and excursions of Kuznetsov processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacène Boutabia


    semigroup of transition. In this paper, we give the excursion laws of (Xtt∈ℝ+ conditioned on the strict past and future without duality hypothesis. We study excursions of a general regenerative system and of a regenerative system consisting of the closure of the set of times the regular points of B are visited. In both cases, those conditioned excursion laws depend only on two points Xg− and Xd, where ]g,d[ is an excursion interval of the regenerative set M. We use the (FDt-predictable exit system to bring together the isolated points of M and its perfect part and replace the classical optional exit system. This has been a subject in literature before (e.g., Kaspi (1988 under the classical duality hypothesis. We define an “additive functional” for (Ytt∈ℝ with B, we generalize the laws cited before to (Ytt∈ℝ, and we express laws of pairs of excursions.

  3. The stability of alloying additions in Zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, S.C. [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Nuclear Department, Defence Academy, HMS Sultan, Gosport, Hampshire, PO12 3BY (United Kingdom); Murphy, S.T. [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Burr, P.A. [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Grimes, R.W. [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Chard-Tuckey, P.R. [Nuclear Department, Defence Academy, HMS Sultan, Gosport, Hampshire, PO12 3BY (United Kingdom); Wenman, M.R., E-mail: [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    The interactions of Cr, Fe, Nb, Ni, Sn, V and Y with Zr are simulated using density functional theory. Thermodynamic stabilities of various different Zr based intermetallic compounds, including multiple Laves phase structures and solutions of alloying additions in both α and β-Zr were investigated. The thermodynamic driving forces in this system can be correlated with trends in atomic radii and the relative electronegativities of the different species. Formation energies of Fe, Ni and Sn based intermetallic compounds were found to be negative, and the Zr{sub 2}Fe and Zr{sub 2}Ni intermetallics were metastable. Most elements displayed negative energies of solution in β-Zr but positive energies in the α-phase, with the exception of Sn (which was negative for both) and Y (which was positive for both). Solutions formed from intermetallics showed a similar trend.

  4. Atom addition reactions in interstellar ice analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Linnartz, Harold; Fedoseev, Gleb


    This review paper summarizes the state-of-the-art in laboratory based interstellar ice chemistry. The focus is on atom addition reactions, illustrating how water, carbon dioxide and methanol can form in the solid state at astronomically relevant temperatures, and also the formation of more complex species such as hydroxylamine, an important prebiotic molecule, and glycolaldehyde, the smallest sugar, is discussed. These reactions are particularly relevant during the dark ages of star and planet formation, i.e., when the role of UV light is restricted. A quantitative characterization of such processes is only possible through dedicated laboratory studies, i.e., under full control of a large set of parameters such as temperature, atom-flux, and ice morphology. The resulting numbers, physical and chemical constants, e.g., barrier heights, reaction rates and branching ratios, provide information on the molecular processes at work and are needed as input for astrochemical models, in order to bridge the timescales t...

  5. Additive Feed Forward Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.


    This paper demonstrates a method to control a non-linear, multivariable, noisy process using trained neural networks. The basis for the method is a trained neural network controller acting as the inverse process model. A training method for obtaining such an inverse process model is applied....... A suitable 'shaped' (low-pass filtered) reference is used to overcome problems with excessive control action when using a controller acting as the inverse process model. The control concept is Additive Feed Forward Control, where the trained neural network controller, acting as the inverse process model......, is placed in a supplementary pure feed-forward path to an existing feedback controller. This concept benefits from the fact, that an existing, traditional designed, feedback controller can be retained without any modifications, and after training the connection of the neural network feed-forward controller...

  6. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing. (United States)

    Mukherjee, T; Zuback, J S; De, A; DebRoy, T


    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.

  7. Combined additive manufacturing approaches in tissue engineering. (United States)

    Giannitelli, S M; Mozetic, P; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A


    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing (AM) have significantly improved the control over the microarchitecture of scaffolds for tissue engineering. This has led to the flourishing of research works addressing the optimization of AM scaffolds microarchitecture to optimally trade-off between conflicting requirements (e.g. mechanical stiffness and porosity level). A fascinating trend concerns the integration of AM with other scaffold fabrication methods (i.e. "combined" AM), leading to hybrid architectures with complementary structural features. Although this innovative approach is still at its beginning, significant results have been achieved in terms of improved biological response to the scaffold, especially targeting the regeneration of complex tissues. This review paper reports the state of the art in the field of combined AM, posing the accent on recent trends, challenges, and future perspectives.

  8. Additive manufacturing of biologically-inspired materials. (United States)

    Studart, André R


    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer an attractive pathway towards the fabrication of functional materials featuring complex heterogeneous architectures inspired by biological systems. In this paper, recent research on the use of AM approaches to program the local chemical composition, structure and properties of biologically-inspired materials is reviewed. A variety of structural motifs found in biological composites have been successfully emulated in synthetic systems using inkjet-based, direct-writing, stereolithography and slip casting technologies. The replication in synthetic systems of design principles underlying such structural motifs has enabled the fabrication of lightweight cellular materials, strong and tough composites, soft robots and autonomously shaping structures with unprecedented properties and functionalities. Pushing the current limits of AM technologies in future research should bring us closer to the manufacturing capabilities of living organisms, opening the way for the digital fabrication of advanced materials with superior performance, lower environmental impact and new functionalities.

  9. Organic Additive Implantation onto Cement Hydration Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jipeng; LI Zongjin; YANG Ruochong; ZHANG Yamei


    In polymer modified cementitious materials, it is hard to set up a chemical connection between the added polymer and the cement moiety. In this study FS (functional silane) was adopted to form this connection as a bridge component which has the functional group forming bonds with polymer. To testify the connection between FS and cement moiety, Q2/Q1 ratio (Qx:intensity ratio) investigation was carried out by the means of quantitative solid state 29Si MAS NMR. The results show that the Q2/Q1 ratio has increased with the addition of FS which indicates that the silicon chain length has increased, and the quantity of silicon atoms at site of Q2, chain site, has enhanced, showing that the silicon atom of FS has connected to the silicon chain of cement moiety by the bond“-Si-O-Si-”formation.

  10. Subgroup finding via Bayesian additive regression trees. (United States)

    Sivaganesan, Siva; Müller, Peter; Huang, Bin


    We provide a Bayesian decision theoretic approach to finding subgroups that have elevated treatment effects. Our approach separates the modeling of the response variable from the task of subgroup finding and allows a flexible modeling of the response variable irrespective of potential subgroups of interest. We use Bayesian additive regression trees to model the response variable and use a utility function defined in terms of a candidate subgroup and the predicted response for that subgroup. Subgroups are identified by maximizing the expected utility where the expectation is taken with respect to the posterior predictive distribution of the response, and the maximization is carried out over an a priori specified set of candidate subgroups. Our approach allows subgroups based on both quantitative and categorical covariates. We illustrate the approach using simulated data set study and a real data set. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Using Fuel Additives - Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Fayyad


    Full Text Available This research presents an investigation of the effects of ethanol addition to low octane numbergasoline, on the fuel octane number and on the performance of the engine. In this study, the tested gasoline(octane number = 90 is blended with five different percentages of ethanol, namely 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% onvolume basis. Then these fuel blends, as well as the base gasoline fuel, w ere burnt in the tested engine. It isfound that the octane number of gasoline increases continuously and linearly with increasing the ethanolpercentage in gasoline. Hence, ethanol is an effective compound for increasing the value of the octane numberof gasoline. Also, it is also noticed that the best performance of the engine was obtained when 15% of ethanolwas used in the gasoline blend.

  12. A DNA based model for addition computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Lin; YANG Xiao; LIU Wenbin; XU Jin


    Much effort has been made to solve computing problems by using DNA-an organic simulating method, which in some cases is preferable to the current electronic computer. However, No one at present has proposed an effective and applicable method to solve addition problem with molecular algorithm due to the difficulty in solving the carry problem which can be easily solved by hardware of an electronic computer. In this article, we solved this problem by employing two kinds of DNA strings, one is called result and operation string while the other is named carrier. The result and operation string contains some carry information by its own and denotes the ultimate result while the carrier is just for carrying use. The significance of this algorithm is the original code, the fairly easy steps to follow and the feasibility under current molecular biological technology.

  13. Network Tomography Based on Additive Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Jian


    Inference of the network structure (e.g., routing topology) and dynamics (e.g., link performance) is an essential component in many network design and management tasks. In this paper we propose a new, general framework for analyzing and designing routing topology and link performance inference algorithms using ideas and tools from phylogenetic inference in evolutionary biology. The framework is applicable to a variety of measurement techniques. Based on the framework we introduce and develop several polynomial-time distance-based inference algorithms with provable performance. We provide sufficient conditions for the correctness of the algorithms. We show that the algorithms are consistent (return correct topology and link performance with an increasing sample size) and robust (can tolerate a certain level of measurement errors). In addition, we establish certain optimality properties of the algorithms (i.e., they achieve the optimal $l_\\infty$-radius) and demonstrate their effectiveness via model simulation.

  14. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee


    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  15. Use of waste rubber as concrete additive. (United States)

    Chou, Liang Hsing; Lu, Chun-Ku; Chang, Jen-Ray; Lee, Maw Tien


    For resource reutilization, scrap tyres have long been investigated as an additive to concrete to form 'Rubcrete' for various applications and have shown promising results. However, the addition of rubber particles leads to the degradation of physical properties, particularly, the compressive strength of the concrete. In this study, a theoretical model was proposed to shed light on the mechanisms of decrease in compressive strength due to the addition of rubber particles as well as improvement in compressive strength through modification of particle surfaces. The literature suggests that the compressive strength can be improved by soaking the rubber particles in alkaline solution first to increase the inter-phase bonding between the rubber particles and cement. Instead, we discovered that the loss in compressive strength was due to local imperfections in the hydration of cement, induced by the addition of heterogeneous and hydrophobic rubber particles. Microscopic studies showed that the rubber particles disturbed the water transfer to create channels, which were prone to cracking and led to a loss in the compressive strength. Unexpectedly, no cracking was found along the surfaces of the rubber particles, indicating that the bonding strength between the rubber particles and cement phases was not the critical factor in determining the compressive strength. Therefore, a theoretical model was proposed to describe the water transfer in the Rubcrete specimens to explain the experimental data. In the model, the local water available for hydration (Q) is: Q = -A(slv)/6piv, where Q, A(slv), and v are mass flow rate (kg s(-1)), Hamaker constant (J), and dynamic viscosity (m2 s(-1)), respectively. By maximizing the quantity Q and, in turn, the Hamaker constant A(slv), the compressive strength could be improved. The Hamaker constant A(slv) for water film on rubber particle surfaces was smaller than that for the hydrated cement particles; the water transfer rate was lower in

  16. Additive subgroups of topological vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banaszczyk, Wojciech


    The Pontryagin-van Kampen duality theorem and the Bochner theorem on positive-definite functions are known to be true for certain abelian topological groups that are not locally compact. The book sets out to present in a systematic way the existing material. It is based on the original notion of a nuclear group, which includes LCA groups and nuclear locally convex spaces together with their additive subgroups, quotient groups and products. For (metrizable, complete) nuclear groups one obtains analogues of the Pontryagin duality theorem, of the Bochner theorem and of the Lévy-Steinitz theorem on rearrangement of series (an answer to an old question of S. Ulam). The book is written in the language of functional analysis. The methods used are taken mainly from geometry of numbers, geometry of Banach spaces and topological algebra. The reader is expected only to know the basics of functional analysis and abstract harmonic analysis.

  17. Intolerance to food additives - does it exist? (United States)

    Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S


    'Food intolerance' is often confused with a range of adverse symptoms which may be coincidental to ingestion of food. 'Food intolerance' is defined as a reaction in which symptoms must be objectively reproducible and not known to involve an immunological mechanism. A more precise term is non-allergic food hypersensitivity, which contrasts with food allergies which are due to an immunological mechanism. Some children will experience food reactions to food additives. Reported symptoms range from urticaria/angioedema to hyperactive behaviours. While parents/carers report that over one fifth of children experience of food reaction, only 1 in 20 of these are confirmed to have a non-allergic food hypersensitivity on testing.

  18. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.


    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  19. Object attributes combine additively in visual search. (United States)

    Pramod, R T; Arun, S P


    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes.

  20. Additively Manufactured and Surface Biofunctionalized Porous Nitinol. (United States)

    Gorgin Karaji, Z; Speirs, M; Dadbakhsh, S; Kruth, J-P; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A; Amin Yavari, S


    Enhanced bone tissue regeneration and improved osseointegration are among the most important goals in design of multifunctional orthopedic biomaterials. In this study, we used additive manufacturing (selective laser melting) to develop multifunctional porous nitinol that combines superelasticity with a rationally designed microarchitecture and biofunctionalized surface. The rational design based on triply periodic minimal surfaces aimed to properly adjust the pore size, increase the surface area (thereby amplifying the effects of surface biofunctionalization), and resemble the curvature characteristics of trabecular bone. The surface of additively manufactured (AM) porous nitinol was biofunctionalized using polydopamine-immobilized rhBMP2 for better control of the release kinetics. The actual morphological properties of porous nitinol measured by microcomputed tomography (e.g., open/close porosity, and surface area) closely matched the design values. The superelasticity originated from the austenite phase formed in the nitinol porous structure at room temperature. Polydopamine and rhBMP2 signature peaks were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests. The release of rhBMP2 continued until 28 days. The early time and long-term release profiles were found to be adjustable independent of each other. In vitro cell culture showed improved cell attachment, cell proliferation, cell morphology (spreading, spindle-like shape), and cell coverage as well as elevated levels of ALP activity and increased calcium content for biofunctionalized surfaces as compared to as-manufactured specimens. The demonstrated functionalities of porous nitinol could be used as a basis for deployable orthopedic implants with rationally designed microarchitectures that maximize bone tissue regeneration performance by release of biomolecules with adjustable and well-controlled release profiles.

  1. Feasibility and Testing of Additive Manufactured Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hummelt, Ed [Eaton Corporation, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Solovyeva, Lyudmila [Eaton Corporation, Milwaukee, WI (United States)


    This project focused on demonstrating the ability to fabricate two parts with different geometry: an arc flash interrupter and a hydraulic manifold. Eaton Corporation provided ORNL solid models, information related to tolerances and sensitive parameters of the parts and provided testing and evaluation. ORNL successfully manufactured both components, provided cost models of the manufacturing (materials, labor, time and post processing) and delivered test components for Eaton evaluation. The arc flash suppressor was fabricated using the Renishaw laser powder bed technology in CoCrMo while the manifold was produced from Ti-6Al-4V using the Arcam electron beam melting technology. These manufacturing techniques were selected based on the design and geometrical tolerances required. A full-scale manifold was produced on the Arcam A2 system (nearly 12 inches tall). A portion of the manifold was also produced in the Arcam Q10 system. Although a full scale manifold could not be produced in the system, a full scale manifold is expected to have similar material properties, geometric accuracy, and surface finish as could be fabricated on an Arcam Q20 system that is capable of producing four full scale manifolds in a production environment. In addition to the manifold, mechanical test specimens, geometric tolerance artifacts, and microstructure samples were produced alongside the manifold. The development and demonstration of these two key components helped Eaton understand the impact additive manufacturing can have on many of their existing products. By working within the MDF and leveraging ORNL’s manufacturing and characterization capabilities, the work will ensure the rapid insertion and commercialization of this technology.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Thick Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hedayati


    Full Text Available Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding the mechanical behavior of more complex 3D tessellated structures such as porous biomaterials. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs made using additive manufacturing techniques that allow for fabrication of honeycombs with arbitrary and precisely controlled thickness. Thick honeycombs with different wall thicknesses were produced from polylactic acid (PLA using fused deposition modelling, i.e., an additive manufacturing technique. The samples were mechanically tested in-plane under compression to determine their mechanical properties. We also obtained exact analytical solutions for the stiffness matrix of thick hexagonal honeycombs using both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The stiffness matrix was then used to derive analytical relationships that describe the elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson’s ratio of thick honeycombs. Finite element models were also built for computational analysis of the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs under compression. The mechanical properties obtained using our analytical relationships were compared with experimental observations and computational results as well as with analytical solutions available in the literature. It was found that the analytical solutions presented here are in good agreement with experimental and computational results even for very thick honeycombs, whereas the analytical solutions available in the literature show a large deviation from experimental observation, computational results, and our analytical solutions.

  3. Additive Construction using Basalt Regolith Fines (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Lippitt, Thomas C.; Mantovani, James G.; Nugent, Matthew W.; Townsend, Ivan I.


    Planetary surfaces are often covered in regolith (crushed rock), whose geologic origin is largely basalt. The lunar surface is made of small-particulate regolith and areas of boulders located in the vicinity of craters. Regolith composition also varies with location, reflecting the local bedrock geology and the nature and efficiency of the micrometeorite-impact processes. In the lowland mare areas (suitable for habitation), the regolith is composed of small granules (20 - 100 microns average size) of mare basalt and volcanic glass. Impacting micrometeorites may cause local melting, and the formation of larger glassy particles, and this regolith may contain 10-80% glass. Studies of lunar regolith are traditionally conducted with lunar regolith simulant (reconstructed soil with compositions patterned after the lunar samples returned by Apollo). The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) lab has identified a low fidelity but economical geo-technical simulant designated as Black Point-1 (BP-1). It was found at the site of the Arizona Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) analog field test site at the Black Point lava flow in adjacent basalt quarry spoil mounds. This paper summarizes activities at KSC regarding the utilization of BP-1 basalt regolith and comparative work with lunar basalt simulant JSC-1A as a building material for robotic additive construction of large structures. In an effort to reduce the import or in-situ fabrication of binder additives, we focused this work on in-situ processing of regolith for construction in a single-step process after its excavation. High-temperature melting of regolith involves techniques used in glassmaking and casting (with melts of lower density and higher viscosity than those of metals), producing basaltic glass with high durability and low abrasive wear. Most Lunar simulants melt at temperatures above 1100 C, although melt processing of terrestrial regolith at 1500 C is not

  4. Behaviors of Polymer Additives Under EHL and Influences of Interactions Between Additives on Friction Modification (United States)

    Sakurai, T.


    Polymer additives have become requisite for the formulation of multigrade engine oils. The behavior of polymethacrylate (PMA)-thickened oils as lubricants in concentrated contacts under nominal rolling and pure sliding conditions was investigated by conventional optical interferometry. The PMA thickened oils behaved differently from the base oil in the formation of elastohydrodynamic (EHL) films. The higher the elastohydrodynamic molecular weight of the PMA contained in the lubricant, the thinner was the oil film under EHL conditions. The film thickness of shear-degraded PMA-thickened oils was also investigated. The behavior of graphite particles dispersed in both the base oil and the PMA-thickened oil was studied under pure sliding by taking photomicrographs. Many kinds of additives are contained in lubricating oil and the interactions between additives are considered. The interactions of zinc-organodithiophosphates (ZDP) with other additives is discussed.

  5. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule. (United States)


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  6. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhl, I.


    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  7. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences (United States)

    Lambert, Dennis M.


    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data have been "sanitized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range that was centered about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. Tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable with SLM-produced IN718. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Ultem Polymers and Composites (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Euy-Sik E.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Thomas D.


    The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimdes Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 filled with 10 chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25-31. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties.

  9. Additive Manufacturing: Making Imagination the Major Limitation (United States)

    Zhai, Yuwei; Lados, Diana A.; LaGoy, Jane L.


    Additive manufacturing (AM) refers to an advanced technology used for the fabrication of three-dimensional near-net-shaped functional components directly from computer models, using unit materials. The fundamentals and working principle of AM offer several advantages, including near-net-shape capabilities, superior design and geometrical flexibility, innovative multi-material fabrication, reduced tooling and fixturing, shorter cycle time for design and manufacturing, instant local production at a global scale, and material, energy, and cost efficiency. Well suiting the requests of modern manufacturing climate, AM is viewed as the new industrial revolution, making its way into a continuously increasing number of industries, such as aerospace, defense, automotive, medical, architecture, art, jewelry, and food. This overview was created to relate the historical evolution of the AM technology to its state-of-the-art developments and emerging applications. Generic thoughts on the microstructural characteristics, properties, and performance of AM-fabricated materials will also be discussed, primarily related to metallic materials. This write-up will introduce the general reader to specifics of the AM field vis-à-vis advantages and common techniques, materials and properties, current applications, and future opportunities.

  10. Towards Mobile Microrobot Swarms for Additive Micromanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cappelleri


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach to achieving the independent control of multiple magnetic microrobots is presented. The approach utilizes a specialized substrate consisting of a fine grid of planar, MEMS-fabricated micro coils of the same size as the microrobots (≤ 500 μm. The coils can be used to generate real magnetic potentials and, therefore, attractive and repulsive forces in the workspace to control the trajectories of the microrobots. Initial work on modelling the coil and microrobot behavior is reported along with simulation results for navigating one and two microrobots along independent desired trajectories. Qualitative results from a scaled-up printed circuit board version of the specialized substrate operating on permanent magnets are presented and offer proof-of-concept results for the approach. These tests also provide insights for practical implementations of such a system, which are similarly reported. The ultimate goal of this work is to use swarms of independently controlled microrobots in advanced, additive manufacturing applications.

  11. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gotham, Douglas J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Luciani, Ralph L. [Navigant Consultant Inc., Suwanee, GA (United States)


    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  12. Influence of and additives on acetylene detonation (United States)

    Drakon, A.; Emelianov, A.; Eremin, A.


    The influence of and admixtures (known as detonation suppressors for combustible mixtures) on the development of acetylene detonation was experimentally investigated in a shock tube. The time-resolved images of detonation wave development and propagation were registered using a high-speed streak camera. Shock wave velocity and pressure profiles were measured by five calibrated piezoelectric gauges and the formation of condensed particles was detected by laser light extinction. The induction time of detonation development was determined as the moment of a pressure rise at the end plate of the shock tube. It was shown that additive had no influence on the induction time. For , a significant promoting effect was observed. A simplified kinetic model was suggested and characteristic rates of diacetylene formation were estimated as the limiting stage of acetylene polymerisation. An analysis of the obtained data indicated that the promoting species is atomic chlorine formed by pyrolysis, which interacts with acetylene and produces radical, initiating a chain mechanism of acetylene decomposition. The results of kinetic modelling agree well with the experimental data.

  13. Computed tomography characterisation of additive manufacturing materials. (United States)

    Bibb, Richard; Thompson, Darren; Winder, John


    Additive manufacturing, covering processes frequently referred to as rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, provides new opportunities in the manufacture of highly complex and custom-fitting medical devices and products. Whilst many medical applications of AM have been explored and physical properties of the resulting parts have been studied, the characterisation of AM materials in computed tomography has not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the CT number of commonly used AM materials. There are many potential applications of the information resulting from this study in the design and manufacture of wearable medical devices, implants, prostheses and medical imaging test phantoms. A selection of 19 AM material samples were CT scanned and the resultant images analysed to ascertain the materials' CT number and appearance in the images. It was found that some AM materials have CT numbers very similar to human tissues, FDM, SLA and SLS produce samples that appear uniform on CT images and that 3D printed materials show a variation in internal structure.

  14. Additive Layer Manufacturing for Launcher's Applications (United States)

    Vilanova, J.; Romera, P.; Lasagni, F.; Zorrilla, A.; Perinan, A.


    In the next years the European space industry has the challenge of maintaining its competitiveness in launch vehicles (LV) production, due to the growth of competition worldwide. It has to assure its position developing new applied technologies. In this field the effort is focussed on the production of short series of customized products, like payloads, flight components or launcher parts. ALM (Additive Layer Manufacturing) could be a powerful tool that offers new competitiveness factors for this industry, comprising a set of emerging technologies that are becoming a competitor to forming, casting and machining as well as being utilised directly as a complementary alternative.Originally used for prototypes and models, now ALM becomes a very useful technology capable to fabricate functional parts for the space industrial sector. Its demands on rapid technologies are different to "earth" industries, and they aren't so easily satisfied because space is a field with different requirements depending on its application: launchers, reusable vehicles, satellites, probes, low gravity researches, manned spacecraft, or even moon and planetary exploration.This paper reports on the ALM potential applications, under ESA requirements, exploring the challenges and possibilities for its use in the launchers market, trying to answer two basic questions: the first one, whether ALM is a mature technology to be ready for its use as flight hardware; and the second one, if it can be used to reduce the product cycle, and consequently, the development, production and operational costs.

  15. Biobased additive plasticizing Polylactic acid (PLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounira Maiza


    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA is an attractive candidate for replacing petrochemical polymers because it is from renewable resources. In this study, a specific PLA 2002D was melt-mixed with two plasticizers: triethyl citrate (TEC and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC. The plasticized PLA with various concentrations were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, melt flow index (MFI, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-Visible spectroscopy and plasticizer migration test. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the addition of TEC and ATBC resulted in a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg, and the reduction was the largest with the plasticizer having the lowest molecular weight (TEC. Plasticizing effect was also shown by decrease in the dynamic storage modulus and viscosity of plasticized mixtures compared to the treated PLA. The TGA results indicated that ATBC and TEC promoted a decrease in thermal stability of the PLA. The X-ray diffraction showed that the PLA have not polymorphic crystalline transition. Analysis by UV-Visible spectroscopy showed that the two plasticizers: ATBC and TEC have no effect on the color change of the films. The weight loss plasticizer with heating time and at 100°C is lesser than at 135 °C. Migration of TEC and ATBC results in cracks and changed color of material. We have concluded that the higher molecular weight of citrate in the studied exhibited a greater plasticizing effect to the PLA.

  16. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milenski, Helen M [Univ. of Mexico, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schmalzer, Andrew Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  17. Additive manufacturing technologies of porous metal implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Quanzhan


    Full Text Available Biomedical metal materials with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are widely used in orthopedic surgery and dental implant materials, but they can easily cause stress shielding due to the significant difference in elastic modulus between the implant and human bones. The elastic modulus of porous metals is lower than that of dense metals. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the pore parameters to make the elastic modulus of porous metals match or be comparable with that of the bone tissue. At the same time, the open porous metals with pores connected to each other could provide the structural condition for bone ingrowth, which is helpful in strengthening the biological combination of bone tissue with the implants. Therefore, the preparation technologies of porous metal implants and related research have been drawing more and more attention due to the excellent features of porous metals. Selective laser melting (SLM and electron beam melting technology (EBM are important research fields of additive manufacturing. They have the advantages of directly forming arbitrarily complex shaped metal parts which are suitable for the preparation of porous metal implants with complex shape and fine structure. As new manufacturing technologies, the applications of SLM and EBM for porous metal implants have just begun. This paper aims to understand the technology status of SLM and EBM, the research progress of porous metal implants preparation by using SLM and EBM, and the biological compatibility of the materials, individual design and manufacturing requirements. The existing problems and future research directions for porous metal implants prepared by SLM and EBM methods are discussed in the last paragraph.

  18. Additive manufacturing technologies of porous metal implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Linxi; Yang Quanzhan; Zhang Guirong; Zhao Fangxin; Shen Gang; Yu Bo


    Biomedical metal materials with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are widely used in orthopedic surgery and dental implant materials, but they can easily cause stress shielding due to the signiifcant difference in elastic modulus between the implant and human bones. The elastic modulus of porous metals is lower than that of dense metals. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the pore parameters to make the elastic modulus of porous metals match or be comparable with that of the bone tissue. At the same time, the open porous metals with pores connected to each other could provide the structural condition for bone ingrowth, which is helpful in strengthening the biological combination of bone tissue with the implants. Therefore, the preparation technologies of porous metal implants and related research have been drawing more and more attention due to the excellent features of porous metals. Selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting technology (EBM) are important research fields of additive manufacturing. They have the advantages of directly forming arbitrarily complex shaped metal parts which are suitable for the preparation of porous metal implants with complex shape and ifne structure. As new manufacturing technologies, the applications of SLM and EBM for porous metal implants have just begun. This paper aims to understand the technology status of SLM and EBM, the research progress of porous metal implants preparation by using SLM and EBM, and the biological compatibility of the materials, individual design and manufacturing requirements. The existing problems and future research directions for porous metal implants prepared by SLM and EBM methods are discussed in the last paragraph.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houck, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Wulf, N.


    In 1991, the international nuclear nonproliferation community was dismayed to discover that the implementation of safeguards by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its NPT INFCIRC/153 safeguards agreement with Iraq had failed to detect Iraq's nuclear weapon program. It was now clear that ensuring that states were fulfilling their obligations under the NPT would require not just detecting diversion but also the ability to detect undeclared materials and activities. To achieve this, the IAEA initiated what would turn out to be a five-year effort to reappraise the NPT safeguards system. The effort engaged the IAEA and its Member States and led to agreement in 1997 on a new safeguards agreement, the Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards. The Model Protocol makes explicit that one IAEA goal is to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. The Model Protocol requires an expanded declaration that identifies a State's nuclear potential, empowers the IAEA to raise questions about the correctness and completeness of the State's declaration, and, if needed, allows IAEA access to locations. The information required and the locations available for access are much broader than those provided for under INFCIRC/153. The negotiation was completed in quite a short time because it started with a relatively complete draft of an agreement prepared by the IAEA Secretariat. This paper describes how the Model Protocol was constructed and reviews key decisions that were made both during the five-year period and in the actual negotiation.

  20. Fatigue crack growth in additive manufactured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riemer


    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM is a new innovative technique that allows the direct fabrication of complex, individual, delicate and high-strength products, based on their 3D data. Selective Laser Melting (SLM is one of the AM processes that generates metallic components layer by layer using powder-bed technique. The irradiation and consequent melting of metallic powder is realised by the laser source. Employing SLM, especially complex and individual products, such as implants or aerospace parts, are well suited for economic production in small batches. The first important issue in this work was to analyse the fatigue crack growth (FCG in titanium alloy Ti-6-4 and stainless steel 316L processed by SLM. As a first step, stress intensity range decreasing tests were performed on SLM samples in their “as-built” condition. The next step was to adopt measures for optimisation of fatigue crack growth performance of SLM parts. For this purpose various heat treatments such as stress relief annealing and hot isostatic pressing (HIP were applied to the CT specimens. Finally, the strong impact of heat treatment on the residual lifetime was demonstrated by numerical fatigue crack growth simulations. For this purpose, the hip joint implant consisting of Ti-6-4 and processed by SLM was taken into account. It was found that residual stresses have a strong influence on the crack growth in Ti-6-4, while the influence of the micro-pores on the threshold values remains low. In contrast the results for 316L show that its fracturemechanical behaviour is not affected by residual stresses, whereas the microstructural features lead to modification in the da/dN-K-data. The second fundamental aim of this work was to demonstrate the possibilities of the SLM process. For that reason, the individually tailored bicycle crank was optimised regarding its weight and local stresses and finally manufactured using the SLM system. The iterative optimisation procedure was based on

  1. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support? (United States)

    Waterland, Keri Lynn


    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  2. Comparison of Various Dynamic Balancing Principles Regarding Additional Mass and Additional Inertia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van der Volkert; Demeulenaere, Bram; Herder, Just L.


    The major disadvantage of existing dynamic balancing principles is that a considerable amount of mass and inertia is added to the system. The objectives of this article are to summarize, to compare, and to evaluate existing complete balancing principles regarding the addition of mass and the additio

  3. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (United States)


    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  4. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological...

  5. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 570.35 (b)(4) or...

  6. A generalized additive regression model for survival times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.


    Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models......Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models...

  7. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will...

  8. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  9. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or...

  10. 78 FR 28163 - Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition (United States)


    ... Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal. SUMMARY: The... filing, of a food additive petition (FAP 8A4775) proposing that the food additive regulations be amended... Orange Ave., suite 710, Orlando, FL 32801, had filed a food additive petition (FAP 8A4775). The...

  11. Prevalence of phosphorus containing food additives in grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeen B. Leon


    In conclusion, phosphorus additives are commonly present in groceries and contribute significantly to the phosphorus content of foods. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than additive-free foods. As a result, phosphorus additives may be an important contributor to hyperphosphatemia among persons with chronic kidney disease

  12. 76 FR 47210 - Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal Register AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... petitions for food additives and color additives that are published in accordance with the Federal...

  13. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic) (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...--FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION 0 1. The authority...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Yu; Chuanshan Zhao; Kefu Chen


    This study investigated the effects of several different cationic additives on the viscosity 、zeta potential and printing properties of the ink-jet coating. The cationic additives have greatly improved sheet's gloss and printabilities.

  15. Cash Sub-additive Risk Measures and Interest Rate Ambiguity


    El Karoui, Nicole; Ravanelli, Claudia


    A new class of risk measures called cash sub-additive risk measures is introduced to assess the risk of future financial, non financial and insurance positions. The debated cash additive axiom is relaxed into the cash sub-additive axiom to preserve the original difference between the numeraire of the current reserve amounts and future positions. Consequently, cash sub-additive risk measures can model stochastic and/or ambiguous interest rates or defaultable contingent claims. Practical exampl...

  16. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information. (United States)


    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  17. 48 CFR 1246.101-70 - Additional definitions. (United States)


    ... or ceiling price for fixed price incentive contracts (see (FAR) 48 CFR 46.707), or at no increase in... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional definitions... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE General 1246.101-70 Additional definitions. At no additional cost...

  18. Process chain modeling and selection in an additive manufacturing context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Stolfi, Alessandro; Mischkot, Michael


    This paper introduces a new two-dimensional approach to modeling manufacturing process chains. This approach is used to consider the role of additive manufacturing technologies in process chains for a part with micro scale features and no internal geometry. It is shown that additive manufacturing...... evolving fields like additive manufacturing....

  19. Navy Additive Manufacturing: Policy Analysis for Future DLA Material Support (United States)



  20. 32 CFR 643.51 - Additional items concerning leasing. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional items concerning leasing. 643.51... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.51 Additional items concerning leasing. In addition to the general and... leasing of Army real estate....

  1. Additional Raman Scattering Mechanism due to Transverse Polar Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ze


    Longitudinal polar modes generate a macroscopic electric field in piezoelectric crystals and cause an additional mechanism of Raman scattering. The classical theory holds that transverse polar modes cannot produce such an additional mechanism. Our quantum theory shows that there is an additional Raman scattering mechanism arising from the electro-optic effect of transverse polar modes.``

  2. Entropies of the automata networks with additive rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-qingGU; GeCHEN; 等


    The matrix presentation for automata networks with additive rule are described.A set of entropy theorems of additive automata network are proved and an analytic formula of its entropy is built.For example,we proved that the topological entropy is identically equal to metric entropy for an additive antomata network.

  3. 40 CFR 51.117 - Additional provisions for lead. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional provisions for lead. 51.117... Additional provisions for lead. In addition to other requirements in §§ 51.100 through 51.116 the following requirements apply to lead. To the extent they conflict, there requirements are controlling over those of...

  4. An evaluation of estimation methods for determining addition in presbyopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Catunda Bittencourt


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The optical correction of presbyopia must be handled individually. Our aim was to compare the methods used in addition to the refractive near vision, with the final addition used in presbyopic patients. METHODS: Eighty healthy subjects with a mean age of 49.7 years (range 40 to 60 years were studied. Tentative near additions were determined using four different techniques: one-half amplitude accommodation with minus lenses (AAL; one-third accommodative demand with positive lens (ADL; balanced range of accommodation with minus and positive lenses (BRA and crossed cylinder test with initial myopisation (CCT. The power of the addition was then refined to arrive at the final addition. RESULTS: The mean tentative near additions were lower than the final addition for ADL and BRA addition methods. The mean differences between tentative and final additions were low for all the tests examined (less than 0.25 D. The intervals between the 95% limits of agreement differed substantially and were always higher than ±0.50 D. CONCLUSION: All the methods used displayed similar behavior and provided a tentative addition close to the final addition. The coefficient of agreements (COA detected suggests that every tentative addition should be adjusted according to the particular needs of the patient.

  5. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives. (United States)


    ... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740... Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint...

  6. 77 FR 13232 - Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Abbott Laboratories has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4788) has been filed by Abbott Laboratories,...

  7. 77 FR 53801 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition... Administration (FDA) is amending the filing notice for a food additive petition filed by Nexira proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia gum...

  8. 77 FR 5201 - Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Ecolab, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4785) has been filed...

  9. 76 FR 78866 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Nexira has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations... given that a food additive petition (FAP 1A4784) has been filed by Nexira, c/o Keller and Heckman...

  10. Addition formulae for Abelian functions associated with specialized curves. (United States)

    Eilbeck, J C; Matsutani, S; Onishi, Y


    We discuss a family of multi-term addition formulae for Weierstrass functions on specialized curves of low genus with many automorphisms, concentrating mostly on the case of genus 1 and 2. In the genus 1 case, we give addition formulae for the equianharmonic and lemniscate cases, and in genus 2 we find some new addition formulae for a number of curves.

  11. Learning Basic Addition Facts from Choosing between Alternative Answers (United States)

    van Galen, Mirte S.; Reitsma, Pieter


    The acquisition of addition facts was investigated in a practice study. Participants were 103 Grade 1 children who practiced simple addition problems with three different methods: (a) writing down the answer, (b) choosing between two alternative answers, and (c) filling in the second missing addend. On a test with simple addition problems,…

  12. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine. (United States)


    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  13. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31... Procedures for Domestic Drug Establishments § 207.31 Additional drug listing information. (a) In addition to... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular prescription drug...

  14. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  15. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provisional lists of color additives. 81.1 Section... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS, DRUGS, AND COSMETICS § 81.1 Provisional lists of color additives. The Commissioner of Food and Drugs...

  16. The behaviour of molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate friction modifier additives

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, J C H


    In recent years there has been growing concern to produce energy-efficient lubricated components and modem engine oil specifications require lubricants to demonstrate fuel efficiency in standardised engine tests. One important method of producing low friction and thus fuel-efficient lubricants is to use oil-soluble, molybdenum-containing, friction modifier additives. In optimal conditions these additives are able to produce very low friction coefficients, in the range 0.045 to 0.075 in boundary lubrication conditions. Very little is known about the chemical and physical mechanisms by which oil soluble molybdenum additives form low friction films in tribological contacts. Information about their activity could lead to optimal use of these additives in lubricants and, therefore, more efficient engine running. The work outlined in this thesis investigated the behaviour of oil-soluble molybdenum additives and showed that these additives were able to effectively reduce friction in the absence of other additives su...

  17. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2 (United States)


    ... to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2 Bakers Yeast AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...--Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption (21 CFR part 172), to... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part...

  18. 27 CFR 19.318 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. (United States)


    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.318 Section 19.318 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Production § 19.318 Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits... prior to production gauge. Oak chips which have not been treated with any chemical may be added...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Urminská


    Full Text Available The study focuses on researching the influence of natural additives on certain technological characteristics of mixtures used for bread production, more particularly the influence of N substances in used raw material on selected qualitative parameters of bread. The blends for bread production to be analysed were prepared by mixing wheat flour with an addition of oat, buckwheat, lentil and chickpea wholegrain flour in different portions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The experiment showed that the addition of natural additives worsened the protein complex of the blends used in bread production (worsening also qualitative parameters known as product volume. The loaves prepared with an addition of buckwheat, oat, lentil and chickpea were evaluated to be of a lesser quality from a technological viewpoint when compared with pure wheat loaves. The lower content of gluten forming proteins and the generally changed protein composition of blends due to additives caused a lower percentage of wet gluten content, its lower extensibility and swelling capacity. The sedimentation value (Zeleny index decreased proportionally with the increase of addition until the level was unsatisfactory for raw material intended for bakery purposes. The N content in experimental loaves was higher than in the reference loaves and it increased according to the selected additive and its portion in the blend (more with the addition of lentil and chickpea, less in case of buckwheat and oat which is considered as positive from a nutritional point of view. But from the technological point of view the additives did not show any positive influence and caused a lower loaf bread volume. The most significant decrease of the loaf bread volume was found with the addition of 50 % of buckwheat (- 45.6 %. Better results were obtained with a lower portion of the additive: loaf with an addition of 30 % of chickpea (volume decreased by 12.8 % > loaf with an addition of 30 % of lentil (volume

  20. Versatility of cooperative transcriptional activation: a thermodynamical modeling analysis for greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till D Frank

    Full Text Available We derive a statistical model of transcriptional activation using equilibrium thermodynamics of chemical reactions. We examine to what extent this statistical model predicts synergy effects of cooperative activation of gene expression. We determine parameter domains in which greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects are predicted for cooperative regulation by two activators. We show that the statistical approach can be used to identify different causes of synergistic greater-than-additive effects: nonlinearities of the thermostatistical transcriptional machinery and three-body interactions between RNA polymerase and two activators. In particular, our model-based analysis suggests that at low transcription factor concentrations cooperative activation cannot yield synergistic greater-than-additive effects, i.e., DNA transcription can only exhibit less-than-additive effects. Accordingly, transcriptional activity turns from synergistic greater-than-additive responses at relatively high transcription factor concentrations into less-than-additive responses at relatively low concentrations. In addition, two types of re-entrant phenomena are predicted. First, our analysis predicts that under particular circumstances transcriptional activity will feature a sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and eventually less-than-additive effects when for fixed activator concentrations the regulatory impact of activators on the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter increases from weak, to moderate, to strong. Second, for appropriate promoter conditions when activator concentrations are increased then the aforementioned re-entrant sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and less-than-additive effects is predicted as well. Finally, our model-based analysis suggests that even for weak activators that individually induce only negligible increases in promoter activity, promoter activity can exhibit greater-than-additive


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gushchin


    Full Text Available Usage of chemical additives while executing concrete works at negative temperatures is considered as a convenient and economical method. Range of the used antifreeze additives is rather wide. A great number of new additives are advertised but their characteristics have not been practically studied. Evaluation of the antifreeze additive efficiency is unfortunately rather long process and it does not provide comprehensive data on concrete structure formation processes. Due to this development of rapid and comprehensive methodology for construction companies is urgently required.Freezing processes of antifreeze additive aqueous solutions and hardening of cement paste with them have been investigated in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of freezing point for aqueous solutions of chemical additives of various applications. Identity of  freezing point for a chemical additive aqueous solution and cement paste with an equal concentration of the additive in the paste pore fluid has been determined while taking  calcium nitrate and sodium formate additives as an example. The paper demonstrates the possibility to evaluate efficiency of antifreeze additive action on the basis of kinetics in temperature changes of the cement paste with additives by its consecutive freezing and defrosting.  A methodology for operational evaluation in the field of chemical additive application for concreting items at negative temperatures has been offered in the paper.  The methodology does not require  deficient and expensive test-equipment. It can be applied at ordinary construction companies and it is comprehensible for personnel of low-qualification.  The paper shows the possibility to develop an original methodology for designing concrete structure which is based on operating efficiency determinations  for single and integrated antifreeze additives.

  2. Enhancement of Corrosion Resistance of Zinc Coatings Using Green Additives (United States)

    Punith Kumar, M. K.; Srivastava, Chandan


    In the present work, morphology, microstructure, and electrochemical behavior of Zn coatings containing non-toxic additives have been investigated. Zn coatings were electrodeposited over mild steel substrates using Zn sulphate baths containing four different organic additives: sodium gluconate, dextrose, dextrin, and saccharin. All these additives are "green" and can be derived from food contents. Morphological and structural characterization using electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and texture co-efficient analysis revealed an appreciable alteration in the morphology and texture of the deposit depending on the type of additive used in the Zn plating bath. All the Zn coatings, however, were nano-crystalline irrespective of the type of additive used. Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis, used to investigate the effect of the change in microstructure and morphology on corrosion resistance behavior, illustrated an improved corrosion resistance for Zn deposits obtained from plating bath containing additives as compared to the pure Zn coatings.

  3. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G; Madsen, G; Halken, S


    In a multicenter study conducted at four Danish hospital pediatric departments, the parents of 472 consecutive children were informed of this project to determine the incidence of intolerance of food additives among children referred to an allergy clinic with symptoms of asthma, atopic dermatitis......, rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated "lemonade" containing the dissolved additives was used...... dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic...

  4. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Halken, S.


    In a multicenter study conducted at four Danish hospital pediatric departments, the parents of 472 consecutive children were informed of this project to determine the incidence of intolerance of food additives among children referred to an allergy clinic with symptoms of asthma, atopic dermatitis......, rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated ''lemonade'' containing the dissolved additives was used...... dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic...

  5. Cost-Efficient Low-Volume Production Through Additive Manufacturing


    Solberg, Steffen


    Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D Printing, is a production method of rising popularity. The method works by adding layers of material, in contrast to subtracting, which is the dominating method today. The objective of this thesis has been to evaluate the cost-efficiency of producing relatively complex parts through additive manufacturing, compared to subtractive methods with production volumes less than 20 units. Initial findings narrow the additive methods down ...

  6. Machining of Additively Manufactured Parts: Implications for Surface Integrity


    Oyelola, O.; Crawforth, P.; M'Saoubi, R.; Clare, A.T.


    Additive manufacturing methods continue to move towards production ready technologies with the widely extolled virtues of rapid transition from design to part and enhanced design freedoms. However, due to fundamental limitations of laser based processes for metal additive manufacturing, there is a significant ongoing need for these parts to be subject to additional machining operations. This paper reports on a study to investigate the machining behavior and surface integrity of Ti-6Al-4 V com...

  7. Effectiveness of Low Temperature Additives for Biodiesel Blends (United States)



  8. Stereochemistry of enzymatic water addition to C=C bonds. (United States)

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf


    Water addition to carbon-carbon double bonds using hydratases is attracting great interest in biochemistry. Most of the known hydratases are involved in primary metabolism and to a lesser extent in secondary metabolism. New hydratases have recently been added to the toolbox, both from natural sources or artificial metalloenzymes. In order to comprehensively understand how the hydratases are able to catalyse the water addition to carbon-carbon double bonds, this review will highlight the mechanistic and stereochemical studies of the enzymatic water addition to carbon-carbon double bonds, focusing on the syn/anti-addition and stereochemistry of the reaction.

  9. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources of additional information. 1.3 Section 1.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources of additional information. (a) A statement of the NRC's organization, policies,...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1250-2 - Additional depreciation defined. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional depreciation defined. 1.1250-2... Additional depreciation defined. (a) In general—(1) Definition for purposes of section 1250(b)(1). Except as... depreciation means: (i) In the case of property which at the time of disposition has a holding period...

  11. Characterization of the Tribological Behavior of Graphene-Based Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erck, Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    XG-supplied nanocrystalline additives were extensively tested for friction and wear behavior. A technique for investigating the stability of additives was developed, and a report covered filtration and centrifugation methods for settling and filterable content. Friction and wear trends in partially and fully formulated oils were reported. Particle size analysis was performed and reported.

  12. 78 FR 6272 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax; Correction (United States)


    ..., December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72268). The proposed regulations are relating to Additional Hospital Insurance Tax... proposed rulemaking and notice of public hearing (REG-130074-11), that was the subject of FR Doc. 2012... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK54 Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax;...

  13. The Algebraic versus the Topological Approach to Additive Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.


    It is proved that, under a nontriviality assumption, an additive function on a Cartesian product of connected topological spaces is continuous, whenever the preference relation, represented by this function, is continuous. The result is used to generalize a theorem of Debreu (1960) on additive repre

  14. 24 CFR 242.63 - Additional indebtedness and leasing. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional indebtedness and leasing. 242.63 Section 242.63 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Requirements § 242.63 Additional indebtedness and leasing. The mortgagor shall not enter into any...


    The method of obtaining an additive to lubricating oils , consisting of treating boron trifluoride with alkylphenol and alkylamine, is known. In, (aminotrifluoralkyl)phenoxyborate is obtained which may be used as an antiwear additive for lubricating oils . The proposed method differs from

  16. 14 CFR 399.33 - Additional fare flexibility. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional fare flexibility. 399.33 Section 399.33 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.33 Additional fare flexibility. For...

  17. Automated addition of Chelex solution to tubes containing trace items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hansen, Thomas Møller; Hansen, Anders Johannes;


    Extraction of DNA from trace items for forensic genetic DNA typing using a manual Chelex based extraction protocol requires addition of Chelex solution to sample tubes containing trace items. Automated of addition of Chelex solution may be hampered by high viscosity of the solution and fast...

  18. Transport for a System with Additive Temporal-Spatial Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui; HAN Yin-Xia; CHEN Shi-Gang


    In this paper, we study the transport of the system with the additive temporal-spatial noise, by two models, i.e., a spatial asymmetry model and a spatial symmetry model. The study shows that the correlation of the additive noise with the space and the spatial asymmetry are ingredients for the transport.

  19. 24 CFR 3285.907 - Manufacturer additions to installation instructions. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturer additions to... Optional Information for Manufacturer's Installation Instructions § 3285.907 Manufacturer additions to installation instructions. A manufacturer may include in its installation instructions items that are...

  20. Inhibition behavior of some new mixed additives upon copper electrowinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Run-lan; LIU Qing-ming; QIU Guan-zhou; FANG Zheng; TAN Jian-xi; YANG Peng


    As thiourea and sulfur-containing mixed additives contaminate cathodic copper, inhibition behavior of some new mixed additives such as gelatin+hexadecylpyridinium bromide (HDPBr), gelatin+polyethylene glycol(PEG), gelatin+polyacryl amide (PAM), gelatin+PEG+cetyl-tri-methyl ammonium bromide (CTABr) and gelatin+PAM+CTABr was investigated by cyclic voltammetry as well as cathodic polarization in order to improve the quality of cathodic copper in bio-metallurgical process. The results indicate that the inhibition performances of these additives are dependent on complex and adsorption behaviors as well as the deposit potential. For a solution of acidic copper sulpate containing 40 g/L Cu2+ and 180 g/L H2SO4, the additive (gelatin+HDPBr) is the most efficient among the investigated additives because HDPBr with a large organic cation and π electron can adsorb on the cathodic surface to block the active sites and Br- ion can precipitate Cu,'2+. To form Cu2Br2. The additive (gelatin+PAM) also has a better inhibition performance, while the additives (gelatin+PEG), (gelatin+PEG+CTABr) and (gelatin+PAM+CTABr) are comparatively lower inhibition performance compared with the additive (gelatin+thiourea) which has been frequently used so far.

  1. Automated addition of Chelex solution to tubes containing trace items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hansen, Thomas Møller; Hansen, Anders Johannes;


    Extraction of DNA from trace items for forensic genetic DNA typing using a manual Chelex based extraction protocol requires addition of Chelex solution to sample tubes containing trace items. Automated of addition of Chelex solution may be hampered by high viscosity of the solution and fast sedim...

  2. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Carlos A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  3. 14 CFR 135.421 - Additional maintenance requirements. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional maintenance requirements. 135.421 Section 135.421 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.421 Additional maintenance requirements. (a)...

  4. Influence of additive from sugar beet on white bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Nada K.


    Full Text Available The additive of acceptable sensory, physical and chemical and microbiological characteristics was made from cossettes. Great water binding capacity related to microcrystals of cellulose qualifies this additive as a desired one in bread making process. Bread was baked in the laboratory and patent flour was used. The additive with particles smaller than 95 (m was supplemented in the quantities of 2, 5 and 10%. The data related to the influence of the quantity of additive on white bread quality point that parallel to increasing the amount of the additive in the dough, yield of dough and bread were also increased. Negative effects are detected as volume depression and inferior bread crumb quality and altered crumb color. The decrease in bread quality is small if 2% of additive was applied, but significant with 5 and 10%. The bread freshness was highly graded 48 hours after baking due to the ability of the additive to retain water. On the whole, bread of superior quality supplemented by 5 and 10% of the additive from sugar beet fiber can be easily made by fortifying flour with gluten and by adding appropriate dough conditioner.

  5. 78 FR 14664 - Food and Color Additives; Technical Amendments (United States)


    ... and Color Additives; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... regulations regarding food and color additives to correct minor errors (such as misspelled chemical names) and... archaic or obsolete office names and replace them with the current Office name ``Office of Food...

  6. Chemistry of Food Additives: Direct and Indirect Effects. (United States)

    Pauli, George H.


    The primary component(s), impurities, and degradation products of polysorbate 80, nitrate and nitrite salts, and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) are discussed. Safety considerations related to these food additives are also noted. The chick-edema factor which results from an additive in poultry feed is also discussed. (JN)

  7. 47 CFR 32.4520 - Additional paid-in capital. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional paid-in capital. 32.4520 Section 32... Additional paid-in capital. (a) This account shall include the difference between the net proceeds (including discount, premium and stock issuance expense) received from the issuance of capital stock and the...

  8. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  9. 46 CFR 401.425 - Provision for additional pilot. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision for additional pilot. 401.425 Section 401.425... REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services § 401.425 Provision for additional pilot. The... Authority, Ltd., Canada, may require the assignment of two pilots to a ship upon request of the ship or...

  10. 33 CFR 101.310 - Additional communication devices. (United States)


    ... plan under part 104 of this subchapter. See 33 CFR part 164 for additional information on AIS device... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional communication devices... communication devices. (a) Alert Systems. Alert systems, such as the ship security alert system required...

  11. Ultrashort mode-locked lasers with additional Raman active elements (United States)

    Trunov, V. I.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Pestryakov, Efim V.; Petrov, V. V.; Komarov, A. K.; Komarov, Konstantin P.


    Numerical simulation of ultrashort pulse generation in the laser with a composite active medium and additional Raman active element in a cavity has been done. It was created that for some laser parameters the optimization of a Raman gain and a frequency shift values was resulted in additional shortening of pulse duration.

  12. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement (United States)

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina


    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  13. 23 CFR 658.11 - Additions, deletions, exceptions, and restrictions. (United States)


    ... Division Office. Proposals for addition of routes to the National Network shall be accompanied by an analysis of suitability based on the criteria in § 658.9. (2) Proposals for additions that meet the... will be published in the Federal Register for public comment as a notice of proposed rulemaking...

  14. 5 CFR 179.218 - Additional administrative collection action. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional administrative collection action. 179.218 Section 179.218 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.218 Additional administrative collection...

  15. 5 CFR 179.309 - Additional administrative procedures. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional administrative procedures. 179.309 Section 179.309 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.309 Additional administrative procedures....

  16. A review of selected chemical additives in cosmetic products. (United States)

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S


    The addition of chemical additives to consumer cosmetic products is a common practice to increase cosmetic effectiveness, maintain cosmetic efficacy, and produce a longer-lasting, more viable product. Recently, manufacturers have come under attack for the addition of chemicals including dioxane, formaldehyde, lead/lead acetate, parabens, and phthalate, as these additives may prove harmful to consumer health. Although reports show that these products may indeed adversely affect human health, these studies are conducted using levels of the aforementioned chemicals at much higher levels of exposure than those found in cosmetic products. When cosmeceuticals are used as per manufacturer's instructions, it is estimated that the levels of harmful additives found in these products are considerably lower than reported toxic concentrations.

  17. Influence of Additives on Cigarette Related Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus H


    Full Text Available Tobacco additives play an important role in the manufacturing and for the quality of tobacco products, particularly cigarettes and roll-your-own tobaccos. Attention is increasingly given to the potential effects of additives on consumer behavior and health. This review is intended to compile, collate and - to some degree - evaluate the wealth of pertinent scientific information available from the published literature and other special sources. At first, the reasons are set forth for the use of additives in cigarette manufacturing. In response to the growing controversy over the attractiveness and addictiveness of smoking, the clarification of terms and concepts is followed by a detailed discussion of two kinds of substances with particular relevance: Additives like ammonium compounds that are claimed to increase nicotine availability, and additives that are claimed to increase nicotine addictiveness.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffery Franklin; Zhi Yuan Wang


    The aqueous polymerization of acrylamide and crosslinking with N,N-methylenebisacrylamide afforded hydrogels displaying high levels of light scattering (poor optical clarity). Enhancement of the optical clarity within a polyacrylamide (PAm) hydrogel was accomplished through the implementation of"refractive index matching", Water-soluble additives were utilised to better match the refractive index inhomogeneities throughout a given hydrogel. This resulted in lower light scattering within the system and hence improved clarity. Amino acids, sugars, polymers, and other water-soluble additives such as glycerol were investigated by this methodology. Most additives investigated displayed potential for effectively reducing the light scattering within a PAm hydrogel as a function of increased additive concentration. On increasing the refractive index of the water medium, the overall refractive index of a PAm hydrogel was also observed to increase. This provided a quantitative means of determining the effectiveness of a given additive for improving the optical clarity within a hydrogel.

  19. Effects of some polymeric additives on the cocrystallization of caffeine (United States)

    Chung, Jihae; Kim, Il Won


    Effects of polymeric additives on the model cocrystallization were examined. The model cocrystal was made from caffeine and oxalic acid, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly( L-lactide) (PLLA), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were the additives. The cocrystals were formed as millimeter-sized crystals without additives, and they became microcrystals with PLLA and PCL, and nanocrystals with PAA. XRD and IR revealed that the cocrystal structure was unchanged despite the strong effects of the additives on the crystal morphology, although some decrease in crystallinity was observed with PAA as confirmed by DSC. The DSC study also showed that the cocrystal melted and recrystallized to form α-caffeine upon heating. The present study verified that the polymeric additives can be utilized to modulate the size and morphology of the cocrystals without interfering the intermolecular interactions essential to the integrity of the cocrystal structures.

  20. Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Technologies - An Analysis Regarding Potentials and Applications (United States)

    Merklein, Marion; Junker, Daniel; Schaub, Adam; Neubauer, Franziska

    Imposing the trend of mass customization of lightweight construction in industry, conventional manufacturing processes like forming technology and chipping production are pushed to their limits for economical manufacturing. More flexible processes are needed which were developed by the additive manufacturing technology. This toolless production principle offers a high geometrical freedom and an optimized utilization of the used material. Thus load adjusted lightweight components can be produced in small lot sizes in an economical way. To compensate disadvantages like inadequate accuracy and surface roughness hybrid machines combining additive and subtractive manufacturing are developed. Within this paper the principles of mainly used additive manufacturing processes of metals and their possibility to be integrated into a hybrid production machine are summarized. It is pointed out that in particular the integration of deposition processes into a CNC milling center supposes high potential for manufacturing larger parts with high accuracy. Furthermore the combination of additive and subtractive manufacturing allows the production of ready to use products within one single machine. Additionally actual research for the integration of additive manufacturing processes into the production chain will be analyzed. For the long manufacturing time of additive production processes the combination with conventional manufacturing processes like sheet or bulk metal forming seems an effective solution. Especially large volumes can be produced by conventional processes. In an additional production step active elements can be applied by additive manufacturing. This principle is also investigated for tool production to reduce chipping of the high strength material used for forming tools. The aim is the addition of active elements onto a geometrical simple basis by using Laser Metal Deposition. That process allows the utilization of several powder materials during one process what

  1. Characterization of Starch Edible Films with Different Essential Oils Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela


    Full Text Available This study investigated properties of starch-based edible films with oregano and black cumin essential oil addition. Essential oils addition positively affected film swelling (decreased due to essential oil addition, mechanical properties (tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased, and water vapor barrier properties (decreased along with essential oils addition. Control film did not have any biological activity, which proves the need for essential oils addition in order to obtain active packaging. Oregano oil was more effective in terms of biological activity. Endothermal peak, above 200°C, represents total thermal degradation of edible films. Diffraction pattern of control film showed significant destruction of A-type crystal structure. Addition of essential oils resulted in peak shape change: diffraction peaks became narrower. Principal Component Analysis has been used to assess the effect of essential oils addition on final starch-based edible films characteristics with the aim to reveal directions for the film characteristics improvement, since the next phase will be optimal film application for food packaging.

  2. Influence of flux additives on iron ore oxidized pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiao-hui; GAN Min; JIANG Tao; YUAN Li-shun; CHEN Xu-ling


    Six additives,i.e.,limestone,lime,magnesite,magnesia,dolomite and light-burned-dolomite,were added for investigating their influences on the pellet quality.For green balls,adding lime and light-burned-dolomite makes the wet drop strength decrease firstly,and then increase with further increase of additive dosage.Ca(OH)2 affects the bentonite properties at the beginning,but the binding property of Ca(OH)2 will be main when the dosage is higher.The other four additives decrease the drop strength for their disadvantageous physical properties.For preheated pellets,no mater what kind of additive is added,the compressive strength will be decreased because of unmineralized additives.For roasted pellets,calcium additives can form binding phase of calcium-ferrite,and suitable liquid phase will improve recrystallization of hematite,but excessive liquid will destroy the structure of pellets,so the compressive strength of pellet increases firstly and then drops.When adding magnesium additives,the strength will be decreased because of the oxidation of magnetite retarded by MgO.

  3. Production of fresh probiotic cheese with addition of transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinka Radošević


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus and enzyme transglutaminase (TG on quality and sensory properties of autochthonous fresh cheese from Zagreb region. Fresh, unpasteurized, skimmed milk was inoculated with TG at different temperatures and activation time (8 h at 11 ºC and 4 h at 25 ºC. Inactivation of the enzyme was carried out during the process of pasteurization (65ºC/30 min. The milk for fresh cheese production was further inoculated with mesophilic culture of lactic acid bacteria MM101 and probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC-1. Besides the trial samples with addition of TG and probiotic bacteria, control samples without addition of TG and probiotic were produced, as well as the samples without addition of TG but with probiotic bacteria addition. Samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG, especially in which TG was active at 11 ºC, had greater weight then samples produced without the enzyme addition. Therefore, their yield was also greater then yield of cheese produced without the addition of the enzyme. Furthermore, the samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG have shown lesser syneresis than other samples during 10 days of storage at 10 ºC. The same samples also had the best sensory properties. Metabolic activity of mesophilic culture MM101 and probiotic culture L. acidophilus LAC-1 has resulted in better taste and odour of fresh cheese. The viable cell number of probiotic strain L. acidophilus LAC-1 in prepared samples was around 5 x 106 cells/g after 10 days of storage at 10 ºC, which is higher than the minimal dose required for 27 probiotic products. Addition of transgultaminase contributed to better consistency and general appearance of produced fresh cheese.

  4. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Chang, Jie


    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na2CO3, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 degrees C to 600 degrees C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 degrees C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 degrees C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) approximately 205 degrees C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na2CO3 addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H2, CO, CH4, CO2, C2H4 and C2H6. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  5. Promotional effects of new types of additives on fat crystallization. (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shinichi; Kida, Haruyasu; Sato, Kiyotaka


    We examined the promotional effects of additives on fat crystallization, such as inorganic (talc, carbon nanotube (CNT), and graphite) and organic (theobromine, ellagic acid dihydrate (EAD), and terephthalic acid) materials. The triacylglycerols (TAGs) of trilauroylglycerol (LLL), trimyristoylglycerol (MMM), and tripalmitoylglycerol (PPP) were employed as the fats. The additives (1 wt%) were added to the molten TAGs, and then the mixtures were cooled at a rate of 1°C/min followed by heating at a rate of 5°C/min. The crystallization and melting properties were observed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and polarized optical microscope (POM). Consequently, we found that the above six additives remarkably increased the initial temperatures of crystallization (Ti) on cooling without changing the melting temperatures. For example, in the case of LLL, the increases in Ti were 2.6°C (talc), 3.9°C (CNT), 8.1°C (graphite), 1.1°C (theobromine), 2.0°C (EAD), and 6.8°C (terephthalic acid). Very similar effects were observed for the crystallization of MMM and PPP with the six additives. Furthermore, the polymorphs of the first occurring crystals were changed from metastable to more stable forms by many of these additives. The POM observation revealed that the crystallization was initiated at the surfaces of additive particles. This study has shown for the first time that the heterogeneous nucleation of fat crystals can be greatly promoted by new types of additives. Such additives have great potential to promote fat crystallization by not only hydrophobic but also hydrophilic molecular interactions between the fats and additives.

  6. Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells with addition of additives (single/binary) to ionic liquid electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H-S Lee; S-H Bae; C-H Han; S S Sekhon


    The effect of addition of single and binary additives on the performance of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells based on electrolytes containing an ionic liquid (IL), 1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (DMPII) has been studied. Among the seven additives used, the addition of 2-(dimethylamino)-pyridine (DMAP) to IL resulted in best cell efficiency, which showed further enhancement with the addition of 5-chloro-1-ethyl-2-methylimidazole (CEMI) as second additive. The efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) based on an electrolyte containing binary additives (DMAP and CEMI in equal molar ratios) has been found to increase by 62.5% from 4.35 to 7.07%. The dependence of different photovoltaic performance parameters (\\oc, sc, , ) of DSC upon temperature has been studied over a 30–120°C range and only a small decrease in conversion efficiency has been observed. The electrolyte containing binary additives (DMAP and CEMI) shows best cell performance up to 120°C.

  7. Amine-intercalated α-zirconium phosphates as lubricant additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Huaping; Dai, Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Liang, Hong, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)


    In this study, three types of amines intercalated α-zirconium phosphate nanosheets with different interspaces were synthesized and examined as lubricant additives to a mineral oil. Results from tribological experiments illustrated that these additives improved lubricating performance. Results of rheological experiments showed that the viscosity of the mineral oil was effectively reduced with the addition of α-zirconium phosphate nanosheets. The two-dimensional structure, with larger interspaces, resulting from amine intercalation, exhibited improved effectiveness in reducing viscosity. This study demonstrates that the nanosheet structure of α-zirconium phosphates is effective in friction reduction. The manufacture of lubricants with tailored viscosity is possible by using different intercalators.

  8. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.


    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  9. Effect of additive on the formation of polyacrylonitrile membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Sen; LIU Zhong-zhou


    The effect of additives CaCl2 and CaCl2/H2O on the properties of polyacrylonitrile(PAN) ultrafiltration(UF)membranes prepared by phase inversion process was studied. The dissolving capacity of the casting solution forCaCl2 was enhanced by the addition of H2O. The membranes are characterized in terms of the pure water flux andmolecular weight cut-off( MWCO). The addition of CaCl2 or CaCl2/H2O to the casting solution increases the resultingmembrane permeability.

  10. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo


    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  11. Metal-air cell with performance enhancing additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel


    Systems and methods drawn to an electrochemical cell comprising a low temperature ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions and a performance enhancing additive added to the low temperature ionic liquid. The additive dissolves in the ionic liquid to form cations, which are coordinated with one or more negative ions forming ion complexes. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. The ion complexes improve oxygen reduction thermodynamics and/or kinetics relative to the ionic liquid without the additive.

  12. Comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) for food additives. (United States)

    Tennant, David R


    European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database.

  13. Some new addition formulae for Weierstrass elliptic functions. (United States)

    Eilbeck, J Chris; England, Matthew; Onishi, Yoshihiro


    We present new addition formulae for the Weierstrass functions associated with a general elliptic curve. We prove the structure of the formulae in n-variables and give the explicit addition formulae for the 2- and 3-variable cases. These new results were inspired by new addition formulae found in the case of an equianharmonic curve, which we can now observe as a specialization of the results here. The new formulae, and the techniques used to find them, also follow the recent work for the generalization of Weierstrass functions to curves of higher genus.

  14. >"Disabilities" of Additional Education for Children with Disabilities in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzhanyh E.V.,


    Full Text Available One of the most significant aspects of social integration of children with special needs is the availability of additional education, which is often the only way to socialize these children. Based on our studies (focus group discussions and a questionnaire survey of 1078 parents of children with special needs we analyzed the limitations of additional education availability for these children according to various criteria (organizational, financial, informational, etc.. Evaluation of the number of children covered by the additional education program leads to the conclusion that the older children are, the harder they get the educational service. The most deprived group are children with intellectual disabilities

  15. Nash Stability in Additively Separable Hedonic Games and Community Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin


      We prove that the problem of deciding whether a Nash stable   partition exists in an Additively Separable Hedonic Game is   NP-complete. We also show that the problem of deciding whether a   non trivial Nash stable partition exists in an   Additively Separable Hedonic Game with   non......-negative and symmetric   preferences is NP-complete. We motivate our study of the   computational complexity by linking Nash stable partitions in   Additively Separable Hedonic Games to community structures in   networks. Our results formally justify that computing community   structures in general is hard....

  16. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery (United States)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.


    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  18. 20 CFR 437.6 - Additions and exceptions. (United States)


    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... classes of grants and grantees subject to this part, SSA may not impose additional administrative requirements except in codified regulations published in the Federal Register. (b) Exceptions for classes...

  19. Three additional lizard (Squamata: Sauria records for Mizoram, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. Lalremsanga


    Full Text Available We collected three additional species - Calotes maria, Calotes mystaceus and Ophisaurus gracilis which were not recorded previously from Mizoram. Ophisaurus gracilis (Family Anguidae represents a new family for the state.

  20. Overview of current additive manufacturing technologies and selected applications. (United States)

    Horn, Timothy J; Harrysson, Ola L A


    Three-dimensional printing or rapid prototyping are processes by which components are fabricated directly from computer models by selectively curing, depositing or consolidating materials in successive layers. These technologies have traditionally been limited to the fabrication of models suitable for product visualization but, over the past decade, have quickly developed into a new paradigm called additive manufacturing. We are now beginning to see additive manufacturing used for the fabrication of a range of functional end use components. In this review, we briefly discuss the evolution of additive manufacturing from its roots in accelerating product development to its proliferation into a variety of fields. Here, we focus on some of the key technologies that are advancing additive manufacturing and present some state of the art applications.

  1. Additive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Bue

    This Ph.D dissertation,ffAdditive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Controlff, deal with Additive Manufacturing technologies which is a common name for a series of processes that are recognized by being computer controlled, highly automated, and manufacture objects...... by a layered deposition of material. Two areas of particular interest is addressed. They are rooted in two very different areas, yet is intended to fuel the same goal. To help Additive Manufacturing technologies one step closer to becoming the autonomous, digital manufacturing method of tomorrow. Vision...... systems A paradox exist in the field of Additive Manufacturing. The technologies allow for close-to unrestrained and integral geometrical freedom. Almost any geometry can be manufactured fast, e"ciently and cheap. Something that has been missing fundamental capability since the entering of the industrial...

  2. Additive manufacturing for freeform mechatronics design: from concepts to applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, G. van; Smeltink, J.; Werff, J. van der; Limpens, M.; Barink, M.; Berg, D. van den; Vreugd, J. de; Witvoet, G.; Galaktionov, O.S.


    This article presents developments of freeform mechatronics concepts, enabled by industrial Additive Manufacturing (AM), aiming at breakthroughs for precision engineering challenges such as lightweight, advanced thermal control, and integrated design. To assess potential impact in future application

  3. Role of additional radiotherapy in advanced stages of Hodgkin's disease. (United States)

    Meerwaldt, J H; Coleman, C N; Fischer, R I; Lister, T A; Diehl, V


    Although radiotherapy is widely used as additional treatment following chemotherapy, its precise role has never been clearly proven. Relapses tend to occur in previously involved bulky sites. Non-randomized studies may suggest a positive effect of the addition of radiotherapy. This effect however, might also be caused by selection. Randomized studies have not resulted in a survival advantage for the patients treated with additional radiotherapy compared to no further treatment or additional chemotherapy. The SWOG study 7808 suggest a 20% benefit in remission duration for the nodular sclerosis histology subgroup. Definitive conclusions have to wait for more mature results of randomized studies including the ongoing EORTC study and the possibility to perform an overview of all studies.

  4. Use of Vitelline Protein B as a Microencapsulating Additive (United States)

    Ficht, Allison R. (Inventor); Carson, Ken (Inventor); Sheffield, Cynthia (Inventor); Waite, John Herbert (Inventor)


    The present invention includes compositions and methods for the use of an encapsulation additive having between about 0.1 to about 30 percent isolated and purified vitelline protein B to provide for mixed and extended release formulations.

  5. Assessment of Gasoline Additive Containing Ditert-butoxypropanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lewis, Samuel Arthur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center completed analysis and testing of the CPS Powershot gasoline additive under the auspices of the Department of Energy’s Technical Assistance for US Small Businesses in Vehicle Technologies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify the makeup of the additive, finding a predominance of 2,3-Ditert-Butoxypropanol, also known as Glyceryl Di-Tert-Butyl Ether (GTBE). Blends of the additive at 2 and 4 volume percent were subjected to a number of standard ASTM tests, including Research Octane Number, Motor Octane Number, distillation, and vapor pressure. Results show a high boiling range and low vapor pressure for the additive, and a very modest octane boosting effect in gasoline with and without ethanol.

  6. The Influence of Additives on Crystallization of Polyvinyl Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yaqun; ZHANG Chaocan


    Acetanilide, adipic acid and potassium hydrogen phthalate were chosen as nucleating agents of polyvinyl chloride(PVC), and their effects on PVC crystallization were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, wide angle X-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that all of the three additives are compatible with PVC to some extent, but adipic acid's compatibility with PVC is less satisfactory. The three additives can improve PVC crystallinity, and acetanilide can decrease PVC glass transition temperature(Tg)and narrow PVC melting range, while adipic acid and potassium hydrogen phthalate rise Tg of PVC and widen its melting range. All additives do not affect PVC crystal system and all samples are in orthorhombic system. All additives can improve (200), (110), (210) and (201, 111) planes growing. Moreover, acetanilide and adipic acid can shrink PVC spacings and improve the crystal perfection of PVC, but potassium hydrogen phthalate swells spacings and reduces the perfection of PVC crystal.

  7. 76 FR 18188 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions (United States)


    ... following products and service are proposed for addition to Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products Towel, Highly Absorbent, Synthetic ``Shammy'' NSN: 7920-01-215-6568--15x15....

  8. 75 FR 21244 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions (United States)


    ... proposed for addition to Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products NSN: MR 987--Towel, Super Absorbent, Orange. NSN: MR 988--Towel, Super Absorbent, Kitchen Set, Assorted...

  9. Systematic tests for position-dependent additive shear bias

    CERN Document Server

    van Uitert, Edo


    We present new tests to identify stationary position-dependent additive shear biases in weak gravitational lensing data sets. These tests are important diagnostics for currently ongoing and planned cosmic shear surveys, as such biases induce coherent shear patterns that can mimic and potentially bias the cosmic shear signal. The central idea of these tests is to determine the average ellipticity of all galaxies with shape measurements in a grid in the pixel plane. The distribution of the absolute values of these averaged ellipticities can be compared to randomized catalogues; a difference points to systematics in the data. In addition, we introduce a method to quantify the spatial correlation of the additive bias, which suppresses the contribution from cosmic shear and therefore eases the identification of a position-dependent additive shear bias in the data. We apply these tests to the publicly available shear catalogues from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and the Kilo Degree Su...

  10. Cohomology of exact categories and (non-)additive sheaves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaledin, Dmitry


    We use (non-)additive sheaves to introduce an (absolute) notion of Hochschild cohomology for exact categories as Ext's in a suitable bisheaf category. We compare our approach to various definitions present in the literature.

  11. In-Process Monitoring of Additive Manufacturing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this project is the implementation of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) for in situ metal additive manufacturing process...

  12. Laser additive manufacturing of high-performance materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Dongdong


    This book entitled “Laser Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance Materials” covers the specific aspects of laser additive manufacturing of high-performance new materials components based on an unconventional materials incremental manufacturing philosophy, in terms of materials design and preparation, process control and optimization, and theories of physical and chemical metallurgy. This book describes the capabilities and characteristics of the development of new metallic materials components by laser additive manufacturing process, including nanostructured materials, in situ composite materials, particle reinforced metal matrix composites, etc. The topics presented in this book, similar as laser additive manufacturing technology itself, show a significant interdisciplinary feature, integrating laser technology, materials science, metallurgical engineering, and mechanical engineering. This is a book for researchers, students, practicing engineers, and manufacturing industry professionals interested i...

  13. Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for Lightweight Metallic Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this program is to demonstrate the use of UAM to additively build reinforcement structures to reinforce cut outs in larger aluminum structural...

  14. Improvements in floating point addition/subtraction operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmwald, P.M.


    Apparatus is described for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  15. Porosity of additive manufacturing parts for process monitoring (United States)

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Garboczi, E. J.


    Some metal additive manufacturing processes can produce parts with internal porosity, either intentionally (with careful selection of the process parameters) or unintentionally (if the process is not well-controlled.) Material porosity is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants, since surface-breaking pores allow for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the process. We are developing an ultrasonic sensor for detecting changes in porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system, for use as a process monitor. This paper will describe our work to develop an ultrasonic-based sensor for monitoring part porosity during an additive build, including background theory, the development and detailed characterization of reference additive porosity samples, and a potential design for in-situ implementation.

  16. Relative Stabilities of Organic Compounds Using Benson's Additivity Rules. (United States)

    Vitale, Dale E.


    Shows how the structure-energy principle can be presented in organic chemistry (without having to resort to quantum mechanics) by use of Benson's Additive Rules. Examples of the application to several major classes of organic compounds are given.

  17. Advances in 3D printing & additive manufacturing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Pulak; Kumar, L


    This edited volume comprises select chapters on advanced technologies for 3D printing and additive manufacturing and how these technologies have changed the face of direct, digital technologies for rapid production of models, prototypes and patterns. Because of its wide applications, 3D printing and additive manufacturing technology has become a powerful new industrial revolution in the field of manufacturing. The evolution of 3D printing and additive manufacturing technologies has changed design, engineering and manufacturing processes across industries such as consumer products, aerospace, medical devices and automotives. The objective of this book is to help designers, R&D personnel, and practicing engineers understand the state-of-the-art developments in the field of 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing. .

  18. Nitrosonium (NO+) catalyzed Michael addition of indoles to unsaturated enones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guai Li Wu; Long Min Wu


    An efficient Michael addition of indoles to unsaturated enones, such as chalcones and β-nitrostyrenes, was achieved in thepresence of a catalytic amount of nitrosoninm tetrafluoroborate in ethyl ether.

  19. Efficient improvement of silage additives by using genetic algorithms. (United States)

    Davies, Z S; Gilbert, R J; Merry, R J; Kell, D B; Theodorou, M K; Griffith, G W


    The enormous variety of substances which may be added to forage in order to manipulate and improve the ensilage process presents an empirical, combinatorial optimization problem of great complexity. To investigate the utility of genetic algorithms for designing effective silage additive combinations, a series of small-scale proof of principle silage experiments were performed with fresh ryegrass. Having established that significant biochemical changes occur over an ensilage period as short as 2 days, we performed a series of experiments in which we used 50 silage additive combinations (prepared by using eight bacterial and other additives, each of which was added at six different levels, including zero [i.e. , no additive]). The decrease in pH, the increase in lactate concentration, and the free amino acid concentration were measured after 2 days and used to calculate a "fitness" value that indicated the quality of the silage (compared to a control silage made without additives). This analysis also included a "cost" element to account for different total additive levels. In the initial experiment additive levels were selected randomly, but subsequently a genetic algorithm program was used to suggest new additive combinations based on the fitness values determined in the preceding experiments. The result was very efficient selection for silages in which large decreases in pH and high levels of lactate occurred along with low levels of free amino acids. During the series of five experiments, each of which comprised 50 treatments, there was a steady increase in the amount of lactate that accumulated; the best treatment combination was that used in the last experiment, which produced 4.6 times more lactate than the untreated silage. The additive combinations that were found to yield the highest fitness values in the final (fifth) experiment were assessed to determine a range of biochemical and microbiological quality parameters during full-term silage fermentation. We



    Umida Khodjaeva; Tatiana Bojňanská; Vladimír Vietoris; Oksana Sytar


    The main characteristics and classification of food additives, which are common in the food production, have been described in the present review. The ways of food additives classification, source of nature, main antioxidants, food colouring, flavours, flavor enhancers, bulking agents, stabilizers, sweeteners which were collected from literature based on structural and biochemical characteristics with description of source and possible effects on human, organisms and environment have been pre...

  1. Additives for Water Mist Fire Suppression Systems: A Review (United States)


    languages unless the text is bilingual .) The use of both fixed and portable water mist systems for fire suppression on naval vessels continues to... seconds . The FFFP additive gave the best burnback performance (longest burnback time) in sea water and the second best time in fresh water. The burnback...diesel fuel) fire decreased from 175 seconds to 8 seconds when the additive was used and an Avtur (aviation turbine fuel) fire that was not

  2. Further Results on Dynamic Additive Hazard Rate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengcheng Zhang


    Full Text Available In the past, the proportional and additive hazard rate models have been investigated in the works. Nanda and Das (2011 introduced and studied the dynamic proportional (reversed hazard rate model. In this paper we study the dynamic additive hazard rate model, and investigate its aging properties for different aging classes. The closure of the model under some stochastic orders has also been investigated. Some examples are also given to illustrate different aging properties and stochastic comparisons of the model.

  3. Students' Understanding of the Addition of Angular Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha


    We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related to the addition of angular momentum. We also describe the development and implementation of a research-based learning tool, a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT), to reduce these difficulties. The preliminary evaluation shows that the QuILT on the addition of angular momentum is helpful in improving students' understanding of these concepts.

  4. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, J. [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company


    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  5. Copper electrodeposition and additives: from underpotential deposition to bulk growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanson, Yuriy; Frenken, Joost; Rost, Marcel [Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)


    Cu electrodeposition at different stages on Au(111) surface is accessed in-situ on atomic scale by means of our newly developed fast electrochemical STM. We show the effect of industrially used additives, such as bis-(3-sodiumsulfopropyl) disulfide (SPS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), on the Cu deposit. The EC-STM results are complemented by electrochemical measurements and discussed in the light of current state of knowledge on electrodeposition and molecular processes involving the additives.

  6. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo


    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about…

  7. Multiple material additive manufacturing – Part 1:\\ud a review


    Vaezi, Mohammad; Chianrabutra, Srisit; Mellor, Brian; Yang, Shoufeng


    Interest in multifunctional structures made automatically from multiple materials poses a challenge for today’s additive manufacturing (AM) technologies; however the ability to process multiple materials is a fundamental advantage to some AM technologies. The capability to fabricate multiple material parts can improve AM technologies by either optimizing the mechanical properties of the parts or providing additional functions to the final parts. The objective of this paper is to give an overv...



    Khusid S. B.; Gneush A. N.; Nesterenko E. E.


    The article describes the results of the complex feed additive based on sunflower husk, enriched with beer wort with the addition of pumpkin pulp. We have studied the chemical composition of sunflower husk, which is the secondary resource of the processing plant raw material, selected methods of enrichment of this raw material with the help of fungi Trichoderma harzianum. Cellulolytic enzyme preparations on the basis of fungi of the genus Trichoderma for use in agriculture and animal feed pro...

  9. Sintering nanodisperse zirconium powders with various stabilizing additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antsiferov V.N.


    Full Text Available Effect of various stabilizing additives on sintering kinetics of nanodisperse powders was studied by thermomechanical analysis. Temperature ranges of the most intense shrinking, characteristic points of shrinking rate changes were established. Peaks characterizing the most intense shrinking of nanodisperse zirconium powder samples were shown to allow to arrange the stabilizing additives as follows: Y2O3→CeO2→TiO2.

  10. The Additional Interpolators Method for Variational Analysis in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Schiel, Rainer W


    In this paper, I describe the Additional Interpolators Method, a new technique for variational analysis in lattice QCD. It is shown to be an excellent method which uses additional interpolators to remove backward in time running states that would otherwise contaminate the signal. The proof of principle, which also makes use of the Time-Shift Trick (Generalized Pencil-of-Functions method), will be delivered at an example on a $64^4$ lattice close to the physical pion mass.

  11. Sustainable Production Process of Biological Mineral Feed Additives


    Agnieszka Zielinska; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Marjana Simonic


    Problem statement: This study discussed the problem of accumulation of Zn and Cu in the topsoil as a result of application of mineral feed additives that possess low bioavailability in animal diet. The review considered the production process of mineral feed additives in which a product supplies microelements in highly bioavailable form. Enrichment of natural biomass of edible microalgae with microelement metal ions, which supply microelements of feeding significance in livestock diet, is con...

  12. Correlation additivity relation is superadditive for separable states

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhanjun


    We deny with a concrete example the generality of the correlation subadditivity relation conjectured by Modi et al's [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 104}, 080501 (2010)] for any quantum state and point out that the correlation additivity relation is actually super-additive for separable states. This work indicates that any effort on explicitly proving the conjecture and finding the subadditivity source is unnecessary and fruitless.

  13. Alternative proofs for Kocik's Geometric Diagram for Relativistic Velocity Addition

    CERN Document Server

    Sasane, Amol


    A geometric construction for the Poincare formula for relativistic addition of velocities in one dimension was given by Jerzy Kocik in "Geometric Diagram for Relativistic Addition of Velocities", American Journal of Physics, volume 80, page 737, 2012. While the proof given there used Cartesian coordinate geometry, three alternative approaches are given in this article: a trigonometric one, one via Euclidean geometry, and one using projective geometry.

  14. Current Fluctuations in Nonequilibrium Diffusive Systems: An Additivity Principle (United States)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.


    We formulate a simple additivity principle allowing one to calculate the whole distribution of current fluctuations through a large one dimensional system in contact with two reservoirs at unequal densities from the knowledge of its first two cumulants. This distribution (which in general is non-Gaussian) satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry and generalizes the one predicted recently for the symmetric simple exclusion process. The additivity principle can be used to study more complex diffusive networks including loops.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smelov V.G


    Full Text Available This study considers the question of creation of a modern small aircraft purpose parts manufacturing company which will use additive technologies according to the principles of "smart" production and the concept of «lean» management. In order to reduce time and cost of current production, conform to world technologies and competitive ability optimization of key business processes of the foundry was carried out with adoption of a model of additive manufacturing.



    Smelov V.G; Kokareva V.V; Malykhin A.N


    This study considers the question of creation of a modern small aircraft purpose parts manufacturing company which will use additive technologies according to the principles of "smart" production and the concept of «lean» management. In order to reduce time and cost of current production, conform to world technologies and competitive ability optimization of key business processes of the foundry was carried out with adoption of a model of additive manufacturing.

  17. Contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzhi Zheng


    Full Text Available During the cementation of deep wells, contamination at the contact surface between cement slurry and drilling fluid will present a technical challenge, which may threaten operation safety. To deal with the problem, lab tests and analysis were performed specifically on the compatibility of fluids during cementation in Sichuan and Chongqing gas fields. Impacts of commonly used additives for drilling fluids were determined on fluidity and thickening time of conventional cement slurry. Through the infrared spectrum analysis, SEM and XRD, infrared spectrum data of kalium polyacrylamide (KPAM and bio-viscosifier were obtained, together with infrared spectrum, SEM and XRD data of cement slurry with additives. Contamination mechanisms of the cement slurry by conventional additives for drilling fluid were reviewed. Test results show that both KPAM and bio-viscosifier are such high-molecular materials that the long chains in these materials may easily absorb cement particles in the slurry to form mixed network structures; as a result, cement particles were prone to agglomeration and eventually lost their pumpability. Finally, assessment of and testing methods for the contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry were further improved to form standards and codes that may help solve the said problems. This study will provide technological supports for the preparation of drilling fluids with desirable properties prior to cementation, the selection of optimal drilling fluids additives, and the development of innovative drilling fluids additives.

  18. Evaluation of relative biological efficiency of additives in sugarcane ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Oliveira Borgatti


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding alkalis on the fermentative pattern, aerobic stability and nutritive value of the sugarcane silage. A completely randomized design with 6 additives in two concentrations (1 or 2%, plus a control group, totalizing 13 treatments [(6×2+1] with four replications, was used. The additives were sodium hydroxide (NaOH, limestone (CaCO3, urea (CO(NH22, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, quicklime (CaO and hydrated lime (Ca(OH2. The material was ensiled in 52 laboratory silos using plastic buckets with 12 L of capacity. Silos were opened 60 days after ensiling, when organic acids concentration, aerobic stability and chemical composition were determined. The Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE was calculated by the slope ratio method, using the data obtained from ratio between desirable and undesirable silage products, according to the equation: D/U ratio = [lactic/(ethanol + acetic + butyric]. All additives affected dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber contents and buffering capacity. Except for urea and quicklime, all additives increased the in vitro dry matter digestibility. In general, these additives altered the fermentative pattern of sugarcane silage, inhibiting alcoholic fermentation and improving lactic acid production. The additive that showed the best RBE in relation to sodium hydroxide (100% was limestone (89.4%. The RBE values of urea, sodium bicarbonate and hydrated lime were 49.2%, 47.7% and 34.3%, respectively.

  19. Dry building mixture with complex dispersed mineral additives (United States)

    Il'ina, Liliia; Mukhina, Irina; Teplov, Alexandr


    The effectiveness of the complex dispersed mineral additive consisting of diopside and limestone was provided by the following factors. Diopside, due to the high hardness, reinforces formed hardened cement paste and prevents the spread of micro-cracks in it under the action of loads. Furthermore, diopside due to the greater elastic modulus than cement paste causes redistribution of stress between the additive particles and the cement. Limestone, since it has chemical affinity with the clinker minerals and products of their hydration hardening, effects on the hydration process and the formation of the contact area between the additive particles and the cement. The optimum quantity of complex dispersed mineral additive is 7%. At the same time the strength of the solution, made of dry building mixture "rough leveler for floor", increased by 22.1%, and the strength of the solution, made of dry mortar "masonry mixture" increased by 32.7%. With the mineral additive introduction the offset of the endoeffect temperatures to higher temperatures on derivatograms is fixed. If there is a mineral additive in the hardened cement paste, which may act as substrate for the tumors crystallization, the hardened cement paste structure strengthening while the complex thermal analysis is seen.

  20. Basophil activation test with food additives in chronic urticaria patients. (United States)

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok


    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.

  1. Additives for cement compositions based on modified peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopanitsa, Natalya, E-mail:; Sarkisov, Yurij, E-mail:; Gorshkova, Aleksandra, E-mail:; Demyanenko, Olga, E-mail: [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya sq., Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation)


    High quality competitive dry building mixes require modifying additives for various purposes to be included in their composition. There is insufficient amount of quality additives having stable properties for controlling the properties of cement compositions produced in Russia. Using of foreign modifying additives leads to significant increasing of the final cost of the product. The cost of imported modifiers in the composition of the dry building mixes can be up to 90% of the material cost, depending on the composition complexity. Thus, the problem of import substitution becomes relevant, especially in recent years, due to difficult economic situation. The article discusses the possibility of using local raw materials as a basis for obtaining dry building mixtures components. The properties of organo-mineral additives for cement compositions based on thermally modified peat raw materials are studied. Studies of the structure and composition of the additives are carried out by physicochemical research methods: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Results of experimental research showed that the peat additives contribute to improving of cement-sand mortar strength and hydrophysical properties.

  2. Additives for cement compositions based on modified peat (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Natalya; Sarkisov, Yurij; Gorshkova, Aleksandra; Demyanenko, Olga


    High quality competitive dry building mixes require modifying additives for various purposes to be included in their composition. There is insufficient amount of quality additives having stable properties for controlling the properties of cement compositions produced in Russia. Using of foreign modifying additives leads to significant increasing of the final cost of the product. The cost of imported modifiers in the composition of the dry building mixes can be up to 90% of the material cost, depending on the composition complexity. Thus, the problem of import substitution becomes relevant, especially in recent years, due to difficult economic situation. The article discusses the possibility of using local raw materials as a basis for obtaining dry building mixtures components. The properties of organo-mineral additives for cement compositions based on thermally modified peat raw materials are studied. Studies of the structure and composition of the additives are carried out by physicochemical research methods: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Results of experimental research showed that the peat additives contribute to improving of cement-sand mortar strength and hydrophysical properties.

  3. Tribological performance of organic cadmium compound as lubricant additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jian-qiang; XIE Feng; ZHU Huan-qin; ZHEN Fa-zheng; YAO Jun-bing


    The oil-soluble cadmium dipropyldithiophosphate additive was synthesized. A four-ball tester was used to evaluate the tribological performance of the additive in a mineral oil under different loads and lubricant grease synthesized compared with some commercial additives. The results show that it exhibits excellent antiwear and load-carrying capacities and is better than other additives. The surface analytical tools such as scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) were used to investigate the topography, the compositions, and chemical states of some typical elements on the rubbing surface of worn scar.Smooth and light topography of worn scar further confirms that the additive shows good antiwear capacities. The results of EDX and XPS analyses indicate that tribochemical mixed protective films consisting of atomic cadmium, sulphides, sulphates and phosphates are formed on the rubbing surface, which contribute to improving the tribological properties of lubricant and grease. Particularly, the soft cadmium film formed plays an important role in improving antiwear properties of oils. Finally, antiwear mechanism of the additive and formation scheme of atomic cadmium was proposed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Ruibin; MING Caibing; GAO Zhiwen


    In order to assess the performance of a new cleansing and combustion-improving gasoline additive (MAZ), and to explore the evaluation methods of additives, two engines with the same model number and performance indices, fueled with and without the MAZ gasoline additive respectively, are carried through 100 h strenuous tests on a bench. The results obtained in full load characteristic and load characteristics of different operational modes are compared. It indicates that the power, economy and emission of the engine fueled with the MAZ additive all have obvious improvement in comparison with the engine without adding the additive: the power increasing by 16.43%, specific fuel consumption (SFC) decreasing 5.39%, and the emission of CO, HC and NOx falling by 28.61%, 54.38%and 10.1% respectively. Wear and tear of the engine cylinder is weakened, and sediment of combustion chamber inner side is reduced. In addition, no negative effect on the catalytic conversion device is found.

  5. Fitting Additive Binomial Regression Models with the R Package blm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kovalchik


    Full Text Available The R package blm provides functions for fitting a family of additive regression models to binary data. The included models are the binomial linear model, in which all covariates have additive effects, and the linear-expit (lexpit model, which allows some covariates to have additive effects and other covariates to have logisitc effects. Additive binomial regression is a model of event probability, and the coefficients of linear terms estimate covariate-adjusted risk differences. Thus, in contrast to logistic regression, additive binomial regression puts focus on absolute risk and risk differences. In this paper, we give an overview of the methodology we have developed to fit the binomial linear and lexpit models to binary outcomes from cohort and population-based case-control studies. We illustrate the blm packages methods for additive model estimation, diagnostics, and inference with risk association analyses of a bladder cancer nested case-control study in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

  6. Additives in crude oil. A new attempt to prevent boilover; Additive im Rohoel. Ein neuer Ansatz zur Vermeidung eines Boilover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosewinkel, Martin; Dworschak, Rene [INBUREX Consulting GmbH, Hamm (Germany)


    Boilover of tanks is a rare cause of serious fires in crude oil storage. The greatest danger is the spill of burning material from the tank. In the research project presented here, a method to prevent boilover and/or reduce its effects was to be developed. One approach is the addition of additives that modify the hetero-azeotropic boiling characteristics of crude oil components in case of fire. Even minimum concentrations of the additive will delay the time until boilover and also reduce its intensity.

  7. Control of microbial corrosion using coatings and natural additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Darbi, M.M.; Muntasser, Z.M.; Tango, M.; Islam, M.R.


    One of the major concerns in the oil and gas industry is corrosion. Microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) can be defined as the deterioration of metals by natural processes directly or indirectly related to the activity of microorganisms. MIC affects many industries, such as petrochemical, ships and marine structures, power generating, aircraft fuel systems, waste water facilities, cooling water systems, process industries, paper mills, and water supply and distribution systems. In this study, the influence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), grown in a lactate/ sulfate culture medium, on the corrosion of both uncoated and coated mild steel was evaluated in the presence and absence of natural additives. To achieve this, an oil based coating (alkyd) was used with and without the addition of natural additives to protect mild steel in a sulfate-reducing bacteria environment. Another objective of this study was to investigate the effects of SRB and/or their metabolites on the used coatings and the adverse effects of those coatings and additives on biofilm formation and bacteria growth rate. In this paper, 2 natural additives were identified for effective MIC protection. Natural products were selected based on the environmental appeal of the products. Two additives, derived from olive oil and Manhaden fish oil, were found to be effective in reducing MIC. In general, 2-3% of a natural additive was deemed adequate for effective MIC protection. Bacteria populations were counted at the beginning and at the end of the tests using the plate count method. After immersing the different coupons for 3 months in the SRB medium, it was noticed that the number of bacteria and their colonies were highly affected by both the environment and the used coating systems. A series of corrosion tests was performed to study the effectiveness of various natural additives. Visual observations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses, and computer image analyzer techniques were used to study

  8. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing. (United States)

    Slotwinski, J A; Garboczi, E J; Stutzman, P E; Ferraris, C F; Watson, S S; Peltz, M A


    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  9. Antifreeze polymeric additives for fuels; Aditivos polimericos anticongelantes para combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Aline S.; Carvalho, Agne Roani de; Sakae, George Hideki; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR - Departamento de Quimica - LABPOL-Laboratorio de Polimeros Sinteticos, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mails:,


    Owing to the current interest in the reduction of environmental pollution, several researchers are seeking renewable sources of energy which can at least partially replace combustibles derived from petroleum. Diesel oil is the combustible that most seriously pollutes the environment and is thus the biodiesel that is being considered as a fuel which can be replaced by a renewable combustible; this can possibly be used in diesel engines without any modifications. However, certain problems have to be overcome with regard to the temperature at which the biodiesel should be stored and used, since there is a tendency for biodiesel to solidify at low temperatures. This suggests that there is a need for the use of anti-freeze additives. This work behind the main focus additives with only 25 ppm, were able to reduce the pour point of fuel, achieving significant results, for example, the additive M14A18 lowered the pour point (PP) of B20 to -20 degree C, showing that the use of increasing amounts of biodiesel to diesel can aggregate. The main focus of work behind the development of additives that with only 25 ppm, were able to reduce the pour point of fuel, producing significant results such as those obtained with the use of additive M14A18 which lowered the pour point of the B20 to -20 degree C, showing the possibility of using increasing amounts of biodiesel added to diesel. (author)

  10. Enhancing thermostability of β-mannanase by protective additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaohui LIU; Wei QI; Weina WU; Yue LIU; Zhimin HE


    The effects of some sugars (glucose, mannose, fructose, sucrose and chitosan) and polyols (glycol, gly-cerol and sorbitol) as protective additive on the thermo-stability of β-mannanase were studied. The optimal reaction temperatures of β-mannanase and the ther-modynamics and the deactivation kinetics with or without additives were also investigated. The experimental results show that sucrose, chitosan and sorbitol could apparently improve the thermal stability of β-mannanase when their concentration was kept at 2 g/L. The optimal combina-tion additive proportion was sucrose: chitosan : sorbi-tol = 1 : 2 : 2 (molar ratio) using the orthogonal experimental design. The sucrose, chitosan, glycerol, sor-bitol and the combination additive might increase the optimal reaction temperature from 50℃ to about 60℃ due to their good protection effect. The thermal deactiva-tion curves of βmannanase accorded with the kinetic rules of first order reaction, and the corresponding kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Meanwhile, the protective mechanism of the additives against deactivation of enzyme was also discussed.

  11. Additive Manufacturing Design Considerations for Liquid Engine Components (United States)

    Whitten, Dave; Hissam, Andy; Baker, Kevin; Rice, Darron


    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department has gained significant experience in the last year designing, building, and testing liquid engine components using additive manufacturing. The department has developed valve, duct, turbo-machinery, and combustion device components using this technology. Many valuable lessons were learned during this process. These lessons will be the focus of this presentation. We will present criteria for selecting part candidates for additive manufacturing. Some part characteristics are 'tailor made' for this process. Selecting the right parts for the process is the first step to maximizing productivity gains. We will also present specific lessons we learned about feature geometry that can and cannot be produced using additive manufacturing machines. Most liquid engine components were made using a two-step process. The base part was made using additive manufacturing and then traditional machining processes were used to produce the final part. The presentation will describe design accommodations needed to make the base part and lessons we learned about which features could be built directly and which require the final machine process. Tolerance capabilities, surface finish, and material thickness allowances will also be covered. Additive Manufacturing can produce internal passages that cannot be made using traditional approaches. It can also eliminate a significant amount of manpower by reducing part count and leveraging model-based design and analysis techniques. Information will be shared about performance enhancements and design efficiencies we experienced for certain categories of engine parts.

  12. The Effect Acid Addition on Characteristic Effervescent Tablet of Tamarillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidela Violalita


    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine the percentage of acid and its influence on characteristic effervescent tablet of tamarillo. The percentages of  acid addition that consist with citric acid and tartaric acid (1:1 were 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35%. Water content, pH solution, vitamin C content, soluble duration, friability of tablet and organoleptic test on colour, aroma and flavour of tamarillo effervescent tablet were determined after addition of acid. The results showed that the difference in percentage of acid addition significantly affected to the water content, pH solution, soluble duration and friability of tablets. Based on organoleptic test, the tablet consist of 25% addition of acid was the best percentage of acid addition. The quality parameters in this percentage were the water content 6.09%, pH solution 4.80,  vitamin C 498.0800 mg/tablet, soluble duration 3.96 minute, friability of tablet 0.11%, while the averages of organoleptic test for colour were 3.40 (ordinary, aroma 3.36 (ordinary, and flavour 3.76 (like.

  13. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Mechanical Properties (United States)

    Lewandowski, John J.; Seifi, Mohsen


    This article reviews published data on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured metallic materials. The additive manufacturing techniques utilized to generate samples covered in this review include powder bed fusion (e.g., EBM, SLM, DMLS) and directed energy deposition (e.g., LENS, EBF3). Although only a limited number of metallic alloy systems are currently available for additive manufacturing (e.g., Ti-6Al-4V, TiAl, stainless steel, Inconel 625/718, and Al-Si-10Mg), the bulk of the published mechanical properties information has been generated on Ti-6Al-4V. However, summary tables for published mechanical properties and/or key figures are included for each of the alloys listed above, grouped by the additive technique used to generate the data. Published values for mechanical properties obtained from hardness, tension/compression, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth, and high cycle fatigue are included for as-built, heat-treated, and/or HIP conditions, when available. The effects of test orientation/build direction on properties, when available, are also provided, along with discussion of the potential source(s) (e.g., texture, microstructure changes, defects) of anisotropy in properties. Recommendations for additional work are also provided.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusid S. B.


    Full Text Available The article describes the results of the complex feed additive based on sunflower husk, enriched with beer wort with the addition of pumpkin pulp. We have studied the chemical composition of sunflower husk, which is the secondary resource of the processing plant raw material, selected methods of enrichment of this raw material with the help of fungi Trichoderma harzianum. Cellulolytic enzyme preparations on the basis of fungi of the genus Trichoderma for use in agriculture and animal feed production is often obtained when the surface method of cultivation. These drugs are cheap and contain a significant number of related hydrolytic enzymes, 29 such as amylase, protease, pectinase and hemicellulase, which are also important and valuable to the consumer. As a vitamin component of the feed additive we have selected a pumpkin pulp, which is a valuable feed for livestock and poultry is a source of carotene, fat and nitrogenous substances. We have also developed elements of technology for complex feed additive. We have created a comprehensive feed additive which can be used in the composition of diets in the feeding of farm animals and poultry

  15. Influence of boric acid additive size on green lubricant performance. (United States)

    Lovell, Michael R; Kabir, M A; Menezes, Pradeep L; Higgs, C Fred


    As the industrial community moves towards green manufacturing processes, there is an increased demand for multi-functional, environmentally friendly lubricants with enhanced tribological performance. In the present investigation, green (environmentally benign) lubricant combinations were prepared by homogeneously mixing nano- (20 nm), sub-micrometre- (600 nm average size) and micrometre-scale (4 μm average size) boric acid powder additives with canola oil in a vortex generator. As a basis for comparison, lubricants of base canola oil and canola oil mixed with MoS(2) powder (ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm) were also prepared. Friction and wear experiments were carried out on the prepared lubricants using a pin-on-disc apparatus under ambient conditions. Based on the experiments, the nanoscale (20 nm) particle boric acid additive lubricants significantly outperformed all of the other lubricants with respect to frictional and wear performance. In fact, the nanoscale boric acid powder-based lubricants exhibited a wear rate more than an order of magnitude lower than the MoS(2) and larger sized boric acid additive-based lubricants. It was also discovered that the oil mixed with a combination of sub-micrometre- and micrometre-scale boric acid powder additives exhibited better friction and wear performance than the canola oil mixed with sub-micrometre- or micrometre-scale boric acid additives alone.

  16. The Additional Professional Training in the Late Russian Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur A. Magsumov


    Full Text Available The article reveals the experience of intensive organization and functioning of the system of additional professional training in the late imperial period of the Russian history, generated by the need of unfolded modernization in the country. The article is written on the basis of mass sources, including the regional archives of record keeping documentation and working in the mainstream of the study of basic organizational forms of additional training - agricultural courses, shopping classes and courses of technical drawing, also the author produces a macro shot of trends and directions, successes and challenges in its development. The additional professional training as a specific element of the education system of 20th century focusing on the real sector of economy has implemented the free practice-training based on the principles of interdisciplinarity, variability and the high role of self-education.

  17. Geometric principles in additive systems for construction of vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Thomas Arvid


    domes and vaults has been looked at as synonymous with representations of the vault of heaven, paradise or the universe. Pantheons dome was a temple of all Gods, Hagia Sofia’s dome was a representation of the golden heaven of Christ. The Renaissance in Italy was initiated with the dome of Santa Maria...... della Fiore. The Barouque style followed with the domes of Borromini; Bernini and Guarini. The Period of Enlightenment had iconic tunnel- and dome vault projects by Etienne l. Boulée. All these stone vaults were made by additive systems in bricks and mortar. In the century concrete was introduced...... and the reinforced concrete made new large spans possible. These was in-situ casted and not additive systems. Utzon’s Sydney opera house from the mid-fifties combined the additive system, iron reinforcement and concrete into at new prefabricated vault system, which could handle the complex geometry of the shells...

  18. Enhanced DLC wear performance by the presence of lubricant additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Paula de Castro Costa


    Full Text Available Lubricant additives play significant role for reducing friction and wear of mechanical elements. The additives presented in 5W30 oil were developed for metal surfaces. However, they have been used in engine pieces covered with DLC coatings because they also offer the potential to reduce friction losses and wear in automotive applications. The friction and wear tests were carried out by using a UMT-CETR ball-on-disk tribometer in rotational mode under 5W30 synthetic oil at 100 °C. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS showed the presence of Mo and S in the wear tracks. These elements are from decomposition of ZDDP and MoDTC additives producing MoS2 in DLC surface, which offers enhanced durability by low wear rate.

  19. Research on Additional Loss of Guidance Optical Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI De-dong; HAO Chong-yang


    The factors which cause additional losses of guidance optical fiber in wound state were analyzed. A mathematical model used to analyze the macro-bend losses in the cross region producing in the precision winding process was established.For an actual guidance optical fiber, the measured data of the fiber's additional losses under low temperature and the loss curves with radius were given in the paper. The simulation results were compared with the test data. It shows that the addi-tional losses of optical fiber caused by bending and low temperature can meet the actual requirements of the fiber optical guidance system. The established model can be used to predict the change trend of fiber losses in the winding process with a certain tensile force.

  20. Effect of Additive on Microstructure of Transparent YAG Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xudong; Wen Lei; Xiu Zhimeng; Huo Di; Li Xiaodong; Chi-Tay Tsai


    Transparent YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) ceramics were fabricated by solid-state reaction method. Effect of additive (tetraethyl orthosilicate, TEOS) on microstructure of YAG ceramics was investigated. If the addition of TEOS is more than 3% (mass fraction), large amount of liquid phase can be yielded at grain boundaries, resulting in the formation of second phase particles at grain boundaries. If the addition is less than 0.05% (mass fraction), pores are entrapped in the grains. The suitable amount is 0.5% (mass fraction). A fully transparent YAG ceramic was fabricated by vacuum sintering at 1700 ℃ for 5 h. Optical transmittance of the YAG ceramic is 63% in the visible light wavelengths and 70% in the infrared wavelengths.

  1. Antiwear and antioxidant studies of cardanol phosphate ester additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Mazzetto


    Full Text Available In the search for new applications and products derived from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL, we report herein the synthesis and characterization (GC/MS and ¹H, 13C, and 31P NMR of four phosphate esters derived from hydrogenated cardanol, including their applications as antiwear additives for diesel (S500 and as antioxidant additives for mineral oils, evaluated through the HFRR test and oxidative stability analyses, respectively. The results obtained showed very good to excellent performances promoted by the bio-additives evaluated, especially for the thiophosphorylated derivative, which notably reduced the sludge residue and the acidity index of the oxidized oil (0.52 mg NaOH/g sample and also improved the diesel lubricity, reducing the wear of metal parts by more than 50% (330 μm.

  2. Catalytic enantioselective addition of Grignard reagents to aromatic silyl ketimines (United States)

    Rong, Jiawei; Collados, Juan F.; Ortiz, Pablo; Jumde, Ravindra P.; Otten, Edwin; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.


    α-Chiral amines are of significant importance in medicinal chemistry, asymmetric synthesis and material science, but methods for their efficient synthesis are scarce. In particular, the synthesis of α-chiral amines with the challenging tetrasubstituted carbon stereocentre is a long-standing problem and catalytic asymmetric additions of organometallic reagents to ketimines that would give direct access to these molecules are underdeveloped. Here we report a highly enantioselective catalytic synthesis of N-sulfonyl protected α-chiral silyl amines via the addition of inexpensive, easy to handle and readily available Grignard reagents to silyl ketimines. The key to this success was our ability to suppress any unselective background addition reactions and side reduction pathway, through the identification of an inexpensive, chiral Cu-complex as the catalytically active structure.

  3. Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Saout, Gwenn, E-mail: [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hori, Akihiro [DENKA Chemicals GmbH, Wehrhahn-Center, Cantadorstr. 3, D-40211 Duesseldorf (Germany); Higuchi, Takayuki [Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (DENKA), Omi, Itoigawa, Niigata, 949-0393 (Japan); Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)


    The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C-S-H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA-OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

  4. Prevalence of intolerance to food additives among Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.


    The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg......, Denmark. The children in the study group followed an elimination diet for two weeks before they were challenged with a mixture of food preservatives, colourings and flavours. The challenge was open and the additives were prepared as a fizzy lemonade. If the open challenge was positive, a double...... clinics, the prevalence of intolerance to food additives in school children is estimated to be 1-2%....

  5. ADME-Tox profiles of some food additives and pesticides (United States)

    Craciun, Dana; Modra, Dorina; Isvoran, Adriana


    Within this study we compute the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) profiles of several commonly used food additives and some pesticides. As expected, all the food additives considered in this study provided to be safe, their ADME-Tox profiles indicating that they have a good oral bioavailability and they do not produce phosphoslipidosis. The ADME-Tox profiles of the pesticides indicate that, with a few exceptions, they are highly toxic (some of them being not approved in the EU, but still used in other countries) and may cause many diseases. Our results are in good agreement with published data concerning the considered food additives and pesticides revealing that the ADME-Tox profiling method may be successfully used to test other chemicals than drug candidates.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Ioukhnevsky


    Full Text Available The paper contains a method for determination of dipole moments in chemical plasticizer addition molecules for cement concretes as in powder-state so in the form of aqueous solutions as well.The methodology is based on measuring dielectric substance  permittivity depending on temperature, construction of a diagram (ε – 1/(ε + 2 = f(1/T with subsequent calculation of the molecule dipole moment. The Ossipov’s formula has been used for aqueous solutions of super-plasticizer additions with the purpose to calculate a dipole moment of polar substance in the polar solvent.The obtained values of dipole moments in C-3 super-plasticizer addition molecule are in good agreement with the values obtained as a result of quantum-chemical calculations. 

  7. Additional water use influencing strength and fluidity of recycled concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学兵; 方志; 邓寿昌; 成珂; 覃银辉


    Through adding different additional water use,the compressive strength,splitting tensile strength and fluidity of recycled concrete of three aggregate combination forms were studied by experiment respectively.The experimental results show that with the increase of adding additional water use,the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of recycled coarse aggregate concrete decrease,but that of recycled fine aggregate concrete and recycled all aggregate concrete increase firstly then decrease.When additional water use is added more 15% or 20% than that of basic ordinary concrete,the recycled coarse aggregate concrete and fine one can get pretty good fluidity.When it is added more 30%,the recycled all aggregate concrete has fluidity that is just satisfied.

  8. Low coefficient of thermal expansion polyimides containing metal ion additives (United States)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.


    Polyimides have become widely used as high performance polymers as a result of their excellent thermal stability and toughness. However, lowering their coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) would increase their usefulness for aerospace and electronic applications where dimensional stability is a requirement. The incorporation of metal ion-containing additives into polyimides, resulting in significantly lowered CTE's, has been studied. Various metal ion additives have been added to both polyamic acid resins and soluble polyimide solutions in the concentration range of 4-23 weight percent. The incorporation of these metal ions has resulted in reductions in the CTE's of the control polyimides of 12 percent to over 100 percent depending on the choice of additive and its concentration.

  9. Effectiveness of various organometallics as antiwear additives in mineral oil (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.


    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with 1045 steel contacting 302 stainless steel and lubricated with various organometallics in mineral oil. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the element present in the wear contact zone. The results indicate that there are organometallics which are as effective an antiwear additives as the commonly used zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. These include dimethyl cadmium, triphenyl lead thiomethoxide, and triphenyl tin chloride. The additives were examined in concentrations to 1 weight percent. With dimethyl cadmium at concentrations of 0.5 weight percent and above, cadmium was detected in the contact zone. Coincident with the detection of cadmium, a marked decrease in the friction coefficient was observed. All additives examined reduced friction, but only the aforementioned reduced wear to a level comparable to that observed with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

  10. Preparation of nano-copper as lubrication oil additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-li; XU Bin-shi; XU Yi; YU He-long; SHI Pei-jing; LIU Qian


    Nano-copper used as lubrication oil additive has good tribological property and active self-repairing effect for friction pairs. The reduction in liquid phase for preparing nano-additive is one of the most common method.Nano-copper was prepared by reduction in liquid phase. The different project and routine practice for preparing nano-copper were researched. The dispersion problem of nano-copper was investigated by surface treatment and high dispersion. The particles dimension, the dispersion stability and the purity of nano-copper were characterized by TEM and XRD. The conclusion indicates that the methods of the preparation and dispersion can obtain 20 nm copper additive with good dispersion property in lubrication oil.

  11. Systematic tests for position-dependent additive shear bias (United States)

    van Uitert, Edo; Schneider, Peter


    We present new tests to identify stationary position-dependent additive shear biases in weak gravitational lensing data sets. These tests are important diagnostics for currently ongoing and planned cosmic shear surveys, as such biases induce coherent shear patterns that can mimic and potentially bias the cosmic shear signal. The central idea of these tests is to determine the average ellipticity of all galaxies with shape measurements in a grid in the pixel plane. The distribution of the absolute values of these averaged ellipticities can be compared to randomised catalogues; a difference points to systematics in the data. In addition, we introduce a method to quantify the spatial correlation of the additive bias, which suppresses the contribution from cosmic shear and therefore eases the identification of a position-dependent additive shear bias in the data. We apply these tests to the publicly available shear catalogues from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) and find evidence for a small but non-negligible residual additive bias at small scales. As this residual bias is smaller than the error on the shear correlation signal at those scales, it is highly unlikely that it causes a significant bias in the published cosmic shear results of CFHTLenS. In CFHTLenS, the amplitude of this systematic signal is consistent with zero in fields where the number of stars used to model the point spread function (PSF) is higher than average, suggesting that the position-dependent additive shear bias originates from undersampled PSF variations across the image.

  12. Validation of transport models using additive flux minimization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Kruger, S. E. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave., Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Hakim, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)


    A new additive flux minimization technique is proposed for carrying out the verification and validation (V and V) of anomalous transport models. In this approach, the plasma profiles are computed in time dependent predictive simulations in which an additional effective diffusivity is varied. The goal is to obtain an optimal match between the computed and experimental profile. This new technique has several advantages over traditional V and V methods for transport models in tokamaks and takes advantage of uncertainty quantification methods developed by the applied math community. As a demonstration of its efficiency, the technique is applied to the hypothesis that the paleoclassical density transport dominates in the plasma edge region in DIII-D tokamak discharges. A simplified version of the paleoclassical model that utilizes the Spitzer resistivity for the parallel neoclassical resistivity and neglects the trapped particle effects is tested in this paper. It is shown that a contribution to density transport, in addition to the paleoclassical density transport, is needed in order to describe the experimental profiles. It is found that more additional diffusivity is needed at the top of the H-mode pedestal, and almost no additional diffusivity is needed at the pedestal bottom. The implementation of this V and V technique uses the FACETS::Core transport solver and the DAKOTA toolkit for design optimization and uncertainty quantification. The FACETS::Core solver is used for advancing the plasma density profiles. The DAKOTA toolkit is used for the optimization of plasma profiles and the computation of the additional diffusivity that is required for the predicted density profile to match the experimental profile.

  13. Design for Additive Manufacturing: Trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Moroni, Giovanni; Vaneker, Tom


    The past few decades have seen substantial growth in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies. However, this growth has mainly been process-driven. The evolution of engineering design to take advantage of the possibilities afforded by AM and to manage the constraints associated with the technology...... has lagged behind. This paper presents the major opportunities, constraints, and economic considerations for Design for Additive Manufacturing. It explores issues related to design and redesign for direct and indirect AM production. It also highlights key industrial applications, outlines future...

  14. Design of Test Parts to Characterize Micro Additive Manufacturing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Mischkot, Michael


    The minimum feature size and obtainable tolerances of additive manufacturing processes are linked to the smallest volumetric elements (voxels) that can be created. This work presents the iterative design of a test part to investigate the resolution of AM processes with voxel sizes at the micro...... scale. Each design iteration reduces the test part size, increases the number of test features, improves functionality, and decreases coupling in the part. The final design is a set of three test parts that are easy to orient and measure, and that provide useful information about micro additive...... manufacturing processes....

  15. The Crucial Role of Additive Manufacturing at NASA (United States)

    Vickers, John


    At NASA, the first steps of the Journey to Mars are well underway with the development of NASA's next generation launch system and investments in research and technologies that should increase the affordability, capability, and safety of exploration activities. Additive Manufacturing presents a disruptive opportunity for NASA to design and manufacture hardware with new materials at dramatically reduced cost and schedule. Opportunities to incorporate additive manufacturing align very well with NASA missions and with most NASA programs related to space, science, and aeronautics. The Agency also relies on many partnerships with other government agencies, industry and academia.

  16. Silane as Electrolyte Additives for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Q.Xia; Y.P.Wu


    1 Results In order to overcome the inherent incompatibility of PC with graphite in the lithium ion battery system, improve their electrochemical performance at low temperature,phenyl tris-2-methoxydiethoxy silane (PTMS) has been studied as an additive to the PC-based electrolyte of lithium ion batteries with graphite anode. From the cyclic voltammogram for the graphite anode in the PC-based electrolyte,we find that in the case of the electrolyte without the additive,there is a large irreversible peak ne...

  17. Nanoparticle additives for multiphase systems: Synthesis, formulation and characterization (United States)

    Kanniah, Vinod

    Study on nanoparticle additives in multiphase systems (liquid, polymer) are of immense interest in developing new product applications. Critical challenges for nanoparticle additives include their synthesis, formulation and characterization. These challenges are addressed in three application areas: nanofluids for engine lubrication, ultrathin nanocomposites for optical devices, and nanoparticle size distribution characterization. Nanoparticle additives in oligomer mixtures can be used to develop extended temperature range motor oils. A model system includes poly(alpha-olefin) based oligomers with a modest fraction of poly(dimethylsiloxane) oligomers along with graphite as nanoparticle additive. Partition coefficients of each oligomer are determined since the oligomer mixture phase separated at temperatures less than -15 °C. Also, the surface of graphite additive is quantitatively analyzed and modified via silanization for each oligomer. Thus, upon separation of the oligomer mixture, each functionalized graphite additive migrates to its preferred oligomers and forms a uniform dispersion. Similarly, nanoparticle additives in polymer matrices can be used to develop new low haze ultrathin film optical coatings. A model system included an acrylate monomer as the continuous phase with monodisperse or bidisperse mixtures of silica nanoparticles deposited on glass and polycarbonate substrates. Surface (root mean squared roughness, Wenzel's contact angle) and optical properties (haze) of these self assembled experimental surfaces were compared to simulated surface structures. Manipulating the size ratios of silica nanoparticle mixtures varied the average surface roughness and the height distributions, producing multimodal structures with different packing fractions. In both nanofluid and nanocomposite applications, nanoparticle additives tend to aggregate/agglomerate depending on various factors including the state of nanoparticles (powder, dispersion). A set of well

  18. Justification for Shielded Receiver Tube Additional Lead Shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.


    In order to reduce high radiation dose rates encountered when core sampling some radioactive waste tanks the addition of 240 lbs. of lead shielding is being considered to the shielded receiver tube on core sample trucks No.1, No.3 and No.4. The lead shielding is 4 inch diameter x 1/2 inch thick half rounds that have been installed around the SR tube over its' full length. Using three unreleased but independently reviewed structural analyses HNF-6018 justifies the addition of the lead shielding.

  19. Nucleophilic Addition of Organozinc Reagents to 2-Sulfonyl Cyclic Ethers (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungsu; Kasper, Amanda C.; Moon, Eui Jung; Park, Yongho; Wooten, Ceshea M.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Hong, Jiyong


    A convergent route to the synthesis of manassantins A and B, potent inhibitors of HIF-1, is described. Central to the synthesis is a stereoselective addition of an organozinc reagent to a 2-benzenesulfonyl cyclic ether to achieve the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-4,5-cis-tetrahydrofuran of the natural products. Preliminary structure—activity relationships suggested that the (R)-configuration at C-7 and C-7″′ is not critical for HIF-1 inhibition. In addition, the hydroxyl group at C-7 and C-7″′ can be replaced with carbonyl group without loss of activity. PMID:19111058

  20. Coordinate descent methods for the penalized semiparametric additive hazards model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Scheike, Thomas

    . The semiparametric additive hazards model is a flexible alternative which is a natural survival analogue of the standard linear regression model. Building on this analogy, we develop a cyclic coordinate descent algorithm for fitting the lasso and elastic net penalized additive hazards model. The algorithm requires......For survival data with a large number of explanatory variables, lasso penalized Cox regression is a popular regularization strategy. However, a penalized Cox model may not always provide the best fit to data and can be difficult to estimate in high dimension because of its intrinsic nonlinearity...

  1. Quantum-chemical study of antioxidant additives for jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletaeva, O.Yu. [Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Karimova, R.I. [Bashkir State Agrarian Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Movsumzade, E.M. [Institute of Education of Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples of the North RAE, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    To obtain the necessary quality of jet fuels it can be used technological methods (hydrocracking, deep hydration, hydrogenation) that increases the cost of the finished product. The second way is to use less purified raw materials with the introduction of effective additives. Fuels obtained by direct distillation, in ambient air are oxidized with great difficulty and oxidation products accumulate in them is very slow. Fuels derived by hydrogenation processes, have high susceptibility to oxidation, as a result in 1-2 years of storage considerably reduced their quality. Antioxidant additives play an important role in improving the quality of jet fuel. (orig.)

  2. On-line matrix addition for detecting aerosol particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Liuzhu; ZHU; Yuan; GUO; Xiaoyong; ZHAO; Wenwu; ZHENG; Haiyang; Gu; Xuejun; FANG; Li; ZHANG; Weijun


    Single aerosol particles were measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS). The inlet to the ATOFMS was coupled with an evaporation/condensation flow cell that allowed matrix addition by condensation onto the particles. The coated particles entered the ion source through three-stage differentially pumped capillary inlet and were then ionized by a focused 266 nm Nd:YAG laser. The mass spectra and aerodynamic size of the single particles can be obtained simultaneously. The on-line matrix addition technique makes it possible to identify biological aerosols in real-time.

  3. Influence of conductive additive on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少鹏; 李波; 陈筝; 黄旭


    The effects of graphite on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders were investigated by penetration test,Ring & Ball softening point test and viscosity test.And penetration index(IP),viscosity-temperature susceptibility(SVT),and penetration-viscosity numbers(NPV) were introduced to evaluate the effects.The results show that the penetration,softening point and viscosity of asphalt binder increase with the increase of content of graphite.This means that the addition of graphite makes asphalts stiffer.The results from IP,NPV and SVT show that temperature susceptibility is reduced by the addition of graphite.

  4. Using Set Model for Learning Addition of Integers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Puji Lestari


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how set model can help students' understanding of addition of integers in fourth grade. The study has been carried out to 23 students and a teacher of IVC SD Iba Palembang in January 2015. This study is a design research that also promotes PMRI as the underlying design context and activity. Results showed that the use of set models that is packaged in activity of recording of financial transactions in two color chips and card game can help students to understand the concept of zero pair, addition with the same colored chips, and cancellation strategy.

  5. Additivity of dichromatic color matches to short-wavelength lights. (United States)

    Nagy, A L


    The additivity of color matches to short-wavelength lights was examined in observers who behaved as red-green dichromats under the stimulus conditions used. Color matches were obtained at several luminance levels and on several different adapting backgrounds. The range of mixtures acceptable as a match and the midpoint of this range varied considerably over different conditions. However, for each observer, a set of mixtures that remained a match under all conditions could always be found. Results suggest that the additivity laws hold for these observers in the sense that there is a color match that remains a match under all conditions.

  6. FCC DeSOx and DeNOx additive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The fluid catalytic cracking(FCC) is the principal gasoline-producing process in the refinery. Considerable amounts of harmful sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides (SOx and NOx ) are generated with the FCC operation. Impacted by strengthening environmental regulations and the current global emphasis on environmental protection and pollution abatement, refiners have been meaning to look for effective ways to control and reduce SOx and NOx emissions. FCC DeSOx and DeNOx additives is the most promising measure. The present paper reviews the developments in FCC DeSOx and DeNOx additive technology based on the respective authors' works, the future directions of the technology are also discussed.

  7. Low-Temperature Additive Performance in Jet A Fuels (United States)


    20% recovered, °C 189 189 189 191 191 190 50% recovered, °C 211 211 211 210 210 211 90% recovered, °C 250 249 250 240 241 242 EP , °C ≤300 267...chain n-alkanes) which are known to increase the bulk viscosity and nucleate fuel solidification as the temperature is reduced. However, the LT...studies with the LT additive. The LT additive clearly prevented the viscosity transition of the bulk fuel. However, following nucleation and growth

  8. Triphenylphosphine-Catalyzed Michael Addition of Alcohols to Acrylic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Hai-Ling; JIANG, Huan-Feng; WANG, Yu-Gang


    A facile triphenylphosphine-catalyzed Michael addition of alcohols to acrylic compounds was described. The reaction was carried out in open air at refluxing temperature in the presence of 10 mol% PPh3. Michael addition of saturated and unsaturated alcohols to acrylonitrile or acrylates has been examined. The reaction gaveβ-alkoxy derivatives with isolated yields of 5%-79%. PPh3 is cheaper and more stable than those trialkylphosphines previously used for the similar reactions, and the products can be easily separated from the reaction mixture via distillation.

  9. Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters and Metal Thiophosphates as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson


    Full Text Available Phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters and metal thiophosphates have been used as lubricant additives for over 50 years. While their use has been extensive, a detailed knowledge of how they work has been a much more recent development. In this paper, the use of phosphate esters and thiophosphate esters as anti-wear or extreme pressure additives is reviewed with an emphasis on their mechanism of action. The review includes the use of alkyl phosphates, triaryl phosphates and metal containing thiophosphate esters. The mechanisms of these materials interacting with a range of iron and steel based bearing material are examined.

  10. Addition theorems for spin spherical harmonics: II. Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzas, Antonio O, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km. 6, Apdo. Postal 73 ' Cordemex' , Merida 97310, Yucatan (Mexico)


    Based on the results of part I (2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 165301), we obtain the general form of the addition theorem for spin spherical harmonics and give explicit results in the cases involving one spin-s' and one spin-s spherical harmonics with s', s = 1/2, 1, 3/2, and |s' - s| = 0, 1. We also obtain a fully general addition theorem for one scalar and one tensor spherical harmonic of arbitrary rank. A variety of bilocal sums of ordinary and spin spherical harmonics are given in explicit form, including a general explicit expression for bilocal spherical harmonics.

  11. Addition theorems for spin spherical harmonics: I. Preliminaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzas, Antonio O, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km. 6, Apdo. Postal 73 ' Cordemex' , Merida 97310, Yucatan (Mexico)


    We develop a systematic approach to deriving addition theorems for, and some other bilocal sums of, spin spherical harmonics. In this first part we establish some necessary technical results. We discuss the factorization of orbital and spin degrees of freedom in certain products of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, and obtain general explicit results for the matrix elements in configuration space of tensor products of arbitrary rank of the position and angular-momentum operators. These results are the basis of the addition theorems for spin spherical harmonics obtained in part II (2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 165302).

  12. Additive-Multiplicative Fuzzy Neural Network and Its Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟东海; 靳蕃


    In view of the main weaknesses of current fuzzy neural networks such as low reasoning precision and long training time, an Additive-Multiplicative Fuzzy Neural Network (AMFNN) model and its architecture are presented. AMFNN combines additive inference and multiplicative inference into an integral whole, reasonably makes use of their advantages of inference and effectively overcomes their weaknesses when they are used for inference separately. Here, an error back propagation algorithm for AMFNN is presented based on the gradient descent method. Comparisons between the AMFNN and six representative fuzzy inference methods shows that the AMFNN is characterized by higher reasoning precision, wider application scope, stronger generalization capability and easier implementation.

  13. Addition-type polyimides from solutions of monomeric reactants (United States)

    Delvigs, P.; Serafini, T. T.; Lightsey, G. R.


    The monomeric reactants approach was used to fabricate addition-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites with improved mechanical properties and thermal stability characteristics over those of composites derived from addition-type amide acid prepolymers. A screening study of 24 different monomer combinations was performed. The results of a more extensive investigation of a selected number of monomer combinations showed that the combination providing the best thermomechanical properties was 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester/4,4'-methylenedianiline/3,3'4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dimethyl ester at a molar ratio of 2/3.09/2.09.

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Eightieth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. (United States)


    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for seven food additives (benzoates; lipase from Fusarium heterosporum expressed in Ogataea polymorpha; magnesium stearate; maltotetraohydrolase from Pseudomonas stutzeri expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; mixed β-glucanase, cellulase and xylanase from Rasamsonia emersonii; mixed β-glucanase and xylanase from Disporotrichum dimorphosporum; polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)- polyethylene glycol (PEG) graft copolymer) and two groups of contaminants (non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and pyrrolizidine alkaloids). Specifications for the following food additives were revised or withdrawn: advantame; annatto extracts (solavnt extracted bixin, ad solvent-extracted norbixin); food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon (aluminium silicate; calcium aluminium silicate; calcium silicate; silicon dioxide, amorphous; sodium aluminium silicate); and glycerol ester of gum rosin. Annexed to the report are tables or text summarizing the toxicological and dietary exposure information and information on specifications as well as the Committees recommendations on the food additives and contaminants considered at this meeting.

  15. Evaluation of certain food additives. Seventy-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. (United States)


    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives: branching glycosyltransferase from Rhodothermus obamensis expressed in Bacillus subtilis, cassia gum, cyclamic acid and its salts (dietary exposure assessment), cyclotetraglucose and cyclotetraglucose syrup, ferrous ammonium phosphate, glycerol ester of gum rosin, glycerol ester of tall oil rosin, lycopene from all sources, lycopene extract from tomato, mineral oil (low and medium viscosity) class II and class III, octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic, sodium hydrogen sulfate and sucrose oligoesters type I and type II. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: diacetyltartaric acid and fatty acid esters of glycerol, ethyl lauroyl arginate, glycerol ester of wood rosin, nisin preparation, nitrous oxide, pectins, starch sodium octenyl succinate, tannic acid, titanium dioxide and triethyl citrate. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for intakes and toxicological evaluations of the food additives considered.

  16. 30 CFR 250.803 - Additional production system requirements. (United States)


    ... control shall be in effect for wells or fields having a history of sand production. The erosion-control... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional production system requirements. 250... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production...

  17. Novedades en el diccionario (New Additions to the Dictionary) (United States)

    Carnicer, Ramon


    A total of 271 items--words, phrases and affixes--were added to the common Spanish dictionary in the period between October and December 1974. This article lists the principal additions, each organized within a larger semantic category. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  18. 48 CFR 970.1100-2 - Additional considerations. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional considerations. 970.1100-2 Section 970.1100-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... considerations. (a) While it is not feasible to set forth standard language which would apply to every...

  19. Hydrophobins as aqueous lubricant additive for a soft sliding contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Seunghwan; Røn, Troels; Pakkanen, Kirsi I.


    Two type II fungal hydrophobins, HFBI and FpHYD5, have been studied as aqueous lubricant additive at a nonpolar, compliant sliding contact (self-mated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) contact) at two different concentrations, 0.1 mg/mL and 1.0 mg/mL. The two hydrophobins are featured as non-glycosyl...

  20. Two-stage local M-estimation of additive models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG JianCheng; LI JianTao


    This paper studies local M-estimation of the nonparametric components of additive models. A two-stage local M-estimation procedure is proposed for estimating the additive components and their derivatives. Under very mild conditions, the proposed estimators of each additive component and its derivative are jointly asymptotically normal and share the same asymptotic distributions as they would be if the other components were known. The established asymptotic results also hold for two particular local M-estimations: the local least squares and least absolute deviation estimations. However,for general two-stage local M-estimation with continuous and nonlinear ψ-functions, its implementation is time-consuming. To reduce the computational burden, one-step approximations to the two-stage local M-estimators are developed. The one-step estimators are shown to achieve the same efficiency as the fully iterative two-stage local M-estimators, which makes the two-stage local M-estimation more feasible in practice. The proposed estimators inherit the advantages and at the same time overcome the disadvantages of the local least-squares based smoothers. In addition, the practical implementation of the proposed estimation is considered in details. Simulations demonstrate the merits of the two-stage local M-estimation, and a real example illustrates the performance of the methodology.

  1. Two-stage local M-estimation of additive models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper studies local M-estimation of the nonparametric components of additive models.A two-stage local M-estimation procedure is proposed for estimating the additive components and their derivatives.Under very mild conditions,the proposed estimators of each additive component and its derivative are jointly asymptotically normal and share the same asymptotic distributions as they would be if the other components were known.The established asymptotic results also hold for two particular local M-estimations:the local least squares and least absolute deviation estimations.However,for general two-stage local M-estimation with continuous and nonlinear ψ-functions,its implementation is time-consuming.To reduce the computational burden,one-step approximations to the two-stage local M-estimators are developed.The one-step estimators are shown to achieve the same effciency as the fully iterative two-stage local M-estimators,which makes the two-stage local M-estimation more feasible in practice.The proposed estimators inherit the advantages and at the same time overcome the disadvantages of the local least-squares based smoothers.In addition,the practical implementation of the proposed estimation is considered in details.Simulations demonstrate the merits of the two-stage local M-estimation,and a real example illustrates the performance of the methodology.

  2. 12 CFR 980.7 - Examinations; requests for additional information. (United States)


    ... business activity in question, including but not limited to: (i) Successful completion of pre- or post... ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.7 Examinations; requests for additional information. (a) General... new business activity, nothing in this part shall limit the right of the Finance Board at any time...

  3. Hot embossing of microstructures on addition curing polydimethylsiloxane films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Yu, Liyun; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager;


    The aim of this research work is to establish a hot embossing process for addition curing vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which are thermosetting elastomers, based on the existing and widely applied technology for thermoplasts. To our knowledge, no known technologies or processes...

  4. 44 CFR 13.6 - Additions and exceptions. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additions and exceptions. 13.6 Section 13.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... requirements except in codified regulations published in the Federal Register. (b) Exceptions for classes...

  5. 77 FR 28670 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (United States)


    ... additional information concerning OFAC are available on OFAC's Web site at or... section 805(b) of the Kingpin Act. Individuals 1. GUZMAN SALAZAR, Ivan Archivaldo (a.k.a. ``El Chapito''; a.k.a. GUZMAN SALAZAR, Archivaldo Ivan; a.k.a. GUZMAN SALAZAR, Ivan Archibaldo); Mexico; DOB 02...

  6. Financing the UNCED Agenda: The Controversy over Additionality. (United States)

    Jordan, Andrew


    Additionality is the concept that developed countries should finance the costs of developing countries to address global environmental problems and make the transition to sustainable development on top of all other financial aid. Discusses the controversy regarding this concept as discussed at the June 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment…

  7. 学英语:Multiplication as Shortcut Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Short Addition with One Variable.Suppose you buy 5 different items at a grocery store: apple juice, bread, grope juice, chicken soup, and milk. The prices of them are a, b, c, d and e. The clerk will add the costs to arrive at your total cost.

  8. Core Stability in Chain-Component Additive Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, S.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Solymosi, T.


    Chain-component additive games are graph-restricted superadditive games, where an exogenously given line-graph determines the cooperative possibilities of the players.These games can model various multi-agent decision situations, such as strictly hierarchical organisations or sequencing / scheduling

  9. AM Envelope: Potentials of Additive Manufacturing for facade construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strauss, H.; Knaack, U.


    Not only in the medical, aviation and automotive industry, the Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes are being looked upon as increasingly important production processes. But also the construction industiy is realizing more and more the chances and opportunities, that open up with these technologies

  10. Cold Spraying of Armstrong Process Titanium Powder for Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Fernández, R.; Delloro, F.; Jodoin, B.


    Titanium parts are ideally suited for aerospace applications due to their unique combination of high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. However, titanium as bulk material is expensive and challenging/costly to machine. Production of complex titanium parts through additive manufacturing looks promising, but there are still many barriers to overcome before reaching mainstream commercialization. The cold gas dynamic spraying process offers the potential for additive manufacturing of large titanium parts due to its reduced reactive environment, its simplicity to operate, and the high deposition rates it offers. A few challenges are to be addressed before the additive manufacturing potential of titanium by cold gas dynamic spraying can be reached. In particular, it is known that titanium is easy to deposit by cold gas dynamic spraying, but the deposits produced are usually porous when nitrogen is used as the carrier gas. In this work, a method to manufacture low-porosity titanium components at high deposition efficiencies is revealed. The components are produced by combining low-pressure cold spray using nitrogen as the carrier gas with low-cost titanium powder produced using the Armstrong process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of additive manufactured titanium components are investigated.

  11. Knowledge Management for Topological Optimization Integration in Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gardan


    Full Text Available Engineering design optimization of mechanical structures is nowadays essential in the mechanical industry (automotive, aeronautics, etc.. To remain competitive in the globalized world, it is necessary to create and design structures that, in addition to complying specific mechanical performance, should be less expensive. Engineers must then design parts or assemblies that are a better compromise between mechanical and functional performance, weight, manufacturing costs, and so forth. In this context Additive Manufacturing (AM process offers the possibility to avoid tools and manufacture directly the part. There are numerous technologies which are using different kind of material. For each of these, there are at least two materials: the production material and the support one. Support material is, in most cases, cleaned and becomes a manufacturing residue. Improving the material volume and the global mass of the product is an essential aim surrounding the integration of simulation in additive manufacturing process. Moreover, the layer-by-layer technology of additive manufacturing allows the design of innovative objects, and the use of topological optimization in this context can create a very interesting combination. The purpose of our paper is to present the knowledge management of an AM trade oriented tool which integrated the topological optimization of parts and internal patterns.

  12. Design for Additive Manufacturing: Trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tompson, M.K.; Moroni, G.; Vaneker, T.H.J.; Fadel, G.; Campbell, I.; Gibson, I.; Bernard, A.; Schulz, J.; Graf, P.; Ahuja, B.; Martina, F.


    The past few decades have seen substantial growth in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies. However, this growth has mainly been process-driven. The evolution of engineering design to take advantage of the possibilities afforded by AM and to manage the constraints associated with the technology h

  13. Additive manufacturing technology in spare parts supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yao; Jia, Guozhu; Yang, Cheng


    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology has the potential to significantly improve supply chain dynamics. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of AM on spare parts supply chain. Three supply chain scenarios are investigated in this paper, namely conventional supply chain...

  14. Children's Understanding of the Addition/Subtraction Complement Principle (United States)

    Torbeyns, Joke; Peters, Greet; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquière, Pol; Verschaffel, Lieven


    Background: In the last decades, children's understanding of mathematical principles has become an important research topic. Different from the commutativity and inversion principles, only few studies have focused on children's understanding of the addition/subtraction complement principle (if a - b = c, then c + b = a), mainly relying on verbal…

  15. 21 CFR 1311.116 - Additional requirements for biometrics. (United States)


    ... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.116 Additional requirements for biometrics. (a) If one of the factors used to authenticate to the electronic prescription...-approved government or nongovernment laboratory. Such testing must comply with the requirements...

  16. Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Ebner, T.G. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)] [and others


    The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

  17. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo


    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about using different light intensities for R, G, and B? What colors do we get? This problem of color mixing has been intensively discussed for decades by several authors, as pointed out by Ruiz's "Color Addition and Subtraction Apps" work and the references included therein. An early LED demonstrator for additive color mixing dates back to 1985, and apps to illustrate color mixing are available online. In this work, we describe an experimental setup making use of a microcontroller device: the Arduino Uno. This setup is designed as a game in order to improve students' understanding of color mixing.

  18. 10 CFR 70.65 - Additional content of applications. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional content of applications. 70.65 Section 70.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL... sufficient detail to understand the theory of operation; and, for each process, the hazards that...

  19. The Algebraic versus the Topological Approach to Additive Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter)


    textabstractIt is proved that, under a nontriviality assumption, an additive function on a Cartesian product of connected topological spaces is continuous, whenever the preference relation, represented by this function, is continuous. The result is used to generalize a theorem of Debreu ((1960). Mat

  20. Food additives reducing volatility of antioxidants at frying temperature (United States)

    At frying temperature, antioxidants are lost not only by reaction with radicals formed by oil oxidation, but also by decomposition and evaporation before they are able to exert antioxidant activity. In this study it was hypothesized that an additive that can bind or interact with an antioxidant coul...

  1. Effects of amino acid additives during hemodialysis of children. (United States)

    Abitbol, C L; Mrozinska, K; Mandel, S; McVicar, M; Wapnir, R A


    The intradialytic losses into the dialysate of free amino acids (AA) and alpha-amino nitrogen were determined during the dialysis of three children. Variations in plasma AA were determined pre- and postdialysis. The effect of these losses with the addition of an Abbott General Amino Acid Mixture to the dialysate in concentrations of 8.5, 17, and 34 mg/100 ml was studied. The major determinant of AA losses was the plasma concentration of the AA before beginning the dialysis treatment. Dialysance of individual AA varied inversely with their molecular weights. A zero flux of alpha-amino nitrogen occurred at a derived concentration of 22 mg/100 ml of the AA additive in the dialysate. Plasma concentrations of nonessential amino acids were little affected by the dialysate additive. In contrast, total essential amino acid nitrogen which fell during baseline dialyses showed significant improvement when the AA solution was added to the dialysate. This study suggests that the addition of AA to the dialysate bath may be effective in decreasing AA nitrogen losses during dialysis.

  2. Additive Intensity Regression Models in Corporate Default Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Medhat, Mamdouh; Nielsen, Mads Stenbo


    We consider additive intensity (Aalen) models as an alternative to the multiplicative intensity (Cox) models for analyzing the default risk of a sample of rated, nonfinancial U.S. firms. The setting allows for estimating and testing the significance of time-varying effects. We use a variety of mo...

  3. 76 FR 21336 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions (United States)


    ..., W6QK RDECOM CONTR CTR NATICK, MA. Coverage: C-List for 100% of the requirement of the U.S Army, as... SERVICES ADMINISTRATION, NEW YORK, NY. Slacks, Woman's, Navy--Tropical Blue NSN: 8410-01-377-9373. NPAs... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions...

  4. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland (United States)

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin


    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-ping Zeng; Gao-jie Chen


    The convergence rate of a generalized additive Schwarz algorithm for solving boundary value problems of elliptic partial differential equations is studied. A quantitative analysis of the convergence rate is given for the model Dirichlet problem. It will be shown that a greater acceleration of the algorithm can be obtained by choosing the parameter suitably.Some numerical tests are also presented in this paper.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Vieira de Lucena


    Full Text Available The influence of carboxymethylcellulose, CMC (filtrate reducer and xanthan gum (viscosifier in plastic and apparent viscosity at yield strength and the volume of filtrate in the composition of drilling fluids based on water was investigated based on statistical design. Five formulations consist of a range of concentrations used commercially were utilized in the design of the experiment. The formulations were prepared in accordance with company standards Petrobras. Regression models were calculated and correlated with the properties of the compositions. The relevance and validation of the models were confirmed by statistical analysis. The design can be applied to statistically optimize the mud properties considering the addition of CMC and xanthan gum, and to provide a better understanding of the influence of additives on the properties of polymer-based fluid system water. From the study it was observed that the values of the rheological properties vary with the concentration of additives, increasing with increasing concentration of the same, and that the concentration of the additives caused a decline of parameter values filtration.

  7. Phytogenic additives and organic acids in broiler chicken diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Barbosa Fascina


    Full Text Available The experiment evaluated the influence of isolated or associated phytogenic additives (PA and organic acids (OA on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments (with or without PA × with or without OA + antibiotic performance enhancer and anticoccidial. In the first experiment, two metabolic tests were conducted to determine the metabolizability coefficients of the nutrients of starter and growth diets. In the second experiment, 2520 one-day-old chicks were housed in 40 experimental units to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics. The phytogenic additives and organic acids, isolated or associated, improve the nutrient digestibility of the diet and replace the growth- promoting antibiotics. The use of organic acids isolated or associated with phytogenic additives in broiler diets improves broiler performance in comparison with free antibiotic performance enhancer at 42 days of age. Isolated or associated phytogenic additives and organic acids provided better carcass characteristics.

  8. Decomposition of Straw in Soil after Stepwise Repeated Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst


    of laboratory incubation, following the first repeated application, by determination of the total amount of labelled C in the soils and labelled C in the soil amino acids. The overall pattern of decomposition was similar whether the soil was amended with one or with several successive applications. Four years...... after the first repeated addition of labelled straw the soils were subjected to a number of “stress” treatments: addition of unlabelled glucose, air-drying, oven-drying, grinding and fumigation with vapour of chloroform, respectively. The CO2 that developed during the first 10 days after the treatments...... accounted for 2.6% of the labelled C in the soil amended with one repeated addition, and 1.0% in the soil amended with 4 repeated additions. The increase in the evolution of labelled CO2-C caused by the stress treatments ranged from 0.3 to 1.7% of the labelled C in the soil: air-drying had the least effect...

  9. Teachers' Personal Agency: Making Sense of Slope through Additive Structures (United States)

    Walter, Janet G.; Gerson, Hope


    In the context of a three-year professional development program in mathematics, practicing elementary teachers persistently engaged in collaborative inquiry and reflection to build connected meanings for slope. One teacher invented a compelling representation for slope as a process of repeated addition, using Cuisenaire rods, based on teachers'…

  10. 78 FR 71581 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions (United States)


    ... Prime Vendor Supply Chain Management Service [to support production, assembly, receipt, storage...-APG Natick, Natick, MA. Service Type/Location: Integrated Prime Vendor, Supply Chain Management... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/28/2013 (78 FR 38952-38953); 8/9/2013 (78 FR 48656-48657); and 9/6/2013 (78...

  11. Addition of multiple limiting resources reduces grassland diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harpole, W Stanley; Sullivan, Lauren L; Lind, Eric M; Firn, Jennifer; Adler, Peter B; Borer, Elizabeth T; Chase, Jonathan; Fay, Philip A; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; MacDougall, Andrew S; Seabloom, Eric W; Williams, Ryan; Bakker, Jonathan D; Cadotte, Marc W; Chaneton, Enrique J; Chu, Chengjin; Cleland, Elsa E; D'Antonio, Carla; Davies, Kendi F; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; McCulley, Rebecca L; Moore, Joslin L; Morgan, John W; Prober, Suzanne M; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J; Wragg, Peter D


    Niche dimensionality provides a general theoretical explanation for biodiversity-more niches, defined by more limiting factors, allow for more ways that species can coexist. Because plant species compete for the same set of limiting resources, theory predicts that addition of a limiting resource eli

  12. Solvent-free microwave-mediated Michael addition reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Surya Prakash Rao; S Jothilingam


    Facile Michael addition of active methylene compounds to ,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds takes place on the surface of potassium carbonate under microwave irradiation. Further studies on microwave-mediated Robinson annulations reveal a convenient and facile method for condensation of chalcone with methylene compounds to furnish cyclohexenones.

  13. Use of different additives to improve low quality surimi gelation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysi Cando


    In conclusion, in general, the physicochemical and viscoelastic properties of gels were improved by the addition of both ingredients, giving stronger gels even at very low level of salt. These results indicate that both ingredients, which do not add calories to the final gels, can be used as a good alternative for the better gelation of the low quality surimis.

  14. Relativistic Velocity Addition Law from Machine Gun Analogy (United States)

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan


    Many derivations of the relativistic addition law of parallel velocities without use of the Lorentz transformations (LT) are known. Some of them are based on thought experiments that require knowledge of the time dilation and the length contraction effects. Other derivations involve the Doppler effect in the optic domain considered from three…

  15. Further additions to the Odonata (Insecta fauna of Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rangnekar


    Full Text Available The paper reports 13 new records of Odonata from the State of Goa. Of these five species are endemic to the Western Ghats. The study also adds one family Macromiidae (Anisoptera not reported earlier from the State. With this addition of 13 species, 87 species of odonates are currently known from the state.

  16. Technological foundations of processing tomato pomace in feed additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yegorov


    Full Text Available Introduction. Search for new types of alternative raw material for the efficient development of poultry industry and problem of waste disposal of canning industry made it necessary to develop a method of processing tomato pomace in feed additives. Materials and methods. Sampling, preparation and testing were carried out by general and specific organ oleptic and physical-technological methods of assessment and analysis of the properties of raw materials and finished products. Results. Incorporation of tomato pomace in the feed additive reduces the cost of raw materials and expenses associated with moistening of the mixture before extrusion and incorporation of chalk feed will solve the problem of calcium imbalance of laying hens. It was found that extrusion process has improved the physical properties of feed additive and showed the possibility of its use as a feed component: moisture content decreased by 34.5 %, the angle of repose increased by 11.4 %, flowability decreased by 39.7 % and bulk density decreased by 32.3 %. Conclusions. The resulting feed additive will solve the problem of diversification of raw materials, waste, calcium imbalance of laying hens and reduce expenses on compound animal feedstuff production.

  17. 75 FR 16755 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions (United States)


    .../Location: Facilities Management, First Sergeants Barracks, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, WA. NPA: Professional... facilities management requirement at Fort Lewis, WA. The firm stated that addition of this service to the... has determined that the Joint Base Lewis-McChord facilities management service is suitable...

  18. Additional Surgery after Breast-Conserving Surgery Varies Widely (United States)

    A study published in the Feb. 1, 2012, issue of JAMA found that the number of women who have one or more additional surgeries to remove suspected residual tumor tissue (re-excisions) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer varies widely across surgeons and hospitals.

  19. On the Quasi-Extended Addition for Exploded Real Numbers (United States)

    Szalay, István


    In teaching primary teacher trainees, an awareness of the characteristic features, especially commutativity and associativity of basic operations play an important role. Owing to a deeply set automatism rooted in their primary and secondary education, teacher trainees think that such characteristics of addition are so trivial that they do not need…

  20. High mobility tin oxide deposition with methanol addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Volintiru, I.; Graaf, A. de; Poodt, P.W.G.


    SnO 2 coated glass is widely used in thin film PV. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) is the most common method of deposition and apart from a tin precursor and oxygen precursor, other additives can improve the layer quality. In this contribution, the beneficial effect of methano