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Sample records for astatine 222

  1. Radiochemistry of astatine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, T J; Dombsky, M; D' Auria, J M; Ward, T E

    1988-01-01

    This monograph is a review of the literature through 1987 and covers the methods of producing the radioisotopes of astatine and the inorganic, nuclear, and organic chemistry of astatine. The discussion is limited to chemical and physical chemical properties of astatine. The monograph, after the introduction, is divided into chapters titled: production methods, nuclear spectroscopy, chemistry of astatine, separation and isolation (dry and wet), and selected procedures. 209 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs. (DLC)

  2. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M., E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.edu

    2013-09-15

    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  3. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently, thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-09-01

    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  5. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Collaboration: RITU-Gamma Gollaboration

    2011-11-30

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  6. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U.

    2011-11-01

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  7. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, S; Antalic, S; Borschevsky, A; Capponi, L; Cocolios, T E; De Witte, H; Eliav, E; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V N; Fink, D A; Fritzsche, S; Ghys, L; Huyse, M; Imai, N; Kaldor, U; Kudryavtsev, Yu; Köster, U; Lane, J; Lassen, J; Liberati, V; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Nishio, K; Pauwels, D; Pershina, V; Popescu, L; Procter, T J; Radulov, D; Raeder, S; Rajabali, M M; Rapisarda, E; Rossel, R E; Sandhu, K; Seliverstov, M D; Sjödin, A M; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Venhart, M; Wakabayashi, Y; Wendt K D A

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of smallest quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the ionization threshold. The observed series of Rydberg states enabled the first determination of the ionization potential of the astatine atom, 9.317510(8) eV. New ab initio calculations were performed to support the experimental result. The measured value serves as a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations of the properties of astatine as well as for the theoretical prediction of the ionization potential of super-heavy element 117, the heaviest homologue of astatine.

  8. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, S; Andreyev, A N; Antalic, S; Borschevsky, A; Capponi, L; Cocolios, T E; De Witte, H; Eliav, E; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V N; Fink, D A; Fritzsche, S; Ghys, L; Huyse, M; Imai, N; Kaldor, U; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Köster, U; Lane, J F W; Lassen, J; Liberati, V; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Nishio, K; Pauwels, D; Pershina, V; Popescu, L; Procter, T J; Radulov, D; Raeder, S; Rajabali, M M; Rapisarda, E; Rossel, R E; Sandhu, K; Seliverstov, M D; Sjödin, A M; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Venhart, M; Wakabayashi, Y; Wendt, K D A

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of the minute quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the ionization threshold. The observed series of Rydberg states enabled the first determination of the ionization potential of the astatine atom, 9.31751(8) eV. New ab initio calculations are performed to support the experimental result. The measured value serves as a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations of the properties of astatine as well as for the theoretical prediction of the ionization potential of superheavy element 117, the heaviest homologue of astatine.

  9. Spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsson, U., E-mail: ulrjak@kth.se; Cederwall, B. [KTH, The Division of Nuclear Physics, AlbaNova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Uusitalo, J.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Cox, D. M.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Herzáň, A.; Konki, J.; Leino, M.; Mallaburn, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); and others

    2015-10-15

    Low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei have been studied by means of in-beam and delayed spectroscopy. The 13/2{sup +} state has been observed in francium nuclei with a similar down-sloping trend as in neighbouring astatine and bismuth isotopes, as a function of decreasing neutron number. A systematic trend can also now be seen for the 1/2{sup +} state both in astatine and francium nuclei, where the level energy decreases steeply as a function of neutron number when moving further away from the neutron shell closure. This trend is very similar between astatine nuclei and their francium isotones. Moreover, shape coexistence has been observed between the 13/2{sup +} state and the spherical 9/2{sup −} ground state in {sup 203}Fr and {sup 205}Fr.

  10. Spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, U.; Uusitalo, J.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Cederwall, B.; Cox, D. M.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; HerzáÅ, A.; Konki, J.; Leino, M.; Mallaburn, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.

    2015-10-01

    Low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei have been studied by means of in-beam and delayed spectroscopy. The 13/2+ state has been observed in francium nuclei with a similar down-sloping trend as in neighbouring astatine and bismuth isotopes, as a function of decreasing neutron number. A systematic trend can also now be seen for the 1/2+ state both in astatine and francium nuclei, where the level energy decreases steeply as a function of neutron number when moving further away from the neutron shell closure. This trend is very similar between astatine nuclei and their francium isotones. Moreover, shape coexistence has been observed between the 13/2+ state and the spherical 9/2- ground state in 203Fr and 205Fr.

  11. Automated astatination of biomolecules - a stepping stone towards multicenter clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aneheim, Emma; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate multicentre clinical studies on targeted alpha therapy, it is necessary to develop an automated, on-site procedure for conjugating rare, short-lived, alpha-emitting radionuclides to biomolecules. Astatine-211 is one of the few alpha-emitting nuclides with appropriate chemical...

  12. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothe, S.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Borschevsky, A.; Capponi, L.; Cocolios, T. E.; De Witte, H.; Eliav, E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fink, D. A.; Fritzsche, S.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Imai, N.; Kaldor, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Koester, U.; Lane, J. F. W.; Lassen, J.; Liberati, V.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Nishio, K.; Pauwels, D.; Pershina, V.; Popescu, L.; Procter, T. J.; Radulov, D.; Raeder, S.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rapisarda, E.; Rossel, R. E.; Sandhu, K.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjoedin, A. M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of the minute quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical

  13. An attempt to explore the production routes of Astatine radionuclides: Theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta

    2008-01-01

    In order to fulfil the recent thrust of Astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of $^{209-211}$At comprise both light and heavy ion induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to maximum 100 MeV energy. For this purpose, we have used the nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91 and PACE-II. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced throug...

  14. Synthesis and Evaluation of Astatinated N-[2-(Maleimido)ethyl]-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide Immunoconjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aneheim, Emma; Gustafsson, Anna; Albertsson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Effective treatment of metastasis is a great challenge in the treatment of different types of cancers. Targeted alpha therapy utilizes the short tissue range (50-100 μm) of α particles, making the method suitable for treatment of disseminated occult cancers in the form of microtumors or even sing...... of the in vivo distribution of the new immunoconjugate with other tin-based immunoconjugates in tumor-bearing mice, the MSB conjugation method was found to be a viable option for successful astatine labeling of different monoclonal antibodies....

  15. Laser photodetachment of radioactive ions: towards the determination of the electronegativity of astatine

    CERN Multimedia

    Rothe, Sebastian; Welander, Jakob Emanuel; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Fedosseev, Valentine; Fiotakis, Spyridon; Forstner, Oliver; Heinke, Reinhard Matthias; Johnston, Karl; Kron, Tobias; Koester, Ulli; Liu, Yuan; Marsh, Bruce; Ringvall Moberg, Annie; Rossel, Ralf Erik; Seiffert, Christoph; Studer, Dominik; Wendt, Klaus; Hanstorp, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Negatively charged ions are mainly stabilized through the electron correlation effect. A measure of the stability of a negative ion is the electron affinity, which the energy gain by attaching an electron to a neutral atom. This fundamental quantity is, due to the almost general lack of bound excited states, the only atomic property that can be determined with high accuracy for negative ions. We will present the results of the first laser photodetachment studies of radioactive negative ions at CERN-ISOLDE. The photodetachment threshold for the radiogenic iodine isotope 128I was measured successfully, demonstrating the performance of the upgraded GANDALPH experimental beam line. The first detection of photo-detached astatine atoms marks a milestone towards the determination of the EA of this radioactive element.

  16. Complexation study on no-carrier-added astatine with insulin: A candidate radiopharmaceutical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahiri, Susanta [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)], E-mail: susanta.lahiri@saha.ac.in; Roy, Kamalika [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Sen, Souvik [Berhampur Sadar Hospital, Berhampur, Murshidabad 742 101 (India)

    2008-12-15

    No-carrier-added astatine radionuclides produced in the {sup 7}Li-irradiated lead matrix were separated from bulk lead nitrate target by complexing At with insulin, followed by dialysis. The method offers simultaneous separation of At from lead as well as its complexation with insulin. The At-insulin complex might be a potential radiopharmaceutical in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The stability of At-insulin complex was checked by dialysis against deionized water and Ringer lactate (RL) solution. It has been found that the half-life of At-insulin complex is about {approx}12 h, when dialyzed against deionized water and is only 6 h, when dialyzed against RL solution having the same composition as blood serum. The 6 h half-life of this Insulin-At complex is perfect for killing cancer cells from external cell surfaces as the half-life of internalization of insulin molecule inside the cell is 7-12 h.

  17. Determination of the electron affinity of astatine and polonium by laser photodetachment

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to conduct the first electron affinity (EA) measurements of the two elements astatine (At) and polonium (Po). Collinear photo-detachment spectroscopy will allow us to measure these quantities with an uncertainty limited only by the spectral line width of the laser. We plan to use negative ion beams of the two radioactive elements At and Po, which are only accessible on-line and at ISOLDE. The feasibility of our proposed method and the functionality of the experimental setup have been demonstrated at ISOLDE in off-line tests by the clear observation of the photo-detachment threshold for stable iodine. This proposal is based on our Letter of Intent I-148.

  18. 12 CFR 222.80-222.81 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 222.80-222.81 Section 222.80-222.81 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Identity Theft § 222.80-222.81 ...

  19. Adsorption of the astatine species on a gold surface: A relativistic density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Yuriy; Zaitsevskii, Andréi

    2018-01-01

    We report first-principle based studies of the adsorption interaction of astatine species on a gold surface. These studies are aimed primarily at the support and interpretation of gas chromatographic experiments with superheavy elements, tennessine (Ts, Z = 117), a heavier homologue of At, and possibly its pseudo-homologue nihonium (Nh, Z = 113). We use gold clusters with up to 69 atoms to simulate the adsorption sites and estimate the desorption energies of At & AtOH from a stable gold (1 1 1) surface. To describe the electronic structure of At -Aun and AtOH -Aun complexes, we combine accurate shape-consistent relativistic pseudopotentials and non-collinear two-component relativistic density functional theory. The predicted desorption energies of At and AtOH on gold are 130 ± 10 kJ/mol and 90 ± 10 kJ/mol, respectively. These results confirm the validity of the estimates derived from chromatographic data (147 ± 15 kJ/mol for At, and 100-10+20 kJ/mol for AtOH).

  20. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as a viable approach for cancer treatment because of its potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to malignant cell populations while sparing normal tissues. Alpha particles such as those emitted by 211At are particularly attractive for this purpose because of their short path length in tissue and high energy, making them highly effective in killing cancer cells. The current impact of targeted radiotherapy in the clinical domain remains limited despite the fact that in many cases, potentially useful molecular targets and labeled compounds have already been identified. Unfortunately, putting these concepts into practice has been impeded by limitations in radiochemistry methodologies. A critical problem is that the synthesis of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals provides additional challenges in comparison to diagnostic reagents because of the need to perform radio-synthesis at high levels of radioactivity. This is particularly important for {alpha}-particle emitters such as 211At because they deposit large amounts of energy in a highly focal manner. The overall objective of this project is to develop convenient and reproducible radiochemical methodologies for the radiohalogenation of molecules with the {alpha}-particle emitter 211At at the radioactivity levels needed for clinical studies. Our goal is to address two problems in astatine radiochemistry: First, a well known characteristic of 211At chemistry is that yields for electrophilic astatination reactions decline as the time interval after radionuclide isolation from the cyclotron target increases. This is a critical problem that must be addressed if cyclotrons are to be able to efficiently supply 211At to remote users. And second, when the preparation of high levels of 211At-labeled compounds is attempted, the radiochemical yields can be considerably lower than those encountered at tracer dose. For these reasons, clinical evaluation of promising 211At

  1. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Sebastian

    2012-09-24

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  2. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion source RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE, CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, Sebastian; Nörtershäuser, W

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at ISOLDE, CERN, by the addition of an all-solid state tuneable titanium: sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE, CERN, and at ISAC, TRIUMF, radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  3. Comment: 222 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 222.png Shinobu Okamoto (Kazusa DNA Research Institute ) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan シアノバクテリア 光学顕微鏡写真 撮影:岡本忍(かずさDNA研究所) bando 2010/02/15 15:28:38 2010/02/16 10:25:09 ...

  4. Final Report for research grant "Development of Methods for High Specific Activity Labeling of Biomolecules Using Astatine-211 in Different Oxidation States"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, D. Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2011-12-14

    The overall objective of this research effort was to develop methods for labeling biomolecules with higher oxidation state species of At-211. This was to be done in an effort to develop reagents that had higher in vivo stability than the present carbon-bonded At-211-labeled compounds. We were unsuccessful in that effort, as none of the approaches studied provided reagents that were stable to in vivo deastatination. However, we gained a lot of information about At-211 in higher oxidation states. The studies proved to be very difficult as small changes in pH and other conditions appeared to change the nature of the species that obtained (by HPLC retention time analyses), with many of the species being unidentifiable. The fact that there are no stable isotopes of astatine, and the chemistry of the nearest halogen iodine is quite different, made it very difficult to interpret results of some experiments. With that said, we believe that a lot of valuable information was obtained from the studies. The research effort evaluated: (1) methods for chemical oxidation of At-211, (2) approaches to chelation of oxidized At-211, and (3) approaches to oxidation of astatophenyl compounds. A major hurdle that had to be surmounted to conduct the research was the development of HPLC conditions to separate and identify the various oxidized species formed. Attempts to develop conditions for separation of iodine and astatine species by normal and reversed-phase TLC and ITLC were not successful. However, we were successful in developing conditions (from a large number of attempts) to separate oxidized forms of iodine ([I-125]iodide, [I-125]iodate and [I-125]periodate) and astatine ([At-211]astatide, [At-211]astatate, [At-211]perastatate, and several unidentified At-211 species). Information on the basic oxidation and characterization of At-211 species is provided under Objective 1. Conditions were developed to obtain new At-211 labeling method where At-211 is chelated with the DOTA and

  5. 36 CFR 2.22 - Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property. 2.22 Section 2.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.22 Property. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Abandoning...

  6. 14 CFR 13.222 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.222 Section 13.222 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.222 Evidence. (a... evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct any cross-examination that may be required for a full...

  7. 1 CFR 22.2 - Authority citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority citation. 22.2 Section 22.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF NOTICES AND PROPOSED RULES Notices § 22.2 Authority citation. The authority under...

  8. 36 CFR 222.35 - Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Studies. 222.35 Section 222.35 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.35 Studies. The Chief, Forest Service, is authorized and directed to undertake those studies of...

  9. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222 Management...

  10. 42 CFR 93.222 - Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.222 Research. Research means a systematic experiment, study, evaluation..., elucidating or confirming information about, or the underlying mechanism relating to, biological causes...

  11. 50 CFR 222.202 - Certificate renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... whom a Certificate of Exemption has been issued by the National Marine Fisheries Service may apply to... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificate renewal. 222.202 Section 222.202 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC...

  12. 31 CFR 800.222 - Section 721.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Section 721. 800.222 Section 800.222 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY...

  13. 12 CFR 222.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 222.3 Section 222.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT..., present, or future physical, mental, or behavioral health or condition of an individual; (ii) The...

  14. An automated flow system incorporating in-line acid dissolution of bismuth metal from a cyclotron irradiated target assembly for use in the isolation of astatine-211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Hara, Matthew J.; Krzysko, Anthony J.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Dorman, Eric F.; Scott Wilbur, D.

    2017-04-01

    Astatine-211 (211At) is a promising cyclotron-produced radionuclide being investigated for use in targeted alpha therapy of blood borne and metastatic cancers, as well as treatment of tumor remnants after surgical resections. The isolation of trace quantities of 211At, produced within several grams of a Bi metal cyclotron target, involves a complex, multi-step procedure: (1) Bi metal dissolution in strong HNO3, (2) distillation of the HNO3 to yield Bi salts containing 211At, (3) dissolution of the salts in strong HCl, (4) solvent extraction of 211At from bismuth salts with diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and (5) back-extraction of 211At from DIPE into NaOH, leading to a purified 211At product. Step (1) has been addressed first to begin the process of automating the onerous 211At isolation process. A computer-controlled Bi target dissolution system has been designed. The system performs in-line dissolution of Bi metal from the target assembly using an enclosed target dissolution block, routing the resulting solubilized 211At/Bi mixture to the subsequent process step. The primary parameters involved in Bi metal solubilization (HNO3 concentration and influent flow rate) were optimized prior to evaluation of the system performance on replicate cyclotron irradiated targets. The results indicate that the system performs reproducibly, having nearly quantitative release of 211At from irradiated targets, with cumulative 211At recoveries that follow a sigmoidal function. The predictable nature of the 211At release profile allows the user to tune the system to meet target processing requirements.

  15. Dicty_cDB: SLC222 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC222 (Link to dictyBase) - G20714 DDB0184421 Contig-U03728-1 SLC...222E (Link to Original site) SLC222F 647 SLC222Z 641 SLC222P 1288 SLC222E 1223 Show SLC222 Library SL (L...ink to library) Clone ID SLC222 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G20714 dictyBase ID DDB0184421 Link t...o Contig Contig-U03728-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC2-A/SLC...222Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC222E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC222 (SLC

  16. Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 2. Conjugation of anionic boron cage pendant groups to a protein provides a method for direct labeling that is stable to in vivo deastatination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, D Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K; Vessella, Robert L; Wedge, Timothy J; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Cancer-targeting biomolecules labeled with 211At must be stable to in vivo deastatination, as control of the 211At distribution is critical due to the highly toxic nature of alpha-particle emission. Unfortunately, no astatinated aryl conjugates have shown in vivo stability toward deastatination when (relatively) rapidly metabolized proteins, such as monoclonal antibody Fab' fragments, are labeled. As a means of increasing the in vivo stability of 211At-labeled proteins, we have been investigating antibody conjugates of boron cage moieties. In this investigation, protein-reactive derivatives containing a nido-carborane (2), a bis-nido-carborane derivative (Venus Flytrap Complex, 3), and four 2-nonahydro-closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives (4-7) were prepared and conjugated with an antibody Fab' fragment such that subsequent astatination and in vivo tissue distributions could be obtained. To aid in determination of stability toward in vivo deastatination, the Fab'-borane conjugates were also labeled with 125I, and that material was coinjected with the 211At-labeled Fab'. For comparison, direct labeling of the Fab' with 125I and 211At was conducted. Direct labeling with Na[125I]I and Chloramine-T gave an 89% radiochemical yield. However, direct labeling of the Fab' with Na[211At]At and Chloramine-T resulted in a yield of Studies to optimize the closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates for protein labeling are underway.

  17. Intercomparison of Rn-222 determination from groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Pettersson, H.; Hanste, U.-M.

    2010-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing, transpor......An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing...

  18. 21 CFR 1305.17 - Preservation of DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of DEA Forms 222. 1305.17 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.17 Preservation of DEA Forms 222. (a) The purchaser must retain Copy 3 of each executed DEA Form 222 and all copies of unaccepted or defective forms with each...

  19. 17 CFR 201.222 - Prehearing submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PRACTICE Rules of Practice Initiation of Proceedings and Prehearing Rules § 201.222 Prehearing submissions... information as deemed appropriate, including any or all of the following: (1) An outline or narrative summary of its case or defense; (2) The legal theories upon which it will rely; (3) Copies and a list of...

  20. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhjeet; Jain, A. K.; Tuli, Jagdish K.

    2011-11-01

    The ENSDF evaluation for A=222 mass chain (1996El01) has been updated on the basis of the experimental results, since September 1995 (literature cutoff date in 1996El01), from various reaction and decay studies for all nuclides in A=222 mass chain (Z=84 to 92). A new nuclide ( 222Po) has since been observed. In addition, new measurements have been reported in Rn, Th and Ra nuclides. The results obtained from various theoretical studies are given as comments. The updated level and decay schemes, and experimental decay and reaction data on which they are based, are summarized and presented for all the nuclides with mass number A=222. The adopted values of level energies, level spins and parities are given, and γ-ray energies, intensities, as well as other nuclear properties are presented. The references, J π arguments, and necessary comments are given in the text. All Q values have been adopted from 2011AuZZ. Theoretical work of 2009Mo27 was consulted.

  1. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Requirement § 222.404 Observer program sampling. (a) During the program design, NMFS would be guided by the...

  2. 20 CFR 222.35 - Relationship as stepchild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as stepchild. 222.35 Section 222... RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.35 Relationship as stepchild. A claimant will be considered to have the relationship of stepchild of an employee, and will be considered a child for annuity but not for...

  3. 12 CFR 222.27 - Renewal of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Renewal of opt-out. 222.27 Section 222.27 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.27 Renewal of opt-out. (a) Renewal notice and...

  4. 12 CFR 222.24 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable opportunity to opt out. 222.24 Section 222.24 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.24 Reasonable opportunity to...

  5. 20 CFR 222.4 - Homicide of employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Homicide of employee. 222.4 Section 222.4... RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.4 Homicide of employee. No person convicted of the felonious and intentional homicide of an employee can be entitled to an annuity or lump-sum payment based on the employee's earnings...

  6. 7 CFR 1280.222 - Books and Records of Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Books and Records of Board. 1280.222 Section 1280.222... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1280.222 Books and Records of Board. The Board shall: (a) Maintain such books and records, which shall be made...

  7. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine...

  8. A European-wide 222radon and 222radon progeny comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithüsen, Dominik; Chambers, Scott; Fischer, Bernd; Gilge, Stefan; Hatakka, Juha; Kazan, Victor; Neubert, Rolf; Paatero, Jussi; Ramonet, Michel; Schlosser, Clemens; Schmid, Sabine; Vermeulen, Alex; Levin, Ingeborg

    2017-04-01

    Although atmospheric 222radon (222Rn) activity concentration measurements are currently performed worldwide, they are being made by many different laboratories and with fundamentally different measurement principles, so compatibility issues can limit their utility for regional-to-global applications. Consequently, we conducted a European-wide 222Rn / 222Rn progeny comparison study in order to evaluate the different measurement systems in use, determine potential systematic biases between them, and estimate correction factors that could be applied to harmonize data for their use as a tracer in atmospheric applications. Two compact portable Heidelberg radon monitors (HRM) were moved around to run for at least 1 month at each of the nine European measurement stations included in this comparison. Linear regressions between parallel data sets were calculated, yielding correction factors relative to the HRM ranging from 0.68 to 1.45. A calibration bias between ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) two-filter radon monitors and the HRM of ANSTO / HRM = 1.11 ± 0.05 was found. Moreover, for the continental stations using one-filter systems that derive atmospheric 222Rn activity concentrations from measured atmospheric progeny activity concentrations, preliminary 214Po / 222Rn disequilibrium values were also estimated. Mean station-specific disequilibrium values between 0.8 at mountain sites (e.g. Schauinsland) and 0.9 at non-mountain sites for sampling heights around 20 to 30 m above ground level were determined. The respective corrections for calibration biases and disequilibrium derived in this study need to be applied to obtain a compatible European atmospheric 222Rn data set for use in quantitative applications, such as regional model intercomparison and validation or trace gas flux estimates with the radon tracer method.

  9. The NIST Primary Radon-222 Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Coll, R.; Hutchinson, J. M. R.; Unterweger, M. P.

    1990-01-01

    Within the United States, the national standard for radon measurements is embodied in a primary radon measurement system that has been maintained for over 50 years to accurately measure radon (222Rn) against international and national radium (226Ra) standards. In turn, all of the radon measurements made at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the radon transfer calibration standards and calibration services provided by NIST are directly related to this national radon ...

  10. Radon-222 and beryllium-7 as natural tracer; Radon-222 und Beryllium-7 als natuerliche Tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G.; Steinkopff, T. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany). Radioaktivitaetsueberwachung; Salvamoser, J. [Institut fuer Angewandte Isotopen-, Gas- und Umweltuntersuchungen (IGU), Woerthsee (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch Program (GAW) is intended to analyse worldwide the influence of anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere. Data are continuously transferred to the ''World Data Centre for Green House Gases'' of the WMO. For the study of atmospheric transports the natural radionuclides Rn-222, Be-7, Pb-210, Pb- 214 and Bi-214 are continuously measured at the Umweltforschungsstation Schneefernerhaus (2650 m) and at the Zugspitze (2962 m) by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Weather Service). The measurements support the classification of atmospheric transport, atmospheric dilution and dispersion models of gaseous and aerosol bond micro pollutants. Results are carried out in combination with meteorological data. It is shown the optimization and effect of a new sampling site for the measurement of Rn-222 activity at the Zugspitze. Results of Rn-222 and Be-7 concentrations are shown in relation to horizontal and vertical dispersion of air masses. The origin of natural Rn-222 and Be-7 are known, therefore both nuclides are well suited for the research of atmospheric transport. Rn-222 is an ideal tracer, because there is no influence by atmospheric processes (chemical processes, wash out effects).

  11. The NIST Primary Radon-222 Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collé, R; Hutchinson, J M R; Unterweger, M P

    1990-01-01

    Within the United States, the national standard for radon measurements is embodied in a primary radon measurement system that has been maintained for over 50 years to accurately measure radon ((222)Rn) against international and national radium ((226)Ra) standards. In turn, all of the radon measurements made at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the radon transfer calibration standards and calibration services provided by NIST are directly related to this national radon standard. This primary radon measurement system consists of pulse ionization chambers and ancillary gas handling and gas purification equipment. The system is currently undergoing a significant upgrading and expansion which will replace the extant outdated system.

  12. 222-S LABORATORY FUME HOOD TESTING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUELAS, B.H.

    2007-03-26

    The 222-S Laboratory contains 155 active fume hoods that are used to support analytical work with radioactive and/or toxic materials. The performance of a fume hood was brought into question after employees detected odors in the work area while mixing chemicals within the subject fume hood. Following the event, testing of the fume hood was conducted to assess the performance of the fume hood. Based on observations from the testing, it was deemed appropriate to conduct performance evaluations of other fume hoods within the laboratory.

  13. Use of Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS222) for Euthanasia of Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, CJ; Papenfuss, T; Parker, J; Hahn, NE

    2009-01-01

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) injected into the intracoelomic cavity of reptiles was evaluated as a chemical euthanasia method. Three western fence lizards, 2 desert iguanas, 4 garter snakes, and 6 geckos were euthanized by intracoelomic injection of 250 to 500 mg/kg of 0.7% to 1% sodium-bicarbonate–buffered MS222 solution followed by intracoelomic injection of 0.1 to 1.0 ml unbuffered 50% (v/v) MS222 solution. A simple 2-stage protocol for euthanasia of reptiles by using MS222 is outlined. In addition, the conditions for safe use of MS222 are discussed. MS222 offers an alternative to sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia of reptiles. PMID:19245747

  14. (222)Rn concentration in public secondary schools in Galicia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena, J J; Cortina, D; Durán, I; Sorribas, R

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of a (222)Rn screening campaign that was carried out in 58 public secondary schools in Galicia (NW Spain), the largest radon-prone area in the Iberian Peninsula, a positive correlation between indoor (222)Rn concentration and outdoor gamma exposure rate was obtained. A new approach to the data acquisition in screening surveys was tested, improving the performances of this type of study and gathering useful data for future remedial actions. Using short-period detectors (charcoal canisters) firstly, in order to detect places showing (222)Rn concentrations over 400Bqm(-3), the number of locations to be measured with long-period detectors (etched track detectors) is reduced. In this screening campaign, 34% of the schools surveyed presented at least one site exceeding the 400Bqm(-3) recommended action level established by the EU, and 15% had at least one site with (222)Rn values over 800Bqm(-3). The maximum value recorded was 2084+/-63Bqm(-3). These results are discussed and compared with data obtained in schools of several countries with similar geology. Seven schools were also studied for seasonal variations of (222)Rn activity concentration. The results were not conclusive, and no significant correlation between season and (222)Rn concentration was established. Finally, a continuous (222)Rn concentration monitor was placed in the secondary school exhibiting a mean value of the (222)Rn concentration very close to 400Bqm(-3). Maximum (222)Rn concentration values were found to occur at times when the school was unoccupied.

  15. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adoption. 222.34 Section 222.34 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... equitable adoption. In many States, where a legal adoption proceeding was defective under State law or where a contemplated legal adoption was not completed, a claimant may be considered to be an equitably...

  16. 36 CFR 222.29 - Relocation and disposal of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... animals. 222.29 Section 222.29 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... disposal of animals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall, when he determines over-population of wild... animals from that particular territory. Such action shall be taken until all excess animals have been...

  17. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall be...

  18. 40 CFR 22.2 - Use of number and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of number and gender. 22.2 Section... PERMITS General § 22.2 Use of number and gender. As used in these Consolidated Rules of Practice, words in the singular also include the plural and words in the masculine gender also include the feminine, and...

  19. 20 CFR 222.14 - Deemed marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed marriage relationship. 222.14 Section... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.14 Deemed marriage relationship. If a ceremonial or common-law marriage relationship cannot be established under State law, a claimant...

  20. 20 CFR 222.12 - Ceremonial marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ceremonial marriage relationship. 222.12... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.12 Ceremonial marriage relationship. A valid ceremonial marriage is one which would be recognized as valid by the courts of the State...

  1. 20 CFR 222.13 - Common-law marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common-law marriage relationship. 222.13... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage relationship. Under the laws of some States, a common-law marriage is one which is not solemnized in a formal...

  2. 20 CFR 222.32 - Relationship as a natural child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as a natural child. 222.32... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.32 Relationship as a natural child. A claimant will be considered the natural child of the employee for both annuity and lump-sum payment purposes if one of the...

  3. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the National Forest System and on other lands under Forest...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. D... severity weighted collision risk for all public highway-rail grade crossings equipped with lights and gates... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining Risk Levels D Appendix D to Part 222...

  5. 40 CFR 60.222 - Standard for fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.222 Section... Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.222 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 30 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed (0...

  6. Inferring 222Rn soil fluxes from ambient 222Rn activity and eddy covariance measurements of CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der Sander; Manohar, Swagath; Vermeulen, Alex; Bosveld, Fred; Meijer, Harro; Manning, Andrew; Molen, van der Michiel; Laan-Luijkx, van der Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We present a new methodology, which we call Single Pair of Observations Technique with Eddy Covariance (SPOT-EC), to estimate regional-scale surface fluxes of 222Rn from tower-based observations of 222Rn activity concentration, CO2 mole fractions and direct CO2 flux measurements from eddy

  7. Present status of 222Rn in groundwater in Extremadura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán López, M; Martín Sánchez, A

    2008-10-01

    Radon-222 was measured in groundwater sources of Extremadura (Spain), analyzing 350 samples from private and public springs, wells, and spas by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and gamma spectrometry. The 222Rn activity concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 1168 Bq L(-1). The statistical analysis showed a log-normal distribution with a mean of (111+/-7) Bq L(-1) and a median of (36+/-3) Bq L(-1). A hydrogeological study revealed correlations between the activity concentration and the aquifer material's characteristics. A map of 222Rn in groundwater was elaborated and compared with the natural gamma radiation map for this region. About 35% of the samples showed 222Rn activity concentrations above the Euratom recommended limit of 100 Bq L(-1). Three uranium series radionuclides (238U, 234U, and 226Ra) were also assayed by alpha-particle spectrometry, estimating the annual effective dose due to the presence of these natural radionuclides in drinking water.

  8. Calibration of scintillation cells for radon-222 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakko, Kyllikki; Oksanen, Eero

    The calibration, of a radon-222 measurement system is described. The detector of the system is based on ZnS(Ag) coated scintillation cell. Evacuated cells are used for grab sample measurements of radon-222 in air. Three types of radioactive sources were used to evaluate the calibration coefficient. Standard activities were generated from commercially available solid and liquid radium-226 sources, and from a self-made radon-222 source whose activity was crosschecked by gamma spectrometric measurements. Radium-226 sources are traceable to US National Institute of Standards and Technology reference standards. Sources of error on calibration are discussed. Best accuracy was obtained by gamma spectrometrically crosschecked radon source. Considerable difficulties were encountered with the traditional method of emanating a known activity of radon-222 from a standard liquid radium-226 source. Three separate solid radium-226 sources gave results with rather large deviations. The final error weighted coefficients agree well with international intercalibration results.

  9. 48 CFR 252.222-7005 - Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens-Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nonimmigrant aliens-Guam. 252.222-7005 Section 252.222-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7005 Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens—Guam. As prescribed in 222.7302, use the following clause: Prohibition on Use of Nonimmigrant Aliens—Guam (SEP 1999...

  10. 21 CFR 1305.19 - Cancellation and voiding of DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation and voiding of DEA Forms 222. 1305.19... I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.19 Cancellation and voiding of DEA Forms 222. (a) A purchaser may cancel part or all of an order on a DEA Form 222 by notifying the supplier in...

  11. 21 CFR 1305.18 - Return of unused DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return of unused DEA Forms 222. 1305.18 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.18 Return of unused DEA Forms 222. If the registration... substances for which the purchaser is registered, the purchaser must return all unused DEA Forms 222 to the...

  12. 21 CFR 1305.12 - Procedure for executing DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for executing DEA Forms 222. 1305.12... I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.12 Procedure for executing DEA Forms 222. (a) A purchaser must prepare and execute a DEA Form 222 simultaneously in triplicate by means of interleaved...

  13. 21 CFR 1305.14 - Procedure for endorsing DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for endorsing DEA Forms 222. 1305.14... I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.14 Procedure for endorsing DEA Forms 222. (a) A DEA Form 222, made out to any supplier who cannot fill all or a part of the order within the time...

  14. 21 CFR 1305.15 - Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222. 1305.15... I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.15 Unaccepted and defective DEA Forms 222. (a) A DEA Form 222 must not be filled if either of the following apply: (1) The order is not complete...

  15. 21 CFR 1305.16 - Lost and stolen DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lost and stolen DEA Forms 222. 1305.16 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.16 Lost and stolen DEA Forms 222. (a) If a purchaser ascertains that an unfilled DEA Form 222 has been lost, he or she must execute another in triplicate and...

  16. Acute Exposure from RADON-222 and Aerosols in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, George Paul, IV

    Radon-222 in water is released when the water is aerated, such as during showering. As a result, a temporary burst of radon-222 can appear as a short term, or acute, exposure. This study looked at homes with radon-222 concentrations in water from 800 picocuries per liter (pCi/l) to 53,000 pCi/l to determine the buildup of radon gas in a bathroom during showering. Samples from the tap and drain, compared to determine the percentage of radon-222 released, showed that between 58% and 88% of radon-222 in the water was released. The resultant radon-222 increase in air, measured with a flow-through detector, ranged from 2 pCi/l to 114 pCi/l in bathrooms due to a 10 to 15 minute shower with water flow rates ranging from 3 l/min to 6 l/min. Significantly, these rates did not fall rapidly but stayed approximately the same for up to 15 minutes after the water flow ceased. In examining exposures, the true danger is in the radon-222 progeny rather than the radon itself. The progeny can be inhaled and deposited in the tracheobronchial passages in the lung. Filter samples of bathroom air measured in a portable alpha spectrometer showed an increase in radon-222 progeny, notably polonium-218 and -214, in the air after showering. These increases were gradual and were on the order of 0.5 pCi/l at the highest level. Tap samples measured in a portable liquid scintillator showed that the progeny are present in the water but are not in true secular equilibrium with the radon-222 in the water. Therefore, the radon-222 does not have to decay to produce progeny since the progeny are already present in the water. A two stage sampler was used to examine the percentage of radiation available in aerosols smaller than 7 microns. Repeated trials showed that up to 85% of the radiation available in the aerosols is contained in the smaller, more respirable particles.

  17. A micromegas detector for {sup 222}Rn emanations measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Irastorza, I. G.; Mirallas, H. [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Altas Energías, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-08-08

    The {sup 222}Rn emanation has significant contribution in the overall background for rare event searches experiments. In order to measure this emanations a high sensitivity detector has been designed. The detection method is based on the electrostatic collection of the {sup 222}Rn daughters on a Micromegas detector. Using a chamber with a volume of 21.2 l for the collection of {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po progeny of {sup 222}Rn and a 12 × 12cm{sup 2} pixelized Micromegas for the α detection. The advantages of the Micromegas detectors are the low intrinsic radioactivity and the track reconstruction of the α’s, having excellent capabilities for event discrimination.

  18. Indoor {sup 222}Rn survey in Zacatecas State, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, L.L. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: leo.quiri@gmail.com; Soriano, J.M. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Mireles, F. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Davila, J.I. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Lopez, H. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Pinedo, J.L. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Rios, C. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico)

    2007-03-15

    As part of a program for discovering whether afflicted areas exist, indoor {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the State of Zacatecas were surveyed, {sup 222}Rn concentration being measured by {gamma}-ray spectrometry of radon decay products adsorbed into charcoal canisters. A survey was implemented during Summer 2001: 228 dwellings in the state were tested by taking mean 254 measurements. Concentrations exhibited a left-skewed distribution of indoor {sup 222}Rn, showing overall average, minimum, and maximum concentrations of 67, 26, and 511 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. Only seven of the measurements (2.7%) were found equal to or greater than the US EPA action limit (148 Bq m{sup -3}). Thus, we conclude that the indoor radon environment in Zacatecas State is under US EPA action limit. The few high concentration spots suggest that geological conditions rather than construction materials may be the determinant factor.

  19. Indoor 222Rn survey in Zacatecas State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirino, L L; Soriano, J M; Mireles, F; Dávila, J I; López, H; Pinedo, J L; Rios, C

    2007-03-01

    As part of a program for discovering whether afflicted areas exist, indoor (222)Rn concentrations in the State of Zacatecas were surveyed, (222)Rn concentration being measured by gamma-ray spectrometry of radon decay products adsorbed into charcoal canisters. A survey was implemented during Summer 2001: 228 dwellings in the state were tested by taking mean 254 measurements. Concentrations exhibited a left-skewed distribution of indoor (222)Rn, showing overall average, minimum, and maximum concentrations of 67, 26, and 511 Bqm(-3), respectively. Only seven of the measurements (2.7%) were found equal to or greater than the US EPA action limit (148 Bqm(-3)). Thus, we conclude that the indoor radon environment in Zacatecas State is under US EPA action limit. The few high concentration spots suggest that geological conditions rather than construction materials may be the determinant factor.

  20. Measurements of octupole collectivity in $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Hurst, A M; Voulot, D; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Siem, S; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S

    2008-01-01

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ states in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^{-}$ state using the MINIBALL array we can obtain the transition matrix elements. This will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei. We require 22 shifts to fulfil the aims of the experiment.

  1. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal adoption...

  2. 48 CFR 52.222-34 - Project Labor Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mechanisms for labor-management cooperation on matters of mutual interest and concern, including productivity... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project Labor Agreement....222-34 Project Labor Agreement. As prescribed in 22.505(b)(1), insert the following clause: PROJECT...

  3. 20 CFR 222.11 - Determination of marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of marriage relationship. 222... marriage relationship. A claimant will be considered to be the husband, wife, or widow(er) of an employee... claimant and employee were validly married, or if a deemed marriage is established. (a) Generally, State...

  4. 49 CFR 195.222 - Welders: Qualification of welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be qualified in accordance with section 6 of API 1104 (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3) or section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3) except... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welders: Qualification of welders. 195.222 Section...

  5. Present status of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater in Extremadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan Lopez, M. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: monica.galan@ciemat.es; Martin Sanchez, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Radon-222 was measured in groundwater sources of Extremadura (Spain), analyzing 350 samples from private and public springs, wells, and spas by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and gamma spectrometry. The {sup 222}Rn activity concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 1168 Bq L{sup -1}. The statistical analysis showed a log-normal distribution with a mean of (111 {+-} 7) Bq L{sup -1} and a median of (36 {+-} 3) Bq L{sup -1}. A hydrogeological study revealed correlations between the activity concentration and the aquifer material's characteristics. A map of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater was elaborated and compared with the natural gamma radiation map for this region. About 35% of the samples showed {sup 222}Rn activity concentrations above the Euratom recommended limit of 100 Bq L{sup -1}. Three uranium series radionuclides ({sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, and {sup 226}Ra) were also assayed by alpha-particle spectrometry, estimating the annual effective dose due to the presence of these natural radionuclides in drinking water.

  6. 48 CFR 1652.222-70 - Notice of significant events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... statements. (b) Upon learning of a Significant Event OPM may institute action, in proportion to the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Notice of significant... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.222-70 Notice of significant events. As prescribed in 1622.103-70, the...

  7. 36 CFR 222.10 - Range betterment fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allocated for range rehabilitation, protection and improvements on National Forest lands within the Forest... also be accomplished through use of the range betterment fund as follows: (a) On National Forest land... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Range betterment fund. 222.10...

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-16 - Approval of Wage Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of Wage Rates. 52....222-16 Approval of Wage Rates. As prescribed in 22.407(b), insert the following clause: Approval of Wage Rates (FEB 1988) All straight time wage rates, and overtime rates based thereon, for laborers and...

  9. 50 CFR 222.205 - Import and export requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... neither endangered nor threatened species and that are imported for purposes of human or animal... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES Certificates of Exemption for Pre-Act Endangered Species Parts § 222.205 Import and export requirements. (a...

  10. 1,4-Diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wei Zhu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C6H14N2+·C8H4O42−, the protonated 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cations and the deprotonated terephthalate anions are alternately linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains.

  11. 21 CFR 1305.13 - Procedure for filling DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for filling DEA Forms 222. 1305.13... I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.13 Procedure for filling DEA Forms 222. (a) A purchaser must submit Copy 1 and Copy 2 of the DEA Form 222 to the supplier and retain Copy 3 in the...

  12. 12 CFR 222.91 - Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address. 222.91 Section 222.91 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Identity Theft Red Flags § 222.91...

  13. 12 CFR 222.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable and simple methods of opting out. 222.25 Section 222.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.25 Reasonable and...

  14. 12 CFR 222.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery of opt-out notices. 222.26 Section 222.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a...

  15. 12 CFR 222.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions. 222.21 Section 222.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.21 Affiliate...

  16. 12 CFR 222.23 - Contents of opt-out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of opt-out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices. 222.23 Section 222.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.23...

  17. 12 CFR 222.22 - Scope and duration of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope and duration of opt-out. 222.22 Section 222.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.22 Scope and duration of opt-out...

  18. 12 CFR 222.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. 222.28 Section 222.28 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.28...

  19. 48 CFR 252.222-7006 - Restrictions on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Mandatory Arbitration Agreements. 252.222-7006 Section 252.222-7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Arbitration Agreements. As prescribed in 222.7404, use the following clause: Restrictions on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements (MAY 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Covered subcontractor...

  20. 34 CFR 222.184 - What information must an application contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must an application contain? 222.184 Section 222.184 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY... Construction Grant Program Under Section 8007(b) of the Act How to Apply for A Grant § 222.184 What information...

  1. 38 CFR 21.222 - Release of, and repayment for, training and rehabilitation supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for, training and rehabilitation supplies. 21.222 Section 21.222 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Supplies § 21.222 Release of, and repayment for...

  2. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition of the Enterprise) from the Ministerio de Trabajo y S.S., Tesoreria General de la Seguridad Social... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social...

  3. 21 CFR 1305.11 - Procedure for obtaining DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for obtaining DEA Forms 222. 1305.11... I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.11 Procedure for obtaining DEA Forms 222. (a) DEA..., which is based on the business activity of the registrant, will be imposed on the number of DEA Forms...

  4. 78 FR 61446 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S AGENCY... RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the fourteenth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S DATES: The meeting...

  5. 78 FR 8684 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S AGENCY... RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twelfth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. DATES: The meeting...

  6. 49 CFR 173.222 - Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. 173.222 Section 173.222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.222 Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. Hazardous...

  7. Groundwater chemistry and radon-222 distribution in Jerba Island, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telahigue, Faten; Agoubi, Belgacem; Souid, Fayza; Kharroubi, Adel

    2018-02-01

    The present study integrates hydrogeological, hydrochemical and radiogenic data of groundwater samples taken from the Plio-Quaternary unconfined aquifer of Jerba Island, southeastern Tunisia, in order to interpret the spatial variations of the groundwater quality and identify the main hydrogeochemical factors responsible for the high ion concentrations and radon-222 content in the groundwater analysed. Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected from open wells widespread on the island. Physical parameters (EC, pH, TDS and T °) were measured, major ions (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , Cl - , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and HCO 3 - ) were analysed and 222 Rn concentrations were determined using a RAD7-H 2 O. Hydrogeochemical characterisation revealed that groundwater from the Jerba aquifer has several origins. Basically, two water types exist in the island. The first one, characterized by a low to moderate salinity with a chemical facies CaMgClSO 4 , characterizes the central part of Jerba (a recharge area) due to carbonate and gypsum dissolution. The second water type with high salinities, dominated by NaKCl type, was observed in coastal areas and some parts having low topographic and piezometric levels. These areas seem to be affected by the seawater intrusion process. The 222 Rn concentrations in groundwater samples in Jerba varied from 0 Bq.L -1 to 2860 Bq.L -1 with an average of 867 Bq.L -1 . The highest values were registered in the western coastal wells and near the fault of Guellala. However, the central and eastern wells showed low radon levels. Compared to 222 Rn activity in some countries with the same lithology, radon concentrations in the Jerba unconfined aquifer have higher values influenced by the structure of the aquifer and by seawater inflow enriched with 222 Rn resulting from the decay of uranium derived from phosphogypsum deposits in the gulf of Gabes. The EC and 222 Rn spatial variability in the study area were mapped using ARC Map 10.3 software

  8. Activity of radon ($^{222} $ Rn) in the lower atmospheric surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of one year measurements of in situ radon ( 222 Rn) and its progenies along with surface air temperature, relative humidity and pressure near to the Earth's surface has been carried out for the first time at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL, 13.5◦N and 79.2◦E) located in a rural site in Gadanki, ...

  9. Analysis of ground-based 222Rn measurements over Spain: Filling the gap in southwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C.; Àgueda, A.; Vogel, F. R.; Vargas, A.; Zimnoch, M.; Wach, P.; Martín, J. E.; López-Coto, I.; Bolívar, J. P.; Morguí, J. A.; Rodó, X.

    2016-09-01

    Harmonized atmospheric 222Rn observations are required by the scientific community: these data have been lacking in southern Europe. We report on three recently established ground-based atmospheric 222Rn monitoring stations in Spain. We characterize the variability of atmospheric 222Rn concentrations at each of these stations in relation to source strengths, local, and regional atmospheric processes. For the study, measured atmospheric 222Rn concentrations, estimated 222Rn fluxes, and regional footprint analysis have been used. In addition, the atmospheric radon monitor operating at each station has been compared to a 222Rn progeny monitor. Annual means of 222Rn concentrations at Gredos (GIC3), Delta de l'Ebre (DEC3), and Huelva (UHU) stations were 17.3 ± 2.0 Bq m-3, 5.8 ± 0.8 Bq m-3, and 5.1 ± 0.7 Bq m-3, respectively. The GIC3 station showed high 222Rn concentration differences during the day and by seasons. The coastal station DEC3 presented background concentrations typical of the region, except when inland 222Rn-rich air masses are transported into the deltaic area. The highest 222Rn concentrations at UHU station were observed when local recirculation facilitates accumulation of 222Rn from nearby source represented by phosphogypsum piles. Results of the comparison performed between monitors revealed that the performance of the direct radon monitor is not affected by meteorological conditions, whereas the 222Rn progeny monitor seems to underestimate 222Rn concentrations under saturated atmospheric conditions. Initial findings indicate that the monitor responses seem to be in agreement for unsaturated atmospheric conditions but a further long-term comparison study will be needed to confirm this result.

  10. Ocular toxicity of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, T.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Merickel, B.S.; Hobbs, C.H.

    Three commercial formulations of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) were applied to eyes of rabbits and evaluated for their potential to cause ocular damage. All three products were severe eye irritants and water irrigation shortly after exposure was not effective in reducing ocular damage. Gross and histological observations revealed marked conjunctivitis, moderate to severe ulcerative keratitis, and hyperemia and edema of the iris, all of which showed evidence of resolution over the three-week course of investigation. However, complete reversal of all effects was not attained. TFE and its commercial formulations should be viewed as potentially severe human ocular irritants.

  11. Biphenyl-4-yl 2,2,2-trichloroethyl sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshu Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structure of the title compound, C14H11Cl3O4S, displays a biphenyl dihedral angle of 4.9 (2° between the benzene rings, which is significantly smaller than the calculated dihedral angle of 41.2° of biphenyl derivatives without ortho substituents. The CAr—O bond length of 1.432 (4 Å is comparable with other sulfuric acid biphenyl-4-yl ester 2,2,2-trichloroether ester derivatives without electronegative substituents in the sulfated phenyl ring.

  12. Latitudinal distribution of radon-222 flux from continents

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, F.; Robertson, L. B

    2002-01-01

    Global atmospheric transport models are frequently tested by using 222Rn as a tracer. Generally this tracer is assumed to be emitted at a uniform rate (1 atom cm−2 s−1) from all ice-free land surfaces. The analysis of published data suggests a strong decrease from 30°N northwards to 0.2 atom cm−2 s−1 at 70°N. This could be a result of increasing water tables and proportions of organic soils as indicated by larger proportions of wetlands in northern latitudes.DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2002.0036...

  13. 22 CFR 40.68 - Aliens subject to INA 222(g).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens subject to INA 222(g). 40.68 Section 40... § 40.68 Aliens subject to INA 222(g). An alien who, under the provisions of INA 222(g), has voided a... new nonimmigrant visa unless the alien complies with the requirements in 22 CFR 41.101 (b) or (c...

  14. The photochemistry of ozone at 193 and 222 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Gierczak, Tomasz; Thompson, John E.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    1991-09-01

    Measurements at 193 and 222nm are reported for the quantum yields for the formation of O(1D) and O(3P) from the photolysis of ozone. The quantum yield for O(3P) was observed to be 0.13 + or - 0.02 at 222 nm, and the primary quantum yield for O(1D) was found to be 0.87 + or - 0.04. The present measurements are consistent with other studies of O3 photolysis within the Hartley band which indicate that a significant portion (5-12 percent) of the products are formed in the ground state. At 193 nm the quantum yield for the production of excited state O(1D) atoms is 0.46 + or - 0.29, which is significantly less than what is observed during photolysis within the lower energy Hartley band. The quantum yield for O(3P) atoms at 193 nm was found to be 0.57 + or - 0.14. It was also observed that the quantum yield for O atoms is greater than unity at 193 nm, indicating the presence of a channel which produces three O(3P) atoms.

  15. Target-mediated metabolism and target-mediated drug disposition of the DPPIV inhibitor AMG 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Robert J; Tu, Hua; Gibbs, John P; Greg Slatter, J

    2011-11-01

    Pharmacokinetic and metabolism aspects of AMG 222 interaction with target enzyme, dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPPIV) were investigated. Inhibition of recombinant human DPPIV by AMG 222 was measured. IC(50) decreased as preincubation time increased. k(off), k(on) and K(d) were measured. Dilution assay indicated a long dissociation half-life (730 min) relative to DPPIV inhibitor vildagliptin. AMG 222 is a slow-on, tight-binding, slowly reversible inhibitor of DPPIV. Amide and acid metabolites arising from hydrolysis of AMG 222's cyano group were formed slowly by rhDPPIV, but not by microsomes or S9. The amide metabolite was converted to the acid metabolite by rhDPPIV, but not by an active site mutant. These metabolites of AMG 222 are formed by target-mediated metabolism of the cyano group, similar to vildagliptin. Human plasma protein binding of [(14)C]AMG 222 was saturable and concentration-dependent. After 30 min, [(14)C]AMG 222 was 80.8% bound at 1 nM and binding decreased to 29.4% above 100 nM. The plasma DPPIV concentration (4.1 nM) and human plasma AMG 222 concentrations that inhibit DPPIV, occurred in the range of concentration-dependent binding. Target-mediated drug disposition influences AMG 222 pharmacokinetics, similar to DPPIV inhibitor, linagliptin.

  16. [sup 222]Rn dosimetry in the dog lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, N.H.; Meyers, O.A.; Robbins, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The alpha dose to cells in bronchial airways in the beagle dog during historical exposures to [sup 222]Rn decay products is calculated using updated information on airway morphometry, call nucleus depth, mucus thickness, physical dosimetry and atmospheric characteristics. The alpha dose per unit exposure to basal call nuclei in the upper airways ranges from 2 to 7 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1] (excluding the trachea) depending upon the exposure protocol used. The dose to alveolar tissue is 3 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1]. In the human lung, the dose factor for the bronchial airways is 9 mGy WLM[sub [minus]1] and for the pulmonary parenchyma 0.5 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1] The human tumors appear primarily in the first few branching airway generations while the only tumors observed in the animals were in the bronchioloalveolar region suggesting a difference in cell sensitivity to alpha radiation.

  17. {sup 222}Rn dosimetry in the dog lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, N.H.; Meyers, O.A.; Robbins, E.S.

    1991-12-31

    The alpha dose to cells in bronchial airways in the beagle dog during historical exposures to {sup 222}Rn decay products is calculated using updated information on airway morphometry, call nucleus depth, mucus thickness, physical dosimetry and atmospheric characteristics. The alpha dose per unit exposure to basal call nuclei in the upper airways ranges from 2 to 7 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1} (excluding the trachea) depending upon the exposure protocol used. The dose to alveolar tissue is 3 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1}. In the human lung, the dose factor for the bronchial airways is 9 mGy WLM{sub {minus}1} and for the pulmonary parenchyma 0.5 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1} The human tumors appear primarily in the first few branching airway generations while the only tumors observed in the animals were in the bronchioloalveolar region suggesting a difference in cell sensitivity to alpha radiation.

  18. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  19. 48 CFR 52.222-42 - Statement of Equivalent Rates for Federal Hires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of Equivalent Rates for Federal Hires. 52.222-42 Section 52.222-42 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Not a Wage Determination Employee class Monetary wage—Fringe benefits (End of clause) ...

  20. 34 CFR 222.30 - What is “free public education”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... educational program as determined under State law through grade 12; and (B) Preschool education, whether or... claimed and, except for preschool education, does not include a program that provides only— (i... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is âfree public educationâ? 222.30 Section 222.30...

  1. 34 CFR 222.161 - How is State aid treated under section 8009 of the Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the school year in an elementary (including pre-kindergarten) or secondary school program. “Current... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is State aid treated under section 8009 of the Act? 222.161 Section 222.161 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF...

  2. 48 CFR 222.7301 - Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens. 222.7301 Section 222.7301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... aliens. (a) Any alien who is issued a visa or otherwise provided nonimmigrant status under Section 101(a...

  3. 19 CFR 351.222 - Revocation of orders; termination of suspended investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of orders; termination of suspended investigations. 351.222 Section 351.222 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... orders; termination of suspended investigations. (a) Introduction. “Revocation” is a term of art that...

  4. 48 CFR 3052.222-71 - Strikes or picketing affecting access to a DHS facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strikes or picketing affecting access to a DHS facility. 3052.222-71 Section 3052.222-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Tex...

  5. D2.2.2 Final Version of the LinkedUp Evaluation Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Guy, Marieke; Scheffel, Maren

    2014-01-01

    This document (D2.2.2) describes the LinkedUp consortium’s experience in developing and on- going improvement of the LinkedUp Evaluation Framework throughout three web open educational data competitions: Veni, Vidi, Vici. D2.2.2 is the final report regarding the Evaluation Framework (EF). It

  6. 33 CFR 222.3 - Clearances for power and communication lines over reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... communication lines over reservoirs. 222.3 Section 222.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... reservoir projects. (b) Applicability. This regulation applies to all field operating agencies having Civil...) Definitions—(1) Design high water level. The design high water level above which clearances are to be provided...

  7. 36 CFR 222.23 - Removal of other horses and burros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of other horses and... AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.23 Removal of other horses and burros. Horses and burros not within the definition in § 222.20(b)(13) which are introduced...

  8. Upregulation of miR-222 in both Helicobacter pylori- infected and noninfected gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammad, Mina; Sadeghi, Samira; Tabatabaeian, Hossein; Ghaedi, Kamran; Talebi, Ardeshir; Azadeh, Mansoureh; Khatami, Mehri; Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    Despite of promising improvements in treatment of gastric cancer, the mortality rate of this malignancy remains high. Chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori, interfering with intracellular signalling pathways, is the main risk factor for gastric cancer. Some evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNA), the small noncoding RNA molecules, can play role as oncogenes or tumour suppressors in the cells. MiR-222 is one of the remarkable miRNAs undergoing upregulation in gastric cancer. However, the association between miR-222 upregulation and H. pylori infection in gastric cancer tissues remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression level of miR-222 in gastric cancer tissues, evaluating the relationship between miR-222 expression level and H. pylori infection and also finding novel miR-222 targets based on in silico investigations. MiR-222 expression level in 200 patients including 112 H. pylori positive and 88 H. pylori negative was relatively measured using RT-qPCR and compared with 88 healthy samples. In silico enrichment analysis of miR-222 targets was performed by DAVID database to evaluate the possible role(s) of miR-222 in gastric tumourigenesis. We observed upregulated level of miR-222 in gastric cancer tissues compared with normal samples (Ppylori-positive and H. pylori-negative cases was observed. Our in silico analyses showed the possible role of p53, p27, PTEN and Elongin B in gastric cancer tumourigenesis. MiR-222 functions as an onco-miRNA and its overexpression can be involved in pathogenesis of gastric cancer, independent of H. pylori infection.

  9. 20 CFR 404.222 - Use of benefit table in finding your primary insurance amount from your average monthly wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance amount from your average monthly wage. 404.222 Section 404.222 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.222 Use of benefit table in...

  10. 36 CFR 222.21 - Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment. 222.21 Section 222.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Burros § 222.21 Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment. (a) The...

  11. Online {sup 222}Rn removal by cryogenic distillation in the XENON100 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; De Perio, P.; Gao, F.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Lin, Q.; Messina, M.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Zhang, Y. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Agostini, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Amaro, F.D.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M. [University of Coimbra, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Maris, I. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Franco, D.; Galloway, M.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wei, Y.; Wulf, J. [University of Zurich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauermeister, B. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Troy, NY (United States); Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindner, M.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Molinario, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Budnik, R.; Duchovni, E.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M.; Sivers, M. v. [Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Pelssers, B. [Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Cervantes, M.; Lang, R.F.; Masson, D.; Pienaar, J.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Le Calloch, M.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D. [Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/In2p3, Nantes (France); Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Fei, J.; Ni, K.; Ye, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fieguth, A.; Murra, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Weinheimer, C. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Fulgione, W. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Grandi, L.; Saldanha, R.; Shockley, E.; Upole, N. [University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Lindemann, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Meng, Y.; Stein, A.; Wang, H. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Miguez, B.; Trinchero, G. [INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Houston, TX (United States); Lavina, L.S. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris (France); Tunnell, C. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Cristescu, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2017-06-15

    We describe the purification of xenon from traces of the radioactive noble gas radon using a cryogenic distillation column. The distillation column was integrated into the gas purification loop of the XENON100 detector for online radon removal. This enabled us to significantly reduce the constant {sup 222}Rn background originating from radon emanation. After inserting an auxiliary {sup 222}Rn emanation source in the gas loop, we determined a radon reduction factor of R > 27 (95% C.L.) for the distillation column by monitoring the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration inside the XENON100 detector. (orig.)

  12. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222 comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide {sup 222}Rn to include the LNE-LNHB, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Cassette, P. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais -Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2012-02-15

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 222}Rn to the International Reference System (SIR) for comparison. The value of the activity submitted was about 90 kBq. This key comparison result joins that of Switzerland and Germany in the key comparison database that now contains three results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222. Consequently, the KCRV has been updated and the degrees of equivalence with the KCRV have been evaluated. (authors)

  13. St 2-22 - Another Symbiotic Star with High-Velocity Bipolar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, T.; Zamanov, R.; Gałan, C.; Pietrukowicz, P.

    2017-09-01

    We report the detection of high-velocity components in the wings of Hα emission line in spectra of symbiotic binary star St 2-22 obtained in 2005. This finding encouraged us to start the present investigation in order to show that this poorly-studied object is a jet-producing system. We have used high-resolution optical and low-resolution near-infrared spectra, as well as available optical and infrared photometry, to evaluate some physical parameters of the St 2-22 components and characteristics of the jets. We confirm that St 2-22 is a S-type symbiotic star. Our results demonstrate that an unnoticed outburst, similar to those in classical symbiotic systems, occurred in the first half of 2005. During the outburst, collimated bipolar jets were ejected by the hot component of St 2-22 with an average velocity of about 1700 km/s.

  14. Cape Point GAW Station Rn-222 detector: factors affecting sensitivity and accuracy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brunke, EG

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Specific factors of a baseline Rn-222 detector installed at Cape Point, South Africa, were studied with the aim of improving its performance. Direct sunlight caused air turbulence within the instrument, resulting in 13.6% variability...

  15. EFFECTS OF ANESTHESIA (TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE, MS-222) BIOTRANSFORMATION IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (3-aminobenzoic acid eithyl ester methanesulfonate, tricaine, MS-222, Finquel), an anesthetic for fish, has been used extensively in aquatic toxicology to allow surgical procedures for in vivo studies and to permit in vitro preparations of isolated perfu...

  16. EFFECTS OF ANESTHESIA (MS222) ON LIVER BIOTRANSFORMATION IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (3-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfonate; MS222) is a widely used fish anaesthetic. While there have been several studies addressing the impact of its use on subsequently measured biotransformation rates, the measured influence on normal functio...

  17. Concrete samples for organic samples, data package and 222-S validation summary report. Addendum 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    This document is in two parts: the first is the data package entitled ``Concrete Samples for Organic Samples`` and the second is entitled ``Concrete Samples for Organic Samples -- Addendum 1A`` which is the 222-S validation summary report.

  18. Behavior of 222Rn and its progeny in high-rise buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, J K; Tso, M Y; Ho, C W

    1998-09-01

    Unlike detached or semi-detached houses, the main source of indoor radon in high-rise buildings is the building material. Radon released from the building material will be removed by ventilation, either forced or natural, so that its concentration, its progeny's concentration, and the equilibrium between the two will be different for different types of buildings and environmental factors. A number of surveys were carried out in buildings throughout the territory to look at the seasonal variation of indoor 222Rn levels; the dependence of indoor 222Rn concentration on the living environment; the indoor gamma dose rate and its relation to indoor 222Rn concentration; and the dependence of 222Rn progeny concentration and equilibrium factor on the environment in high-rise buildings.

  19. Behavior of {sup 222}Rn and its progeny in high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Ho, C.W. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Radioisotope Unit

    1998-09-01

    Unlike detached or semi-detached houses, the main source of indoor radon in high-rise buildings is the building material. Radon released from the building material will be removed by ventilation, either forced or natural, so that its concentration, its progeny`s concentration, and the equilibrium between the two will be different for different types of buildings and environmental factors. A number of surveys were carried out in buildings throughout the territory to look at the seasonal variation of indoor {sup 222}Rn levels; the dependence of indoor {sup 222}Rn concentration on the living environment; the indoor gamma dose rate and its relation to indoor {sup 222}Rn concentration; and the dependence of {sup 222}Rn progeny concentration and equilibrium factor on the environment in high-rise buildings.

  20. Continuous measurements of outdoor {sup 222}Rn concentrations for three years at one location in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borak, T.B.; Baynes, S.A. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiological Health Sciences

    1999-04-01

    Measurements were made of {sup 222}Rn concentrations outdoors in Ft. Collins, Colorado, using a continuously sampling scintillation flask between January 1993 and December 1995. These data were analyzed for hourly, daily, and seasonal variations. The average {sup 222}Rn concentration at 1 m above the ground was 18 {+-} 10 Bq m{sup {minus}3} with a geometric mean of 15 Bq m{sup {minus}3} and a geometric standard deviation of 1.7. Hourly averaged data indicated a diurnal pattern with the outdoor {sup 222}Rn concentration reaching a maximum in the early morning between 4:00 a.m. and 6:00 a.m. and a broad minimum between 1:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m. in the afternoon. An analysis also indicated that the outdoor {sup 222}Rn concentrations were consistently lowest during the spring (March and April) and highest during the late summer (July--September).

  1. Assessment of Effective Dose Equivalent from Internal Exposure to 222Rn in Ramsar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyeb Allahverdi Pourfallah

    2015-05-01

    It is clear that the annual effective dose from internal exposure to 222Rn in areas of Ramsar with high levels of natural radiation was significantly higher than the maximum annual effective dose permissible for public.

  2. Lidocaine Hydrochloride Compared with MS222 for the Euthanasia of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collymore, Chereen; Banks, E Kate; Turner, Patricia V

    2016-11-01

    Despite several shortcomings, MS222 is the most commonly used chemical agent for euthanasia of zebrafish. Although lidocaine hydrochloride has some advantages over MS222, its effectiveness as a euthanasia agent for zebrafish is unknown. Larvae at 9 to 16 d postfertilization were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, or 1000 mg/L lidocaine and observed for cessation of heartbeat. Adult zebrafish were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, or 600 mg/L lidocaine; times to loss of righting reflex, cessation of opercular movement, and complete recovery; body length; aversive behavior; and gross and microscopic evidence of acute toxicity were evaluated. The heartbeat was not lost from any larvae in any group, regardless of drug or dosage. For adults, time to loss of righting reflex was greatest in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group. Opercular movement ceased earlier in all lidocaine groups compared with the MS222 group. Fish in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group were smaller than those in other groups. Fewer fish in the lidocaine groups displayed aversive behavior (erratic swimming and piping) compared with the MS222 group. No fish in the lidocaine hydrochloride groups (n = 30) recovered from euthanasia, whereas one fish in the MS222 group did (n = 10). Neither the MS222 nor lidocaine groups showed any gross or histologic changes suggestive of acute toxicity. Our results suggest that lidocaine hydrochloride may be an effective alternative chemical euthanasia agent for adult zebrafish but should not be used in larval fish.

  3. 78 FR 31627 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. SUMMARY: The FAA is..., Inmarsat AMS(R)S DATES: The meeting will be held June 10-11 from 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting...

  4. Distribution Log Normal of {sup 222} Rn in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico; Distribucion Log Normal de {sup 222} Rn en el estado de Zacatecas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L. [Universidad de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: mluisagb@hotmail.com

    2006-07-01

    In this work the evaluation of the concentration of {sup 222} Rn in air for Zacatecas is shown. The Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used as the technique for the realization of the measurements in large scale with cellulose nitrate LR-115, type 2, in open chambers of {sup 222} Rn. The measurements were carried out during three months in different times of the year. In the results it is presented the log normal distribution, arithmetic mean and geometric media for the concentration at indoor and outdoor of residence constructions, the concentration at indoor of occupational constructions and in the 57 municipal heads of the state of Zacatecas. The statistics of the values in the concentration showed variation according to the time of the year, obtaining high quantities in winter seasons for both cases. The distribution of the concentration of {sup 222} Rn is presented in the state map for each one of the municipalities, representing the measurement places in the entire state of Zacatecas. Finally the places where the values in the concentration of {sup 222} Rn in air are near to the one limit settled down by the EPA of 148 Bq/m{sup 3} are presented. (Author)

  5. Surface-water radon-222 distribution along the west-central Florida shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.G.; Robbins, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    In February 2009 and August 2009, the spatial distribution of radon-222 in surface water was mapped along the west-central Florida shelf as collaboration between the Response of Florida Shelf Ecosystems to Climate Change project and a U.S. Geological Survey Mendenhall Research Fellowship project. This report summarizes the surface distribution of radon-222 from two cruises and evaluates potential physical controls on radon-222 fluxes. Radon-222 is an inert gas produced overwhelmingly in sediment and has a short half-life of 3.8 days; activities in surface water ranged between 30 and 170 becquerels per cubic meter. Overall, radon-222 activities were enriched in nearshore surface waters relative to offshore waters. Dilution in offshore waters is expected to be the cause of the low offshore activities. While thermal stratification of the water column during the August survey may explain higher radon-222 activities relative to the February survey, radon-222 activity and integrated surface-water inventories decreased exponentially from the shoreline during both cruises. By estimating radon-222 evasion by wind from nearby buoy data and accounting for internal production from dissolved radium-226, its radiogenic long-lived parent, a simple one-dimensional model was implemented to determine the role that offshore mixing, benthic influx, and decay have on the distribution of excess radon-222 inventories along the west Florida shelf. For multiple statistically based boundary condition scenarios (first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum radon-222 inshore of 5 kilometers), the cross-shelf mixing rates and average nearshore submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates varied from 100.38 to 10-3.4 square kilometers per day and 0.00 to 1.70 centimeters per day, respectively. This dataset and modeling provide the first attempt to assess cross-shelf mixing and SGD on such a large spatial scale. Such estimates help scale up SGD rates that are often made at 1- to 10-meter

  6. Potential Radon-222 Emissions from the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.W.

    2003-09-04

    The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC), a field level activity of the Defense Logistics Agency, has stewardship of a stockpile of thorium nitrate that has been in storage for decades. The thorium nitrate stockpile was produced from 1959 to 1964 for the Atomic Energy Commission and previously has been under the control of several federal agencies. The stockpile consists of approximately 7 million pounds of thorium nitrate crystals (hydrate form) stored at two depot locations in the United States (75% by weight at Curtis Bay, Maryland, and 25% by weight at Hammond, Indiana). The material is stored in several configurations in over 21,000 drums. The U.S. Congress has declared the entire DNSC thorium nitrate stockpile to be in excess of the needs of the Department of Defense. Part of DNSC's mission is to safely manage the continued storage, future sales, and/or disposition of the thorium nitrate stockpile. Historically, DNSC has sold surplus thorium nitrate to domestic and foreign companies, but there is no demand currently for this material. Analyses conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2001 demonstrated that disposition of the thorium nitrate inventory as a containerized waste, without processing, is the least complex and lowest-cost option for disposition. A characterization study was conducted in 2002 by ORNL, and it was determined that the thorium nitrate stockpile may be disposed of as low-level waste. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was used as a case study for the disposal alternative, and special radiological analyses and waste acceptance requirements were documented. Among the special radiological considerations is the emission of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn from buried material. NTS has a performance objective on the emissions of radon: 20 pCi m{sup -2} sec{sup -1} at the surface of the disposal facility. The radon emissions from the buried thorium nitrate stockpile have been modeled. This paper presents background information and

  7. MicroRNA-222 Promotes the Proliferation of Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells by Targeting P27 and TIMP3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Aberrant vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation plays an important role in the development of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH. Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs have been implicated in the progression of PAH. miR-222 has a pro-proliferation effect on VSMCs while it has an anti-proliferation effect on vascular endothelial cells (ECs. As the biological function of a single miRNA could be cell-type specific, the role of miR-222 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC proliferation is not clear and deserves to be explored. Methods: PASMCs were transfected with miR-222 mimic or inhibitor and PASMC proliferation was determined by Western blot for PCNA, Ki-67 and EdU staining, and cell number counting. The target genes of miR-222 including P27 and TIMP3 were determined by luciferase assay and Western blot. In addition, the functional rescue experiments were performed based on miR-222 inhibitor and siRNAs to target genes. Results: miR-222 mimic promoted PASMC proliferation while miR-222 inhibitor decreased that. TIMP3 was identified to be a direct target gene of miR-222 based on luciferase assay. Meanwhile, P27 and TIMP3 were up-regulated by miR-222 inhibitor and down-regulated by miR-222 mimic. Moreover, P27 siRNA and TIMP3 siRNA could both attenuate the anti-proliferation effect of miR-222 inhibitor in PASMCs, supporting that P27 and TIMP3 are at least partially responsible for the regulatory effect of miR-222 in PASMCs. Conclusion: miR-222 promotes PASMC proliferation at least partially through targeting P27 and TIMP3.

  8. Spectrophotometric and electrochemical studies of the interaction of cryptand 222 with DDQ and I2 in ethanol solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Semnani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectrophotometric and electrochemical studies concerning the interaction of cryptand 222 with DDQ and I2 have been performed in ethanol solution. In the case of DDQ, the results are indicative of the formation of C222¬+ and DDQ- through an equilibrium reaction. The results of I2 indicate the formation of I2-ethanol complex and I3- in the absence of C222. In the presence of C222, the formation of C222I¬+ and I3- through a non-equilibrium reaction is confirmed. The equilibrium constant of the redox reaction between DDQ and C222 has been calculated from the absorbance mole ratio data, using the nonlinear least square program “KINFIT”. The electrochemical reversibility of I-/I2 couple and irreversibility of DDQ/DDQ- is indicated by amperometry. The behavior of DDQ and I2 has been compared. A comparison with aprotic solvents has also been made.

  9. Anesthesia of juvenile Pacific Lampreys with MS-222, BENZOAK, AQUI-S 20E, and Aquacalm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Helena E.; Gee, Lisa P.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2013-01-01

    Effective anesthetics are a critical component of safe and humane fish handling procedures. We tested three concentrations each of four anesthetics—Finquel (tricaine methanesulfonate, herein referred to as MS-222), BENZOAK (20% benzocaine), AQUI-S 20E (10% eugenol), and Aquacalm (metomidate hydrochloride)—for efficacy and safety in metamorphosed, outmigrating juvenile Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus. The anesthetics MS-222 (100 mg/L) and BENZOAK (60 mg/L) were the most effective for anesthetizing juvenile Pacific Lampreys to a handleable state with minimal irritation to the fish. Fish anesthetized with BENZOAK also had lower rates of fungal infection than those exposed to MS-222, AQUI-S 20E, or no anesthetic. Exposure to AQUI-S 20E irritated juvenile Pacific Lampreys, causing them to leap or climb out of the anesthetic solution, and Aquacalm anesthetized fish to a handleable state too slowly and incompletely for effective use with routine handling procedures. Our results indicate that MS-222 and BENZOAK are effective anesthetics for juvenile Pacific Lampreys, but field studies are needed to determine whether exposure to MS-222 increases risk of fungal infection in juvenile Pacific Lampreys released to the wild.

  10. Evaluation of groundwater discharge into small lakes based on the temporal distribution of radon-222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, N.T.; Burnett, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate groundwater discharge into small lakes we constructed a model that is based on the budget of 222Rn (radon t1/2 5 3.8 d) as a tracer. The main assumptions in our model are that the lake's waters are wellmixed horizontally and vertically; the only significant 222Rn source is via groundwater discharge; and the only losses are due to decay and atmospheric evasion. In order to evaluate the groundwater-derived 222Rn flux, we monitored the 222Rn concentration in lake water over periods long enough (usually 1-3 d) to observe changes likely caused by variations in atmospheric exchange (primarily a function of wind speed and temperature). We then attempt to reproduce the observed record by accounting for decay and atmospheric losses and by estimating the total 222Rn input flux using an iterative approach. Our methodology was tested in two lakes in central Florida: one of which is thought to have significant groundwater inputs (Lake Haines) and another that is known not to have any groundwater inflows but requires daily groundwater augmentation from a deep aquifer (Round Lake). Model results were consistent with independent seepage meter data at both Lake Haines (positive seepage of ??? 1.6 ?? 104 m3 d-1 in Mar 2008) and at Round Lake (no net groundwater seepage). ?? 2011, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  11. Indoor Rn-222 concentrations in the vicinity of a Turkish coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaprak, G. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Science

    1999-10-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains natural radionuclides and their products in small quantities. Therefore, depending on their concentration in the coal, a coal-fired power plant might potentially contaminate the environment. Indoor Rn-222 concentration in 100 houses located in the vicinity of Yatagan coal-fired power plant in the southwestern part of Turkey were measured using solid state nuclear track detectors. The time-integrated Rn-222 concentrations in the houses ranged from 10 to 120 Bq m{sup -3}. This corresponds to an annual effective dose equivalent ranging from 0.6 to 7/3 mSv. In 96% of the homes, an Rn-222 concentration of 100 Bq m{sup -3} (taken as the limit for future buildings, recommended by ICRP) was not exceeded.

  12. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-08-19

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents.

  13. Design and construction of a system to determine Radon-222 through alpha spectroscopy; Diseno y construccion de un sistema para determinar Radon-222 mediante espectroscopia alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio M, J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. Facultad de Quimica. Toluca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this work consists in the design a radon-222 gas measurement system utilizing a surface barrier detector with the objective to obtain a more accurate measurement for this isotope through an alpha particle spectrum and so to address as to avoid the activity influence of the descendants of short half-life, which are too beta particles emitters, already other methods it must be correction series to obtain the real value of radon activity. Here are presented the general properties properties of radon, the experimental part description indicating the design to measure the radon-222 gas and its parts, as well as too the standard separation of radium-226 starting from carnotite mineral. Finally, it is presented the results obtained with a discussion about it. (Author) results obtained with a discussion about it. (Author)

  14. Exhalation of {sup 222}Rn from phosphogypsum piles located at the Southwest of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duenas, C. [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain)]. E-mail: mcduenas@uma.es; Liger, E. [Department of Applied Physics II, Technical College of Informatic Engineering, University of Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Canete, S. [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Perez, M. [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Bolivar, J.P. [Department of Applied Physics, EPS, University of Huelva, 21819 Huelva (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a waste product of the phosphoric acid production process and contains, generally, high activity concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. It is stored in piles formed over the last 40 years close to the town of Huelva (Southwest of Spain). The very broad expanse of the PG piles (about 1200 ha) produces a local, but unambiguous, radioactive impact to their surroundings. In 1992, the regional government of Andalusia restored an area of 400 ha by covering it with a 25-cm thick layer of natural soil and, currently, there is an additional zone of 400 ha in course of restoration (unrestored) and the same area of active PG stacks. Due to the high activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra in active PG stacks (average 647 Bq kg{sup -1}), a significant exhalation of {sup 222}Rn could be produced from the surface of the piles. Measurements have been made of {sup 222}Rn exhalation from active PG stacks and from restored and unrestored zones. The {sup 222}Rn exhalation from unrestored zones is half of that of the active PG stacks. Following restoration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation is approximately eight times lower than the active PG stacks. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th) in the mentioned zones have been determined. This study was also conducted to determine the effect of {sup 226}Ra activity concentration on the {sup 222}Rn exhalation, and a good correlation was obtained between the {sup 222}Rn exhalation and {sup 226}Ra activity, porosity and density of soil.

  15. Gastric Carcinogenesis in the miR-222/221 Transgenic Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Boram; Yu, Jieun; Han, Tae-Su; Kim, Young-Kook; Hur, Keun; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Kim, Woo-Ho; Kim, Dae-Yong; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, V Narry; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate various cellular functions, including development, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Different signatures associated with various tissue types, diagnosis, progression, prognosis, staging, and treatment response have been identified by miRNA expression profiling of human tumors. miRNAs function as oncogenes or as tumor suppressors. The relationship between gastric cancer and miRNA garnered attention due to the high incidence of gastric cancer in Asian countries. miR-222/221 expression increases in gastric tumor tissues. The oncogenic effect of miR-222/221 was previously determined in functional studies and xenograft models. In this study, transgenic mice over-expressing miR-222/221 were generated to confirm the effect of miR-222/221 on gastric carcinogenesis. At 6 weeks of age, 65 transgenic mice and 53 wild-type mice were given drinking water containing N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) for 5 alternating weeks to induce gastric cancer. The mice were euthanized at 36 weeks of age and histologic analysis was performed. Hyperplasia was observed in 3.77% of the wild-type mice and in 18.46% of the transgenic mice (p=0.020). Adenoma was observed in 20.75% of the wild-type mice and 26.15% of the transgenic mice (p=0.522). Carcinoma was observed in 32.08% of the wild-type mice and 41.54% of the transgenic mice (p=0.341). The frequency of hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma was higher in transgenic mice, but the difference was statistically significant only in hyperplasia. These results suggest that hyperplasia, a gastric pre-cancerous lesion, is associated with miR-222/221 expression but miR-222/221 expression does not affect tumorigenesis itself.

  16. Measurements of the radon-222 concentration in residences of Lima - Peru; Mediciones de la concentracion de radon 222 en residencias de Lima - Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra, P.; Lopez, M. E.; Perez, B., E-mail: ppereyr@pucp.edu.pe [Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Seccion Fisica, Av. Universitaria 1801, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The measurement of the Radon-222 levels was realized in the first semester of 2013 in residences corresponding to 16 districts of the metropolitan area of Lima, including to the zones North, Center and South of the city, during one period of 3 to 6 months in continuous form, with measurement periods of 1 to 2 months. The houses where the measurements were made were selected considering diverse variables as antiquity, construction materials, coatings, soil type, occupational use of the monitored rooms, etc. The measurements were realized in basements, first and second floor of the residences. For the Radon-222 measurements passive detectors of cellulose nitrate (Lr-115) were used. The procedure of data collection, dosimeters reading and the measurement results are shown in this work; this monitoring is the first one that is carried out in this city. The results are only indicators of the present radon rate, by the detectors type not is possible to discriminate the presence of the Radon-222 descendants. (Author)

  17. Mineral water {sup 222} Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits; Determinacao do decrescimo da atividade de radonio-222 em aguas minerais simulando habitos de consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio

    2001-07-01

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant {sup 222} Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata ({approx} 1000 Bql{sup -1}); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde ({approx} 400 Brq{sup -1}) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas ({approx} 290 Bql{sup -1}). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of {sup 222} Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on {sup 222} Rn activity on site. (author)

  18. [2+2+2] Cycloaddition Reactions of Macrocyclic Systems Catalyzed by Transition Metals. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roglans

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyalkyne and enediyne azamacrocycles are prepared from arenesulfonamides and various alkyne and alkene derivatives either under basic or neutral conditions. The new family of macrocyclic substrates is tested in the [2+2+2] cycloaddition reaction. Several catalysts are used for the cycloisomerization reaction, and their enantioinduction is evaluated as appropriate. The effect of the structural features of the macrocycles, namely the ring size, substituents in precise positions and the number and type of unsaturations, on the [2+2+2] cycloaddition reaction has also been studied.

  19. 77 FR 29682 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Central Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 216/222

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... operations, except: (1) Blocks that were previously included within the GOM's Eastern Planning Area (EPA) and... Continental Shelf, Central Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 216/222 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... and Gas Lease Sale: 2012 Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sale 216/222 Authority: This NOA is...

  20. 50 CFR 222.103 - Federal/state cooperation in the conservation of endangered and threatened species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of resident species listed as endangered or threatened. In order for a state program to be deemed an... threatened resident species, the conservation of which may be enhanced by cooperation of such states, jointly... conservation of endangered and threatened species. 222.103 Section 222.103 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

  1. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care Contract...

  2. 48 CFR 52.222-53 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services are furnished at prices that are, or are based on, established catalog or market prices. An... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services-Requirements. 52.222-53 Section 52.222... from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services—Requirements. As...

  3. Elevated MiR-222-3p promotes proliferation and invasion of endometrial carcinoma via targeting ERα.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binya Liu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs play key roles in tumor proliferation and invasion. Here we show distinct expression of miR-222-3p between ERα-positive and ERα-negative endometrial carcinoma (EC cell lines and primary tumors, and investigation of its relationship with ERα and other clinical parameters. In vitro, the function of miR-222-3p was examined in RL95-2 and AN3CA cell lines. MiR-222-3p expression was negatively correlated with ERα. Over-expressed miR-222-3p in RL95-2 cells promoted cell proliferation, enhanced invasiveness and induced a G1 to S phase shift in cell cycle. Furthermore, the miR-222-3p inhibitor decreased the activity of AN3CA cells to proliferate and invade. In vivo, down-regulated miR-222-3p of AN3CA cells inhibited EC tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Additionally, miR-222-3p increased raloxifene resistance through suppressing ERα expression in EC cells. In conclusion, miR-222-3p plays a significant role in the regulation of ERα expression and could be potential targets for restoring ERα expression and responding to antiestrogen therapy in a subset of ECs.

  4. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP) rules...

  5. 25 CFR 162.222 - How much rent must be paid under an agricultural lease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How much rent must be paid under an agricultural lease... LEASES AND PERMITS Agricultural Leases Lease Requirements § 162.222 How much rent must be paid under an... section. The tenant's rent payments may be: (1) In fixed amounts; or (2) Based on a share of the...

  6. Upregulation of miR-222 in both Helicobacter pylori-infected and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MINA NOORMOHAMMAD

    ever, the association between miR-222 upregulation and H. pylori infection in gastric cancer tissues remains unclear. The aim of this study was ..... Oral Dis. 1, 172–188. Thrumurthy S. G., Chaudry M. A., Hochhauser D. and Mughal M. 2013 The diagnosis and management of gastric cancer. BMJ 347,. 6367. Torre L. A., Bray ...

  7. 48 CFR 52.222-20 - Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 52.222-20 Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act. As prescribed in 22.610, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts covered by the Act: Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act (OCT 2010) If... amount that exceeds or may exceed $15,000, and is subject to the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act, as...

  8. 18 CFR 2.22 - Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pricing policy for... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Federal Power Act § 2.22 Pricing policy... Policy Statement on its pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act...

  9. Crystal structure study and investigation of solid-state cyclization for AMG 222, a channel hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Y-H; Nagapudi, Karthik; Liu, Jodi; Staples, Richard J; Jona, Janan

    2013-01-30

    In this study, we investigate the solid-state structure and stability of AMG 222 (5-(2-[2-(2-cyano-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethylamino]-propyl)-5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene-2,8 dicarboxylic acid bisdimethylamide), a small molecule DPP-IV inhibitor. Crystal structure of AMG 222 has been solved from single crystal X-ray analysis. Crystallographic data are as follows: monoclinic, P2(1) (no. 4), a=9.0327(5)Å, b=18.6177(8)Å, c=21.4927(10)Å, β=90.126(3)°, V=3614.4(3)Å(3), Z=4. Based on single crystal structure, AMG 222 is a pentahydrate with the water molecules sitting in channels formed by the drug framework. There are three distinct crystal structures of AMG 222 between 0 and 95% relative humidity (RH), namely the anhydrate, hemihydrate, and pentahydrate forms. Solid-state stability of the GMP batch showed a high level of cyclized degradation product. It was postulated that the degradation was promoted by increased amorphous content generated as a result of excessive drying that was employed to remove residual crystallization solvent. Material produced using a modified procedure using a humidified nitrogen purge had lower amorphous content and lower levels of cyclic degradation when compared to the GMP batch. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [H 2 -Cryptand 222] 2+ (Br 3 – ) 2 as a Tribromide-Type Catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A stable organic tribromide, [H2-cryptand 222]2+(Br3–)2 was utilized as an active catalyst for the trimethylsilylation/tetrahydropyranylation of alcohols. The method is general for the preparation of OH-protected aliphatic (acyclic and cyclic), aromatic, primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Keywords: [H2-cryptand ...

  11. 20 CFR 222.21 - When marriage is terminated by final divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When marriage is terminated by final divorce... Widow(er) § 222.21 When marriage is terminated by final divorce. A final divorce, often referred to as an absolute divorce, completely dissolves the marriage relationship and restores the parties to the...

  12. 5 CFR 838.222 - OPM action on receipt of a court order acceptable for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Processing Court Orders Affecting Employee Annuities Application and Processing Procedures § 838.222 OPM action on receipt of a court order acceptable for processing. (a) If OPM receives a court order...) The former spouse— (i) That the court order is acceptable for processing; (ii) Of the date on which...

  13. Felodipine-diazabicyclo 2.2.2 octane-water (1/1/1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solanko, K. A.; Surov, A. O.; Perlovich, G. L.

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C18H19Cl2NO4 center dot C6H12N2 center dot H2O, is a cocrystal hydrate containing the active pharmaceutical ingredient felodipine and diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO). The DABCO and water molecules are linked through O-H center dot center dot center dot N hydrogen bonds...

  14. The use of diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane as a novel highly selective dechloroacetylation reagent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Lefeber, D.J.; Kamerling, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In a study directed toward the use of the chloroacetyl protecting group in carbohydrate synthesis, the sterically hindered tertiary amine diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) was found to give complete and selective cleavage of the chloroacetyl group in the presence of other ester functions such as

  15. Hydrochemistry and 222Rn Concentrations in Spring Waters in the Arid Zone El Granero, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marusia Rentería-Villalobos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Water in arid and semi-arid environments is characterized by the presentation of complex interactions, where dissolved chemical species in high concentrations have negative effects on the water quality. Radon is present in areas with a high uranium and radium content, and it is the main contributor of the annual effective dose received by humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate concentrations of 222Rn and the water quality of spring waters. Water was classified as calcium sulfated and sodium sulfated. Most of the water samples with high radon concentrations presented higher concentrations of sulfates, fluorides, and total dissolved solids. 222Rn concentrations may be attributed to possible enhancement of 226Ra due to temperature and salinity of water, as well as evaporation rate. In 100% of the sampled spring waters the 222Rn levels exceeded the maximum acceptable limit which is proposed by international institutions. Aridity increases radiological risk related to 222Rn dose because spring waters are the main supply source for local populations. The implementation of environmental education, strategies, and technologies to remove the contaminants from the water are essential in order to reduce the health risk for local inhabitants.

  16. 77 FR 30046 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat Aeronautical Mobile Satellite (Route) Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    .... Chair report on PMC actions Detailed review of generic MASPS draft. This completely redesigned MASPS draft is the result of direction received at the March 21, 2011 meeting of the PMC. A detailed review... meeting of SC-222 leadership team will be held on Wednesday morning. The room can be available for...

  17. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-4 Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Overtime Compensation. As prescribed in 22.305, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards... Contractor that are subject to the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. (d) Payrolls and basic...

  18. Physiological Stress Responses to Prolonged Exposure to MS-222 and Surgical Implantation in Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Skalski, John R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Eppard, Matthew B. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States)

    2014-07-17

    While many studies have investigated the effects of transmitters on fish condition, behavior, and survival, to our knowledge, no studies have taken into account anesthetic exposure time in addition to tag and surgery effects. We investigated stress responses to prolonged MS-222 exposure after stage 4 induction in surgically implanted juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Survival, tag loss, plasma cortisol concentration, and blood Na+, K+, Ca2+, and pH were measured immediately following anesthetic exposure and surgical implantation and 1, 7, and 14 days post-treatment. Despite the prolonged anesthetic exposure, 3-15 minutes post Stage 4 induction, there were no mortalities or tag loss in any treatment. MS-222 was effective at delaying immediate cortisol release during surgical implantation; however, osmotic disturbances resulted, which were more pronounced in longer anesthetic time exposures. From day 1 to day 14, Na+, Ca2+, and pH significantly decreased, while cortisol significantly increased. The cortisol increase was exacerbated by surgical implantation. There was a significant interaction between MS-222 time exposure and observation day for Na+, Ca2+, K+, and pH; variations were seen in the longer time exposures, although not consistently. In conclusion, stress response patterns suggest stress associated with surgical implantation is amplified with increased exposure to MS-222.

  19. 20 CFR 222.50 - When child dependency determinations are made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When child dependency determinations are made... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Child Support and Dependency § 222.50 When child dependency determinations are made. (a) Dependency determination. One of the requirements for a child's annuity or for...

  20. Genome Sequence of the Nonconventional Wine Yeast Hanseniaspora guilliermondii UTAD222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Isabel; Barbosa, Catarina; Salazar, Sara B; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Wang, Yu; Güldener, Ulrich; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana; Mira, Nuno P

    2017-02-02

    In this work, we disclose the genome sequence and a corresponding manually curated annotation of the non-Saccharomyces yeast Hanseniaspora guilliermondii UTAD222, a strain shown to have interesting oenological traits for the production of wines with improved aromatic properties. Copyright © 2017 Seixas et al.

  1. 50 CFR 222.305 - Rights of succession and transfer of permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights of succession and transfer of... THREATENED MARINE SPECIES General Permit Procedures § 222.305 Rights of succession and transfer of permits... subsequent lease, sale or transfer, the successor to that enterprise must obtain a permit prior to continuing...

  2. INDOOR 222RN IN TENNESSEE VALLEY HOUSES: SEASONAL, BUILDING AND GEOLOGICAL FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two-season survey of indoor 222Rn concentrations was conducted in 226 occupied houses in Roane County, TN, during 1985 and 1986. A similar survey of 86 houses in Madison County, AL, was conducted in 1988 and 1989. Alpha track detectors were placed in each of the houses for thre...

  3. Assessment of Effective Dose Equivalent from Internal Exposure to 222Rn in Ramsar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyeb Allahverdi Pourfallah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this study, effective dose equivalent for the public due to internal exposure to 222radon (222Rn was evaluated in three regions of Ramsar, a northern coastal city in Iran.                                Materials and Methods Measurements were carried out using a radon monitoring device. Outdoor and indoor radon concentrations were measured within 24 hours with an integration interval of 3 hours. Regions were selected with respect to our previous study on areas of Ramsar with high levels of environmental background radiation. Results This study showed that indoor 222Rn concentration reached to 465 Bq/m3 in one of the selected regions (Talesh Mahalleh in early morning (5-8 a.m.. Our study also showed that the average effective dose equivalents (due to both indoor and outdoor exposures in the selected regions (Talesh Mahalleh, Sadat Mahalleh, and Chaparsar were 9.5±2.8, 5.1±2.1, and 3.2±1.2 mSv/y, respectively. Conclusion It is clear that the annual effective dose from internal exposure to 222Rn in areas of Ramsar with high levels of natural radiation was significantly higher than the maximum annual effective dose permissible for public.

  4. Evaluation of the anesthetic effects of MS222 in the adult Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullian C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiara Zullian,1 Aurore Dodelet-Devillers,1 Stéphane Roy,2 Pascal Vachon1 1Département de Biomédecine Vétérinaire, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, 2Département de Stomatologie, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Montréal, Québec, Canada Abstract: The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum is a unique research model in several fields of medicine, where surgical and invasive procedures may be required. As yet, little is known about the efficacy of MS222 (tricaine methanesulfonate, which is the most commonly used anesthetic agent in amphibians. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the anesthetic effects and physiological changes in adult axolotls following a 20-minute immersion bath, containing progressive MS222 concentrations starting at 0.1%. Depth of anesthesia and physiological changes were evaluated every 15 minutes post-MS222 exposure with the following parameters: righting behavior, withdrawal reflex, acetic acid test response, heart rate, and blood oxygen saturation, as well as cloacal and body surface temperatures. A 20-minute exposure in a 0.1% MS222 immersion bath (n=6 animals had no anesthetic effects on adult axolotls after 20 minutes of exposure. With a 0.2% MS222 solution, all axolotls (n=9 were deeply anesthetized at 15 minutes, and 80% were still unresponsive at 30 minutes postexposure. Blood oxygen saturation and heart rate were slightly, but significantly, increased when compared with the baseline value and remained stable up to recovery. There was no significant increase in surface and cloaca temperatures, compared with baseline. With the 0.4% MS222 solution, the duration of anesthesia lasted for 90 minutes to at least 120 minutes (n=3 animals and this concentration was deemed too high. In conclusion, a 20-minute immersion bath with 0.2% MS222 may be used for short procedures (15–30 minutes requiring anesthesia of adult axolotls. Keywords: Ambystoma mexicanum

  5. The DnaJ-Like Zinc-Finger Protein HCF222 Is Required for Thylakoid Membrane Biogenesis in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartings, Stephanie; Paradies, Susanne; Karnuth, Bianca; Eisfeld, Sabrina; Mehsing, Jasmin; Wolff, Christian; Levey, Tatjana; Westhoff, Peter; Meierhoff, Karin

    2017-07-01

    To understand the biogenesis of the thylakoid membrane in higher plants and to identify auxiliary proteins required to build up this highly complex membrane system, we have characterized the allelic nuclear mutants high chlorophyll fluorescence222-1 (hcf222-1) and hcf222-2 and isolated the causal gene by map-based cloning. In the ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant hcf222-1, the accumulation of the cytochrome b6f (Cytb6f) complex was reduced to 30% compared with the wild type. Other thylakoid membrane complexes accumulated to normal levels. The T-DNA knockout mutant hcf222-2 showed a more severe defect with respect to thylakoid membrane proteins and accumulated only 10% of the Cytb6f complex, accompanied by a reduction in photosystem II, the photosystem II light-harvesting complex, and photosystem I. HCF222 encodes a protein of 99 amino acids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that has similarities to the cysteine-rich zinc-binding domain of DnaJ chaperones. The insulin precipitation assay demonstrated that HCF222 has disulfide reductase activity in vitro. The protein is conserved in higher plants and bryophytes but absent in algae and cyanobacteria. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that a fraction of HCF222-green fluorescent protein was detectable in the endoplasmic reticulum but that it also could be recognized in chloroplasts. A fusion construct of HCF222 containing a plastid transit peptide targets the protein into chloroplasts and was able to complement the mutational defect. These findings indicate that the chloroplast-targeted HCF222 is indispensable for the maturation and/or assembly of the Cytb6f complex and is very likely involved in thiol-disulfide biochemistry at the thylakoid membrane. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE (MS-222) SEDATION AND ANESTHESIA IN THE PURPLE-SPINED SEA URCHIN (ARBACIA PUNCTULATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Jeffrey R; Dombrowski, Daniel S; Christian, Larry Shane; Bayer, Meredith P; Harms, Craig A; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2016-12-01

    The purple-spined sea urchin ( Arbacia punctulata ) is commonly found in shallow waters of the western Atlantic Ocean from the New England area of the United States to the Caribbean. Sea urchins play a major role in ocean ecology, echinoculture, and biomedical research. Additionally, sea urchins are commonly displayed in public aquaria. Baseline parameters were developed in unanesthetized urchins for righting reflex (time to regain oral recumbency) and spine response time to tactile stimulus. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) was used to sedate and anesthetize purple-spined sea urchins and assess sedation and anesthetic parameters, including adhesion to and release from a vertical surface, times to loss of response to tactile stimulus and recovery of righting reflex, and qualitative observations of induction of spawning and position of spines and pseudopodia. Sedation and anesthetic parameters were evaluated in 11 individuals in three circumstances: unaltered aquarium water for baseline behaviors, 0.4 g/L MS-222, and 0.8 g/L MS-222. Induction was defined as the release from a vertical surface with the loss of righting reflex, sedation as loss of righting reflex with retained tactile spine response, anesthesia as loss of righting reflex and loss of tactile spine response, and recovery as voluntary return to oral recumbency. MS-222 proved to be an effective sedative and anesthetic for the purple-spined sea urchin at 0.4 and 0.8 g/L, respectively. Sodium bicarbonate used to buffer MS-222 had no measurable sedative effects when used alone. Anesthesia was quickly reversed with transfer of each individual to anesthesia-free seawater, and no anesthetic-related mortality occurred. The parameters assessed in this study provide a baseline for sea urchin anesthesia and may provide helpful comparisons to similar species and populations that are in need of anesthesia for surgical procedures or research.

  7. Design and construction of a system for determining Radon-222 through Alpha spectroscopy; Diseno y construccion de un sistema para determinar Radon-222 mediante Espectroscopia alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio, J.; Iturbe, J.L

    1992-02-15

    The study of the present work consists on designing a system to measure gas {sup 222} Rn, using a surface barrier detector, in order to obtaining a more accuracy measure of this isotope by means of an alpha particle spectra and thus to try to avoid the influence of the radioactivity of the isotope descendants of short half life, which are also emitting of alpha particles, since by other methods its should make a series of corrections to obtain the real value of the radon activity. (Author)

  8. A (H1N1 pdm09 HA D222 variants associated with severity and mortality in patients during a second wave in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazquez-Perez Joel A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pandemic type A (H1N1 influenza arose in early 2009, probably in Mexico and the United States, and reappeared in North America in September for seven more months. An amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin (HA, D222G, has been reported in a significant proportion of patients with a severe and fatal outcome. We studied the prevalence of HA222 substitutions in patients in Mexico during the second wave and its association with clinical outcome and pathogenicity in a mouse model. Methods The nucleotide sequences of hemagglutinin (HA from viruses collected from 77 patients were determined including 50 severe and fatal cases and 27 ambulatory cases. Deep sequencing was done on 5 samples from severe or fatal cases in order to determine the quasispecies proportion. Weight loss and mortality due to infection with cultured influenza viruses were analyzed in a mouse model. Results Viruses from 14 out of 50 hospitalized patients (28% had a non aspartic acid residue at the HA 222 position (nD222, while all 27 ambulatory patients had D222 (p = 0.0014. G222 was detected as sole species or in coexistence with N222 and D222 in 12 patients with severe disease including 8 who died. N222 in coexistence with D222 was detected in 1 patient who died and co-occurrence of A222 and V222, together with D222, was detected in another patient who died. The patients with a nD222 residue had higher mortality (71.4%, compared to the group with only D222 (22.2%, p = 0.0008. Four of the 14 viruses from hospitalized patients were cultured and intranasally infected into mice. Two viruses with G222 were lethal while a third virus, with G222, caused only mild illness in mice similar to the fourth virus that contained D222. Conclusions We confirm the elevated incidence of HA222 (H1N1pdm09 variants in severe disease and mortality. Both clinical and mouse infection data support the idea that nD222 mutations contribute to increased severity of disease but

  9. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Gélinas, Yves; Lefebvre, René; Hélie, Jean-François; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and synthesis of novel opioid ligands with an azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeleton and their pharmacologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshikazu; Kitazawa, Shota; Fujii, Hideaki; Nemoto, Toru; Hirayama, Shigeto; Nagase, Hiroshi

    2012-04-15

    A novel opioid ligand possessing a stable and cyclic imine 16 and its derivatives with an azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeleton were synthesized. The imine 16 showed higher affinity for the μ receptor than compound 21 with an oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeleton. Azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivative 18d with a cyclopropylmethyl group on the 8-nitrogen showed the highest affinity for the μ receptor among the synthesized derivatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and Transformations of di-endo-3-Aminobicyclo-[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Palkó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available all-endo-3-amino-5-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid (13 and all-endo-5-amino-6-(hydroxymethylbicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ol (10 were prepared via dihydro-1,3-oxazine or g-lactone intermediates by the stereoselective functionalization of an N-protected derivative of endo-3-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid (2. Ring closure of b-amino ester 4 resulted in tricyclic pyrimidinones 15 and 16. The structures, stereochemistry and relative configurations of the synthesized compounds were determined by IR and NMR.

  12. 222Rn concentrations, natural flow rate and the radiation exposure levels in the Nerja Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, C.; Fernández, M. C.; Cañete, S.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    222Rn concentrations in the air in Nerja Cave (Spain) have been measured over 4 yr and at four sampling points. Concentrations average 168 Bq m -3 in the spring-summer when the temperature lapse rate provides a stable cave atmosphere. In the autumn-winter, the radon levels decrease to 48 Bq m -3. 222Rn flux has also been measured for soils in the cave, with an average value of 34 × 10 -3 Bq m -2 s -1. The average natural flow rate in the spring-summer is about 0.70 m 3 s -1 and the autumn-winter is approximately 3.6 m 3 s -1 determined over 1992-1995. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists represent only a low percentage of the exposure guides for the general population.

  13. Creep behavior of tantalum alloy T-222 at 1365 to 1700 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titran, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    High vacuum creep tests on the tantalum T-222 alloy at 0.42 to 0.52 T sub m show that the major portion of the creep curves, up to at least 1 percent strain, can be best described by an increasing creep rate, with strain varying linearly with time. Correlation and extrapolation of the creep curves on the basis of increasing creep rates results in more accurate engineering design data than would use of approximated linear rates. Based on increasing creep rates, the stress for 1 percent strain in 10,000 hours for T-222 is about four times greater than for the Ta-10W alloy. Increasing the grain size results in increased creep strength. Thermal aging prior to testing caused precipitation of the hexagonal close packed (Hf,Ta) sub 2 C, which initially increased creep strength. However, this dimetal carbide was converted during creep testing to face-centered cubic (Hf,Ta)C.

  14. Rn-222 tracing and stable isotope measurements of biogenic gas fluxes from methane saturated sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Christopher S.; Green, C. D.; Blair, Neal; Chanton, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    Transport of reduced biogenic gases from anoxic sediments and soils to the atmosphere can be quantitatively studied through measurement of radon-222/radium-226 disequilibrium. In previous work, seasonal variations in biogenic gas transport mechanisms, net fluxes and overall composition were documented. Now presented are direct field measurements of radon-222 activity in gases exiting organic rich sediments which show their usefulness for tracing of the stripping of dissolved biogenic gases from within the sediment column and transport via bubble ebullition. Methane is depleted in deuterium during the summer as compared with winter months and is in general lighter than in most marine sediments signaling the probable importance of acetate as an important precursor molecule. The significant seasonal isotopic variations observed illustrate the importance of understanding mechanisms and rates of biogenic gas production in order to interpret observed tropospheric isotopic data.

  15. A 'delayed' counting method to determine indoor Rn-222 levels indirectly

    CERN Document Server

    Iannopollo, V; Trimarchi, M; Tripepi, M G; Vermiglio, G

    2001-01-01

    A new indirect and 'delayed' way is presented to determine indoor concentration of Rn-222 by best-fitting methods. If a rapid knowledge of Rn-222 levels is required and if a detection system is not available in situ, it is possible to obtain concentration of radioactive gas by determining of 'delayed' counts of Po-214. The 'delay' time consists of two or three hours. The method is based on the use of cellulose filters for particulate collection and on the analysis of samples by alpha spectroscopy. It is also possible to obtain concentrations of short-lived radon daughters Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, which are very important quantities in a medical framework.

  16. A new beaded carbon molecular sieve sorbent for 222Rn monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, S C

    1996-05-01

    A new commercially available beaded carbon molecular sieve sorbent, Carboxen-564 (20/45 mesh), was tested and compared to Calgon-PCB (40/80) activated carbon for its adsorptive and desorptive characteristics under controlled conditions of temperature (25 degrees C) and relative humidity (RH). The amount of water vapor adsorbed by the beaded carbon molecular sieve material was typically a factor of 4 lower than the activated carbon, with a concomitant fourfold increase in the 222Rn adsorption coefficient, K(Rn). The maximum K(Rn) value for a thin layer of Carboxen-564, following a 2-d exposure at 40% RH, was 7.2 Bq kg(-1) per Bq m(-3). The K(Rn) or a 1-cm bed, following a 2-d exposure was 5.5 Bq m(-3), a 25% reduction. Under dynamic sampling conditions, where 0.4 g of the beaded carbon molecular sieve was contained in a 6 cm x 0.4 cm diameter tube, the maximum K(Rn) value was 6.5 Bq m(-3) after 2.5 h of sampling at 29% RH when the input flow rate was 4.2 x 10(-3) m3 h-1. Kinetic studies were also conducted under passive sampling conditions. The data show that the 222Rn buildup time-constant for a thin layer of the beaded carbon molecular sieve material was 1.3 h, whereas that of a 1 cm bed was 13 h. The 222Rn desorption time-constants, from gram amounts of the beaded carbon molecular sieve material into air and into a commercially available toluene based liquid scintillation cocktail, were 2 h and 3 h, respectively. Carboxen's high 222Rn adsorbing capacity, rapid kinetics, hydrophobicity and physical properties makes it an attractive alternative to other commercially available activated carbon used in passive and dynamic sampling devices.

  17. Determining Radium-226 concentration from Radon-222 emanation in building materials: a theoretical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Rafael C.; Perna, Allan F.N.; Narloch, Danielle C.; Del Claro, Flavia; Correa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A., E-mail: baarreth@gmail.com, E-mail: allan_perna@hotmail.com, E-mail: daninarloch@hotmail.com, E-mail: aviadelclaro@gmail.com, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento Academico de Fisica e Departamento Academico de Construcao Civil

    2017-07-01

    It was developed an improved theoretical model capable to estimate the radium concentration in building materials solely measuring the radon-222 concentration in a con ned atmosphere. This non-destructive technique is not limited by the size of the samples, and it intrinsically includes back diffusion. The resulting equation provides the exact solution for the concentration of radon-222 as a function of time and distance in one dimension. The effective concentration of radium-226 is a fit parameter of this equation. In order to reduce its complexity, this equation was simplified considering two cases: low diffusion in the building material compared to the air, and a building material initially saturated with radon-222. These simplified versions of the exact one dimension solution were used to t experimental data. Radon-222 concentration was continuously measured for twelve days with an AlphaGUARD{sup TM} detector, located at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics at Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR). This model was applied to two different materials: cement mortar and concrete, which results were respectively (15:7 ±8:3) Bq=kg and (10:5±2:4) Bq=kg for the radium-226 effective concentration. This estimation was confronted with the direct measurements of radium in the same materials (same sources) using gamma-ray spectrometry, fulfilled at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), which results were respectively (13:81±0:23) Bq=kg and (12:61±0:22) Bq=kg. (author)

  18. Germicidal Efficacy and Mammalian Skin Safety of 222-nm UV Light

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Manuela; Ponnaiya, Brian; Welch, David; Stanislauskas, Milda; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Smilenov, Lubomir; Lowy, Franklin D.; Owens, David M.; Brenner, David J.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that 207-nm ultraviolet (UV) light has similar antimicrobial properties as typical germicidal UV light (254 nm), but without inducing mammalian skin damage. The biophysical rationale is based on the limited penetration distance of 207-nm light in biological samples (e.g. stratum corneum) compared with that of 254-nm light. Here we extended our previous studies to 222-nm light and tested the hypothesis that there exists a narrow wavelength window in the far-UVC region,...

  19. Detection of Solar Rotational Variability in the LYRA 190 - 222 nm Spectral Band

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, A. V.; Shapiro, A. I.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.; Wehrli, C.; Rozanov, E; Schmutz, W.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the variability of the spectral solar irradiance during the period from 7 January, 2010 until 20 January, 2010 as measured by the Herzberg channel (190-222 nm) of the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) onboard PROBA2. In this period of time observations by the LYRA nominal unit experienced degradation and the signal produced by the Herzberg channel frequently jumped from one level to another. Both these factors significantly complicates the analysis. We present the algorithm which allow...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices C Appendix C to Part 222 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE...) C-5 Model Form for Voluntary “No Marketing” Notice C-1—Model Form for Initial Opt-out Notice (Single...

  1. The alteration of miR-222 and its target genes in nickel-induced tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Yang; Ma, Lin; Huang, Shunquan; Wang, Ruijin; Gao, Rongrong; Wu, Youjun; Shi, Hongjun; Zhang, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Nickel is an important kind of metal and a necessary trace element in people's production and livelihood; it is also a well-confirmed human carcinogen. In the past few years, researchers did a large number of studies about the molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis, and they focused on activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of anti-oncogenes caused by gene point mutation, gene deletion, gene amplification, DNA methylation, chromosome condensation, and so on that were induced by nickel. However, the researches on tumorigenic molecular mechanisms regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) are rare. In this study, we established nickel-induced tumor by injecting Ni3S2 compounds to Wistar Rattus. By establishing a cDNA library of miRNA from rat muscle tumor tissue induced by Ni3S2, we found that the expression of miR-222 was significantly upregulated in tumor tissue compared with the normal tissue. As we expected, the expression levels of target genes of miR-222, CDKN1B and CDKN1C, were downregulated in the nickel-induced tumor. The same alteration of miR-222 and its target genes was also found in malignant 16HBE cells induced with Ni3S2 compounds. We conclude that miR-222 may promote cell proliferation infinitely during nickel-induced tumorigenesis in part by regulating the expression of its target genes CDKN1B and CDKN1C. Our study elucidated a novel molecular mechanism of nickel-induced tumorigenesis.

  2. 1-Bromomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. Finke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H14BrN2+·Br−, was prepared by nucleophilic substitution of DABCO (systematic name: 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane with dibromomethane in acetone. The structure features Br...H close contacts (2.79 and 2.90 Å as well as a weak bromine–bromide interaction [3.6625 (6 Å].

  3. Fungal Origins of the Bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane Ring System of Prenylated Indole Alkaloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finefield, Jennifer M.; Frisvad, Jens C.; Sherman, David H.

    2012-01-01

    of numerous biogenetic, synthetic, taxonomic, and biological studies and, as such, have made a lasting impact across multiple scientific disciplines. This review covers the isolation, biosynthesis, and biological activity of these unique secondary metabolites containing the bridging bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane...... ring system. Furthermore, the diverse fungal origin of these natural products is closely examined and, in many cases, updated to reflect the currently accepted fungal taxonomy....

  4. 1-Cyanomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridomanganate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Guo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, (C8H15N3[MnCl4], the Mn atom is coordinated by four chloride ligands in a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry. Each [MnCl4]2− anion is connected to the 1-cyanomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dications by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming chains parallel to [001].

  5. 1-Bromomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridozincate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ping Shi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 1-bromomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide, zinc chloride and hydrochloric acid in water yields the title compound, (C7H15BrN2[ZnCl4]. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. The ZnII atom has an approximately tetrahedral coordination geometry.

  6. 1-Cyanomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridocadmate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Han Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, (C8H15N3[CdCl4], four Cl atoms coordinate the CdII atom in a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal, each [CdCl4]2− anion is connected to the 1-cyanomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dications by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming chains parallel to [001]. C—H...Cl interactions also occur.

  7. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E

    1999-08-01

    This report describes a closed-chamber method for laboratory measurements of the rate at which radon-222 degasses (exhales) from small building material samples. The chamber is 55 L in volume and the main sample geometry is a slab of dimensions 5x30x30 cm{sup 3} . Numerical modelling is used to assess (and partly remove) the bias of the method relative to an ideal measurement of the free exhalation rate. Experimental results obtained with the method are found to be in agreement with the results of an open-chamber method (which is subject to different sources of error). Results of radon-222 exhalation rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete, autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 mBq h{sup -1} kg{sup -1}. Under consideration of the specific applications of the investigated building materials, the contribution to the indoor radon-222 concentration in a single-family reference house is calculated. Numerical modelling is used to help extrapolate the laboratory measurements on small samples to full scale walls. Application of typical materials will increase the indoor concentration by less than 10 Bq m{sup -3}. (au) 6 tabs., 15 ills., 29 refs.

  8. Radon-222 signatures of natural ventilation regimes in an underground quarry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Crouzeix, Catherine; Morat, Pierre; Le Mouël, Jean Louis

    2004-01-01

    Radon-222 activity concentration has been monitored since 1999 in an underground limestone quarry located in Vincennes, near Paris, France. It is homogeneous in summer, with an average value of 1700 Bq m(-3), and varies from 730 to 1450 Bq m(-3) in winter, indicating natural ventilation with a rate ranging from 0.5 to 2.4 x 10(-6) s(-1) (0.04-0.22 day(-1)). This hypothesis is supported by measurements in the vertical access pit where, in winter, a turbulent air current produces a stable radon profile, smoothly decreasing from 700 Bq m(-3) at 20 m depth to 300 Bq m(-3) at surface. In summer, a thermal stratification is maintained in the pit, but the radon-222 concentration jumps repeatedly between 100 and 2000 Bq m(-3). These jumps are due to atmospheric pressure pumping, which induces ventilation in the quarry at a rate of about 0.1 x 10(-6) s(-1) (0.009 day(-1)). Radon-222 monitoring thus provides a dynamical characterisation of ventilation regimes, which is important for the assessment of the long-term evolution of underground systems.

  9. A new system for the 222Rn and 226Ra assay of water and results in the B OREXINO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simgen, H.; Buck, C.; Heusser, G.; Laubenstein, M.; Rau, W.

    2003-02-01

    We describe a very sensitive system for the 222Rn and 226Ra assay of water that we have constructed within the framework of the B OREXINO solar neutrino experiment. The technique that is applied for 222Rn measurements is based on concentration of radon from water samples followed by gas purification and subsequent alpha counting in low-background miniaturized proportional counters. The same technique is applied to measure the 226Ra concentration by determining the amount of 222Rn in equilibrium with the 226Ra in the water. Sensitivities of ˜1 mBq/m 3 for 226Ra and ˜100 μBq/m 3 for 222Rn have been achieved. We present results of measurements illustrating the performance of the system as well as investigations of samples from the B OREXINO water plant and the shielding water of the Counting Test Facility (CTF, a test facility for the B OREXINO detector).

  10. Photoinduced Intermolecular [4+2] Cycloaddition Reaction for Construction of Benzobicyclo[2.2.2]octane Skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Junlei; Li, Dazhi; Yang, Chao; Xia, Wujiong

    2017-02-03

    A novel and efficient method for the synthesis of highly substituted benzobicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeletons has been explored. Under UV-light irradiation, o-divinylbenzenes underwent a pericyclic reaction to form the cyclic o-quinodimethane intermediates which were subsequently reacted with olefins through [4+2] addition to construct the benzobicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeletons in mild conditions. Gram scale reactions demonstrated the synthetic potential application of this protocol.

  11. Resistance to classical scrapie in experimentally challenged goats carrying mutation K222 of the prion protein gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acutis Pier Luigi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants, is strongly influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP. Breeding programs have been implemented to increase scrapie resistance in sheep populations; though desirable, a similar approach has not yet been applied in goats. European studies have now suggested that several polymorphisms can modulate scrapie susceptibility in goats: in particular, PRNP variant K222 has been associated with resistance in case-control studies in Italy, France and Greece. In this study we investigated the resistance conferred by this variant using a natural Italian goat scrapie isolate to intracerebrally challenge five goats carrying genotype Q/Q 222 (wild type and five goats carrying genotype Q/K 222. By the end of the study, all five Q/Q 222 goats had died of scrapie after a mean incubation period of 19 months; one of the five Q/K 222 goats died after 24 months, while the other four were alive and apparently healthy up to the end of the study at 4.5 years post-challenge. All five of these animals were found to be scrapie negative. Statistical analysis showed that the probability of survival of the Q/K 222 goats versus the Q/Q 222 goats was significantly higher (p = 0.002. Our study shows that PRNP gene mutation K222 is strongly associated with resistance to classical scrapie also in experimental conditions, making it a potentially positive target for selection in the frame of breeding programs for resistance to classical scrapie in goats.

  12. Determination of MS-222 in Water Samples by Solid-phase Extraction Coupled with Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong-Hao; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xu-Feng; Li, Zhi-Guang; Li, Yong-Xian; Huang, Ke; Li, Liu-Dong

    2017-09-01

    A practical solid-phase extraction (SPE) method coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of the fish anesthetic MS-222 in water. Water samples were concentrated and purified using three SPE cartridges of different specifications. Elution curves of MS-222 were constructed using various methanol-water solutions on the different cartridges, and SPE conditions were optimized in accordance with the elution curves. The mobile phase containing methanol and 0.1% formic acid solution with a linear gradient elution was utilized to separate MS-222 on a C18 column. Detection was carried out by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry with an electrospray ion source in positive mode. Recoveries of three MS-222 fortified levels of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 μg/L ranged of 82.6-101% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 9.36%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of MS-222 were 0.01 μg/L and 0.03 μg/L, respectively. This method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of MS-222 in actual water samples collected from aquatic product transportation vehicles or from the natural water catchments. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Prognostic Value of miR-222 in Various Cancers: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tai; Ye, Peng; Peng, Xin; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cancer development. MiR-222, which is deregulated in multiple types of cancers, shows potential as a prognostic biomarker; however, the association between miR222 expression and cancer prognosis was controversial in previous studies. Here we analyzed the relationship between miR-222 and the survival of cancer patients. A systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid, SciFinder, Cochrane Library, Wan Fang, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases up until June 8, 2015 was performed to clarify the prognostic value of miR-222 in cancers. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were extracted to evaluate the effect. Sixteen published articles involving 1,354 patients were included in this meta-analysis. High expression of miR-222 was associated with poor overall survival with a pooled HR of 1.86 (95% CI, 1.57 - 2.14), without significant heterogeneity, and no publication bias was detected. Our results showed that high expression of miR-222 is associated with poor overall survival of patients with cancers and could be used as a predictive biomarker for prognosis of various cancers.

  14. Estimation of the radiological risk related to the presence of radon 222 in a hydrotherapy centre in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labidi, S [Institut Superieur des Technologies Medicales de Tunis (Tunisia); Essafi, F [Faculte de Medecine de Tunis, Section de Biophysique, Tunis (Tunisia); Mahjoubi, H [Institut Superieur des Technologies Medicales de Tunis (Tunisia)

    2006-09-15

    The {sup 222}Rn concentration in air was measured in a thermal water spa used as a hydrotherapy centre in Tunisia. The associated health risk for employees and patients due to the inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its progeny was estimated. A protection scheme for the employees of the spas has been designed. Results show that the {sup 222}Rn concentration varies in the range 33-589 Bq m{sup -3}. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations measured in the present study show lower values in comparison to those reported for thermal spas in other countries. The {sup 222}Rn concentration in different rooms of the spa depends mainly on the ventilation rate. A model based on a dosimetric approach was adopted to estimate the radon risk considering the {sup 222}Rn concentration, the time spent in the spa, and the radioactive equilibrium factor F. The annual effective dose was found to vary between 0.2 and 1.7 mSv for workers while the range for patients was from 2.8 x 10{sup -4} to 1.1 x 10{sup -4} mSv. These values are within the ICRP recommended values. (note)

  15. Development of a highly sensitive radon-222 amplifier (HiSRA) for low-level atmospheric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topin, Sylvain; Richon, Patrick; Thomas, Vincent; Gréau, Claire; Pujos, Julie; Moulin, Julien; Hovesepian, Alexandre; Deliere, Ludovic

    2017-05-01

    Radon ((222)Rn), a radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.82 days, is continuously emanated from soil, rocks, and water by the radioactive decay of (226)Ra. Radon-222 is released from the ground into the atmosphere, where it is transported mainly by turbulent diffusion or convection. For precise measurement of radon-222 atoms in the atmosphere, the detectors typically used present a small volume or surface area and are therefore not very sensitive, especially for online measurements and short sample intervals (Radon Amplifier (HiSRA) consisting in an enrichment system placed prior to a classic radon-222 analyzer. This system uses permeation membranes that make it possible to treat large quantities of air online (30 m(3) h(-1)). The radon-222 concentration is increased instantaneously by at least a factor of 30 across the HiSRA system. Therefore, in this study, when coupling to an ionization chamber (AlphaGUARDTM) at the outlet of the HiSRA system, the detection limit of the overall system is multiplied by factor of 30 and induces a new LD for a radon 222 gas analyzer lower than 1 Bq m(-3) for an integrating time of 10 min and 0.1 Bq m(-3) for 1 h. We constructed one radon amplifier prototype that provided the preliminary results for amplification efficiency and the initial measurements presented herein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. On the Correction of Spatial and Statistical Uncertainties in Systematic Measurements of 222Rn for Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külahcı, Fatih; Şen, Zekâi

    2013-12-01

    In earthquake prediction studies, the regional behaviour of accurate 222Rn measurements at a set of sites plays a significant role. Here, measurements are obtained using active and passive radon detector systems in an earthquake-active region of Turkey. Two new methods are proposed to explain the spatial behaviours and the statistical uncertainties in the 222Rn emission measurements along fault lines in relation to earthquake occurrence. The absolute point cumulative semivariogram (APCSV) and perturbation method (PM) help to depict the spatial distribution patterns of 222Rn in addition to the joint effects of the K dr, the radon distribution coefficient, and the perturbation radon distribution coefficient (PRDC). The K dr coefficient assists in identifying the spatial distributional behaviour in 222Rn concentrations and their migration along the Earth's surface layers. The PRDC considers not only the arithmetic averages but also the variances (or standard deviations) and the correlation coefficients, in addition to the size of the error among the 222Rn measurements. The applications of these methodologies are performed for 13,000 222Rn measurements that are deemed to be sufficient for the characterization of tectonics in the Keban Reservoir along the East Anatolian Fault System (EAFS) in Turkey. The results are evaluated for the İçme earthquake (M L 5.4, 5.7 km, 23 June 2011), which occurred in the vicinity of the EAFS.

  17. Using {sup 222}Rn as a tracer of geodynamical processes in underground environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladares, D.L. [GEA, Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San Luis (IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); Silva, A.A.R. da [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O.Box 66318, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Serviço Especializado em Engenharia de Segurança e Medicina do Trabalho, Departamento de Saúde, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua da Reitoria, 109, 05508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lacerda, T. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n" o, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n" o, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Rosas, J.P. de [GEA, Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San Luis (IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); Tognelli, G. [Departamento de Geología, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-01

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, were measured and analyzed, with the aim to assess the potential use of this radioactive noble gas as a tracer of geological processes in underground environments. La Carolina gold mine and Los Cóndores tungsten mine are today used as tourism mines. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose. Measurements were performed during both winter and summer seasons. The findings show that in these environments, significant radon concentrations are subject to large seasonal fluctuations, due to the strong dependence on natural ventilation with the outside temperature variations. For both mines, higher concentration values of {sup 222}Rn were observed in summer than in winter; with an extreme ratio of 2.5 times between summer and winter seasons for Los Cóndores mine. The pattern of radon transport inside La Carolina mine revealed, contrary to what was believed, that this mine behaves as a system with two entrances located at different levels. However, this feature can only be observed in the winter season, when there is a marked difference between the inside and outside temperatures of the mine. In the case of Los Cóndores mine, the radon concentration pattern distribution is principally established by air current due to chimney-effect in summer and winter seasons. In both cases, the analyses of radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents, and then localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments. - Highlights: • {sup 222}Rn levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina • CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose • higher concentration values of {sup 222}Rn were observed in summer than in winter • radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents • it localizes unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments.

  18. Efficacy of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 as an anesthetic agent for blocking sensory-motor responses in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlana Ramlochansingh

    Full Text Available Anesthetics are drugs that reversibly relieve pain, decrease body movements and suppress neuronal activity. Most drugs only cover one of these effects; for instance, analgesics relieve pain but fail to block primary fiber responses to noxious stimuli. Alternately, paralytic drugs block synaptic transmission at neuromuscular junctions, thereby effectively paralyzing skeletal muscles. Thus, both analgesics and paralytics each accomplish one effect, but fail to singularly account for all three. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 is structurally similar to benzocaine, a typical anesthetic for anamniote vertebrates, but contains a sulfate moiety rendering this drug more hydrophilic. MS-222 is used as anesthetic in poikilothermic animals such as fish and amphibians. However, it is often argued that MS-222 is only a hypnotic drug and its ability to block neural activity has been questioned. This prompted us to evaluate the potency and dynamics of MS-222-induced effects on neuronal firing of sensory and motor nerves alongside a defined motor behavior in semi-intact in vitro preparations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Electrophysiological recordings of extraocular motor discharge and both spontaneous and evoked mechanosensory nerve activity were measured before, during and after administration of MS-222, then compared to benzocaine and a known paralytic, pancuronium. Both MS-222 and benzocaine, but not pancuronium caused a dose-dependent, reversible blockade of extraocular motor and sensory nerve activity. These results indicate that MS-222 as benzocaine blocks the activity of both sensory and motor nerves compatible with the mechanistic action of effective anesthetics, indicating that both caine-derivates are effective as single-drug anesthetics for surgical interventions in anamniotes.

  19. Comparison of the quantulus 1220 and 300SL liquid scintillation counters for the analysis of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Jung, Yoon Hee; Lee, Wanno; Choi, Guen Sik; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Liquid scintillation counters (LSCs) are commonly used as an analytical method for detecting {sup 222}Rn in groundwater because they involve a simple sample pretreatment and allow high throughout with an autosampler. The Quantulus 1220 is the best-selling LSC in Korea, but its production was stopped. Recently, a new type of LSC, the 300SL, was introduced. In this study, the 300SL was compared with the Quantulus 1220 in order to evaluate the ability of each apparatus to detect {sup 222}Rn in groundwater. The Quantulus 1220 and 300SL were used to detect the presence of {sup 222}Rn. Radon gas was extracted from a groundwater sample using a water-immiscible cocktail in a LSC vial. The optimal analytical conditions for each LSC were determined using a {sup 222}Rn calibration source prepared with a {sup 226}Ra source. The optimal pulse shape analysis level for alpha and beta separation was 80 for the Quantulus 1220, and the corresponding pulse length index was 12 in the 300SL. The counting efficiency of the Quantulus 1220 for alpha emissions was similar to that of the 300SL, but the background count rate of the Quantulus 1220 was 10 times lower than that of the 300SL. The minimum detectable activity of the Quantulus 1220 was 0.08 Bq·L{sup -,} while that of the 300SL was 0.20 Bq·L{sup -1}. The analytical results regarding {sup 222}Rn in groundwater were less than 10% different between these LSCs. The 300SL is an LSC that is comparable to the Quantulus 1220 for detecting {sup 222}Rn in groundwater. Both LSCs can be applied to determine the levels of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater under the management of the Ministry of Environment.

  20. 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO 5-aminotetrazolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Schottenberger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of four salts of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO and 5-aminotetrazole are described. Anhydrous 1:1 (Pbca, Rgt = 0.041 and 1:2 (P, Rgt = 0.038 salts form hydrogen-bonded layers of anions and cations. The monohydrate of the 1:1 compound (P21/c, Rgt = 0.038 shows infinite chains of DABCO cations and an undulated layer of anions and water molecules. The octahydrate of the 3:2 compound (P21/c, Rgt = 0.042 features DABCO triples and clusters of four tetrazolate ions in a network of water molecules.

  1. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    1999-01-01

    rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete,autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 m Bq h"-"1 kg "-"1. Under consideration...... of the specific applications of the investigated building materials, the contribution to the indoor radon-222concentration in a single-family reference house is calculated. Numerical modelling is used to help extrapolate the laboratory measurements on small samples to full scale walls. Application of typical...

  2. A radon 222 traceability chain from primary standard to field detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picolo, J L; Pressyanov, D; Blanchis, P; Barbier, M; Michielsen, N; Grassin, D; Voisin, V; Turek, K

    2000-03-01

    The development of a primary standard from a method for measuring the absolute activity of 222Rn has also made it possible to establish secondary standards. Detailed procedures to obtain these secondary standards are given. These standards are, in particular, adapted to the requirements of laboratories that have developed equipment for the calibration and comparison of instruments measuring the concentration of radon and its daughters. An example of the implementation of these new resources applied to the qualification of field detectors is given. The propagation of measurement uncertainties at each level (primary, secondary, test radon chamber) is described.

  3. Tris{N-[bis(dimethylaminophosphinoyl]-2,2,2-trichloroacetamido}(triphenylphosphine oxideholmium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy V. Amirkhanov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ho(C6H12Cl3N3O2P3(C18H15OP], the HoIII ion is surrounded by six O atoms from the three bidentate N-[bis(dimethylaminophosphinoyl]-2,2,2-trichloroacetamido ligands (L− and by one O atom from the triphenylphosphine oxide ligand, with the formation of a distorted monocapped octahedron. In one ligand L−, the trichloromethyl group is rotationally disordered between two orientations in a 1:1 ratio, while two dimethylamino groups in another ligand L− are disordered between two conformations, each with the same 1:1 ratio.

  4. 1,4-Diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridocadmate(II monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Ben Rhaiem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound (C6H14N2[CdCl4]·H2O contained one 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dication, a tetrahedral CdCl42− anion and a lattice water molecule. In the crystal, the solvate water molecule interacts with the cationic and anionic species via N—H...O and O—H...Cl [O...Cl = 3.289 (7 Å] hydrogen-bond interactions, respectively, leading to a layered supramolecular structure extending parallel to (011.

  5. 1,2-Dimethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridocuprate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Rong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (C8H18N2[CuCl4], torsion angles on the ethylene bridges of the 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane fragment are in the range 11.9 (5–15.0 (5° and the [CuCl4]2− anion has a strongly distorted tetrahedral geometry. The cation is connected to the anion via three-center N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  6. Indoor222Rn concentration in the exhibition and storage rooms of Polish geological museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Krystek, Marcin; Raczyński, Paweł; Głuszek, Ewa; Kietlińska-Michalik, Barbara; Niechwedowicz, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    The radon exhaled from radioactive mineral collections exhibited in five Polish geological museums may influence its total indoor concentration. Radon concentrations measured in the exhibition halls do not pose a risk for visitors or museum staff. However, air exceeding the ICRP (2007) action limit for workers (equal to 300Bq/m 3 ) was noted in the storage rooms of two museums. Significant 222 Rn activity concentrations equal to more than ~300kBq/m 3 were measured inside lead containers where radioactive minerals were stored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alpha radioactivity monitoring related to Radon-222 in water from wells in metropolitan area of Curitiba (PR), Brazil; Monitoramento da radioatividade alfa relacionada ao radonio-222 em aguas de pocos da regiao metropolitana de Curitiba (PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Kappke, Jaqueline; Claro, Flavia Del; Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy; Schelin, Hugo Reuters [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (IPPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita Oliveira [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    This research objective was to assess the level of randon-222 concentration in well water of the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Parana. Current work presents the results of indoor {sup 222}Rn activity ground water samples from artesian wells from aquifers of the region. The studies of radon activity in water were performed using the radon detector AlphaGUARD. The calculations of initial radon activity in water were done considering the {sup 222}Rn decay correction as well as equilibrium level of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra observed after 30 days of measurements. Obtained results show that about 70% of measured activity levels of {sup 222}Rn are higher than the recommended value of 11.1 Bq.L{sup -1}, which represent the risk for the human health associated with this radionuclide. The case study showed that previous measurements of radon are recommended for a construction project is implemented. In this case, it is observed that the radon concentrations decrease about 56% in the first water tank and 83% in the second water tank over the well. This fact shows that the actions for mitigation of radon are viable and do not require major modifications to the usual systems of construction. (author)

  8. Calibration factor determination for solid nuclear track detectors CR-39 type exposed to Rn-222; Determinacao do fator de calibracao para detectores solidos de tracos nucleares tipo CR-39 expostos a Rn-222

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazula, Camila Dias; Campos, Marcia Pires de; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci, E-mail: cdcazula@ipen.br, E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.br, E-mail: mazzilli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In the detection method with solid nuclear track detector, when a heavy particle rests on the detector surface, causes a breakdown in their molecular structure forming a trace. One of the typical applications of these detectors is the measurement of the concentration of Rn -222 in air, a noble radioactive gas, part of the U-238 series, emitting alpha particles and important in epidemiological studies to protect individuals from natural radiation. To determine the concentration of Rn -222 in the air in a room is necessary to know the density of lines (traces / cm{sup 2}) on the detector surface, the exposure time and the calibration factor. The determination of the calibration factor for CR-39 detectors was taken from the exposure of these to a known concentration of Rn-222. Therefore, the detectors were placed inside a cell of Lucas adapted and subsequently exposed to a concentration of Rn-222 15 kBq / m{sup 3}, by means of the apparatus RN-150 Pylon Electronics Incorporation, which has a source of Ra-226 and releases known concentrations of Rn-222. Six calibration factor determinations were performed, the average value obtained was 0.0534 ±0.0021 (traces / cm{sup 2} per Bq / m{sup 3} day). The results are consistent with literature values for the same type of detector and showed good reproducibility.

  9. Dose by {sup 222} Rn in houses of the Chihuahua city; Dosis por {sup 222} Rn en casas-habitacion de la ciudad de Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero S, L.H.; Talamantes F, C. [ITCH II, Ave. de las Industrias 11101, Chihuahua (Mexico); Villalba, M.L. [UACH, Facultad de Ingenieria, Chihuahua (Mexico); Dobson, P.F. [Laboratorio Nacional Lawrence Berkeley, California (United States); Ortalejo M, B. [UACH, Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: luis.colmenero@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The dose equivalent that the population of the Chihuahua city receives due to the radon in air that joined to values of uranium, thorium and potassium due to the floor and radon in water was determined, they give values very above the international and national norms. The state of Chihuahua contains near 56 locations distributed by the whole state. The city of Chihuahua, capital of the state, is surrounded of rocks with great content of uranium, for what their floor also contains to the {sup 226} Ra that generates to the {sup 222} Rn. The construction of the housings of the city of Chihuahua is mainly of brick, block and adobe; the material to elaborate them is take from the rocks and floor of the surroundings, this makes that the radon is presented in a great quantity of houses of this city. As the floor and water they also contain those natural radionuclides, the total dose equivalent that the inhabitants receive is bigger to other cities of the country. Diverse international organizations dedicated to the radioactivity, indicate that the level of the {sup 222} Rn should not surpass the 148 Bq/m{sup 3}, since this gas produces lung cancer. The state of Chihuahua has an index of deaths on the average by lung cancer of double the national average, the capital of the state also has a high index. The radon concentration in a house depends on the construction material with which was made, as well as of the existent climatic conditions. During the day, this concentration depends mainly on the interior temperature, so during the night and dawn increases the radon concentration. The radon is the biggest source of radioactive dose received by the human being and it can generate a problem of public health if the concentration is high during enough time, for what the city of Chihuahua has the geologic and climatic characteristics to have it. This study was carried out in 50 house-room of the city of Chihuahua. Built houses with brick, block and adobe were

  10. Corno cutâneo: estudo histopatológico retrospectivo de 222 casos Cutaneous horn: a retrospective histopathological study of 222 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Antunes de Oliveira Mantese

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O corno cutâneo é lesão acentuadamente hiperqueratótica, cônica e circunscrita, que pode ocultar tanto lesões benignas como malignas. OBJETIVO: Identificar histopatologicamente as principais dermatoses que se apresentam clinicamente como corno cutâneo. MÉTODOS: Estudo histopatológico retrospectivo de 222 cornos cutâneos, a partir de laudos anatomopatológicos do Hospital de Clínicas de Uberlândia entre os anos de 1990 e 2006. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 67,42 anos. O sexo feminino foi mais acometido (64,86%. O tempo médio de evolução foi de 16,92 meses. As localizações mais frequentes das lesões foram: cabeça (35,14% e membros superiores (31,08%. Observaram-se lesões histopatologicamente benignas em 41,44% e lesões prémalignas ou malignas em 58,56% dos cornos cutâneos estudados. Entre as lesões pré-malignas, a queratose actínica foi encontrada em 83,84% dos casos; entre as malignas, o carcinoma espinocelular correspondeu a 93,75% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo mostrou que a maioria dos cornos cutâneos surgiu sobre áreas do corpo expostas à luz solar, predominantemente, cabeça e membros superiores. Considerando-se a elevada frequência de lesões prémalignas e também a presença de lesões malignas, sugere-se exérese cirúrgica seguida de estudo histopatológico dos cornos cutâneos, para confirmação de diagnóstico específico.BACKGROUND: Cutaneous horn is a keratotic, conical and circumscribed lesion that can hide both benign or malignant lesions. OBJECTIVE: To identify,from a histopathological point of view, the main clinical dermatoses that are presented ,from a clinical point of view, as cutaneous horn. METHODS: RETROSPECTIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF 222 CASES OF CUTANEOUS HORNS THAT WERE CLASSIFIED AS SUCH BY ANATOMICAL-PATHOLOGICAL REPORTS OF THE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL (HOSPITAL DE CLÍNICAS DE UBERLÂNDIA FROM 1990 TO 2006. RESULTS: The average age of patients was

  11. {sup 222}Rn determination in water and brine samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno H., E-mail: oliveiratco2010@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) is the most common technique used for {sup 222}Rn determination in environmental aqueous sample. In this study, the performance of water-miscible (Ultima Gold AB) and immiscible (Optiscint) liquid scintillation cocktails has been compared for different matrices. {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra standard solutions were used for LSC calibration. {sup 214}Po region was defined as better for both cocktails. Counting efficiency of 76 % and optimum PSA level of 95 for Ultima Gold AB cocktail, and counting efficiency of 82 % and optimum PSA level of 85 for Optiscint cocktail were obtained. Both cocktails showed similar results when applied for {sup 222}Rn activity determination in water and brine samples. However the Optiscint is recommended due to its quenching resistance. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.06 Bq l{sup -1} were obtained for water samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 10:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.04 Bq l{sup -1} were obtained for brine samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 8:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. (author)

  12. Distribution of Airborne Radon-222 Concentrations in U.S. Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nero, A. V.; Schwehr, M. B.; Nazaroff, W. W.; Revzan, K. L.

    1986-11-01

    Apparently large exposures of the general public to the radioactive decay products of radon-222 present in indoor air have led to systematical appraisal of monitoring data from U.S. single-family homes; several ways of aggregating data were used that take into account differences in sample selection and season of measurements. The resulting distribution of annual-average radon-222 concentrations can be characterized by an arithmetic mean of 1.5 picocurie per liter (55 becquerels per cubic meter) and a long tail with 1 to 3% of homes exceeding 8 picocuries per liter, or by a geometric mean of 0.9 picocurie per liter and a geometric standard deviation of about 2.8. The standard deviation in the means is 15%, estimated from the number and variability of the available data sets, but the total uncertainty is larger because these data may not be representative. Available dose-response data suggest that an average of 1.5 picocuries per liter contributes about 0.3% lifetime risk of lung cancer and that, in the million homes with the highest concentrations, where annual exposures approximate or exceed those received by under-ground uranium miners, long-term occupants suffer an added lifetime risk of at least 2%, reaching extraordinary values at the highest concentrations observed.

  13. External Performance Evaluation Program Participation at Fluor Hanford (FH) 222S Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLARK, G.A.

    2002-06-01

    Fluor Hanford operates the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 2224 Laboratory on the Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington State. 222-S Laboratory recently celebrated its 50th anniversary of providing laboratory services to DOE and DOE contractors on the Hanford Site. The laboratory operated for many years as a production support analytical laboratory, but in the last two decades has supported the Hanford Site cleanup mission. The laboratory performs radioanalytical, inorganic, and organic characterization analyses on highly radioactive liquid and solid tank waste that will eventually be vitrified for long-term storage and or disposal. It is essential that the laboratory report defensible, highly credible data in its role as a service provider to DOE and DOE contractors. Among other things, the participation in a number of performance evaluation (PE) programs helps to ensure the credibility of the laboratory. The laboratory currently participates in Environmental Resource Associates' Water Pollution (WP) Studies and the DOE Environmental Management Laboratory (EML) Quality Assessment Program (QAP). DOE has mandated participation of the laboratory in the EML QAP. This EML program evaluates the competence of laboratories performing environmental radioanalytical measurements for DOE, and is the most comprehensive and well-established PE program in the DOE community for radiochemical laboratories. Samples are received and analyzed for radionuclides in air filter, soil, vegetation, and water matrices on a semiannual basis. The 222-S Laboratory has performed well in this program over the years as evidenced by the scores in the chart below.

  14. Exposures to 222Rn from consumption of underground municipal water supplies in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, F; Alaamer, A S; Tahir, S N A

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radon ((222)Rn) concentration measurements in municipal supply drinking water in metropolitan Lahore city of Pakistan and evaluation of consequent radiological effects. In this respect, water samples were collected in all nine municipal towns of Lahore city and analysed employing a high-resolution gamma spectrometric system. Radon concentration varied from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 7.9 +/- 2.1 Bq l(-1). Mean value of annual effective dose for an individual consumer was assessed to be 16.5 +/- 12.8 microSv y(-1). (222)Rn mean concentration measured in this study is comparable with the reported values for drinking water determined worldwide and found to be less than the limit of 100 Bq l(-1) recommended by the World Health Organisation for public water supplies. The results of this study may be helpful in establishing background levels of radon in drinking water that could be used not only to distinguish additional contributions when a contamination event occurs but also to implement water quality standards by the concerned authorities to maintain radioactive contamination free drinking water supplies for the population.

  15. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using a simple method for radon-222 analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m³ per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake water interaction.

  16. Relevance of air conditioning for {sup 222}Radon concentration in shops of the Savona Province, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panatto, Donatella [DiSSal, Department of Heath Sciences, University of Genoa, Via Pastore 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy)]. E-mail: panatto@unige.it; Ferrari, Paola [DiSSal, Department of Heath Sciences, University of Genoa, Via Pastore 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Lai, Piero [DiSSal, Department of Heath Sciences, University of Genoa, Via Pastore 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Gallelli, Giovanni [DiSSal, Department of Heath Sciences, University of Genoa, Via Pastore 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy)

    2006-02-15

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentration was evaluated in shops of the Savona Province, Italy, between summer 2002 and winter 2002-2003. The main characteristics of each shops were recorded through a questionnaire investigating the ventilation rate and factors related to {sup 222}Rn precursors in the soil and the construction materials. The main variables that were related to radon concentration were the following: age of the building, level of the shop above ground, season of the year, wind exposure, active windows, and type of heating system. Shops equipped with individual air heating/conditioning systems exhibited radon concentrations that were three times higher than those of shops heated by centralized furnaces. Our data indicate that the level of pollution in the shops was of medium level, with an expected low impact on the salespersons' health. Only in wintertime, the action level of 200 Bq m{sup -3} for the confined environment was reached in 10 shops equipped with individual air heating/conditioning systems.

  17. Genetic effects of radon 222 in a population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically exposed; Efectos geneticos del radon 222 en una poblacion de Drosophila melanogaster cronicamente expuesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    It was investigated the mutagenic effect of Radon 222 during a experimental period of 11 generations. In this lapse Drosophila melanogaster larvae line Canton-S were maintained in a radon atmosphere. In each test generation had been extracted males, consequently exposed to radiation which were subjected to a crossing series with a bearer marker genes of according to the Wallace experimental design (1956). Due to the experimental conditions it only was determined the recessive lethal mutations frequency for the second chromosome in the 1,4,7 and 11 generations. Of all study it was conduced in parallel way a non-treated witness population. The concentrations at which was subjected the experimental population varied of generation to generation from 12 {+-} 2 to 43 {+-} 5 kBq/m{sup 3}. Our analysis correspond to lethality determination in 1182 second chromosomes distributed between two populations and the different exposition generations. The study allow to determine the respective frequencies of recessive lethal genes varying according to the population and/or generation between 10.53 and 22.02%. The statistical analysis of data did not show significant differences among the different populations. (Author)

  18. Determination of {sup 222}Rn and its physico-chemical and biological characteristics in aquifers of Toluca valley; Determinacion de {sup 222}Rn y caracteristicas fisicoquimicas y biologicas en acuiferos del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A.; Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Jauregui, B.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    In this work it is realized a geochemical study which includes the evaluation of {sup 222} Rn concentration in drinking water wells at Toluca city and a spring water of Almoloya de Juarez municipality at State of mexico. the same is studied about evolution of {sup 222} Rn concentration in water of the hydrating which supply it to those wells. the geochemical evaluation also covers the determination of major and minor elements or trace and the biological analysis of water. The study includes two seasonal cycles, the low water mark one and other the rainy for being able to evaluate the aquifers reloading effects in the water composition. (Author)

  19. The ventilation influence on the spatial distribution of Rn-222 and its decay products in human inhabited environments; Influencia da ventilacao na distribuicao espacial do Rn-222 e seus produtos de decaimento em ambientes de convivio humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, S.N.M.; Hadler, J.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Paulo, S.R. [Mato Grosso Univ., Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1996-12-31

    For the determination of the ventilation influence (directional flux of air induced by a fan) on the spatial distribution of Rn-222 and its decay products (daughters) present in human inhabited environments, a group of experimental results were obtained by means of the fission nuclear tracks left by {alpha}-particles over adequate plastic detectors CR-39. The exposure of these detectors was done in a closed environment considering the influence of ventilation for different angles, velocities and distances from fan. The results show that a relative quantity of daughters of Rn-222 are pulled out of the environment due to the effects of ventilation and plat-out 2 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Examining Submarine Ground-Water Discharge into Florida Bay by using 222Rn and Continuous Resistivity Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter; Reich, Chris; Rudnick, David

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of submarine ground-water discharge (SGD) into Florida Bay remain one of the least understood components of a regional water balance. To quantify the magnitude and seasonality of SGD into upper Florida Bay, research activities included the use of the natural geochemical tracer, 222Rn, to examine potential SGD hotspots (222Rn surveys) and to quantify the total (saline + fresh water component) SGD rates at select sites (222Rn time-series). To obtain a synoptic map of the 222Rn distribution within our study site in Florida Bay, we set up a flow-through system on a small boat that consisted of a Differential Global Positioning System, a calibrated YSI, Inc CTD sensor with a sampling rate of 0.5 min, and a submersible pump (z = 0.5 m) that continuously fed water into an air/water exchanger that was plumbed simultaneously into four RAD7 222Rn air monitors. To obtain local advective ground-water flux estimates, 222Rn time-series experiments were deployed at strategic positions across hydrologic and geologic gradients within our study site. These time-series stations consisted of a submersible pump, a Solinist DIVER (to record continuous CTD parameters) and two RAD7 222Rn air monitors plumbed into an air/water exchanger. Repeat time-series 222Rn measurements were conducted for 3-4 days across several tidal excursions. Radon was also measured in the air during each sampling campaign by a dedicated RAD7. We obtained ground-water discharge information by calculating a 222Rn mass balance that accounted for lateral and horizontal exchange, as well as an appropriate ground-water 222Rn end member activity. Another research component utilized marine continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys to examine the subsurface salinity structure within Florida Bay sediments. This system consisted of an AGI SuperSting 8 channel receiver attached to a streamer cable that had two current (A,B) electrodes and nine potential electrodes that were spaced 10 m apart. A separate DGPS

  1. Attached, unattached fraction of progeny concentrations and equilibrium factor for dose assessments from {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Parminder; Saini, Komal; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh [Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Physics, Amritsar, Punjab (India); Mishra, Rosaline; Sahoo, Bijay Kumar [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Mumbai (India)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, measurements of indoor radon ({sup 222}Rn), thoron ({sup 220}Rn) and their equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) were carried out in 96 dwellings from 22 different villages situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India, by using LR-115 type II-based pinhole twin cup dosimeters and deposition-based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). The annual average indoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations observed in these dwellings were 63.82 and 89.59 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively, while the average EEC (attached + unattached) for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn was 29.28 and 2.74 Bq/m{sup 3}. For {sup 222}Rn (f{sub Rn}) and {sup 220}Rn (f{sub Tn}), the average values of unattached fraction were 0.11 and 0.09, respectively. The equilibrium factors for radon (F{sub Rn}) and thoron (F{sub Tn}) varied from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average of 0.50, and from 0.01 to 0.34 with an average of 0.05, respectively. The annual inhalation dose due to mouth and nasal breathing was calculated using dose conversion factors and unattached fractions. The indoor annual effective doses for {sup 222}Rn (AEDR) and {sup 220}Rn (AEDT) were found to be 1.92 and 0.83 mSv a{sup -1}, respectively. The values of {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn concentrations and annual effective doses obtained in the present study are within the safe limits as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for indoor dwelling exposure conditions. (orig.)

  2. Genetic variation at 9p22.2 and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Susan J; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Gayther, Simon A

    2011-01-01

    . A genome-wide association study recently identified an association between the rare allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3814113 (ie, the C allele) at 9p22.2 and decreased risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated the association of this SNP with ovarian...... cancer risk to age 80 years of 48%, and those with the CC genotype were predicted to have a risk of 33%. Conclusion Common genetic variation at the 9p22.2 locus was associated with decreased risk of ovarian cancer for carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation....

  3. Exploring (222)Rn as a tool for tracing groundwater inflows from eskers and moraines into slope peatlands of the Amos region of Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthot, Laureline; Pinti, Daniele L; Larocque, Marie; Gagné, Sylvain; Ferlatte, Miryane; Cloutier, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    Peatlands can play an important role in the hydrological dynamics of a watershed. However, interactions between groundwater and peat water remain poorly understood. Here, we present results of an exploratory study destined to test radon ((222)Rn) as a potential tracer of groundwater inflows from fluvioglacial landform aquifers to slope peatlands in the Amos region of Quebec, Canada. (222)Rn occurs in groundwater but is expected to be absent from peat water because of its rapid degassing to the atmosphere. Any (222)Rn activity detected in peat water should therefore derive from groundwater inflow. (222)Rn activity was measured in groundwater from municipal, domestic wells and newly drilled and instrumented piezometers from the Saint-Mathieu-Berry and Barraute eskers (n = 9), from the Harricana Moraine (n = 4), and from the fractured bedrock (n = 3). Forty measurements of (222)Rn activity were made from piezometers installed in five slope peatlands, along six transects oriented perpendicular to the fluvioglacial deposits. The relationship between (222)Rn and total dissolved solids (TDS) measured in water from the mineral deposits underlying the peat layer suggests that (222)Rn is introduced by lateral inflow from eskers and moraine together with salinity. This input is then diluted by peat water, depleted in both TDS and (222)Rn. The fact that a relationship between TDS and (222)Rn is visible calls for a continuous inflow of groundwater from lateral eskers/moraines, being (222)Rn rapidly removed from the system by radioactive decay. Although more research is required to improve the sampling and tracing techniques, this work shows the potential of (222)Rn tracer to identify groundwater inflow areas from granular aquifers found in eskers and moraines to slope peatlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radon-222 as communication and information tool about natural radioactivity; O radonio-222 como instrumento na comunicacao e informacao sobre radioatividade natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelliccione, Nina Beatriz B.; Gouvea, Rita de Cassia S.; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria (LARARA)]. E-mail: egbakel@vm.uff.br; Gouvea, Vandir A. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The nuclear area still suffers from the psychological impact caused by the atomic bombs detonated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also from the Chernobyl plant explosion. This situation results from two main reasons: manipulation of public opinion and lack of suitable information. In general, knowledge about radioactivity is very superficial, impregnated by preconceived notions transmitted by the media or by pacific organizations and ecologic groups. Rejection attitudes are observed among most of the general public that expresses an opinion although it does not know the subject. To change this situation has been the major challenge of the nuclear sector and needs to better communication with people at large. To teach is fundamental. This work reports on a didactic experiment carried out with 130 under graduating and graduating students in Biology and Environmental Science from the Fluminense Federal University. The goal was to try to perceive the existence of a natural radioactivity, hence not related to human activities, through radon-222 dosage. This practice complements the theoretical lessons, as it illustrates properties of ionizing radiation, and can easily be transposed to the general public. The monitoring equipment works detecting nuclear tracks. It is an easy to handle small and light device - hence friendly, to be put in the most used room of each one's house. It is taught how to use it and how to give correct information to interested people. Radon measurements are discussed with the students, and at the same time they perceive the existence of natural radioactivity, present everywhere, they start to change their own perception of radioactivity, which turns to be very different from their original nuclear imaginary. (author)

  5. Bis(N-{bis[methyl(phenylamino]phosphoryl}-2,2,2-trichloroacetamidedinitratodioxidouranium(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir M. Amirkhanov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [UO2L2(NO32] {L = N-{bis[methyl(phenylamino]phosphoryl}-2,2,2-trichloroacetamide, C16H17Cl3N3O2P}, the UVI ions are eight-coordinated by axial oxido ligands and six equatorial O atoms from the phosphoryl and nitrate groups in a distorted hexagonal–bipyramidal geometry. There are disordered fragments in the two coordinating L ligands: the trichloromethyl group is rotationally disordered between two orientations [occupancy ratio 0.567 (15:0.433 (15] in one ligand, and a methyl(phenylamine fragment is disordered over two conformations [occupancy ratio 0.60 (4:0.40 (4] in the other ligand. In the crystal structure, intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the amine and nitrate groups are observed.

  6. Influence of the meteorological spatial resolution on Radon-222 backward modelling with FLEXPART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, D.; Seibert, P.; Vargas, A.

    2009-04-01

    One of the main important origins of uncertainties in atmospheric transport modelling comes from the meteorological input fields. Currently, operational analysis from the ECMWF, one of the reference sources of meteorological inputs used for modelling, are provided with horizontal spatial resolutions from 2 degrees down to 0.2 degrees, and also with different vertical and temporal resolutions. In this work it has been studied how the increase in spatial resolution of the ECMWF fields would affect the dispersion calculations of Radon-222. Backward modelling has been done with the widely used Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPARTv6.2.Simulated radon concentration time series were compared with measurements at a station located in the outskirts of Barcelona (Spain). Results show relevant differences and better agreement is achieved when using the highest resolution fields. This study shows that if good model performance is desired, it is advisable to use ECMWF with 0.2 deg resolution despite the increase in computational dema

  7. Radon ((222)Rn) in underground drinking water supplies of the Southern Greater Poland Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bem, Henryk; Plota, Urszula; Staniszewska, Marta; Bem, Ewa Maria; Mazurek, Daria

    Activity concentration of the (222)Rn radionuclide was determined in drinking water samples from the Sothern Greater Poland region by liquid scintillation technique. The measured values ranged from 0.42 to 10.52 Bq/dm(3) with the geometric mean value of 1.92 Bq/dm(3). The calculated average annual effective doses from ingestion with water and inhalation of this radionuclide escaping from water were 1.15 and 11.8 μSv, respectively. Therefore, it should be underlined that, generally, it's not the ingestion of natural radionuclides with water but inhalation of the radon escaping from water which is a substantial part of the radiological hazard due to the presence of the natural radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series in the drinking water.

  8. 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium bis(3-chlorobenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Shuo Yao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt C6H14N22+·2C7H4ClO2−, two 3-chlorobenzoate (3CBA anions are bridged by one diprotonated 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium (H2DABCO2+ dication through N—H...O hydrogen bonds. In this way, a trimeric unit is generated, in which the mean planes of the two 3CBA anions are twisted with respect to each other by a dihedral angle of 59.87 (9°. The trimeric units are linked into a three-dimensional network via weak C—H...O interactions.

  9. Development of Radon-222 as Natural Tracer for Monitoring the Remediation of NAPL in the Subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian M. Davis; Lewis Semprini; Jonathan Istok

    2003-02-27

    Naturally occurring 222-radon in ground water can potentially be used as an in situ partitioning tracer to characterize dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) saturations. The static method involves comparing radon concentrations in water samples from DNAPL-contaminated and non-contaminated portions of an aquifer. During a push-pull test, a known volume of test solution (radon-free water containing a conservation tracer) is first injected (''pushed'') into a well; flow is then reversed and the test solution/groundwater mixture is extracted (''pulled'') from the same well. In the presence of NAPL radon transport is retarded relative to the conservative tracer. Assuming linear equilibrium partitioning, retardation factors for radon can be used to estimate NAPL saturations.The utility of this methodology was evaluated in laboratory and field settings.

  10. What we can learn from measurements of air electric conductivity in 222Rn-rich atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seran, E.; Godefroy, M.; Pili, E.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.

    2017-02-01

    Electric conductivity of air is an important characteristic of the electric properties of an atmosphere. Testing instruments to measure electric conductivity ranging from 10-13 to 10-9 S m-1 in natural conditions found in the Earth atmosphere is not an easy task. One possibility is to use stratospheric balloon flights; another (and a simpler one) is to look for terrestrial environments with significant radioactive decay. In this paper we present measurements carried out with different types of conductivity sensors in two 222Rn-rich environments, i.e., in the Roselend underground tunnel (French Alps) and in the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety BACCARA (BAnC de CAllibrage du RAdon) chamber. The concept of the conductivity sensor is based on the classical time relaxation method. New elements in our design include isolation of the sensor sensitive part (electrode) from the external electric field and sensor miniaturization. This greatly extends the application domain of the sensor and permits to measure air electric conductivity when the external electric field is high and varies from few tens of V m-1 to up to few tens of kV m-1. This is suitable to propose the instrument for a planetary mission. Two-fold objectives were attained as the outcome of these tests and their analysis. First was directly related to the performances of the conductivity sensors and the efficiency of the conductivity sensor design to shield the external electric field. Second objective aimed at understanding the decay mechanisms of 222Rn and its progeny in atmosphere and the impact of the enclosed space on the efficiency of gas ionization.

  11. 34 CFR 222.68 - What tax rates does the Secretary use if two or more different classifications of real property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... different classifications of real property are taxed at different rates? 222.68 Section 222.68 Education... different classifications of real property are taxed at different rates? If the real property of an LEA and its generally comparable LEAs consists of two or more classifications of real property taxed at...

  12. 36 CFR 222.25 - Protection of wild free-roaming horses and burros when they are upon other than the National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-roaming horses and burros when they are upon other than the National Forest System or public lands. 222.25... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.25 Protection of wild free-roaming horses... animals and herds of wild free-roaming horses and burros will be under the protection of the Chief, Forest...

  13. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 ...

  14. 27 CFR 555.222 - Table of distances between fireworks process buildings and between fireworks process and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fireworks process buildings and between fireworks process and fireworks nonprocess buildings. 555.222... between fireworks process buildings and between fireworks process and fireworks nonprocess buildings. Net weight of fireworks 1 (pounds) Display fireworks 2 (feet) Consumer fireworks 3 (feet) 0-100 57 37 101-200...

  15. 24 CFR 884.222 - Inapplicability of low-rent public housing model lease and grievance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inapplicability of low-rent public... Development and Operation § 884.222 Inapplicability of low-rent public housing model lease and grievance procedures. Model lease and grievance procedures established by HUD for PHA-owned low-rent public housing are...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information with the wrong consumer(s), and other occurrences that may compromise the accuracy or integrity of... and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies E Appendix E to Part 222 Banks... the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies The Board...

  17. 40 CFR 415.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... point source subject to this subpart and producing titanium dioxide by the sulfate process must achieve... SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.222 Effluent limitations guidelines... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): Subpart V—Titanium Dioxide...

  18. Assessment of (222)Rn emanation from ore body and backfill tailings in low-grade underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devi Prasad; Sahu, Patitapaban; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekanand; Patnaik, R Lokeswara

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of (222)Rn emanation from the ore and backfill tailings in an underground uranium mine located at Jaduguda, India. The effects of surface area, porosity, (226)Ra and moisture contents on (222)Rn emanation rate were examined. The study revealed that the bulk porosity of backfill tailings is more than two orders of magnitude than that of the ore. The geometric mean radon emanation rates from the ore body and backfill tailings were found to be 10.01 × 10(-3) and 1.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Significant positive linear correlations between (222)Rn emanation rate and the (226)Ra content of ore and tailings were observed. For normalised (226)Ra content, the (222)Rn emanation rate from tailings was found to be 283 times higher than the ore due to higher bulk porosity and surface area. The relative radon emanation from the tailings with moisture fraction of 0.14 was found to be 2.4 times higher than the oven-dried tailings. The study suggested that the mill tailings used as a backfill material significantly contributes to radon emanation as compared to the ore body itself and the (226)Ra content and bulk porosity are the dominant factors for radon emanation into the mine atmosphere.

  19. 17 CFR 275.222-2 - Definition of “client” for purposes of the national de minimis standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1940 § 275.222-2 Definition of “client” for purposes of the national de minimis standard. For purposes... definition of “client” provided by section 275.203(b)(3)-1 without giving regard to paragraph (b)(6) of that...

  20. 9 CFR 381.222 - States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 5(c... Poultry Products Therein § 381.222 States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of... each State designated in § 381.221 under paragraph 5(c) of the Act, except as otherwise provided in...

  1. 48 CFR 52.222-51 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The services shall be furnished at prices which are, or are based on, established catalog or market... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment....222-51 Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance...

  2. Estimation of nutrient supply by groundwater in a tidal river, Seto Inland Sea region, Japan, using 222Rn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y.; Onodera, S.; Shimizu, Y.; Oyagi, H.; Saito, M.; Kitaoka, K.; Moriyama, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Ground water discharge to the oceans is significant as nutrient supply (Slomp et al, 2004 etc). In coastal urban area, land fill has generally been conducted in offshore and tidal flat. Groundwater gradient is generally declined by these constructions of new lands, and submarine groundwater discharge tends to stop in coastal areas. On the other hand, groundwater would discharge to rivers in a terrestrial area. In the research, we aimed to estimate the nutrient supply by groundwater to the tidal river. The study area is located on the river mouth area of Asahi River in Seto Inland Sea watershed, western Japan. We collected water samples at one station of the river mouth area for the analysis of 222Rn, nutrient and inorganic elements at two hours interval from a low tide to the next low tide in a low and high flow period, respectively. In addition, groundwater near the river sampling station, bottom sea water in Seto Inland Sea, and river water at 4 points from the station to the 4km upstream area were collected. The hourly changes in 222Rn and nutrient concentrations at the river mouth station in low flow period of July 13, 2009 are shown in Figure 1. The low tides were at 9:00 and 21:00. The 222Rn concentration was lower at the high tide, and this value was almost same to the concentration at the point of 4km upstream. On the other hand, the 222Rn concentration was highest at the low tide, and it was twice of that at the high tide. The 222Rn of groundwater was one order higher than that of the river. These results suggested the groundwater discharges to the river at the low tide and it would stop at the high tide, respectively. In addition, comparative variations of dissolved nitrate and phosphorus were indicated that the nitrate was almost constant, however the phosphorus changed along with the 222Rn variation. This suggests that nitrate source was the river water from the upstream area, while phosphorus source was the groundwater. In the high flow period, the

  3. Specificity of the Spectrophotometry for Detecting Aminopolyether K2.2.2 in 18F-FDG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jin-ming

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 氨基聚醚(K2.2.2含量是18F-FDG质控中的关键指标,比较了两种常用测量K2.2.2方法的专属性。分别采用分光光度计和半定量TLC 碘显色法测量了14个样品,其中9个阴性样品、2个阳性样品和3个供试品,并与LC-MS/MS测量对比。结果显示:9个阴性样品经分光光度计法测量均为阳性,K2.2.2的测量结果在6.7~470.0 μg/mL;2个阳性样品结果偏高(53,73 μg/mL),3个供试品的K2.2.2含量在14.3~19.2 μg/mL;半定量TLC 碘显色法测量9个阴性样品结果为阴性,2个阳性样品半定量结果与实际一致,3个供试品的K2.2.2含量低于10 μg/mL;LC-MS/MS法测量的14个样品的结果与半定量TLC 碘显色法的结果一致。以上结果表明,半定量TLC 碘显色法测量K2.2.2的专属性较好,适用于测量18F-FDG溶液中K2.2.2含量。

  4. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Przylibski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear Cave in Kletno, Poland – a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night. Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit and at home (outside their working hours

  5. Role of miR-222-3p in c-Src-Mediated Regulation of Osteoclastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Takigawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play a mostly post-transcriptional regulatory role in gene expression. Using RAW264.7 pre-osteoclast cells and genome-wide expression analysis, we identified a set of miRNAs that are involved in osteoclastogenesis. Based on in silico analysis, we specifically focused on miR-222-3p and evaluated its role in osteoclastogenesis. The results show that the inhibitor of miR-222-3p upregulated the mRNA levels of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, while its mimicking agent downregulated their mRNA levels. Western blot analysis showed that its inhibitor increased the protein levels of TRAP and cathepsin K, while its mimicking agent decreased their levels. Genome-wide mRNA expression analysis in the presence and absence of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL predicted c-Src as a potential regulatory target of miR-222-3p. Live cell imaging using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET technique revealed that miR-222-3p acted as an inhibitor of c-Src activity, and a partial silencing of c-Src suppressed RANKL-induced expression of TRAP and cathepsin K, as well as the number of multi-nucleated osteoclasts and their pit formation. Collectively, the study herein demonstrates that miR-222-3p serves as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and c-Src mediates its inhibition of cathepsin K and TRAP.

  6. Identification of natural and artificial DNA substrates for light-activated LOV-HTH transcription factor EL222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Motta-Mena, Laura B; Gardner, Kevin H

    2012-12-18

    Light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains serve as the photosensory modules for a wide range of plant and bacterial proteins, conferring blue light-dependent regulation to effector activities as diverse as enzymes and DNA binding. LOV domains can also be engineered into a variety of exogenous targets, allowing similar regulation for new protein-based reagents. Common to these proteins is the ability for LOV domains to reversibly form a photochemical adduct between an internal flavin chromophore and the surrounding protein, using this to trigger conformational changes that affect output activity. Using the Erythrobacter litoralis protein EL222 model system that links LOV regulation to a helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding domain, we demonstrated that the LOV domain binds and inhibits the HTH domain in the dark, releasing these interactions upon illumination [Nash, A. I., et al. (2011) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 9449-9454]. Here we combine genomic and in vitro selection approaches to identify optimal DNA binding sites for EL222. Within the bacterial host, we observe binding at several genomic sites using a 12 bp sequence consensus that is also found by in vitro selection methods. Sequence-specific alterations in the DNA consensus reduce EL222 binding affinity in a manner consistent with the expected binding mode, a protein dimer binding to two repeats. Finally, we demonstrate the light-dependent activation of transcription of two genes adjacent to an EL222 binding site. Taken together, these results shed light on the native function of EL222 and provide useful reagents for further basic and applications research of this versatile protein.

  7. Insights on the structural perturbations in human MTHFR Ala222Val mutant by protein modeling and molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhinand, P A; Shaikh, Faraz; Bhakat, Soumendranath; Radadiya, Ashish; Bhaskar, L V K S; Shah, Anamik; Ragunath, P K

    2016-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) protein catalyzes the only biochemical reaction which produces methyltetrahydrofolate, the active form of folic acid essential for several molecular functions. The Ala222Val polymorphism of human MTHFR encodes a thermolabile protein associated with increased risk of neural tube defects and cardiovascular disease. Experimental studies have shown that the mutation does not affect the kinetic properties of MTHFR, but inactivates the protein by increasing flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) loss. The lack of completely solved crystal structure of MTHFR is an impediment in understanding the structural perturbations caused by the Ala222Val mutation; computational modeling provides a suitable alternative. The three-dimensional structure of human MTHFR protein was obtained through homology modeling, by taking the MTHFR structures from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus as templates. Subsequently, the modeled structure was docked with FAD using Glide, which revealed a very good binding affinity, authenticated by a Glide XP score of -10.3983 (kcal mol(-1)). The MTHFR was mutated by changing Alanine 222 to Valine. The wild-type MTHFR-FAD complex and the Ala222Val mutant MTHFR-FAD complex were subjected to molecular dynamics simulation over 50 ns period. The average difference in backbone root mean square deviation (RMSD) between wild and mutant variant was found to be ~.11 Å. The greater degree of fluctuations in the mutant protein translates to increased conformational stability as a result of mutation. The FAD-binding ability of the mutant MTHFR was also found to be significantly lowered as a result of decreased protein grip caused by increased conformational flexibility. The study provides insights into the Ala222Val mutation of human MTHFR that induces major conformational changes in the tertiary structure, causing a significant reduction in the FAD-binding affinity.

  8. Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Kynard, B.; Shi, X.; Duan, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were studied. MS-222 caused higher glucose (GLU) concentrations in anaesthetic test groups than for the control group. Triglyceride (TGL) concentrations of fish in the 140 and 160mgL-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of other groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than the level in 80, 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than those in the 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Levels of total protein (TP), cholesterol (CHOL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in anaesthetic test groups were not significantly influenced by MS-222. Clove oil did not have significant effects on levels of GLU, TP, CHOL, ALT and ALP. TGL concentration of fish exposed to 180mgL-1 clove oil was significantly higher than those of the rest anaesthetic groups. AST activities of fish exposed to 120, 150 and 180mgL-1 were significantly higher than those of 60 and 90mgL-1. Overall, TGL and AST could be potentially used as indicators of anaesthetic stress for juvenile Siberian sturgeon. Based on blood biochemical parameters, the appropriate anaesthetic concentrations of MS-222 and clove oil were 80-120mgL-1 and 60-90mgL-1, respectively. Clove oil was a promising alternative to MS-222. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  9. Recent exposure to ultrafine particles in school children alters miR-222 expression in the extracellular fraction of saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriens, Annette; Nawrot, Tim S; Saenen, Nelly D; Provost, Eline B; Kicinski, Michal; Lefebvre, Wouter; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Van Deun, Jan; De Wever, Olivier; Vrijens, Karen; De Boever, Patrick; Plusquin, Michelle

    2016-07-26

    Ultrafine particles (children. This study examined whether exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is associated with changes in the extracellular content of miR-222 and miR-146a of children. Saliva was collected from 80 children at two different time points, circa 11 weeks apart and stabilized for RNA preservation. The extracellular fraction of saliva was obtained by means of differential centrifugation and ultracentrifugation. Expression levels of miR-222 and miR-146a were profiled by qPCR. We regressed the extracellular miRNA expression against recent exposure to ultrafine and fine particles measured at the school site using mixed models, while accounting for sex, age, BMI, passive smoking, maternal education, hours of television use, time of the day and day of the week. Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) at the school site was positively associated with miR-222 expression in the extracellular fraction in saliva. For each IQR increase in particles in the class room (+8504 particles/cm(3)) or playground (+28776 particles/cm(3)), miR-222 was, respectively 23.5 % (95 % CI: 3.5 %-41.1 %; p = 0.021) or 29.9 % (95 % CI:10.6 %-49.1 %; p = 0.0027) higher. No associations were found between miR-146a and recent exposure to fine and ultrafine particles. Our results suggest a possible epigenetic mechanism via which cells respond rapidly to small particles, as exemplified by miR-222 changes in the extracellular fraction of saliva.

  10. Functional characterisation of the regulation of CAAT enhancer binding protein alpha by GSK-3 phosphorylation of Threonines 222/226

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastie CJ

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK3 activity is repressed following insulin treatment of cells. Pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 mimics the effect of insulin on Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK, Glucose-6 Phosphatase (G6Pase and IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP1 gene expression. CAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα regulates these gene promoters in liver and is phosphorylated on two residues (T222/T226 by GSK3, although the functional outcome of the phosphorylation has not been established. We aimed to establish whether CEBPα is a link between GSK3 and these gene promoters. Results C/EBPα represses the IGFBP1 thymine-rich insulin response element (TIRE, but mutation of T222 or T226 of C/EBPα to non-phosphorylatable alanines has no effect on C/EBPα activity in liver cells (towards the TIRE or a consensus C/EBP binding sequence. Phosphorylation of T222/T226 is decreased by GSK3 inhibition, suggesting GSK3 does phosphorylate T222/226 in intact cells. However, phosphorylation was not altered by treatment of liver cells with insulin. Meanwhile C/EBPα activity in 3T3 L1 preadipocytes was enhanced by mutation of T222/T226 and/or S230 to alanine residues. Finally, we demonstrate that C/EBPα is a very poor substrate for GSK3 in vitro and in cells. Conclusion The work demonstrates an important role for this domain in the regulation of C/EBPα activity in adipocytes but not hepatocytes, however GSK3 phosphorylation of these residues does not mediate regulation of this C/EBP activity. In short, we find no evidence that C/EBPα activity is regulated by direct phosphorylation by GSK3.

  11. Increased anesthesia time using 2,2,2-tribromoethanol-chloral hydrate with low impact on mouse psychoacoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheras, Kathleen J; Gow, Alexander

    2013-09-30

    To examine psychoacoustics in mice, we have used 2,2,2-tribromoethanol anesthesia in multiple studies. We find this drug is fast-acting and yields consistent results, providing 25-30 min of anesthesia. Our recent studies in binaural hearing prompted development of a regimen to anesthesia time to 1h. We tested a novel cocktail using 2,2,2-tribromoethanol coupled with low dose chloral hydrate to extend the effective anesthesia time. We have established an intraperitoneal dosing regimen for 2,2,2-tribromoethanol-chloral hydrate anesthesia. To measure efficacy of the drug cocktail, we measured auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) at 10 min intervals to determine the effects on hearing thresholds and wave amplitudes and latencies. This novel drug combination increases effective anesthesia to 1h. ABR Wave I amplitudes, but not latencies, are marginally suppressed. Additionally, amplitudes of the centrally derived Waves III and V show significant inter-animal variability that is independent of stimulus intensity. These data argue against the systematic suppression of ABRs by the drug cocktail. Using 2,2,2-tribromoethanol-chloral hydrate combination in psychoacoustic studies has several advantages over other drug cocktails, the most important being preservation of latencies from centrally- and peripherally-derived ABR waves. In addition, hearing thresholds are unchanged and wave amplitudes are not systematically suppressed, although they exhibit greater variability. We demonstrate that 375 mg/kg 2,2,2-tribromoethanol followed after 5 min by 200mg/kg chloral hydrate provides an anesthesia time of 60 min, has negligible effects on ABR wave latencies and thresholds and non-systematic effects on amplitudes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Volumic activities measurements and equivalent doses calculation of indoor 222Rn in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajid Choukri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a way of prevention, we have measured the volumic activities of indoor 222Rn and we have calculated the corresponding effective dose in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morocco. Seasonal variation of Radon activities and Relationships between variation of these activities and some parameters such height, depth and type of construction were also established in this work.Methods: The passive time-integrated method of using a solid state nuclear track detector (LR-115 type II was employed. These films, cut in pieces of 3.4 ´ 2.5 cm2, were placed in detector holders and enclosed in heat-scaled polyethylene bags.Results: The measured volumic activities of radon vary in houses, between 31 and 136 Bq/m3 (0.55 and 2.39 mSv/year with an average value of 80 Bq/m3 (1.41 mSv/year. In enclosed work area, they vary between 60 Bq/m3 (0.38 mSv/year in an ordinary area to 1884 Bq/m3 (11.9 mSv/year at not airy underground level of 12 m. the relatively higher volumic activities of 222Rn in houses were measured in Youssoufia and khouribga towns situated in regions rich in phosphate deposits. Measurements at the geophysical observatory of Berchid show that the volumic activity of radon increases with depth, this is most probably due to decreased ventilation. Conclusion: The obtained results show that the effective dose calculated for indoor dwellings are comparable to those obtained in other regions in the word. The risks related to the volumic activities of indoor radon could be avoided by simple precautions such the continuous ventilation. The reached high value of above 1884 Bq/m3 don't present any risk for workers health in the geophysical observatory of Berchid because workers spend only a few minutes by day in the cellar to control and reregister data.

  13. Down-regulation of MicroRNAs 222/221 in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia with Deranged Core-Binding Factor Subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Brioschi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Core-binding factor leukemia (CBFL is a subgroup of acutemyeloid leukemia (AML characterized by genetic mutations involving the subunits of the core-binding factor (CBF. The leukemogenesis model for CBFL posits that one, or more, gene mutations inducing increased cell proliferation and/or inhibition of apoptosis cooperate with CBF mutations for leukemia development. One of the most commonmutations associated with CBF mutations involves the KIT receptor. A high expression of KIT is a hallmark of a high proportion of CBFL. Previous studies indicate that microRNA (MIR 222/221 targets the 3′ untranslated region of the KIT messenger RNA and our observation that AML1 can bind the MIR-222/221 promoter, we hypothesized that MIR-222/221 represents the link between CBF and KIT. Here, we show that MIR-222/221 expression is upregulated after myeloid differentiation of normal bone marrow AC133+ stem progenitor cells. CBFL blasts with either t(8;21 or inv(16 CBF rearrangements with high expression levels of KIT (CD117 display a significantly lower level of MIR-222/221 expression than non-CBFL blasts. Consistently, we found that the t(8;21 AML1-MTG8 fusion protein binds the MIR-222/221 promoter and induces transcriptional repression of a MIR-222/221-LUC reporter. Because of the highly conserved sequence homology, we demonstrated concomitant MIR-222/221 down-regulation and KIT up-regulation in the 32D/WT1 mouse cell model carrying the AML1-MTG16 fusion protein. This study provides the first hint that CBFL-associated fusion proteins may lead to up-regulation of the KIT receptor by down-regulating MIR-222/221, thus explaining the concomitant occurrence of CBF genetic rearrangements and overexpression of wild type or mutant KIT in AML.

  14. Calibration of a degassing-emanation line for 222Rn determination in seawater samples; Calibracao de uma linha de emanacao para determinacao de {sup 222}Rn em amostras de agua do mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to calibrate a degassing-emanation line and to determine {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in seawater samples. This methodology, also called Lucas method, consists in the extraction of radon (originally dissolved in seawater), collection of the gas in a liquid nitrogen cold trap and transfer from the trap to an alpha scintillation cell. Total extraction efficiencies of the 4 degassing-emanation systems were determined by measuring {sup 226}Ra reference solutions. The efficiencies obtained for these 4 systems varied from 21 % to 62%. This work also presents preliminary results of a study carried out in a series of small embayements of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State-Brazil: Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay, Mar Virado Bay and Ubatuba Bay. Concentration of Rn in excess varied from 0,011 to 0,317 Bq/L for Flamengo Bay, from 0,009 to 0,130 Bq/L for Fortaleza Bay, from 0,018 to 0,050 Bq/L for Mar Virado Bay and from 0,004 to 0,120 Bq/L for Ubatuba Bay. The results obtained for the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in excess in a transect at Flamengo Bay varied from 0,002 to 0,036 Bq/L. Higher concentrations of {sup 222}Rn in excess were obtained in Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay and Ubatuba bay. It was also observed that the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in excess increases with depth, as expected. (author)

  15. Study of Rn-222 exhalation in phosphogypsum through the adsorption technique in activated coal; Estudo da exalacao de Rn-222 em fosfogesso por meio da tecnica de adsorcao em carvao ativado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; Campos, Marcia Pires de, E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.b, E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The radon exhalation was estimated through the adsorption in activated carbon technique. Classified as TENORM, the radon exhalation determination on the phosphogypsum piles was performed through the adsorption ratio of radon in activated carbon, from the concentration of descendants of {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi obtained by gamma spectrometry. The results obtained in this work were compatibles with the values found in the literature

  16. Temporal lobe epilepsy with varying severity: MRI study of 222 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehericy, S.; Hasboun, D.; Dormont, D.; Marsault, C. [Department of Neuroradiology, Batiment Tete, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, 47 Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Semah, F.; Baulac, M. [Department of Neurology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Clemenceau, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Granat, O. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint Joseph, Paris (France)

    1997-11-01

    MRI was performed in 222 consecutive adult patients with temporal lobe epilepsy of varying severity from January 1991 to May 1993. The diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis was established visually by three independent observers. The accuracy of visual assessment of hippocampal asymmetry was compared with volumetric measurements. Neuropathological correlations were obtained in 63 patients with refractory seizures. Temporal lobe abnormalities were observed in 180 patients (81 %) as follows: hippocampal sclerosis in 122 (55 %); developmental abnormalities in 16 (7.2 %); tumours in 15 (6.8 %); scars in 11 (5 %); cavernous angiomas in 10 (4.5 %); miscellaneous lesions in 6. MRI was normal or showed unrelated changes in 42 patients (19 %). Visual assessment correctly lateralised hippocampal sclerosis in 79 of the 84 patients measured (94 %). Temporal lobectomy confirmed the MRI data (side and aetiology) in all 63 operated patients. Patients with normal MRI had an older age of seizure onset and were more often drug-responsive than patients with hippocampal sclerosis. MRI showed temporal lobe abnormalities in 81 % of epileptic patients with varying severity with good neuropathological correlation. Patients with normal MRI had a less severe form of the disease. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs.

  17. Removal of long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnee, R. W.; Bowles, M. A.; Bunker, R.; McCabe, K.; White, J. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Cushman, P.; Pepin, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Guiseppe, V. E. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the {sup 222}Rn decay chain on detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay. Removal of tens of microns of material via electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing radon daughters implanted into material surfaces. Some applications, however, require the removal of uniform and significantly smaller thicknesses. Here, we demonstrate that electropolishing < 1 μm from stainless-steel plates reduces the contamination efficiently, by a factor > 100. Examination of electropolished wires with a scanning electron microscope confirms that the thickness removed is reproducible and reasonably uniform. Together, these tests demonstrate the effectiveness of removal of radon daughters for a proposed low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage), without compromising the screener’s energy resolution. More generally, electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel may effectively remove radon daughters without compromising precision-machined parts.

  18. Measurement of radon-222 concentration in environment sampled within short time using charcoal detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Sekiyama, Shigenobu (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)); Tokin, Mina; Nakayasu, Yumiko; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1994-08-01

    The concentration of [sup 222]Rn in air sampled within a very short period of time was measured using activated charcoal as the adsorber. The detector is the plastic canister containing mixture of the activated charcoal and the silica gel. The radon gas was adsorbed in the charcoal in the radon chamber at the temperature of 25degC. A little amount of liquid scintillation cocktail was added into the vial of liquid scintillation counter with the canister. The radon in the charcoal was extracted in the liquid scintillation cocktail. Alpha particles emitted from radon and its daughter nuclei in the cocktail were detected using the liquid scintillation counter. Present method has advantages of not only short sampling time of air but also adsorption of radon in charcoal under a constant temperature. The concentration of radon in air down to 2 Bq/m[sup 3] could be detected. A kinetic model for adsorption of radon in the charcoal is also presented. The ratio of radon concentration in the charcoal to that in air under the equilibrium state of adsorption was estimated to be from 6.1 to 6.8 m[sup 3]/kg at the temperature of 25degC. (author).

  19. Traceability of radon-222 activity concentration in the radon chamber at the technical university of Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Ortega, X.; Martín Matarranz, J. L.

    2004-07-01

    In order to provide reference 222Rn activity concentration, a device based on the alpha spectrometric measurement of 218Po collected electrostatically on a PIPS detector, has been developed and characterised. Traceability is achieved by the use of primary 222Rn standard activity inside a glass bulb obtained from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Radon standard activity is then transferred to the instrument that measures the reference radon activity concentration. The instrument is used in the walk-in radon chamber of the Institute of Energy Technology at the Technical University of Catalonia in order to provide a reference atmosphere for the calibration of radon concentration detectors. Under typical environmental calibration conditions within the radon chamber, an expanded uncertainty of roughly 4% ( k=2) for radon concentration is usually estimated.

  20. Experimental test on the use of MS-222 for ostracod anaesthesia: concentration, immersion period and recovery time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc MEZQUITA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia of animals may be useful for different purposes, particularly for veterinary reasons or in experimental research, for manipulation or treatment of immobilized but alive animals. Its use in crustaceans is not uncommon, but it has never been described for Ostracoda. We provide brief and preliminary guidelines on the use of the tricaine mesylate (MS-222 on the widespread freshwater ostracod Eucypris virens and we show that this compound is an effective anaesthetic used as a bath treatment at minimum concentrations of 500 mg L-1. This value is considerably higher than that recommended for other aquatic animals like fish. Recovery time, ranging from 5 to 15 minutes, is mostly determined by anaesthetic bath concentration, while bath duration influenced to a lesser extent. Anaesthesia induced with MS-222 can prove useful for minute manipulation of living ostracods e.g. for identification, marking or image capture under the microscope.

  1. Detection of Solar Rotational Variability in the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) 190-222 nm Spectral Band

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro A. V.; Shapiro A.I.; Dominique M.; Dammasch I. E.; Wehrli C.; Rozanov E.; Schmutz W.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the variability of the spectral solar irradiance during the period from 7 January 2010 until 20 January 2010 as measured by the Herzberg channel (190?–?222 nm) of the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) onboard PROBA2. In this period of time observations by the LYRA nominal unit experienced degradation and the signal produced by the Herzberg channel frequently jumped from one level to another. Both factors significantly complicate the analysis. We present the algorithm that allowed us to...

  2. Detection of Solar Rotational Variability in the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) 190 – 222 nm Spectral Band

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro A. V.; Shapiro A.I.; Dominique M.; Dammasch I.; Wehrli C.; Rozanov E.; Schmutz W.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the variability of the spectral solar irradiance during the period from 7 January 2010 until 20 January 2010 as measured by the Herzberg channel (190 – 222 nm) of the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) onboard PROBA2. In this period of time observations by the LYRA nominal unit experienced degradation and the signal produced by the Herzberg channel frequently jumped from one level to another. Both factors significantly complicate the analysis. We present the algorithm that allowed us to...

  3. An unusual caffeic acid derived bicyclic [2.2.2] octane lignan and other constituents from Cordia rufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Ademir E; David, Jorge M; dos Santos, Edlene O; David, Juceni P; e Silva, Lidercia C R C; Bahia, Marcus V; Brandão, Hugo N

    2012-04-01

    This work reports isolation of an unusual lignan with a bicyclic [2.2.2] octene skeleton, named rufescenolide (1), from stems of Cordia rufescens, along with β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, syringaldehyde, 3-β-O-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol, methyl caffeate, 4-methoxy-protocatechuic acid and methyl rosmarinate. Structural characterizations employed IR spectroscopic, ESIHRMS and mono and dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Asymmetric 1,4-bis(ethynylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane rotators via monocarbinol functionalization. Ready access to polyrotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyprien Lemouchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric rotators with a 1,4-bis(ethynylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO core are needed for engineering crystalline arrays of functional molecular rotors. Their synthesis uses carbinol, 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol, as a protecting group because of its polar character and its ability to sustain orthogonal functionalization with the further advantage of being readily removed. The synthesis in good yields of unprecedented asymmetric rotors and polyrotors demonstrates the efficiency of this strategy.

  5. Controls on the spatial and temporal variability of Rn-222 in riparian groundwater in a lowland Chalk catchment.

    OpenAIRE

    Mullinger, Neil J.; Pates, Jackie M.; Binley, Andrew M.; Crook, N. P.

    2009-01-01

    Radon is a powerful tracer of stream-aquifer interactions. However, it is important to consider the source and behaviour of radon in groundwater when interpreting observations of river radon in relation to groundwater discharge. Here we characterise the variability in groundwater radon concentrations in the riparian zone of a Chalk catchment. Groundwater 222Rn (radon) concentrations were determined in riparian zone boreholes at two sites in the Lambourn catchment, Berkshire, UK, over a two ye...

  6. Role of microRNAs 221/222 on Statin Induced Nitric Oxide Release in Human Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Cerda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO has been largely associated with cardiovascular protection through improvement of endothelial function. Recently, new evidence about modulation of NO release by microRNAs (miRs has been reported, which could be involved with statin-dependent pleiotropic effects, including anti-inflammatory properties related to vascular endothelium function. Objective: To evaluate the effects of cholesterol-lowering drugs including the inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, atorvastatin and simvastatin, and the inhibitor of cholesterol absorption ezetimibe on NO release, NOS3 mRNA expression and miRs potentially involved in NO bioavailability. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC were exposed to atorvastatin, simvastatin or ezetimibe (0 to 5.0 μM. Cells were submitted to total RNA extraction and relative quantification of NOS3 mRNA and miRs -221, -222 and -1303 by qPCR. NO release was measured in supernatants by ozone-chemiluminescence. Results: Both statins increased NO levels and NOS3 mRNA expression but no influence was observed for ezetimibe treatment. Atorvastatin, simvastatin and ezetimibe down-regulated the expression of miR-221, whereas miR-222 was reduced only after the atorvastatin treatment. The magnitude of the reduction of miR-221 and miR-222 after treatment with statins correlated with the increment in NOS3 mRNA levels. No influence was observed on the miR-1303 expression after treatments. Conclusion: NO release in endothelial cells is increased by statins but not by the inhibitor of cholesterol absorption, ezetimibe. Our results provide new evidence about the participation of regulatory miRs 221/222 on NO release induction mediated by statins. Although ezetimibe did not modulate NO levels, the down-regulation of miR-221 could involve potential effects on endothelial function.

  7. [Low molecular weight heparin (CY 222) levels during hemodialysis sessions. Comparison of various chromogenic and chronometric methods. Problem of standardization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, B; Dieval, J; Bayrou, B; Delobel, J

    1987-01-01

    Current evaluation of biological activity of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) is dependent solely on technics determining Xa inhibition. Comparison of these technics was carried out during 2 studies of the use of CY 222 during hemodialysis. In the first study, 66 plasma samples from 11 patients treated with 200 or 250 U A Xa IC kg/i.v. at start of session (sample collections at 2-4 h) were tested using a chronometric technic (Hepaclot Stago-plasma diluted to 1/3) and 2 chromogenic technics on microplates using C.B.S. 31-39 substrates (Stachrom-modified Stago: incubation time 90" for a wide range) and S 2222 (Coatest-modified Kabi: incubation time 180"). In the second, 28 plasma samples from 7 patients (sample collection 2-4 h, TO following session; anticoagulation CY 222 10,000-15,000-20,000 U A Xa IC) were studied by 2 chronometric methods: Hepaclot (Stago) and Heptest (Hemachem). Standardization was with CY 222 in each case (results expressed as U A Xa IC). Mean blood heparin in the first study was 2.39 +/- 0.7 with Hepaclot, 2.50 +/- 0.55 with Stachrom and 1.94 +/- 0.37 with Coatest. Student's test failed to show any difference between results with Strachrom and Hepaclot (t = 1.48 NS) whereas the difference was very significant between Hepaclot and Coatest and Stachrom and Coatest (p less than 10(-9).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. HMGB1-Induced Cross Talk between PTEN and miRs 221/222 in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mardente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 is an ubiquitous protein that plays different roles in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and extracellular space. It is an important DAMP molecule that allows communication between damaged or tumor cells and the immune system. Tumor cells exploit HMGB1’s ability to activate intracellular pathways that lead to cell growth and migration. Papillary thyroid cancer is a well-differentiated tumor and is often used to study relationships between cells and the inflammatory microenvironment as the latter is characterized by high levels of inflammatory cells and cytokines. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is one of the most lethal human cancers in which many microRNAs and tumor suppressor genes are deregulated. Upregulation of microRNAs 221 and 222 has been shown to induce the malignant phenotype in many human cancers via inhibition of PTEN expression. In this study we suggest that extracellular HMGB1 interaction with RAGE enhances expression of oncogenic cluster miR221/222 that in turn inhibits tumor suppressor gene PTEN in two cell lines derived from human thyroid anaplastic and papillary cancers. The newly identified pathway HMGB1/RAGE/miR221/222 may represent an effective way of tumor escape from immune surveillance that could be used to develop new therapeutic strategies against anaplastic tumors.

  9. Precise measurement of the 222Rn half-life: A probe to monitor the stability of radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bellotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We give the results of a study on the 222Rn decay we performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several times per year the half-life of a short lifetime (days source instead of measuring over a long period the activity of a long lifetime (tens or hundreds of years source. In particular, we give a possible reason of the large periodical fluctuations in the count rate of the gamma rays due to radon inside a closed canister which has been described in literature and which has been attributed to a possible influence of a component in the solar irradiation affecting the nuclear decay rates. We then provide the result of four half-life measurements we performed underground at LNGS in the period from May 2014 to January 2015 with radon diffused into olive oil. Briefly, we did not measure any change of the 222Rn half-life with a 8⋅10−5 precision. Finally, we provide the most precise value for the 222Rn half-life: 3.82146(16stat(4syst days.

  10. Occurrence of {sup 222}Rn in irrigation water from Wadi Al-Rummah Qassim province, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taher, Atef; Alashrah, Saleh [Physics department, College of Science, Qassim University, P. O. 6644, Buraidah 51452 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-08-28

    Naturally accruing radioactive materials in the environment have received attention since they may be present in high level and pose risk to human health. The present work deals with measuring of {sup 222}Rn in irrigation water samples from Wadi Al-Rummah, Qassim province, in central of Saudi Arabia. {sup 222}Rn concentrations were measured by RAD7. It was found that the concentration of {sup 222}Rn ranged from 2.1 ± 1.2 to 7.2 ± 1.5 BqL{sup −1}. These values are below 11.1 BqL{sup −1} the maximum contamination level recommended from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The calculated annual effective dose (AED) ranging from 7.5 to 26.1 µSv/y. It was evident that the total annual effective dose resulting from radon in irrigation groundwater in Wadi Al-Rummah in Qassim area were significantly lower than the recommended limit 1 mSv/y for the public.

  11. Seasonal variations of CO2 and 222Rn in a mediterranean sinkhole - spring (Causse d’Aumelas, SE France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batiot-Guilhe Christelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide and 222Rn monitoring of the atmosphere of a Mediterranean sink hole - spring (SE France during two hydrological cycles (from September 2004 to September 2006 showed seasonal variations with very high concentrations during summer (greater than 6% and 20 000 Bq/m3, respectively. Gas dynamics in caves often show seasonal variations.Meteorological parameters (barometric pressure and temperature mainly, cave geometry and fracture networks control exchanges between the cavity and outside atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and 222Rn may have different sources (atmosphere, soil, bedrock, deep gas diffusion, in situ oxidation of organic matter and, in some caves, the key role of swift underground streams.For a CO2 origin, 13C measurements on water and gas samples taken into the cavity suggest a superficial origin. Radon-222 appears to be locally produced and transported by biogenic CO2. Further investigations will be carried out in order to study the relationship of gas-level variations with barometric pressure variations and piezometric level fluctuations within the aquifer.

  12. Steam-stable hydrophobic ITQ-29 molecular sieve membrane with H(2) selectivity prepared by secondary growth using Kryptofix 222 as SDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aisheng; Caro, Jürgen

    2010-11-07

    A neutral framework cation-free hydrophobic ITQ-29 molecular sieve membrane with hydrogen selectivity was prepared on porous α-Al(2)O(3) supports by using Kryptofix 222 as organic structure directing agent through secondary growth method.

  13. Discovery of a deep Seyfert-2 galaxy at z = 0.222 behind NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, J. A.; García, F.; Rodríguez, M. J.; Gamen, R.; Cellone, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the unveiling of the nature of the unidentified X-ray source 3XMM J005450.3-373849 as a Seyfert-2 galaxy located behind the spiral galaxy NGC 300 using Hubble Space Telescope data, new spectroscopic Gemini observations and available XMM-Newton and Chandra data. We show that the X-ray source is positionally coincident with an extended optical source, composed of a marginally resolved nucleus/bulge, surrounded by an elliptical disc-like feature and two symmetrical outer rings. The optical spectrum is typical of a Seyfert-2 galaxy redshifted to z = 0.222 ± 0.001, which confirms that the source is not physically related to NGC 300. At this redshift the source would be located at 909 ± 4 Mpc (comoving distance in the standard model). The X-ray spectra of the source are well fitted by an absorbed power-law model. By tying NH between the six available spectra, we found a variable index Γ running from ˜2 in 2000-2001 to 1.4-1.6 in the 2005-2014 period. Alternatively, by tying Γ, we found variable absorption columns of NH ˜ 0.34 × 10-22 cm-2 in 2000-2001, and 0.54-0.75 × 10-22 cm-2 in the 2005-2014 period. Although we cannot distinguish between a spectral or absorption origin, from the derived unabsorbed X-ray fluxes, we are able to assure the presence of long-term X-ray variability. Furthermore, the unabsorbed X-ray luminosities of 0.8-2 × 1043 erg s-1 derived in the X-ray band are in agreement with a weakly obscured Seyfert-2 AGN at z ≈ 0.22.

  14. Using (222)Rn as a tracer of geodynamical processes in underground environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, D L; da Silva, A A R; Lacerda, T; Anjos, R M; Rizzotto, M; Velasco, H; de Rosas, J P; Tognelli, G; Yoshimura, E M; Ayub, J Juri

    2014-01-15

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, were measured and analyzed, with the aim to assess the potential use of this radioactive noble gas as a tracer of geological processes in underground environments. La Carolina gold mine and Los Cóndores tungsten mine are today used as tourism mines. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose. Measurements were performed during both winter and summer seasons. The findings show that in these environments, significant radon concentrations are subject to large seasonal fluctuations, due to the strong dependence on natural ventilation with the outside temperature variations. For both mines, higher concentration values of (222)Rn were observed in summer than in winter; with an extreme ratio of 2.5 times between summer and winter seasons for Los Cóndores mine. The pattern of radon transport inside La Carolina mine revealed, contrary to what was believed, that this mine behaves as a system with two entrances located at different levels. However, this feature can only be observed in the winter season, when there is a marked difference between the inside and outside temperatures of the mine. In the case of Los Cóndores mine, the radon concentration pattern distribution is principally established by air current due to chimney-effect in summer and winter seasons. In both cases, the analyses of radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents, and then localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatotoxicity associated with overexposure to 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Raymond; Hanna, Constance; Rusch, George M; Stidham, Danny; Swan, Ellen; Vazquez, Manny

    2003-01-01

    1,1-Dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) was evaluated as a substitute for trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and it appeared that a permissible exposure limit of 50 ppm was justified. When HCFC-123 was introduced as a precision cleaning agent in a controlled operation, marked elevations in serum alanine transaminase and serum aspartase transaminase were noted in exposed workers. Sampling taken during start-up documented personal samples from 24-480 ppm (375 and 21 min, respectively) and area samples of 18-180 ppm (375 and 21 min, respectively). Personal and area samples collected after the liver abnormalities were identified ranged from 5-12 ppm. Exposure data were not available for the period when the abnormalities are suspected to have developed. Two models were developed to estimate exposure during the unmonitored period: (1) the entire plant as a homogenous box and (2) evaporation into smaller work zones. Modeling using the entire building estimated 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposures of 10-35 ppm. Modeled estimates of work area and air exchange rates indicated that degreaser exposed workers could have experienced peak levels of 280-2,100 ppm (8-hour TWAs 252-1,630 ppm). Modeling of the work environment, estimated to be one-third of the volume of the entire open building, indicated peak exposures of 28-210 ppm (8-hour TWAs 25-163 ppm). These ranges estimate the minimum and maximum exposure levels. The best estimates, using 12 air changes per day, suggest peak levels around the degreaser of 635-2,100 ppm (8-hour TWA 499-1,630 ppm) and 63-207 ppm (8-hour TWAs 50-163 ppm) in the work area. These are the first estimates of exposure level associated with these hepatotoxic effects; all are significantly higher than personal and area samples collected for HCFC-123 after the liver abnormalities were identified.

  16. Association of Clozapine with Seizures: A Brief Report Involving 222 Patients Prescribed Clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S; Hazari, N; Chakrabarti, S; Avasthi, A

    2015-06-01

    To study the prevalence and incidence of seizures in patients prescribed clozapine. The treatment records of 222 patients commenced on clozapine were retrospectively reviewed during the period of January 2007 to June 2014 to evaluate the prevalence of seizures before and after starting clozapine. The majority of patients commenced on clozapine were male (65%), single (65%), and unemployed (57%). The mean (± standard deviation) dose of clozapine was 277.9 ± 102.5 mg/day. A history of seizure was present in 6 patients who were also prescribed antiepileptic medication; of these 6 patients, only 1 case had recurrence of seizure while taking clozapine due to poor compliance with ongoing antiepileptic medication. The incidence rate of new-onset seizure with clozapine was 6% (12/216). Most patients who developed seizures were male, aged between 24 and 41 years, and had a long duration of illness (≥ 10 years). The risk of seizure was associated with the dose of clozapine used: 3% (5/159) with dose up to 300 mg/day, 8% (4/49) with 325 to 500 mg/day, and 38% (3/8) in those receiving > 500 mg/day. More than half of the patients (7/12) who developed seizures while prescribed clozapine were managed with reduction in the dose of clozapine. In one-third of cases (4/12) an antiepileptic medication was added and in 1 case, clozapine was stopped. All patients who continued on clozapine remained seizure-free at follow-up that ranged from 6 months to 4 years. The incidence of seizures with clozapine was 6% and the risk of seizures increased with higher doses.

  17. Tank 103, 219-S Facility at 222-S Laboratory, analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, R.K.

    1998-06-18

    This is the final report for the polychlorinated biphenyls analysis of Tank-103 (TK-103) in the 219-S Facility at 222-S Laboratory. Twenty 1-liter bottles (Sample numbers S98SO00074 through S98SO00093) were received from TK-103 during two sampling events, on May 5 and May 7, 1998. The samples were centrifuged to separate the solids and liquids. The centrifuged sludge was analyzed for PCBs as Aroclor mixtures. The results are discussed on page 6. The sample breakdown diagram (Page 114) provides a cross-reference of sample identification of the bulk samples to the laboratory identification number for the solids. The request for sample analysis (RSA) form is provided as Page 117. The raw data is presented on Page 43. Sample Description, Handling, and Preparation Twenty samples were received in the laboratory in 1-Liter bottles. The first 8 samples were received on May 5, 1998. There were insufficient solids to perform the requested PCB analysis and 12 additional samples were collected and received on May 7, 1998. Breakdown and sub sampling was performed on May 8, 1998. Sample number S98SO00084 was lost due to a broken bottle. Nineteen samples were centrifuged and the solids were collected in 8 centrifuge cones. After the last sample was processed, the solids were consolidated into 2 centrifuge cones. The first cone contained 9.7 grams of solid and 13.0 grams was collected in the second cone. The wet sludge from the first centrifuge cone was submitted to the laboratory for PCB analysis (sample number S98SO00102). The other sample portion (S98SO00103) was retained for possible additional analyses.

  18. Seasonal Variation of Unattached fraction and Equilibrium factor of 222Rn and 220Rn using DRPS/DTPS and Pin -hole cup dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangotra, P.; Mehra, R.; Jakhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    222Rn (Radon), 220Rn (Thoron) and their progenies are naturally occurring radionuclides in environment and responsible for the radiological dose to population. The 222Rn, 220Rn concentration and their separate attached and unattached progeny concentration (season-wise) in units of EEC have been measured in the dwellings of Muktsar and Mansa districts of Punjab (India), using Pin- hole cup dosimeters and deposition based progeny sensors (DTPS/DRPS). The indoor 222Rn concentration was maximum in the rainy season (60 Bqm-3) while 220Rn concentration was maximum in winter season (57 Bqm-3). However EEC of 222Rn and 220Rn has distinct seasonal demeanour than their parent nuclides. The unattached EEC for both 222Rn and 220Rn (EERCU and EETCU) were higher in summer and rainy season as compared to winter season. The equilibrium factor ( for 222Rn and for 220Rn) and unattached fraction ( for 222Rn and for 220Rn) has been calculated separately. The (0.44 ± 0.04) in the studied area was similar to 0.4 that proposed by UNSCEAR and for (0.05 ± 0.01) it was greater than specified value 0.02 by UNSCEAR. The was higher in summer season as compared to rainy and winter season. Due to very smaller value of , a proper relation has not been observed seasonally. The unattached fraction in environment may increase the risk of radiological exposure and absorbed at faster rate into blood then the attached 222Rn and 220Rn progeny. The overall arithmetic mean (rainy, winter and summer seasons) of and were 0.09 ± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03 respectively. The and were lower in winter season as compared to rainy and summer seasons due to higher value of attached EEC present in winter season. A positive and significant correlation (0.56) has been observed between the and aerosol concentration (Z (cm-3)).

  19. The role of mesoscale meteorology in modulating the (222)Rn concentrations in Huelva (Spain)--impact of phosphogypsum piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Vargas, A; Arnold, D; Bolívar, J P

    2015-07-01

    The combined analysis of (222)Rn activity concentrations and mesoscale meteorological conditions at Huelva city (Spain) was addressed in this study to understand the potential impact of phosphogypsum piles on the (222)Rn activity concentrations registered at this area. Hourly mean data from April 2012 to February 2013 registered at two sampling sites (Huelva city and in the background station of El Arenosillo, located 27 km to the south-east) have been used in the study. The results of the present study showed a large difference in mean radon concentrations between the two stations during the sampling period, 6.3 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3) at Huelva and 3.0 ± 0.2 Bq m(-3) at El Arenosillo. The analysis has demonstrated that hourly (222)Rn concentrations at Huelva city above 22 Bq m(-3), with nocturnal peaks up to 50 Bq/m(3), mainly coincided with the occurrence of a pure sea-land breeze cycle. Mesoscale circulations in this region are mainly characterized by two patterns of sea-land breeze, pure and non-pure, with the phosphosypsum piles directly upstream (south) of the city during the afternoon on pure sea-breeze days. The difference between mean (222)Rn activity concentrations at Huelva city were 9.9 ± 1.5 Bq m(-3) for the pure pattern and 3.3 ± 0.5 Bq m(-3) for the non-pure pattern, while in the background station concentrations were 3.9 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3) and 2.8 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3) respectively. Considering these large differences, a detailed analysis of composites and case studies of representative sea-land breeze cycles of both types and their impact on (222)Rn activity concentration was performed. The results suggested that the presence of the phosphogypsum piles was necessary in order to justify the high (222)Rn activity concentrations observed at Huelva compared with the background station in the afternoons on pure sea breeze days (1.5-2.0 Bq m(-3)). On the other hand, large night time differences between the two sites on these days were

  20. Spatial attributes of the four-helix bundle group of bacteriocins – The high-resolution structure of BacSp222 in solution

    KAUST Repository

    Nowakowski, Michał

    2017-11-01

    BacSp222 is a multifunctional bacteriocin produced by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strain 222, an opportunistic pathogen of domestic animals. At micromolar concentrations, BacSp222 kills Gram-positive bacteria and is cytotoxic toward mammalian cells, while at nanomolar doses, it acts as an immunomodulatory factor, enhancing nitric oxide release in macrophage-like cell lines. The bacteriocin is a cationic, N-terminally formylated, 50-amino-acid-long linear peptide that is rich in tryptophan residues.In this study, the solution structure of BacSp222 was determined and compared to the currently known structures of similar bacteriocins. BacSp222 was isolated from a liquid culture medium in a uniformly 13C- and 15N-labeled form, and NMR data were collected. The structure was calculated based on NMR-derived constraints and consists of a rigid and tightly packed globular bundle of four alpha-helices separated by three short turns.Although the amino acid sequence of BacSp222 has no significant similarity to any known peptide or protein, a 3D structure similarity search indicates a close relation to other four-helix bundle-motif bacteriocins, such as aureocin A53, lacticin Q and enterocins 7A/7B. Assuming similar functions, biology, structure and physicochemical properties, we propose to distinguish the four-helix bundle bacteriocins as a new Type A in subclass IId of bacteriocins, containing linear, non-pediocin-like peptides.

  1. Associations between MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism and risks of hepatitis and hepatitis-related liver cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiying; Zhao, Wenyuan; Dai, Dongwei; Li, Chengzhong

    2014-02-01

    Chronic infection of viral hepatitis is the main cause of liver cancer. There were many studies assessing the associations of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) Ala222Val polymorphism with risks of hepatitis and hepatitis-related liver cancer, but no consistent results were reported. To investigate the associations of MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism with risks of hepatitis and hepatitis-related liver cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies. Eligible studies were searched from PubMed and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. The odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI) were used to assess the associations. Twenty-one individual studies with a total of 8,187 subjects were included. Overall, MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism was not significantly associated with risks of liver cancer, hepatitis-related liver cancer, and non-hepatitis-related liver cancer. However, MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism was significantly associated with risk of hepatitis infection (Val vs. Ala: OR = 1.15, 95 %CI 1.01-1.32, P = 0.03; ValVal/AlaVal vs. AlaAla: OR = 1.37, 95 %CI 1.11-1.68, P = 0.003). Therefore, MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism is significantly associated with risk of hepatitis infection but not liver cancer. More studies are needed to further assess the association between MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism and hepatitis-related liver cancer.

  2. Annual committed effective dose from olive oil (due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn) estimated for members of the Moroccan public from ingestion and skin application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M A; Touti, R

    2012-03-01

    Olive oil is traditionally refined and widely consumed by Moroccan rural populations. Uranium (238U), thorium (232Th), radon (222Rn), and thoron (220Rn) contents were measured in various locally produced olive oil samples collected in rural areas of Morocco. These radionuclides were also measured inside various bottled virgin olive oils consumed by the Moroccan populations. CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) were used. Annual committed effective doses due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the ingestion of olive oil by the members of the general public were determined. The maximum total committed effective dose due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the ingestion of olive oil by adult members of Moroccan rural populations was found equal to 5.9 µSv y-1. The influence of pollution due to building material dusts and phosphates on the radiation dose to workers from the ingestion of olive oil was investigated, and it was found that the maximum total committed effective dose due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn was on the order of 0.22 mSy y-1. Committed effective doses to skin due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the application of olive oil masks by rural women were evaluated. The maximum total committed effective dose to skin due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn was found equal to 0.07 mSy y-1 cm-2.

  3. MicroRNA-222-3p associated with Helicobacter pylori targets HIPK2 to promote cell proliferation, invasion and inhibits apoptosis in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoyan; Tang, Haiying; Bi, Jian; Li, Na; Jia, Yujie

    2017-12-11

    Gastric cancer ranks as the second leading cause of malignancy-related death worldwide, and always diagnosed at advanced stage. MicroRNA-222-3p (miR-222-3p) is aberrantly upregulated in various malignant tumors including gastric cancer, but its role and underlying molecular mechanisms in gastric cancer remain largely unknown. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection acts as a trigger in the development of gastric cancer, and increasing evidence suggests that H. pylori affects microRNA expression. In this study, gastric cancer tissue samples were divided into H. pylori positive group (+) and negative group (-). QRT-PCR showed that miR-222-3p was significantly upregulated in H. pylori (+) group compared with H. pylori (-) group, and luciferase reporter assays identified homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) as a novel target of miR-222-3p in gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry revealed that HIPK2 levels were decreased in H. pylori (+) group compared with H. pylori (-). After that, functional experiments indicated that miR-222-3p overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion, while inhibiting apoptosis of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells, but miR-222-3p knockdown exhibited the opposite effects. Also, HIPK2 knockdown induced similar effects as miR-222-3p overexpression in SGC7901 cells. Nude mouse experiments further suggested that HIPK2 overexpression signally attenuated the enhancing effect of miR-222-3p overexpression on cell proliferation, indicating that the effect of miR-222-3p on gastric cancer progression depends on HIPK2, at least in part. Overall, our results demonstrated that miR-222-3p/HIPK2 signal pathway regulated gastric cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion, provided a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric cancer infected by H. pylori. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Baseline air mass selection at Cape Point, South Africa: application of {sup 222}Rn and other filter criteria to CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunke, E.-G.; Labuschagne, C.; Parker, B. [South African Weather Service, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Scheel, H.E. [Forschungszentrum Karlslruhe (Germany); Whittlestone, S. [University of Wollongong (Australia)

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of {sup 222}Rn (March 1999-August 2002) from a recently installed analyser at the station Cape Point (34{sup o}S, 18{sup o}E), South Africa, were analysed statistically. The combination of 222Rn with information on wind direction and carbon monoxide (CO) permitted a classification of air masses into continental, marine, and mixtures of both. The ability to select trace gas data representing purely maritime conditions is shown through application to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) data. {sup 222}Rn levels at Cape Point ranged from near zero to above 5000 mBq m{sup -3}. Monthly percentiles show practically no seasonal dependence for values up to the 25th percentile (P25), corresponding to {sup 222}Rn < 100 mBq m{sup -3} which is considered typical for marine air. In contrast, {sup 222}Rn percentiles exceeding P50 reveal an austral winter maximum, related to a higher incidence of continental air at that time of the year. The wind sector pattern for {sup 222}Rn concentrations largely coincides with that observed for CO, but covers a wider sector to the east, reflecting continental source areas. Air masses with {sup 222}Rn levels between 100 and 250 mBq m{sup -3} were found to be still affected by terrestrial sources. Our routinely used percentile-based statistical filter applied to CO{sub 2} accepted < 75% of the data compared to the radon criterion for maritime air ({sup 222}Rn < 100 mBq m{sup -3}), which only yielded 18%, but is more stringent in excluding terrestrial influences. CO{sub 2} data filtered by using a combination of various selection parameters agreed well with data obtained for {sup 222}Rn < 100 mBq m{sup -3}, confirming that this {sup 222}Rn threshold is a suitable criterion for purely maritime data. Nonetheless, for CO{sub 2} the statistical filter, which does not depend on other species and has better data coverage, still retains its applicability for routine trace gas filtering with respect to baseline concentrations. (author)

  5. Evolution of {sup 222} Rn and chemical species related with eruptive processes of the Popocatepetl volcano; Evolucion de {sup 222} Rn y especies quimicas relacionadas con procesos eruptivos del volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Hernandez, A.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The {sup 222} Rn monitoring in the Popocatepetl volcano was initiated on 1993. At December 21, 1994 it is initiated an eruptive stage in the volcano with gas emission, ashes and the lava dome formation on the crater at middle 1996. During all this time it has been determined radon concentrations on soils with active and passive detectors. In this work the changes in radon contents are reported also the physicochemical parameters in spring water related with the volcanic building associated to the recent activity of the volcano. (Author)

  6. {sup 222} Rn determination and physicochemical characteristic and biological in aquifers in the Toluca Valley; Determinacion de {sup 222} Rn y caracteristicas fisicoquimicas y biologicas en acuiferos del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, A

    1998-10-01

    Concentration levels of {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Rn have been analyzed in water samples from boreholes belonging to the drinking water supply system around Toluca, Mexico. The {sup 222} Rn source is the decay of {sup 226} Rn within the solid matrix of the aquifer. The study was performed during the dry and rainy seasons. {sup 222} Rn concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation technique, {sup 226} Rn was determined by gamma spectrometry, the physicochemical parameters and bacteriological analysis were performed by conventional chemical techniques. Solubilized trace elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (Icp-Ms). The radon level fluctuations at the boreholes in Toluca city and Almoloya spring indicated differences in the radon content. At borehole Lodos Prietos 2, the temperature and radon level were systematically the highest in comparison with the other boreholes and the spring indicating a contribution of a regional flow to the water of this particular borehole. The result for {sup 226} Rn, the average {sup 222} Rn observed during the sampling period, no correspondence occurs between the radium and the radon content indicating that, radon is not supported by radium, but is incorporated into the water through fissures in the rocks in contact with the water. The radon levels obtained in house faucets which water is supplied by boreholes decrease as a function of the distance from the source borehole to the house. With the chemical composition of each one of the studied boreholes and spring a Piper diagram was draw indicating the kind of water. The boreholes and spring can be classified as bicarbonate calcium/magnesium. Almost no fluctuation on time was observed in the chemical species and trace elements only a slight increase was observed at the end of the rain season. At Almoloya, spring pollution with coliform bacteria and nitrates showed an anthropogenic contribution to the water deterioration probable and

  7. Analyses of atmospheric radon 222 / canisters exposed by Greenpeace in Niger (Arlit / Akokan sector); Analyses du radon 222 dans l'air ambiant / Capteurs exposes par Greenpeace au Niger (secteur Arlit et Akokan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareyron, B.

    2010-07-01

    The companies SOMAIR and COMINAK, subsidiaries of the AREVA group, are mining uranium deposits in northern Niger. In the course of a field mission carried out in November 2009, a Greenpeace International team deposited detectors (canisters of activated charcoal) to measure radon 222, a radioactive gas formed by the decay of the radium 226 present in the uranium ore. This report includes the results of the analysis of the activated charcoal canisters conducted in CRIIRAD's laboratory, and a brief commentary on the interpretation of the results. (authors)

  8. A 222 energy bins response matrix for a {sup 6}Lil scintillator Bss system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, M. A. S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Calibracao de Dosimetros, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mendez V, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Laboratorio de Patrones Neutronicos, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lorente F, A.; Ibanez F, S.; Gallego D, E., E-mail: masl@cdtn.br [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    A new response matrix was calculated for a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (Bss) with a {sup 6}Lil(Eu) scintillator. We utilized the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport code MCNPX, version 2.7.0, with Endf/B-VII.0 nuclear data library to calculate the responses for 6 spheres and the bare detector, for energies varying from 9.441 E(-10) MeV to 105.9 MeV, with 20 equal-log(E)-width bins per energy decade, totalizing 222 energy groups. A Bss, like the modeled in this work, was utilized to measure the neutron spectrum generated by the {sup 241}AmBe source of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. From the count rates obtained with this Bss system we unfolded neutron spectrum utilizing the BUNKIUT code for 31 energy bins (UTA-4 response matrix) and the MAXED code with the new calculated response functions. We compared spectra obtained with these Bss system / unfold codes with that obtained from measurements performed with a Bss system constituted of 12 spheres with a spherical {sup 3}He Sp-9 counter (Centronic Ltd., UK) and MAXED code with the system-specific response functions (Bss-CIEMAT). A relatively good agreement was observed between our response matrix and that calculated by other authors. In general, we observed an improvement in the agreement as the energy increases. However, higher discrepancies were observed for energies close to 1-E(-8) MeV and, mainly, for energies above 20 MeV. These discrepancies were mainly attributed to the differences in cross-section libraries employed. The ambient dose equivalent (H (10)) calculated with the {sup 6}Lil-MAXED showed a good agreement with values measured with the neutron area monitor Bert hold Lb 6411 and within 12% the value obtained with another Bss system (Bss-CIEMAT). The response matrix calculated in this work can be utilized together with the MAXED code to generate neutron spectra with a good energy resolution up to 20 MeV. Some additional tests are being done to validate this response matrix and improve the

  9. High-resolution mapping and time-series measurements of 222Rn concentrations and biogeochemical properties related to submarine groundwater discharge along the coast of Obama Bay, a semi-enclosed sea in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shiho; Sugimoto, Ryo; Honda, Hisami; Miyata, Yoji; Tahara, Daisuke; Tominaga, Osamu; Shoji, Jun; Yamada, Makoto; Nakada, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution mapping along the coast and time-series measurements of the radon-222 (222Rn) concentrations in the shallow zone in a semi-enclosed sea, Obama Bay, Japan, were undertaken in 2013. The temporal and spatial variations in the 222Rn concentrations were analyzed in parallel with meteorological conditions, physical-biogeochemical characteristics, and the submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) flux measured with a seepage meter. These data indicate that the groundwater influences the water properties of the bay and that the groundwater supply pathways are not limited to the local SGD. The concentrations of 222Rn flowing into the bay from rivers was known to be relatively high because groundwater seeps from the river bed. High-222Rn water was almost always present around the river mouth, and northward advection of the water affected the distribution of 222Rn concentrations in the bay. The southward wind suppressed the advection of the high-222Rn water and largely controlled the temporal variations in 222Rn concentrations at a station located on the north side of the river mouth, whereas the local SGD affected the short-term changes in the 222Rn concentrations. The concentrations of 222Rn and chlorophyll-a, an indicator of phytoplankton biomass, show a significant positive correlation in the surface layer along the coastline in seasons when the nutrient supply was the main factor limiting primary productivity.

  10. The magnetic circular dichroism of 1-azabicyclo[2,2,2]octane (ABCO) in the n0 --> 3p region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedanken, Aharon

    1986-04-01

    An MCD and absorption spectra measured in the energy region of the second excited state of 1-azabicyclo[2,2,2]octane (ABCO) reveal large positive A terms. Simple calculations of the magnetic moment of a 1E excited state yield also a positive sign for the A terms. A small negative B term is observed 355 cm-1 below the origin of the 1E state. Based on B term calculations we assign it as the 1A1→1A1 transition (n0→3pz). The results are compared with a recent MPI study in the same energy range.

  11. Analytical services: 222-S characterization of 242-A Evaporator Slurry, Campaign 94-1. Addendum 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-13

    During the 242-A Evaporator`s 94-1 campaign, five process samples were collected from the slurry stream for waste characterization. The five samples were collected over a 36 day time span, respectively on May 4, May 9, May 16, May 23, and June 9, 1994. Sample collections were performed per the protocol described in 242-A Evaporator Waste Analysis Plan, WHC-SD-WM-EV-060, Rev. 3 and in 242-A Evaporator Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-009, Rev. 0. Slurry waste was characterized chemically and radiochemically by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 222-S Laboratory as directed.

  12. Crystal structures of N,N-dimethyl-(2-(2,2-diphenyl-2-prop-2-ynyloxyacetoxyethylamine and N,N-dimethyl-(2-(2,2-diphenyl-2-prop-2-ynyloxyacetoxyethylammonium 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. E. Shaibah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The N,N-dimethylethylamminium unit in N,N-dimethyl-[2-(2,2-diphenyl-2-prop-2-ynyloxyacetoxy]ethylamine, C21H23NO3 (I, is disordered over two sets of atomic sites having occupancies of 0.880 (3 and 0. 120 (3, but there are no direction-specific interactions between the molecules of (I. The cation in N,N-dimethyl-[2-(2,2-diphenyl-2-prop-2-ynyloxyacetoxy]ethylammonium 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate (picrate, C21H24NO3+·C6H2N3O7− (II, shows a similar type of disorder, with occupancies of 0.654 (11 and 0.346 (11, although the overall conformation of the cation in (II is different from that in the neutral (I. The component ions are are linked by an almost planar three-centre N—H...(O2 hydrogen bond, and the ion pairs are further linked by a combination of three C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form sheets. Comparisons are made with some related structures.

  13. Assessment of {sup 222}Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional ao {sup 222}Rn no galpao da Salvaguardas do IPEN, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-07-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to {sup 222}Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm{sup 2}, placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations varied from 196 {+-} 9 and 2048 {+-} 81 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv{center_dot}y{sup -1}. This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  14. Seismo-volcanic monitoring at Furnas Volcano (Azores): radon (222Rn) concentration in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Virgílio Cruz, José; Ferreira, Teresa; Viveiros, Fátima; Freire, Pedro; Allard, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Azores archipelago, located in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, is composed of nine volcanic islands that formed at the triple junction of the North American, Eurasian and African (Nubian) tectonic plates. These volcanic islands were the sites of several eruptions and destructive earthquakes since human settlement in the 15th century. S. Miguel Island, the largest and most densely populated island of the Azores, hosts three active strato-volcanoes with calderas. Furnas Volcano is one of these. Its eruptive activity has been essentially explosive, involving magmas with trachytic (s.l.) composition. In the last 5000 years at least 10 explosive eruptions occurred inside the caldera of Furnas. The last one occurred in 1630 and was subplinian in character. Since then an intense hydrothermal activity has persisted, involving four main fumarolic fields, thermal springs, CO2-rich springs, several soil diffuse degassing areas (CO2 and 222Rn), as well as occasional hydrothermal explosions. In the past decade we have developed a radon survey of Furnas hydrothermal manifestations. Here we report on the radon survey of twelve water springs, located inside the caldera, and representative of the different water types encountered at the volcano (orthothermal, thermal and CO2-rich springs). Bimonthly sampling and determination of radon activity and water temperature was performed in the selected springs between years 2007 and 2011. At each sampling point two water samples were collected for radon dosing in laboratory with the RAD7 equipment. A decay correction was applied to each sample. The average radon activities were found to vary between 1.15 Bq/L and 29.77 Bq/L, while water temperatures ranged between 16.5 °C and 76.2 °C. As a whole radon activities inversely correlate with water temperature, with orthothermal springs showing higher radon activity than thermal springs. Temporal variations in both parameters appear to be mainly determined by seasonal variations of

  15. Physical Parameters Affecting the Emanation of RADON-222 from Coal Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Terence Patrick

    The Rn-222 emanation coefficients for coal ash and parameters which affected them were measured. Samples of ash from both stoker fired and pulverized coal fired boilers were obtained. The stoker ash samples were mechanically separated into size fractions. The pulverized samples were too fine for mechanical sizing and were categorized qualitatively according to origin. Bulk density of the stoker fractions was measured and ranged from .488 to .944 g-cm('-3), increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Bulk density of the pulverized ash ranged from 1.254 to 1.520 g-cm('-3). Specific gravity of the stoker fractions ranged from 2.017 to 2.390 g-cm('-3), also increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Specific gravity of the pulverized ash ranged from 2.357 to 2.588 g-cm(' -3). Ra-226 content of the samples was determined by gamma spectrometric analysis of the 352-KeV gamma of Pb -214 and the 609-KeV gamma of Bi-214 from sealed samples of ash. Ra-226 concentrations in the stoker fractions ranged from 11.82 to 16.77 dpm-g('-1), increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Ra-226 concentrations in the pulverized ash ranged from 6.44 to 7.59 dpm-g(' -1). Scintillation cells were constructed out of commonly available materials and a commercial preparation of ZnS(Ag) scintillator. Emanation chambers which allowed for moderately large sample masses were constructed. The procedure used to measure emanation coefficients was shown to be insensitive to ingrowth time at greater than 3 days ingrowth and relatively insensitive to variations in sample porosity. Emanation coefficients of the stoker fractions were measured at moisture contents of 0, 1.0, 10, 20, and 40 percent by weight. Within each size fraction the emanation coefficient increased as a function of moisture content, ranging from 9.58 x 10('-4) to 4.13 x 10('-2) between 0 and 20 percent moisture, respectively. Emanation coefficients also increased as a function of decreasing particle size

  16. Diffuse CO_{2} and ^{222}Rn degassing monitoring of Ontake volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Mar; Sagiya, Takeshi; Meneses-Gutiérrez, Ángela; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; Padilla, Germán D.

    2017-04-01

    Mt. Ontake (3067 m.a.s.l.) is a stratovolcano located in central Honsu and around 100 Km northeast of Nagoya, Japan, with the last eruption occurring on September 27, 2014, killing 57 people, and creating a 7-10 km high ash plume (Kagoshima et. al., 2016). There were no significant earthquakes that might have warned authorities in the lead up to the phreatic eruption, caused by ground water flashing to steam in a hydrothermal explosion. At the time of the eruption there was no operational geochemical surveillance program. In order to contribute to the strengthening of this program, the Disaster Mitigation Research Center of Nagoya University and the Volcanological Institute of Canary Islands started a collaborative program. To do so, an automatic geochemical station was installed at Ontake volcano and a survey of diffuse CO2efflux and other volatiles was carried out at the surface environment of selected areas of the volcano. The station was installed 10.9 km east away from the eruptive vent, where some earthquakes occurred, and consists of a soil radon (Rn) monitor (SARAD RTM-2010-2) able to measure 222Rn and 220Rn activities. Monitoring of radon is an important geochemical tool to forecast earthquakes and volcanic eruptions due to its geochemical properties. Rn ascends from the lower to the upper part of earth's crust mainly through cracks or faults and its transport needs the existence of a naturally occurring flux of a carrier gas. Regarding to the soil gas survey, it was carried out in August 2016 with 183 measurement points performed in an area of 136 km2. Measurements of soil CO2 efflux were carried out following the accumulation chamber method by means of a portable soil CO2 efflux instrument. To estimate the total CO2 output, sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) was used allowing the interpolation of the measured variable at not-sampled sites and assess the uncertainly of the total diffuse emission of carbon dioxide estimated for the entire studied area

  17. A detailed examination of the chemical, hydrological, and geological properties influencing the mobility of {sup 222}radon and parent radionuclides in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexsmith, K.S.

    1996-12-31

    This study examines hydrological, geological and geochemical controls on {sup 222}Rn variability in groundwater in the Front Range of Colorado. Specific objectives of the study are: (1) to determine if there are any correlations or spatial relationships between {sup 222}Rn and the geological, geochemical and hydrogeological data; and (2) to determine whether it is geochemically reasonable for observed {sup 222}Rn levels to be the result of U and {sup 226}Ra accumulation by fracture filling minerals. Domestic-water wells were sampled and tested to determine the local aquifer characteristics and aqueous geochemistry. A multivariate and staged approach was used in the data analyses. Analysis of variance tests were used to test for relationships between {sup 222}Rn and the lithology of the study wells. The effects of rock-type were then removed from the chemical and hydrological variables by subtracting the mean value for each rock-type from each of the measured values within that rock-type (a residual transformation). Linear and linear multiple regression techniques were used to test for expected relationships between residual {sup 222}Rn levels and these variables, and stepwise linear regressions were used to test for any unforeseen multivariate relationships in the data. Correlograms, distance-weighted average and inverse-distance-weighted average predictions were used to look for spatial relationships in the data.

  18. Precise measurement of the 222Rn half-life: a probe to monitor the stability of radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bellotti, E; Di Carlo, G; Laubenstein, M; Menegazzo, R

    2015-01-01

    We give the results of a study on the 222Rn decay we performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several times per year the half-life of a short lifetime (days) source instead of measuring over a long period the activity of a long lifetime (tens or hundreds of years) source. In particular, we give the reason of the large periodical fluctuations in the count rate of the gamma rays due to radon inside a closed canister which has been described in literature and which has been attributed to a possible influence of a component in the solar irradiation affecting the nuclear decay rates. We then provide the result of four half-life measurements we performed underground at LNGS in the period from May 2014 to January 2015 with radon diffused into olive oil. Briefly, we did not measure any change of the 222Rn half-life with a 8*10^-5 precision. Finally, we provide the most precise value for the ...

  19. 1-{2-[4-(4-Nitrophenylpiperazin-1-yl]ethyl}-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anssi Peuronen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H28N5O2+·I−, was observed as a main product in an intended 1:1 reaction between 4-iodonitrobenzene and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO. In the reaction, DABCO undergoes a ring opening to yield a quaternary salt of DABCO and 1-ethyl-4-(4-nitrophenylpiperazine with an iodide anion. The crystal structure determination was carried out as no crystal structure had been previously reported in the investigations describing the corresponding reaction with 4-chloronitrobenze. Indeed, the crystal structure of the title compound confirms the molecular composition proposed earlier for the analogous chloride salt. The cation conformation is similar to the previously reported dinitro analogue 1-{2-[4-(2,4-dinitrophenylpiperazin-1-yl]ethyl}-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride [Clegg et al. (2004. Acta Cryst. E60, o291–o293]. The crystal packing is dominated by cation...I− interactions in addition to weak intermolecular C—H...O2N and C—H...N interactions between the cations.

  20. Determination of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra in water using a large volume ionisation chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, Isam; Pettersson, Haakan E-mail: hakan.pettersson@lio.se; Lund, Eva

    2000-04-01

    A new method for measuring {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra in water has been devised. It is based on exhaling radon to a void volume by continuous bubbling of air through the water. The exhaled radon is then transferred in a closed circuit to a modified radon gas pulse ionisation chamber for alpha-spectrometric measurements. About 86% of the radon in water is transferred from 0.75 l of water to the void volume (3.2 l). The set-up offers direct and specific {sup 222}Rn measurements for a wide range of concentrations and shows a low detection limit (LLD=45 mBq l{sup -1} for 8 h counting time). Radium in water is measured, via radon, after sample storage for a month. The method was compared with gamma ray spectrometry for radon and for radium, the latter after pre-concentration by co-precipitation with MnO{sub 2} from 10 l water samples. An excellent agreement between the two techniques was obtained. As a part of a radon survey, the method was employed for analysis of drinking water from bedrock wells.

  1. Coapplication of lidocaine and membrane-impermeable lidocaine derivative QX-222 produces divergent effects on evoked and spontaneous nociceptive behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Si-Ping; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Wang, Wei-Xing; Liu, Yang; Wu, He-Fen; Chen, Chao; Yu, Liang; Gui, Jing-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the analgesic properties of a combination of lidocaine and QX-222 and its effects on evoked pain behavior (complete Freund's adjuvant-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia in inflammatory condition) and spontaneous pain behavior (formalin-induced acute pain) in mice. Drugs were injected adjacent to sciatic nerve or into plantar. Motor function, thermal withdrawal latency, mechanical withdrawal threshold, and licking/biting were evaluated by behavioral tests. A combination of lidocaine and QX-222 adjacent sciatic nerve injection produced the long-lasting sensory-specific nerve block, and intraplantar injection inhibited spontaneous pain in the formalin-treated mice but did not detectably attenuated hyperalgesia and allodynia in the complete Freund's adjuvant- (CFA-) treated mice. Our results suggest that a combination of lidocaine and QX-222 achieves a long-lasting differential block (sensory selective) and produces divergent effects on evoked and spontaneous pain behaviors in mice.

  2. Coapplication of Lidocaine and Membrane-Impermeable Lidocaine Derivative QX-222 Produces Divergent Effects on Evoked and Spontaneous Nociceptive Behaviors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Ping Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the analgesic properties of a combination of lidocaine and QX-222 and its effects on evoked pain behavior (complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia in inflammatory condition and spontaneous pain behavior (formalin-induced acute pain in mice. Drugs were injected adjacent to sciatic nerve or into plantar. Motor function, thermal withdrawal latency, mechanical withdrawal threshold, and licking/biting were evaluated by behavioral tests. A combination of lidocaine and QX-222 adjacent sciatic nerve injection produced the long-lasting sensory-specific nerve block, and intraplantar injection inhibited spontaneous pain in the formalin-treated mice but did not detectably attenuated hyperalgesia and allodynia in the complete Freund’s adjuvant- (CFA- treated mice. Our results suggest that a combination of lidocaine and QX-222 achieves a long-lasting differential block (sensory selective and produces divergent effects on evoked and spontaneous pain behaviors in mice.

  3. Compound heterozygosity with a novel S222N GALT mutation leads to atypical galactosemia with loss of GALT activity in erythrocytes but little evidence of clinical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cocanougher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism caused by mutations in the GALT gene. Though early detection and galactose restriction prevent severe liver disease, affected individuals have persistently elevated biomarkers and often neuro-developmental symptoms. We present a teenage compound heterozygote for a known pathogenic mutation (H132Q and a novel variant of unknown significance (S222N, with nearly absent erythrocyte GALT enzyme activity but normal biomarkers and only mild anxiety despite diet non-adherence. This case is similar to a previously reported S135L mutation. In this report we investigate the novel S222N variant and critically evaluate a clinically puzzling case.

  4. A complexity measure based method for studying the dependance of 222Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, D T; Udovičić, V; Krmar, M; Arsenić, I

    2014-02-01

    We have suggested a complexity measure based method for studying the dependence of measured (222)Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity. This method is based on the Kolmogorov complexity (KL). We have introduced (i) the sequence of the KL, (ii) the Kolmogorov complexity highest value in the sequence (KLM) and (iii) the KL of the product of time series. The noticed loss of the KLM complexity of (222)Rn concentration time series can be attributed to the indoor air humidity that keeps the radon daughters in air. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Formal Intramolecular [3 + 3] Cross-Cycloaddition of Cyclopropane 1,1-Diesters for Construction of Benzobicyclo[2.2.2]octane Skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiwei; Fang, Jie; Ren, Jun; Wang, Zhongwen

    2015-09-04

    A novel Lewis acid catalyzed formal intramolecular [3 + 3] cross-cycloaddition (IMCC) of cyclopropane 1,1-diesters has been successfully developed. This supplies an efficient and conceptually new strategy for construction of bridged bicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeletons. This [3 + 3]IMCC could be run up to gram scale and from easily prepared starting materials. This [3 + 3]IMCC, together with our previously reported [3 + 2]IMCC strategy, can afford either the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane or bicyclo[3.2.1]octane skeletons from the similar starting materials by regulating the substituents on vinyl group.

  6. Uranium, radon-222 and polonium-210 in drinking waters from metropolitan area of Recife, PE, Brazil; Uranio, radonio-222 e polonio-210 em aguas de abastecimento publico da regiao metropolitana do Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cleomacio Miguel da

    2000-04-01

    There is only scarce information on the presence of radionuclides in water for public consumption in Brazil. A recently issued federal regulation requires that waters from public supplies be screened to determine their content of alpha and beta emitters. In order to comply with this requirement the present work was carried out with the purpose of determining the concentration of natural uranium, {sup 222} Rn and {sup 210} Po in water supplies in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil. The analyses were performed in 17 points of supply of superficial water and 94 points of groundwater supply. The concentrations of uranium were determined by the fluorimetric method, whereas the liquid scintillation method was used to determine the concentration of {sup 222} Rn. Polonium-210, on the other hand, was determined by alpha spectrometry, following its spontaneous deposition on copper disks. The water analyzer presented uranium concentrations varying from 35.3 to 1146.5 mBq/L for superficial resources and from 20.2 to 919.15 mBq/L for underground sources. The concentration of uranium in superficial water showed significant correlation with some parameters such as conductivity, alkalinity and total hardness, as well as, with the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cl, K, SO{sub 4} and Mn. No correlation, however, was shown with the concentrations of Fe, NO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3}. The concentrations of {sup 222} Rn varied from 5.3 to 83.7 Bq/L in the groundwater analyzer. Radon concentration was not measured in superficial water due to the high emanation rate of radon in open air conditions. As far as {sup 210} Po is concerned, the analyses showed concentrations ranging from <22 mBq/L (the lowest limit of detection) to 57.4 mBq/L for superficial water and from <22 to 813 mBq/L for ground water samples. The concentrations of {sup 210} Po did not show and correlation with physico-chemical parameters. The average concentrations of uranium and {sup 210} Po in superficial water were of 44

  7. Estimated doses related to {sup 222}Rn concentration in bunker for radiotherapy and storage of radioisotopes; Dosis estimada por concentraciones de {sup 222}Rn en bunker de radioterapia y de almacenamiento de isotopos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, Freddy; Carrizales-Silva, Lila, E-mail: freddymest@gmail.com, E-mail: lcarriza@ivic.gob.ve [Instituto Venezolano de lnvestigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo, E-mail: sajobohus@gmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear; Diaz, Cruz, E-mail: cruzediaZ@gmail.com [Universidad Pedagogica Experimental Libertador, Barquisimeto (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Instituto Pedagogico

    2013-07-01

    It was done a survey in radiotherapy services underground hospitals and clinics of Venezuela and Paraguay in order to estimate the concentrations of radon and its possible consequences on worker occupational exposure. Passive dosimeters were used to assess nuclear traces (NTD type CR-39 Registered-Sign ). The concentration of {sup 222}Rn is determined based on the density of traces using the calibration coefficient of 1 tr/cm{sup 2} equivalent to 0,434 Bqm{sup -3} per month of exposure. Assuming the most likely environmental conditions and the dose conversion factor equal to 9.0 x 10{sup -6} mSv h {sup -1} by Bqm{sup -3}, it was determined the average values and estimated the possible risks to health that are on average 3.0 mSva{sup -1} and 150 micro risk cancer.

  8. Genetic variation at 9p22.2 and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Susan J; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Gayther, Simon A

    2011-01-01

    Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Although several common variants have been associated with breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers, none have been associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility. A genome......-wide association study recently identified an association between the rare allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3814113 (ie, the C allele) at 9p22.2 and decreased risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated the association of this SNP with ovarian cancer risk among BRCA......1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers by use of data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2....

  9. Crystal structure of bis(1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ium thiosulfate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgui Awa Seck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the hydrated title salt, 2C6H13N2+·S2O32−·2H2O, contains a centrosymmetric cyclic motif of eight hydrogen-bonded molecular subunits. Two DABCOH+ cations (DABCO = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane are linked to two water molecules and two thiosulfate anions via O—H...N and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, respectively. Two other water molecules close the cyclic motif through O—H...O contacts to the first two water molecules and to the two thiosulfate anions. A second pair of DABCOH+ cations is N—H...O hydrogen bonded to the two anions and is pendant to the ring. Adjacent cyclic motifs are bridged into a block-like arrangement extending along [100] through O—H...O interactions involving the second pair of water molecules and neighbouring thiosulfate anions.

  10. 4-Aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane–2-aminobenzoate–2-aminobenzoic acid (1/1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi D. Arman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A 4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, a 2-aminobenzoate anion and a neutral 2-aminobenzoic acid molecule comprise the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C6H13N2+·C7H6NO2−·C7H7NO2. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond occurs in the anion and in the neutral 2-aminobenzoic acid molecule. The cation provides a charge-assisted N—H...O hydrogen bond to the anion, and the 2-aminobenzoic acid molecule forms an O—H...N hydrogen bond to the unprotonated amino N atom in the cation. In this way, a three-component aggregate is formed. These are connected into a three-dimensional network by amino–carboxylate N—H...O hydrogen bonds. N—H...N hydrogen bonds are also observed.

  11. Comparison of the disinfection effects of vacuum-UV (VUV) and UV light on Bacillus subtilis spores in aqueous suspensions at 172, 222 and 254 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; Oppenländer, Thomas; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Bolton, James R

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of UV and vacuum-UV (VUV) disinfection of Bacillus subtilis spores in aqueous suspensions at wavelengths of 172, 222 and 254 nm was evaluated. A Xe(2)* excilamp, a KrCl* excilamp and a low-pressure mercury lamp were used as almost monochromatic light sources at these three wavelengths. The first-order inactivation rate constants at 172, 222 and 254 nm were 0.0023, 0.122 and 0.069 cm(2) mJ(-1), respectively. Therefore, a 2 log reduction of B. subtilis spores was reached with fluences (UV doses) of 870, 21.6 and 40.4 mJ cm(-2) at these individual wavelengths. Consequently, for the inactivation of B. subtilis spores, VUV exposure at 172 nm is much less efficient than exposure at the other two wavelengths, while exposure at 222 nm is more efficient than that at 254 nm, which is probably because triplet energy transfer from DPA to thymine bases at 222 nm is higher than that at 254 nm. This research indicated quantitatively that VUV light is not practicable for microorganism disinfection in water and wastewater treatment. However, in comparison with other advanced oxidation processes (e.g. UV/TiO(2), UV/H(2)O(2) or O(3)/H(2)O(2)) the VUV-initiated photolysis of water is likely more efficient in generating hydroxyl radicals and more effective for the inactivation of microorganisms.

  12. Effect of Q211 and K222 PRNP polymorphic variants in the susceptibility of goats to oral infections with Goat Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Fast, C.; Tauscher, Kerstin; Espinosa, J.C.; Groschup, M.H.; Muhammad, Nadeem; Goldmann, W.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Bossers, A.; Andreoletti, O.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The prion protein-encoding gene (PRNP) is one of the major determinants for scrapie occurrence in sheep and goats. However, its effect on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) transmission to goats is not clear.

    Methods. Goats harboring wild-type, R/Q211 or Q/K222 PRNP

  13. Application of a 222-nm krypton-chlorine excilamp to control foodborne pathogens on sliced cheese surfaces and characterization of the bactericidal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jae-Won; Lee, Jae-Ik; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-02-21

    This study was conducted to investigate the basic spectral properties of a 222-nm krypton-chlorine (KrCl) excilamp and its inactivation efficacy against major foodborne pathogens on solid media, as well as on sliced cheese compared to a conventional 254-nm low-pressure mercury (LP Hg) lamp. Selective media and sliced cheese inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes were irradiated with a KrCl excilamp and a LP Hg lamp at the same dose. The KrCl excilamp showed full radiant intensity from the outset at a wide range of working temperatures, especially at low temperatures of around 0 to 10°C. Irradiation with 222nm UV-C showed significantly (P<0.05) higher inactivation capacity against all three pathogens than 254-nm radiation on both media and sliced cheese surfaces without generating many sublethally injured cells which potentially could recover. The underlying inactivation mechanisms of 222-nm KrCl excilamp treatment were evaluated by fluorescent staining methods and damage to cellular membranes and intracellular enzyme inactivation were the primary factors contributing to the enhanced bactericidal effect. The results of this study suggest that a 222-nm UV-C surface disinfecting system can be applied as an alternative to conventional LP Hg lamp treatment by the dairy industry. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol changes the transition kinetics and subunit interactions in the small bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitake, B.; Spelbrink, R.E.J.; Anishkin, A.; Killian, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071792317; de Kruijff, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140952551; Sukharev, S.

    2007-01-01

    2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE), a low-dielectric solvent, has recently been used as a promising tool to probe the strength of intersubunit interactions in membrane proteins. An analysis of inner membrane proteins of Escherichia coli has identified several SDS-resistant protein complexes that separate

  15. 20 CFR 30.222 - How does a claimant establish that the employee has been diagnosed with chronic silicosis or has...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee has been diagnosed with chronic silicosis or has sustained a consequential injury, illness... Eligibility Criteria Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Chronic Silicosis Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.222 How does a claimant establish that the employee has been diagnosed with chronic silicosis or...

  16. 34 CFR 222.162 - What disparity standard must a State meet in order to be certified and how are disparities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disadvantaged children, non-English speaking children, and gifted and talented children; and (ii) Those... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What disparity standard must a State meet in order to... Section 222.162 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY...

  17. Newborn Mice Vaccination with BCG.HIVA222 + MVA.HIVA Enhances HIV-1-Specific Immune Responses: Influence of Age and Immunization Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Saubi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated the influence of age and immunization routes for induction of HIV-1- and M. tuberculosis-specific immune responses after neonatal (7 days old and adult (7 weeks old BALB/c mice immunization with BCG.HIVA222 prime and MVA.HIVA boost. The specific HIV-1 cellular immune responses were analyzed in spleen cells. The body weight of the newborn mice was weekly recorded. The frequencies of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ were higher in adult mice vaccinated intradermally and lower in adult and newborn mice vaccinated subcutaneously. In all cases the IFN-γ production was significantly higher when mice were primed with BCG.HIVA222 compared with BCGwt. When the HIV-specific CTL activity was assessed, the frequencies of specific killing were higher in newborn mice than in adults. The prime-boost vaccination regimen which includes BCG.HIVA222 and MVA.HIVA was safe when inoculated to newborn mice. The administration of BCG.HIVA222 to newborn mice is safe and immunogenic and increased the HIV-specific responses induced by MVA.HIVA vaccine. It might be a good model for infant HIV and Tuberculosis bivalent vaccine.

  18. Diels-Alder Synthesis of endo-cis-N-phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2,3-dicarboximide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Marsha R.; Wustholz, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    A study investigated the Diels-Alder synthesis of endo-cis-N-phenylbicyclo [2.2.2]oct-5-en-2,3-dicarboximide. The amount of time taken by a reaction between the 1,3-cyclohexadiene and N-phenylmaleimide at room temperature and also whether the desired cycloadduct would precipitate directly from the reaction mixture was examined.

  19. A Computational Approach to Identify the Biophysical and Structural Aspects of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Mutations (A222V, E429A, and R594Q) Leading to Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Himani; Sneha, P; Thirumal Kumar, D; Siva, R; Walter, Charles Emmanuel Jebaraj; George Priya Doss, C

    2017-01-01

    The association between depression and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been continually demonstrated in clinical studies, yet there are sparse resources available to build a relationship between the mutations associated with MTHFR and depression. The common mutations found to be associated with schizophrenia and MTHFR are A222V, E429A, and R594Q. Although abundant research on structural and functional effects caused by A222V mutation is available, very less amount of studies have been done on the other two mutants (E429A and R594Q). Hence in this study, a comparative analysis was carried out between the most common A222V mutation, a prevalent E429A mutation, and a less prevalent and less deleterious R594Q mutation. To predict structural rearrangements upon mutation, we proposed a computational pipeline using in silico prediction tools, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation analysis. Since the association of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is important for the functioning of the protein, binding analysis between protein and the coenzyme was performed. This would enable us to understand the interference level of each mutation over FAD-binding activity. Consequently, we found that two mutations (A222V and E429A) showed lesser binding activity and structural deviations when compared to the native molecule and mutant R594Q. Comparatively, higher structural changes were observed with A222V mutant complex in comparison to other mutant complexes. Computational studies like this could render better insights into the structural changes in the protein and their relationship with the disease condition. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentration of the internal and external environments of residences at Monte Alegre municipality, Para, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao do {sup 222}Rn nos ambientes internos e externos de residencias do municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vicente de Paula

    1999-07-01

    The human being is constantly exposed to the natural radioactivity in the environment where he lives. This radioactivity comes mainly from materials present in the terrestrial crust that possess in their constitution chemical elements belonging to the radioactive families of uranium and thorium. The use of such materials for the construction of houses constitutes an important exposure form to the natural radiation, above all to the radioactive gas {sup 222}Rn, that it is exhaled from them. The Brazilian soil is composed, among other, of minerals that contain appreciable concentrations of these elements. The inhabitants of Monte Alegre town in Para, located at 2 deg 00' 24,9 'S ; 54 deg 04 ' 13,5 {sup W}, used in the construction of their houses stones obtained from an area 20 km distant of Monte Alegre, denominated Ingles de Souza, located at 01 deg 56' 4 0,1 S; 54 deg 12 149,7 W, where a small residential village, denominated National Agricultural Colony of Para (CANP), is located. The objective of this work was to evaluate the indoor concentration of {sup 222}Rn in the residences of Monte Alegre and CANP. Determinations of the {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra concentrations, measurements of the radon flux in samples of stones and soils of the two regions, as well as measurements to the gamma dose close of the soil and inside the residences, were also carried out. The average results of the radon concentration in the air of the investigated residences did not exceed the limits of 200 Bq. m{sup 3} (action level) and 600 Bq. m{sup 3} (intervention level) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The concentrations of natural radionuclides and the radon flux determined at the village showed values 17 times higher than those found at the urban area of Monte Alegre, while the average indoor gamma dose rate in the village residences was 0.86 mSv/a. (author)

  1. Determination of Rn{sup 222} in samples of well water and domicile of the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama, Mexico; Determinacion de Rn{sup 222} en muestras de agua de pozos y domicilio de las ciudades de Chihuahua y Aldama, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, L.; Colmenero S, L.; Montero C, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Av. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: lourdes.villalba@cimav. edu. mx

    2004-07-01

    The study of the content of dissolved Rn{sup 222} is presented in underground water and of domicile of the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama of the State of Chihuahua. The existence of the Rn{sup 222} in the underground waters comes from its constant production in the rocks of the terrestrial bark. It has been determined that the radon is a noble gas of more solubility in the water, this solubility induces high concentrations in underground water, as well as bigger risk to the health in the human body once ingested or inhaled. Of the 32 wells studied in the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama, the content of dissolved Rn{sup 222} in the water of 22 of them is bigger than 11 Bq/l and of 73 studied samples of water of domiciles 47 show bigger values that 11 Bq/l. These radon contents are attributable to the uraniferous rocks present in the aquifers. (Author)

  2. Parameters of calibration of the measurement system of {sup 222} Rn based in LR-115; Parametros de calibracion del sistema de medicion de {sup 222} Rn basado en LR-115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Lugo, F.; Pinedo, J.L. [CREN-UAZ, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Chavez, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mluisagb@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    Since the SSNTD technique (Solid State Nuclear Track Detection) it was discovered it has been used as passive method for the detection of subnuclear particles in great variety of fields of the science. The use of the technique in measurements of {sup 222} Rn in air have already been established implying better methodologies in the exhibition to the environment until their engraving and reading processes. The SSNTD technique is since a method by comparison since the material it can be used a single time, therefore it requires of calibration in one controlled radon atmosphere, using gauged standards. The objective of this work is to show the calibration of the devices used as radon monitors based on SSNTD. The material used as SSNTD is LR-115 Il. The standardization of the parameters used in the exhibition to radon in air, engraving and reading process, its are based on the response of the LR-115 Il, the one arrangement of the device, engraving speed and mainly the calibration factor. They are considered two types of monitors: Open camera and Closed camera, the difference among the calibration factors of both cameras is the percentage of the descendants of radon in the open camera. The standardized parameters are operation voltage of the counting system; temperature, time and concentration of the engraving solution; and thickness. (Author)

  3. Comparison of techniques active and passive in measurement of radon concentration ({sup 222}Ra) in the air; Comparacao de tecnicas ativa e passiva na medicao de concentracao de radonio ({sup 222}Rn) no ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Evaldo Paulo de

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to perform a study comparing radon concentration measurements between two techniques used to measure radon gas in the air: one using LEXAN polycarbonate plastic detectors and the other the continuous monitor in AlphaGUARD passive mode. The concentrations of radon gas within radon emanation chambers were measured using calibrated / traceable sources generating {sup 222}Rn through {sup 226}Ra. In calibration the 'calibration factor' or 'sensitivity' was determined for the LEXAN plastic detector. The calibration work of the dosimeters was carried out at the Radon Laboratory of the Environmental Analysis Division - DIRAD IRD/CNEN and at the Natural Radioactivity Laboratory (LRN) of the Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN). The 'calibration factor' or 'sensitivity' was found to be 32.34 (traits.cm{sup -2})/(kBq.d.m{sup -3}). This factor was used to determine the radon concentration measured by the LEXAN plastic detectors. Also in the calibration, the efficiencies for LEXAN (94.1% ± 9.7%) and AlphaGUARD (92.5% ± 7.2%) were determined. The statistical analysis used showed good parity in the results of the measurements. It was concluded that the results were satisfactory and will serve as a good reference for studies related to the radon air meters used in this work. (author)

  4. The radon 222 transport in soils. The case of the storage of residues coming from uranium ores processing; La migration du radon 222 dans un sol. Application aux stockages de residus issus du traitement des minerais d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, C

    2000-07-01

    Uranium Mill Tailings (UMT) contain comparatively large quantities of radium-226. This radionuclide yields, by radioactive decay, the radioactive gas radon-222. Tailing piles are routinely covered to reduce the radon release-rate into the atmosphere. In order to assess the long term environmental impact of a UMT repository, mechanisms governing radon exhalation at the soil surface must be deciphered and understood. A model of radon transport in the unsaturated zone is developed for this purpose: water- and air-flow in the porous material are determined, as well as radon transport by diffusion in the pore space and advection by the gas phase. The radon transport model in the unsaturated zone - TRACI (which stands, in French, for Radon Transport within the Unsaturated Layer) - calculates moisture contents in the soil, Darcy's velocities of the liquid and gas phases, radon concentrations in the gas phase and radon flux at the soil surface. TRACI's results are compared with observations carried out on a UMT and a cover layer. Input parameters are derived from the textural analysis of the material under study, whereas upper boundary conditions are given by meteorological data. If we consider measurement errors and uncertainties on the porous medium characterisation, model's results are generally in good agreement with observations, at least on the long run. Moreover, data analysis shows hat transient phenomena are understood as well, in most situations. (author)

  5. Development and physical analysis of YAC contigs covering 7 Mb of Xp22.3-p22.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrell, S.; Novo, F.J.; Charlton, R. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-01-20

    A total of YAC clones have been isolated from the region of Xp22.2-p22.3 extending from the amelogenin gene locus to DXS31. Restriction analysis of these clones in association with STS contenting and end clone analysis has facilitated the construction of 6 contigs covering a total of 7 Mb in which 20 potential CpG islands have been located. Thirty new STSs have been developed from probe and YAC end clone sequences, and these have been used in the analysis of patients suffering from different combinations of chondrodysplasia punctata, mental retardation, X-linked ichthyosis, and Kallmann syndrome. The results suggest that (1) the gene for chondrodysplasia punctata must lie between the X chromosome pseudoautosomal boundary (PABX) and DXS1145; (2) a gene for mental retardation lies between DXS1145 and the sequence tagged site GS1; and (3) the gene for ocular albinism type 1 lies proximal to the STS G13. The CpG islands within the YAC contigs constitute valuable markers for the potential positions of genes. Genes found associated with any of these potential CpG islands would be possible candidates for the disease genes mentioned above. 47 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. I222 crystal form of despentapeptide (B26-B30) insulin provides new insights into the properties of monomeric insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Jean L; Youshang, Zhang; Záková, Lenka; Dodson, Eleanor J; Turkenburg, Johan P; Brange, Jens; Dodson, G Guy

    2006-05-01

    Despentapeptide (des-B26-B30) insulin (DPI), an active modified insulin, has been crystallized in the presence of 20% acetic acid pH 2. A crystal structure analysis to 1.8 A spacing (space group I222) revealed that the DPI molecule, which is unable to make beta-strand interactions for physiological dimer formation and is apparently monomeric in solution, formed an alternative lattice-generated dimer. The formation of this dimer involved interactions between surfaces which included the B9-B19 alpha-helices (usually buried by the dimer-dimer contacts within the native hexamer). The two crystallographically independent molecules within the dimer were essentially identical and were similar in conformation to T-state insulin as seen in the T(6) insulin hexamer. An unusual feature of each molecule in the dimer was the presence of two independent conformations at the B-chain C-terminus (residues B20-B25). Both conformations were different from that of native insulin, involving a 3.5 A displacement of the B20-B23 beta-turn and a repositioning of residue PheB25 such that it made close van der Waals contact with the main body of the molecule, appearing to stabilize the B-chain C-terminus.

  7. Using local scale 222Rn data to calibrate large scale SGD numerical modeling along the Alabama coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, N. T.

    2016-02-01

    Current Earth System Models (ESM) do not include groundwater as a transport mechanism of land-born constituent to the ocean. However, coastal hydrogeological studies from the last two decades indicate that significant material fluxes have been transported from land to the continental shelf via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Constructing realistic large-scale models to assess water and constituent fluxes to coastal areas is fundamental. This paper demonstrates how an independent tracer groundwater tracer approach (based on 222Rn) applied to small scale aquifer system can be used to improve the precision of a larger scale numerical model along the Alabama coastline. Presented here is a case study from the Alabama coastline in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). A simple field technique was used to obtain groundwater seepage (2.4 cm/day) to a small near shore lake, representative to the shallow coastal aquifer. These data were then converted in site-specific hydraulic conductivity (23 m/day) using Darcy's Law and further incorporated into a numerical regional groundwater flow model (MODFLOW/SEAWAT) to improve total SGD flow estimates to GOM. Given the growing awareness of the importance of SGD for material fluxes into the ocean, better calibrations of the regional scale models is critical for realistic forecasts on the potential impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities.

  8. Above Room Temperature Organic Ferroelectrics: Diprotonated 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane Shifts between Two 2-Chlorobenzoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zi-Shuo; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Cai, Hong-Ling; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Sato, Osamu

    2016-09-21

    A pure organic single crystal, [H2dabco]·[2CB]2 ([H2dabco](2+) = diprotonated 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 2CB(-) = 2-chlorobenzoate), which undergoes a ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition above room temperature (∼323 K upon heating), was prepared and characterized. This ferroelectric crystal possesses a distinctive supramolecular architecture composed of discrete H-bonded trimeric units (two 2CB(-) anions bridged by one [H2dabco](2+) cation through N-H···O hydrogen bond interactions). In the paraelectric phase, the [H2dabco](2+) cation is rotationally disordered and lies at the symmetric center of the trimer. Upon cooling, it is frozen in an ordered state and deviates toward a 2CB(-) anion at one end along the H-bond. The collective displacement of the cations leads to a polarization of the single crystal along the crystallographic c axis, which is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the second harmonic generation and spontaneous polarization. A significant increase in the phase transition temperature of the deuterated analogue suggests that the proton plays an important role in the ferroelectric phase transition.

  9. A simple method for calibration of Lucas scintillation cell counting system for measurement of 226Ra and 222Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Sethy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Known quantity of radium from high grade ore solution was chemically separated and carefully kept inside the cavity of a Lucas Cell (LC. The 222Rn gradually builds up and attain secular equilibrium with its parent 226Ra. This gives a steady count after a suitable buildup period (>25 days. This secondary source was used to calibrate the radon counting system. The method is validated in by comparison with identical measurement with AlphaGuard Aquakit. The radon counting system was used to evaluate dissolved radon in ground water sample by gross alpha counting in LC. Radon counting system measures the collected radon after a delay of >180 min by gross alpha counting. Simultaneous measurement also carried out by AlphaGuard Aquakit in identical condition. AlphaGuard measures dissolved radon from water sample by constant aeration in a closed circuit without giving any delay. Both the methods are matching with a correlation coefficient of >0.9. This validates the calibration of Lucas scintillation cell counting system by designed encapsulated source. This study provides an alternative for calibration in absence of costly Radon source available in the market.

  10. Evaluation of {sup 222}radon occupational exposure in underground workplaces: tunnels used for mushroom cultivation in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, C.; Vecchiariello, S.; Angeloni, U. [Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity - Central Laboratory, ITALIAN RED CROSS, Rome (Italy); Trevisi, R.; Tonnarini, S. [Radon Measurement Laboratory - Department of Occupational Hygiene, ISPESL, Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The mushroom cultivation in tunnels represents a working activity with interesting characteristics from a radiological protection point of view. The practice of using tunnels or caves for the cultivation of mushrooms is diffused in many countries as well as in several Italian regions. These places are characterized by micro climate conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) particularly adapted for the growth of mushrooms in every period of the year. This practice, like every working activity carried out in underground workplaces, is regulated by the Italian implementation of the European Union Basic Safety Standards (E.U. B.S.S., 1996). With the aim to evaluate the {sup 222}Rn exposure of workers in tunnels used for mushroom cultivation, a study has been undertaken. In particular, hygienic and micro climatic characteristics (depth, temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, ventilation, etc.) and radiometric parameters (indoor radon concentration, radon decay products concentration, equilibrium factor F) have been investigated. In the present paper, the results of the two steps of the study are reported. In the first step, an operative protocol has been defined: the protocol was put through a series of measurements in two tuff tunnels in the area of Rome. In the second step, several tunnels used for mushroom cultivation, located in different Italian regions, have been monitored and experimental data have been used to estimate annual effective doses of workers due to radon inhalation.The experimental results have been analyzed in the context of the E.U. B.S.S.

  11. Radon 222 tracing of soil and forest canopy trace gas exchange in an open canopy boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussler, William, III; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Kelley, Cheryl A.; Martens, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    A set of continuous, high-resolution atmospheric radon (Rn-222) concentration time series and radon soil flux measurements were acquired during the summer of 1990 at a micrometeorological tower site 13 km northwest of Schefferville, Quebec, Canada. The tower was located in a dry upland, open-canopy lichen-spruce woodland. For the period July 23 to August 1, 1990, the mean radon soil flux was 41.1 +/- 4.8 Bq m(exp -2)/h. Radon surface flux from the two end-member forest floor cover types (lichen mat and bare soil) were 38.8 +/- 5.1 and 61.8 +/- 15.6 Bq m(exp -2)/h, respectively. Average total forest canopy resistances computed using a simple 'flux box' model for radon exchange between the forest canopy and the overlying atmosphere range from 0.47 +/- 0.24 s cm(exp -1) to 2.65 +/- 1.61 cm(exp -1) for daytime hours (0900-1700 LT) and from 3.44 +/- 0.91 s cm(exp -1) to 10.55 +/- 7.16 s cm(exp -1) for nighttime hours (2000-0600) for the period July 23 to August 6, 1990. Continuous radon profiling of canopy atmospheres is a suitable approach for determining rates of biosphere/atmosphere trace gas exchange for remote field sites where daily equipment maintenance is not possible. where daily equipment maintenance is not possible.

  12. Sensitivity of Global Modeling Initiative chemistry and transport model simulations of radon-222 and lead-210 to input meteorological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Considine

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used the Global Modeling Initiative chemistry and transport model to simulate the radionuclides radon-222 and lead-210 using three different sets of input meteorological information: 1. Output from the Goddard Space Flight Center Global Modeling and Assimilation Office GEOS-STRAT assimilation; 2. Output from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies GISS II' general circulation model; and 3. Output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research MACCM3 general circulation model. We intercompare these simulations with observations to determine the variability resulting from the different meteorological data used to drive the model, and to assess the agreement of the simulations with observations at the surface and in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region. The observational datasets we use are primarily climatologies developed from multiple years of observations. In the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region, climatological distributions of lead-210 were constructed from ~25 years of aircraft and balloon observations compiled into the US Environmental Measurements Laboratory RANDAB database. Taken as a whole, no simulation stands out as superior to the others. However, the simulation driven by the NCAR MACCM3 meteorological data compares better with lead-210 observations in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region. Comparisons of simulations made with and without convection show that the role played by convective transport and scavenging in the three simulations differs substantially. These differences may have implications for evaluation of the importance of very short-lived halogen-containing species on stratospheric halogen budgets.

  13. Radon-222 and gamma ray levels associated with the collection, processing, transmission, and utilization of natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, C; Kan, K; Anderson, J; Morley, D

    1998-09-01

    The natural gas industry in British Columbia was investigated for exposure to radioactive contaminants such as radon-222 and lead-210. Radon activity associated with the gathering system ranged from 7-921 Bq/m3. The pipelines to the processing facility contained sludge that had a mean lead-210 activity of 0.494 Bq/g (0.379 standard deviation [SD]) and a mean radium-226 activity of 0.417 (0.398 SD). Within the processing facility the highest levels of radon were associated with propane production streams, and activities as high as 4958 Bq/m3 were found. Equipment handling these streams was also found to have a buildup of scale with lead-210, radium-224, and radium-226 activity. The transmission of salable gas to the consumer indicated a decrease in radon activity that was slightly lower than the estimated radon activity based on the half-life of radon, the distance from the production facility, and the speed of gas transmission. The risk of radon exposure to the worker was deemed well below the guidelines and would be controlled more than adequately by means of the occupational standards for the natural gas components. Gamma ray exposure was also well below the occupational standards. Radon exposure to the consumer was virtually nonexistent in the Vancouver region from both natural gas and propane. Although this might not be the case for consumers of propane closer to the production facilities, its contribution is likely to be minimal.

  14. Quantifying nitrate and oxygen reduction rates in the hyporheic zone using 222Rn to upscale biogeochemical turnover in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Sven; Gilfedder, Benjamin; Pittroff, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying and upscaling chemical turnover in the hyporheic zone (HZ) is difficult due to limited reaction rate data, unknown site specific characteristics, and few methods for upscaling local measurements to river networks. Here we present a method for quantifying reaction kinetics in-situ in the HZ and upscaling biogeochemical turnover to catchment scales. Radon-222 was used to quantify water residence times in the HZ of the Roter Main River (RM), Germany. Residence times were then combined with O2, NO3-, CO2, DOC and carbon quality (EEMs, SUVA) data to estimate Monod and first-order reaction rates. Carbon quality was highly bioavailable in the HZ and is unlikely to be limiting. Reaction kinetics were incorporated into the FINIFLUX model to upscale NO3- mass loss over a 32 km reach of the RM. The aim was to (1) estimate hyporheic efficiency in terms of nitrate turnover, and (2) calculate nitrate- mass loss in the HZ over at the reach scale. Damköhler analysis, based on characteristic transport and reaction times, suggests that the hyporheic zone is inefficient for nitrate processing, however this is somewhat misleading as the largest NO3- mass loss occurs at the shortest residence times where Da<<1. This is due to the largest water flux occurring in the uppermost part of the sediment profile. Total nitrate processing in the HZ for the 32 km reach accounted for 24 kg nitrate per hour, which was 20 % of the nitrate flux from the catchment.

  15. Tracing the sources of gaseous components (222Rn, CO2 and its carbon isotopes) in soil air under a cool-deciduous stand in Sapporo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Haraki, Yukihide; Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Amano, Hikaru; Kobal, Ivan; Vaupotic, Janja

    2010-02-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) and carbon dioxide were monitored simultaneously in soil air under a cool-temperate deciduous stand on the campus of Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. Both (222)Rn and CO(2) concentrations in soil air varied with atmospheric (soil) temperature in three seasons, except for winter when the temperature in soil air remained constant at 2-3 degrees C at depth of 80 cm. In winter, the gaseous components were influenced by low-pressure region passing through the observation site when the ground surface was covered with snow of ~1 m thickness. Carbon isotopic analyses of CO(2) suggested that CO(2) in soil air may result from mixing of atmospheric air and soil components of different origins, i.e. CO(2) from contemporary soil organic matter and old carbon from deeper source, to varying degrees, depending on seasonal meteorological and thus biological conditions.

  16. Design and synthesis of novel opioid ligands with an azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeleton having a 7-amide side chain and their pharmacologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshikazu; Kitazawa, Shota; Nemoto, Toru; Hirayama, Shigeto; Iwai, Takashi; Fujii, Hideaki; Nagase, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Several derivatives with an azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeleton having a 7-amide side chain were synthesized. Compounds that had an electron-donating group exhibited high affinity for the μ opioid receptor while those with a bulky substituent at the 8-nitrogen atom had low affinities for all receptor types. High affinities and selectivities for the κ receptor resulted from the introduction of the longer amide side chain at the 7α-position. Our studies indicate that the orientation of the amide side chain at the 7-position within the azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeleton is related to selectivity for the κ receptor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A two-dimensional cadmium(II) coordination polymer based on 1-cyanomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and thiocyanate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Ting; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Lin

    2015-09-01

    A cadmium-thiocyanate complex, poly[(1-cyanomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-κ(4)N)octakis-μ2-thiocyanato-κ(8)N:S;κ(8)S:N-tricadmium(II)], [Cd3(C8H14N3)2(NCS)8]n, was synthesized by the reaction of 1-cyanomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride, cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate and potassium thiocyanide in aqueous solution. In the crystal structure, there are two independent types of Cd(II) cation (one on a centre of inversion and one in a general position) and both are in distorted octahedral coordination environments, coordinated by N and S atoms from different ligands. Neighbouring Cd(II) cations are linked together by thiocyanate bridges to form a two-dimensional network. Hydrogen-bonding interactions are involved in the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  18. Radon-222 content of natural gas samples from Upper and Middle Devonian sandstone and shale reservoirs in Pennsylvania—preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E.L.; Kraemer, T.F.

    2012-01-01

    Samples of natural gas were collected as part of a study of formation water chemistry in oil and gas reservoirs in the Appalachian Basin. Nineteen samples (plus two duplicates) were collected from 11 wells producing gas from Upper Devonian sandstones and the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania. The samples were collected from valves located between the wellhead and the gas-water separator. Analyses of the radon content of the gas indicated 222Rn (radon-222) activities ranging from 1 to 79 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) with an overall median of 37 pCi/L. The radon activities of the Upper Devonian sandstone samples overlap to a large degree with the activities of the Marcellus Shale samples.

  19. Methane uptake in soils of Southern Spain estimated by two different techniques: Static chamber and 222radon flux and soil air concentration profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, C.; Fernández, M. C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    Measurements of methane fluxes from four differing soils in the surroundings of Málaga (Spain) were carried out by two methods: a direct method using a static accumulation chamber at the soil surface and an indirect method obtained from simultaneously measured 222Rn flux from the soil surface in parallel with the concentration profile measurements of 222Rn and CH 4 in the air of soil. The directly measured methane flux at all the investigated soils was higher than the methane fluxes derived from the indirect method. Atmospheric methane was consumed by all the soils and mean direct flux to the atmosphere were 3.25 μmol m -2 h -1. The study showed no correlation between methane uptake and soil temperature, which might be due to the dry conditions prevailing during the study period.

  20. Asymmetric 1,4-bis(ethynyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane rotators via monocarbinol functionalization. Ready access to polyrotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemouchi, Cyprien; Batail, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric rotators with a 1,4-bis(ethynyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO) core are needed for engineering crystalline arrays of functional molecular rotors. Their synthesis uses carbinol, 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol, as a protecting group because of its polar character and its ability to sustain orthogonal functionalization with the further advantage of being readily removed. The synthesis in good yields of unprecedented asymmetric rotors and polyrotors demonstrates the efficiency of this strategy.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene Ala222Val and susceptibility to ovary cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinwei; Lu, Yan; Long, Ying; Yao, Desheng

    2014-03-01

    Many studies have reported the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene Ala222Val polymorphism with ovary cancer risk, but the results remained controversial. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism and ovary cancer risk. A total of 8 studies including 3,723 cases and 4,001 controls were also involved in this meta-analysis. When all the eligible studies were pooled into this meta-analysis, no significant association between ovary cancer risk and MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism was found in all genetic models [codominant model: OR = 0.980, 95% CI = 0.756-1.270, P h = 0.088, P = 0.877; dominant model: OR = 1.022, 95% CI = 0.864-1.208, P h = 0.033, P = 0.803; recessive model: OR = 1.050, 95% CI = 0.803-1.373, P h = 0.032, P = 0.723; allele comparison model: OR = 1.028, 95% CI = 0.898-1.178, P h = 0.012, P = 0.685]. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, no evidence of any associations of this polymorphism with ovary cancer was found in the Caucasian populations. Our meta-analysis supports that the MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism is not contributed to the risk of ovary cancer from currently available evidence.

  2. MicroRNA-19b/221/222 induces endothelial cell dysfunction via suppression of PGC-1α in the progression of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yunxing; Wei, Zhe; Ding, Hanying; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Zhen; Zheng, Shasha; Zhang, Yujing; Hou, Dongxia; Liu, Yuchen; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Li, Jing; Wang, Dongjin; Jiang, Xiaohong

    2015-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a master regulator of cellular energy metabolism that is associated with many cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. However, the role and underling regulatory mechanisms of PGC-1α in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis are not completely understood. Here, we identified the microRNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate PGC-1α production and their roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A significant down-regulation of PGC-1α protein was observed in human atherosclerotic vessel samples. Using microarray and bioinformatics analyses, PGC-1α was identified as a common target gene of miR-19b-3p, miR-221-3p and miR-222-3p, which are mainly located in the intima of atherosclerotic vessels. In vitro induction of miR-19b-3p, miR-221-3p and miR-222-3p by the inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IFNγ may affect PGC-1α protein production and consequently result in mitochondrial dysfunction in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells (HAECs). The overexpression of miR-19b-3p, miR-221-3p and miR-222-3p in HAECs caused intracellular ROS accumulation, which led to cellular apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PGC-1α plays a protective role against the vascular complications of atherosclerosis. Moreover, the posttranscriptional regulation of PGC-1α by miR-19b/221/222 was unveiled, which provides a novel mechanism in which a panel of microRNAs can modulate endothelial cell apoptosis via the regulation mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intensidade de ruído em hospital de 222 leitos na 18ª Regional de Saúde - PR Noise level in a 222 bed hospital in the 18th health region - PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Otenio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A poluição sonora ambiental torna-se hoje onipresente e beira o intolerável. Nos hospitais, os avanços tecnológicos trazem, como conseqüência, níveis de ruído potencialmente danosos. Muito do ruído no hospital provém mais de dentro, do que de fora desse ambiente, sendo as principais causas de ruído em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, por exemplo, os equipamentos e a conversação entre a equipe hospitalar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o nível de ruído nos diversos ambientes hospitalares, em Hospital de 222 leitos na 18ª RS de Saúde - PR. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Conduziu-se, em março de 2005 no período de 24 horas, em dez setores. Forma de Estudo: Aferição do nível de ruído ambiental utilizando um Decibelímetro modelo 1350. RESULTADOS: O nível de ruído encontrado em nosso estudo apresentou média total de 63,7 dB(A, que excede os valores máximos permitidos de 45 dB recomendados pela Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (1987. CONCLUSÃO: Nos setores analisados, o nível de ruído encontrado neste está consideravelmente acima do recomendado. A equipe hospitalar deve estar consciente do ruído e dos efeitos deste, para que possa atuar de maneira mais efetiva na redução da poluição sonora, beneficiando assim a função laborativa dos profissionais e recuperação dos pacientes.Environment noise pollution is common place today, at intolerable levels. In hospitals, technological developments have, as a consequence, potentially harmful noise levels. Much of the hospital noise comes from inside, rather than outside, and the major source of such noise is the Intensive Care Unit, for example equipment and hospital staff talk. Our goal with the present study was to investigate the noise level present in the different hospital environments, within a 222 bed hospital located at the 18th health zone, PR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in March, 2005, during a period of 24 hours, in tem different

  4. {sup 222} Rn exposure assessment in the caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR); Avaliacao da exposicao ao {sup 222} Rn nas cavernas do Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2006-07-01

    In the present work, radon concentrations in six caves of PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Touristic State Park) were carried out with Makrofol E solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and used to assess the annual effective dose received by regional tour guides. The park has four visitation centers: Santana, Ouro Grosso, Caboclos e Casa de Pedra and receives nearly 40,000 people annually. The caves evaluated were Couto, Agua Suja, Laje Branca, Morro Preto and Santana, from Santana center and Alambari de Baixo from Ouro Grosso center, for being the most frequently visited caves. The exposure period of the SSNTD was, at least, three months, over a period of 26 months, from October 2003 to November 2005.The {sup 222}Rn concentrations lay in a range from 153 Bq.m{sup -3} to 6607 Bq.m{sup -3} and we observed that, in general, for chilly weather, the radon levels decrease. The annual effective dose, considering the most realistic scenario, with geometric mean concentrations, an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and annual exposure time for each cave, varied from 0.2 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Couto cave, strongly ventilated, to 4.0 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Santana cave, the most frequently visited and no external communication. For the worst scenario, with arithmetic mean concentrations, equilibrium factor 1 and annual exposure time for all caves, the annual effective dose was 16.1 mSv.a{sup -1}. All assessed effective doses received by the tour guides are bellow 20 mSv.a{sup -1} suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP 60, 1990). (author)

  5. Biochemical and computational analyses of two phenotypically related GALT mutations (S222N and S135L that lead to atypical galactosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cocanougher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Galactosemia is a metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the GALT gene [1,2]. We encountered a patient heterozygous for a known pathogenic H132Q mutation and a novel S222N variant of unknown significance [3]. Reminiscent of patients with the S135L mutation, our patient had loss of GALT enzyme activity in erythrocytes but a very mild clinical phenotype [3–8]. We performed splicing experiments and computational structural analyses to investigate the role of the novel S222N variant. Alamut software data predicted loss of splicing enhancers for the S222N and S135L mutations [9,10]. A cDNA library was generated from our patient׳s RNA to investigate for splicing errors, but no change in transcript length was seen [3]. In silico structural analysis was performed to investigate enzyme stability and attempt to understand the mechanism of the atypical galactosemia phenotype. Stability results are publicly available in the GALT Protein Database 2.0 [11–14]. Animations were created to give the reader a dynamic view of the enzyme structure and mutation locations. Protein database files and python scripts are included for further investigation.

  6. Using radon-222 and radium-226 isotopes to deduce the functioning of a coastal aquifer adjacent to a hypersaline lake in NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Vahab; Nakhaei, Mohammad; Lak, Razyeh

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to assess the hydrogeochemistry of coastal groundwater, the occurrence of 222Rn and 226Ra, and their isotopic response to salinity and associated chemical compositions of groundwater in the coastal Urmia Aquifer (UA) at the western side of Urmia Lake (UL). The results of the PCA show that 87.3% of groundwater chemistry changes are controlled by six principal components. The interaction between groundwater and coastal igneous and metamorphic rocks in eastern areas (next to the UL) results in complex hydrogeochemical conditions than western areas. Based on correlation of U and salinity, some coastal samples display conservative and the others non-conservative behaviors. Differed from most previous studies, 226Ra and 222Rn concentrations in coastal groundwater samples of UA do not show a good correlation with salinity. Given 10% of groundwater 222Rn is originated from host rocks, the radon concentrations recorded in the coastal groundwater samples are relatively in range that can effectively be supplied by the local rocks (5-49 Bq/l). Results of different chemical and isotopic parameters in this area indicate that there is no direct connection between fresh groundwater and UL saltwater. This is because that the hard and thick salty layer in the lakebed acts as an impermeable barrier to prevent the underground hydraulic connection. Results show that removing the salty layer of UL as an option to progress in rehabilitation program of this lake may result in more hydraulic connection between the lake and groundwater resources in some areas.

  7. Indoor {sup 22}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentration measurements inside the Teotihuacan pyramids using NTD and E-PERM methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.mx; Golzarri, J.I. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, T. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Edificio D, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Navarrete, M. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Edificio D, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bogard, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6480 (United States); Martinez, G. [Coordinacion Nacional de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Xicotencatl y General Anaya s/n, 04120 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Juarez, F. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-11-15

    Measurements of {sup 22}Rn (Thoron) and {sup 222}Rn (Radon) concentrations, inside the Sun and Moon pyramids of Teotihuacan's archeological zone in Mexico, are reported in this work. Two well-established methods, nuclear track detectors (NTDs), using open-close end cups with internal and external detectors of CR-39 polymer, and electret-passive environmental radon monitoring (E-PERM) were used for the measurements. This experiment had two objectives: to obtain better confidence in the {sup 22}Rn and {sup 222}Rn measurements inside the archeological tunnels, and to compare the data obtained in each one of the two methods. This experiment is specially interesting because of the very peculiar conditions where the measurements are made: high humidity, labyrinths with air currents, but almost constant temperature inside of the pyramid tunnels and galleries, notwithstanding of the temperature changes between the day and the night outside of the pyramid body. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations found in both the pyramids were lower than the action level proposed by the ICRP-65. These tunnels are not open to the public, but researchers from the Anthropology Institutions spend part of their time working there, in periods varying from 3 to 5 months.

  8. Syntheses of Four Enantiomers of 2,3-Diendo- and 3-Endo-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-exo-carboxylic Acid and Their Saturated Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Palkó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl 2,3-diendo-3-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylate ((±-1 was resolved with O,O'-dibenzoyltartaric acid via diastereomeric salt formation. The efficient synthesis of the enantiomers of 2,3-diendo-3-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid ((+-7 and (–-7, 3-endo-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-exo-carboxylic acid ((+-5 and (–-5, cis- and trans-3-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid ((+-6, (–-6, (+-8 and (–-8 was achieved via isomerization, hydrogenation and hydrolysis of the corresponding esters (–-1 and (+-1. The stereochemistry and relative configurations of the synthesized compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy (based on the 3J(H,H coupling constants and X-ray crystallography.

  9. cis-2,5-Diaminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane, a New Chiral Scaffold for Asymmetric Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Subrata; White, James D

    2016-09-20

    Catalysis of widely used chemical transformations in which the goal is to obtain the product as a pure enantiomer has become a major preoccupation of synthetic organic chemistry over the past three decades. A large number of chiral entities has been deployed to this end, many with considerable success, but one of the simplest and most effective catalytic systems to have emerged from this effort is that based on a chiral diamine, specifically trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane. While there have been attempts to improve upon this scaffold in asymmetric synthesis, few have gained the recognition needed to take their place alongside this classic diamine. The challenge is to design a scaffold that retains the assets of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane while enhancing its intrinsic chirality and maximizing the scope of its applications. It occurred to us that cis-2,5-diaminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane could be such a scaffold. Synthesis of this diamine in enantiopure form was completed from benzoic acid, and the (1R,2R,4R,5R) enantiomer was used in all subsequent experiments in this laboratory. Condensation of the diamine with various salicyl aldehydes generated imine derivatives which proved to be excellent "salen" ligands for encapsulation of transition and other metals. In total, 12 salen-metal complexes were prepared from this ligand, many of which were crystalline and three of which, along with the ligand itself, yielded to X-ray crystallography. An advantage of this ligand is that it can be tuned sterically or electronically to confer specific catalytic properties on the salen-metal complex, and this feature was used in several applications of our salen-metal complexes in asymmetric synthesis. Thus, replacement of one of the tert-butyl groups in each benzenoid ring of the salen ligand by a methoxy substituent enhanced the catalytic efficiency of a cobalt(II)-salen complex used in asymmetric cyclopropanation of 1,1-disubstituted alkenes; the catalyst was employed in an improved

  10. CD3+ lymphocytosis in the peri-implant membrane of 222 loosened joint endoprostheses depends on the tribological pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Felix; Thomas, Peter; Sesselmann, Stefan; Thomsen, Marc N; Hopf, Maximilian; Hopf, Johannes; Krukemeyer, Manfred G; Resch, Herbert; Krenn, Veit

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - The most frequent cause of arthroplasty failure is aseptic loosening-often induced by particles. Abrasion material triggers inflammatory reactions with lymphocytic infiltration and the formation of synovial-like interface membranes (SLIM) in the bone-implant interface. We analyzed CD3 quantities in SLIM depending on articulating materials and possible influences of proven material allergies on CD3 quantities. Patients and methods - 222 SLIM probes were obtained from revision surgeries of loosened hip and knee arthroplasties. SLIM cases were categorized according to the SLIM-consensus classification and to the particle algorithm. The CD3 quantities were analyzed immunohistochemically, quantified, and correlated to the particle types. Results - Metal-metal pairings showed the highest CD3 quantities (mean 1,367 counted cells). CD3 quantities of metal-polyethylene (mean 243), ceramic-polyethylene (mean 182), and ceramic-ceramic pairings (mean 124) were significantly smaller. Patients with contact allergy to implant materials had high but not statistically significantly higher CD3 quantities than patients without allergies. For objective assessment of the CD3 response as result of a pronounced inflammatory reaction with high lymphocytosis (adverse reaction), a defined CD3 quantity per high power field was established, the "CD3 focus score" (447 cells/0.3 mm(2), sensitivity 0.92; specificity 0.90; positive predictive value 0.71; negative predictive value 0.98). Interpretation - The high CD3 quantities for metal-metal pairings may be interpreted as substrate for previously described adverse reactions that cause severe peri-implant tissue destruction and SLIM formation. It remains unclear whether the low CD3 quantities with only slight differences in the various non-metal-metal pairings and documented contact allergies to implant materials have a direct pathogenetic relevance.

  11. Modeling of indoor 222Rn distribution in ventilated room and resulting radiation doses measured in the respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rabi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of radiation hazard of indoor radon is largely due to the radon progenies, which are inhaled and deposited in the human respiratory tract. It is therefore important to understanding the distribution of radon and their progeny in indoor environment helps in calculating the inhalation doses due to them. This paper focuses on effects of exhalation from different sources (wall, floor and ceiling and the ventilation profile on distribution of the concentrations of radon and their progeny indoor. The radon exhalation rate from walls, floor and ceiling, and ventilation rate were measured as a part of this study and are used as input in Finite Volume Method (FVM simulation. The findings show that the radon concentration which is distributed in a non-homogeneous way in the room is due to the difference in the radon concentration of different sources (wall, floor and ceiling. Moreover, the radon concentration is much larger near walls, and decreases in the middle of the room because of the effect of air velocity. It has also been found that the distributions of unattached and attached fraction of 218Po, 214Pb and 214Po radionuclides are similar to that of 222Rn. In addition, equilibrium fraction F and the unattached fraction ( fj  of 218Po, 214Pb and 214Po radionuclides for different values of the attachment rate were evaluated. The committed equivalent doses due to 218Po and 214Po radon short-lived progeny were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of workers from the inhalation of indoor air.

  12. Di-μ-chlorido-bis{[2-({[2-(2-pyridylethyl](2-pyridylmethylamino}methylphenol]zinc(II} bis(perchlorate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E. Coelho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Zn2Cl2(C20H21N3O2](ClO42·2H2O, consists of a dinuclear ZnII cationic complex, two disordered perchlorate anions and two water molecules as solvate. The [Zn2(μ-Cl2(HL2]2+ cation [HL is 2-({[2-(2-pyridylethyl](2-pyridylmethylamino}methylphenol] has a centrosymmetric structure with the ZnII ions in a distorted octahedral environment surrounded by an N3OCl2 donor set. HL acts as a tetradentate ligand through three N atoms from one amine group and two pyridyl arms and one O atom from the phenolic arm. The three N-donor sites of the HL ligand are arranged in meridional fashion, with the pyridine rings coordinated in trans positions with respect to each other. Consequently, the amine and phenol groups are trans to the asymmetric di-μ-chlorido exogenous bridges. A polymeric chain is formed along [010] by C(12R42(8 intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The perchlorate anion is disordered and was modelled by two sites in a 0.345 (18:0.655 (18 ratio. Water–perchlorate O—H...O interactions form cyclic structures, while phenol–water O—H...O interactions generate an infinite chain. In addition, weak intermolecular C—H...π(Ph interactions between pyridine donor and phenol acceptor groups of neighboring cations build a two-dimensional polymeric structure parallel to (110.

  13. Substituent effects in 1-nitro-4-substituted bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives: inductive or field effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krygowski, Tadeusz M; Oziminski, Wojciech P

    2014-08-01

    Interactions between the NO2 group and 13 different substituents (BF2, BH2, CF3, CH3, CHO, CN, F, NH2, NMe2, NO2, NO, OH, OMe) were investigated computationally for bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO) and benzene substituted at 1,4 and 1,3 positions in the ring. Three methods were employed to estimate the character and strength of the substituent effect: substituent effect stabilization energy (SESE), sigma/pi electron donor acceptor index (sEDA/pEDA) and substituent active region (cSAR) parameter. For the first time the sEDA/pEDA parameters were calculated not for the ring but for the NO2 group. All calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. For 1,4 derivatives, a direct comparison of slopes of linear regressions between BCO and benzene reveals a much better transmission of the substituent effect in the latter. The ratio of slopes (benzene over BCO) is always larger than 4. It follows that the resonance effects, which are absent in the BCO, dominate in this case. For 1,3 derivatives, because of much lower correlation coefficients, estimated standard deviations (ESD) were used to calculate the ratio instead of the slopes. For these systems the ratio is much closer to the unity, which indicates that only the sigma/through space effects are present and they are of similar magnitude in benzene and BCO. It follows from natural population analysis (NPA) charges that the substituent effect in the studied systems is due mainly to through-space interactions.

  14. Assessment of the thermodynamic properties of poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate) by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Stella K; Panayiotou, Costas

    2014-01-10

    The thermodynamic properties of poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (PTFEMA) were determined by the aid of the inverse gas chromatography technique (IGC), at infinite dilution. The interactions between the polymer and 15 solvents were examined in the temperature range of 120-150 °C via the estimation of the thermodynamic sorption parameters, the parameters of mixing at infinite dilution, the weight fraction activity coefficients and the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. Additionally, the total and the partial solubility parameters of PTFEMA were estimated. The findings of this work indicate that the type and strength of the intermolecular interactions between the polymer and the solvents are strongly depended on the functional groups of the polymer and the solvents. The proton acceptor character of the polymer is responsible for the preferential solubility of PTFEMA in chloroform which acts as a proton donor solvent. The results also reveal that the polymer is insoluble in alkanes and alcohols whereas it presents good miscibility with polar solvents, especially with 2-butanone, 2-pentanone and 1,4-dioxane. Furthermore, the total and dispersive solubility parameters appear diminishing upon temperature rise, whereas the opposite behavior is noticed for the polar and hydrogen bonding solubility parameters. The latter increase with temperature, probably, due to conformational changes of the polymer on the solid support. Finally, comparison of the solubilization profiles of fluorinated methacrylic polymers studied by IGC, leads to the conclusion that PTFEMA is more soluble compared to polymers with higher fluorine content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Partial trisomy 2q due to a maternal balanced translocation t(2;22) (q31;p12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, L.S.; Bleiman, M.; Punnett, H.H. [St. Christopher`s Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Features consistent among reported patients with 2q duplications due to familial translocations or de novo duplications include pre- and postnatal growth failure, ocular defects such as congenital glaucoma, cardiac defects, micrognathia, urogenital defects, renal defects, connective tissue laxity, neurologic defects, and dermatologic abnormalities. Genotype/phenotype correlations of patients with trisomy 2q due to familial translocations are complicated by the presence of the deletions of the other chromosome involved. We have had the opportunity to observe `pure` trisomy 2q31-qter resulting from adjacent-1 segregation from 46,XX,t(2;22)(q31;p12) in a carrier mother with apparent loss of the 22 NOR region. He was the 2453 gm product of a gestation complicated by gestational diabetes to a 29-year-old G1 P0 mother and a 30-year-old father. At birth, he was noted to have hypotonia, micrognathia, microphthalmia, left cryptorchidism, hypospadias, bilateral clinodactyly of the fifth digits, mild hyperextensibility of the joints, dry skin disorder, and bilateral hydronephrosis by ultrasound. He was treated for hypoglycemia in the nursery and had a vesicostomy at two months for vesicoureteral reflux. A hearing test at two months found moderate hearing loss in the right ear and mild to moderate hearing loss in the left ear. At 3 months he had surgery for a PDA and bilateral glaucoma and was treated for periods of hypothermia and type IV renal tubular acidosis. This patient and others with unbalanced translocations involving the NOR region of an acrocentric chromosome allow for genotype/phenotype correlation of the `pure` trisomic region.

  16. Seasonal variations of natural ventilation and radon-222 exhalation in a slightly rising dead-end tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Gautam, Umesh; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Shrestha, Prithvi; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2007-01-01

    The concentration activity of radon-222 has been monitored, with some interruptions, from 1997 to 2005 in the end section of a slightly rising, dead-end, 38-m long tunnel located in the Phulchoki hill, near Kathmandu, Nepal. While a high concentration varying from 6 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) to 10 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) is observed from May to September (rainy summer season), the concentration remains at a low level of about 200 Bq m(-3) from October to March (dry winter season). This reduction of radon concentration is associated with natural ventilation of the tunnel, which, contrary to expectations for a rising tunnel, takes place mainly from October to March when the outside air temperature drops below the average tunnel temperature. This interpretation is supported by temperature measurements in the atmosphere of the tunnel, a few meters away from the entrance. The temporal variations of the diurnal amplitude of this temperature indeed follow the ventilation rate deduced from the radon measurements. In the absence of significant ventilation (summer season), the radon exhalation flux at the rock surface into the tunnel atmosphere can be inferred; it exhibits a yearly variation with additional transient reductions associated with heavy rainfall, likely to be due to water infiltration. No effect of atmospheric pressure variations on the radon concentration is observed in this tunnel. This experiment illustrates how small differences in the location and geometry of a tunnel can lead to vastly different behaviours of the radon concentration versus time. This observation has consequences for the estimation of the dose rate and the practicability of radon monitoring for tectonic purposes in underground environments.

  17. Characterization of an extracellular thermophilic chitinase from Paenibacillus thermoaerophilus strain TC22-2b isolated from compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Junko; Kurosawa, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus thermoaerophilus strain TC22-2b, a thermophilic bacterium with an optimum growth temperature of 50-55 °C isolated from compost (55 °C) in Japan, secreted a chitinase into culture medium in the presence of colloidal chitin. Adding glucose, lactose, mannose, or sucrose to culture medium decreased the amount of chitinase in culture supernatants. This chitinase was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, colloidal chitin adsorption, and ion exchange chromatography. The apparent molecular mass of this enzyme was approximately 48 kDa, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined to be Ala-Val-Ser-Thr-Gly-Lys-Lys. The optimum temperature and pH for chitinase activity were 60 °C and pH 4, respectively. The chitinase retained 68 % of its initial activity after incubation at 50 °C for 2 h. Using p-nitrophenyl N,N'-diacetyl-β-D-chitobioside [pNP-(GlcNAc)2] as a substrate, the K m, V max, and k cat values for this enzyme were 1.4 mM, 0.058 mM min(-1), and 9.6 s(-1), respectively. Analysis of hydrolysis products showed that the chitinase digested N-acetyl-chitooligosaccharides in an endo manner. N-acetylglucosamine dimers were not degraded by the enzyme. When colloidal chitin was used as the substrate, N-acetylglucosamine dimers, -trimers, and -tetramers were detected as hydrolysis products. Thus, the thermophilic chitinase may prove useful for industrial applications in chitooligosaccharide production from chitin biomass.

  18. Optimal Concentration of 2,2,2-Trichloroacetic Acid for Protein Precipitation Based on Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Albert N; Ezoulin, Miezan Jm; Youm, Ibrahima; Youan, Bi-Botti C

    2014-09-01

    For low protein concentrations containing biological samples (in proteomics) and for non proteinaceous compound assays (in bioanalysis), there is a critical need for a simple, fast, and cost-effective protein enrichment or precipitation method. However, 2,2,2-trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is traditionally used for protein precipitation at ineffective concentrations for very low protein containing samples. It is hypothesized that response surface methodology, can be used to systematically identify the optimal TCA concentration for protein precipitation in a wider concentration range. To test this hypothesis, a central composite design is used to assess the effects of two factors (X1 = volume of aqueous solution of protein, and X2 = volume of TCA solution 6.1N) on the optical absorbance of the supernatant (Y1), and the percentage of protein precipitated (Y2). Using either bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein or human urine (with 20 ppm protein content), 4% w/v (a saddle point) is the optimal concentration of the TCA solution for protein precipitation that is visualized by SDS-PAGE analysis. At this optimal concentration, the Y2-values range from 76.26 to 92.67% w/w for 0.016 to 2 mg/mL of BSA solution. It is also useful for protein enrichment and xenobiotic analysis in protein-free supernatant as applied to tenofovir (a model HIV microbicide). In these conditions, the limit of detection and limit of quantitation of tenofovir are respectively 0.0014 mg/mL and 0.0042 mg/mL. This optimal concentration of TCA provides optimal condition for protein purification and analysis of any xenobiotic compound like tenofovir.

  19. Testing the usefulness of (222)Rn to complement conventional hydrochemical data to trace groundwater provenance in complex multi-layered aquifers. Application to the Úbeda aquifer system (Jaén, SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, L; Manzano, M; Rodríguez-Arévalo, J

    2017-12-01

    The Úbeda aquifer system is a multi-layered aquifer intensively exploited for irrigation. It covers 1100km(2) and consists of piled up sedimentary aquifer and aquitard layers from Triassic sandstones and clays at the bottom, to Jurassic carbonates (main exploited layer) in the middle, and Miocene sandstones and marls at the top. Flow network modification by intense exploitation and the existence of deep faults favour vertical mixing of waters from different layers and with distinct chemical composition. This induces quality loss and fosters risk of quantity restrictions. To support future groundwater abstraction management, a hydrogeochemical (major and some minor solutes) and isotopic ((222)Rn) study was performed to identify the chemical signatures of the different layers and their mixing proportions in mixed samples. The study of 134 groundwater samples allowed a preliminary identification of hydrochemical signatures and mixtures, but the existence of reducing conditions in the most exploited sector prevents the utility of sulphate as a tracer of Triassic groundwater in the Jurassic boreholes. The potential of (222)Rn to establish isotopic signatures and to trace groundwater provenance in mixtures was tested. (222)Rn was measured in 48 samples from springs and boreholes in most aquifer layers. At first, clear correlations were observed between (222)Rn, Cl and SO4 in groundwater. Afterwards, very good correlations were observed between (222)Rn and the chemical facies of the different layers established with End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA). Using (222)Rn as part of the signatures, EMMA helped to identify end-member samples, and to quantify the mixing proportions of water from the Triassic and the Deep Miocene layers in groundwater pumped by deep agricultural wells screened in the Jurassic. The incorporation of (222)Rn to the study also allowed identifying the impact of irrigation returns through the association of moderate NO3, Cl, and Br contents with very low

  20. 222 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Stepanovic, S., Vukovi, D., Hola, V., et al. Quantitation of biofilm in microtiter plates: overview of testing conditions and practical recommendations for assessment of biofilm production by Staphylococci. APMIS. 2007; 115: 891-9. https://is.muni.cz/publication/751877/en?lan g=en. 11. Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute.

  1. 222 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    aeruginosa qui est une cause principale de la résistance aux antibiotiques en particulier dans les isolats provenant de l'urine cathétérisées, plaie et sonde endotrachéaleaspirée. L'expressiondugène dendvBest un mécanisme de résistance antibiotique chez biofilms de. P.aeruginosa. Mots clés : P.aeruginosa, biofilms,.

  2. Final Report for grant entitled "Production of Astatine-211 for U.S. Investigators"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, Daniel Scott

    2012-12-12

    Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides hold great promise in the therapy of cancer, but few alpha-emitters are available to investigators to evaluate. Of the alpha-emitters that have properties amenable for use in humans, 211At is of particular interest as it does not have alpha-emitting daughter radionuclides. Thus, there is a high interest in having a source of 211At for sale to investigators in the US. Production of 211At is accomplished on a cyclotron using an alpha-particle beam irradiation of bismuth metal. Unfortunately, there are few cyclotrons available that can produce an alpha particle beam for that production. The University of Washington has a cyclotron, one of three in the U.S., that is currently producing 211At. In the proposed studies, the things necessary for production and shipment of 211At to other investigators will be put into place at UW. Of major importance is the efficient production and isolation of 211At in a form that can be readily used by other investigators. In the studies, production of 211At on the UW cyclotron will be optimized by determining the best beam energy and the highest beam current to maximize 211At production. As it would be very difficult for most investigators to isolate the 211At from the irradiated target, the 211At-isolation process will be optimized and automated to more safely and efficiently obtain the 211At for shipment. Additional tasks to make the 211At available for distribution include obtaining appropriate shipping vials and containers, putting into place the requisite standard operating procedures for Radiation Safety compliance at the levels of 211At activity to be produced / shipped, and working with the Department of Energy, Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program, to take orders, make shipments and be reimbursed for costs of production and shipment.

  3. Production of Astatine-211 at the Duke University Medical Center for its regional distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalutsky, Michael [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Systemic targeted radiation therapy and radioimmunotherapy continue to be important tools in the treatment of certain cancers. Because of their high energy and short path length, alpha particle emitters such as 211At are more effective than either external beam x- ray or in vivo beta radiation in delivering potentially curative doses of radiation. The limited clinical trials that have been conducted to date have yielded encouraging responses in some patients, e.g., malignant brain tumors. In order to escalate the additional necessary research and development in radiochemistry, radiobiology and efficacy evaluation of alpha particle radiotherapeutics, it is universally agreed that access to an affordable, reliable supply of 211At is warranted. In conjunction with the Department of Energy's intent to enhance stable and radioactive isotope availability for research applications, it is the primary objective of this project to improve 211At production and purification capabilities at Duke so that this radionuclide can be supplied to researchers at other institutions throughout the US.The most widely used 211At production method involves the α,2n reaction on Bismuth using a cyclotron with beams ≤ 28 MeV. Yields can be enhanced with use of an internal target that allows for a higher alpha fluence plus efficient heat dissipation in the target. Both of these items are in place at Duke; however, in order to support production for multi-institutional use, irradiation campaigns in excess of 50 µAp and four hours duration will be needed. Further, post-irradiation processing equipment is lacking that will enable the distribution process. Financial support is sought for i) a shielded, ventilated processing/containment hood; ii) development of a post-irradiation target retrieval system; iii) fabrication of a 211At distillation and recovery module and iv) a performance review and, where needed, an enhancement of seven major subsystems that comprise the CS-30 Cyclotron. With these modifications in place, routine production of ≥200 mCi of At-211 should be readily achievable, given our methodological development of At-211 target preparation, internal target irradiation and dry distillation to recover the radionuclide.

  4. Density Functional Study of Neutral and Charged Silver Clusters Agn with n = 2-22. Evolution of Properties and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Michael L; Samokhvalov, Alexander

    2017-07-06

    Geometries and electronic properties of neutral Agn, cationic Agn+, and anionic Agn- silver clusters with n = 2-22 were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) with M06 functional. For neutral clusters, transition from planar to "empty cage" structure occurs at n = 7, "empty cage" to "cage with one Ag atom" at n = 18, and to "cage with two Ag atoms" at n = 22. For lowest-energy Agn clusters, Ag8 and Ag18 show lowest polarizability due to closed-shell valence electron configurations 1S2/1P6 and 1S2/1P6/1D10. High stability of Ag8 is manifested in small dissociation energies of Ag9 to Ag8 plus Ag1 and Ag10 cluster to Ag8 plus Ag2. Cluster Ag20 with configuration 1S2/1P6/1D10/2S2 is stable due to low dissociation energy of Ag21 to Ag1 and Ag22 to Ag2. Cationic clusters with even n namely Ag10+ (9 valence electrons), Ag16+ (15 valence electrons), and Ag22+ (21 valence electrons) dissociate to Ag1 and closed-shell Ag9+ (1S2/1P6), Ag15+ (1S2/1D10/2S2) and Ag21+ (1S2/1P6/1D10/2S2). For odd n, Ag11+ and Ag17+ dissociate to Ag2 and closed-shell Ag9+ and Ag15+. For anionic clusters Agn-, cohesion energy Ecoh and binding energy (BE) show maxima at n = 7 and n = 17 due to stable Ag7- and Ag17- clusters. Small Agn- clusters (n = 4-11) with even n (except n = 8) have lower dissociation energy for loss of Ag1 while those with odd n have lower dissociation energy for loss of Ag2. For n = 12-22, all clusters have lower dissociation energy for loss of Ag1.

  5. Radon-222 in groundwater and effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, Janet Ayobami; Oyeleke, Oyebode Akanni

    2017-03-20

    Radon concentration in groundwater collected from the eleven Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ibadan, Nigeria, was analyzed. Annual effective doses due to ingestion and inhalation of radon from the consumption of the water were determined. The arithmetic means (AMs) of radon concentration for the 11 LGAs varied from 2.18 to 76.75 Bq l-1 with a standard deviation of 1.57 and 70.64 Bq l-1, respectively. The geometric means (GMs) varied from 1.67 to 49.47 Bq l-1 with geometric standard deviation of 2.22 and 3.04, respectively. About 58% of the 84 water samples examined had a higher concentration of radon than the 11.1 Bq l-1 recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA); the AMs of six LGAs and GMs of three LGAs were higher than the recommended value. However the AMs and GMs of all the LGAs with about 93% of the water sampled were lower than the 100 Bq l-1 recommended by the World Health Organization and EURATOM drinking water directive. The concentration of radon varied with the geological formation of the area. The AMs of the annual effective dose due to ingestion of radon in water ranged from 0.036 to 1.261 mSv y-1, 0.071 to 2.521 mSv y-1 and 0.042 to 1.471 mSv y-1 for adult, child and infant, respectively and the GMs in the range of 0.026 to 0.813, 0.055 to 1.625 and 0.032 to 0.948 mSv y-1, respectively. The AMs of 10 LGAs and GMs of 7 LGAs were higher than the recommended reference dose level of 0.1 mSv y-1 from the consumption of water for the duration of one year for all the three categories of people. The AMs and GMs of the annual effective dose due to inhalation of radon in drinking water ranged from 0.533 to 18.82 μSv y-1 and 0.411 to 12.13 μSv y-1, respectively, contributing less to the overall dose.

  6. Association of MHTFR Ala222Val (rs1801133 polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility: An update meta-analysis based on 51 research studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between MHTFR Ala222Val polymorphism and breast cancer (BC risk are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted through researching MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases before August 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to estimate the strength of the association. Results A total of 51 studies including 20,907 cases and 23,905 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, significant associations were found between MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism and BC risk when all studies pooled into the meta-analysis (Ala/Ala vs Val/Val: OR=0.870, 95%CI=0.789–0.958,P=0.005; Ala/Val vs Val/Val: OR=0.895, 95%CI=0.821–0.976, P=0.012; dominant model: OR=0.882, 95%CI=0.808–0.963, P=0.005; and recessive model: OR = 0.944, 95%CI=0.898–0.993, P=0.026; Ala allele vs Val allele: OR = 0.935, 95%CI=0.887–0.986, P=0.013. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the same results were found in Asian populations, while no significant associations were found for all comparison models in other Ethnicity populations. Conclusion In conclusion, our meta-analysis provides the evidence that MTHFR Ala222Val gene polymorphisms contributed to the breast cancer development. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1966146911851976

  7. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Andrulis, Irene L; Arun, Banu K; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cohn, David E; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; Pauw, Antoine de; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Hake, Christopher R; Hansen, Thomas V O; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ong, Kai-Ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rookus, Matti A; Ross, Eric A; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F; Slavin, Thomas P; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J; Greene, Mark H; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.

  8. Extensive radioactive characterization of a phosphogypsum stack in SW Spain: 226Ra, 238U, 210Po concentrations and 222Rn exhalation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, José-María; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Manjón, Guillermo

    2009-05-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries that contains relatively high concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. The US-EPA regulates the agriculture use of PG, attending to its (226)Ra content and to the (222)Rn exhalation rate from inactive stacks. Measurements of (222)Rn exhalation rates in PG stacks typically show a large and still poorly understood spatial and temporal variability, and the published data are scarce. This work studies an inactive PG stack in SW Spain of about 0.5 km(2) from where PG can be extracted for agriculture uses, and an agriculture soil 75 km apart, being representative of the farms to be amended with PG. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (238)U and (210)Po have been measured in 30 PG samples (0-90 cm horizon) allowing for the construction of maps with spatial distributions in the PG stack and for the characterization of the associated PG inputs to agriculture soils. Averaged (226)Ra concentrations for the stack were 730+/-60 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.), over the US-EPA limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). (222)Rn exhalation rate has been measured by the charcoal canister method in 49 sampling points with 3 canisters per sampling point. Values in PG stack were under the US-EPA limit of 2600 Bq m(-2)h(-1), but they were one order of magnitude higher than those found in the agriculture soil. Variability in radon emissions has been studied at different spatial scales. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with (226)Ra concentrations and daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo). They increased with ETo in agriculture soils, but showed an opposite behaviour in the PG stack.

  9. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vigorito

    Full Text Available Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16. These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6. The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.

  10. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Arun, Banu K.; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A.; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B.; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Cohn, David E.; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; de Pauw, Antoine; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M.; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D. Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D.; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A.; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldgar, David E.; Hake, Christopher R.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M.; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Ong, Kai-ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ross, Eric A.; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F.; Slavin, Thomas P.; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J.; Greene, Mark H.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10−16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10−6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population. PMID:27463617

  11. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEIDEL CM; JAIN J; OWENS JW

    2009-02-23

    This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method.

  12. Sub-picosecond Graphene-based Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Repetition Rates up to 2.22 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramski K.M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Passive harmonic-mode locking (PHML of erbium-doped fiber laser with multilayer graphene is presented. The laser could operate at several harmonics (from 2nd to 21st of the fundamental repetition frequency of the ring resonator (106 MHz. The highest achieved repetition rate was 2.22 GHz (which corresponds to the 21st harmonic with 900 fs pulse duration and 50 dB of the supermode noise suppression. The saturable absorber was formed by multilayer graphene, mechanically exfoliated from pure graphite block through Scotch-tape and deposited on the fiber ferrule.

  13. A novel silicon diffusion membrane method for high-resolution continuous quantification of groundwater-surface water interaction using 222Rn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, I.; Hofmann, H.; Gilfedder, B.

    2011-12-01

    222Rn is a naturally produced radioactive isotopic tracer that is commonly used to quantify groundwater discharge to streams, rivers, and wetlands. Traditional sampling and analysis techniques are usually confined to point measurements taken at a specific time. However, it is difficult to constrain short- or medium-term processes occurring at the groundwater-surface water interface using single measurements. Here we describe a method for high-resolution, autonomous, and continuous, measurement of radon in rivers and streams using a silicon diffusion membrane system coupled to a solid state radon-in-air detector (Durridge RAD7). In this system, water is pumped through a silicon diffusion tube placed inside an outer air circuit tube that is connected to the radon-in-air detector. Radon diffuses from the water into the air loop and is measured by the detector. By optimising the membrane tube length, wall thickness, and water flow rates through the membrane, it was possible to quantify the variability of 222Rn concentrations over timescales of about 3 hours and qualitatively observe changes in as little as 20 minutes. The detection limit for the entire system with 20 minutes counting was 0.018 Bq/L at the 3σ level, which is solely determined by the sensitivity of the detector. Results from the diffusion membrane agree well with conventional measurements of 222Rn made using a RAD7 and an air-water exchanger at both high (20 Bq/L) and low (system is suitable for continuous and autonomous monitoring of groundwater-surface water interactions on hourly to monthly times scales. Unlike unshielded diffusion membranes (such as the Membrana system), the system is not prone to clogging with sediment or biofilms even in turbid water; additionally, the silicon membrane is flexible and can be coiled for installation at sites where space is restricted. While the response times are slower than air-water exchangers, the silicon membrane system uses less power and there is little

  14. Synthesis of Enantiopure 1,2-Diaminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane Derivatives, C1-Symmetric Chiral 1,2-Diamines with a Rigid Bicyclic Backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbeo, Pierre; Moulat, Laure; Didierjean, Claude; Aubert, Emmanuel; Martinez, Jean; Calmès, Monique

    2017-03-17

    The synthesis of enantiopure 1,2-diaminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABO, 1) and its two selectively N-Boc monoprotected derivatives 15 and 16 is described. Starting from bicyclic β-amino acid 3 or 5, strategies involving Curtius and Hofmann rearrangements were explored, demonstrating the unprecedented influence of the bicyclic backbone unsaturation for the preparation of the corresponding diamines that could be only obtained in good yield using the Hofmann rearrangement of unsaturated compound 3. The divergent outcome observed during the Hofmann rearrangement of 3 and 5 was investigated by DFT calculations.

  15. Four new phenolic acid with unusual bicycle [2.2.2] octane moiety from Clerodendranthus spicatus and their anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guo-Xu; Zhang, Xiao-Po; Li, Peng-Fei; Sun, Zhong-Hao; Zhu, Nai-Liang; Zhu, Yin-Di; Yang, Jun-Shan; Chen, De-Li; Wu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Xu-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Four new phenolic acids, clerodens A-D (1-4) possessing an unusual bicycle [2.2.2] octane moiety were isolated from the whole plants of Clerodendranthus spicatus. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including NMR, MS, and ECD data. All isolates were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7, and compound 4 showed significant inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 6.8 μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Double-Diels-Alder Approach to Maoecrystal V. Unexpected C-C Bond-Forming Fragmentations of the [2.2.2]-Bicyclic Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon R; Njardarson, Jon T

    2017-10-06

    Synthetic studies toward maoecrystal V are reported. An oxidative dearomatization/Diels-Alder cascade to assemble the natural product carbocyclic core in one step is proposed. A facile electrocyclization is shown to suppress the intramolecular allene Diels-Alder pathway. This obstacle is alleviated via a stepwise approach with an allene equivalent to access the key cyclopentadiene-fused [2.2.2]-bicyclic core. Upon treatment with Lewis acid, the proposed intramolecular hetero-Diels-Alder reaction is cleanly and unexpectedly diverted either via C-C bond-forming fragmentation to the spiro-indene product (when R = OMe) or via elimination (when R = H).

  17. Determination of glutaraldehyde in water samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization with 2,2,2-trifluoroethylhydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye-In; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2016-05-27

    A simple and convenient headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was described for the determination of glutaraldehyde in water. Glutaraldehyde in water reacted with 2,2,2-trifluoroethylhydrazine (TFEH) in a headspace vial and the formed TFEH derivatives were vaporized and adsorbed onto a fiber. The optimal HS-SPME conditions were achieved with a 50/30μm-divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber, 0.06% 2,2,2-TFEH, 25% salt, an extraction/derivatization temperature of 80°C, a heating time of 30min, and a pH of 6.5. The desorption was performed for 1min at 240°C. Under the established conditions, the lowest limits of detection were 0.3μg/L and 0.1μg/L in 6.0mL of surface water and drinking water, respectively, and the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 9.1% at concentrations of 50, 100 and 500μg/L. The calibration curve showed good linearity with R=0.9995 and R=0.9993 in surface water and drinking water, respectively. This method is simple, amenable to automation and environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heparin-induced platelet aggregation (H-IPA): dose/response relationship for two low molecular weight (LMW) heparin preparations (CY 216 and CY 222)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brace, L.D.; Fareed, J.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated that heparin and a LMW heparin derivative (PK 10169) causes platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner that can be inhibited by antagonists of the thromboxane pathway. Using fractions of these agents separated on the basis of molecular weight (MW) by gel permeation chromatography, the authors showed that H-IPA was directly dependent upon the MW of the agents tested. In order to further examine this MW dependence, the authors tested two other LMW heparin preparations, CY 216 and CY 222 and subfractions of these agents separated on the basis of MW. Citrate anticoagulated whole blood was drawn from drug-free normal healthy donors whose platelets aggregated when heparin was added to their platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP was prepared, various concentrations of the agents or their subfractions were added and aggregation was monitored for 40 minutes at 37/sup 0/C. The results demonstrate that like heparin and PK 10169, CY 216 and CY 222 caused platelet aggregation in a dose and MW dependent manner. Fractions with MW less than 2500 daltons caused aggregation only at concentrations exceeding the therapeutic range of the agents. The authors conclude that the ability to cause H-IPA is an inherent property of heparin and its fractions.

  19. Groundwater discharge to wetlands driven by storm and flood events: Quantification using continuous Radon-222 and electrical conductivity measurements and dynamic mass-balance modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfedder, B. S.; Frei, S.; Hofmann, H.; Cartwright, I.

    2015-09-01

    The dynamic response of groundwater discharge to external influences such as rainfall is an often neglected part of water and solute balances in wetlands. Here we develop a new field platform for long-term continuous 222Rn and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements at Sale Wetland, Australia to study the response of groundwater discharge to storm and flood events. The field measurements, combined with dynamic mass-balance modelling, demonstrate that the groundwater flux can increase from 3 to ∼20 mm d-1 following storms and up to 5 mm d-1 on the receding limb of floods. The groundwater pulses are likely produced by activation of local groundwater flow paths by water ponding on the surrounding flood plains. While 222Rn is a sensitive tracer for quantifying transient groundwater discharge, the mass-balance used to estimate fluxes is sensitive to parameterisation of gas exchange (k) with the atmosphere. Comparison of six equations for calculating k showed that, based on parameterisation of k alone, the groundwater flux estimate could vary by 58%. This work shows that neglecting transient processes will lead to errors in water and solute flux estimates based on infrequent point measurements. This could be particularly important for surface waters connected to contaminated or saline groundwater systems.

  20. Synthesis and Molecular Structure of Chiral (2S, 5S-tert-Butyl 3-Oxo-2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-5-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Moriguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (2S, 5S-tert-butyl 3-oxo-2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-5-carboxylate was synthesized as a chiral cyclic amino acid ester from the corresponding cis- and trans-5-hydroxypipecolic acid ethyl esters via an intramolecular lactonization reaction without using chiral catalyst or enzyme and without separation by chiral column chromatography. The chiral compound was characterized using 1H NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Its exact structure was then determined via single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of a single crystal obtained after recrystallization of the compound from ethyl acetate/diethyl ether. The crystal was found to be of the orthorhombic space group P212121 (No. 19, noncentrosymmetric, chiral with a=9.6402(10 Å, b=9.7026(10 Å, c=12.2155(12 Å, Dcalc=1.3194 g/cm3, and a Flack parameter of 0.0(5 at 90 K. The compound has a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane structure comprised of lactone and piperidine groups.

  1. Poly[[(μ3-5,6-dicarboxybicyclo[2.2.2]oct-7-ene-2,3-dicarboxylato(1,10-phenanthrolinecopper(II] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Cheng Ma

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Cu(C12H10O8(C12H8N2]·H2O}n, the CuII ion is five-coordinated by two N atoms from one phenanthroline ligand and three O atoms from three different H2L2− anions (H4L is bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxylic acid in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Each H2L2− ion bridges three CuII atoms to form a zigzag sheet parallel to the ab plane. The crystal structure is consolidated by O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  2. Recovery of blood gases and haematological parameters upon anaesthesia with benzocaine, MS-222 or Aqui-S in the air-breathing catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Le My; Damsgaard, Christian; Huong, Do Thi Thanh

    2016-01-01

    ), MS-222 (100 mg l-1), and Aqui-S (30 mg l-1) on blood gases and haematological parameters of commercial-sized (&1 kg) striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and the time course of recovery. Blood was taken through a dorsal aorta catheter immediately after catheterization, and regularly during...... by the lack of an adrenergic response of RBC in vitro. All anaesthetics showed similar efficacy and blood parameters were normalized within 24 to 48 h.......Fish anaesthesia is used to minimize handling stress and damage during harvesting, transportation, and surgical procedures. Through depression of cardiovascular and respiratory functions, it causes significant changes in blood gases and pH. Here, we present the effects of benzocaine (100 mg l-1...

  3. Halogen-bonded adduct of 1,2-dibromo-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisdon, Alan K; Muneer, Abeer M T; Pritchard, Robin G

    2015-10-01

    Halogen bonding is an intermolecular interaction capable of being used to direct extended structures. Typical halogen-bonding systems involve a noncovalent interaction between a Lewis base, such as an amine, as an acceptor and a halogen atom of a halofluorocarbon as a donor. Vapour-phase diffusion of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) with 1,2-dibromotetrafluoroethane results in crystals of the 1:1 adduct, C2Br2F4·C6H12N2, which crystallizes as an infinite one-dimensional polymeric structure linked by intermolecular N...Br halogen bonds [2.829 (3) Å], which are 0.57 Å shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii.

  4. Spiro-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives as paclitaxel mimetics. Synthesis and toxicity evaluation in breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manner, Sophie; Oltner, Viveca T; Oredsson, Stina; Ellervik, Ulf; Frejd, Torbjörn

    2013-11-07

    Paclitaxel is one of the most important anti-cancer agents introduced during the last 20 years. However, the use of paclitaxel is limited by undesirable side effects as well as the development of drug resistance. Here, we report a synthetic strategy towards spiro-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives, which includes double Michael addition and ring-closing metathesis as key synthetic steps. This strategy was used to synthesize a series of spiro-bicyclic compounds designed to be paclitaxel mimetics, which were evaluated in human breast-derived cell lines. One of these paclitaxel mimetics showed toxicity, although at higher concentrations than paclitaxel itself. In addition, two other spiro-bicyclic compounds, lacking the paclitaxel side chain, showed toxicity.

  5. Structural phase transitions and dielectric transitions in a 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (dabco) based organic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiang-Bin; Hu, Pan; Shi, Chao; Zhang, Wen

    2017-01-01

    1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (dabco) based organic crystal [(Hdabco)(H2O)](PF6) (1) was synthesized and characterized. Its structure is featured by wavy-like one-dimensional supramolecular hydrogen bond chains built from the [(Hdabco)(H2O)] units from end to end. Compound 1 undergoes two reversible phase transitions at 226/268 K and 178/181 K, respectively. The disorder-order transition of water molecule in the hydrogen bond chain induces the phase transition at 226 K while the twisting of the [Hdabco]+ cation and displacements of the PF6- anion and H2O molecules trigger the phase transition at 178 K. Dielectric transitions are thus triggered in the crystal.

  6. [Chemical ribonucleases. 3. Synthesis of organic catalysts of hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds based on quaternary salts of 1,4-diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevets, D A; Bekk, I E; Sil'nikov, V N; Zenkova, M A; Shishkin, G V

    2000-11-01

    On the basis of imidazole and bisquaternary salts of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, a number of highly effective catalysts of the nDm series (here, n is the number of positive charges at neutral pH values and m is the digital code of the catalytically active fragment: 1, histamine, and 2, histidine methyl ester) were synthesized for the cleavage of the phosphodiester bonds in ribonucleic acids. A general method for the synthesis of chemical ribonucleases was suggested, which helps vary both the number of positive charges in their RNA-binding domain and the catalytic center. By the example of hydrolysis under physiological conditions of the in vitro transcript of tRNA(Lys) from human mitochondria, it was shown that the RNA cleavage rate with the nDm conjugates increases approximately 30-fold along with the increase in the number of positive charges from two to four.

  7. Inferring coastal processes from regional-scale mapping of {sup 222}Radon and salinity: examples from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, Thomas C., E-mail: thomas.stieglitz@jcu.edu.a [AIMS-JCU, Townsville (Australia); Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB NO 3, Townsville QLD 4810 (Australia); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia); Cook, Peter G., E-mail: peter.g.cook@csiro.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia); Burnett, William C., E-mail: wburnett@mailer.fsu.ed [Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The radon isotope {sup 222}Rn and salinity in coastal surface water were mapped on regional scales, to improve the understanding of coastal processes and their spatial variability. Radon was measured with a surface-towed, continuously recording multi-detector setup on a moving vessel. Numerous processes and locations of land-ocean interaction along the Central Great Barrier Reef coastline were identified and interpreted based on the data collected. These included riverine fluxes, terrestrially-derived fresh submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and the tidal pumping of seawater through mangrove forests. Based on variations in the relationship of the tracers radon and salinity, some aspects of regional freshwater inputs to the coastal zone and to estuaries could be assessed. Concurrent mapping of radon and salinity allowed an efficient qualitative assessment of land-ocean interaction on various spatial and temporal scales, indicating that such surveys on coastal scales can be a useful tool to obtain an overview of SGD locations and processes.

  8. Inhibition of Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity from a Plasma Membrane Fraction of Acer pseudoplatanus Cells by 2,2,2-Trichloroethyl 3,4-Dichlorocarbanilate 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blein, Jean-Pierre; de Cherade, Xavier; Bergon, Michel; Calmon, Jean-Pierre; Scalla, René

    1986-01-01

    2,2,2-Trichloroethyl 3,4-dichlorocarbanilate (SW26) is toxic for Acer pseudoplatanus cell cultures. It inhibited the cellular proton extrusion and depolarized the plasmalemma. In vitro, it inhibited the plasma membrane ATPase. SW 26 was also inhibitory to membrane ATPases of other origins—plant (maize shoot), fungus (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), and animal (dog kidney)—with about the same efficiency (7.5 micromolar < I50 < 22 micromolar). It did not inhibit the oligomycin-sensitive ATPase from purified plant mitochondria, nor molybdate-sensitive soluble phosphatases. SW26 was more specific for plasma membrane ATPases than diethylstilbestrol or vanadate. A Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis showed that inhibition kinetics were purely noncompetitive (Ki = 14.7 micromolar) below 20 micromolar. Above this concentration, the inhibition pattern was not consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and a Hill plot representation revealed a positive cooperativity. PMID:16664702

  9. Variabilidad de la concentración de radón-222 como gas trazador de procesos geodinámicos en ambientes subterráneos

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Gallego, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral se ha realizado un estudio centrado en el radón (222Rn) como gas trazador de diferentes procesos geodinámicos en ambientes subterráneos. Se han muestreado y analizado 8 cavidades subterráneas diferentes (Castañar de Ibor, Altamira, El Sidrón, El Pindal, Rull, Ardales, Ojo Guareña y la cueva Pintada de Gáldar) aunque son mayoría los resultados obtenidos en los estudios realizados en la cueva de Castañar de Ibor (Cáceres). Este enclave subterráneo es idóneo para ...

  10. catena-Poly[[chloridomercury(II]-μ-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-κ2N:N′-[chloridomercury(II]-di-μ-chlorido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ming Fang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title coordination polymer, [Hg2Cl4(C6H12N2]n, each HgII center within the chain is four-coordinated by one terminal Cl atom, two bridging μ2-Cl atoms, and one N-atom donor from a μ2-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (μ2-daco ligand in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. The daco ligand acts as an end-to-end bridging ligand and bridges adjacent HgII centers, forming a chain running along [001]. Weak C—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions link the chains into a three-dimensional network. Comparison of the structural differences with previous findings suggests that the space between the two N donors, as well as the skeletal rigidity in N-heterocyclic linear ligands, may play an important role in the construction of such supramolecular networks.

  11. 1-[(4-Chlorophenyl(phenyliminomethyl]-7-methoxy-2-naphthol–1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Yonezawa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title cocrystal, 2C24H18ClNO2·C6H12N2, the 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane molecule is located on a twofold rotation axis and linked to the two triarylimine molecules by O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming a 2:1 aggregate. C—H...Cl interactions are also observed. In the triarylimine molecule, the naphthalene ring system makes dihedral angles of 80.39 (6 and 82.35 (6°, respectively, with the phenyl and benzene rings. The dihedral angle between these two latter rings is 87.09 (7°.

  12. Crystal structure of di-μ2-chlorido-bis[(1-aza-4-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-κN1dichloridodicadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Yan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the binuclear title compound, [Cd2(C6H13N22Cl6], two CdII atoms are bridged by two Cl− ligands, defining a centrosymmetric Cd2Cl2 motif. Each metal cation is additionally coordinated by two Cl− ligands and the N atom of a protonated 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (H-DABCO+ ligand, leading to an overall trigonal–bipyramidal coordination environment with one of the bridging Cl− ligands and the N atom at the apical sites. In the crystal, the neutral dimers are linked via N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network expanding parallel to (100.

  13. Anisotropic self-organization of hybrid silica based xerogels containing bridged positively charged 1,4-diazoniabicycle[2.2.2]octane chloride group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Leliz T; Pinheiro, Adriana C; Ferreira, Juliana D; Livotto, Paolo R; Pereira, Vitor P; Gallas, Márcia R; Gushikem, Yoshitaka; Costa, Tania M H; Benvenutti, Edilson V

    2008-02-01

    Anisotropic self-organized hybrid silica based xerogels were obtained. The ordered structure was imposed by the double charged 1,4-diazoniabicycle[2.2.2]octane chloride group bonded in a bridged way. This was confirmed by the presence of well defined X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to an interplanar distance with the same length estimated for the organic bridged groups. The material was characterized by elemental analysis using CHN technique and the chloride ion was analyzed by a potentiometric titration. (13)C and (29)Si CP MAS solid state NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were also performed. The material that can be obtained in the form of powders and transparent monoliths or films, is thermally stable up to 260 degrees C and the samples with high organic content presented birefringence properties.

  14. A novel mutation in the AVPR2 gene (222delA) associated with X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a boy with growth failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaci, Ayhan; Wood, Kent; Demir, Korcan; Büyükgebiz, Atilla; Böber, Ece; Kopp, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To study the case of a 2 10/12-year-old boy who had growth failure and delayed bone maturation. We reviewed the history, which revealed that he had had polyuria, polydipsia, lack of weight gain, and frequent vomiting since the age of 5 months. On physical examination, his height was 86 cm (-1.93 standard deviation [SD]), his weight 10.5 kg (-2.67 SD), and he had motor and mental retardation. His maternal great-grandfather also had polyuria and polydipsia (but not diabetes mellitus), suggesting X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as the underlying cause. The patient underwent a water deprivation-desmopressin test. The coding region of the AVPR2 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and submitted to direct sequence analysis. The water deprivation test confirmed the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus, and administration of desmopressin did not diminish his water secretion. Direct sequencing of the AVPR2 gene revealed a novel deletion of adenine at position 222 (222delA) in exon 2. This mutation is predicted to lead to a frameshift beginning at amino acid 75 and a premature stop codon at position 115 (FS75>115X). His height and weight, as well as his motor skills, improved after initiation of therapy with hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride. Growth delay can be associated with diabetes insipidus. The X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in this boy is caused by a novel mutation in the AVPR2 gene that is predicted to truncate the receptor protein.

  15. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of novel 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives as potent antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarinich, Lyubov A; Burakova, Ekaterina A; Zakharov, Boris A; Boldyreva, Elena V; Babkina, Irina N; Tikunova, Nina V; Silnikov, Vladimir N

    2015-05-05

    A series of new quaternary 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for activity against several strains of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of fungus under different inoculum size. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against six species of microorganisms were tested. Results show a clear structure-activity relationship between alkyl chain length of substitutions of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tertiary amine sites and antimicrobial activity. In the case of compounds 4a-4k, MIC was found to decrease with the increase of the alkyl chain length from ethyl to dodecyl and then to increase at higher chain length (n > 14). The MIC values were found to be low for the compounds 4f and 4g with alkyl chains ranging from 10 to 12 carbons in length (1.6 μg/ml) and were comparable to the reference drug Ciprofloxacin. Also, time-kill assay was performed to examine the bactericidal kinetics. Results indicated that 4f and 4g had rapid killing effects against Staphylococcus aureus, and eliminated 100% of the initial inoculum of bacteria in 2.5 h at the concentration of 10 μg/ml. In addition, compound 4g eliminate more than 99.9% of the initial inoculum of Ps. aeruginosa after 2.5 h of interaction but the activity of compound 4f against this species seems to be weak. Thus, 4g had strong bactericidal activity and could rapidly kill Gram positive S. aureus, as well as Gram negative Ps. aeruginosa at low and high inoculum size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Chemical ribonucleases. 4. Analysis of the fragment structure of chemical ribonucleases based on 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevets, D A; Mironova, N L; Bekk, I E; Zenkova, M A; Shishkin, G V; Vlasov, V V; Sil'nikov, V N

    2002-01-01

    Artificial ribonucleases of the ABLkCm series were synthesized. They consist of a lipophilic alkyl radical (Et, n-C14H29, or C15H31) A, an "RNA-binding domain" B (bisquaternary salt of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), a "catalytic domain" Cm [histamine (C1) or histidine (C3) residue], and a "linker" Lk that joins the "domains" B and Cm [here, k is the number of methylene units (one or three) in the linker]. The effect of the "domain structure" on the catalytic properties of the chemical ribonucleases was analyzed using seven compounds of this series (ABL1C1, ABL3C1, ABL3C3, AC1, AB, BL2, and BL3C3). The catalytic activity of the compounds was assessed in the reaction of hydrolysis of the in vitro transcripts of human tRNA(Lys) and yeast tRNA(Asp) under physiological conditions. It was shown that only chemical ribonucleases that involve all the fragments of the ABLkCm construct can hydrolyze the substrate tRNA at a high rate (90% of tRNA is hydrolyzed for 10 h at 37 degrees C). The activity of the compounds is largely determined by the presence of a long lipophilic radical linked to 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and a long linker, which joins the RNA-hydrolyzing and RNA-binding fragments. The results indicate an important role of hydrophobic interactions in the acceleration of the RNA hydrolysis reaction. The English version of the paper: Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, 2002, vol. 28, no. 4; see also http://www.maik.ru.

  17. 2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl methacrylate-graft-natural rubber: Synthesis and application as compatibilizer in natural rubber/fluoroelastomer blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchiranan, N., E-mail: nhn78@hotmail.com [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wannako, P. [Program in Petrochemistry and Polymer Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Paosawatyanyong, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Prasassarakich, P. [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2013-05-15

    The incompatibility and immiscibility of natural rubber (NR)/fluoroelastomers (FKM) blends were improved by incorporation of a graft copolymer synthesized from the free radical graft copolymerization of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFEM) onto NR initiated by benzoyl peroxide via a melt-mixing process. The grafting properties were investigated as functions of the initiator and monomer concentrations, reaction temperature and time. At the optimal conditions, the obtained graft NR (GNR) purified by Soxhlet extraction contained a maximum grafting efficiency of 1.34% with 49.1% monomer conversion. The structure of the purified GNR was analyzed using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The gross GNR was then applied as the compatibilizer for NR/FKM vulcanizates (20/80 (w/w)) cured by peroxide vulcanization. The addition of GNR at 15 parts per hundred of rubber (phr) gave a vulcanizate with the highest tensile strength (9.93 MPa), some 5.31-fold higher than that of the incompatibilized one (1.87 MPa). This is likely to be due to the higher degree of homogeneity of the constituent phases in the GNR-compatibilized blends, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The GNR-compatibilized NR/FKM vulcanizates were also resistant to gasohol E85 (85% (w/w) of ethanol). Highlights: ► 2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl methacrylate could be grafted on NR via melt-mixing process. ► Effect of grafting parameters on grafting efficiency and gel content was observed. ► NR/FKM containing graft NR had higher tensile strength than uncompatibilized ones. ► The compatibilized NR/FKM vulcanizates had higher gasohol-swelling resistance.

  18. Liquid mixtures involving hydrogenated and fluorinated chains: (p, ρ, T, x) surface of (ethanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol), experimental and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Pedro; Silva, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Djêide; Morgado, Pedro; Martins, Luís F G; Filipe, Eduardo J M

    2013-08-22

    The effect of mixing hydrogenated and fluorinated molecules that simultaneously interact through strong hydrogen bonding was investigated: (ethanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol) binary mixtures were studied both experimentally and by computer simulation. This mixture displays a very complex behavior when compared with mixtures of hydrogenated alcohols and mixtures of alkanes and perfluoroalkanes. The excess volumes are large and positive (unlike those of mixtures of hydrogenated alchools), while the excess enthalpies are large and negative (contrasting with those of mixtures of alkanes and perfluoroalkanes). In this work, the liquid density of the mixtures was measured as a function of composition, at several temperatures from 278.15 to 353.15 K and from atmospheric pressure up to 70 MPa. The corresponding excess molar volumes, compressibilities, and expansivities were calculated over the whole (p, ρ, T, x) surface. In order to obtain molecular level insight, the behavior of the mixture was also studied by molecular dynamics simulation, using the OPLS-AA force field. The combined analysis of the experimental and simulation results indicates that the peculiar phase behavior of this system stems from a balance between the weak dispersion forces between the hydrogenated and fluorinated groups and a preferential hydrogen bond between ethanol and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. Additionally, it was observed that a 25% reduction of the F-H dispersive interaction in the simulations brings agreement between the experimental and simulated excess enthalpy but produces no effect in the excess volumes. This reveals that the main reason causing the volume increase in these systems is not entirely related to the weak dispersive interactions, as it is usually assumed, and should thus be connected to the repulsive part of the intermolecular potential.

  19. Soil gas ({sup 222}Rn, CO{sub 2}, {sup 4}He) behaviour over a natural CO{sub 2} accumulation, Montmiral area (Drome, France): geographical, geological and temporal relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, Frederick, E-mail: f.gal@brgm.f [BRGM, Metrology Monitoring Analysis Department, 3 Avenue Claude-Guillemin, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Joublin, Franck, E-mail: f.joublin@brgm.f [BRGM, Regional Geological Survey, 6 ter, Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 59260 Lezennes (France); Haas, Hubert, E-mail: h.haas@brgm.f [BRGM, Metrology Monitoring Analysis Department, 3 Avenue Claude-Guillemin, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Jean-prost, Veronique, E-mail: v.jean-prost@brgm.f [BRGM, Metrology Monitoring Analysis Department, 3 Avenue Claude-Guillemin, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Ruffier, Veronique, E-mail: v.ruffier@brgm.f [BRGM, Metrology Monitoring Analysis Department, 3 Avenue Claude-Guillemin, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2011-02-15

    The south east basin of France shelters deep CO{sub 2} reservoirs often studied with the aim of better constraining geological CO{sub 2} storage operations. Here we present new soil gas data, completing an existing dataset (CO{sub 2}, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 4}He), together with mineralogical and physical characterisations of soil columns, in an attempt to better understand the spatial distribution of gas concentrations in the soils and to rule on the sealed character of the CO{sub 2} reservoir at present time. Anomalous gas concentrations were found but did not appear to be clearly related to geological structures that may drain deep gases up to the surface, implying a dominant influence of near surface processes as indicated by carbon isotope ratios. Coarse grained, quartz-rich soils favoured the existence of high CO{sub 2} concentrations. Fine grained clayey soils preferentially favoured the existence of {sup 222}Rn but not CO{sub 2}. Soil formations did not act as barriers preventing gas migrations in soils, either due to water content or due to mineralogical composition. No abundant leakage from the Montmiral reservoir can be highlighted by the measurements, even near the exploitation well. As good correlation between CO{sub 2} and {sup 222}Rn concentrations still exist, it is suggested that {sup 222}Rn migration is also CO{sub 2} dependent in non-leaking areas - diffusion dominated systems.

  20. Co-segregation of Freiberg's infraction with a familial translocation t(5;7)(p13.3;p22.2) ascertained by a child with cri du chat syndrome and brachydactyly type A1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myśliwiec, Marta; Panasiuk, Barbara; Dębiec-Rychter, Maria; Iwanowski, Piotr Sebastian; Łebkowska, Urszula; Nowakowska, Beata; Marcinkowska, Anna; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Midro, Alina T

    2015-02-01

    The identification of chromosomal breakpoints in association with human abnormal phenotypes can enable elucidation of gene function. We report on epiphyseal aseptic necrosis of the lesser head of the second metatarsal bone, known as Freiberg's infraction (FI), in two female carriers of the apparently balanced t(5;7)(p13.3;p22.2) ascertained by a 16-year-old girl with cri-du-chat syndrome and unusual skeletal features in association with an unbalanced translocation der(5) t(5;7)(p13.3;p22.2). Mapping of the chromosome breakpoints using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) narrowed them to the coding sequence of ADAMTS12 on chromosome 5p13.3 and SDK1 on 7p22.2. In addition, several skeletal abnormalities classified as brachydactyly type A1B (BDA1B) were present in the proband and in both carriers of t(5;7)(p13.3;p22.2), suggesting a potential role of ADAMTS12 in the development of the BDA1B observed in this family.

  1. Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4) and the Raman spectra of (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity), (OsO(3)F(2))(2), and (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael J; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2009-05-18

    The adduct, (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4), was synthesized by dissolution of the infinite chain polymer, (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity), in XeOF(4) solvent at room temperature followed by removal of excess XeOF(4) under dynamic vacuum at 0 degrees C. Continued pumping at 0 degrees C resulted in removal of associated XeOF(4), yielding (OsO(3)F(2))(2), a new low-temperature phase of OsO(3)F(2). Upon standing at 25 degrees C for 1(1)/(2) h, (OsO(3)F(2))(2) underwent a phase transition to the known monoclinic phase, (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity). The title compounds, (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity), (OsO(3)F(2))(2), and (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4) have been characterized by low-temperature (-150 degrees C) Raman spectroscopy. Crystallization of (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4) from XeOF(4) solution at 0 degrees C yielded crystals suitable for X-ray structure determination. The structural unit contains the (OsO(3)F(2))(2) dimer in which the OsO(3)F(3) units are joined by two Os---F---Os bridges having fluorine bridge atoms that are equidistant from the osmium centers (2.117(5) and 2.107(4) A). The dimer coordinates to two XeOF(4) molecules through Os-F...Xe bridges in which the Xe...F distances (2.757(5) A) are significantly less than the sum of the Xe and F van der Waals radii (3.63 A). The (OsO(3)F(2))(2) dimer has C(i) symmetry in which each pseudo-octahedral OsO(3)F(3) unit has a facial arrangement of oxygen ligands with XeOF(4) molecules that are only slightly distorted from their gas-phase C(4v) symmetry. Quantum-chemical calculations using SVWN and B3LYP methods were employed to calculate the gas-phase geometries, natural bond orbital analyses, and vibrational frequencies of (OsO(3)F(2))(2), (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4), XeOF(4), OsO(2)F(4), and (mu-FOsO(3)F(2))(2)OsO(3)F(-) to aid in the assignment of the experimental vibrational frequencies of (OsO(3)F(2))(2), (OsO(3)F(2))(2)2XeOF(4), and (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity). The vibrational modes of the low-temperature polymeric phase, (OsO(3)F(2))(infinity), have been

  2. Submarine groundwater discharge in a subsiding coastal lowland: A {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn investigation in the Southern Venice lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gattacceca, Julie C., E-mail: jcg54@esc.cam.ac.uk [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Universite, UMR 6635 CNRS-IRD-CDF, Europole Mediterraneen de l' Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Mayer, Adriano [IDPA-CNR, Via Mario Bianco 9, 20131 Milano (Italy); Cucco, Andrea [Coastal Oceanography, CNR-IAMC, Oristano Unit, Loc. Sa MArdini, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Claude, Christelle; Radakovitch, Olivier; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Hamelin, Bruno [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Universite, UMR 6635 CNRS-IRD-CDF, Europole Mediterraneen de l' Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence (France)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > Occurence/magnitude of submarine groundwater discharge investigated in Venice lagoon (Italy) using {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn isotopic tracers. > Single box mass balance compared with multi boxes mass balance coupled with hydrodynamic model. > Groundwater flux accounts for 1% of lagoon hydrological balance (1-3 times surface runoff) and 30-50% of tracers inputs. > Necessary to assess this flux impact on nutrient budget in lagoon. - Abstract: Several recent studies have suggested that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) occurs in the Venice lagoon with discharge rates on the same order or larger than the surface runoff, as demonstrated previously in several other coastal zones around the world. Here, the first set of {sup 222}Rn data, along with new {sup 226}Ra data are reported, in order to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of SGD specifically in the southern basin of the lagoon. The independent connection with the Adriatic Sea (at the Chioggia inlet), in addition to the relative isolation of the water body from the main lagoon, make this area an interesting case study. There is probably only minimal fresh groundwater flux to the lagoon because the surrounding aquifer is subsiding and mainly has a lower hydraulic head than seawater. The data show that the Ra and Rn activities are in slight excess in the lagoon compared to the open sea, with values on the same order as those observed in the northern and central basins. Taking into account the water exchange rate between the lagoon and adjacent seawater provided by previous hydrodynamic numerical modelling, it is shown that this excess cannot be supported at steady state by only riverine input and by diffusive release from the sediment interstitial water. High activities observed in groundwater samples collected from 16 piezometers tapping into the shallow aquifer over the coastal lowland substantiate that the excess radioactivity in the lagoon may indeed be due to the advection of groundwater

  3. The stereospecific hydroxylation of [2,2-2H2]butane and chiral dideuteriobutanes by the particulate methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Steve S-F; Wu, Lo-Ying; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Luo, Wen-I; Huang, Ded-Shih; Chan, Sunney I

    2003-10-17

    Experiments on cryptically chiral ethanes have indicated that the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) catalyzes the hydroxylation of ethane with total retention of configuration at the carbon center attacked. This result would seem to rule out a radical mechanism for the hydroxylation chemistry, at least as mediated by this enzyme. The interpretation of subsequent experiments on n-propane, n-butane, and n-pentane has been complicated by hydroxylation at both the pro-R and pro-S secondary C-H bonds, where the hydroxylation takes place. It has been suggested that these results merely reflect presentation of both the pro-R and pro-S C-H bonds to the hot "oxygen atom" species generated at the active site, and that the oxo-transfer chemistry, in fact, proceeds concertedly with retention of configuration. In the present work, we have augmented these earlier studies with experiments on [2,2-2H2]butane and designed d,l form chiral dideuteriobutanes. Essentially equal amounts of (2R)-[3,3-2H2]butan-2-ol and (2R)-[2-2H1]butan-2-ol are produced upon hydroxylation of [2,2-2H2]butane. The chemistry is stereospecific with full retention of configuration at the secondary carbon oxidized. In the case of the various chiral deuterated butanes, the extent of configurational inversion has been shown to be negligible for all the chiral butanes examined. Thus, the hydroxylation of butane takes place with full retention of configuration in butane as well as in the case of ethane. These results are interpreted in terms of an oxo-transfer mechanism based on side-on singlet oxene insertion across the C-H bond similar to that previously noted for singlet carbene insertion (Kirmse, W., and Ozkir, I. S. (1992) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 7590-7591). Finally, we discuss how even the oxene insertion mechanism, with "spin crossover" in the transition state, could lead to small amounts of radical rearrangement products, if and when such products are observed. A

  4. Continuous atmospheric 222Rn concentration measurements to study surface-air exchange at the station of Gredos and Iruelas, in Central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Claudia; Morgui, Josep Anton; Àgueda, Alba; Batet, Oscar; Curcoll, Roger; Arias, Rosa; Arnold, Delia; Ealo, Marina; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Sánchez-Garcíaa, Laura; Vargas, Arturo; Rodó, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    The Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3) is part of the ClimaDat IC3 network (http://climadat.es/). This station is located in the Gredos Natural Park at a latitude of 40.22° N and a longitude of -5.14° E in the Spanish central plateau. The ClimaDat network is made by 8 stations distributed around Spain and it has been developed with the aim of studying climatic processes and the responses of impacted systems, at different time and space scales. Since November 2012, measurements of CO2, CH4, and of the natural radioactive gas 222Rn are continuously performed at GIC3 station at 20 m agl and at 1100 m asl . Maximum,minimum and average values of meteorological parameters, such as ambient air humidity and temperature, wind speed and direction are also measured at GIC3 station. Particularly, the concentration series of 222Rn measured at GIC3 station are extremely useful to evaluate the exchange of this noble radioactive gas between the soil surface and the lower troposphere in this area, under different weather situations and environmental conditions. The Gredos Natural Park is located in a granitic basement and this type of soil presents a high porosity and permeability. Furthermore, granitic materials have high activity levels of 228U. These factors enable large amount of radon to escape from the deeper soil, giving radon flux values of 90-100 Bq m-2 h-1 . These radon flux values are much higher than the average radon flux over the Earth, which is about 50 Bq m-2 h-1 (Szegvary et al, 2009). On the other hand, this geographical area is frequently affected by snow and rain events which drastically reduce the local radon exhalation. It is also influenced by winds coming from the Atlantic Ocean, which are poor in radon and strong, causing an important mixing. In addition, the cold nights' stability leads to an observed nocturnal radon accumulation. All the aforementioned conditions influence atmospheric radon concentrations measured at the GIC3 station, enlarging the range

  5. Novel iridium(III) complexes based on 2-(2,2’-bithien-5-yl)-quinoline. Synthesis, photophysical, photochemical and DFT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szafraniec-Gorol, Grażyna, E-mail: grazyna.szafraniec@wp.pl [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Słodek, Aneta; Filapek, Michał [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Boharewicz, Bartosz; Iwan, Agnieszka [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 55/61, 50-369 Wroclaw (Poland); Jaworska, Maria; Żur, Lidia; Sołtys, Marta; Pisarska, Joanna; Grudzka-Flak, Iwona [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Czajkowska, Sylwia [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 34, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Sojka, Maciej; Danikiewicz, Witold [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Science, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Krompiec, Stanisław [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2015-07-15

    Four novel cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes: [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(phen)]PF{sub 6}, [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(acac)], [Ir(q-bt-Me){sub 2}(bpy)]PF{sub 6} and [Ir(q-bt-Me){sub 2}(acac)] (where q-bt-Ph, q-bt-Me correspond to 2-(2,2’-bithien-5-yl)-4-phenylquinoline and 2-(2,2’-bithien-5-yl)-4-methylquinoline), are reported. The complexes were characterized by NMR, FTIR and HRMS. The optical, electrochemical properties and thermal stability of novel iridium(III) complexes were thoroughly investigated. The complexes emit a light in the narrow range of 693–707 nm. The optical study showed that replacement of fragment in the main quinoline ligand did not affect wavelength of the emitted light. On the other hand, the modification of the ancillary ligand and substituent in the quinoline ring caused the increase of the photoluminescence quantum yields. Electrochemical experiments demonstrate that the oxidation process for complexes [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(phen)]PF{sub 6} and [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(acac)] was reversible (or quasi-reversible) and well detectable whereas for complexes with quinoline substituted by methyl group was irreversible, even at low temperature (−70 °C). The electrochemical and photophysical studies have been well confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In addition, bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on complexes [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(phen)]PF{sub 6} and [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(acac)] were fabricated. Only the solar cell incorporating [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(acac)] exhibited a photovoltaic effect. The architecture of the cell was ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM:[Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(acac)]/Al. A power conversion efficiency of 0.25% was measured under 1 sun illumination using an AM 1.5G filter to simulate the solar spectrum. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Iridium(III) complexes bearing 2-bithienylquinolines as main ligands were examined. • Optical and electrochemical measurements were compared with DFT calculations.

  6. A 2:2:2 Complex of Vanadium(V) with 4-(2-Thiazolylazo)orcinol and 2,3,5-Triphenyl-2H-Tetrazolium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazov, Kiril Blazhev; Delchev, Vassil Borisov; Mileva, Kremena Tomova; Stefanova, Teodora Stefcheva; Toncheva, Galya Kostadinova

    2016-01-01

    The complex formation in the vanadium(V)/4-(2-thiazolylazo)orcinol (TAO)/2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) liquid-liquid extraction-chromogenic system was studied. The chloroform-extracted complex has a composition of 2:2:2 under the optimum conditions (pH 4.8-5.2, extraction time 3 min, concentration of TAO 3.4 × 10(-4) mol dm(-3), and concentration of TTC 9.4 × 10(-4) mol dm(-3)) and could be regarded as a dimer (D) of two 1:1:1 species (S) presented by the formula (TT+)[VO2(TAO)]. The constant of extraction was calculated by two methods and some analytical characteristics were determined. The wavelength of maximum absorption (λmax), molar absorptivity (ελ) and fraction extracted (E) were found to be λ = 545 nm, ε545 = 1.97 × 10(4) dm(3) mol(-1) cm(-1), and E = 97.9%. The ground-state equilibrium geometries of the complexes S and D were optimized by quantum chemical Hartree-Fock calculations using 3-21G* basis functions. The bonding and interaction energies were calculated as well.

  7. Retrospective estimation of exposure to short-lived {sup 222}Rn progeny by measurements of {sup 210}Pb in the skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheler, R.; Dettmann, K.; Brose, J

    1998-07-01

    The inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its short-lived decay products results in the exposure of the respiratory tract followed by the skeletal deposition of {sup 210}Pb originating in the lung from {sup 214}Po. By measurement of the {sup 210}Pb activity in the skull it could be possible to estimate previous exposures for a known relationship between {sup 210}Pb content in the skeleton and exposure. The measurement technique consists of two arrays of low energy germanium detectors (LEGe) with a total active area of 8000 mm{sup 2} installed in a large shielded chamber. The interpretation of estimated {sup 210}Pb deposit in terms of exposure can be made by using 'conversion coefficients' K{sub E}(t{sub m}) for the relationship between the {sup 210}Pb activity A(t{sub m}) and cumulative exposure. The decision limit of {sup 210}Pb for the total skeleton in a counting time of 7200 s was estimated to be 17 Bq, or about 0.9 J.h.m{sup -3} (250 WLM) of exposure. The results of the first measurements of a group of individuals living in high radon prone areas show a good qualitative correspondence with the expected {sup 210}Pb content of the skeleton. (author)

  8. Enantioselective Rhodium-Catalyzed [2+2+2] Cycloadditions of Terminal Alkynes and Alkenyl Isocyanates: Mechanistic Insights Lead to a Unified Model that Rationalizes Product Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Derek M.; Oberg, Kevin M.; Yu, Robert T.; Lee, Ernest E.; Perreault, Stéphane; Oinen, Mark Emil; Pease, Melissa L.; Malik, Guillaume; Rovis, Tomislav

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript describes the development and scope of the asymmetric rhodium-catalyzed [2+2+2] cycloaddition of terminal alkynes and alkenyl isocyanates leading to the formation of indolizidine and quinolizidine scaffolds. The use of phosphoramidite ligands proved crucial for avoiding competitive terminal alkyne dimerization. Both aliphatic and aromatic terminal alkynes participate well, with product selectivity a function of both the steric and electronic character of the alkyne. Manipulation of the phosphoramidite ligand leads to tuning of enantio- and product selectivity, with a complete turnover in product selectivity seen with aliphatic alkynes when moving from Taddol-based to biphenol-based phosphoramidites. Terminal and 1,1-disubstituted olefins are tolerated with nearly equal efficacy. Examination of a series of competition experiments in combination with analysis of reaction outcome shed considerable light on the operative catalytic cycle. Through a detailed study of a series of X-ray structures of rhodium(cod)chloride/phosphoramidite complexes, we have formulated a mechanistic hypothesis that rationalizes the observed product selectivity. PMID:19817441

  9. The cost of hemiarthroplasty compared to that of internal fixation for femoral neck fractures. 2-year results involving 222 patients based on a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frihagen, Frede; Waaler, Gudrun M; Madsen, Jan Erik; Nordsletten, Lars; Aspaas, Silje; Aas, Eline

    2010-08-01

    There is very little information on the cost of different treatments for femoral neck fractures. We assessed whether total hospital and societal costs of treatment of elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures differ between patients operated with internal fixation or hemiarthroplasty. 222 patients (mean age 83 years, 165 women (74%)) who had been randomized to internal fixation or hemiarthroplasty were followed for 2 years. Resource use in hospital, rehabilitation, community-based care, and nursing home use were identified, quantified, evaluated, and analyzed. The average cost per patient for the initial hospital stay was lower for patients in the internal fixation group than in the hemiarthroplasty group (9,044 euro vs. 11,887 euro, p nursing home, and community-based care), internal fixation was the most expensive treatment (47,186 euro vs. 38,615 euro (p = 0.09)). The initial lower average cost per patient for internal fixation as treatment for a femoral neck fracture cannot be used as an argument in favor of this treatment, since the average cost per patient is more than outweighed by subsequent costs, mainly due to a higher reoperation rate after internal fixation.

  10. Reversible interconversion between luminescent isomeric metal-organic frameworks of [Cu(4)I(4)(DABCO)(2)] (DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Dario; Maini, Lucia; Mazzeo, Paolo P; Ventura, Barbara

    2010-02-01

    The metal-organic frameworks (MOF) of cluster [Cu(4)I(4)(DABCO)(2)] (DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) have been prepared and characterized as two different crystalline forms, I and II. Form I is obtained by reaction of DABCO and CuI in aqueous solution or by solvothermal reaction, while form II is obtained by reacting DABCO and CuI in acetonitrile. Their luminescence properties in the solid state have been analyzed at room temperature and at 77 K. MOF II has bright emission with a maximum at 556 nm that shifts bathochromically at low temperature in conjunction with a marked change in the colour of the emission. The emission of MOF I has a maximum at 580 nm and a less pronounced temperature dependence. The peculiar luminescence properties of the two isomers have been interpreted by utilising current knowledge on the excited states properties of Cu(I) cubane clusters. The two isomers exhibit a high degree of porosity and can release the disordered solvent molecules trapped in the channels, whilst preserving the crystal structure. Isomer I can be converted into II on exposure to acetonitrile or methanol vapour, whereas II reverts to I when heated in a closed pan at 250 degrees C.

  11. Host-Guest Interactions Accompanying the Encapsulation of 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane within endo-Functionalized Macrocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Dipali N; Shewale, Maneesha N; Gejji, Shridhar P

    2017-05-18

    The binding of novel endofunctionalized bis-urea/thiourea molecular receptors toward neutral 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) demonstrates stronger binding of the bis-thiourea macrocycles than for their urea analogues by employing M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p)-based density functional theory. The formation of such inclusion complexes is spontaneous, thermodynamically favorable, and facilitated via bifurcated N-H···N···H-N hydrogen bonding and C-H···π, dipole-dipole, and other noncovalent interactions, which are reflected in the frequency shift of their characteristic N-H vibrations in the calculated vibrational spectra of these complexes. The underlying noncovalent interactions are analyzed using the molecular electrostatic potential topography and quantum theory of atoms in molecules in conjunction with the noncovalent interactions reduced density gradient method. It has also been shown that the encapsulation of DABCO within the π-electron-rich cavity of such hosts brings about shielding of the guest protons confined within the host cavity whereas those facilitating hydrogen bonding engender the downfield signals in their calculated 1H NMR spectra.

  12. Biological evaluation of tetracationic compounds based on two 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane moieties connected by different linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakova, Ekaterina A; Saranina, Irina V; Tikunova, Nina V; Nazarkina, Zhanna K; Laktionov, Pavel P; Karpinskaya, Lubov' A; Anikin, Vadim B; Zarubaev, Vladimir V; Silnikov, Vladimir N

    2016-11-15

    A series of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives differing by linker moiety was evaluated for activity against several strains of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including drug-resistant strains, one strain of fungus and influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). All compounds exhibited high antibacterial activity against all bacteria except Proteus vulgaris. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of compound 1c with an o-phenylenebismethyl linker and compound 1e with a propylene aliphatic linker were found to be low and were comparable or better to the reference drug ciprofloxacin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, a time-kill assay was performed to examine the bactericidal kinetics. Compounds 1c and 1e displayed rapid killing effects against St. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa after 2h. Furthermore, compounds 1a-c with aromatic linkers and compound 1e showed the highest antiviral activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of secondary structure on the interactions of peptide T4 LYS (11-36) in mixtures of aqueous sodium chloride and 2,2,2,-Trifluoroethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Camille O.; Spiegelberg, Susanne; Prausnitz, John M.; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2001-10-01

    The potential of mean force for protein-protein interactions is key to the development of a statistical-mechanical model for salt-induced protein precipitation and crystallization, and for understanding certain disease states, including cataract formation and {beta}-amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Fluorescence anisotropy provides a method for quantitative characterization of intermolecular interactions due to reversible association. Monomer-dimer equilibria for the peptide T4 LYS(11-36) were studied by fluorescence anisotropy. This peptide, derived from the {beta}-sheet region of the T4 lysozyme molecule, has the potential to form amyloid fibrils. 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) induces a change in peptide secondary structure, and was used in aqueous solutions at concentrations from 0 to 50% (v/v) at 25 and 37 C to examine the role of peptide conformation on peptide-peptide interactions. The association constant for dimerization increased with rising TFE concentration and with falling temperature. The peptide-peptide potential of mean force was computed from these association constants. Circular-dichroism measurements showed that the secondary structure of the peptide plays an important role in these strong attractive interactions due to intermolecular hydrogen-bond formation and hydrophobic interactions.

  14. First and second pressure derivatives of the elastic constants of CsBr crystals. [222 to 330/sup 0/K; phonon dispersion relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    The first and second pressure derivatives of the adiabatic elastic constants of CsBr single crystal were measured at 300, 298, 258.2, and 222/sup 0/K using pulse interference techniques. The corresponding quantities of the bulk modulus of CsBr are also calculated. The maximum pressures used in the experiments ranged from 6 kbars to 11 kbars. B/sub 0//sup T'/ is measured to an accuracy of approximately 5 percent, and B/sub 0//sup S''/ to approximately 15 to 30 percent, assuming the systematic error is absent. It is found, however, the value of B/sub 0//sup S''/ is strongly affected by the systematic error arising from the choice of model in fitting the data. The widely used quadratic fit is found inadequate for a maximum pressure of 10 kbars. The contribution from the third-order term /sup 1///sub 6/ B''/sub 0/'P/sup 3/ can not be neglected. The quasi-harmonic approximation is used to derive the theoretical equation of state. Several two- or three-parameter empirical equations of state are also discussed. Using the long-wave method and the present data, the phonon dispersion relation of CsBr is calculated and compared with the experimental results of neutron scattering. 14 tables, 34 figures, 74 references.

  15. Electronic excitation and ionisation of 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (ABCO): evidence for a twisted structure from experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belcher, David E. [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO105DD (United Kingdom); MacMahon, Ewan C. [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO105DD (United Kingdom); Cockett, Martin C.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO105DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mcrc1@york.ac.uk

    2005-03-01

    The first excited neutral and ground cationic states of 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (ABCO) have been studied using a combination of (1 + 1') REMPI and ZEKE spectroscopy, supported by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. In common with the related tertiary alkyl amines, analysis of both REMPI and ZEKE spectra indicate that the overriding impulse upon electronic excitation and ionisation is for a flattening of the nitrogen end of the molecule, albeit hindered by the cage. In addition, the activity of the torsion mode (19) in both REMPI and ZEKE spectra suggests geometry changes along the torsion coordinate between the three electronic states sampled in these experiments. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations conducted at the MP2/cc-pVDZ level of theory yield minimum energy geometries with CNCC dihedral angles of 6.011 deg. and 7.86 deg. for the S{sub 0} and D{sub 0} states, respectively, which indicates that the torsion coordinate is described by a double minimum potential. However, the degree of perturbation to the vibrational eigenvalues suggests that the zero point level lies a few wavenumbers above a small barrier and that ABCO is pseudo-twisted with a vibrationally averaged C{sub 3v} symmetry.

  16. Partial monosomy of 11q22.2q22.3 including the SDHD gene in individuals with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelavarthi, Krishna; Cabral, Huong; Wilson, Golder N; Rohena, Luis; Risheg, Hiba; Penton, Andrea; Schleede, Justin; Burnside, Rachel D

    2015-04-01

    Deletions in the middle portion of 11q are not as well described in the literature as terminal 11q deletions that result in Jacobsen syndrome. One confounding factor in the older literature is that the G-banding pattern of 11q13q21 is very similar to 11q21q23. The advent of fluorescence in situ hybridization and later microarray technologies have allowed for a better resolution of many of these deletions, but genotype-phenotype correlations are still difficult since these deletions are rare events. We present five individuals who presented with developmental delays with de novo 11q22.2q23.3 deletions. Deletions were observed by standard G-banded chromosome analysis with clarification of breakpoints and gene content by SNP microarray analysis. Of note, all individuals had identical distal breakpoints. All deletions include SDHD, which is implicated in hereditary paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma, for which the patients will need to be monitored in adulthood. In spite of the large deletions of 8.6 Mb (Patients 1 and 3), 13.98 Mb (Patient 2), and 12.6 Mb (Patients 4 and 5) all patients show somewhat mild intellectual disability and dysmorphism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of an inv(Y)(p11.2q11.221∼q11.222) in a Syrian Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Achkar, W; Wafa, A; Al-Ablog, A; Moassass, F; Liehr, T

    2013-12-01

    Constitutional chromosomal abnormalities are an important cause of miscarriage, infertility, congenital anomalies and mental retardation in humans. Pericentric inversions of the human Y-chromosome [inv(Y)] are rather common and show an estimated incidence of 0.6-1:1,000 in males in the general population. Most of the reported cases with inv(Y) are familial. For carriers of pericentric inversions the risk of mental retardation or multiple abortions is not apparently increased and there is no relation with abnormal phenotypic features. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to detect microdeletions along the Y-chromosome as well as cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis were done to delineate the characteristics of an inv(Y) in a Syrian family. Thus, we present a detailed molecular-cytogenetic characterization of a father and his two sons having an inv(Y)(p11. 2q11.221∼q11.222) with varying mental retardation features but otherwise normal phenotype.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Homogeneous Electrocatalytic Reactions at IDA Electrodes: The Example of [Ni(PPh2NBn2)2]2+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fei; Parkinson, B. A.; Divan, Ralu; Roberts, John; Liang, Yanping

    2016-12-01

    Interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes have been applied to study the EC’ (electron transfer reaction followed by a catalytic reaction) reactions and a new method of quantitative analysis of IDA results was developed. In this new method, currents on IDA generator and collector electrodes for an EC’ mechanism are derived from the number of redox cycles and the contribution of non-catalytic current. And the fractions of bipotential recycling species and catalytic-active species are calculated, which helps understanding the catalytic reaction mechanism. The homogeneous hydrogen evolution reaction catalyzed by [Ni(PPh2NBn2)2]2+ (where PPh2NBn2 is 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane) electrocatalyst was examined and analyzed with IDA electrodes. Besides, the existence of reaction intermediates in the catalytic cycle is inferred from the electrochemical behavior of a glassy carbon disk electrodes and carbon IDA electrodes. This quantitative analysis of IDA electrode cyclic voltammetry currents can be used as a simple and straightforward method for determining reaction mechanism in other catalytic systems as well.

  19. iPSCORE: A Resource of 222 iPSC Lines Enabling Functional Characterization of Genetic Variation across a Variety of Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia D. Panopoulos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale collections of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs could serve as powerful model systems for examining how genetic variation affects biology and disease. Here we describe the iPSCORE resource: a collection of systematically derived and characterized iPSC lines from 222 ethnically diverse individuals that allows for both familial and association-based genetic studies. iPSCORE lines are pluripotent with high genomic integrity (no or low numbers of somatic copy-number variants as determined using high-throughput RNA-sequencing and genotyping arrays, respectively. Using iPSCs from a family of individuals, we show that iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes demonstrate gene expression patterns that cluster by genetic background, and can be used to examine variants associated with physiological and disease phenotypes. The iPSCORE collection contains representative individuals for risk and non-risk alleles for 95% of SNPs associated with human phenotypes through genome-wide association studies. Our study demonstrates the utility of iPSCORE for examining how genetic variants influence molecular and physiological traits in iPSCs and derived cell lines.

  20. 1,4-Diazaniumbicyclo[2.2.2]octane Diacetate: As an Effective, New and Reusable Media for the Synthesis of 14-Aryl-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekri, Leila Zare; Fard, Hajar Saeedi

    2016-01-01

    A general synthetic route to dibenzoxanthenes has been developed using 1,4-diazaniumbicyclo[2.2.2]octane diacetate as a new bis ionic liquid under thermal and solvent free condition. This method provides several advantages such as a simple work-up, environmental friendliness and shorter reaction time along with high yields. All of the synthesized compounds were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, 1H and 13C spectroscopy and elemental analyses.

  1. Isatin N,N'-Cyclic Azomethine Imine 1,3-Dipole and Abnormal [3 + 2]-Cycloaddition with Maleimide in the Presence of 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Yong; Tang, Chao-Zhe; Tian, Fang; Peng, Lin; Wang, Li-Xin

    2017-02-03

    A new isatin N,N'-cyclic azomethine imine synthon was devised, and an unexpected abnormal [3 + 2]-cycloaddition with maleimide catalyzed by 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) has been disclosed. A variety of tricyclic spiropyrrolidine oxindoles bearing a dinitrogen heterocycle and succinimide scaffold were obtained in excellent yields (up to 96%) and diastereoselectivities (up to 97:3) under mild conditions.

  2. Unravelling novel functions of the endosomal transporter mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor receptor (CD222) in health and disease: An emerging regulator of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksa, Vladimir; Ilková, Antónia; Vičíková, Kristína; Stockinger, Hannes

    2017-10-01

    Properly balanced cellular responses require both the mutual interactions of soluble factors with cell surface receptors and the crosstalk of intracellular molecules. In particular, immune cells exposed unceasingly to an array of positive and negative stimuli must distinguish between what has to be tolerated and attacked. Protein trafficking is one of crucial pathways involved in this labour. The approximately >270-kDa protein transporter called mannose 6- phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R, CD222) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein present largely intracellularly in the Golgi apparatus and endosomal compartments, but also at the cell surface. It is expressed ubiquitously in a vast majority of higher eukaryotic cell types. Through binding and trafficking multiple unrelated extracellular and intracellular ligands, CD222 is involved in the regulation of a plethora of functions, and thus implicated in many physiological but also pathophysiological conditions. This review describes, first, general features of CD222, such as its evolution, genomic structure and regulation, protein structure and ligands; and second, its specific functions with a special focus on the immune system. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A new three-dimensional CdII supramolecular framework constructed from the 1-[(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl]-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Hui-Ting; Zhou, Lin

    2015-02-01

    A new tetrazole-metal supramolecular compound, di-μ-chlorido-bis(trichlorido{1-[(1H-tetrazol-5-yl-κN(2))methyl]-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane}cadmium(II)), [Cd2(C8H16N6)2Cl8], has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In the structure, each Cd(II) cation is coordinated by five Cl atoms (two bridging and three terminal) and by one N atom from the 1-[(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl]-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane ligand, adopting a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The bridging bicyclo[2.2.2]octane and chloride ligands link the Cd(II) cations into one-dimensional ribbon-like N-H...Cl hydrogen-bonded chains along the b axis. An extensive hydrogen-bonding network formed by N-H...Cl and C-H...Cl hydrogen bonds, and interchain π-π stacking interactions between adjacent tetrazole rings, consolidate the crystal packing, linking the poymeric chains into a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  4. High 222Rn levels in a show cave (Castañar de Ibor, Spain): Proposal and application of management measures to minimize the effects on guides and visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, J.; Sánchez-Moral, S.; Cuezva, S.; Taborda, M.; Soler, V.

    Castañar de Ibor (Caceres, Spain) is a low energy cave showing very high micro-environmental stability throughout the annual cycle and minimum rates of energy exchange with the atmosphere. The radon ( 222Rn) levels monitored inside Castañar cave reached 50,462 Bq m -3 in April 2005 and had an annual average of 32,246 Bq m -3. Annual variations in Rn concentration seem mainly related to differences in internal and external temperature. The highest values of 222Rn concentration occur during winter and early spring when air-cave temperature surpasses the external air temperature, evidencing very low air exchange rate. These values are the highest recorded in any Spanish cave, either natural or show, and are much higher than the average in most caves around the world. The calculation of the effective dose received by guides during 2004 showed values higher than the maximum effective dose recommended by authorities. Two management measurements were applied to reduce these doses: reduction of the time of visit to a maximum of 60 min, and opening the cave door 1 hour before the entrance of the guides and visitors. These management measures were effective, as they led to a decrease of 10-12% in 222Rn in the cave atmosphere during visits and prevented the guides from being exposed to higher than recommended doses of radiation.

  5. Evaluation of the computerized utilities and energy monitoring and control system installed at the US Army, Europe, 222D Base Support Battalion, Baumholder, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.B.; Purucker, S.L.

    1992-11-01

    ORNL the utilities and energy monitoring and control systems (UEMCSs) installed at the 222D Base Support Battalion (BSB) at Baumholder, Germany. This evaluation relies on examination of existing data and information to determine the effectiveness of the UEMCSs. The Baumholder BSB consists of numerous installations located as far as 63 miles from the principal installation at Baumholder. Only five facilities within these installations currently have support from four essentially separate UEMCSs A Messner/Miles and two Honeywell systems, which combined have 4600 points serving 200 buildings, perform traditional UEMCS functions associated with district heating, while a Landis Gyr UEMCS is used exclusively for electrical demand limiting and exterior lighting control. Total energy consumption at the community has steadily decreased since 1986 because of the implementation of UEMCS and the conversion to district heat. However, lack of annual energy consumption data by individual installation makes direct association of energy reductions to the implementation of specific UEMCSs difficult. Engineering estimates predict approximately a 6% annual energy savings associated with the UEMCSs of DM 1.9 million. However, less than 40% of the total community building area is connected. Opportunities for additional savings are available through (1) expanded use of demand limiting, (2) increased memory for the older Honeywell system to allow extending its application at the Smith Barracks facility and facilities nearby, (3) use of available UEMCS equipment to shut off the domestic hot water circulation pumps at night, (4) extension of UEMCS control at the Neubruecke Hospital complex, and (5) installation and utilization of heating hot water and potable hot water leak detection equipment. A moderate effort to track energy consumption by facility should be undertaken and data transmission lines associated with the UEMCS inspected and repaired.

  6. Evaluation of the computerized utilities and energy monitoring and control system installed at the US Army, Europe, 222D Base Support Battalion, Baumholder, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.B.; Purucker, S.L.

    1992-11-01

    ORNL the utilities and energy monitoring and control systems (UEMCSs) installed at the 222D Base Support Battalion (BSB) at Baumholder, Germany. This evaluation relies on examination of existing data and information to determine the effectiveness of the UEMCSs. The Baumholder BSB consists of numerous installations located as far as 63 miles from the principal installation at Baumholder. Only five facilities within these installations currently have support from four essentially separate UEMCSs A Messner/Miles and two Honeywell systems, which combined have 4600 points serving 200 buildings, perform traditional UEMCS functions associated with district heating, while a Landis & Gyr UEMCS is used exclusively for electrical demand limiting and exterior lighting control. Total energy consumption at the community has steadily decreased since 1986 because of the implementation of UEMCS and the conversion to district heat. However, lack of annual energy consumption data by individual installation makes direct association of energy reductions to the implementation of specific UEMCSs difficult. Engineering estimates predict approximately a 6% annual energy savings associated with the UEMCSs of DM 1.9 million. However, less than 40% of the total community building area is connected. Opportunities for additional savings are available through (1) expanded use of demand limiting, (2) increased memory for the older Honeywell system to allow extending its application at the Smith Barracks facility and facilities nearby, (3) use of available UEMCS equipment to shut off the domestic hot water circulation pumps at night, (4) extension of UEMCS control at the Neubruecke Hospital complex, and (5) installation and utilization of heating hot water and potable hot water leak detection equipment. A moderate effort to track energy consumption by facility should be undertaken and data transmission lines associated with the UEMCS inspected and repaired.

  7. Behavioural effects of the commonly used fish anaesthetic tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 on zebrafish (Danio rerio and its relevance for the acetic acid pain test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicke Nordgreen

    Full Text Available The pros and cons of using anaesthesia when handling fish in connection with experiments are debated. A widely adopted practice is to wait thirty minutes after anaesthesia before behavioural observations are initiated, but information about immediate effects of a treatment is then lost. This is pertinent for responses to acute stressors, such as acid injection in the acetic acid pain test. However, omission of anaesthetics in order to obtain data on immediate responses will compromise the welfare of fish and contribute to experimental noise due to stress. We therefore tested the effect of tricaine methanesulfonate on the behaviour of zebrafish. We predicted that tricaine (MS 222 would decrease swimming velocity and that the control fish would show an increased level of anxiety- and stress-related behaviours compared to the tricaine group. Following acclimatization to the test tank, baseline behaviour was recorded before immersion in either tricaine (168 mg l(-1, treatment group, N = 8 or tank water (control group, N = 7. Latencies to lose equilibrium and to lose response to touch were registered. The fish was then returned to the test tank, and the latency to regain equilibrium was registered in anaesthetized fish. When equilibrium was regained, and at five, thirty and sixty minutes after the fish had been returned to the test tank, behaviour was recorded. The tricaine fish showed the following responses (mean ± sd: latency to lose equilibrium 22.6 s±3.9; latency to lose response to touch 101.9 s±26.8; latency to regain equilibrium 92.0 s±54.4. Contrary to our predictions, neither treatment caused a change in any of the behaviours registered. This indicates that tricaine has no effect on several commonly used behavioural parameters, and that it may be unnecessary to postpone behavioural observations to 30 min after anaesthesia.

  8. Synthesis, Antifungal Activity, and Biocompatibility of Novel 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]Octane (DABCO) Compounds and DABCO-Containing Denture Base Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jenny L; Wang, Yapin; Lilly, Elizabeth A; Lallier, Thomas E; Peters, Brian M; Hamdan, Suleiman; Xu, Xiaoming; Fidel, Paul L; Noverr, Mairi C

    2017-04-01

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans causes a variety of oral infections, including denture stomatitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the oral mucosa in direct contact with dentures and affects a significant number of otherwise healthy denture wearers. While antifungal treatment reduces symptoms, infections are often recurrent. One strategy to address this problem is to incorporate compounds with fungicidal activities into denture materials to prevent colonization. Our laboratory synthesized novel derivatives of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), which is an organic compound typically used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions. DABCO derivatives with different aliphatic chain lengths (DC16, DC16F, DC18, and C6DC16), as well as methacrylate monomers conjugated to DABCO compounds (DC11MAF and C2DC11MAF), were synthesized and tested for antimicrobial activity. All the compounds exhibited fungicidal activity against several Candida species at concentrations ranging between 2 and 4 μg/ml. Moreover, acrylic denture base resins fabricated to contain 1, 2, or 4 wt% DABCO compounds inhibited surface C. albicans biofilm formation, as well as fungal growth, in disc diffusion assays. Remarkably, discs (4 wt%) aged for 2 months also exhibited approximately 100% growth-inhibitory activity. While some DABCO compounds exerted intermediate to high cytotoxicity against mammalian oral cell types, DC11MAF and denture base resin discs containing 2 or 4 wt% C2DC11MAF exhibited relatively low cytotoxicity against periodontal ligament (PDL) cell and gingival fibroblast (GF) lines, as well as primary oral epithelial cells. These studies demonstrate that DABCO derivatives can be incorporated into denture materials and exert fungicidal activity with minimal cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. DC11MAF and C2DC11MAF are considered strong candidates as therapeutic or preventive alternatives against Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  9. Early results of experimental 222Rn flux campaign carried out at a mountain Spanish region and comparison with available radon flux inventories results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofuentes, Manel; Grossi, Claudia; Morguí, Josep Anton; Curcoll, Roger; Cañas, Lidia; Occhipinti, Paola; Borràs, Silvia; Vazquez, Eusebi; Rodó, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of components impacting the greenhouse effect (CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, and aerosols) have increased significantly in the last two centuries, leading to a direct impact on our climate. These climatic changes deeply affect the geochemistry and the dynamics of the main reservoirs such as the atmosphere, the ocean, and the biosphere. Therefore, reductions of the emissions are needed for all four of the most important anthropogenic GHGs: CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. Particularly, the relative contribution of human induced CH4 in the atmosphere to the total human direct greenhouse effect is about 25%. Furthermore, the CH4 has the shortest lifetime in the atmosphere (about 9 years), so that emissions reduction measures for CH4 will lead to changes in concentration growth rates, or even a concentration decline, at relatively shor time scales. All these reasons make the CH4 an attractive compound to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. Nowadays, the study and attribution of categories for GHGs sources is carried out by using bottom-up inventories and top-down techniques. The atmospheric concentrations and the fluxes of the noble and radioactive 222Rn gas are widely used for retriving indirectly GHGs fluxes, improving top-down techniques and analysing different type of sources. In the frame of the "Methane exchange between soil and atmosphere over the Iberian Peninsula" (MIP) project (Reference: CGL2013-46186-R, Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness) four experimental radon flux campaigns are carried out at mountain as well as at coastal Spanish regions using integrated and continuous monitors. The early results of first radon flux campaign carried out at the Gredos and Iruelas climate station (GIC3) of the Catalan Institute of Climate Science (IC3) are presented and compared with available radon flux inventories maps.

  10. Design and Monte Carlo simulation of a multiple cell proportional counter (M.C.P.C.) for continuous airborne {sup 222}Rn activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazed, D.; Ciolini, R.; Curzio, G. [Pisa Univ., Dipt. di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione (DIMNP) (Italy); Mazed, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire de Birine (CRNB) (Algeria)

    2006-07-01

    A new proportional counter model, baptized Multiple Cell Proportional Counter (M.C.P.C.), intended for continuous airborne radon activity concentration measurements is described and its operation principle presented. This gas-flow proportional counter, consisting in a pile-up of 20 separate proportional counters elements, uses an argon-propane (1%) as a binary gas mixture to which is admixed an appropriate fraction of ambient air, in which radon activity concentration has to be continuously measured through a periodic counting of the a particles emitted by {sup 222}Rn and its short-lived decay products within its well defined sensitive volume. A Monte Carlo simulation program, which takes into account the major physical processes involved that determine directly the detector performances, has been written and used for design optimization purposes. According to preliminary design calculations the M.C.P.C. model, now under construction, should achieve an a counting efficiency greater than 100 %. The simulation results also show that the admixture of 10 % of ambient air seems to be sufficient to continuously assess radon concentration levels ranging from about 10 Bq/m3 up to 2.6 105 kBq/m3 for an integral counting period of 10 minutes, when setting the energy discrimination at 250 keV. The expected radon sensitivity is about 1 cpm /10 Bq.m-3, achieving thus a measurement accuracy of {+-} 10 Bq/m3 at a mean radon concentration level of 100 Bq/m3 for 10 min detector time response. (authors)

  11. Characterization of Intermolecular Interactions at Play in the 2,2,2-TRIFLUOROETHANOL Trimers Using Cavity and Chirped-Pulse Microwave Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Nathan A.; Thomas, Javix; Jäger, Wolfgang; Xu, Yunjie

    2017-06-01

    2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) is a common aqueous co-solvent in biological chemistry which may induce or destabilize secondary structures of proteins and polypeptides, thanks to its diverse intermolecular linkages originating from the hydrogen bonding potential of both the hydroxyl and perfluoro groups. Theoretically, the TFE monomer is predicted to have two stable gauche (gauche^{+}/gauche^{-}) conformations whereas the trans form is unstable or is supported only by a very shallow potential. Only the gauche conformers have been identified in the gas phase, whereas liquid phase studies suggest a trans:gauche ratio of 2:3. The question at which sample (cluster) size the trans form of TFE would appear was one major motivation for our study. Here, we report the detection of three trimers of TFE using Balle-Flygare cavity and chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW) techniques. The most stable observed trimer features one trans- and two gauche-TFE subunits. The other two trimers, observed using a newly constructed 2-6 GHz CP-FTMW spectrometer, consist of only the two gauche conformers of TFE. Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) and non-covalent interactions (NCI) analyses give detailed insights into which intermolecular interactions are at play to stabilize the trans form of TFE in the most stable trimer. M. Buck, Q. Rev. Biophys. 1998, 31, 297-335. I. Bakó, T. Radnai, M. Claire, B. Funel, J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 121, 12472-12480. R. F. W. Bader, Chem. Rev. 1991, 91, 893-928. E. R. Johnson, S. Keinan, P. Mori-Sánchez, J. Contreras-Garcia, A. J. Cohen, W. Yang, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 6498-6506.

  12. Variability of Atmospheric Radon-222 and Secondary Aerosol Components in Accordance with Air Mass Transport Pathways at Jeju Island, Korea, during 2011-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Jun-Oh; Song, Jung-Min; Kim, Won-Hyung; Kang, Chang-Hee [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Chambers, Scott D.; Williams, Alastair G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC (Australia); Lee, Chulkyu [Korea Meteorological Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Real-time monitoring of hourly atmospheric Radon-222 concentration and three daily monitoring of the secondary aerosol components of PM{sub 10} were performed throughout 2011-2014 at Gosan station, Jeju Island, in order to characterize their background levels and temporal variation. The annual mean radon and PM{sub 10} mass concentrations were 2326 ± 1198 mBq/m{sup 3} and 37.1 ± 19.5 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Based on cluster analyses of air mass back trajectories, the frequencies of air masses originating from continental China, the Korean Peninsula, and North Pacific Ocean routes were 53, 28, and 19%, respectively. When the air masses were transported to Jeju Island from continental China, the concentrations of radon and secondary aerosol components (nss-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}) were relatively high: 2577 mBq/m{sup 3} and 14.4 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. In cases when the air masses have moved from the Korean Peninsula, the corresponding concentrations were 2247 mBq/m{sup 3} and 11.4 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. On the other hand, when the air masses came from the North Pacific Ocean, their radon and secondary aerosol concentrations decreased much further, 1372 mBq/m{sup 3} and 10.5 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Consequently, the variability of atmospheric radon concentrations at Gosan station might be characterized by synoptic changes in air mass fetch as well as diurnal changes in atmospheric mixing depth.

  13. Elisante 215-222.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The bole's high inulin fraction (24-. 36%) is of particular significance due to its chemical functionality and relative ease of fermentation. utilisationThe objective of this study was to identify properties and pertinent characteristics for developing industrially viable methods of extracting inulin from sisal bole in a readily utilisable ...

  14. 215 - 222_Tijjani_Nematodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    conical flask was corked tightly then manually and vigorously shaken for four minutes to dissolve the gelatinous egg matrices. The suspension now containing free eggs was poured over 200-mesh sieve nested upon 500-mesh sieve. The 500-mesh sieve containing the eggs was rinsed gently under cool gentle stream of tap ...

  15. Evaluation of Novel Wet Chemistry Separation and Purification Methods to Facilitate Automation of Astatine-­211 Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, Daniel Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-07-19

    This research is a collaborative effort between the research groups of the PIs, Dr. D. Scott Wilbur in the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Washington (UW) and Matthew O’Hara at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In this report only those studies conducted at UW and the budget information from UW will be reported. A separate progress and financial report will be provided by PNNL. This final report outlines the experiments (Tasks) conducted and results obtained at UW from July 1, 2013 thru June 30, 2016 (2-­year project with 1 year no-­cost extension). The report divides the information on the experiments and results obtained into the 5 specific objectives of the research efforts and the Tasks within those objectives. This format is used so that it is easy to see what has been accomplished in each area. A brief summary of the major findings from the studies is provided below. Summary of Major Findings from Research/Training Activities at UW: Anion and cation exchange columns did not provide adequate 211At capture and/or extraction results under conditions studied to warrant further evaluation; PEG-­Merrifield resins containing mPEG350, mPEG750, mPEG2000 and mPEG5000 were synthesized and evaluated; All of the mPEG resins with different sized mPEG moieties conjugated gave similar 211At capture (>95%) from 8M HCl solutions and release with conc. NH4OH (~50-­80%), but very low quantities were released when NaOH was used as an eluent; Capture and release of 211At when loading [211At]astatate appeared to be similar to that of [211At]astatide on PEG columns, but further studies need to be conducted to confirm that; Capture of 211At on PEG columns was lower (e.g. 80-­90%) from solutions of 8M HNO3, but higher capture rates (e.g. 99%) can be obtained when 10M HNO3 is mixed with an equal quantity of 8M HCl; Addition of reductants to the 211At solutions did not appear to change the percent capture, but may have an effect on the % extracted; There was some indication that the PEG-­Merrifield resins could be saturated (perhaps with Bi) resulting in lower capture percentages, but more studies need to be done to confirm that; A target dissolution chamber, designed and built at PNNL, works well with syringe pumps so it can be used in an automated system; Preliminary semi-­automated 211At isolation studies have been conducted with full-scale target dissolution and 211At isolation using a PEG column on the Hamilton automated system gave low overall recoveries, but HNO3 was used (rather than HCl) for loading the 211At and flow rates were not optimized; Results obtained using PEG columns are high enough to warrant further development on a fully automated system; Results obtained also indicate that additional studies are warranted to evaluate other types of columns for 211At separation from bismuth, which allow use of HNO3/HCl mixtures for loading and NaOH for eluting 211At. Such a column could greatly simplify the overall isolation process and make it easier to automate.

  16. Stereoisomeric separation and bioassay of a new organophosphorus compound, O,S-dimethyl-N-(2,2,2-trichloro-1-methoxyethyl)phosphoramidothioate: some implications for chiral switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shanshan; Wang, Lumei; Li, Ling; Liu, Weiping

    2009-08-12

    The manufacture and use of single- or enriched-enantiomer pesticides are green-chemistry developments advocated in the 21st century, but predictive work for chiral switch of newly produced chiral active ingredients is limited. In the present study, the stereoselective separation, target activity, and nontarget toxicity of O,S-dimethyl-N-(2,2,2-trichloro-1-methoxyethyl)phosphoramidothioate (MCP), a new organophosphorus compound, were investigated. Because being highly active and safe is a prerequisite for marketing single-isomer products, the above studies were used to offer some implications for the chiral switch of racemic MCP. The results showed that all four stereoisomers of MCP were successfully separated with a Chiralpak AD column on HPLC. The resolved isomers and the pairs of enantiomers were further distinguished using a circular dichroism detector, designating the first and third eluted peaks as one pair of enantiomers and the second and fourth peaks as the other pair. Then, the insecticidal activities and acute and delayed toxicities of the resolved isomers of MCP were evaluated by their acute lethal efficacy against Daphina magna , their inhibitory potentials to acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and axon-like outgrowth of the SH-SY5Y cells, respectively. The inhibition potencies of the isomers against AChE in SH-SY5Y cells were low and slightly stereoselective. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed among the isomers in their activities and delayed neurotoxicities. The 48 h acute toxicities of isomers to D. magna followed the order peak 1 approximately pair 1 (i.e., equimolar mixture of peaks 1 and 3) > peak 4 approximately racemate > pair 2 (i.e., equimolar mixture of peaks 2 and 4) > peak 2 > peak 3, with 1.0-6.3-fold differences among them. In comparison, the inhibitory potentials of the isomers toward axon growth of SH-SY5Y cells decreased in the order peak 2 > pair 2 > peak 4 > racemate > peak 3 > pair 1 approximately peak 1, with at

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha G-238A polymorphism and coronary artery disease risk: a meta-analysis of 4,222 patients and 4,832 controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua XP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xian-Ping Hua,1,* Xiao-Dong Zhang,2,* Joey SW Kwong,3,* Xian-Tao Zeng,4 Zhen-Jian Zhang,1 Wan-Lin Wei21Department of Cardiology, Suizhou Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Suizhou, Hubei Province, 2Department of Cardiology and 4th Cadres Ward, General Hospital of Beijing Military Command, Beijing, 3Chinese Evidence-Based Medicine Center and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 4Center for Evidence-Based and Translational Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α gene G-238A polymorphism and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD using a meta-analytical approach.Methods: The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant publications up to January 13, 2015. Four authors (XPH, XDZ, XTZ, and ZJZ independently selected the studies, extracted, and analyzed the data using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. The sensitivity and subgroups analyses were also performed. Either a fixed effects or a random effects model was used to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: Finally, ten articles including eleven case-control studies involving 4,222 patients and 4,832 controls were yielded. The results indicated no significant association between G-238A polymorphism and CAD risk (A vs G: OR =1.08, 95% CI =0.89–1.30; AA vs GG: OR =1.15, 95% CI =0.59–2.25; GA vs GG: OR =1.14, 95% CI =0.88–1.48; AA vs [GG + GA]: OR =1.09, 95% CI =0.56–2.14; (GA + AA vs GG: OR =1.11, 95% CI =0.90–1.38. In the subgroup analyses, similar results were obtained with overall populations. The sensitivity analyses showed that the overall results were robust. No publication bias was detected.Conclusion: Based on current evidence, we can conclude that TNF-α G-238A polymorphism

  18. Rotational Dynamics of Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane in Isomorphous Halogen-Bonded Co-crystals: Entropic and Enthalpic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Luca; Perez-Estrada, Salvador; Wang, Hsin-Hua; Ayitou, Anoklase J-L; Khan, Saeed I; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Brown, Stuart; Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A

    2017-01-18

    Based on rotational dynamics measurements carried out with isomorphic co-crystals formed by halogen-bonding (XB) between tritylacetylene halides (TrX) and diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (dabco), we were able to distinguish the sources of the enthalpic and entropic components in the rotational free energy barrier. We describe the formation of the 1:1 co-crystals (TrX···N(R)3N) obtained from 1 equiv of dabco and 1 equiv of either TrI or TrBr, respectively, to give 4a and 4b instead of the potential 2:1 complexes. The co-crystals were prepared by solvent evaporation and mechanochemical synthesis. No co-crystal with TrCl was obtained, reflecting the weaker nature of the TrCl···NR3 interaction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirmed structures that resemble a spinning top on a tripod and revealed that the two XB co-crystals are isomorphous, with slightly different C-X···NR3 (X = I, Br) distances and packing interactions. Quadrupolar-echo 2H NMR experiments with 2H-labeled samples showed that fast rotation of dabco in these co-crystals follows a six-fold potential energy surface with three lowest energy minima. Variable-temperature 1H NMR spin-lattice relaxation (VT 1H T1) data revealed rotational dynamics with indistinguishable pre-exponential factors and small but distinguishable activation energies. The activation energy of 4b (Ea = 0.71 kcal mol-1) is the lowest reported in the field of amphidynamic crystals. Using the Eyring equation, we established that their activation entropy for rotation is small but negative (ΔS⧧ = -3.0 cal mol-1 K-1), while there is almost a 2-fold difference in activation enthalpies, with 4a having a higher barrier (ΔH⧧ = 0.95 kcal mol-1) than 4b (ΔH⧧ = 0.54 kcal mol-1). Analysis of the rotator cavity in the two co-crystals revealed subtle differences in steric interactions that account for their different activation energies.

  19. Quantification of submarine groundwater discharge and its short-term dynamics by linking time-variant end-member mixing analysis and isotope mass balancing (222-Rn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Eric; Knöller, Kay; Stollberg, Reiner; Scholten, Jan; Rocha, Carlos; Weiß, Holger; Schubert, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) plays a crucial role for the water quality of coastal waters due to associated fluxes of nutrients, organic compounds and/or heavy-metals. Thus, the quantification of SGD is essential for evaluating the vulnerability of coastal water bodies with regard to groundwater pollution as well as for understanding the matter cycles of the connected water bodies. Here, we present a scientific approach for quantifying discharge of fresh groundwater (GWf) and recirculated seawater (SWrec), including its short-term temporal dynamics, into the tide-affected Knysna estuary, South Africa. For a time-variant end-member mixing analysis we conducted time-series observations of radon (222Rn) and salinity within the estuary over two tidal cycles in combination with estimates of the related end-members for seawater, river water, GWf and SWrec. The mixing analysis was treated as constrained optimization problem for finding an end-member mixing ratio that simultaneously fits the observed data for radon and salinity best for every time-step. Uncertainty of each mixing ratio was quantified by Monte Carlo simulations of the optimization procedure considering uncertainty in end-member characterization. Results reveal the highest GWf and SWrec fraction in the estuary during peak low tide with averages of 0.8 % and 1.4 %, respectively. Further, we calculated a radon mass balance that revealed a daily radon flux of 4.8 * 108 Bq into the estuary equivalent to a GWf discharge of 29.000 m3/d (9.000-59.000 m3/d for 25th-75th percentile range) and a SWrec discharge of 80.000 m3/d (45.000-130.000 m3/d for 25th-75th percentile range). The uncertainty of SGD reflects the end-member uncertainty, i.e. the spatial heterogeneity of groundwater composition. The presented approach allows the calculation of mixing ratios of multiple uncertain end-members for time-series measurements of multiple parameters. Linking these results with a tracer mass balance allows conversion

  20. Analysis of Parent-of-Origin Effects on the X Chromosome in Asian and European Orofacial Cleft Triads Identifies Associations with DMD, FGF13, EGFL6, and Additional Loci at Xp22.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øivind Skare

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although both the mother's and father's alleles are present in the offspring, they may not operate at the same level. These parent-of-origin (PoO effects have not yet been explored on the X chromosome, which motivated us to develop new methods for detecting such effects. Orofacial clefts (OFCs exhibit sex-specific differences in prevalence and are examples of traits where a search for various types of effects on the X chromosome might be relevant.Materials and Methods: We upgraded our R-package Haplin to enable genome-wide analyses of PoO effects, as well as power simulations for different statistical models. 14,486 X-chromosome SNPs in 1,291 Asian and 1,118 European case-parent triads of isolated OFCs were available from a previous GWAS. For each ethnicity, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P and cleft palate only (CPO were analyzed separately using two X-inactivation models and a sliding-window approach to haplotype analysis. In addition, we performed analyses restricted to female offspring.Results: Associations were identified in “Dystrophin” (DMD, Xp21.2-p21.1, “Fibroblast growth factor 13” (FGF13, Xq26.3-q27.1 and “EGF-like domain multiple 6” (EGFL6, Xp22.2, with biologically plausible links to OFCs. Unlike EGFL6, the other associations on chromosomal region Xp22.2 had no apparent connections to OFCs. However, the Xp22.2 region itself is of potential interest because it contains genes for clefting syndromes [for example, “Oral-facial-digital syndrome 1” (OFD1 and “Midline 1” (MID1]. Overall, the identified associations were highly specific for ethnicity, cleft subtype and X-inactivation model, except for DMD in which associations were identified in both CPO and CL/P, in the model with X-inactivation and in Europeans only.Discussion/Conclusion: The specificity of the associations for ethnicity, cleft subtype and X-inactivation model underscores the utility of conducting subanalyses, despite the

  1. An unexpected double Diels-Alder reaction of (E)-2-bromo-4-aryl-1,3-pentadiene involving [1,5]-hydrogen migration and HBr elimination: synthesis of bicyclo[2.2.2]octene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pingping; Liu, Lingyan; Chang, Weixing; Li, Jing

    2015-03-01

    An unexpected double Diels-Alder (DDA) reaction of (E)-2-bromo-4-aryl-1,3-pentadiene was developed and resulted in a series of "butterfly-like" bicyclo[2.2.2]octene derivatives in moderate to good yields without the need for a metal catalyst. The proposed mechanism involves a [1,5]-sigmatropic hydrogen migration and HBr elimination. Through this decisive [1,5]-hydrogen shift step, the electronic properties and steric hindrance of the conjugated diene substrate are completely altered and the DDA reaction of this potential diene synthon is successfully achieved. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-Promoted Aminotrifluoromethylthiolation of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds: N-Trifluoromethylthio-4-nitrophthalimide Acts as Both the Nitrogen and SCF3 Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qing; He, Qijie; Li, Juncheng; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-18

    A novel difunctionalization reaction is described. It uses N-trifluoromethylthio-4-nitrophthalimide as the reagent, which serves as both the nitrogen and SCF3 sources. In the presence of DABCO (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), the nitrogen and SCF3 groups can be incorporated into α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds easily and give versatile β-amino ketones and esters in good yields. This difunctionalization reaction features mild reaction conditions, high atom-economy, and efficient access to α-SCF3 amino acids.

  3. Synphos modified Pt nanoclusters, their heterogenization by silica sol-gel entrapment, and catalytic activity in hydrogenolysis of bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-7-enes and hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neatu, F; Parvulescu, V I [Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, University of Bucharest, B-dul Regina Elisabeta 4-12, Bucharest 030018 (Romania); Kraynov, A [Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 8, D-28759 Bremen (Germany); Kranjc, K; Kocevar, M [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ratovelomanana-Vidal, V [Laboratoire de Synthese Selective Organique et Produits Naturels, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, UMR 7573 CNRS, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Richards, R [Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illiniois, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)], E-mail: v_parvulescu@chem.unibuc.ro, E-mail: virginie-vidal@enscp.fr, E-mail: rrichard@mines.edu

    2008-06-04

    Platinum (Pt) colloids modified by the chiral ligand synphos were prepared with the goal of obtaining a catalytic nanomaterial and were subsequently embedded in silica to form a heterogeneous catalyst. The systems were characterized by {sup 31}P-NMR, x-ray diffraction, molecular modeling and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTs) measurements. These colloids, both as 'quasi-homogeneous catalysts' (or soluble heterogeneous catalysts) and embedded in silica (heterogeneous catalysts) were employed in the selective hydrogenolysis of highly sterically constrained bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-7-enes and hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate.

  4. Evaluation of 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-fluoroalkyl-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetates as potential ligands for the study of muscarinic receptor density by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, H.; Hasan, A.; Sood, V.; McRee, R.C.; Zeeberg, B.; Reba, R.C.; McPherson, D.W.; Knapp, F.F

    1996-04-01

    Both 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-(1-fluoroeth-2-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (FQNE, 5) and 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-(1-fluoropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (FQNPe, 6) were prepared and evaluated as potential candidates for the determination of muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) density by positron emission tomography (PET). The results of in vitro binding assays demonstrated that although both 5 and 6 had high binding affinities for m{sub 1} and m{sub 2} mAChR subtypes, 6 displayed a higher affinity (nM, m{sub 1}; K{sub D}, 0.45, m{sub 2}; K{sub D}, 3.53) as compared to 5 (nM, m{sub 1}; K{sub D}, 12.5, m{sub 2}; K{sub D}, 62.8). It was observed that pretreatment of female Fisher rats with either 5 or 6 prior to the i.v. administration of Z-(-)(-)-[{sup 131}I]-IQNP, a high-affinity muscarinic ligand, significantly blocked the uptake of radioactivity in the brain and heart measured 3 h postinjection of the radiolabeled ligand. These new fluoro QNB analogues represent important target ligands for evaluation as potential receptor imaging agents in conjunction with PET.

  5. Precise Molecular Design of High-Tc 3D Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Ferroelectric: [MeHdabco]RbI3 (MeHdabco = N-Methyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Ying; Tang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Peng-Fei; Shi, Ping-Ping; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Fu, Da-Wei; Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2017-08-09

    With the flourishing development of (CH3NH3)PbI3, three-dimensional (3D) organic-inorganic perovskites with unique structure-property flexibility have become a worldwide focus. However, they still face great challenges in effectively inducing ferroelectricity. Despite the typical 3D perovskite structure and the ability of dabco (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) to trigger phase transition, unfortunately [H2dabco]RbCl3 adopts a nonpolar crystal structure without ferroelectricity. Within the larger RbI3 framework, we assemble N-methyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (MeHdabco) obtained by reducing the molecular symmetry of dabco into a new 3D organic-inorganic perovskite. As expected, MeHdabco bearing a molecular dipole moment turns out to be vital in the generation of polar crystal structure and ferroelectric phase transition occurring at 430 K. It is the first time that the dabco component has been successfully wrapped into a 3D cage to achieve ferroelectricity even through there is intensive research on dabco. This precise molecular design strategy based on the modification of molecular symmetry provides an efficient route to enrich the family of 3D organic-inorganic perovskite ferroelectrics. Intriguingly, the iodine-doped crystal can exhibit intense saffron yellow luminescence with a high quantum yield of 17.17% under UV excitation, extending its application in the field of ferroelectric luminescence and/or multifunctional devices.

  6. Crystal structures of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ium 4-nitrobenzoate dihydrate and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium bis(4-nitrobenzoate: the influence of solvent upon the stoichiometry of the formed salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Mardia Akhmad Aznan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The 1:1 co-crystallization of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO with 4-nitrobenzoic acid in ethanol–water (3/1 gave the salt dihydrate C6H13N2+·C7H4NO4−·2H2O, (1, whereas from methanol, the salt C6H14N22+·2C7H4NO4−, (2, was isolated. In (1, the cation and anion are linked by a strong N—H...O hydrogen bond, and the carboxylate anion is close to planar [dihedral angle between terminal residues = 6.83 (9°]. In (2, a three-ion aggregate is assembled by two N—H...O hydrogen bonds, and the carboxylate anions are again close to planar [dihedral angles between terminal residues = 1.7 (3 and 5.9 (3°]. Through the intervention of solvent water molecules, which self-assemble into helical supramolecular chains along the b axis, the three-dimensional architecture in (1 is stabilized by water–DABCO O—H...N and water–carboxylate O—H...O hydrogen bonds, with additional stability afforded by C—H...O interactions. The global crystal structure comprises alternating layers of water molecules and ion pairs stacked along the c axis. In the crystal of (2, the three-ion aggregates are assembled into a three-dimensional architecture by a large number of methylene–carboxylate/nitro C—H...O interactions as well as π–π contacts between inversion-related benzene rings [inter-centroid distances = 3.5644 (16 and 3.6527 (16 Å]. The cations and anions assemble into alternating layers along the c axis.

  7. Using Radon-222 as a Naturally Occurring Tracer to investigate the streamflow-groundwater interactions in a typical Mediterranean fluvial-karst landscape: the interdisciplinary case study of the Bussento river (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Albina; Guida, Michele; Guida, Domenico; Villani, Paolo; Guadagnuolo, Davide; Longobardi, Antonia; Siervo, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. This paper describes the preliminary findings from Radon-222 activity concentration measurement data collected in streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns, performed from September 2007 to December 2008, in a typical Mediterranean karst river: the Bussento river (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general aim is to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. In fact, the study area is located inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park and, therefore, the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological modelling for planning tasks, in application of the European Water Framework Directive (EWFD), a Bussento River Monitoring System (BRMS) has been built, at basin, segment and reach scale. Experimental data about 222Rn concentrations, in addition to physical-chemical and streamflow rate, have been acquired and managed from BRMS selected stations, sampling the streamflow and inflow spring waters by means of the Radon-in-Air analyzer, RAD7, together with the Radon-in-water accessories, Radon Water Probe and RAD7H2O (DURRIDGE Co. Inc.), for continuous and batch sampling measurements, respectively. During preliminary surveys, appropriate sampling procedures and measurement protocols have been tested, taking into account the different local hydrogeological and hydrological situations occurring

  8. Contribution to the characterization of 222-radon concentrations variability in water to the understanding of an aquifer behaviour in fractured medium: example of the Ploemeur site, Morbihan; Apport de la caracterisation de la variabilite des concentrations en radon-222 dans l'eau a la comprehension du fonctionnement d'un aquifere en milieu fracture de socle: exemple du site de Ploemeur, Morbihan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Druillennec, Th

    2007-06-15

    Heterogeneous fractured aquifers which developed in crystalline rocks, such as schist or granite, supply 20% of tap water production of Brittany. These fractured media present a large range of permeability. In these aquifers, fluid flow and transport of elements dissolved in water are strongly related on the geometry of the fractured network. Increasing the knowledge of the hydrogeological behaviour of the aquifer is fundamental for the management and the protection of the groundwater resources. Radon-222 is a radioactive noble gas produced from radium-226 further to the radioactive decay of uranium-238; it occurs naturally in ground waters and derives primarily from U-rich rocks and minerals that have been in contact with water. Radon-222 concentrations in waters are liable to provide significant and relevant information on both the geometry of a fracture network and the flow distribution. Furthermore, radon may also be used as a tracer in the aquifer of water exchanges between zones of variable permeability. Three main results were obtained in this study: 1. An accurate characterisation of the radon concentrations in water was carried out in the Ploemeur aquifer (Brittany, France). These results highlight the variability in the spatial and vertical distributions of {sup 222}Rn activity in groundwater together with a wide range of concentrations extending from 0 to 1 500 Bq.L{sup -1}. 2. The influence of fracture aperture on radon content in groundwater has been demonstrated with the modelling of radon concentration. Indeed, the satisfactory results obtained with a simple crack model highlight that the geometry of the fracture network controls the radon activity in groundwater. 3. Thus, the results of pumping tests performed in the boreholes improved our understanding of the system. After the pumping test, an increase of the radon content in groundwater occurred and evidenced a contribution of a radon-rich water to supply the flow rate that seems to come from the

  9. Development and Successful Validation of Simple and Fast TLC Spot Tests for Determination of Kryptofix® 2.2.2 and Tetrabutylammonium in 18F-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzsch, Matthias; Lamparter, Denis; Brüggener, Nils; Müller, Marco; Kienzle, Gabriele J.; Reischl, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Kryptofix® 2.2.2 (Kry) or tetrabutylammonium (TBA) are commonly used as phase transfer catalysts in 18F-radiopharmaceutical productions for positron emission tomography (PET). Due to their toxicity, quality control has to be performed before administration of the tracer to assure that limit concentration of residual reagent is not reached. Here, we describe the successful development and pharmaceutical validation (for specificity, accuracy and detection limit) of a simplified color spot test on TLC plates. We were able to prove its applicability as a general, time and resources saving, easy to handle and reliable method in daily routine analyzing 18F-tracer formulations for Kry (in [18F]FDG or [18F]FECh) or TBA contaminations (in [18F]FLT) with special regard to complex matrix compositions. PMID:24830987

  10. Crystal structure of di-μ2-chlorido-bis-[(1-aza-4-azoniabi-cyclo-[2.2.2]octane-κN (1))di-chlorido-dicadmium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing-Jing; Pan, Qi-Jian; Chen, Li-Zhuang

    2015-12-01

    In the structure of the binuclear title compound, [Cd2(C6H13N2)2Cl6], two Cd(II) atoms are bridged by two Cl(-) ligands, defining a centrosymmetric Cd2Cl2 motif. Each metal cation is additionally coordinated by two Cl(-) ligands and the N atom of a protonated 1,4-di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane (H-DABCO)(+) ligand, leading to an overall trigonal-bipyramidal coordination environment with one of the bridging Cl(-) ligands and the N atom at the apical sites. In the crystal, the neutral dimers are linked via N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network expanding parallel to (100).

  11. Casos históricos colombianos del registro de anomalías del radón-222 antes de eventos sísmicos de naturaleza tectónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serna Valencia Doris Yaneth

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Since 1995 it had been making continuous measurements of the radioactive isotope Radon-222 emissions in soils at Galeras and Nevado del Ruiz volcanoes; and on active geological faults in Nariño, Cauca and Caldas districts. The E-PERM ionizing chamber system has been used in the Radon-222 monitoring, trapping this gas in the B horizont of soils. In zones of active faulting it has been stablished Radon soil emissions between 1000 and 2500 pCi/L. In some crossings of active faults it has been measured levels of25000 pCilL.

    In the present work appears a compilation of examples of the registered anomalous emissions in several stations before earthquakes of tectonic character. Examples of registered Radon anomalies before: I events of magnitudes between 2 and 4; 2 the Quindío earthquake of january 1999; and 3 the occurrence of seismic swarms registered by the seismological networks of the Volcanological and Seismological Observatories at Pasto and Manizales, are described.

    Desde el año de 1995 se han estado realizando mediciones continuas de las emisiones del isótopo radiactivo Radón-222 en los suelos de los volcanes Galeras y nevado del Ruiz, y sobre fallas activas en los departamentos de Nariño, Cauca y Caldas. En el monitoreo del gas Radón-222 se ha utilizado el sistema de medición de cámaras ionizantes E-PERM, atrapando los gases en el horizonte B de los suelos.

  12. Development and Successful Validation of Simple and Fast TLC Spot Tests for Determination of Kryptofix® 2.2.2 and Tetrabutylammonium in 18F-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kuntzsch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kryptofix® 2.2.2 (Kry or tetrabutylammonium (TBA are commonly used as phase transfer catalysts in 18F-radiopharmaceutical productions for positron emission tomography (PET. Due to their toxicity, quality control has to be performed before administration of the tracer to assure that limit concentration of residual reagent is not reached. Here, we describe the successful development and pharmaceutical validation (for specificity, accuracy and detection limit of a simplified color spot test on TLC plates. We were able to prove its applicability as a general, time and resources saving, easy to handle and reliable method in daily routine analyzing 18F-tracer formulations for Kry (in [18F]FDG or [18F]FECh or TBA contaminations (in [18F]FLT with special regard to complex matrix compositions.

  13. Cuantificación de radón (222Rn en aire y dosis de radiación en baños termales del norte de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Villalba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La radiación en aguas termales utilizadas como zonas recreativas puede representar un problema de salud pública. El objetivo fue cuantificar el nivel de radón (222Rn en aire y evaluar la dosis de radiación en los baños termales establecidos en San Diego de Alcalá, Chihuahua, México. Se seleccionó un espacio de esparcimiento, se cerró puerta y ventana para simular la utilización del baño termal por el público. El nivel de 222Rn en aire se detectó utilizando un instrumento AlphaGUARD (Professional Radon Monitor de la marca GENITRON. Éste se cuantificó en Bq m-3 en diferentes tiempos 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 y 60 min, se realizaron tres mediciones; la primera en la epoca de invierno 2014 (enero y dos en la epoca de primavera de 2015 (mayo y junio. El análisis estadístico fue mediante una regresión para cada medición. Se estimó la Dosis Promedio Anual (DPA efectiva de inhalación de radón a la que se encuentran expuestas las personas que acuden a los baños termales dependiendo del número de visitas y tiempo de permanencia, el rango varió de 0.0005±4x10-4 mSv cuando se visitan los baños 12 veces al año con un permanencia de 10 minutos, hasta 0.0352±1.1x10-2 mSv visitando una vez a la semana por un periodo de 60 minutos. |

  14. Evaluation of local versus remote areas of CH4 sources at IC3 stations using a combined analysis of 222Rn tracer and Atmospheric Particles Transport Model (APTM) results. Application at the Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3), Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Claudia; Morguí, Josep Anton; Curcoll, Roger; Àgueda, Alba; Arnold, Delia; Batet, Oscar; Cañas, Lidia; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Vogel, Felix; Vargas, Arturo; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3) is part of the IC3 (Institut Català de Ciències del Clima) atmospheric monitoring network. This station is located in the Gredos Natural Park (40.22º N; -5.14º E) in the Spanish central plateau. The IC3 network consists of 8 stations distributed across Spain. It has been developed with the aim of studying climatic processes and the responses of impacted systems at different temporal and spatial scales. Since 2012, CO2, CH4, 222Rn (a natural radioactive gas) and meteorological variables are continuously measured at GIC3 at 20 m a.g.l. (1100 m a.s.l.). Furthermore, 4-days backward simulations are run daily for each IC3 station using the FLEXPART model. Simulations use ECMWF meteorological data as input and a horizontal spatial resolution of 0.2 degrees. The Laboratory of the Atmosphere and the Oceans (LAO) of the IC3 has elaborated a new approach to evaluate the local or remote greenhouse gases emissions using the radon gas as tracer and the atmospheric particles transport model FLEXPART under nocturnal and winter conditions. The ratios between the normalized and rescaled measured concentrations of CH4 and 222Rn during nocturnal hours (21h, 00h, 03h and 06h) and in the winter season, in order to reduce local radon flux and methane source due to seasonal livestock migration and to get stable atmospheric conditions, have been analyzed in relation to the influence of the local area (set to an initial dimension of 20x20 km2). The influence area (IA) has been defined as the percentage of the ratio between the residence time of the fictitious particles released in FLEXPART simulations over the area of interest (TLocal Area) and the residence time of these fictitious particles over the total area included in the simulation (TTotal Area ), i.e. IA = (TLocal Area/TTotal Area * 100). First results considering an area of interest of 20x20 km2 show a linear increase of the radon concentration with IA until reaching a maximum when IA is

  15. Epigenomic characterization of a p53-regulated 3p22.2 tumor suppressor that inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation via protein docking and is frequently methylated in esophageal and other carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Xu, Juan; Qiu, Guohua; Ying, Jianming; Du, Zhenfang; Xiang, Tingxiu; Wong, Kai Yau; Srivastava, Gopesh; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Mok, Tony S; Chan, Anthony Tc; Chan, Francis Kl; Ambinder, Richard F; Tao, Qian

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Oncogenic STAT3 signaling activation and 3p22-21.3 locus alteration are common in multiple tumors, especially carcinomas of the nasopharynx, esophagus and lung. Whether these two events are linked remains unclear. Our CpG methylome analysis identified a 3p22.2 gene, DLEC1, as a methylated target in esophageal squamous cell (ESCC), nasopharyngeal (NPC) and lung carcinomas. Thus, we further characterized its epigenetic abnormalities and functions. Methods: CpG methylomes were established by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation. Promoter methylation was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite genomic sequencing. DLEC1 expression and clinical significance were analyzed using TCGA database. DLEC1 functions were analyzed by transfections followed by various cell biology assays. Protein-protein interaction was assessed by docking, Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses. Results: We defined the DLEC1 promoter within a CpG island and p53-regulated. DLEC1 was frequently downregulated in ESCC, lung and NPC cell lines and primary tumors, but was readily expressed in normal tissues and immortalized normal epithelial cells, with mutations rarely detected. DLEC1 methylation was frequently detected in ESCC tumors and correlated with lymph node metastasis, tumor recurrence and progression, with DLEC1 as the most frequently methylated among the established 3p22.2 tumor suppressors (RASSF1A, PLCD1 and ZMYND10/BLU). DLEC1 inhibits carcinoma cell growth through inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and also suppresses cell metastasis by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell stemness. Moreover, DLEC1 represses oncogenic signaling including JAK/STAT3, MAPK/ERK, Wnt/β-catenin and AKT pathways in multiple carcinoma types. Particularly, DLEC1 inhibits IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. DLEC1 contains three YXXQ motifs and forms a protein complex with STAT3 via protein docking, which blocks STAT3-JAK2

  16. Assessment of Karst Spring Features in a typical Mediterranean fluvial landscape with an Interdisciplinary Investigation nased on Radon-222 as an Environmental Indicator. The case study of the Bussento River basin (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, A.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Guida, D.; Guida, M.; Knoeller, K.; Schubert, M.; Siervo, V.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. Hydrological assessment of karst systems reveals to be extremely complex and difficult and requires a stepwise multi-tracers approach. This work describes some of the most relevant findings obtained from the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach based on the use of Environmental Tracers, consisting of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides like Radon-222 (referred to as Radon), for the investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in fluvial water bodies. In particular, Radon activity concentration measurement data having been collected from streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns performed in a typical Mediterranean karst river basin: the Bussento river system (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general task has been to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater in a fluvial water body, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. The Bussento River basin has been chosen as a study case for the following features of extreme relevance: Its location inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, its inclusion of a WWF Nature Reserve, it represents a remarkable Drinking Water resource for the territory and last but not least its system includes Submarine Groundwater Discharges (SGD) to the Policastro Gulf. All these issues causes, therefore, that the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological

  17. [2-(2,2′:4′,2′′-Terpyridin-6′-yl-κ2N1,N1′benzoato-κO]manganese(II trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzheng Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Mn(C22H14N3O22]·3H2O, the MnII ion is coordinated by two N,N′,O-tridentate 2-(2,2′:4′,2′′-terpyridin-6′-yl-κ2N1,N1′benzoate ligands in a distorted cis-MnO2N4 octahedral geometry. In one ligand, the dihedral angles between the central pyridine ring, the other bonded pyridine ring, the terminal pyridine ring and the benzene ring are 14.3 (15, 18.3 (18 and 43.9 (16°, respectively. The equivalent angles in the second ligand are 5.8 (18, 6.3 (18, and 47.0 (17°, respectively. In the crystal, the complex molecules and lattice water molecules are linked by O—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network.

  18. Cloning of the cDNA for the human ATP synthase OSCP subunit (ATP5O) by exon trapping and mapping to chromosome 21q22.1-q22.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiming [Geneva Univ. Medical School (Switzerland); Morris, M.A.; Rossier, C. [Cantonal Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    Exon trapping was used to clone portions of potential genes from human chromosome 21. One trapped sequence showed striking homology with the bovine and rat ATP synthase OSCP (oligomycin sensitivity conferring protein) subunit. We subsequently cloned the full-length human ATP synthase OSCP cDNA (GDB/HGMW approved name ATP50) from infant brain and muscle libraries and determined its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence (EMBL/GenBank Accession No. X83218). The encoded polypeptide contains 213 amino acids, with more than 80% identity to bovine and murine ATPase OSCP subunits and over 35% identity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sweet potato sequences. The human ATP5O gene is located at 21q22.1-q22.2, just proximal to D21S17, in YACs 860G11 and 838C7 of the Chumakov et al. YAC contig. The gene is expressed in all human tissues examined, most strongly in muscle and heart. This ATP5O subunit is a key structural component of the stalk of the mitochondrial respiratory chain F{sub 1}F{sub 0}-ATP synthase and as such may contribute in a gene dosage-dependent manner to the phenotype of Down syndrome (trisomy 21). 39 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Measurement of the {sup 22R}n concentration in residences and workplaces in the Riobamba City; Medicion de la concentracion de {sup 222}Rn en residencias y lugares de trabajo en la Ciudad de Riobamba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadrado, C.; Carrasco, J., E-mail: coralia_cuadrado@hotmail.com [Escuela Superior Politecnica de Chimborazo, Facultad de Ciencias, Panamericana Sur Km 1 1/2, EC060155 Riobamba (Ecuador)

    2016-10-15

    The {sup 222}Rn belongs to the {sup 238}U natural radioactive series, decays emitting alpha particles with a disintegration half-period of 3.82 days. Is a colorless and odorless gas that is imperceptible to people. Studies have shown that indoor radon exposure can lead to lung cancer, even for the relatively low levels of radon commonly found in residential buildings. Measurements of the radon concentration were carried out in residences, offices and university laboratories in the Riobamba City (Ecuador), characterizing the places by the building materials, their age, length of stay among other variables. A Corentium brand electronic detector was used, which gives a short reading in 24 hours and extended in 7 days. Using the radon dose conversion coefficient 0.017 mSv/y for 1 Bq/m{sup 3}, recommended by the ICRP annual doses were estimated for each site. The data obtained show that the ranges are acceptable and are within the Who recommendations, being out of range a teaching laboratory because it has natural uranium for practices. These measurements are the first to be carried out in the country and can be used to promote research of this type at local, national and regional level. (Author)

  20. Polybenzimidazole-crosslinked poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) with quaternary 1,4-diazabicyclo (2.2.2) octane groups as high-performance anion exchange membrane for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wangting; Zhang, Geng; Li, Jin; Hao, Jinkai; Wei, Feng; Li, Wenhui; Zhang, Jiying; Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yi, Baolian

    2015-11-01

    Development of anion exchange membrane (AEM) with high conductivity, good dimensional stability, desirable toughness and long life-time simultaneously is still a challenge for the practical application of AEM fuel cells. Herein, a novel AEM (denoted as PBI-c-PVBC/OH) is fabricated by applying polybenzimidazole (PBI) and 1,4-diazabicyclo (2.2.2) octane (DABCO) as the macromolecular crosslinker and quaternizing reagent for poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBC), respectively. With the aid of crosslinking by PBI, PBI-c-PVBC/OH exhibits good flexibility and strength both in dry and water-saturated state. Moreover, high hydroxide conductivity (>25 mS cm-1 at room temperature) and low swelling ratio (∼13%) is obtained, especially the swelling ratio nearly does not increase with temperature. The membrane is also advanced for the superior chemical stability in alkaline environment due to the stable polymer backbone and ionic conductive group (only one nitrogen atom in a DABCO molecule is quaternized). Furthermore, a peak power density of 230 mW cm-2 at 50 °C is obtained on the H2/O2 fuel cell using PBI-c-PVBC/OH, and the membrane presents high durability both in the constant current and continuous open circuit voltage testing. Therefore, it is considered that the PBI crosslinking together with DABCO quaternization can be regarded as a promising strategy in the development of AEM for fuel cells.

  1. Structural and temperature effects on enantiomer separations of bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-based 3-amino-2-carboxylic acids on cinchona alkaloid-based zwitterionic chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilisz, István; Grecsó, Nóra; Palkó, Márta; Fülöp, Ferenc; Lindner, Wolfgang; Péter, Antal

    2014-09-01

    Procedures for the direct high-performance liquid chromatographic enantiomer separation of four bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-based 3-amino-2-carboxylic acids were developed in polar-ionic mode on zwitterionic chiral stationary phases (CSPs) based on cinchonane alkaloide quinine, quinidine and chiral sulfonic acid motifs. The effects of the mobile phase composition including the type of acid and base additives, the structures of the analytes and temperature were investigated. Experiments were performed at constant mobile phase compositions in the temperature range 10-50°C in order to study the effects of temperature, and thermodynamic parameters were calculated from plots of ln k or ln α vs. 1/T. Some mechanistic aspects of the chiral recognition process are discussed with respect to the structures of the analytes. It was found that the enantiomeric separations were in most cases enthalpically driven, but entropically driven separation was also observed. The sequence of elution of the enantiomers on the pseudo-enantiomerically behaving CSPs was determined in all cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-assembling systems based on quaternized derivatives of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane in nutrient broth as antimicrobial agents and carriers for hydrophobic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashirova, Tatiana N; Lukashenko, Svetlana S; Zakharov, Sergey V; Voloshina, Alexandra D; Zhiltsova, Elena P; Zobov, Vladimir V; Souto, Eliana B; Zakharova, Lucia Ya

    2015-03-01

    Aggregation properties of mono (mono-CS) and dicationic (di-CS) surfactants, namely quaternised derivatives of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), have been evaluated in water and in nutrient broths of different pH, i.e. in Hottinger broth (рН=7.2) and Sabouraud dextrose broth (рН=5.6). Aggregation capacity of surfactants was shown to be responsible for the solubilization properties of a complex composed of a hydrophobic probe (Sudan I) and a selected drug (quercetin), contributing to the antimicrobial activity of this surfactant system. The effect of N-methyl-d-glucamine (NmDg) additive on the antimicrobial activity of mono-CS, and its aggregation and solubilization parameters, has also been evaluated. A substantial decrease in critical micelle concentration (CMC) of cationic surfactants in nutrient broths (up to 60 times) has been reported. Twofold dilution of monocationic surfactant by NmDg slightly changed the CMC of surfactant; however, it provided a remarkable increase in solubilization capacity (∼by 4 times) and decrease in its toxicity. The data anticipate the potential use of DABCO quaternized derivatives as innovative non-toxic delivery systems for hydrophobic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Orientational disorder in the one-dimensional coordination polymer catena-poly[[bis(acetylacetonato-κ2O,O′cobalt(II]-μ-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-κ2N1:N4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Dumitru

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Co(C5H7O22(C6H12N2]n, was obtained as a one-dimensional coordination polymer from bis(acetylacetonatodiaquacobalt(II, [Co(acac2(OH22], and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO, a diamine with good bridging ability and rod-like spacer function. In the chain complex that extends along the c axis, the CoII atom is six-coordinated, the O-donor atoms of the chelating acac ligands occupying the equatorial positions and the bridging DABCO ligands being in trans-axial positions. In the crystal structure, the DABCO ligand is conformationally disordered in a 50:50 manner as a result of its location across a crystallographic mirror plane. The metal–metal distance is very close to that in a related compound exhibiting weak antiferromagnetic exchange between the CoII ions, and the title compound can thus be useful for obtaining more information about the contribution of different bridges to the magnetic coupling between paramagnetic ions.

  4. New optically active and thermally stable poly(amide-imide)s containing N,N'-(Bicyclo[2,2,2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxylic)-bis-L-alanine and aromatic diamines: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Absalar, Morteza; Hajibeygi, Mohsen [Arak University (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Science. Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Lab.

    2009-07-01

    Five new optically active poly(amide-imide)s (PAIs) 6a-e were prepared by direct polycondensation reaction of the newly synthesized N,N'-(bicyclo[2,2,2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetra carboxylic)-bis-L-alanine 4 with various aromatic diamines 5a-e using polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). In this technique triphenyl phosphite (TPP) and pyridine were used as condensing agents to form poly(amide-imide)s through the N-phosphonium salts of pyridine. All of the polymers were obtained in quantitative yields with inherent viscosities between 0.29-0.46 dL g{sup -1} and were highly soluble in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAc), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N-methyl- 2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and solvents such as sulfuric acid. They were fully characterized by means of {sup 1}H NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analyses, inherent viscosity, solubility test, specific rotation and thermal properties of these polymers were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis techniques (TGA and DTG). (author)

  5. Coarctation of the aorta and mild to moderate developmental delay in a child with a de novo deletion of chromosome 15(q21.1q22.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sarika U

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deletion of 15q21q22 is a rare chromosomal anomaly. To date, there have been nine reports describing ten individuals with different segmental losses involving 15q21 and 15q22. Many of these individuals have common features of growth retardation, hypotonia and moderate to severe mental retardation. Congenital heart disease has been described in three individuals with interstitial deletion involving this region of chromosome 15. Case presentation We report a child with coarctation of the aorta, partial agenesis of corpus callosum and mild to moderate developmental delay, with a de novo deletion of 15q21.1q22.2, detected by the array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH. We utilized chromosome 15-specific microarray-based CGH to define the chromosomal breakpoints in this patient. Conclusion This is the first description of mapping of an interstitial deletion involving the chromosome 15q21q22 segment using the chromosome 15-specific array-CGH. The report also expands the spectrum of clinical phenotype associated with 15q21q22 deletion.

  6. Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn, and CO2 Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming: MVA Techniques for Determining Gas Transport and Caprock Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaszuba, John [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Sims, Kenneth [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2014-09-30

    An integrated field-laboratory program evaluated the use of radon and CO2 flux measurements to constrain source and timescale of CO2 fluxes in environments proximate to CO2 storage reservoirs. By understanding the type and depth of the gas source, the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir can be assessed and monitored. The concept is based on correlations of radon and CO2 fluxes observed in volcanic systems. This fundamental research is designed to advance the science of Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) and to address the Carbon Storage Program goal of developing and validating technologies to ensure 99 percent storage performance. Graduate and undergraduate students conducted the research under the guidance of the Principal Investigators; in doing so they were provided with training opportunities in skills required for implementing and deploying CCS technologies. Although a final method or “tool” was not developed, significant progress was made. The field program identified issues with measuring radon in environments rich in CO2. Laboratory experiments determined a correction factor to apply to radon measurements made in CO2-bearing environments. The field program also identified issues with radon and CO2-flux measurements in soil gases at a natural CO2 analog. A systematic survey of radon and CO2 flux in soil gases at the LaBarge CO2 Field in Southwest Wyoming indicates that measurements of 222Rn (radon), 220Rn (thoron), and CO2 flux may not be a robust method for monitoring the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The field program was also not able to correlate radon and CO2 flux in the CO2-charged springs of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system. However, this part of the program helped to motivate the aforementioned laboratory experiments that determined

  7. Urgent consultations at the dermatology department of Basel University Hospital, Switzerland: characterisation of patients and setting - a 12-month study with 2,222 patients data and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzza, N; Itin, P H; Beltraminelli, H

    2014-01-01

    Urgent consultations for skin disorders are commonly done in different settings. Scarce data exist about the characteristics of these patients. The aim of this study was to analyse specific characteristics of patients receiving an urgent consultation at a dermatology department in a university hospital. We prospectively recorded the data of all patients having had an urgent consultation during a period of 12 months. We registered 2,222 urgent consultations. The most frequent diagnoses were eczemas (24.8%), dermatomycoses (5.1%) and dermatitis not otherwise specified (4.8%). The most frequent treatments were topical steroids, emollients, topical antibiotics, systemic antihistamines, antibiotics and virostatics. 2.2% of patients were hospitalized, 78.8% asked for a consultation for a disease lasting less than 4 weeks, and 6.9% presented the same day as the skin disease appeared. This study shows the characteristics of patients receiving an urgent dermatologic consultation. It underlines the need for collaboration between dermatologists, other physicians, general practitioners and nurses. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 222: Consideration of genotoxicity data on representatives for alpha,betaunsaturated furyl derivatives with the α,β-unsaturation in the side chain from subgroup 4.6 of FGE.19 by EFSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of six flavouring substances from subgroup 4.6 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 222. The Flavour Industry have provided...... was requested for both substances, the one including a micronucleus assay....... additional genotoxicity studies for two representative substances, 3-(2-furyl)acrylaldehyde [FL-no: 13.034] and 4-(2-furyl)but-3-en-2-one [FL-no: 13.044], in FGE.222. Based on these new data the Panel could not rule out a clastogenic and aneugenic potential for the two substances and a in vivo Comet assay...

  9. Human fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase gene (FBP1): Exon-intron organization, localization to chromosome bands 9q22.2-q22.3, and mutation screening in subjects with fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Maghrabi, M.R.; Jiang, W. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-10

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) is a key regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to generate fructose-6-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. Deficiency of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is associated with fasting hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis because of impaired gluconeogenesis. We have cloned and characterized the human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase gene (FBP1). FBP1, localized to chromosome bands 9q22.2-q22.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, consists of seven exons that span > 31 kb, and the six introns are in the same position as in the rat gene. FBP1 was screened for mutations in two subjects with fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. Four nucleotide substitutions were identified, two of which were silent mutations in the codons for Ala-216 (GCT {yields} GCC) and Gly-319 (GGG {yields} GGA). The other substitutions were in intron 3, a C {yields} T substitution 7 nucleotides downstream from the splice donor site, and in the promoter region, an A {yields} T substitution 188 nucleotides upstream from the start of transcription. These nucleotide substitutions were also found in normal unaffected subjects and thus are not the cause of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency in the two subjects studied. The molecular basis of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency in these subjects remains undetermined but could result from unidentified mutations in the promoter that decrease expression or from mutations in another gene that indirectly lead to decreased fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity. 18 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Use of Hydrochemistry, Stable Isotope, Radiocarbon, 222Rn and Terrigenic 4He to Study the Geochemical Processes and the Mode of Vertical Leakage to the Gambier Basin Tertiary Confined Sand Aquifer, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The mode of vertical recharge to aquifers is important to the application of appropriate recharge estimation methods. This study identifies the origin, geochemical evolution and mode of vertical leakage to the Gambier Basin confined aquifer, south east of South Australia. The recharge zone spans areas of the Glencoe-Nangwarry-Nagwarry (GNN. The Hundreds of Glencoe and Nangwarry are in South Australia, and the Parish of Nagwarry adjoins Nangwarry in western Victoria. The plot of stable isotopes of water molecules, δ2H versus δ18O, indicates that local rainfall with minor surface evaporation is the source of recharge. The results of hydrochemical analysis indicate that the sources of ions in the recharge zone groundwater are derived from carbonate and silicate weathering with cation exchange. The majority of water types (66% of samples within the South Australian part of the recharge zone show Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl due to carbonate dissolution processes, and about 83% of samples within the Victorian part of the recharge zone show Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl water types, indicating cation exchange or mixing with other waters. The influence of faults on vertical leakage was studied at eight sites located in the Nangwarry and Nagwarry area using electrical conductivity logging, measuring the concentration of radiocarbon activity, δ18O, 222Rn and terrigenic 4He in the vertical profiles. Results show that regardless of land use in the study area, the interconnection of the unconfined Tertiary limestone aquifer with the Tertiary confined sand aquifer occurs, via both diffuse and preferential flows. Thus, the application of conventional vertical leakage estimation methods using Darcy’s equation or the application of tracer techniques may be inappropriate unless the duality of the flow system is considered.

  11. Surgical Outcome and Cosmetic Results of Autologous Fat Grafting After Breast Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 222 Fat Grafting Sessions in 109 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Turnhout, Arjen A; Fuchs, Saskia; Lisabeth-Broné, Kristel; Vriens-Nieuwenhuis, Eline J C; van der Sluis, Wouter B

    2017-12-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (RT) often lead to breast deformity. Reconstruction of these defects is a surgical challenge. Lately, the popularity of autologous fat grafting in these patients is growing. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical outcomes and aesthetic results of autologous fat grafting after BCS and RT. A database of all patients who underwent fat grafting after BCS and RT was prospectively maintained. Patient demographics, clinical and surgical characteristics and intra- and postoperative complications were analysed. Preoperative and 6-month postoperative photographs were evaluated by a four-member expert-panel assessing the aesthetic outcome (Harvard scale, five-point aesthetic scale and an overall score). Between June 2008 and January 2016, 109 consecutive patients (114 breasts) underwent 222 fat grafting procedures. The mean clinical postoperative follow-up was 26 ± 19 months (range 10-97). The median number of fat grafting sessions sufficient for a satisfactory surgical result was two (range 1-6). Localized infections occurred in four patients, all treated effectively with oral antibiotics. Fat necrosis that required excision under local anaesthesia occurred once. The overall cosmetic appearance was rated 5.1/10 before and 7.2/10 after reconstruction (p Fat grafting after BCS and RT provides significant aesthetic improvement of the breast. It has a positive effect on the postsurgical scar and irradiated tissue and helps to restore the volume deficit, which makes it suitable as a reconstructive approach in this patient group. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  12. 75 FR 33159 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Model 222, 222B, 222U, 230, and 430...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... based on hours TIS. Additionally, this AD does not require operators to send their blades to Rotor... does not have an excepted S/N or code, certificated in any category. Helicopter model Helicopter S/N... area. Let the area dry for 30 minutes to 1 hour. Then, apply one sealer coat of polyurethane, MILC85285...

  13. 75 FR 71540 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Model 222, 222B, 222U, 230, and 430...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... bristle brush to remove any residue. If you find any corrosion that is red or orange in color, magnetic... Acetone and a nylon bristle brush removing all contaminates to allow for inspection. Inspecting the grind... piston rod by applying brush cadmium plating to all bare and reworked areas. Reassembling the servo...

  14. 36 CFR 222.50 - General procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... livestock use of National Forest system lands, or other lands under Forest Service control. An exception is... value be obtained for all services and resources provided the public through establishment of a system... monetary consideration in the fee structure for any permit value that may be capitalized into the permit...

  15. 40 CFR 52.222 - Negative declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District. (i) Plastic Parts Coating: Business Machines and... Pollution Control District. (i) Aerospace Coatings; Industrial Waste Water Treatment; Plastic Parts Coating...) Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District. (i) Natural Gas and Gasoline Processing Equipment and...

  16. Publications | Page 222 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the past few years, opinion mining and sentiment analysis have attracted much attention in natural language processing and information retrieval. The proposed method can utilize useful labeled data from the source... Digital and other poverties : exploring the connection in four East African countries (open access).

  17. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... days prior to their use for breeding. Do not administer to dogs or cats having known heart conditions... oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis... Taenia taeniaeformis. (2) It is administered to cats and dogs at the rate of 25 to 50 milligrams per...

  18. Publications | Page 222 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... (restricted access). This guide provides you with an overview of the key concepts you''ll need to understand about communicating climate risk. Throughout the guide the main ideas and lessons learned on risk communication are outlined, and examples are used to illustrate ways in which risk communication strategies.

  19. 28 CFR 22.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organization or governmental entity, or combination thereof. (b) Private person means any person defined in... “intelligence” or other information-gathering activities in which information pertaining to specific individuals is obtained for purposes directly related to enforcement of the criminal laws. (d) Research or...

  20. 50 CFR 222.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shrimper means a shrimp trawler that fishes for and retains its shrimp catch alive for the purpose of... bottoms. Scrimshaw product means any art form which involves the substantial etching or engraving of...