WorldWideScience

Sample records for astatine 192

  1. Bibliography of astatine chemistry and biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overall bibliography is presented on astatine chemistry and on the biomedical applications of its 211At isotope. The references were grouped in the following chapters: General reviews; Discovery, Natural Occurence; Nuclear Data; Preparation, Handling, Radiation Risk; Physico-chemical Properties; Astatine Compounds and Chemical Reactions; Biological Effects and Applications. Entries are sorted alphabetically by authors name in each chapter, and cross-references to other chapters are provided if appropriate. (R.P.)

  2. Astatine-211: production and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalutsky, Michael R; Pruszynski, Marek

    2011-07-01

    The 7.2-h half life radiohalogen (211)At offers many potential advantages for targeted α-particle therapy; however, its use for this purpose is constrained by its limited availability. Astatine-211 can be produced in reasonable yield from natural bismuth targets via the (209)Bi(α,2n)(211)At nuclear reaction utilizing straightforward methods. There is some debate as to the best incident α-particle energy for maximizing 211At production while minimizing production of (210)At, which is problematic because of its 138.4-day half life α-particle emitting daughter, (210)Po. The intrinsic cost for producing (211)At is reasonably modest and comparable to that of commercially available (123)I. The major impediment to (211)At availability is attributed to the need for a medium energy α-particle beam for its production. On the other hand, there are about 30 cyclotrons in the world that have the beam characteristics required for (211)At production. PMID:22201707

  3. Adsorption interaction of astatine species with quartz and gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serov, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. for Chemistry and Biochemistry; Aksenov, N.; Bozhikov, G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (RU). Flerov Lab. of Nuclear Reactions] (and others)

    2011-07-01

    The adsorption interaction of various astatine species with quartz and gold surfaces was investigated by gas chromatography methods. Due to variations of the redox potential of the carrier gas elemental astatine, astatine oxide and hypo-astatic acid have been produced. The identification of the astatine compounds is based on the analogy assumption to the gas phase chemistry of the closest homologues in group 17 of the periodic table, iodine and bromine. The deposition temperatures as well as enthalpies of adsorption have been determined for the astatine species. The enhancement of the metallic character within group 17 towards higher Z is clearly confirmed. Macroscopic properties (sublimation enthalpy) of previously unstudied AtO{sub 2} and HAtO were estimated. The determined data for elemental astatine were compared to available literature data. Based on the obtained experimental results possible designs of experiments for studying of chemical properties of the recently discovered element 117 can be suggested. (orig.)

  4. Recent advances in the organic chemistry of astatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation on the chemical behaviour of astatine in the last decade are surveyed. The survey covers the physical and chemical properties of astatine, synthesis and identification of organic astatine compounds, their physicochemical properties. A special chapter is devoted to biomedical applications, including inorganic 211At species, 211At-labelled proteins and drugs. An extensive bibliography of the related literature is given. (N.T.) 129 refs.; 12 figs.; 14 tabs

  5. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently, thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  6. Extraction of astatine isotopes for development of radiopharmaceuticals using a 211Rn-211At generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to utilize a 211At isotope, a promising α-emitter for radionuclide therapy, the chemical properties of astatine isotopes are studied. We have examined wet chemistry methods through the distribution ratios of astatine in liquid-liquid extraction. The astatine isotopes have been found to be well extracted into DIPE and MIBK. We observed that the distribution ratio of astatine isotopes increases with concentrations of HCl greater than 3 M, while it decreases with the HCl concentration less than 2 M. The results will be useful for development of the 211Rn-211At generator. (author)

  7. Astatine-211-Labeled Targeted Radiotherapeutics: An Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy halogen 211At was first proposed for use in α-particle targeted radiotherapy more than 30 years ago and continues to be one of the most promising radionuclides for this purpose. Although its 7.2-h half life is not ideal for intravenously administered whole antibodies, it is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of antibody fragments, peptides, aptamers and organic molecules. Its diverse chemistry allows its incorporation into a wide array of targeting vehicles, relying on its chemical similarity to iodine to provide a useful point of departure. On the other hand, the relatively low carbon-astatine bond strength is challenging. In common with the other α-emitters being discussed at this symposium, lack of reliable availability is one of the biggest hurdles in the use of 211At for targeted radiotherapy. However, in the case of 211At, it is not a question of production cost or availability of target material, because 211At can be produced in reasonable yield from natural bismuth targets. Rather, the difficulty is the lack of cyclotrons equipped with the medium energy α-particle beams required for its production. If the infrastructure for producing 211At is to be improved to the stage where 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals can have a meaningful impact, several developments must occur. First, the ability to produce clinically relevant levels of 211At that can be shipped to remote locations in chemically tractable form must be demonstrated. Approaches under consideration include compensating for radiolysis-mediated effects and the consideration of alternative chemistries. Second, strategies for compensating for heterogeneities in dose deposition must be developed, hopefully in a way that is compatible with approval for human use. And third, it is essential that more clinical trials be performed with 211At-labeled therapeutics, particularly in settings of minimum residual disease where the radiobiological advantages of α-particles can be best exploited. Our

  8. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, S; Antalic, S; Borschevsky, A; Capponi, L; Cocolios, T E; De Witte, H; Eliav, E; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V N; Fink, D A; Fritzsche, S; Ghys, L; Huyse, M; Imai, N; Kaldor, U; Kudryavtsev, Yu; Köster, U; Lane, J; Lassen, J; Liberati, V; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Nishio, K; Pauwels, D; Pershina, V; Popescu, L; Procter, T J; Radulov, D; Raeder, S; Rajabali, M M; Rapisarda, E; Rossel, R E; Sandhu, K; Seliverstov, M D; Sjödin, A M; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Venhart, M; Wakabayashi, Y; Wendt K D A

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of smallest quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the ionization threshold. The observed series of Rydberg states enabled the first determination of the ionization potential of the astatine atom, 9.317510(8) eV. New ab initio calculations were performed to support the experimental result. The measured value serves as a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations of the properties of astatine as well as for the theoretical prediction of the ionization potential of super-heavy element 117, the heaviest homologue of astatine.

  9. Synthesis and Evaluation of Astatinated N-[2-(Maleimido)ethyl]-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide Immunoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneheim, Emma; Gustafsson, Anna; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom; Jensen, Holger; Palm, Stig; Svedhem, Sofia; Lindegren, Sture

    2016-03-16

    Effective treatment of metastasis is a great challenge in the treatment of different types of cancers. Targeted alpha therapy utilizes the short tissue range (50-100 μm) of α particles, making the method suitable for treatment of disseminated occult cancers in the form of microtumors or even single cancer cells. A promising radioactive nuclide for this type of therapy is astatine-211. Astatine-211 attached to tumor-specific antibodies as carrier molecules is a system currently under investigation for use in targeted alpha therapy. In the common radiolabeling procedure, astatine is coupled to the antibody arbitrarily on lysine residues. By instead coupling astatine to disulfide bridges in the antibody structure, the immunoreactivity of the antibody conjugates could possibly be increased. Here, the disulfide-based conjugation was performed using a new coupling reagent, maleimidoethyl 3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide (MSB), and evaluated for chemical stability in vitro. The immunoconjugates were subsequently astatinated, resulting in both high radiochemical yield and high specific activity. The MSB-conjugate was shown to be stable with a long shelf life prior to the astatination. In a comparison of the in vivo distribution of the new immunoconjugate with other tin-based immunoconjugates in tumor-bearing mice, the MSB conjugation method was found to be a viable option for successful astatine labeling of different monoclonal antibodies. PMID:26791409

  10. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Rothe, S.; A. N. Andreyev; Antalic, S; Borschevsky, A.; Capponi, L.; Cocolios, T.E.; Witte, H.; Eliav, E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fink, D. A.; Fritzsche, S.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Imai, N.

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of the minute quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the io...

  11. Comment: 192 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Grey heron Ardea cinerea Ardea_cinerea_L.png 192.png Takeru Nakazato (Database Center for Life Science...zato (Database Center for Life Science) nakazato 2009/11/04 17:28:11 2010/01/14 20:04:35 ...

  12. Automated astatination of biomolecules - a stepping stone towards multicenter clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aneheim, Emma; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom;

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate multicentre clinical studies on targeted alpha therapy, it is necessary to develop an automated, on-site procedure for conjugating rare, short-lived, alpha-emitting radionuclides to biomolecules. Astatine-211 is one of the few alpha-emitting nuclides with appropriate chemical...... and physical properties for use in targeted therapies for cancer. Due to the very short range of the emitted α-particles, this therapy is particularly suited to treating occult, disseminated cancers. Astatine is not intrinsically tumour-specific; therefore, it requires an appropriate tumour-specific targeting...... vector, which can guide the radiation to the cancer cells. Consequently, an appropriate method is required for coupling the nuclide to the vector. To increase the availability of astatine-211 radiopharmaceuticals for targeted alpha therapy, their production should be automated. Here, we present a method...

  13. Study of Astatine (III) reactions with O, S and N ligands in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Astatine (At, Z=85: [Xe]4f145d106s26p5) belongs to the halogen group and is located below iodine in the periodic table. One of its isotopes (211At) appears promising as a therapeutic agent in nuclear medicine (Ref.1) owing to the energy of the alpha particles emitted during the disintegration of its nucleus and its short physical half-life (7.2 h). Since there are no stable isotopes of astatine, the chemistry of this element remains poorly understood. Generally, At is supposed to behave as a halogen (Ref.2) but it has been shown recently in our group that astatine presents a metallic behaviour in aqueous solution: it notably exists as At+ and AtO+ species under the oxidation states +I and +III (Ref.3). At the present time, the number of studies dealing with the complexation properties of the cationic forms of astatine remains limited (Ref.4), owing to its low availability. In this work, we have investigated the reactions of AtO+ species with different hetero-atomic (N, S, O) model ligands. A combined approach based on experimental and theoretical studies has been used (Ref.5). On account of the difficulties of experimental investigations of astatine species, the reactivity of AtO+ was explored using a competition method founded on astatine distributions between two distinct phases. Furthermore, for each AtO+/ ligand complex, the nature of the species formed and the associated thermodynamic constants were determined by computational modeling (DFT calculations). In this framework, an original computational methodology was developed to take into account the specificities of astatine, notably the associated relativistic effects. The computed equilibrium constants have been confronted with the experimental results. This comparison demonstrates an outstanding coherence between experience and theory. Furthermore, the analysis of the results shows a key role of solvent effects on astatine chemistry. Lastly, a specific reactivity for the

  14. Some aspects of the organic, biological and inorganic chemistry of astatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astatine has no stable isotopes and the radioactive isotopes with half-lives sufficiently long for chemical experiments (209At, 210At, 211At) must be produced artificially with a cyclotron or with a high energy accelerator by spallation of Th. This thesis deals with the synthesis and chemistry of At-compounds and the determination of some of their properties. (C.F.)

  15. Astatine-211 Pathway from Radiochemistry to Clinical Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particularly in clinical settings where tumour burden is low and cancers are located in close proximity to essential normal tissue structures, α-particle emitting radionuclides can offer significant advantages for targeted radionuclide therapy. One of the first alpha emitters to be evaluated for this purpose is the 7.2-h half-life radiohalogen Astatine-211 (211At). From a commercialization-potential perspective 211At, is less appealing than the longer half-life alpha particle emitters Radium-223, Actinium-225 and Thorium-227, which have become the focus of many laboratories. However, if methods for providing a better supply of 211At could be developed, this alpha emitter would be the radionuclide of choice for many potential therapeutic applications. With regard to the production of 211At, this can be readily be accomplished by bombarding natural bismuth targets with 28−29.5 MeV alpha particles via the 209Bi(α,2n)211At reaction. The goal is to utilize an alpha particle beam energy that provides the required balance for maximizing 211At production while minimizing creation of 210At, which is problematic because of its 138.4-day half life alpha-particle emitting daughter, 210Po. For most intended clinical applications, alpha particle beam energy of about 29 MeV offers the best compromise between maximizing yield and providing 211At with sufficient radionuclidic purity for clinical use. Clinically relevant levels of 211At have been produced at several institutions using both internal and external cyclotron targets

  16. An attempt to explore the production routes of Astatine radionuclides: Theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta

    2008-01-01

    In order to fulfil the recent thrust of Astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of $^{209-211}$At comprise both light and heavy ion induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to maximum 100 MeV energy. For this purpose, we have used the nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91 and PACE-II. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced throug...

  17. 49 CFR 192.225 - Welding procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... qualified under section 5 of API 1104 (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7) or section IX of the ASME... § 192.7) to produce welds meeting the requirements of this subpart. The quality of the test welds...

  18. Determination of the electron affinity of astatine and polonium by laser photodetachment

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to conduct the first electron anity (EA) measurements of the two elements astatine (At) and polonium (Po). Collinear photodetachment spectroscopy will allow us to measure these quantities with an uncertainty limited only by the spectral linewidth of the laser. We plan to use negative ion beams of the two radioactive elements At and Po, which are only accessible on-line and at ISOLDE. The feasibility of our proposed method and the functionality of the experimental setup have been demonstrated at ISOLDE in o-line tests by the clear observation of the photodetachment threshold for stable iodine. This proposal is based on our Letter of Intent I-148 [1].

  19. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated...

  20. 32 CFR 192.5 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 192.5 Section 192.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EQUAL OPPORTUNITY IN OFF-BASE HOUSING § 192.5 Responsibilities. The Secretaries of the...

  1. 49 CFR 192.749 - Vault maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vault maintenance. 192.749 Section 192.749 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.749 Vault maintenance. (a) Each...

  2. 49 CFR 192.16 - Customer notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer notification. 192.16 Section 192.16... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.16 Customer notification. (a) This section applies to each operator of a service line who does not maintain the customer's buried piping...

  3. 49 CFR 192.145 - Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves. 192.145 Section 192.145 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.145 Valves. (a) Except for cast iron and plastic valves, each valve must meet the minimum requirements of API...

  4. 40 CFR 192.04 - Corrective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corrective action. 192.04 Section 192... Corrective action. If the groundwater concentration limits established for disposal sites under provisions of § 192.02(c) are found or projected to be exceeded, a corrective action program shall be placed...

  5. 40 CFR 192.12 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 192.12 Section 192.12... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for Cleanup of... Sites § 192.12 Standards. Remedial actions shall be conducted so as to provide reasonable assurance...

  6. 40 CFR 192.02 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 192.02 Section 192.02... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for the Control of Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites § 192.02 Standards....

  7. 22 CFR 192.31 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 192.31 Section 192.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Medical Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.31 Applicable benefits. A person eligible for benefits under this...

  8. 22 CFR 192.21 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 192.21 Section 192.21... Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act to Captive Situations § 192.21 Applicable benefits. (a) Eligible persons are entitled to the benefits provided by the Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940 (50...

  9. 22 CFR 192.11 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 192.11 Section 192.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Payment of Salary and Other Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.11 Applicable benefits. (a) Captives are entitled...

  10. 49 CFR 192.501 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.501 Section 192.501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Test Requirements § 192.501 Scope. This...

  11. 49 CFR 192.51 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.51 Section 192.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum...

  12. 49 CFR 192.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.101 Section 192.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.101 Scope. This subpart...

  13. 49 CFR 192.551 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.551 Section 192.551 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Uprating § 192.551 Scope. This subpart...

  14. 49 CFR 192.351 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.351 Section 192.351 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.351 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for installing customer meters,...

  15. 49 CFR 192.221 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.221 Section 192.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.221 Scope. (a)...

  16. 49 CFR 192.301 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.301 Section 192.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Lines and Mains § 192.301 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for...

  17. 49 CFR 192.451 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.451 Section 192.451 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.451 Scope....

  18. 49 CFR 192.801 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.801 Section 192.801 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Qualification of Pipeline Personnel § 192.801 Scope....

  19. 49 CFR 192.601 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.601 Section 192.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.601 Scope. This subpart...

  20. 49 CFR 192.141 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.141 Section 192.141 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.141 Scope....

  1. 49 CFR 192.701 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.701 Section 192.701 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.701 Scope. This subpart...

  2. 49 CFR 192.149 - Standard fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard fittings. 192.149 Section 192.149... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.149 Standard... pressures and temperatures in the applicable standards referenced in this part, or their equivalent....

  3. 40 CFR 61.192 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.192 Section 61.192... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.192 Standard. No source at a Department of Energy facility shall...

  4. 49 CFR 192.151 - Tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tapping. 192.151 Section 192.151 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.151 Tapping. (a) Each mechanical fitting used to make a hot tap must be designed for at least the operating pressure...

  5. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings...

  6. 49 CFR 192.271 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.271 Section 192.271 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Scope. (a) This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for joining materials in pipelines, other...

  7. 10 CFR 431.192 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that— (1) Has an input voltage of 600 volts or less; (2) Is air-cooled; and (3) Does not use oil as a... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 431.192 Section 431.192 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL...

  8. 40 CFR 192.32 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to 40 CFR 192.32(a)(3), the licensee shall conduct appropriate monitoring and analysis of the... limiting releases of radon-222 to a level not exceeding 20 pCi/m2−s as required by 40 CFR 192.32(b)(1)(ii). This monitoring shall be conducted using the procedures described in 40 CFR part 61, Appendix B,...

  9. 49 CFR 192.121 - Design of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of plastic pipe. 192.121 Section 192.121... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.121 Design of plastic pipe. Subject to the limitations of § 192.123, the design pressure for plastic pipe is determined by either of...

  10. 49 CFR 192.287 - Plastic pipe: Inspection of joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe: Inspection of joints. 192.287... Than by Welding § 192.287 Plastic pipe: Inspection of joints. No person may carry out the inspection of joints in plastic pipes required by §§ 192.273(c) and 192.285(b) unless that person has been qualified...

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHS192 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS192 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16524-1 CHS192P (Link to Original site) CHS1...92F 681 CHS192Z 796 CHS192P 1457 - - Show CHS192 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS192Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS1...92P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS192 (CHS192Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS1...igkekekqkqkeqi kenqrtnqqrkrrqketskxkxke Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS1

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSI192 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSI192 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16397-1 SSI192Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSI192Z 616 - - - - Show SSI192 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSI192 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSI1-D/SSI192Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSI19...2Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSI192 (SSI192Q) /CSM/SS/SSI1-D/SSI192Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...kkkkkkkkk Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ---iq*i*ywcnh*rlc*hycrfrdfirewcstwssiccn*cfp*

  13. Unexpected Behavior of the Heaviest Halogen Astatine in the Nucleophilic Substitution of Aryliodonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérard, François; Lee, Yong-Sok; Baidoo, Kwamena; Gestin, Jean-François; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2016-08-22

    Aryliodonium salts have become precursors of choice for the synthesis of (18) F-labeled tracers for nuclear imaging. However, little is known on the reactivity of these compounds with heavy halides, that is, radioiodide and astatide, at the radiotracer scale. In the first comparative study of radiohalogenation of aryliodonium salts with (125) I(-) and (211) At(-) , initial experiments on a model compound highlight the higher reactivity of astatide compared to iodide, which could not be anticipated from the trends previously observed within the halogen series. Kinetic studies indicate a significant difference in activation energy (Ea =23.5 and 17.1 kcal mol(-1) with (125) I(-) and (211) At(-) , respectively). Quantum chemical calculations suggest that astatination occurs via the monomeric form of an iodonium complex whereas iodination occurs via a heterodimeric iodonium intermediate. The good to excellent regioselectivity of halogenation and high yields achieved with diversely substituted aryliodonium salts indicate that this class of compounds is a promising alternative to the stannane chemistry currently used for heavy radiohalogen labeling of tracers in nuclear medicine. PMID:27305065

  14. Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

  15. Quasiparticle excitations in superdeformed {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The nucleus {sup 192}Hg plays a pivotal role for superdeformation in the mass 190 region, since calculations of single-particle levels show large shell-gaps for the superdeformed (SD) shape at N = 112 and Z = 80. As a result, {sup 192}Hg is referred to as the doubly magic SD nucleus for the A = 190 region. In previous studies, only one superdeformed band was observed in this nucleus, and this fact was cited as indirect evidence that large shell gaps do indeed exist at the proposed particle numbers.

  16. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as a viable approach for cancer treatment because of its potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to malignant cell populations while sparing normal tissues. Alpha particles such as those emitted by 211At are particularly attractive for this purpose because of their short path length in tissue and high energy, making them highly effective in killing cancer cells. The current impact of targeted radiotherapy in the clinical domain remains limited despite the fact that in many cases, potentially useful molecular targets and labeled compounds have already been identified. Unfortunately, putting these concepts into practice has been impeded by limitations in radiochemistry methodologies. A critical problem is that the synthesis of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals provides additional challenges in comparison to diagnostic reagents because of the need to perform radio-synthesis at high levels of radioactivity. This is particularly important for {alpha}-particle emitters such as 211At because they deposit large amounts of energy in a highly focal manner. The overall objective of this project is to develop convenient and reproducible radiochemical methodologies for the radiohalogenation of molecules with the {alpha}-particle emitter 211At at the radioactivity levels needed for clinical studies. Our goal is to address two problems in astatine radiochemistry: First, a well known characteristic of 211At chemistry is that yields for electrophilic astatination reactions decline as the time interval after radionuclide isolation from the cyclotron target increases. This is a critical problem that must be addressed if cyclotrons are to be able to efficiently supply 211At to remote users. And second, when the preparation of high levels of 211At-labeled compounds is attempted, the radiochemical yields can be considerably lower than those encountered at tracer dose. For these reasons, clinical evaluation of promising 211At

  17. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is qualified for use under this part if: (1) It was manufactured in accordance with a listed specification; (2... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  18. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe...; and (2) Is manufactured from plastic compounds which meet the criteria for material required of pipe... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  19. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 572.112(a). (c) Performance criteria. (1) When the head assembly is dropped from either the right...) and a set of three (3) accelerometers in conformance with specifications in 49 CFR 572.200(d) and... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion..., see § 192.7). (3) The joint may not be heated to accelerate the setting of the cement. (c) Heat-fusion joints. Each heat-fusion joint on plastic pipe must comply with the following: (1) A butt...

  1. 27 CFR 9.192 - Wahluke Slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wahluke Slope. 9.192... Wahluke Slope. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wahluke Slope”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Wahluke Slope” and “Wahluke” are terms of...

  2. 27 CFR 20.192 - Manufacturing record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturing record. 20... and Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.192 Manufacturing record. For each manufacturing process in which specially denatured spirits are used, the user shall record: (a) Quantity...

  3. 49 CFR 192.11 - Petroleum gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum gas systems. 192.11 Section 192.11... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.11 Petroleum gas systems. (a) Each plant that supplies petroleum gas by pipeline to a natural gas distribution system must meet the...

  4. 49 CFR 192.629 - Purging of pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purging of pipelines. 192.629 Section 192.629... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.629 Purging of pipelines. (a) When a pipeline is being purged of air by use of gas, the gas must be released into one end of the line in...

  5. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the...

  6. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  7. 49 CFR 192.125 - Design of copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of copper pipe. 192.125 Section 192.125... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.125 Design of copper pipe. (a) Copper pipe used in mains must have a minimum wall thickness of 0.065 inches (1.65 millimeters) and must...

  8. 49 CFR 192.321 - Installation of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of plastic pipe. 192.321 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.321 Installation of plastic pipe. (a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided by paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section. (b) Plastic pipe that...

  9. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375... § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be installed... terminate above ground level and outside the building, if— (i) The above ground level part of the...

  10. 49 CFR 192.191 - Design pressure of plastic fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design pressure of plastic fittings. 192.191... Components § 192.191 Design pressure of plastic fittings. (a) Thermosetting fittings for plastic pipe must conform to ASTM D 2517, (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7). (b) Thermoplastic fittings for...

  11. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192.311... Lines and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage that would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or removed....

  12. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189 Section 192.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed so as to...

  13. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  14. 27 CFR 31.192 - Photographic copies of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographic copies of records. 31.192 Section 31.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Records and Files § 31.192 Photographic copies of records. (a) General. Dealers may record, copy,...

  15. 49 CFR 192.235 - Preparation for welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation for welding. 192.235 Section 192.235... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.235 Preparation for welding. Before beginning any welding, the welding surfaces must be clean and free of any material...

  16. 49 CFR 192.614 - Damage prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damage prevention program. 192.614 Section 192.614... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.614 Damage prevention program. (a... section (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section. (1) The state has adopted a one-call damage prevention...

  17. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  18. 49 CFR 192.631 - Control room management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control room management. 192.631 Section 192.631... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.631 Control room management. (a... operator must have and follow written control room management procedures that implement the requirements...

  19. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  20. 49 CFR 192.491 - Corrosion control records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion control records. 192.491 Section 192.491... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.491 Corrosion... detail to demonstrate the adequacy of corrosion control measures or that a corrosive condition does...

  1. 22 CFR 192.52 - Disability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 8107 and 20 CFR 10.304. The Director General of the Foreign Service of State or the Agency Head, may at... members of the body specified in 5 U.S.C. 8107 and in 20 CFR 10.304. The provisions of 20 CFR part 10... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability benefits. 192.52 Section...

  2. Study of transition probabilities in 192Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleus 192Pt is Coulomb excited with 370 MeV 84Kr projectiles. Levels up to spin 8+ (10+) in the ground band and up to 6+ in the γ-band are observed. The B(E2) values implied by the observed yields are compared with predictions of different nuclear models. Particular attention is paid to the ground band transition rates and the rotation-alignment model

  3. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Sebastian

    2012-09-24

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  4. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  5. Radiobiological Effects of Alpha-Particles from Astatine-211: From DNA Damage to Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claesson, Kristina

    2011-05-15

    In recent years, the use of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for radiotherapeutic applications has gained increased interest. Astatine-211 (211At) is an alpha-particle emitting radionuclide, promising for targeted radioimmunotherapy of isolated tumor cells and microscopic clusters. To improve development of safe radiotherapy using 211At it is important to increase our knowledge of the radiobiological effects in cells. During radiotherapy, both tumors and adjacent normal tissue will be irradiated and therefore, it is of importance to understand differences in the radio response between proliferating and resting cells. The aim of this thesis was to investigate effects in fibroblasts with different proliferation status after irradiation with alpha-particles from 211At or X-rays, from inflicted DNA damage, to cellular responses and biological consequences. Throughout this work, irradiation was performed with alpha-particles from 211A or X-rays. The induction and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human normal fibroblasts were investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and fragment analysis. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 211At for DSB induction varied between 1.4 and 3.1. A small increase of DSBs was observed in cycling cells compared to stationary cells. The repair kinetics was slower after 211At and more residual damage was found after 24 h. Comparison between cells with different proliferation status showed that the repair was inefficient in cycling cells with more residual damage, regardless of radiation quality. Activation of cell cycle arrests was investigated using immunofluorescent labeling of the checkpoint kinase Chk2 and by measuring cell cycle distributions with flow cytometry analysis. After alpha-particle irradiation, the average number of Chk2-foci was larger and the cells had a more affected cell cycle progression for several weeks compared with X-irradiated cells, indicating a more powerful arrest after 211At

  6. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that produces a hoop stress of 30 percent, or more, of SMYS. (b)...

  7. Iridium-192 sources production for brachytherapy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of cancer increases every year in Brazil and turns out to be one of the most important causes of mortality. Some of the patients are treated with brachytherapy, a form of lesion treatment which is based on the insertion of sources into tumors, in this particular case, activated iridium wires. During this process, the ionizing radiation efficiently destroys the malignant cells. These iridium wires have a nucleus made out of an iridium-platinum alloy 20-30/70-80 of 0,1 mm in diameter either coated by platinum or encased in a platinum tube. The technique consists in irradiating the wire in the reactor neutron flux in order to produce iridium-192. The linear activity goes from 1 mCi/cm to 4 mCi/cm and the basic characteristic, which is required, is the homogeneity of the activation along the wire. It should not present a dispersion exceeding 5% on a wire measuring 50 cm in length, 0.5 mm or 0.3 mm in diameter. Several experiments were carried out in order to define the activation parameters. Wires from different origins were analyzed. It was concluded that United States of America and France wires were found to be perfectly adequate for brachytherapy purposes and have therefore been sent to specialized hospitals and successfully applied to cancer patients. Considering that the major purpose of this work is to make this product more accessible in Brazil, at a cost reflecting the Brazilian reality, the IPEN is promoting the preparation of iridium-192 sources to be used in brachytherapy, on a national level. (author)

  8. 49 CFR 192.477 - Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. 192.477... Control § 192.477 Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. If corrosive gas is being transported, coupons... internal corrosion. Each coupon or other means of monitoring internal corrosion must be checked two...

  9. 49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475... Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a) Corrosive gas may not be transported by... taken to minimize internal corrosion. (b) Whenever any pipe is removed from a pipeline for any...

  10. 49 CFR 192.277 - Ductile iron pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ductile iron pipe. 192.277 Section 192.277 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Ductile iron pipe. (a) Ductile iron pipe may not be joined by threaded joints. (b) Ductile iron pipe...

  11. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275... Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical leak clamps. (b) Each mechanical joint in cast iron pipe must have a gasket made of a...

  12. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.719 Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  13. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.705 Transmission... adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for indications of leaks, construction activity, and...

  14. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192.709... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.709 Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each operator shall maintain the following records for transmission...

  15. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.745 Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any...

  16. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  17. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation....

  18. 49 CFR 192.193 - Valve installation in plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve installation in plastic pipe. 192.193... Components § 192.193 Valve installation in plastic pipe. Each valve installed in plastic pipe must be designed so as to protect the plastic material against excessive torsional or shearing loads when the...

  19. 49 CFR 192.513 - Test requirements for plastic pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test requirements for plastic pipelines. 192.513 Section 192.513 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Test requirements for plastic pipelines. (a) Each segment of a plastic pipeline must be tested...

  20. 49 CFR 192.181 - Distribution line valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution line valves. 192.181 Section 192.181... line valves. (a) Each high-pressure distribution system must have valves spaced so as to reduce the time to shut down a section of main in an emergency. The valve spacing is determined by the...

  1. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission line valves. 192.179 Section 192.179... line valves. (a) Each transmission line, other than offshore segments, must have sectionalizing block valves spaced as follows, unless in a particular case the Administrator finds that alternative...

  2. 49 CFR 192.365 - Service lines: Location of valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Location of valves. 192.365 Section..., and Service Lines § 192.365 Service lines: Location of valves. (a) Relation to regulator or meter. Each service-line valve must be installed upstream of the regulator or, if there is no...

  3. 49 CFR 192.747 - Valve maintenance: Distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Distribution systems. 192.747... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.747 Valve maintenance: Distribution systems. (a) Each valve, the use of which may be necessary for the safe operation...

  4. 49 CFR 192.241 - Inspection and test of welds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and test of welds. 192.241 Section 192....241 Inspection and test of welds. (a) Visual inspection of welding must be conducted by an individual... nondestructively tested or visually inspected is determined according to the standards in Section 9 of API...

  5. 27 CFR 24.192 - Process and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....192 Section 24.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... the kinds and within the limitations prescribed in § 24.182 may be added with yeast or yeast culture..., taxpaid wine spirits or wine spirits withdrawn tax-free may be used. Tax-free wine spirits may only...

  6. 7 CFR 3015.192 - Institutions of higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Institutions of higher education. 3015.192 Section....192 Institutions of higher education. (a) OMB Circular No. A-21, including any amendments to the... activities conducted by institutions of higher education (other than for-profit institutions). (b)...

  7. 49 CFR 192.479 - Atmospheric corrosion control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atmospheric corrosion control: General. 192.479 Section 192.479 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY...

  8. 49 CFR 192.231 - Protection from weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection from weather. 192.231 Section 192.231 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... weather. The welding operation must be protected from weather conditions that would impair the quality...

  9. 49 CFR 192.627 - Tapping pipelines under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tapping pipelines under pressure. 192.627 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.627 Tapping pipelines under pressure. Each tap made on a pipeline under pressure must be performed by a crew qualified to...

  10. 49 CFR 192.283 - Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Materials Other Than by Welding § 192.283 Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. (a) Heat fusion... for making plastic pipe joints by a heat fusion, solvent cement, or adhesive method, the...

  11. 40 CFR 60.192 - Standard for fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.192 Section... Plants § 60.192 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test... total fluorides, as measured according to § 60.195, in excess of: (1) 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of...

  12. 41 CFR 102-192.30 - What types of mail does this part apply to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Introduction to this Part § 102-192.30 What types of mail does this part apply to... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of mail does this part apply to? 102-192.30 Section 102-192.30 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  13. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 192.619, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Operations § 192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person...

  14. Final Report for research grant "Development of Methods for High Specific Activity Labeling of Biomolecules Using Astatine-211 in Different Oxidation States"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, D., Scott

    2011-12-14

    The overall objective of this research effort was to develop methods for labeling biomolecules with higher oxidation state species of At-211. This was to be done in an effort to develop reagents that had higher in vivo stability than the present carbon-bonded At-211-labeled compounds. We were unsuccessful in that effort, as none of the approaches studied provided reagents that were stable to in vivo deastatination. However, we gained a lot of information about At-211 in higher oxidation states. The studies proved to be very difficult as small changes in pH and other conditions appeared to change the nature of the species that obtained (by HPLC retention time analyses), with many of the species being unidentifiable. The fact that there are no stable isotopes of astatine, and the chemistry of the nearest halogen iodine is quite different, made it very difficult to interpret results of some experiments. With that said, we believe that a lot of valuable information was obtained from the studies. The research effort evaluated: (1) methods for chemical oxidation of At-211, (2) approaches to chelation of oxidized At-211, and (3) approaches to oxidation of astatophenyl compounds. A major hurdle that had to be surmounted to conduct the research was the development of HPLC conditions to separate and identify the various oxidized species formed. Attempts to develop conditions for separation of iodine and astatine species by normal and reversed-phase TLC and ITLC were not successful. However, we were successful in developing conditions (from a large number of attempts) to separate oxidized forms of iodine ([I-125]iodide, [I-125]iodate and [I-125]periodate) and astatine ([At-211]astatide, [At-211]astatate, [At-211]perastatate, and several unidentified At-211 species). Information on the basic oxidation and characterization of At-211 species is provided under Objective 1. Conditions were developed to obtain new At-211 labeling method where At-211 is chelated with the DOTA and

  15. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not exceeding 15 months, but at least once each calendar year. However, in the case of a transmission line...

  16. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating...

  17. 49 CFR 192.123 - Design limitations for plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design limitations for plastic pipe. 192.123... Design limitations for plastic pipe. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) and paragraph (f) of this section, the design pressure may not exceed a gauge pressure of 100 psig (689 kPa) for plastic pipe...

  18. 31 CFR 103.192 - Special measures against VEF Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special measures against VEF Bank... Law Enforcement Access to Foreign Bank Records § 103.192 Special measures against VEF Bank. (a....175(d)(1)(ii). (2) Covered financial institution includes: (i) An insured bank (as defined in...

  19. Dose determination in breast tumor in brachytherapy using Iridium-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescent dosimetry studies in vivo and in vitro aiming to determing radiation dose in the breast tumor, in brachytherapy using Iridium-192 was done. The correlation between radiation doses in tumor and external surface of the breast was investigated for correcting the time interval of radiation source implantation. (author)

  20. 49 CFR 192.461 - External corrosion control: Protective coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Protective coating... for Corrosion Control § 192.461 External corrosion control: Protective coating. (a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 192 - Qualification of Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appendix B of part 192, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of... Pipe I. Listed Pipe Specifications API 5L—Steel pipe, “API Specification for Line Pipe” (incorporated..., at least one test weld must be made for each 100 lengths of pipe. On pipe 4 inches (102...

  2. 49 CFR 192.227 - Qualification of welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with section 6 of API 1104 (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7) or section IX of the ASME... produces a hoop stress of less than 20 percent of SMYS by performing an acceptable test weld, for the process to be used, under the test set forth in section I of Appendix C of this part. Each welder who...

  3. 49 CFR 192.65 - Transportation of pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... railroad unless: (1) The transportation is performed in accordance with API Recommended Practice 5L1... shorter time period permitted under Subpart J of this Part, the test pressure must be maintained for at... performed in accordance with API Recommended Practice 5LW (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7)....

  4. 49 CFR 192.153 - Components fabricated by welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Components fabricated by welding. 192.153 Section....153 Components fabricated by welding. (a) Except for branch connections and assemblies of standard... welding, whose strength cannot be determined, must be established in accordance with paragraph UG-101...

  5. Development of the iridium software for quality control of iridium-192 activated wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve quality control of Iridium-192 wires produced by IPEN, an automatic system prototype for the measurement of Iridium-192 activated wire was developed. This work shows the development of the Iridium software for such system

  6. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  7. 49 CFR 192.177 - Additional provisions for bottle-type holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional provisions for bottle-type holders. 192... Pipeline Components § 192.177 Additional provisions for bottle-type holders. (a) Each bottle-type holder... in accordance with § 192.327. (b) Each bottle-type holder manufactured from steel that is...

  8. 41 CFR 102-192.10 - What authority governs this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Introduction to this Part § 102-192.10 What authority governs this part? This part is governed by... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What authority governs this part? 102-192.10 Section 102-192.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  9. 41 CFR 102-192.5 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this part cover? 102-192.5 Section 102-192.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL...

  10. 41 CFR 102-192.25 - Does this part apply to me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Introduction to this Part § 102-192.25 Does this part apply to me? Yes, this part applies to you... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does this part apply to me? 102-192.25 Section 102-192.25 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  11. 40 CFR 265.192 - Design and installation of new tank systems or components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tank system is or will be in contact with the soil or with water, a determination by a corrosion expert... systems or components. 265.192 Section 265.192 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.192 Design and installation of new...

  12. 40 CFR 264.192 - Design and installation of new tank systems or components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system that is field fabricated must be supervised by an independent corrosion expert to ensure proper... systems or components. 264.192 Section 264.192 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.192 Design and installation of new tank systems...

  13. High dose rate 192Ir calibration: Indonesia experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indonesia with a population of more than 200 Million people which spread on about 5000 islands, up to now only has 23 radiotherapy centers and some not active anymore. As mention by Parkin et al that Cervix/Utery and breast cancer are the most estimated numbers of new cases of cancers in women for developing countries, stomach and lung cancers in men. Indonesia as a developing country is likely similar to other developing countries on numbers of new cases of cancers in women. But quite different in men, in Indonesia the most common cancers are nasopharynx and thyroid cancers. The use of lr-192 sources in high dose-rate (HDR) remotely afterloaded brachytherapy treatments have greatly increased in recent years and variety of such sources are commercially available. Nine radiotherapy centers in Indonesia installed Nucletron microSelectron HDR remote afterloader. Based on the data of CiptoMangunkusurno Hospital, Jakarta that the most common cancers are the cervix, breast, nasopharynx and thyroid cancers which of percentage are about 31%, 25 %, 13%, and 6 % respectively. It means that the use of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy has to be an effective tool in the treatments. Two methods have been studied and applied to calibrate HDR 192Ir brachytherapy in Indonesia, especially for Nucletron microSelectron HDR 192lr remote afterloader brachytherapy. Calibration of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source has been done by Cavity lonization Chamber and with Well Type lonization Chamber. First, 0.6 cc of NE Farmer type dosimeter that was calibrated to 60Co and 250 kV of x-rays in air kerma was used in this experiment. Position of measurement (detector and source) at the center of the room and about 1 meter from the floor. Eight variation of distances from 10 cm to 40 cms have been carried out measurement as recommended by IAEA-TECDOC-1079. Correction have been given for scatters, non-uniformity, and attenuation. To solve the problem of scatter correction factor was used Matlab programming. A

  14. A projector of iridium 192 wires: motivations and preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though the majority of procedures involved in curietherapy with Iridium 192 wires cause very few problems concerning radiation protection, this is not true in all cases: in elderly of debilitated patients, young children, or when using special techniques (curietherapy for prostate of bladder cancers for example). In these cases, the need for frequent treatment exposes the therapists to increased doses. The projector of Iridium 192 wires was conceived in order to reduce this irradiated hazard. A simple manipulation places the radioactive wires in a lead container during treatment, and then replaces them in the right position after therapy. This apparatus appears to offer the possibility of: an almost total protection of the therapists, and thus an opportunity for enlarging the indications for curietherapy; an improved quality of treatment to the patient during the application

  15. The air-kerma rate constant of 192Ir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninković, M M; Raiĉevìć, J J

    1993-01-01

    The air-kerma rate constant gamma delta (and its precursors), as one of the basic radiation characteristics of 192Ir, was determined by many authors. Analysis of accessible data on this quantity led us to the conclusion that published data strongly disagree. That is the reason we calculated this quantity on the basis of our and many other authors' gamma-ray spectral data and the latest data for mass energy-transfer coefficients for air. In this way, a value was obtained for gamma delta of 30.0 +/- 0.9 a Gy m2 s-1 Bq-1 for an unshielded 192Ir source and 27.8 +/- 0.9 a Gy m2s -1Bq-1 for a standard packaged radioactive source taking into account attenuation of gamma rays in the platinum source wall. PMID:8416220

  16. A Secure Hash Function MD-192 With Modified Message Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Harshvardhan Tiwari; Dr. Krishna Asawa

    2010-01-01

    Cryptographic hash functions play a central role in cryptography. Hash functions were introduced in cryptology to provide message integrity and authentication. MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD are among the most commonly used message digest algorithm. Recently proposed attacks on well known and widely used hash functions motivate a design of new stronger hash function. In this paper a new approach is presented that produces 192 bit message digest and uses a modified message expansion mechanism which gene...

  17. A Secure Hash Function MD-192 With Modified Message Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Harshvardhan

    2010-01-01

    Cryptographic hash functions play a central role in cryptography. Hash functions were introduced in cryptology to provide message integrity and authentication. MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD are among the most commonly used message digest algorithm. Recently proposed attacks on well known and widely used hash functions motivate a design of new stronger hash function. In this paper a new approach is presented that produces 192 bit message digest and uses a modified message expansion mechanism which generates more bit difference in each working variable to make the algorithm more secure. This hash function is collision resistant and assures a good compression and preimage resistance.

  18. A Secure Hash Function MD-192 With Modified Message Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshvardhan Tiwari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptographic hash functions play a central role in cryptography. Hash functions were introduced in cryptology to provide message integrity and authentication. MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD are among the most commonly used message digest algorithm. Recently proposed attacks on well known and widely used hash functions motivate a design of new stronger hash function. In this paper a new approach is presented that produces 192 bit message digest and uses a modified message expansion mechanism which generates more bit difference in each working variable to make the algorithm more secure. This hash function is collision resistant and assures a good compression and preimage resistance.

  19. Iridium 192 dosimetric study by Monte-Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte-Carlo method was applied to a dosimetry of iridium192 in water and in air; an iridium-platinum alloy seed, enveloped by a platinum can, is used as source. The radioactive decay of this nuclide and the transport of emitted particles from the seed-source in the can and in the irradiated medium are simulated successively. The photons energy spectra outside the source, as well as dose distributions, are given. Phi(d) function is calculated and our results with various experimental values are compared

  20. Simulation of dose distribution for iridium-192 brachytherapy source type-H01 using MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purwaningsih, Anik [Center for development of nuclear informatics, National Nuclear Energy Agency, PUSPIPTEK, Serpong, Banten 15310 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Dosimetric data for a brachytherapy source should be known before it used for clinical treatment. Iridium-192 source type H01 was manufactured by PRR-BATAN aimed to brachytherapy is not yet known its dosimetric data. Radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution are some primary keys in brachytherapy source. Dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 was obtained from the dose calculation formalism recommended in the AAPM TG-43U1 report using MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo simulation code. To know the effect of cavity on Iridium-192 type H01 caused by manufacturing process, also calculated on Iridium-192 type H01 if without cavity. The result of calculation of radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 were compared with another model of Iridium-192 source.

  1. Cep192 controls the balance of centrosome and non-centrosomal microtubules during interphase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P O'Rourke

    Full Text Available Cep192 is a centrosomal protein that contributes to the formation and function of the mitotic spindle in mammalian cells. Cep192's mitotic activities stem largely from its role in the recruitment to the centrosome of numerous additional proteins such as gamma-tubulin and Pericentrin. Here, we examine Cep192's function in interphase cells. Our data indicate that, as in mitosis, Cep192 stimulates the nucleation of centrosomal microtubules thereby regulating the morphology of interphase microtubule arrays. Interestingly, however, cells lacking Cep192 remain capable of generating normal levels of MTs as the loss of centrosomal microtubules is augmented by MT nucleation from other sites, most notably the Golgi apparatus. The depletion of Cep192 results in a significant decrease in the level of centrosome-associated gamma-tubulin, likely explaining its impact on centrosome microtubule nucleation. However, in stark contrast to mitosis, Cep192 appears to maintain an antagonistic relationship with Pericentrin at interphase centrosomes. Interphase cells depleted of Cep192 display significantly higher levels of centrosome-associated Pericentrin while overexpression of Cep192 reduces the levels of centrosomal Pericentrin. Conversely, depletion of Pericentrin results in elevated levels of centrosomal Cep192 and enhances microtubule nucleation at centrosomes, at least during interphase. Finally, we show that depletion of Cep192 negatively impacts cell motility and alters normal cell polarization. Our current working hypothesis is that the microtubule nucleating capacity of the interphase centrosome is determined by an antagonistic balance of Cep192, which promotes nucleation, and Pericentrin, which inhibits nucleation. This in turn determines the relative abundance of centrosomal and non-centrosomal microtubules that tune cell movement and shape.

  2. Iridium-192 implants in the treatment of tonsillar region malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 127 patients with histologically proved diagnosis of carcinoma of the tonsillar region and soft palate were treated over the past ten years utilizing interstitial iridium-192 implants. Eighty patients were treated for primary tumors and 47 patients for either recurrent or persistent tumors after definitive irradiation and/or surgery. All patients with primary tumors were treated by a combination of external megavoltage irradiation and interstitial iridium-192 implants, whereas patients with recurrent tumors were treated by interstitial implants alone. In the primary group, 95% of patients with T1 and T2 lesions and 79% with T3 and T4 lesions achieved complete local tumor control. The three-year absolute disease-free survival rate was 72%. Seventy-five percent local tumor control was obtained in patients with recurrent disease, with two-year absolute disease-free survival of 42%. Treatment-related complications such as soft-tissue necrosis or osteoradionecrosis occurred in 6% of patients in the primary group and 23% in recurrent group. This treatment regimen offers an excellent locoregional control with no significant functional or esthetic impairment. Most patients with primary lesions who fail this regimen can be salvaged by surgery or reirradiation using interstitial implants

  3. Lifetimes of an excited superdeformed band in {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Blumenthal, D.; Carpenter, M.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    An excited superdeformed band was identified in {sup 192}Hg and the lifetimes of its levels measured with the Doppler-shift attenuation method from data taken with the Eurogam spectrometer. The band is proposed to be based on the two-quasineutron (v[642]3/2 [512]5/2) configuration, which after a band crossing, becomes the (v[642]3/2 [752]5/2) configuration. The transition quadrupole moment Q{sub t} of the excited band is the same as that of the yrast SD band, within experimental errors. This suggests that the deformation of the SD minimum is robust with respect to quasiparticle excitation, despite the occupation of the deformation-driving v[752]5/2 level (from the j{sub 15/2} shell) after the band crossing.

  4. Study on the method to scale 192ir radioactivity%192Ir源两种刻度方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓红; 徐利明; 张沪生

    2000-01-01

    purpose: To calibrate the accurate value of 192Ir radioactivity again. materials and methods: To measure the dose rate of radioactivity in water and at air by ion chamber. results: To scale the activity of 192Ir radioactivity by air Kerma is agreement to the scaling method according to the JJG 773-92. conclusion: The investigation demonstrates that the accurate value of 192Ir radioactivity can be calibrated by the method of air Kerma.%目的:通过对192Ir源的再次刻度,校准源活度的精确值。材料与方法:用电离室法,分别测量源在水介质中和自由空气中的照射量率。结果:两种方法在刻度192Ir源活性上得到的结果是一致的。结论:利用空气比释动能法可以对192Ir源进行精确刻度。

  5. 49 CFR 192.107 - Yield strength (S) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Yield strength (S) for steel pipe. 192.107 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.107 Yield strength (S) for steel pipe. (a) For pipe that is manufactured in accordance with a specification listed...

  6. 49 CFR 192.111 - Design factor (F) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design factor (F) for steel pipe. 192.111 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.111 Design factor (F) for steel pipe. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section,...

  7. 49 CFR 192.109 - Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. 192.109... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.109 Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. (a) If the nominal wall thickness for steel pipe is not...

  8. 49 CFR 192.905 - How does an operator identify a high consequence area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does an operator identify a high consequence area? 192.905 Section 192.905 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  9. 49 CFR 192.951 - Where does an operator file a report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where does an operator file a report? 192.951 Section 192.951 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  10. 49 CFR 192.1011 - What records must an operator keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Distribution Pipeline... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What records must an operator keep? 192.1011 Section 192.1011 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  11. 49 CFR 192.949 - How does an operator notify PHMSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does an operator notify PHMSA? 192.949 Section 192.949 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  12. 49 CFR 192.1003 - What do the regulations in this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What do the regulations in this subpart cover? 192.1003 Section 192.1003 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  13. 49 CFR 192.933 - What actions must be taken to address integrity issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What actions must be taken to address integrity issues? 192.933 Section 192.933 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  14. 49 CFR 192.911 - What are the elements of an integrity management program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the elements of an integrity management program? 192.911 Section 192.911 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  15. 49 CFR 192.907 - What must an operator do to implement this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must an operator do to implement this subpart? 192.907 Section 192.907 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  16. 49 CFR 192.919 - What must be in the baseline assessment plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must be in the baseline assessment plan? 192.919 Section 192.919 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  17. 49 CFR 192.931 - How may Confirmatory Direct Assessment (CDA) be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How may Confirmatory Direct Assessment (CDA) be used? 192.931 Section 192.931 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  18. 49 CFR 192.941 - What is a low stress reassessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a low stress reassessment? 192.941 Section 192.941 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  19. 49 CFR 192.921 - How is the baseline assessment to be conducted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How is the baseline assessment to be conducted? 192.921 Section 192.921 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  20. 49 CFR 192.939 - What are the required reassessment intervals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the required reassessment intervals? 192.939 Section 192.939 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  1. 49 CFR 192.923 - How is direct assessment used and for what threats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How is direct assessment used and for what threats? 192.923 Section 192.923 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  2. 49 CFR 192.1001 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Distribution Pipeline... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What definitions apply to this subpart? 192.1001 Section 192.1001 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  3. 49 CFR 192.901 - What do the regulations in this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What do the regulations in this subpart cover? 192.901 Section 192.901 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  4. 49 CFR 192.715 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of... § 192.715 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. Each weld that is unacceptable under § 192.241(c) must be repaired as follows: (a) If it is feasible to take the segment of transmission...

  5. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line markers for mains and transmission lines. 192... § 192.707 Line markers for mains and transmission lines. (a) Buried pipelines. Except as provided in... buried main and transmission line: (1) At each crossing of a public road and railroad; and (2)...

  6. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the...

  7. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What additional preventive and mitigative measures... STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.935 What additional preventive and mitigative... those already required by Part 192 to prevent a pipeline failure and to mitigate the consequences of...

  8. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YER081W, YDR192C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YDR192C NUP42 Subunit of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) that localizes exclusively to the cytoplasmic side; ...RF YDR192C Prey gene name NUP42 Prey description Subunit of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) that localizes exclusive

  9. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe... § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used in the design formula in § 192.105 is determined as follows: Gas temperature in degrees...

  10. 49 CFR 192.945 - What methods must an operator use to measure program effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.945 What methods must an operator use to measure program effectiveness? (a) General. An operator must include in its integrity management program methods to measure, on... § 192.7), section 9.4, and the specific measures for each identified threat specified in ASME/ANSI...

  11. 49 CFR 192.947 - What records must an operator keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... integrity management program in accordance with § 192.907; (b) Documents supporting the threat... Integrity Management § 192.947 What records must an operator keep? An operator must maintain, for the useful... implement and evaluate each element of the baseline assessment plan and integrity management...

  12. 49 CFR 192.903 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Integrity Management § 192.903 What definitions apply to this subpart? The following definitions apply to... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What definitions apply to this subpart? 192.903... that utilizes a process to evaluate certain threats (i.e., external corrosion, internal corrosion...

  13. 41 CFR 102-192.20 - How are “must” and “should” used in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Introduction to this Part § 102-192.20 How are “must” and “should” used in this... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are âmustâ and âshouldâ used in this part? 102-192.20 Section 102-192.20 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  14. 15 CFR 19.2 - Why has the Commerce Department issuing these regulations and what do they cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Why has the Commerce Department issuing these regulations and what do they cover? 19.2 Section 19.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.2 Why has the...

  15. Water equivalent phantom materials for 192Ir brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A.; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Chofor, Ndimofor

    2015-12-01

    Several solid phantom materials have been tested regarding their suitability as water substitutes for dosimetric measurements in brachytherapy with 192Ir as a typical high energy photon emitter. The radial variations of the spectral photon fluence, of the total, primary and scattered photon fluence and of the absorbed dose to water in the transversal plane of the tested cylindrical phantoms surrounding a centric and coaxially arranged Varian GammaMed afterloading 192Ir brachytherapy source were Monte-Carlo simulated in EGSnrc. The degree of water equivalence of a phantom material was evaluated by comparing the radial dose-to-water profile in the phantom material with that in water. The phantom size was varied over a large range since it influences the dose contribution by scattered photons with energies diminished by single and multiple Compton scattering. Phantom axis distances up to 10 cm were considered as clinically relevant. Scattered photons with energies reaching down into the 25 keV region dominate the photon fluence at source distances exceeding 3.5 cm. The tested phantom materials showed significant differences in the degree of water equivalence. In phantoms with radii up to 10 cm, RW1, RW3, Solid Water, HE Solid Water, Virtual Water, Plastic Water DT, and Plastic Water LR phantoms show excellent water equivalence with dose deviations from a water phantom not exceeding 0.8%, while Original Plastic Water (as of 2015), Plastic Water (1995), Blue Water, polyethylene, and polystyrene show deviations up to 2.6%. For larger phantom radii up to 30 cm, the deviations for RW1, RW3, Solid Water, HE Solid Water, Virtual Water, Plastic Water DT, and Plastic Water LR remain below 1.4%, while Original Plastic Water (as of 2015), Plastic Water (1995), Blue Water, polyethylene, and polystyrene produce deviations up to 8.1%. PMMA plays a separate role, with deviations up to 4.3% for radii not exceeding 10 cm, but below 1% for radii up to 30 cm. As suggested by

  16. Water equivalent phantom materials for (192)Ir brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Chofor, Ndimofor

    2015-12-21

    Several solid phantom materials have been tested regarding their suitability as water substitutes for dosimetric measurements in brachytherapy with (192)Ir as a typical high energy photon emitter. The radial variations of the spectral photon fluence, of the total, primary and scattered photon fluence and of the absorbed dose to water in the transversal plane of the tested cylindrical phantoms surrounding a centric and coaxially arranged Varian GammaMed afterloading (192)Ir brachytherapy source were Monte-Carlo simulated in EGSnrc. The degree of water equivalence of a phantom material was evaluated by comparing the radial dose-to-water profile in the phantom material with that in water. The phantom size was varied over a large range since it influences the dose contribution by scattered photons with energies diminished by single and multiple Compton scattering. Phantom axis distances up to 10 cm were considered as clinically relevant. Scattered photons with energies reaching down into the 25 keV region dominate the photon fluence at source distances exceeding 3.5 cm.The tested phantom materials showed significant differences in the degree of water equivalence. In phantoms with radii up to 10 cm, RW1, RW3, Solid Water, HE Solid Water, Virtual Water, Plastic Water DT, and Plastic Water LR phantoms show excellent water equivalence with dose deviations from a water phantom not exceeding 0.8%, while Original Plastic Water (as of 2015), Plastic Water (1995), Blue Water, polyethylene, and polystyrene show deviations up to 2.6%. For larger phantom radii up to 30 cm, the deviations for RW1, RW3, Solid Water, HE Solid Water, Virtual Water, Plastic Water DT, and Plastic Water LR remain below 1.4%, while Original Plastic Water (as of 2015), Plastic Water (1995), Blue Water, polyethylene, and polystyrene produce deviations up to 8.1%. PMMA plays a separate role, with deviations up to 4.3% for radii not exceeding 10 cm, but below 1% for radii up to 30 cm.As suggested

  17. Early Epigenetic Downregulation of microRNA-192 Expression Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botla, Sandeep K; Savant, Soniya; Jandaghi, Pouria; Bauer, Andrea S; Mücke, Oliver; Moskalev, Evgeny A; Neoptolemos, John P; Costello, Eithne; Greenhalf, William; Scarpa, Aldo; Gaida, Matthias M; Büchler, Markus W; Strobel, Oliver; Hackert, Thilo; Giese, Nathalia A; Augustin, Hellmut G; Hoheisel, Jörg D

    2016-07-15

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by very early metastasis, suggesting the hypothesis that metastasis-associated changes may occur prior to actual tumor formation. In this study, we identified miR-192 as an epigenetically regulated suppressor gene with predictive value in this disease. miR-192 was downregulated by promoter methylation in both PDAC and chronic pancreatitis, the latter of which is a major risk factor for the development of PDAC. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo in mouse models of PDAC showed that overexpression of miR-192 was sufficient to reduce cell proliferation and invasion. Mechanistic analyses correlated changes in miR-192 promoter methylation and expression with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Cell proliferation and invasion were linked to altered expression of the miR-192 target gene SERPINE1 that is encoding the protein plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an established regulator of these properties in PDAC cells. Notably, our data suggested that invasive capacity was altered even before neoplastic transformation occurred, as triggered by miR-192 downregulation. Overall, our results highlighted a role for miR-192 in explaining the early metastatic behavior of PDAC and suggested its relevance as a target to develop for early diagnostics and therapy. Cancer Res; 76(14); 4149-59. ©2016 AACR.

  18. Mir-192 suppresses apoptosis and promotes proliferation in esophageal aquamous cell caicinoma by targeting Bim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shujun; Li, Feng; Niu, Ren; Zhang, Helin; Cui, Airong; An, Wenting; Wang, Xiaolu

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs of endogenous origin. Accumulating studies have shown aberrant miRNA expression plays an important role in many tumor types. However, the mechanisms by which miRNAs regulate esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) development remain poorly understood. In the present study, we assayed expression level of miR-192 in ESCC tissues and cell lines by real-time PCR, and defined the target gene and biological function by luciferase reporter assay, Western blot and apoptosis assay. We first verified that the expression level of miR-192 was significantly increased in ESCC tissues and cancer cells. Moreover, miR-192 over-expression inhibited cells apoptosis and promoted ESCC cells proliferation. We further demonstrated that miR-192 directly targeted 3'-UTR of Bim gene, and inhibited its protein expression. Importantly, Bim could reduce ESCC cells apoptosis ability induced by miR-192. These data suggest an important role of miR-192 in the molecular etiology of ESCC and implicate the potential application of miR-192 in ESCC therapy.

  19. OER and RBE for 125I and 192Ir at low dose rate on mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) for 125I and 192Ir as well as the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) at low dose rates (40-80 cGy h-1) were determined for B16 melanoma cells in culture. The OER was found to be 2.1±0.03 for 125I and 2.7±0.04 for 192Ir. The RBE for 125I relative to 192Ir was determined as 1.8±0.03 under aerated conditions and as 2.4±0.03 under hypoxia. 18 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  20. Microwave hyperthermia radiosensitized iridium-192 for recurrent brain malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borok, T L; Winter, A; Laing, J; Paglione, R; Sterzer, F; Sinclair, I; Plafker, J

    1988-03-01

    Twenty-one patients whose solitary detectable biopsy proven recurrent brain malignancies produced Central Nervous System (CNS) symptoms warranting further intervention received 60-minute 43 degrees C (180 degree-minute) interstitial 2450 MHz microwave hyperthermia fractions. All received brain teletherapy prior to recurrence. The first 15 received no brachytherapy and served as a toxicity pilot. All 15 enjoyed neurologic improvement, 12 symptomatic improvement, and 12 objective response as mass reduction and/or tumor necrosis. The next 6 patients were selected with more favorable Karnofsky performance status, no known active malignancy elsewhere, and received afterloading Ir-192 interstitial implantation juxtaposed to radiosensitizing hyperthermia. Volume dose varied from 1000 to 2245 rad, and dose rate from 40 to 100 rad/hr. Dose selected varied as a function of pre-recurrence teletherapy dose, general condition, histologic type, and volume. Neurosurgical debulking, if technically indicated through no additional aperture or trauma, was permitted if consistent with preservation of neurological function. Six enjoyed neurologic improvement, symptom reduction, and objective tumor response; three remain alive, and one experienced transient improvement. Complications, histologic subtypes, autopsy findings, stereotactic approach, thermal monitoring methods and CT follow-up of objective response are presented along with computer dosimetry and isotherm chart. Our microtraumatic universal catheter technique for CT guided stereotactic biopsy, aspiration, decompression, thermal sensory loop, thermalization antennae, and brachytherapy without multiple trauma nor changing catheters is stressed. The rationale for combined modes peculiar to the CNS will be outlined.2+ Proposal for incorporating controlled-release ARA-C chemotherapy polymer micro-rods into the interstitial format will be offered. The preceeding is an FDA-approved controlled clinical trial.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT

  1. Spins of superdeformed band in {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Determination of the spins of SD states is the most important challenge in the study of superdeformation. Knowledge of the spin will provide crucial information on SD bands, in particular on the fascinating phenomenon of bands with identical energies and moments of inertia. Angular distribution coefficients of the {gamma}rays decaying out of the {sup 192}Hg SD band were determined using Eurogam data. These coefficients, as well as the spectral shape and multiplicity of the spectrum, are compared with the results of calculations, thereby providing a check on these calculations. From the measured decay multiplicity and the calculated average spin removed per photon (0.3 h), we deduce the average spin {bar I}{sub decay} removed by the {gamma} rays connecting SD and normal states. The spin I{sub SD} of the SD band from which the decay occurs is given by I{sub SD} = {bar I} decay + {bar I} ND, where {bar I} ND is the average spin removed by the normal yrast states. The state from which the major decay out of the SD band occurs is found to have spin 9.5 {plus_minus} 0.8 h. Since angular momentum is (quantized), this leads to a spin assignment of 9 or 10 h. The latter value is favored since the yrast band in the SD well must have only even spin values. This constitutes the first deduction of spin from data in the mass 150 and 190 regions. The spin of 10 h agrees with the spin which is inferred from a model, using the observed moment of inertia (Im){sup (2)}{omega}.

  2. Radiation control in the intensive care unit for high intensity iridium-192 brain implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bedside lead cubicle was designed to minimize the radiation exposure of intensive care unit staff during routine interstitial brain irradiation by removable, high intensity iridium-192. The cubicle shields the patient without restricting intensive care routines. The design specifications were confirmed by exposure measurements around the shield with an implanted anthropomorphic phantom simulating the patient situation. The cubicle reduces the exposure rate around an implant patient by as much as 90%, with the exposure level not exceeding 0.1 mR/hour/mg of radium-equivalent 192Ir. Evaluation of data accumulated for the past 3 years has shown that the exposure levels of individual attending nurses are 0.12 to 0.36 mR/mg of radium-equivalent 192Ir per 12-hour shift. The corresponding range for entire nursing teams varies between 0.18 and 0.26. A radiation control index (exposure per mg of radium-equivalent 192Ir per nurse-hour) is thus defined for individual nurses and nursing teams; this index is a significant guide to the planning of nurse rotations for brain implant patients with various 192Ir loads. The bedside shield reduces exposure from 192Ir implants by a factor of about 20, as expected, and the exposure from the lower energy radioisotope iodine-125 is barely detectable

  3. Air kerma strength calibration of 0.6 cc Farmer chamber for 192Ir HDR source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the methods adopted by hospitals for the calibration of the HDR 192Ir source, in terms of Air Kerma Strength (AKS) is to use 0.6cc chamber at short source to chamber distances for measuring the air kerma rate at the chamber position and then compute the AKS using the appropriate correction factors. However, the 0.6 cc Farmer type chambers purchased by the users for the calibration of the HDR 192Ir source, are not generally provided with an HDR 192Ir calibration factor. With the result, many hospitals that have purchased the Farmer type chamber for the calibration of 192Ir HDR sources, use the 60Co calibration factor for this purpose. The use of 60Co calibration factor for the 192Ir HDR source would unnecessarily increase the uncertainty of the measured AKS. Again, because of the low chamber sensitivity, hospitals often use, source to chamber distances as small as a few cm for calibrating the 192Ir HDR source. In the absence of a rigid source-chamber positioning system, this can lead to several percent errors in AKS determination. Also, hospitals often don't take into account corrections for the room scatter or the fluence non-uniformity across the chamber, which further increase the uncertainty of the measured AKS

  4. New related-key rectangle attacks on reduced AES-192 and AES-256

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI YongZhuang; HU YuPu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the security of reduced AES-192 and AES-256 against related-key rectangle attacks by exploiting the weakness in the AES key schedule. We find the following two new attacks: 9-round reduced AES-192 with 4 related keys, and 10-round reduced AES-256 with 4 related keys. Our results show that related-key rectangle attack with 4 related keys on 9-round reduced AES-192 requires a data complexity of about 2101 chosen plaintexts and a time complexity of about 2174.8 encryptions, and moreover, related-key rectangle attack with 4 related keys on 10-round reduced AES-256 requires a data complexity of about 297.5 chosen plaintexts and a time complexity of about 2254 encryptions. These attacks are the first known attacks on 9-round reduced AES-192 and 10-round reduced AES-256 with only 4 related keys. Furthermore, we give an improvement of the 10-round reduced AES-192 attack presented at FSE2007, which reduces both the data complexity and the time complexity.

  5. Safety of 125iodine and 192iridium implants to the canine carotid artery: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-nine healthy dogs underwent a simulated radical neck dissection followed by implantation of either 125Iodine or 192Iridium in various dose regimes randomized prospectively from 3,000 to 30,000 rad. Bilateral selective carotid angiography was performed immediately postoperatively and at six months and one year. No significant effects occurred to the animals who received 15,000 rad 125I or 6,000 rad 192Ir. In the higher dosed animals the 125I treated group fared better than the 192Ir treated group, probably due to the lower dose rate delivery. All surviving animals will be maintained an additional year to determine the late effects of brachytherapy irradiation to the carotid artery

  6. Source geometry factors for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy secondary standard well-type ionization chamber calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, D. R.; Sander, T.; Nutbrown, R. F.

    2015-03-01

    Well-type ionization chambers are used for measuring the source strength of radioactive brachytherapy sources before clinical use. Initially, the well chambers are calibrated against a suitable national standard. For high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir, this calibration is usually a two-step process. Firstly, the calibration source is traceably calibrated against an air kerma primary standard in terms of either reference air kerma rate or air kerma strength. The calibrated 192Ir source is then used to calibrate the secondary standard well-type ionization chamber. Calibration laboratories are usually only equipped with one type of HDR 192Ir source. If the clinical source type is different from that used for the calibration of the well chamber at the standards laboratory, a source geometry factor, ksg, is required to correct the calibration coefficient for any change of the well chamber response due to geometric differences between the sources. In this work we present source geometry factors for six different HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources which have been determined using Monte Carlo techniques for a specific ionization chamber, the Standard Imaging HDR 1000 Plus well chamber with a type 70010 HDR iridium source holder. The calculated correction factors were normalized to the old and new type of calibration source used at the National Physical Laboratory. With the old Nucletron microSelectron-v1 (classic) HDR 192Ir calibration source, ksg was found to be in the range 0.983 to 0.999 and with the new Isodose Control HDR 192Ir Flexisource ksg was found to be in the range 0.987 to 1.004 with a relative uncertainty of 0.4% (k = 2). Source geometry factors for different combinations of calibration sources, clinical sources, well chambers and associated source holders, can be calculated with the formalism discussed in this paper.

  7. Evaluation of a lithium formate EPR dosimetry system for dose measurements around Ir-192 brachytherapy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Antonovic, Laura; Gustafsson, Håkan; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa

    2009-01-01

    A dosimetry system using lithium formate monohydrate (HCO2Li center dot H2O) as detector material and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for readout has been used to measure absorbed dose distributions around clinical Ir-192 sources. Cylindrical tablets with diameter of 4.5 mm, height of 4.8 mm, and density of 1.26 g/cm(3) were manufactured. Homogeneity test and calibration of the dosimeters were performed in a 6 MV photon beam. Ir-192 irradiations were performed in a PMMA pha...

  8. In vivo dosimetry thermoluminescence dosimeters during brachytherapy with a 370 GBq {sup 192}Ir source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuepers, S.; Piessens, M.; Verbeke, L.; Roelstraete, A. [Onze-Lieve-Vrouw Hospitaal, Aalst (Belgium). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology

    1995-12-01

    When using LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters in brachytherapy, we have to take into account the properties of a high dose rate {sup 192}Ir source (energy spectrum ranging form 9 to 885 keV, steep dose gradient in the vicinity of the source) and these of the dosimeters themselves (supralinearity, reproducibility, size). All these characteristics combine into a set of correction factors which have been determined during in phantom measurements. These results have then been used to measure the dose delivered to organs at risk (e.g. rectum, bladder, etc.) during high dose rate brachytherapy with a 370 GBq {sup 192}Ir source for patients with gynaecological tumors.

  9. Magnetic hyperfine interaction of the 2/sup +/ rotational states in muonic /sup 190,192/Os

    CERN Document Server

    Link, R; Engfer, R; Kankeleit, E; Michaelsen, R; Schellenberg, L; Schneuwly, H; Schröder, W U; Vuilleumier, J L; Walter, H K; Zehnder, A

    1972-01-01

    In muonic /sup 190,192/Os the magnetic hf-splitting of the 2/sup +/ to 0/sup +/ nuclear transition was measured. The hf-splittings Delta E (/sup 190/Os)=665+or-80 eV and Delta E(/sup 192/Os)=800+or-80 eV of the 2/sup +/ state are reduced to 59% compared to a point-like magnetic moment in agreement with the assumption of a magnetization density distribution proportional to R/sup 2/ rho /sub charge/(R) as calculated from a rigid rotator. The influence of these results on the analysis of muonic isomer shifts is pointed out. (11 refs).

  10. Study and development of an Iridium-192 seed for use in ophthalmic cancer; Estudo e desenvolvimento de uma semente de iridio-192 para aplicacao em cancer oftalmico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Fabio Rodrigues de

    2013-07-01

    Even ocular tumors are not among the cases with a higher incidence, they affect the population, especially children. The Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP) in partnership with Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP), created a project to develop and implement a alternative treatment for ophthalmic cancer that use brachytherapy iridium-192 seeds. The project arose by reason of the Escola Paulista treat many cancer cases within the Unified Health System (SUS) and the research experience of sealed radioactive sources group at IPEN. The methodology was developed from the available infrastructure and the experience of researchers. The prototype seed presents with a core (192-iridium alloy of iridium-platinum) of 3.0 mm long sealed by a capsule of titanium of 0.8 mm outside diameter, 0.05 mm wall thickness and 4,5mm long. This work aims to study and develop a seed of iridium-192 from a platinum-iridium alloy. No study on the fabrication of these seeds was found in available literature. It was created a methodology that involved: characterization of the material used in the core, creation of device for neutron activation irradiation and and seed sealing tests. As a result, proved the feasibility of the method. As a suggestion for future work, studies regarding metrology and dosimetry of these sources and improvement of the methodology should be carried out, for future implementation in national scope. (author)

  11. 49 CFR 192.1013 - When may an operator deviate from required periodic inspections under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When may an operator deviate from required periodic inspections under this part? 192.1013 Section 192.1013 Transportation Other Regulations...

  12. 49 CFR 192.937 - What is a continual process of evaluation and assessment to maintain a pipeline's integrity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a continual process of evaluation and assessment to maintain a pipeline's integrity? 192.937 Section 192.937 Transportation Other...

  13. 41 CFR 102-192.45 - How can we request a deviation from these requirements, and who can approve it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Introduction to this Part § 102-192.45 How can we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How can we request...

  14. 41 CFR 102-192.65 - What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? 102-192.65 Section 102-192.65 Public Contracts and... What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? All agencies must have an... requirement, because the level at which it is cost-beneficial differs widely. The agency's finance...

  15. 40 CFR 436.192 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.192 Section 436.192 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  16. 49 CFR 192.612 - Underwater inspection and reburial of pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets. 192.612 Section 192.612 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Mexico and its inlets. (a) Each operator shall prepare and follow a procedure to identify its pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in waters less than 15 feet (4.6 meters) deep as measured...

  17. 41 CFR 102-192.90 - What must we include in our annual mail management report to GSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must we include in our annual mail management report to GSA? 102-192.90 Section 102-192.90 Public Contracts and Property... accomplishments and plans to improve the economy and efficiency of mail operations in the current and future...

  18. 30 CFR 250.192 - What reports and statistics must I submit relating to a hurricane, earthquake, or other natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... submitting your statistics by fax or e-mail, you may submit them electronically in accordance with 30 CFR 250... electronically in accordance with 30 CFR 250.186(a)(3). In the report, you must: (i) Name the items damaged (e.g... relating to a hurricane, earthquake, or other natural occurrence? 250.192 Section 250.192 Mineral...

  19. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.476 Internal corrosion control: Design and construction... the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so,...

  20. 49 CFR 192.605 - Procedural manual for operations, maintenance, and emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... maintenance activities and for emergency response. For transmission lines, the manual must also include... control room management procedures required by § 192.631. (c) Abnormal operation. For transmission lines... gas distribution operators that are operating transmission lines in connection with their...

  1. 49 CFR 192.713 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of imperfections and damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Maintenance § 192.713 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of imperfections and damages. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of pipe in a steel transmission line operating at or... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair...

  2. 49 CFR 192.717 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of... § 192.717 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks. Each permanent field repair of a leak on a transmission line must be made by— (a) Removing the leak by cutting out and replacing...

  3. 49 CFR 192.711 - Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Maintenance § 192.711 Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures. (a) Temporary repairs... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: General requirements for..., imperfection, or damage that impairs its serviceability is found in a segment of steel transmission...

  4. 49 CFR 192.175 - Pipe-type and bottle-type holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. 192.175 Section....175 Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. (a) Each pipe-type and bottle-type holder must be designed so as to prevent the accumulation of liquids in the holder, in connecting pipe, or in...

  5. 41 CFR 102-192.35 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Introduction to this Part § 102-192.35 What definitions apply to this part? The following... Transfer (EFT) transactions to commercial banks designated by the USPS as their financial agents. For...-processing equipment. Official Mail Accounting System (OMAS) means the U.S. Postal Service's...

  6. 49 CFR 192.355 - Customer meters and regulators: Protection from damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Protection from... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.355 Customer meters and regulators: Protection...

  7. Determination of the Fricke G value for HDR {sup 192}Ir sources using ionometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, L.; Coelho, M.; Almeida, C.E. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Gavazza, S. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy using {sup 192}Ir is widely accepted as an important treatment option, and it thus requires an accurate dosimetry standard. However, a dosimetry standard for the direct measurement of absolute dose to water is currently not available. The dose to water conversion is calculated via the dose rate constant {Lambda} and several correction factors accounting for the scatter, attenuation, and anisotropy of the dose distribution, among other effects. Two potentially useful procedures have been reported, including one by Sarfehnia et al. [3,4], which used a water-based calorimeter with an uncertainty of 1.9% for k=1, and a second by Austerlitz et al. and de Almeida et al., which used Fricke dosimetry with estimated uncertainties of 3.9% for k=1 and 1.4% for k=1, respectively. Chemical dosimetry using a standard FeSO{sub 4} solution has shown potential to be a reliable standard of absorbed dose for the HDR {sup 192}Ir source. A major uncertainty is associated with the G values reported by Fregene, which had a numerical value of 1.1 %. However, that reference provided very little detail of the experimental procedures for the {sup 192}Ir source. The G value may be obtained by using a calorimeter or ionometric measurements. In the absence of calorimetric data, this paper makes an attempt to measure the G value for the HDR {sup 192}Ir sources using ionometric measurements and recommendations from dosimetry protocols. (author)

  8. Studies on 192Ir afterloading irradiation of the canine prostate with special consideration of thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for high dose rate afterloading irradiation of the prostate with iridium 192 was developed. The isodoses of the urethra and rectum, which were measured by means of thermoluminescent dosimetry, showed deviations from the doses pre-calculated by computer (BRACHY), because this calculation is based on an anatomically ideal condition. (MBC)

  9. 49 CFR 192.285 - Plastic pipe: Qualifying persons to make joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe: Qualifying persons to make joints... Materials Other Than by Welding § 192.285 Plastic pipe: Qualifying persons to make joints. (a) No person may make a plastic pipe joint unless that person has been qualified under the applicable joining...

  10. Calibration of well-type chambers in Brazil using {sup 192}Ir HDR sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Carlos Frederico Estrada; Pires, Evandro Jesus; David, Mariano Gazineu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: cfealves@gmail.com, E-mail: evjpires@gmail.com, E-mail: marianogd08@gmail.com, E-mail: cea71@yahoo.com.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/LCR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Di Prinzio, Renato, E-mail: rprinzio@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The results obtained by performing of a traceable calibration service for well-type reentrant ionization chamber for HDR 192Ir sources used in brachytherapy physical procedures at the Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas from Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro -LCR/UERJ are described. (author)

  11. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management program at all mills involved in producing steel, plate, coil, skelp, and/or rolling pipe to be... under this section. (b) Fracture control (1) The toughness properties for pipe must address the... specification level 2 or ASME B31.8 (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7). (2) Fracture control must:...

  12. 36 CFR 223.192 - Procedures for a non-manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER The Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 Program § 223.192 Procedures for a non-manufacturer. (a) Persons who do not own or... area. (b) The prohibition against the purchase of Federal timber for a person who has...

  13. 19 CFR 192.14 - Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for outward cargo required... Information Through the Automated Export System (AES) § 192.14 Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure. (a) General requirement. Pursuant to section 343(a), Trade Act of...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 192 - Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe.... C Appendix C to Part 192—Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe I. Basic test. The test... position welding. The beveling, root opening, and other details must conform to the specifications of...

  15. Serum cytokeratin 19 fragment, CK19-2G2, as a newly identified biomarker for lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Gao

    Full Text Available CK19-2G2, a new fragment of cytokeratin 19, is a potential tumor marker for diagnosing lung cancer. The preoperative level of serum CK19-2G2 has been demonstrated to be associated with tumor metastasis and survival of breast cancer patients. This study investigated the postoperative dynamic changes in serum CK19-2G2 levels and its clinical significance in lung cancer patients.Preoperative serum CK19-2G2 levels were measured in 630 lung cancer patients and were compared with individuals with benign pulmonary diseases (n = 134 and healthy volunteers (n = 263. In 352 cases, the patients underwent surgery. In these patients, in addition to preoperative assays, serum CK19-2G2 was also monitored at 1 week and 1 month after the operation.The preoperative baseline levels of serum CK19-2G2 was significantly higher in lung cancer patients than patients with benign diseases and healthy controls (P<0.001. The postoperative levels of CK19-2G2 declined significantly within 1 week after tumor resection. Hereafter, a further decrease was observed in the patients who underwent palliative operations, while for the patients in the radical resection group, their CK19-2G2 levels stabilized.CK19-2G2 may be a candidate marker for diagnosing and monitoring a patient's response to lung cancer treatment. In addition, CK19-2G2 may be an indicator for micrometastases in lung cancer patients.

  16. Calibration procedure for thermoluminescent dosemeters in water absorbed doses for Iridium-192 high dose rate sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters are used in brachytherapy services quality assurance programs, with the aim of guaranteeing the correct radiation dose supplied to cancer patients, as well as with the purpose of evaluating new clinical procedures. This work describes a methodology for thermoluminescent dosimeters calibration in terms of absorbed dose to water for 192Ir high dose rate sources. The reference dose used is measured with an ionization chamber previously calibrated for 192Ir energy quality, applying the methodology proposed by Toelli. This methodology aims to standardizing the procedure, in a similar form to that used for external radiotherapy. The work evolves the adaptation of the TRS-277 Code of the International Atomic Energy Agency, for small and big cavities, through the introduction for non-uniform experimental factor, for the absorbed dose in the neighborhood of small brachytherapy sources. In order to simulate a water medium around the source during the experimental work, an acrylic phantom was used. It guarantees the reproducibility of the ionization chamber and the thermoluminescent dosimeter's location in relation to the radiation source. The values obtained with the ionization chamber and the thermoluminescent dosimeters, exposed to a 192Ir high dose rate source, were compared and correction factors for different source-detector distances were determined for the thermoluminescent dosimeters. A numeric function was generated relating the correction factors and the source-detector distance. These correction factors are in fact the thermoluminescent dosimeter calibration factors for the 192Ir source considered. As a possible application of this calibration methodology for thermoluminescent dosimeters, a practical range of source-detector distances is proposed for quality control of 192Ir high dose rate sources. (author)

  17. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphism Q192R affects the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimbach Gerald

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1 is an HDL-associated enzyme with anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory properties that has been suggested to play an important protective role against coronary heart diseases and underlying atherogenesis. The common PON1 Q192R polymorphism (rs662, A>G, a glutamine to arginine substitution at amino acid residue 192, has been analyzed in numerous association studies as a genetic marker for coronary heart diseases, however, with controversial results. Findings To get a better understanding about the pathophysiological function of PON1, we analyzed the relationships between the Q192R polymorphism, serum paraoxonase activity and serum biomarkers important for atherogenesis. Genotyping a cohort of 49 healthy German males for the Q192R polymorphism revealed an allele distribution of 0.74 and 0.26 for the Q and R allele, respectively, typical for Caucasian populations. Presence of the R192 allele was found to be associated with a significantly increased paraoxonase enzyme activity of 187.8 ± 11.4 U/l in comparison to the QQ192 genotype with 60.5 ± 4.9 U/l. No significant differences among the genotypes were found for blood pressure, asymmetric dimethylarginine, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol. As expected, MIP-2 alpha a cytokine rather not related to atherosclerosis is not affected by the PON1 polymorphism. In contrast to that, the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha is enhanced in R192 carriers (163.8 ± 24.7 pg/ml vs 94.7 ± 3.2 pg/ml in QQ192 carriers. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that the common PON1 R192 allele may be a genetic risk factor for atherogenesis by inducing chronic low-grade inflammation.

  18. Electric quadrupole interaction of 192Tl(8-) nuclei in hexagonal Tl and in tetragonal In metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TDPAD technique has been used to measure the electric quadrupole coupling constants for the 192Tl(8-) isomer in hexagonal Tl at different temperatures and in tetragonal In at room temperature. The values measured were e2qQ/h = 24.0(15) MHz extrapolated to T = 0 K, and 33.1(16) MHz at 293 K for the Tl and In hosts, respectively. The electric field gradient for Tl impurities in In was determined from systematics of isoelectric systems, yielding /Q[192Tl(8-)1]/ = 0.44(7) b. The almost perfect symmetry of the Tl crystalline structure makes this metal a sensitive probe to current models for electric field gradients in metals. The magnitude and temperature dependence of the field gradient in thallium metal are discussed within the framework of such models. (author)

  19. Response of an implantable MOSFET dosimeter to 192Ir HDR radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Jessica M; Micka, John A; DeWerd, Larry A

    2008-12-01

    New in vivo dosimetry methods would be useful for clinical HDR brachytherapy. An implantable MOSFET Dose Verification System designed by Sicel Technologies, Inc. was examined for use with 192Ir HDR applications. This investigation demonstrated that varying the dose rate from 22 to 84 cGy/min did not change detector response. The detectors exhibited a higher sensitivity to 192Ir energies than 60Co energies. A nonlinear accumulated dose effect was characterized by three third-order polynomials fit to data from detectors placed at three different distances from the source. The detectors were found to have minimal rotational angular dependence. A strong longitudinal angular dependence was found when the detector's copper coil and electronics assembly were aligned between the MOSFETs and incident radiation. This orientation showed a 16% decrease in response relative to other orientations tested. PMID:19175130

  20. Response of an implantable MOSFET dosimeter to {sup 192}Ir HDR radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerstrom, Jessica M.; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    New in vivo dosimetry methods would be useful for clinical HDR brachytherapy. An implantable MOSFET Dose Verification System designed by Sicel Technologies, Inc. was examined for use with {sup 192}Ir HDR applications. This investigation demonstrated that varying the dose rate from 22 to 84 cGy/min did not change detector response. The detectors exhibited a higher sensitivity to {sup 192}Ir energies than {sup 60}Co energies. A nonlinear accumulated dose effect was characterized by three third-order polynomials fit to data from detectors placed at three different distances from the source. The detectors were found to have minimal rotational angular dependence. A strong longitudinal angular dependence was found when the detector's copper coil and electronics assembly were aligned between the MOSFETs and incident radiation. This orientation showed a 16% decrease in response relative to other orientations tested.

  1. Development of an Iridium-192 seed for use in ophthalmic brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Fabio R.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Eduardo S.; Souza, Carla D.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S., E-mail: frmattos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), in partnership with the School or Medicine (UNIFESP), created a project that aims to develop and implement an ophthalmic therapeutic treatment for cancer with Iridium-192 seeds. The School of Medicine treats many cancer cases in the SUS (Brazilian Public Health System), and brachytherapy group of IPEN has extensive experience in prototype sources. The seed to be manufactured will perform as follows: a core of Iridium-192 is packaged inside small cylindrical seeds consist of a titanium capsule of 0.8 mm outer diameter, 0.05 mm wall thickness and 4 5 mm in length. The core is an alloy of platinum-iridium (20/80) of 3.0 mm in length and 0.3 mm in diameter. Material analysis, neutron activation and activity measurements were carried out. (author)

  2. Dosimetric calculations and measurements of gold plaque ophthalmic irradiators using iridium-192 and iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetry of ophthalmic plaques designed to hold iridium-192 or iodine-125 seeds is investigated experimentally and by means of a computer model. A phantom for thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) which permits measurements to within 2 mm of the plaque surface is described. TLD data are compared with model calculations that take into account the active length of the seeds, anisotropy of dose distribution from single seeds, and scatter within the phantom. An isotropic point source calculational model is accurate for clinical calculations, particularly at depths greater than 5 mm. Relative central axis dose measurements for 125I in a gold plaque are also in agreement with the model. Comparisons of 192Ir, 125I and 60Co plaques are presented. The relative advantages of using these isotopes in eye plaques are discussed

  3. PAX2 in 192 Chinese women with Müllerian duct abnormalities: mutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhao, Han; Sun, Mei; Li, Yuan; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2012-08-01

    The paired box gene 2 (PAX2) has been proven to be a crucial gene during organogenesis of the urogenital system in mice models. This study was aimed to explore the relationship between PAX2 mutations and human Müllerian duct abnormalities (MDA). A total of 192 Chinese MDA patients (15 cases of uterine aplasia and 177 of incomplete Müllerian fusion) and 192 ethnic-matched controls were recruited from 2009 to 2011. Coding regions of PAX2 of MDA cases were amplified and sequenced. One rare novel synonymous variant (c.320G>A) was discovered in one patient with uterus didelphys, whereas this variant was not found in the control group. Mutations in PAX2 may be not a common cause of MDA. PMID:22683154

  4. Evidence for an evolutionary relationship between the large adaptor nucleoporin Nup192 and karyopherins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuwe, Tobias; Lin, Daniel H; Collins, Leslie N; Hurt, Ed; Hoelz, André

    2014-02-18

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport is facilitated by nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are massive proteinaceous transport channels embedded in the nuclear envelope. Nup192 is a major component of an adaptor nucleoporin subcomplex proposed to link the NPC coat with the central transport channel. Here, we present the structure of the ∼110-kDa N-terminal domain (NTD) of Nup192 at 2.7-Å resolution. The structure reveals an open ring-shaped architecture composed of Huntingtin, EF3, PP2A, and TOR1 (HEAT) and Armadillo (ARM) repeats. A comparison of different conformations indicates that the NTD consists of two rigid halves connected by a flexible hinge. Unexpectedly, the two halves of the ring are structurally related to karyopherin-α (Kap-α) and β-karyopherin family members. Biochemically, we identify a conserved patch that binds an unstructured segment in Nup53 and show that a C-terminal tail region binds to a putative helical fragment in Nic96. The Nup53 segment that binds Nup192 is a classical nuclear localization-like sequence that interacts with Kap-α in a mutually exclusive and mechanistically distinct manner. The disruption of the Nup53 and Nic96 binding sites in vivo yields growth and mRNA export defects, revealing their critical role in proper NPC function. Surprisingly, both interactions are dispensable for NPC localization, suggesting that Nup192 possesses another nucleoporin interaction partner. These data indicate that the structured domains in the adaptor nucleoporin complex are held together by peptide interactions that resemble those found in karyopherin•cargo complexes and support the proposal that the adaptor nucleoporins arose from ancestral karyopherins. PMID:24505056

  5. Variable-temperature sample system for ion implantation at -192 to +500/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, C.T.

    1978-04-01

    A variable-temperature sample system based on exchange-gas coupling was developed for ion-implantation use. The sample temperature can be controlled from -192/sup 0/C to +500/sup 0/C with rapid cooling. The system also has provisions for focusing and alignment of the ion beam, electron suppression, temperature monitoring, sample current measuring, and cryo-shielding. Design considerations and operating characteristics are discussed. 5 figures.

  6. Dosimetry audits in Brazil for {sup 192}Ir high dose rate brachytherapy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.A.R. da; Paiva, E. de.; Goncalves, M.G.; Velasco, A.F.; Di Prinzio, R.; Dovales, A.C.M.; Freire, B.L.V.; Brito, R.R.A.; Giannoni, R.A.; Castelo, L.H.R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marechal, M.H.H. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Instalacoes Radiativas (CORAD)

    2005-03-15

    In Brazil, among 200 radiotherapy centres, 30 have high dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy systems. In August 2001, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) started a biennial audit program to those centres having HDR systems. This program consists of visiting each centre in order to investigate the radiation protection aspects of the centres and also to measure the intensity of the brachytherapy source, in terms of air kerma strength, with a well type chamber specially designed for HDR {sup 192} Ir sources. The audit dosimetry results are compared to measurements carried out by the local institution physicist and to the source intensity value provided by the manufacturer. Two methods have been used by the Brazilian physicists for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source dosimetry, namely the employment of a farmer type chamber calibrated according to the interpolation methodology and the use of a well type chamber to provide direct intercomparison. The larger difference obtained was 18.9% and it can be explained in terms of the lack of knowledge of the institution physicist about the interpolation methodology using the farmer type chamber. Another difference of 5.82% was found as being the lack of an updated calibration factor for the clinic well type chamber. On the basis of these results, CNEN is able to establish a maximum deviation value for the dosimetry of HDR system. Additionally, with this program the radiotherapy services have an opportunity to have their HDR {sup 192}Ir sources calibrated and to test the validity of the calibration factors for their own well type chambers, using their calibrated sources. (author)

  7. Comparison of the hypothetical 57Co brachytherapy source with the 192Ir source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Rostami, Atefeh; Khosroabadi, Mohsen; Khademi, Sara; Knaup, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study The 57Co radioisotope has recently been proposed as a hypothetical brachytherapy source due to its high specific activity, appropriate half-life (272 days) and medium energy photons (114.17 keV on average). In this study, Task Group No. 43 dosimetric parameters were calculated and reported for a hypothetical 57Co source. Material and methods A hypothetical 57Co source was simulated in MCNPX, consisting of an active cylinder with 3.5 mm length and 0.6 mm radius encapsulated in a stainless steel capsule. Three photon energies were utilized (136 keV [10.68%], 122 keV [85.60%], 14 keV [9.16%]) for the 57Co source. Air kerma strength, dose rate constant, radial dose function, anisotropy function, and isodose curves for the source were calculated and compared to the corresponding data for a 192Ir source. Results The results are presented as tables and figures. Air kerma strength per 1 mCi activity for the 57Co source was 0.46 cGyh–1 cm 2 mCi–1. The dose rate constant for the 57Co source was determined to be 1.215 cGyh–1U–1. The radial dose function for the 57Co source has an increasing trend due to multiple scattering of low energy photons. The anisotropy function for the 57Co source at various distances from the source is more isotropic than the 192Ir source. Conclusions The 57Co source has advantages over 192Ir due to its lower energy photons, longer half-life, higher dose rate constant and more isotropic anisotropic function. However, the 192Ir source has a higher initial air kerma strength and more uniform radial dose function. These properties make 57Co a suitable source for use in brachytherapy applications. PMID:27688731

  8. Proposal of LDR Ir-192 Production in the TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRIGA MARK II research reactor in Vienna provides some irradiation positions with different flux distribution. In this regard, a case study is under investigation to appraise the possibility of medical radioisotope production in Vienna. For this purpose, neutron flux mapping and the axial neutron flux distribution are calculated by MCNP5 for the TRIGA Mark II core. This paper describes the feasibility of Low Dose Rate (LDR) 192Ir production in the core of the low power research reactor. (author)

  9. Determination of exit skin dose for 192Ir intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation with thermoluminescent dosimeters

    OpenAIRE

    Raffi, Julie A.; Stephen D. Davis; Hammer, Cliff G.; Micka, John A.; Kunugi, Keith A.; Musgrove, Jana E.; Winston, John W.; Ricci-Ott, Terresa J.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has become a popular treatment for early stage breast cancer in recent years due to its shortened course of treatment and simplified treatment planning compared to traditional external beam breast conservation therapy. However, the exit dose to the skin is a major concern and can be a limiting factor for these treatments. Most treatment planning systems (TPSs) currently used for high dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir brachytherapy overe...

  10. Preparation and determination of kerma for Iridium 192 sources of low dose rate for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practice of Brachytherapy with Iridium-192 sources of low dose rate (0.4 - 0.8 Gy/h) is a technique used in the treatment of diverse illnesses. in this work the preparation, quality control and calibration are presented in terms of kerma in air of Iridium-192 using as target these recycled Iridium-Platinum wires. The targets were obtained as decayed sources of different radio therapeutical centers in the country and they were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy in order to determine their chemical composition. Subsequently it was developed an experimental design to establish the effect of neutron flux, geometrical array and irradiation time over the activity and percentage of the sources homogeneity. The homogeneity was determined by auto radiography and by Gamma spectroscopy. Once the optimal irradiation conditions were established, it is determined the apparent activity and kerma in air using a well type ionization chamber with traceability to a primary laboratory. Iridium-192 sources were obtained with an average homogeneity 96 %, apparent activity 282.129 ± 0.531 M Bq and kerma in air 0.03200 ± 0.00006 m Gy m/h A. (Author)

  11. Study and development of an Iridium-192 seed for use in ophthalmic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even ocular tumors are not among the cases with a higher incidence, they affect the population, especially children. The Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP) in partnership with Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP), created a project to develop and implement a alternative treatment for ophthalmic cancer that use brachytherapy iridium-192 seeds. The project arose by reason of the Escola Paulista treat many cancer cases within the Unified Health System (SUS) and the research experience of sealed radioactive sources group at IPEN. The methodology was developed from the available infrastructure and the experience of researchers. The prototype seed presents with a core (192-iridium alloy of iridium-platinum) of 3.0 mm long sealed by a capsule of titanium of 0.8 mm outside diameter, 0.05 mm wall thickness and 4,5mm long. This work aims to study and develop a seed of iridium-192 from a platinum-iridium alloy. No study on the fabrication of these seeds was found in available literature. It was created a methodology that involved: characterization of the material used in the core, creation of device for neutron activation irradiation and and seed sealing tests. As a result, proved the feasibility of the method. As a suggestion for future work, studies regarding metrology and dosimetry of these sources and improvement of the methodology should be carried out, for future implementation in national scope. (author)

  12. Toward endobronchial Ir-192 high-dose-rate brachytherapy therapeutic optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, H A [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Allison, R R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Downie, G H [Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Mota, H C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Austerlitz, C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Jenkins, T [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Sibata, C H [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2007-06-07

    A number of patients with lung cancer receive either palliative or curative high-dose-rate (HDR) endobronchial brachytherapy. Up to a third of patients treated with endobronchial HDR die from hemoptysis. Rather than accept hemoptysis as an expected potential consequence of HDR, we have calculated the radial dose distribution for an Ir-192 HDR source, rigorously examined the dose and prescription points recommended by the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS), and performed a radiobiological-based analysis. The radial dose rate of a commercially available Ir-192 source was calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the linear quadratic model, the estimated palliative, curative and blood vessel rupture radii from the center of an Ir-192 source were obtained for the ABS recommendations and a series of customized HDR prescriptions. The estimated radius at risk for blood vessel perforation for the ABS recommendations ranges from 7 to 9 mm. An optimized prescription may in some situations reduce this radius to 4 mm. The estimated blood perforation radius is generally smaller than the palliative radius. Optimized and individualized endobronchial HDR prescriptions are currently feasible based on our current understanding of tumor and normal tissue radiobiology. Individualized prescriptions could minimize complications such as fatal hemoptysis without sacrificing efficacy. Fiducial stents, HDR catheter centering or spacers and the use of CT imaging to better assess the relationship between the catheter and blood vessels promise to be useful strategies for increasing the therapeutic index of this treatment modality. Prospective trials employing treatment optimization algorithms are needed.

  13. Recovery from Iridium-192 flakes of a radioactive source for industrial use after a radiation incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Iridium-192 (192Ir) is the most used and ideal for industrial radiography applications, especially in petrochemical plants and pipelines and provides better contrast sensitivity for thick (25.4 mm). This source has constructive sealed double encapsulation, the internal capsule containing stainless steel to radioactive material in the form of flakes and welded with TIG process. The radiological incident happened at a gas station fuel sales in circumstances in which there was a homogeneity test welds a tank, the flakes or Ir-192 fell off his ponytail and left scattered over an area of 2 m2, some fell flat areas and other land so collected in lead shielding and metal container and ground source. Full recovery of the leaflets was performed at the Division of radioactive waste management (GRRA) gaining a total of 22 flakes with no radiation risk to staff performance and installation and the conclusion was reached that the misapplicaion of TIG welding was the main cause the incident. (author)

  14. Toxicity of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon in a transgenic mouse model of the human paraoxonase (PON1) Q192R polymorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Toby B.; Walter, Betsy J.; Shih, Diana M.; Tward, Aaron D.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Timchalk, Chuck; Richter, Rebecca J.; Costa, Lucio G.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2005-08-01

    The Q192R polymorphism of paraoxonase (PON1) has been shown to affect hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds. The Q192 and R192 alloforms exhibit equivalent catalytic efficiencies of hydrolysis for diazoxon, the oxon form of the pesticide (DZ). However, the R192 alloform has a higher catalytic efficiency of hydrolysis than does the Q192 alloform for chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), the oxon form of the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPS). The current study examined the relevance of these observations for in-vivo exposures to chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon. Methods Using a transgenic mouse model we examined the relevance of the Q192R polymorphism for exposure to CPS and CPO in vivo. Transgenic mice were generated that expressed either human PON1Q192 or PON1R192 at equivalent levels, in the absence of endogenous mouse PON1. Dose-response and time course experiments were performed on adult mice exposed dermally to CPS or CPO. Morbidity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and diaphragm were determined in the first 24 h following exposure. Results Mice expressing PON1Q192 were significantly more sensitive to CPO, and to a lesser extent CPS, than were mice expressing PON1R192. The time course of inhibition following exposure to 1.2 mg/kg CPO revealed maximum inhibition of brain AChE at 6?12 h, with PON1R192, PON1Q192, and PON1? /? mice exhibiting 40, 70 and 85% inhibition, respectively, relative to control mice. The effect of PON1 removal on the dose?response curve for CPS exposure was remarkably consistent with a PBPK/PD model of CPS exposure. Conclusion These results indicate that individuals expressing only the PON1Q192 allele would be more sensitive to the adverse effects of CPO or CPS exposure, especially if they are expressing a low level of plasma PON1Q192.

  15. The Fricke dosimeter as an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project was to develop an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy based on the Fricke dosimeter. To achieve this within the framework of the existing TG-43 protocol, a determination of the absorbed dose to water at the reference position, D(r0,θ0), was undertaken. Prior to this investigation, the radiation chemical yield of the ferric ions (G-value) at the Ir-192 equivalent photon energy (0.380 MeV) was established by interpolating between G-values obtained for Co-60 and 250 kV x-rays.An irradiation geometry was developed with a cylindrical holder to contain the Fricke solution and allow irradiations in a water phantom to be conducted using a standard Nucletron microSelectron V2 HDR Ir-192 afterloader. Once the geometry and holder were optimized, the dose obtained with the Fricke system was compared to the standard method used in North America, based on air-kerma strength.Initial investigations focused on reproducible positioning of the ring-shaped holder for the Fricke solution with respect to the Ir-192 source and obtaining an acceptable type A uncertainty in the optical density measurements required to yield the absorbed dose. Source positioning was found to be reproducible to better than 0.3 mm, and a careful cleaning and control procedure reduced the variation in optical density reading due to contamination of the Fricke solution by the PMMA holder. It was found that fewer than 10 irradiations were required to yield a type A standard uncertainty of less than 0.5%.Correction factors to take account of the non-water components of the geometry and the volume averaging effect of the Fricke solution volume were obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. A sensitivity analysis showed that the dependence on the input data used (e.g. interaction cross-sections) was small with a type B uncertainty for these corrections estimated to be 0.2%.The combined standard uncertainty in the determination of absorbed dose to water at

  16. High-dose rate iridium-192 brachytherapy combined with external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasahara, Kotaro; Inoue, Keiji; Karashima, Takashi; Inoue, Yuichiro; Kariya, Shinji; Inomata, Taisuke; Yoshida, Shoji; Shuin, Taro [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We report our technique and also preliminary results in the cases with localized prostate cancer treated by the combination of high-dose rate Iridium-192 (HDR-Ir 192) brachytherapy and external irradiation. From June 1999 to August 2000, 17 patients were treated by the combination of HDR-Ir 192 and external beam. The mean age of patients was 72 years (range, 48-81 years). The clinical stage was B1 in 5, B2 in 7 and C (no cancer with seminal vesicle) in 5 cases. Of 10 patients without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, the median initial pretreatment PSA was 15.3 ng/ml (6.93-222.32 ng/ml). The treatment was given by HDR-Ir 192 brachytherapy (6 Gy x 3 times/2 days) and external beam irradiation (40 or 45 Gy). The brachytherapy was given using TRUS guided percutaneously inserted temporary needles with a high dose rate remote afterloading control. Local control was evaluated by digital rectal examination, TRUS-guided biopsies and serum PSA evaluations. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 14 months, with a median of 8 months. In 4 (40.0%) of 10 patients without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy the level of serum PSA was decreased to less than 4.0 ng/ml within 3 months after the therapy. The effective grade in the biopsy specimens of 8 patients without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy was Grade 0b in 4, Grade 1 in 1, Grade 3 in 3 cases at 3 months after the therapy. No severe intra-or peri-operative complications occurred. The combined radiotherapy treatment is safe and effective for use in the patients with localized prostate cancer. However, more comprehensive studies involving long-term follow-up and great numbers of the cases with localized prostate cancer treated by the combination of HDR-Ir 192 brachytherapy and external irradiation will be necessary to determine whether this therapy contributes to better prognosis. (author)

  17. Absorbed dose simulations in near-surface regions using high dose rate Iridium-192 sources applied for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy treatment with Iridium-192 high dose rate (HDR) sources is widely used for various tumours and it could be developed in many anatomic regions. Iridium-192 sources are inserted inside or close to the region that will be treated. Usually, the treatment is performed in prostate, gynaecological, lung, breast and oral cavity regions for a better clinical dose coverage compared with other techniques, such as, high energy photons and Cobalt-60 machines. This work will evaluate absorbed dose distributions in near-surface regions around Ir-192 HDR sources. Near-surface dose measurements are a complex task, due to the contribution of beta particles in the near-surface regions. These dose distributions should be useful for non-tumour treatments, such as keloids, and other non-intracavitary technique. For the absorbed dose distribution simulations the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE with the general code penEasy was used. Ir-192 source geometry and a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) tube, for beta particles shield were modelled to yield the percentage depth dose (PDD) on a cubic water phantom. Absorbed dose simulations were realized at the central axis to yield the Ir-192 dose fall-off along central axis. The results showed that more than 99.2% of the absorbed doses (relative to the surface) are deposited in 5 cm depth but with slower rate at higher distances. Near-surface treatments with Ir-192 HDR sources yields achievable measurements and with proper clinical technique and accessories should apply as an alternative for treatment of lesions where only beta sources were used. - Highlights: ► A PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) tube was used to surround the HDR Ir-192 to shield the beta particles. ► 99.2% of the absorbed doses (relative to the surface) are deposited in 5 cm depth. ► Near-surface treatments with Ir-192 HDR sources yields achievable measurements

  18. 儿童孤独症192例临床分析%Analysis of clinical character of 192 cases with childhood autism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 徐琼; 张颖; 徐秀

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨儿童孤独症的临床特点及危险因素,为该临床的早期发现、早期诊治提供依据. [方法]对2004年11月-2010年8月复旦大学附属儿科医院儿童保健科收治的192例孤独症患儿的主诉、临床表现、个人史及家庭状况(妊产期不利因素、家族史、父母文化、父母性格、家庭教育情况)、和辅助检查(脑CT/MRI、EEG、BAEP)进行回顾性分析. [结果]在192例孤独症患儿中,≤24个月龄的患儿21例(10.9%),病例主诉以语言障碍为主,尤以不会说话突出(62%).母亲存在妊产期不利因素者共85例(44.3%),异常家族史者52例(27%),辅助检查中,EEG异常检出率较高. [结论]语言障碍最易为家长注意,建议常规健康体检中纳入和重视儿童社会能力的发展,以利于早期发现孤独症患儿.妊娠不利因素、家族史和父亲内向的性格特点与孤独症发病有密切关系.%[Objective] To explore the clinical characteristics and risk factors of autism, in order to provide scientific basis for autism early detection and diagnosis. [Methods] One hundred and ninety two cases of autism children between 2004 November and 2010 August had been collected in this article. All these 192 cases were studied about chief complaint,clinical manifestation, personal history and family conditions(pregnancy, family, parents educational background, parents disposition, household education)and assistant examinations (CT/MRI,EEG,BAEP). [Results] Among 192 cases, 21 one cases( 10.9% ) were less than two years old. The language development disability was the mainly chief compliant, especially had no language(62 % ). During gestation period and childbirth time, 85(44.3 % ) had adverse factors. 52 cases(27 % )had abnormal family history. Among the assistant examinations, an especially highabnormality was found in EEG. [Conclusions] Parents often pay highly attention to language development disability, in order to improve the early

  19. 对7轮ARIA-192的不可能差分分析%Impossible Differential Cryptanalysis of 7-Round ARIR-192

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢作敏; 陈少真

    2013-01-01

    ARIA cipher is a new block cipher proposed by some South Korean experts in 2003. The design principle of ARIA is similar to the AES. ARIA is established as a Korean Standard block cipher algorithm by Korean Agency for Technology and Standards. In this paper, a new impossible differential attack on 7 rounds of the ARIA cipher is presented. By this attack, 7-round ARIA-192 is breakable with a data complexity of about 2176.2 encryptions, while the previous best impossible differential attack on ARIA broke on 7-round ARIA-256. Then some characters on diffusion layer are used to reduce the complexity of the ARIA-256 to 2192.2 .%ARIA密码是2003年由韩国学者提出的新的分组密码算法,该密码与AES的设计原理相类似,并在2004年被选为韩国的分组密码标准。该文根据ARIA密码的结构特征,提出ARIA密码的一种新的7轮不可能差分攻击路径,首次实现了对ARIA-192的不可能差分攻击,攻击的时间复杂度为2176.2。同时,利用扩散层的相关性质降低攻击ARIA-256的时间复杂度为2192.2。

  20. Dosimetric characterization of round HDR {sup 192}Ir AccuBoost applicators for breast brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, Mark J.; Melhus, Christopher S.; Wazer, David E.; Bricault, Raymond J. Jr. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Advanced Radiation Therapy, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The AccuBoost brachytherapy system applies HDR {sup 192}Ir beams peripherally to the breast using collimating applicators. The purpose of this study was to benchmark Monte Carlo simulations of the HDR {sup 192}Ir source, to dosimetrically characterize the round applicators using established Monte Carlo simulation and radiation measurement techniques and to gather data for clinical use. Methods: Dosimetric measurements were performed in a polystyrene phantom, while simulations estimated dose in air, liquid water, polystyrene and ICRU 44 breast tissue. Dose distribution characterization of the 4-8 cm diameter collimators was performed using radiochromic EBT film and air ionization chambers. Results: The central axis dose falloff was steeper for the 4 cm diameter applicator in comparison to the 8 cm diameter applicator, with surface to 3 cm depth-dose ratios of 3.65 and 2.44, respectively. These ratios did not considerably change when varying the phantom composition from breast tissue to polystyrene, phantom thickness from 4 to 8 cm, or phantom radius from 8 to 15 cm. Dose distributions on the central axis were fitted to sixth-order polynomials for clinical use in a hand calculation spreadsheet (i.e., nomogram). Dose uniformity within the useful applicator apertures decreased as depth-dose increased. Conclusions: Monte Carlo benchmarking simulations of the HDR {sup 192}Ir source using the MCNP5 radiation transport code indicated agreement within 1% of the published results over the radial/angular region of interest. Changes in phantom size and radius did not cause noteworthy changes in the central axis depth-dose. Polynomial fit depth-dose curves provide a simple and accurate basis for a nomogram.

  1. Dosimetric characterization of round HDR 192Ir AccuBoost applicators for breast brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The AccuBoost brachytherapy system applies HDR 192Ir beams peripherally to the breast using collimating applicators. The purpose of this study was to benchmark Monte Carlo simulations of the HDR 192Ir source, to dosimetrically characterize the round applicators using established Monte Carlo simulation and radiation measurement techniques and to gather data for clinical use. Methods: Dosimetric measurements were performed in a polystyrene phantom, while simulations estimated dose in air, liquid water, polystyrene and ICRU 44 breast tissue. Dose distribution characterization of the 4-8 cm diameter collimators was performed using radiochromic EBT film and air ionization chambers. Results: The central axis dose falloff was steeper for the 4 cm diameter applicator in comparison to the 8 cm diameter applicator, with surface to 3 cm depth-dose ratios of 3.65 and 2.44, respectively. These ratios did not considerably change when varying the phantom composition from breast tissue to polystyrene, phantom thickness from 4 to 8 cm, or phantom radius from 8 to 15 cm. Dose distributions on the central axis were fitted to sixth-order polynomials for clinical use in a hand calculation spreadsheet (i.e., nomogram). Dose uniformity within the useful applicator apertures decreased as depth-dose increased. Conclusions: Monte Carlo benchmarking simulations of the HDR 192Ir source using the MCNP5 radiation transport code indicated agreement within 1% of the published results over the radial/angular region of interest. Changes in phantom size and radius did not cause noteworthy changes in the central axis depth-dose. Polynomial fit depth-dose curves provide a simple and accurate basis for a nomogram.

  2. Radiation levels in Cath Lab and occupational exposures during manual 192Ir intracoronary brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracoronary brachytherapy is a new modality of radiation therapy and is being used to reduce the rate of restenosis after angioplasty. Clinical trials for evaluation of safety and efficacy of manually implanted 192Ir seed ribbons are underway at various cardiology centres in India. 192Ir emits high energy gamma rays (0.136 -1.06 MeV), which causes concern regarding safety of the personnel when these sources are manually used in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (Cath Lab) for intracoronary irradiation. Radiation levels in Cath Lab and exposures to personnel have been measured at 6 different cardiology centres in the country during 8 different clinical trials using radiation survey meter, personnel monitoring badges and pocket dosimeters. Activities of 192Ir seed ribbons used in these clinical trials were in the range of 5.55 - 14.8 GBq. Measured radiation levels behind the mobile lead shields, at the top of lead shields, near the patient head, near the patient toes and at the main door of the Cath Lab were in the range of 2.6-20, 50-256, 385-450, 22-225 and 2-16 μSv/hr/3.7GBq, respectively. Measured effective doses to occupational workers were in range of 14-100 μSv/procedure/3.7GBq. Based on these measurements, user institutions have been advised to use lead glass mounted L-shaped mobile lead shields with proper orientation during clinical trials, avoid unwanted occupancy in the Cath Lab and around the patient during irradiation and use conveniently long forceps or tongs for implantation and removal of sources. (author)

  3. Analysis of the Survival Rate with Cervical Cancer Using 137Cs and 192Ir Aftedoading Brachytherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuixioZhou; GuoxiongChen; DemeiMa; JianpingSun; LinMa

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze and compare the survival rate for stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ cervical cancer treated by external irradiation plus 137Cs or 192Ir. METHODS The patients with cervical cancer were treated by external irradiation plus 137Cs (group A, 427 patients) or plus 192Ir (group B, 156 patients). There were 170 stage Ⅱ cases and 413 stage Ⅲ cases. The number of cancer types were as follows: squamous cell carcinoma, 524; adenocarcinoma, 34; and adenosquamous cell carcinoma, 25. The two groups received the same external irradiation using 8 or 10 MV of X-ray. After the whole pelvis received 25-35 Gy, the focus was given a total of 45-55 Gy by four divided fields. Intracavitary irradiation was performed with one fraction of 6-7 Gy in reference dose at A point every week and a total dose of 40-60 Gy with 6-8 fractions for group A; every fraction of 5-6 Gy in reference dose of A point and total dose of 30-42 Gy with 5-7 fractions for group B.RESULTS The 5-year survival rate of stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ, and total were 82.9%, 62.2%, and 67.2% for group A respectively and 85.1%, 61.5% and 69.2% for group B respectively. There were significant differences between stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ in each group (P 0.05). The late complications of the therapy were rectitis and urocystitis and with an incidence rate of 7.3% and 6.3% for group A and 9.6% and 9.0% for group B (P> 0.05). CONCLUSION The long-term survival rate and complications of stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ cervical cancer are similar when treated with external irradiation plus 137Cs or plus 192Ir.

  4. Investigation of the Dynamical Dipole mode in the 192Pb mass region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parascandolo Concetta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical dipole mode was investigated in the mass region of the 192Pb compound nucleus, by using the 40Ca + 152Sm and 48Ca + 144Sm reactions at Elab=11 and 10.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively. Both fusion–evaporation and fission events were studied simultaneously for the first time. Our results show that the dynamical dipole mode survives in reactions involving heavier nuclei than those studied previously, however, its yield is lower than that expected within BNV calculations.

  5. [Art. 192 Polish Penal Code--lawyers comments and medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Art. 192 was enacted in the Polish Penal Code in 1997. Performance of a "medical intervention" without the patient's consent has been penalized. The binding norm is not generally acclaimed in medical circles, but lawyers seem very interested in them. In essence the regulation is clear in medical circles but teaching of lawyers has its differences. Inconsistent interpretation are concerned with objectivity of legal protection, extent of disposition of the legal norm and other determinant factors. The literature does not permit for an unambiguous and effective interpretation of this regulation. Urgent amendment of this law is necessary.

  6. The influence of different {sup 192}Ir sources geometries to the energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Paulo Eduardo; Perini, Ana Paula; Neves, Lucio Pereira, E-mail: lucio.neves@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (INFIS/UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Santos, William de Souza; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Belinato, Walmir [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, various simplifications of the HDR source Varian VariSource Classic model, in which {sup 192}Ir as a radionuclide is used, were compared. These simplifications were carried out by the simulation of Monte Carlo, using the MCNPX code. The different sources were compared through a distribution of energy deposition in a water phantom. Our results indicated that small simplifications will present no influence on the source response, and the removal of the entire capsule surrounding the radionuclide will present a difference of just 0.51% in the final response. (author)

  7. RESULTS OF 192IR CONTACT RADIATION THERAPY FOR CERVIX UTERI CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kravets

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of treatment for locally advanced cervix uteri cancer, by applying a 192Ir radioactive source for contact radiation. Three- and five-year overall and relapse-free survival rates have been obtained for stages: 82.5 and 82.5%; 78.4 and 78.4% for Stage IIb; 57 and 52.3%; 41.6 and 41.6 for IIIb; 53.3 and 47.3%; 42.4 and 37.7% for IVb, respectively.

  8. Complications following carotid endarterectomy for all indications: report of 192 operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodotou, B; Mahaley, M S

    1985-11-01

    The complications (stroke, myocardial infarction, and death) with 192 endarterectomies performed on 162 patients were evaluated and categorized according to the presenting syndrome: asymptomatic bruit, transient ischemic attack, stroke, stroke in progress, and posterior fossa ischemia. Each group's complication rate was then evaluated over several postoperative periods (0.5 hour to 30 days) and compared with rates in comparable studies. Overall mortality for the entire series was 0.5%. This study points out the need to separate patients having undergone endarterectomy into presenting groups before comparing with other studies having similar postoperative observations. PMID:4049222

  9. Superdeformation studies in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 192}Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The study of yrast and near-yrast structures of odd-odd nuclei to high spins is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the spectra resulting from the many proton-neutron couplings near the Fermi surface. In superdeformed nuclei, the number of available protons and neutrons near the Fermi surface is somewhat limited due to the presence of large-shell gaps which stabilize the nuclear shape. A relatively small number of available neutron and proton configurations can lead to fragmentation of the SD intensity into a number of different bands. Two good examples of this phenomenon were found in {sup 192}Tl and {sup 194}Tl where the presence of six superdeformed bands were reported in both nuclei. We reexamined {sup 192}Tl at Gammasphere using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 37}Cl,5n) reaction at 178 MeV to populate states in the superdeformed well of this nucleus. While our previous study on {sup 192}Tl at ATLAS was very successful, a number of questions remained which formed the basis of our objectives in this experiment: obtain better {gamma}-ray energies for the known transitions and identify higher spin members in each band; determine how the bands feed the known yrast states in {sup 192}Tl as well as determine the complete spectrum in coincidence with the SD bands; look for M1 transitions connecting proposed signature partners; and attempt to identify other excitations in the superdeformed well. Analysis is underway and four of the six bands were confirmed. The reasons that two of the reported bands were not observed in this latest work is still under investigation. As of this time, no other superdeformed bands were identified in the data. Two of the confirmed SD bands have a constant moment of inertia and show indications of cross-talk between each other. This observation is not unexpected since the calculated M1 rates for the proposed configuration of the band, {pi}{sub 13/2} x {upsilon}j{sub 15/2}, indicate that M1 transitions linking the two SD bands should be observed.

  10. The influence of different 192Ir sources geometries to the energy deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, various simplifications of the HDR source Varian VariSource Classic model, in which 192Ir as a radionuclide is used, were compared. These simplifications were carried out by the simulation of Monte Carlo, using the MCNPX code. The different sources were compared through a distribution of energy deposition in a water phantom. Our results indicated that small simplifications will present no influence on the source response, and the removal of the entire capsule surrounding the radionuclide will present a difference of just 0.51% in the final response. (author)

  11. 轮状病毒肠炎192例临床分析%A Clinical Analysis of 192 Cases of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雪梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical characteristics of rotavirus gastroenteritis,especial the manifestations of dysfunctions of extraintestinal organs. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 192 children with rotavirus gastroenteritis from January 2010 to December 2010 in our department. Results The occurrence of the disease peaked from September to No-vember(97/192,50.5% ) ,and ages from 6 months to 12 months . The stools were watery or egg-soup like in all cases. Dehydration of various degrees occurred in 102 children and 44 of them were with metabolic acidosis. 85 patients (44. 3% ) were with vomit and 131(68.2% ) cases had fever. 168(87.5% ) cases had cardiac muscle damage,47(24.5% ) patients had liver damage , another 73 (38.0 % ) children had renal damage ,40 cases with respiratory infection, 19 patients had anemia. All cases completely recovered after the treatment of rehydration,correction of acid-base imbalance,anti-viral therapy,oral administration of biologic and mucus protecting agents. Conclusion Rotavirus gastroenteritis occurs mostly in the autumn season,peak age was 6 to 12 months. Apart from gastroenterological symptoms, dehydration and acidosis can be easily observed. Fat drops were mostly observed in stool examination. Among organ damages other than gastroenterology system,cardiac muscle damage was the most common occurrence. But the prognosis was excellent after routine treatment.%目的 总结轮状病毒肠炎的临床特点,分析其对肠道外损害的表现.方法 对2010年1月- 2010年12月在乌鲁木齐儿童医院消化科住院的轮状病毒肠炎患儿192例临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果本组患儿发病高峰为9月~11月97例(50.5%),高发年龄为6个月~1岁111例(57.8%),所有惠儿大便呈水样或蛋花汤样.102例患儿出现不同程度脱水,合并代谢性酸中毒44例,伴呕吐85例(44.3%),伴发热131例(68.2%).心肌损害168例(87.5%);肝功损害47例(24.5%);肾功损害73

  12. Clinicopathological analysis of ovarian teratoma in 192 cases%卵巢畸胎瘤192例临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭霞; 祝珍; 成如兰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinicalpathological features of ovarian teratoma.Methods The clinical data of 192 patients with ovarian teratoma in Yancheng maternal and child health hospital were retrospectively analyzed.Results The age of patients ranged from 9 to 65 year old,and the age between 21 and 40 accounting for 75%,unilateral tumor accounting for 90.11%.One hundred and eighty-six cases of ovarian mature cystic teratoma,accounting for 96.88% ; 2 cases of ovarian solid teratoma,accounting for 1.04% ; 1 case of struma ovarian,accounting for 0.52% ; 1 case of immature teratoma,accounting for 0.52% ; 2 cases of teratoma with malignant transformation,accounting for 1.04%.Twenty cases with complications,accounting for 10.42%.Conclusions Most of ovarian teratoma is benign.Strengthening the gynecological examination,early detection and treatment can reduce the occurrence of complications and malignant transformation of teratoma.%目的 探讨卵巢畸胎瘤的临床病理特点.方法 对盐城市妇幼保健院收治的192例卵巢畸胎瘤住院患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 患者年龄9~65岁,其中21~ 40岁较多,占75%;单侧肿瘤多见,占90.11%.卵巢畸胎瘤中卵巢成熟性囊性畸胎瘤186例,占96.88%;卵巢实性畸胎瘤2例,占1.04%;卵巢甲状腺肿1例,占0.52%;未成熟性畸胎瘤l例,占0.52%;畸胎瘤恶变2例,占1.04%.发生并发症20例,占10.42%.结论 卵巢畸胎瘤绝大多数为良性,加强妇科检查,及早发现、及时手术,可减少并发症及畸胎瘤恶变的发生.

  13. Photodisintegration of the isotopes {sup 186,188,189,190,192}Os: Similarities and distinctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlamov, V. V., E-mail: Varlamov@depni.sinp.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Makarov, M. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Peskov, N. N.; Stepanov, M. E. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    In addition to the results obtained earlier for the isotopes {sup 188,189}Os, experimental data on the photodisintegration of the isotopes {sup 186,190,192}Os are analyzed on the basis of specially introduced objective criteria of reliability of data on the cross sections for partial photoneutron reactions. It is found that the (γ, 1n), (γ, 2n), and (γ, 3n) cross sections for each isotope satisfy differently or, on the contrary, do not satisfy the data-reliability criteria. In many cases, the multiplicity transition functions specified as the ratios F{sub i} = σ(γ, in)/σ(γ, xn) of the cross sections for the (γ, in) partial reactions to the neutron-yield reaction cross section σ(γ, xn) = σ(γ, 1n) + 2σ(γ, 2n) + 3σ(γ, 3n) +... have values that are physically unreliable by definition. It is shown that ambiguities in the dependence of significant systematic uncertainties in experimentally determined neutron multiplicities on the measured kinetic energies is the reason for this. The dependence of these uncertainties on the energy spectra of neutrons is analyzed. For the isotopes {sup 186,190,192}Os, new evaluated data satisfying the data-reliability criteria are obtained for the cross sections for partial and total photoneutron reactions.

  14. First search for double-{beta} decay of {sup 184}Os and {sup 192}Os

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, P. [Sezione di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , INFN, Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R.; D' Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A. [Sezione di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , INFN, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; Incicchitti, A. [Sezione di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , INFN, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi (Italy); Danevich, F.A.; Poda, D.V.; Tretyak, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kovtun, G.P.; Kovtun, N.G.; Shcherban, A.P. [National Science Center ' ' Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkiv (Ukraine); Polischuk, O.G. [Sezione di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , INFN, Rome (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-02-15

    A search for double-{beta} decay of osmium has been realized for the first time with the help of an ultra-low background HPGe {gamma} detector at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After 2741 h of data taking with a 173 g ultra-pure osmium sample limits on double-{beta} processes in {sup 184}Os have been established at the level of T{sub 1/2}{proportional_to}10{sup 14}-10{sup 14} y. Possible resonant double-electron captures in {sup 184}Os were searched for with a sensitivity of T{sub 1/2}{proportional_to}10{sup 16} y. A half-life limit T{sub 1/2}{>=}5.3 x 10{sup 19} y was set for the double-{beta} decay of {sup 192}Os to the first excited level of {sup 192}Pt. The radiopurity of the osmium sample has been investigated and radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 185}Os and {sup 207}Bi were detected in the sample, while activities of {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were limited at the {approx} mBq/kg level. (orig.) 3.

  15. First search for double-beta decay of 184Os and 192Os

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; d'Angelo, S; Di Marco, A; Incicchitti, A; Kovtun, G P; Kovtun, N G; Laubenstein, M; Poda, D V; Polischuk, O G; Shcherban, A P; Tretyak, V I

    2013-01-01

    A search for double-beta decay of osmium has been realized for the first time with the help of an ultra-low background HPGe gamma detector at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After 2741 h of data taking with a 173 g ultra-pure osmium sample limits on double-beta processes in 184Os have been established at the level of T_{1/2} about 10^{14}-10^{17} yr. Possible resonant double-electron captures in 184Os were searched for with a sensitivity T_{1/2} about 10^{16} yr. A half-life limit T_{1/2} > 5.3 10^{19} yr was set for the double-beta decay of 192Os to the first excited level of 192Pt. The radiopurity of the osmium sample has been investigated and radionuclides 137Cs, 185Os and 207Bi were detected in the sample, while activities of 40K, 60Co, 226Ra and 232Th were limited at the mBq/kg level.

  16. Results of temporary interstitial iridium-192 implantation in head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve local tumor control in advanced head and neck tumors, a temporary interstitial iridium-192 implantation (40 to 50 cGy/h) was performed as a boost therapy (20 to 30 Gy at the surface of the target volume). This treatment was part of a multimodal therapy conception for primary tumors (N=55) as well as for recurrences (N=22). Local control was achieved in 89% (49/55) of patients treated for primary tumors. Complications appeared in the form of soft tissue necroses in 55% (30/55) and in the form of osteoradionecroses of the mandible in 7% (4/55) of the patients. The authors discuss as possible reasons for this high complication rate: Implantation volume too large or total activity too high, activities of the individual iridium-192 seeds to high, setting of radiation sources too close together, total dose too high, disturbed reparation capacity of sound tissues due to preceding operation and chemotherapy, premature test biopsies in the area of implantation, lacking oral hygiene and dental care by uncooperative patients. A local control rate of 50% was achieved by the treatment of recurrences, but this has no importance for the course of this tumor disease which is fatefully determined by the formation of remote metastases. (orig.)

  17. Verification of high dose rate 192Ir source position during brachytherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for in vivo tracking of 1 Ci 192Ir source during brachytherapy treatment has been built using high resistivity silicon pad detectors as image sensors and knife-edge lead pinholes as collimators. The sensors consist of 256 pads arranged in 32 x8 grid with pad size 1.4x1.4mm2 and 1 mm thickness. The sensors have two metal layers, enabling connection of readout electronics (VATAGP31 chips) at the edge of the detector. With source self-images obtained from a dual-pinhole system, location of the source can be reconstructed in three dimensions in real time, allowing on-line detection of deviations from planned treatment. The system was tested with 1 Ci 192Ir clinical source in air and plexi-glass phantom. The movements of the source could be tracked in a field of view of approximately 20x20x20cm3 with absolute precision of about 5 mm. Positions of the source, relative to the first measured source position, could be mapped with precision of around 3 mm.

  18. HDR-192Ir intraluminal brachytherapy in treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Chen; Xiao-Lin Wang; Zhi-Ping Yan; Jie-Min Cheng; Jian-Hua Wang; Gao-Quan Gong; Sheng Qian; Jian-Jun Luo; Qing-Xin Liu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the feasibility and safety of intraluminal brachytherapy in treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice (MOJ) and to evaluate the clinical effect of intraluminal brachytherapy on stent patency and patient survival.METHODS: Thirty-four patients with MOJ were included in this study. Having biliary stent placed, all patients were classified into intraluminal brachytherapy group (group A,n = 14) and control group (group B, n = 20) according to their own choice. Intraluminal brachytherapy regimen included: HDR-192Ir was used in the therapy, fractional doses of 4-7 Gy were given every 3-6 d for 3-4 times, and standard points were established at 0.5-1.0 cm. Some patients of both groups received transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) after stent placement.RESULTS: In group A, the success rate of intraluminal brachytherapy was 98.0%, RTOG grade 1 acute radiation morbidity occurred in 3 patients, RTOG/EORTC grade 1 late radiation morbidity occurred in 1 patient. Mean stent patency of group A (12.6 mo) was significantly longer than that of group B (8.3 mo) (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the mean survival (9.4 mo vs6.0 mo) between the two groups.CONCLUSION: HDR-192Ir intraluminal brachytherapy is a safe palliative therapy in treating MOJ, and it may prolong stent patency and has the potentiality of extending survival of patients with MOJ.

  19. Calculation of iridium-192 production for radiography using G.A. Siwabessy reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iridium-In is one of the radioisotopes used in gamma radiography. Calculation for producing iridium-In using G.A. Siwabessy nuclear reactor has been carried out. The targets were discs with 2.7 mm in diameter and 0.15 mm in thickness. The neutron flux was the value at the central irradiation position as high as 1.3 x 1014 n.s-1.cm-2. Calculation results showed that iridium metal irradiation for 12 days resulted in iridium-192 with radioactivity of 96.8 GBq per disc at the end of irradiation. If the irradiation was continued to the next irradiation period after 16 days of shut down, the irradiation resulted in 171.2 GBq of iridium-In. If the target was irradiated continuously for 40 days, the irradiation resulted in 284.5 GBq of iridium-192. The resulted radionuclide impurity was iridium-194 which decayed rapidly with half life of 19.15 hours. The initial radioactivity required for effective radiation source for gamma radiography was 3700 GBq in a radiation source. If the target was irradiated with shut down, the discs required in a radiation sources were 24 discs. If the target was irradiated continuously, the required discs were 14 discs in a radiation source. (author)

  20. Determination of the tissue inhomogeneity correction in high dose rate Brachytherapy for Iridium-192 source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlanka Ravikumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brachytherapy treatment planning, the effects of tissue heterogeneities are commonly neglected due to lack of accurate, general and fast three-dimensional (3D dose-computational algorithms. In performing dose calculations, it is assumed that the tumor and surrounding tissues constitute a uniform, homogeneous medium equivalent to water. In the recent past, three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT based treatment planning for Brachytherapy applications has been popularly adopted. However, most of the current commercially available planning systems do not provide the heterogeneity corrections for Brachytherapy dosimetry. In the present study, we have measured and quantified the impact of inhomogeneity caused by different tissues with a 0.015 cc ion chamber. Measurements were carried out in wax phantom which was employed to measure the heterogeneity. Iridium-192 (192 Ir source from high dose rate (HDR Brachytherapy machine was used as the radiation source. The reduction of dose due to tissue inhomogeneity was measured as the ratio of dose measured with different types of inhomogeneity (bone, spleen, liver, muscle and lung to dose measured with homogeneous medium for different distances. It was observed that different tissues attenuate differently, with bone tissue showing maximum attenuation value and lung tissue resulting minimum value and rest of the tissues giving values lying in between those of bone and lung. It was also found that inhomogeneity at short distance is considerably more than that at larger distances.

  1. Safety of /sup 125/iodine and /sup 192/iridium implants to the canine carotid artery: preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fee, W.E. Jr.; Goffinet, D.R.; Guthaner, D.; Fajardo, L.F.; Handen, C.

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-nine healthy dogs underwent a simulated radical neck dissection followed by implantation of either /sup 125/Iodine or /sup 192/Iridium in various dose regimes randomized prospectively from 3,000 to 30,000 rad. Bilateral selective carotid angiography was performed immediately postoperatively and at six months and one year. No significant effects occurred to the animals who received 15,000 rad /sup 125/I or 6,000 rad /sup 192/Ir. In the higher dosed animals the /sup 125/I treated group fared better than the /sup 192/Ir treated group, probably due to the lower dose rate delivery. All surviving animals will be maintained an additional year to determine the late effects of brachytherapy irradiation to the carotid artery.

  2. Experimental determination of the energy response of alanine pellets in the high dose rate 192Ir spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeken, B.; Cuypers, R.; Goossens, J.; Van den Weyngaert, D.; Verellen, D.

    2011-10-01

    An experimental determination of the energy correction factor for alanine/paraffin pellets in the 192Ir spectrum at varying distances from the source is presented. Alanine dosimeters were irradiated in water under full scatter conditions with a high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir source (Flexisource), using a dedicated holder. Up to six line sources (catheters) fit in a regular pattern at fixed radial distances from the holder axis, the alanine detector being placed at the centre of the holder. The HDR source was stepping every 0.5 cm within a trocar needle within ± 3.0 cm around the medial plane through the detector in order to achieve dose homogeneity within the detector volume. The energy correction factor of alanine/paraffin pellets in 192Ir relative to 60Co was experimentally determined as the inverse ratio of the dose to water measured in water around the 192Ir source to the dose to water calculated in water using the TG-43 formalism. The pellets were read out with a Bruker EMXmicro spectrometer (X-band). The amplitude of the central line in the alanine absorption spectrum from pellets irradiated within the 192Ir spectrum was directly compared with the amplitude from 60Co-irradiated pellets. The energy correction factors of Harwell pellets irradiated in the 192Ir spectrum are 1.029 ± 0.02, 1.027 ± 0.02 and 1.045 ± 0.02 at a mean weighted source-detector distance of 2.0, 2.9 and 5.3 cm, respectively. The experimentally obtained values for the energy response are 1.3% lower compared to the theoretical values for radial distances smaller than 3 cm.

  3. An innovative method for 192Ir HDR calibration by farmer chamber, V-film, and solid phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, practical and economical technique was proposed to calibrate an 192Ir HDR brachytherapy source in terms of air kerma strength. This technique makes use of the 0.6 cm3 Farmer type ion chamber, radiographic film and polystyrene phantom. These tools are commonly used for dosimetry quality assurance of the clinical linear accelerator. In this study, the Exradin A19, PTW N30004 and TM30001 Farmer type ion chambers were used for the calibration of the 192Ir HDR source. To perform the calibration, a 25.4x30.5 cm2 radiographic film was taped on a piece of polystyrene plate, and a straight applicator probe of a HDR brachytherapy unit and the Farmer type ion chamber were affixed to the film envelope. The film was irradiated by the 192Ir source, followed by an exposure in the simulator X-ray beam. The film set with the film removed was then placed on a 5 cm thick polystyrene phantom for calibration measurement. Based on the electrometer reading from the Farmer type ion chamber irradiated by 192Ir and the measured source-to-chamber distance by means of the images on the developed film, we can calculate the air kerma strength of the 192Ir using the new technique. Our calibration results were compared to the data provided by the manufacturer and that of five different well type ion chambers, namely, Sun Nuclear cooperation (SNC) 1008, Nucletron SDS 077.091, SDS 077.094, PTW TN33004 and Standard Imaging (SI) HDR-1000 Plus. The differences were all within 1.6%. Relative to the '7-distance measurement technique' by Stump et al., 2002, our method is more efficient if our empirical formula was used. In summary, our method is simpler and cost-effective to calibrate an 192Ir HDR brachytherapy source for those hospitals without a calibration jig or a well type ion chamber.

  4. Shapes of the $^{192,190}$Pb ground states from beta decay studies using the total absorption technique

    CERN Document Server

    Aguado, M E Estevez; Agramunt, J; Rubio, B; Tain, J L; Jordan, D.; Fraile, L M; Gelletly, W; Frank, A.; Csatlos, M.; Csige, L; Dombradi, Zs.; Krasznahorkay, A; Nacher, E; Sarriguren, P; Borge, M J G; Briz, J A; Tengblad, O; Molina, F.; Moreno, O; Kowalska, M; Fedosseev, V N; Marsh, B A; Fedorov, D V; Molkanov, P L; Andreyev, A.N.; Seliverstov, M D; Burkard, K; Huller, W

    2015-01-01

    The beta decay of $^{192,190}$Pb has been studied using the total absorption technique at the ISOLDE(CERN) facility. The beta-decay strength deduced from the measurements, combined with QRPA theoretical calculations, allow us to infer that the ground states of the $^{192,190}$Pb isotopes are spherical. These results represent the first application of the shape determination method using the total absorption technique for heavy nuclei and in a region where there is considerable interest in nuclear shapes and shape effects.

  5. Influence of paraoxonase-1 Q192R and cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms on clopidogrel response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rolf P Kreutz1,2, Perry Nystrom2, Yvonne Kreutz2, Jia Miao2, Zeruesenay Desta2, Jeffrey A Breall1, Lang Li2, ChienWei Chiang2, Richard Kovacs1, David A Flockhart2, Yan Jin21Krannert Institute of Cardiology, 2Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USABackground: The metabolic activation of clopidogrel is a two-step process. It has been suggested that paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is a rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of 2-oxo-clopidogrel to an active thiol metabolite. Conflicting results have been reported in regard to (1 the association of a common polymorphism of PON1 (Q192R with reduced rates of coronary stent thrombosis in patients taking clopidogrel and (2 its effects on platelet inhibition in patient populations of European descent. Methods: Blood samples from 151 subjects of mixed racial background with established coronary artery disease and who received clopidogrel were analyzed. Platelet aggregation was determined with light transmittance aggregometry and VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay. Genotyping for cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19*2 and *3 and PON1 (Q192R polymorphisms was performed.Results: Carriers of CYP2C19*2 alleles exhibited lower levels of platelet inhibition and higher on-treatment platelet aggregation than noncarriers. There was no significant difference in platelet aggregation among PON1 Q192R genotypes. Homozygous carriers of the wild-type variant of PON1 (QQ192 had similar on-treatment platelet reactivity to carriers of increased-function variant alleles during maintenance clopidogrel dosing, as well as after administration of a clopidogrel 600 mg loading dose.Conclusion: CYP2C19*2 allele is associated with impaired platelet inhibition by clopidogrel and high on-treatment platelet aggregation. PON1 (Q192R polymorphism does not appear to be a significant determinant of clopidogrel response.Keywords: PON1, platelet, aggregation, cytochrome P450 enzymes

  6. Clinical analysis of pregnancy outcomes in 192 cases with syphilis%妊娠合并梅毒192例妊娠结局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠敏; 王根菊; 韩国荣; 江红秀; 丁祎

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between rapid plasma regain(RPR) titer of syphilis and adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant woman with syphilis .Methods Screened by treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA ) test ,RPR titer of syphilis was examined in 192 pregnant women with syphilis before delivery .Adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed and compared between the pregnant women with syphilis treated by anti-syphilis therapy (group A ,162 cases) and those without treatment (group B ,30 cases ) .Results The risks for malformation , stillbirth ,congenital syphilis ,preterm birth and neonatal death were increased as RPR titer of syphilis elevated .The incidence rates of preterm birth ,neonatal malformation ,and congenital syphilis were higher in the cases with RPR titer of syphilis ≥1:8 than those ≤1:4(P<0 .05) .The incidence rates of neonatal malformation ,congenital syphilis and neonatal death were higher in group A than those in group B(P<0 .05) .Conclusion The risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes are increased as RPR titer of syphilis increases in pregnant woman with syphilis .The pregnancy outcomes can be improved significantly by anti-syphilis therapy in pregnant woman with syphilis .%目的 探讨妊娠梅毒快速血浆反应试验(RPR)滴度与妊娠不良结局的关系.方法 经梅毒螺旋体颗粒凝集试验(T PPA )筛查 ,对妊娠合并梅毒患者共192例孕母分娩前外周血检测RPR滴度 ,分析妊娠不良结局 ,比较孕期抗梅毒治疗组(162例)与未治疗组(30例)妊娠并发症及新生儿不良结局发生率.结果 随着孕母RPR滴度的升高 ,畸形、死胎、早产、先天性梅毒及新生儿死亡的风险升高.孕母RPR滴度≥1:8时早产、新生儿畸形和先天性梅毒发生率高于RPR滴度≤1:4者(P<0 .05).未治疗组新生儿畸形、先天性梅毒和死胎发生率高于治疗组(P<0 .05).结论 随着孕母RPR滴度的升高 ,妊娠不良结局风险升高;抗梅毒治疗能

  7. Determination of air kerma standard of high dose rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source; Determinacao da taxa de kerma no ar de referencia para {sup 192}Ir de alta taxa de dose para braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, E.J.; Alves, C.F.E.; Leite, S.P.; Magalhaes, L.A.G.; David, M.G.; Almeida, C.E. de, E-mail: cfealves@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Di Prinzio, R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology developed by the Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas and presently in use for determining of the air kerma standard of {sup 192}Ir high dose rate sources to calibrate well-type chambers. Uncertainty analysis involving the measurements procedure are presented. (author)

  8. Retreatment of recurrent carcinoma of the head and neck by afterloading interstitial 192Ir implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emami, B.; Marks, J.E.

    1983-10-01

    From January 1975 to December 1980, 25 patients with persistent or recurrent carcinomas of the head and neck were retreated for palliation at the Division of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology. These patients had all undergone extensive previous treatment by surgery and/or radiation. All were retreated with 192Ir interstitial implant with or without external radiation and/or surgical excision. Of 25 patients, 13 had complete response (CR) and 6 had partial response for a follow-up period of 1 to 7 years. Of 13 patients with CR, 6 are alive with no evidence of disease (NED) and two died NED. Detailed results are presented and the new strategy for such patients is discussed.

  9. Interstitial iridium-192 implantation for malignant brain tumours: Pt. 2. Clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, M.; McKeough, P.; Wu, A.; Kasdon, D.; Heros, D.; Chang, H.

    1989-02-01

    The treatment results of 37 patients with malignant brain neoplasms treated with a computed-tomography-guided stereotactic iridium-192 implant are reviewed. Of these, 29 patients with high-grade gliomas (20 with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), nine with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA)) received an implant as part of their initial management. The median survival was 14.5 and 15.5 months in the patients with previously untreated GBM and AA, respectively. In those patients with recurrent tumour after external-beam irradiation, durable local control over a year was achieved with implantation. Increasing the total tumour dose from 120 to 160 Gy did not improve survival or local control. Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) was used as an indicator of quality of life and was seen to decrease with a median interval of 8.5 months following treatment. No severe complications were noted in the entire group of patients treated with this implant procedure.

  10. Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Takeru; Kanaya, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Safumi; Asada, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    A large increase in oscillation frequency was achieved in resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) terahertz oscillators by reducing the conduction loss. An n+-InGaAs layer under the air-bridge electrode connected to the RTD was observed to cause a large conduction loss for high-frequency current due to the skin effect. By introducing a new fabrication process removing the InGaAs layer, we obtained 1.92-THz oscillation, which extended the highest frequency of room-temperature electronic single oscillators. Theoretical calculations reasonably agreed with the experiment, and an oscillation above 2 THz is further expected with an improved structure of the slot antenna used as a resonator and radiator.

  11. 损伤控制急救严重腹部创伤192

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓发远

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨损伤控制(DC)急救在严重腹部创伤中的应用效果。方法回顾性分析将损伤控制急救应用于192例严重腹部创伤患者的救治情况和治疗效果。结果192例患者均完成院前急救,186例完成损伤控制性手术(DCO)救治,184例进入外科重症监护病房(SICU)复苏,177例接受不同方式的再次确定性手术治疗。急救过程中,各项异常指标在DCO后72 h内逐渐恢复正常。治愈出院174例(90.6%),其中再次手术术后出现并发症4例(2.3%),经保守治疗痊愈;死亡12例(6.2%),死亡原因与损伤控制急救技术无关。结论符合指征的严重腹部创伤的患者,应积极选择适宜的损伤控制急救方式,并应根据损伤的不同部位和程度,分步骤治疗。

  12. HDR {sup 192}Ir source speed measurements using a high speed video camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares—IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Viana, Rodrigo S. S.; Yoriyaz, Hélio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares—IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil); Podesta, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Rubo, Rodrigo A.; Sales, Camila P. de [Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo—HC/FMUSP, São Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil); Reniers, Brigitte [Department of Radiation Oncology - MAASTRO, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Research Group NuTeC, CMK, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw H, Diepenbeek B-3590 (Belgium); Verhaegen, Frank, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology - MAASTRO, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Medical Physics Unit, Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The dose delivered with a HDR {sup 192}Ir afterloader can be separated into a dwell component, and a transit component resulting from the source movement. The transit component is directly dependent on the source speed profile and it is the goal of this study to measure accurate source speed profiles. Methods: A high speed video camera was used to record the movement of a {sup 192}Ir source (Nucletron, an Elekta company, Stockholm, Sweden) for interdwell distances of 0.25–5 cm with dwell times of 0.1, 1, and 2 s. Transit dose distributions were calculated using a Monte Carlo code simulating the source movement. Results: The source stops at each dwell position oscillating around the desired position for a duration up to (0.026 ± 0.005) s. The source speed profile shows variations between 0 and 81 cm/s with average speed of ∼33 cm/s for most of the interdwell distances. The source stops for up to (0.005 ± 0.001) s at nonprogrammed positions in between two programmed dwell positions. The dwell time correction applied by the manufacturer compensates the transit dose between the dwell positions leading to a maximum overdose of 41 mGy for the considered cases and assuming an air-kerma strength of 48 000 U. The transit dose component is not uniformly distributed leading to over and underdoses, which is within 1.4% for commonly prescribed doses (3–10 Gy). Conclusions: The source maintains its speed even for the short interdwell distances. Dose variations due to the transit dose component are much lower than the prescribed treatment doses for brachytherapy, although transit dose component should be evaluated individually for clinical cases.

  13. HDR 192Ir source speed measurements using a high speed video camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The dose delivered with a HDR 192Ir afterloader can be separated into a dwell component, and a transit component resulting from the source movement. The transit component is directly dependent on the source speed profile and it is the goal of this study to measure accurate source speed profiles. Methods: A high speed video camera was used to record the movement of a 192Ir source (Nucletron, an Elekta company, Stockholm, Sweden) for interdwell distances of 0.25–5 cm with dwell times of 0.1, 1, and 2 s. Transit dose distributions were calculated using a Monte Carlo code simulating the source movement. Results: The source stops at each dwell position oscillating around the desired position for a duration up to (0.026 ± 0.005) s. The source speed profile shows variations between 0 and 81 cm/s with average speed of ∼33 cm/s for most of the interdwell distances. The source stops for up to (0.005 ± 0.001) s at nonprogrammed positions in between two programmed dwell positions. The dwell time correction applied by the manufacturer compensates the transit dose between the dwell positions leading to a maximum overdose of 41 mGy for the considered cases and assuming an air-kerma strength of 48 000 U. The transit dose component is not uniformly distributed leading to over and underdoses, which is within 1.4% for commonly prescribed doses (3–10 Gy). Conclusions: The source maintains its speed even for the short interdwell distances. Dose variations due to the transit dose component are much lower than the prescribed treatment doses for brachytherapy, although transit dose component should be evaluated individually for clinical cases

  14. 41 CFR 102-192.15 - How are “I”, “you”, “me”, “we”, and “us” used in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Introduction to this Part § 102-192.15 How are “I”, “you”, “me”, “we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are âIâ, âyouâ,...

  15. The determination of Q192R polymorphism of paraoxonase 1 by using non-toxic substrate p-nitrophenylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Mogarekar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The Q192R polymorphism of PON1 by using non-toxic substrate p-nitrophenylacetate showed trimodal distribution of QQ (homozygous, QR (heterozygous, and RR (homozygous phenotype and it is comparable with reference method. This method can be used for PON1 phenotype in different pathological and complex disease conditions.

  16. 41 CFR 102-192.175 - What types of support does GSA offer to Federal agency mail management programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in mail management and mail operations; (b) Identifying better business practices and sharing them... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of support...-192.175 What types of support does GSA offer to Federal agency mail management programs? GSA...

  17. 19 CFR 192.12 - Criteria for denial of applications requesting AES post-departure (Option 4) filing status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulations (15 CFR 30.7(d)); (2) The applicant has a history of non-compliance with export regulations (e.g... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria for denial of applications requesting AES...) EXPORT CONTROL Filing of Export Information Through the Automated Export System (AES) § 192.12...

  18. 19 CFR 192.13 - Revocation of participants' AES post-departure (Option 4) filing privileges; appeal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of participants' AES post-departure... Filing of Export Information Through the Automated Export System (AES) § 192.13 Revocation of participants' AES post-departure (Option 4) filing privileges; appeal procedures. (a) Reasons for...

  19. 49 CFR 192.915 - What knowledge and training must personnel have to carry out an integrity management program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.915 What knowledge... to the integrity management program possesses and maintains a thorough knowledge of the integrity... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What knowledge and training must personnel have...

  20. 49 CFR 192.455 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed after July 31, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.455 External corrosion control: Buried or... against external corrosion, including the following: (1) It must have an external protective...

  1. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or... areas in which active corrosion is found: (1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines. (2)...

  2. Maternal exposure to floricultural work during pregnancy, PON1 Q192R polymorphisms and the risk of low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Although there is evidence from animal studies of impaired reproductive function by exposure to organophosphates (OP), the effects on birth weight have not been sufficiently evaluated in epidemiological studies. Paraoxonase (PON1) detoxifies organophosphates by cleavage of active oxons. Some PON1 gene polymorphisms could reduce the enzyme activity and increase susceptibility to OP toxicity. Objective: To assess the association between maternal exposure to floriculture during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight (< 2500 g) in their offspring, as well as to evaluate the interaction between this exposure and maternal genotype for PON1 Q192R polymorphisms. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in two Mexican states (States of Mexico and Morelos) with high frequencies of greenhouse activity. We interviewed and collected blood samples from 264 females (floriculturists or partners of floricultural workers) who became pregnant during the 10 years prior to the interview. The questionnaire measured socioeconomic characteristics, tobacco and alcohol consumption, diseases and occupational and reproductive history. We also applied a food frequency questionnaire. Information was obtained pertaining to 467 pregnancies. DNA was extracted from white cells, and PON1 genotype was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for Q192R polymorphisms. Results were analyzed with generalized estimating equations models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, we detected a statistically significant interaction between maternal exposure to flower growing work during pregnancy and PON1 Q192R polymorphisms on risk of low birth weight. The risk of having a baby with LBW is nearly six times higher if a mother is a floriculture worker during pregnancy and has PON1 192RR genotype (OR 5.93, 95% CI 1.28, 27.5). Conclusion: These results suggest that the interaction between maternal floriculture work during pregnancy and 192RR PON1

  3. Maternal exposure to floricultural work during pregnancy, PON1 Q192R polymorphisms and the risk of low birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Banda, G.; Blanco-Munoz, J. [Population Health Research Center, National Institute of Public Health, Avenida Universidad 655, Colonia Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, 62508 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Lacasana, M., E-mail: marina.lacasana.easp@juntadeandalucia.es [Andalusian School of Public Health, Campus Universitario de la Cartuja, Cuesta del Observatorio, 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP) (Spain); Rothenberg, S.J. [Population Health Research Center, National Institute of Public Health, Avenida Universidad 655, Colonia Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, 62508 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Center of Research and Advanced Studies, National Institute Polytechnic, Department of Toxicology, Av, Instituto Politecnico Nacional No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Deleg. Gustavo A. Madero, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Garduno, C. [Andalusian School of Public Health, Campus Universitario de la Cartuja, Cuesta del Observatorio, 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Andalusian Observatory of Environmental Health, Campus Universitario de la Cartuja, Cuesta del Observatorio, 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Gamboa, R. [Department of Physiology, National Institute of Cardiology ' Ignacio Chavez' , Juan Badiano 4, Section XVI, 14080, Mexico DF (Mexico); Perez-Mendez, O. [Department of Molecular Biology and cardiovascular Diseases Genomic and Proteomic, National Institute of Cardiology ' Ignacio Chavez' , Juan Badiano 4, Section XVI, 14080, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    Background: Although there is evidence from animal studies of impaired reproductive function by exposure to organophosphates (OP), the effects on birth weight have not been sufficiently evaluated in epidemiological studies. Paraoxonase (PON1) detoxifies organophosphates by cleavage of active oxons. Some PON1 gene polymorphisms could reduce the enzyme activity and increase susceptibility to OP toxicity. Objective: To assess the association between maternal exposure to floriculture during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight (< 2500 g) in their offspring, as well as to evaluate the interaction between this exposure and maternal genotype for PON1 Q192R polymorphisms. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in two Mexican states (States of Mexico and Morelos) with high frequencies of greenhouse activity. We interviewed and collected blood samples from 264 females (floriculturists or partners of floricultural workers) who became pregnant during the 10 years prior to the interview. The questionnaire measured socioeconomic characteristics, tobacco and alcohol consumption, diseases and occupational and reproductive history. We also applied a food frequency questionnaire. Information was obtained pertaining to 467 pregnancies. DNA was extracted from white cells, and PON1 genotype was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for Q192R polymorphisms. Results were analyzed with generalized estimating equations models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, we detected a statistically significant interaction between maternal exposure to flower growing work during pregnancy and PON1 Q192R polymorphisms on risk of low birth weight. The risk of having a baby with LBW is nearly six times higher if a mother is a floriculture worker during pregnancy and has PON1 192RR genotype (OR 5.93, 95% CI 1.28, 27.5). Conclusion: These results suggest that the interaction between maternal floriculture work during pregnancy and 192RR PON1

  4. Balloon-based adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer: comparison between {sup 99m}Tc and HDR {sup 192}Ir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de; Lima, Carla Flavia de; Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Objective: To perform a comparative dosimetric analysis, based on computer simulations, of temporary balloon implants with {sup 99m}Tc and balloon brachytherapy with high-dose-rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir, as boosts to radiotherapy. We hypothesized that the two techniques would produce equivalent doses under pre-established conditions of activity and exposure time. Materials and methods: simulations of implants with {sup 99m}Tc-filled and HDR {sup 192}Ir-filled balloons were performed with the Siscodes/MCNP5, modeling in voxels a magnetic resonance imaging set related to a young female. Spatial dose rate distributions were determined. In the dosimetric analysis of the protocols, the exposure time and the level of activity required were specified. Results: the {sup 99m}Tc balloon presented a weighted dose rate in the tumor bed of 0.428 cGy.h{sup -1}.mCi{sup -1} and 0.190 cGyh{sup -1} at the balloon surface and at 8-10 mm from the surface, respectively, compared with 0.499 and 0.150 cGyh{sup -1}.mCi{sup -1}, respectively, for the HDR {sup 192}Ir balloon. An exposure time of 24 hours was required for the {sup 99m}Tc balloon to produce a boost of 10.14 Gy with 1.0 Ci, whereas only 24 minutes with 10.0 Ci segments were required for the HDR {sup 192}Ir balloon to produce a boost of 5.14 Gy at the same reference point, or 10.28 Gy in two 24-minutes fractions. Conclusion: temporary {sup 99m}Tc balloon implantation is an attractive option for adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer, because of its availability, economic viability, and similar dosimetry in comparison with the use of HDR {sup 192}Ir balloon implantation, which is the current standard in clinical practice. (author)

  5. Balloon-based adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer: comparison between 99mTc and HDR 192Ir*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Tarcísio Passos Ribeiro; de Lima, Carla Flavia; Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a comparative dosimetric analysis, based on computer simulations, of temporary balloon implants with 99mTc and balloon brachytherapy with high-dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir, as boosts to radiotherapy. We hypothesized that the two techniques would produce equivalent doses under pre-established conditions of activity and exposure time. Materials and Methods Simulations of implants with 99mTc-filled and HDR 192Ir-filled balloons were performed with the Siscodes/MCNP5, modeling in voxels a magnetic resonance imaging set related to a young female. Spatial dose rate distributions were determined. In the dosimetric analysis of the protocols, the exposure time and the level of activity required were specified. Results The 99mTc balloon presented a weighted dose rate in the tumor bed of 0.428 cGy.h-1.mCi-1 and 0.190 cGyh-1.mCi-1 at the balloon surface and at 8-10 mm from the surface, respectively, compared with 0.499 and 0.150 cGyh-1.mCi-1, respectively, for the HDR 192Ir balloon. An exposure time of 24 hours was required for the 99mTc balloon to produce a boost of 10.14 Gy with 1.0 Ci, whereas only 24 minutes with 10.0 Ci segments were required for the HDR 192Ir balloon to produce a boost of 5.14 Gy at the same reference point, or 10.28 Gy in two 24-minutes fractions. Conclusion Temporary 99mTc balloon implantation is an attractive option for adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer, because of its availability, economic viability, and similar dosimetry in comparison with the use of HDR 192Ir balloon implantation, which is the current standard in clinical practice. PMID:27141131

  6. p192sc.m77t and p192sc.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity P-1-92-SC in Santa Monica Basin, Southern California from 01/30/1992 to 02/04/1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with Loran-C and GPS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise P-1-92-SC. The cruise was...

  7. p192mb.m77t and p192mb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity P-1-92-MB in Monterey Bay from 03/20/1992 to 03/22/1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with SINS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise P-1-92-MB. The cruise was conducted in...

  8. 儿童性早熟192例临床分析%Clinical analysis on 192 children with precocious puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华燕; 谢薇; 杨培; 郭相锐

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the age, causes, and clinical characteristics of precocious puberty, elevate cognition of children with precocious puherty. Methods: The age, clinical characteristics, causes, laboratory data of 192 children (including 5 boys and 187 girls) with precocious puberty who were diagnosed and treated in the hospital from April 2007 to May 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results; The proportion of girls among the children with precocious puberty was 97.4% ; the percentages of children aged 8 months-one year, -3 years, -9 years accounted for 2. 08% , 28. 12% , and 69.79% , respectively. The most common clinical manifestation was breast hyperplasia, accounting for 92.9% , followed by breast pigmentation (65. 5% ) , increase of vulval secretion (12. 3% ) , premature pubarche ( for 4. 3 % ), augmentation of clitoris (cauda salax) and didymus (4.6% ), and vaginal bleeding (0.01 %) . Causes; the children with gonadotropic hormone dependent precocious puberty accounted for 26.4%. Among the girls with isosexual precocious puberty, except two girls with pituitary neoplasms, one girl with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) , and one girl with Williams syndrome, other girls were diagnosed as idiopalhic precocious puberty. Two boys were diagnosed as congenital adrenal cortical hyperplasia (CAH) . The children with non - gonadotropic hormone dependent precocious puberty accounted for 73. 6%. All the girls manifested as isosexual precacious puberty; 3 boys manifested as heterosexual precocious puberty because of intake of exogenous estrogen (contraceptives) . The preva-lence of precocious puberty among the infants less than three years was 28. 12%. Except one child with CAH and one child with pituitary neoplasms , other children were diagnosed as non - gonadotropic hormone dependent precocious puberty; among the children with precocious puberty, rural children accounted for 87% , stay - at - home children accounted for most of the children, the main causes

  9. A CT-based analytical dose calculation method for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This article presents an analytical dose calculation method for high-dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy, taking into account the effects of inhomogeneities and reduced photon backscatter near the skin. The adequacy of the Task Group 43 (TG-43) two-dimensional formalism for treatment planning is also assessed. Methods: The proposed method uses material composition and density data derived from computed tomography images. The primary and scatter dose distributions for each dwell position are calculated first as if the patient is an infinite water phantom. This is done using either TG-43 or a database of Monte Carlo (MC) dose distributions. The latter can be used to account for the effects of shielding in water. Subsequently, corrections for photon attenuation, scatter, and spectral variations along medium- or low-Z inhomogeneities are made according to the radiological paths determined by ray tracing. The scatter dose is then scaled by a correction factor that depends on the distances between the point of interest, the body contour, and the source position. Dose calculations are done for phantoms with tissue and lead inserts, as well as patient plans for head-and-neck, esophagus, and MammoSite balloon breast brachytherapy treatments. Gamma indices are evaluated using a dose-difference criterion of 3% and a distance-to-agreement criterion of 2 mm. PTRANCT MC calculations are used as the reference dose distributions. Results: For the phantom with tissue and lead inserts, the percentages of the voxels of interest passing the gamma criteria (Pγ≥1) are 100% for the analytical calculation and 91% for TG-43. For the breast patient plan, TG-43 overestimates the target volume receiving the prescribed dose by 4% and the dose to the hottest 0.1 cm3 of the skin by 9%, whereas the analytical and MC results agree within 0.4%. Pγ≥1 are 100% and 48% for the analytical and TG-43 calculations, respectively. For the head-and-neck and esophagus patient plans, Pγ≥1 are ≥99

  10. Vascular brachytherapy with 90Sr/Y versus 192Ir: A health physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Currently there are two ongoing trials of catheter based radiation therapy in the United States, the BERT Trial (Emory University, Atlanta, GA) and the SCRIPPS Trial (Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA). The BERT method involved the use of a treatment system to manually deliver a source train consisting of 12, encapsulated 90Sr/Y seeds of 3 cm total active length. The total activity of the source train was approximately 3.7 GBq. The SCRIPPS trial involved the use of a hand delivered 192Ir (BEST Industries) source train of either 5 or 9 sources with 1 mm spacing between the sources. The average total activity of the source train was 3.6 GBq ± 1.08 GBq. It is the purpose of this study to compare the patient dose and staff exposures from the above source trains. A comparison with exposures from use of fluoroscopy in the catheterization laboratory will also be made. Materials and Methods: Measurements made with a GM meter at specified locations around the BERT patients during the insertion of the seeds were compared with published information from the SCRIPPS Trial. Monte Carlo modeled measurements of the equivalent dose in humans from insertion of the source trains were also compared for both methods. The above were contrasted with GM measurements from use of fluoroscopy in the catheterization laboratory. Results: Average exposure rates recorded at the patient's chest and groin from the BERT method were 4.9x10-4 and 1.29x10-4 C/kg·hr respectively. Average exposures to the operator from the BERT method and the SCRIPPS method were 8.6x10-6 and 1.03x10-3 C/kg respectively. A typical exposure rate for conventional cardiac fluoroscopy is 3.9x10-3 C/kg·hr. Monte Carlo modeled calculations of patient dose equivalent for the BERT method and the SCRIPPS method were 0.43 μSv and 6.41 mSv respectively. Conclusions: Vascular brachytherapy performed with 90Sr/Y sources resulted in staff exposures of at least a factor of 120 less and patient doses of a factor of nearly 15

  11. An innovative method for {sup 192}Ir HDR calibration by farmer chamber, V-film, and solid phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Liyun; Ding, Hueisch-Jy [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Ho, Sheng-Yow, E-mail: shengho@seed.net.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sinlau Christian Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-01

    A simple, practical and economical technique was proposed to calibrate an {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy source in terms of air kerma strength. This technique makes use of the 0.6 cm{sup 3} Farmer type ion chamber, radiographic film and polystyrene phantom. These tools are commonly used for dosimetry quality assurance of the clinical linear accelerator. In this study, the Exradin A19, PTW N30004 and TM30001 Farmer type ion chambers were used for the calibration of the {sup 192}Ir HDR source. To perform the calibration, a 25.4x30.5 cm{sup 2} radiographic film was taped on a piece of polystyrene plate, and a straight applicator probe of a HDR brachytherapy unit and the Farmer type ion chamber were affixed to the film envelope. The film was irradiated by the {sup 192}Ir source, followed by an exposure in the simulator X-ray beam. The film set with the film removed was then placed on a 5 cm thick polystyrene phantom for calibration measurement. Based on the electrometer reading from the Farmer type ion chamber irradiated by {sup 192}Ir and the measured source-to-chamber distance by means of the images on the developed film, we can calculate the air kerma strength of the {sup 192}Ir using the new technique. Our calibration results were compared to the data provided by the manufacturer and that of five different well type ion chambers, namely, Sun Nuclear cooperation (SNC) 1008, Nucletron SDS 077.091, SDS 077.094, PTW TN33004 and Standard Imaging (SI) HDR-1000 Plus. The differences were all within 1.6%. Relative to the '7-distance measurement technique' by Stump et al., 2002, our method is more efficient if our empirical formula was used. In summary, our method is simpler and cost-effective to calibrate an {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy source for those hospitals without a calibration jig or a well type ion chamber.

  12. Determination of the chemical yield on the Fricke dosimetry for {sup 192}Ir sources used in brachytherapy; Determinacao do rendimento quimico na dosimetria Fricke para fontes de {sup 192}Ir usadas em braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M.G.; Albuquerque, M.A.G.; Almeida, C.E. de, E-mail: marianogd08@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Salata, C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosado, P.H. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    With the aim of developing a primary standard for the absorbed dose to water, for the {sup 192}Ir sources used in high dose rate brachytherapy, this work focuses on the determination of the chemical yield, G(Fe{sup +3}), using Fricke dosimetry, for the energy of those sources . The G(Fe{sup +3}) were determined the for three qualities of x-ray beams (150, 250 and 300 kV ) and for {sup 60}Co energy. The G(Fe{sup +3}) value for the average energy of {sup 192}Ir was obtained by linear fit, the found value was 1,555 ± 0,015 μmol/J. (author)

  13. Monte Carlo angular dose distribution of the microselectron HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polar dose profiles around the Nucletron MicroSelectron high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir brachytherapy source were calculated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP (Monte Carlo N Particle) version 4A. The geometry modeled consisted of an identical simulation of the construction of the MicroSelectron HDR source located at the centre of a spherical water phantom of 100cm radius. Doses were calculated using a spherical coordinate system at 5 degree intervals (measured relative to the cable) at radii of 0.25, 0.5,1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0cm. These polar doses were compared to equivalent profiles from the Nucletron PLATO Brachytherapy Planning System (BPS) version 13.X. At 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0cm radii, the Monte Carlo and BPS profiles are generally within 3%. The near field polar dose profiles however, are in significant disagreement. At 1.0cm radius, the discrepancy can exceed 5%. At 0.5cm this figure rises to 15%, and even 60% at 0.25cm radius

  14. [Risk factors of late complications after interstitial 192Ir brachytherapy in cancers of the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffert, D

    1997-01-01

    Brachytherapy has confirmed its prevailing role in conservative treatment of oral cavity carcinomas. To describe late toxicity in long-term surviving patients, comparisons with other series are necessary. Study of series of patients implanted for floor of the mouth or mobile tongue shows the need for more detailed data. Dental prophylaxy and lead protection of the mandibule, good indications and techniques of brachytherapy are necessary to avoid late complications. Some treatment factors have proved to be of good prognosis for late complications through multivariate analysis of large series treated with lr 192 wires, using the Paris system, eg, dose rate lower than 0.5 or 0.7 Gy/h, intersource spacing smaller than 1.2 or 1.5 cm, treated surface less than 12 cm2, lineic activity less than 1.5 mCi/cm, less than 1 cm diameter hyperdose, and use of mandibular lead protections. Tumor volume and location to the floor of mouth lead to higher risk of complications. Knowledge of treatment-related factors is important, with the development of new afterloading projectors allowing to control the dose rate and correct small inhomogeneities. High-dose rate exclusive brachytherapy is not recommended. More precise and reproducible classification should be used to report complications in series leading to publications in the future, thus allowing to compare results, reduce complication rates and improve the quality of life.

  15. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong; GAO Shushan; LI Xiaoming; LI Chunshun; WANG Bingui

    2013-01-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192,an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa,resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites,including four indole-diterpenoids:penijanthine A (1),paspaline (2),paspalinine (3),and penitrem A (4); three tricycloaltemarene derivatives:tricycloalternarene 3a (5),tricycloaltemarene lb (6),and tricycloalternarene 2b (7); and two altemariol congeners:djalonensone (8) and altemariol (9).The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature.The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum,with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm,respectively,at 100 μ.g/disk.To the best of our knowledge,this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived Alternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus Alternaria.

  16. Monte Carlo characterization of the Gamma-Med Hdr plus Ir-192 brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, E.; Sosa, M. A.; Gil V, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Av. Insurgentes 2354, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Monzon, E., E-mail: eric_1985@fisica.ugto.mx [IMSS, Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad No. 1, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos 1813, 37340 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The MCNP4C Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the dosimetry around the Gamma-Med Hdr Plus iridium-192 brachytherapy source in both air/vacuum and water environments. Dosimetry data in water was calculated and are presented into an away-along table. All dosimetric quantities recommended by the AAPM Task Group 43 report have been also calculated. These quantities are air kerma strength, dose rate constant, radial dose function and anisotropy function. The obtained data are compared to this source reference data, finding results in good agreement with them. In this study, recommendations of the AAPM TG-43U1 report have been followed and comply with the most recent AAPM and ESTRO physics committee recommendations about Monte Carlo techniques. The data in the present study complement published data and can be used as input in the Tps or as benchmark data to verify the results of the treatment planning systems as well as a means of comparison with other datasets from this source. (Author)

  17. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Gao, Shushan; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Chunshun; Wang, Bingui

    2013-03-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192, an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites, including four indole-diterpenoids: penijanthine A ( 1), paspaline ( 2), paspalinine ( 3), and penitrem A ( 4); three tricycloalternarene derivatives: tricycloalternarene 3a ( 5), tricycloalternarene 1b ( 6), and tricycloalternarene 2b ( 7); and two alternariol congeners: djalonensone ( 8) and alternariol ( 9). The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature. The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm, respectively, at 100 μg/disk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived A lternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus A lternaria.

  18. Recovery from Iridium-192 flakes of a radioactive source for industrial use after a radiation incident; Recuperacion de hojuelas de Iridio-192 provenientes de una fuente radiactivas de uso industrial despues de un incidente radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, W.H.; Zapata, L.A., E-mail: wcruz@ipen.gob.pe, E-mail: lzapata@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (GRRA/IPEN), Lima (Peru). Division de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    2013-07-01

    The Iridium-192 ({sup 192}Ir) is the most used and ideal for industrial radiography applications, especially in petrochemical plants and pipelines and provides better contrast sensitivity for thick (25.4 mm). This source has constructive sealed double encapsulation, the internal capsule containing stainless steel to radioactive material in the form of flakes and welded with TIG process. The radiological incident happened at a gas station fuel sales in circumstances in which there was a homogeneity test welds a tank, the flakes or Ir-192 fell off his ponytail and left scattered over an area of 2 m{sup 2}, some fell flat areas and other land so collected in lead shielding and metal container and ground source. Full recovery of the leaflets was performed at the Division of radioactive waste management (GRRA) gaining a total of 22 flakes with no radiation risk to staff performance and installation and the conclusion was reached that the misapplicaion of TIG welding was the main cause the incident. (author)

  19. Preparation and determination of kerma for Iridium 192 sources of low dose rate for brachytherapy; Preparacion y determinacion del kerma de fuentes de iridio-192 de baja tasa de dosis para braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendilla, J.I.; Tovar M, V.; Mitsoura, E.; Aguilar H, F.; Alanis M, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, C.P. 52045-1, Salazar, Esrado de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The practice of Brachytherapy with Iridium-192 sources of low dose rate (0.4 - 0.8 Gy/h) is a technique used in the treatment of diverse illnesses. in this work the preparation, quality control and calibration are presented in terms of kerma in air of Iridium-192 using as target these recycled Iridium-Platinum wires. The targets were obtained as decayed sources of different radio therapeutical centers in the country and they were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy in order to determine their chemical composition. Subsequently it was developed an experimental design to establish the effect of neutron flux, geometrical array and irradiation time over the activity and percentage of the sources homogeneity. The homogeneity was determined by auto radiography and by Gamma spectroscopy. Once the optimal irradiation conditions were established, it is determined the apparent activity and kerma in air using a well type ionization chamber with traceability to a primary laboratory. Iridium-192 sources were obtained with an average homogeneity 96 %, apparent activity 282.129 {+-} 0.531 M Bq and kerma in air 0.03200 {+-} 0.00006 m Gy m/h A. (Author)

  20. A comparison of dosimetric parameters and dose distribution around CF -252 and IR-192 LDR Brachytherapy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of this work is the evaluation and comparison of the dose rate distributions around a 252Cf Applicator Tube (AT) and 192Ir LDR sources. The dosimetric parameters were determined for both sources according to the updated AAPM TG-43U1 protocol. The calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle MCNP code, version 5C. To validate the results of this study, they were compared to experimental and analytical dosimetric data available in the literature for similar source configurations. After validation, the Monte Carlo computer code was applied to investigate the difference between dose rate distributions around the two brachytherapy sources, with the purpose of comparing their efficiency in treatment. The data so obtained also provide further information about spatial dose distributions and are important for detailed treatment planning with 252 Cf or 192Ir LDR sources for interstitial and intracavitary therapy

  1. The influence of CYP 2C19*2 polymorphism on platelet function testing during single antiplatelet treatment with clopidogrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opstad Trine B

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different platelet function tests can be used to evaluate the degree of achieved platelet inhibition in patients treated with clopidogrel. The presence of CYP 2C19*2 polymorphism can reduce the formation of the active metabolite of clopidogrel, resulting in less platelet inhibition. Patients and Methods Patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease, all on chronic single aspirin treatment were randomized to continue on aspirin or change to clopidogrel. In 219 randomly selected clopidogrel treated patients, platelet reactivity was evaluated by VASP-PRI determination and by use of VerifyNow P2Y12-PRU. The CYP 2C19*2 G/A polymorphism was further determined. Results The total frequency of clopidogrel resistance was 29.0% by VASP-PRI and 31.6% by VerifyNow-PRU. The number of patients being hetero- and homozygous combined for the CYP 2C19*2 polymorphism (GA/AA was 64 (29%. Platelet reactivity was significantly higher in patients with the polymorphism compared to wild-type patients (GG. VASP-PRI was 50.9% (SD19 in patients having the polymorphism compared to 38.3% (SD21 in patients with the GG genotype (p = 0.001. Correspondingly, the mean PRU was 165 (SD67 compared to 124 (SD69 (p Conclusions Clopidogrel treated patients with the CYP 2C19*2 polymorphism have significantly increased platelet reactivity compared to patients with the wild-type, evaluated with the VASP determination, and even more pronounced with the VerifyNow P2Y12 method. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00222261

  2. The thrombin E192Q-BPTI complex reveals gross structural rearrangements: implications for the interaction with antithrombin and thrombomodulin.

    OpenAIRE

    van de Locht, A; Bode, W.; Huber, R; Le Bonniec, B F; Stone, S R; Esmon, C T; Stubbs, M T

    1997-01-01

    Previous crystal structures of thrombin indicate that the 60-insertion loop is a rigid moiety that partially occludes the active site, suggesting that this structural feature plays a decisive role in restricting thrombin's specificity. This restricted specificity is typified by the experimental observation that thrombin is not inhibited by micromolar concentrations of basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). Surprisingly, a single atom mutation in thrombin (E192Q) results in a 10(-8) M affi...

  3. Correction factors for Farmer-type chambers for absorbed dose determination in 60Co and 192Ir brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents experimentally determined correction factors for Farmer-type chambers for absorbed dose determination in 60Co and 192Ir brachytherapy dosimetry. The correction factors were determined from measurements made in a PMMA phantom and calculation of ratios of measured charges. The ratios were corrected for the different volumes of the ionization chambers, determined in external high-energy electron beams. The correction factors for the central electrode effect and the wall material dependency in 60Co brachytherapy dosimetry agree with those used in external 60Co beam dosimetry. In 192Ir dosimetry, the central aluminium electrode increases the response of an NE2571 chamber compared with that of a chamber with a central graphite electrode. The increase is 1.1 and 2.1% at 1.5 and 5.0 g cm-2 distance, respectively. Similar values are obtained with an NE2577 chamber. The wall correction factor in 192Ir dosimetry for a chamber with an A-150 wall has been determined to be 1.018, independent of the measurement distance. For a graphite walled chamber, the correction factor is 0.996 and 1.001 at 1.5 and 5.0 g cm-2 distance, respectively. The values of the wall correction factors are evaluated by a theory presented. If the chamber is used according to the 'large cavity' principle, the correction factor to account for the replacement of the phantom material by the ionization chamber was determined to be 0.982 for an NE2571 chamber when used with a Delrin cap, and 0.978 for an NE2581 when used with a polystyrene cap. The correction factors for the 'large cavity' principle are valid at both 60Co and 192Ir qualities. (author)

  4. Dosimetric study of a brachytherapy treatment of esophagus with Brazilian 192Ir sources using an anthropomorphic phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several radioisotopes are produced at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares for the use in medical treatments, including the activation of 192Ir sources. These sources are suitable for brachytherapy treatments, due to their low or high activity, depending on the concentration of 192Ir, easiness to manufacture, small size, stable daughter products and the possibility of re-utilization. They may be used for the treatment of prostate, cervix, head and neck, skin, breast, gallbladder, uterus, vagina, lung, rectum, and eye cancer treatment. In this work, the use of some 192Ir sources was studied for the treatment of esophagus cancer, especially the dose determination of important structures, such as those on the mediastinum. This was carried out utilizing a FASH anthropomorphic phantom and the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code to transport the radiation through matter. It was possible to observe that the doses at lungs, breast, esophagus, thyroid and heart were the highest, which was expected due to their proximity to the source. Therefore, the data are useful to assess the representative dose specific to brachytherapy treatments on the esophagus for radiation protection purposes. - Author-Highlights: • The use of brachytherapy sources was studied for the treatment of esophagus cancer. • FASH anthropomorphic phantom and MCNP5 Monte Carlo code were employed. • The doses at lungs, breast, esophagus, thyroid and heart were the highest. • The data is useful to assess the representative doses of treatments on the esophagus

  5. Positive clinical response to clopidogrel is independent of paraoxonase 1 Q192R and CYP2C19 genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Medina-Gil, José M; Rodríguez-González, Fayna; Garay-Sánchez, Paloma; Limiñana, José M; Saavedra, Pedro; Tugores, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing controversy about the influence of serum paraoxonase type 1 and cytochrome CYP2C19 in the conversion of clopidogrel to its pharmaceutically active metabolite. The effect of concomitant medication with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole has been also subject of intense scrutiny. We present a cohort of 263 patients receiving anti-platelet aggregation treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin for 1 year. The paraoxonase 1 gene Q192R variant along with the presence of CYP2C19*2 and *3 loss of function alleles, concomitant medication with proton pump inhibitors and known cardiovascular risk factors were examined to determine their influence in disease relapse due to an ischaemic event during the 12 month treatment period. The low number of patients suffering a relapse (20 out of 263), indicates that double anti-aggregation therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel was very effective in our patients. Among the relapsers, evidence of coronary heart disease was the most influencial factor affecting response to therapy, while the presence of the paraoxonase 1 Q192R variant, loss of function of CYP2C19, and concomitant medication with omeprazole were non-significant. PMID:24504666

  6. Effects of Endovascular Brachytherapy with 192Ir Afterloading System on Expression of Type Ⅰ Collagen after Angioplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向定成; 杨传红; 候友贤; 龚志华; 易绍东; 邱建

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To investi-gate the effect and mechanism of endovascularbrachytherapy with 192Ir on expression of type Ⅰ collagen, metalloproteinases - 1 (MMP - 1) and the tissueinhibitor (TIMP- 1 ) after angioplasty. MethodsRestenotic model of domestic microswine was em-ployed and the iliac arteries were randomized to radi-ation group ( n = 12), which were treated with 20 ~ 25Gy of 192Ir, and non - radiation group ( n = 36) afterangioplasty. The target vessels were harvested in theend of 3 months and 6 months after angioplasty. Im-munohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were usedto detect proteins of type Ⅰ collagen, MMP-1 andTIMP- 1, and mRNA expression of type Ⅰ collagen.Results The protein and mRNA of type Ⅰ collagen,the ratios of TIMP-1/MMP-1 were significantlylower iu radiation group than in non- radiation group( P < 0.05 or 0.01 ). The peak of transcription of typeⅠ collagen mRNA was at 6 months and 3 months in non-radiation group and radiation group respectively.Conclusions Endovascular brachytherapy with192Ir might modify the metabolism of extracellular ma-trix after angioplasty by inhibiting the synthesis of typeⅠ collagen and the activities of MMP - 1 and TIMP - 1.

  7. CT-guided percutaneous puncture sclerotherapy for parapelvic cysts: clinical analysis of 192 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the technology and experience of CT-guided percutaneous puncture sclerotherapy for the treatment of parapelvic cysts. Methods: During the period from June 2002 and June 2012, a total of 192 patients with parapelvic cyst were admitted to authors' hospital. The diameter of the cysts varied from 3 to 8 cm with a mean of 4.2 cm CT-guided percutaneous puncture sclerotherapy was carried out in all patients. All the patients were followed up, and the therapeutic results as well as the complications were analyzed. Results: Successful percutaneous puncture sclerotherapy with single procedure was obtained in all patients. The operation time was 25-55 minutes with an average time of 38.6 minutes. During the procedure, pain at renal region occurred in 16 patients, which was spontaneously relieved without receiving any special management. Eight patients developed dizzy and flushing, as slight drunk-like reactions, which disappeared after 30 minutes. Six months after the treatment, ultrasonography or CT scanning was performed to check the results. The cyst disappeared in 185 cases, and the diameter of the cyst became < 2 cm in 7 cases. The effective rate was 96.4%. During the follow-up period lasting for 6-24 months, no recurrence or enlargement of the cyst was seen. Conclusion: For the treatment of parapelvic cyst, CT-guided percutaneous puncture sclerotherapy is technically-simple with reliable effect and fewer complications. Therefore, this method should be regarded as one of the most optimal therapies. (authors)

  8. A retrospective study of 192 horses affected with septic arthritis/tenosynovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, R K; Bramlage, L R; Moore, R M; Mecklenburg, L M; Kohn, C W; Gabel, A A

    1992-11-01

    The medical records of 192 horses with septic arthritis/tenosynovitis 1979-1989 were reviewed. Forty-three horses developed infection after an intra-articular injection, 46 following a penetrating wound, 25 following surgery, 66 were foals less than 6 months old, and 12 were adult horses without a known aetiology. Haematogenous infection of a joint occurs in adult horses and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with an acute onset of severe lameness. The aetiology of the infection had a significant effect on the type of bacteria identified by culture. Staphylococcus was cultured from most of the horses that developed infection following a joint injection or surgery, 69% of the horses from which an organism was identified. Horses that developed infection secondary to a penetrating wound frequently provided cultures of more than one organism; Enterobacteriaceae and anaerobes were more frequently isolated in this group. The most common organisms isolated from foals were Enterobacteriaceae; E. coli was identified in more than 27% of the foals. The hock was the most frequently involved joint. Multiple treatments were used over the 10-year period of study. Survival rates were lowest in foals; only 45% survived to be released from the hospital. Survival was greater in adult horses; 85% of the horses that were treated were released from the hospital. Survival was significantly greater in horses with septic tenosynovitis; all 14 of the horses that were treated survived. Survival was not significantly affected by the joint involved or by the type of bacteria cultured from the synovial fluid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Evaluation of PC-ISO for customized, 3D Printed, gynecologic 192-Ir HDR brachytherapy applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, J Adam M; Mellis, Katherine; Sethi, Rajni; Siauw, Timmy; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Garg, Animesh; Goldberg, Ken; Hsu, I-Chow; Pouliot, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiation attenuation properties of PC-ISO, a commercially available, biocompatible, sterilizable 3D printing material, and its suitability for customized, single-use gynecologic (GYN) brachytherapy applicators that have the potential for accurate guiding of seeds through linear and curved internal channels. A custom radiochromic film dosimetry apparatus was 3D-printed in PC-ISO with a single catheter channel and a slit to hold a film segment. The apparatus was designed specifically to test geometry pertinent for use of this material in a clinical setting. A brachytherapy dose plan was computed to deliver a cylindrical dose distribution to the film. The dose plan used an 192Ir source and was normalized to 1500 cGy at 1 cm from the channel. The material was evaluated by comparing the film exposure to an identical test done in water. The Hounsfield unit (HU) distributions were computed from a CT scan of the apparatus and compared to the HU distribution of water and the HU distribution of a commercial GYN cylinder applicator. The dose depth curve of PC-ISO as measured by the radiochromic film was within 1% of water between 1 cm and 6 cm from the channel. The mean HU was -10 for PC-ISO and -1 for water. As expected, the honeycombed structure of the PC-ISO 3D printing process created a moderate spread of HU values, but the mean was comparable to water. PC-ISO is sufficiently water-equivalent to be compatible with our HDR brachytherapy planning system and clinical workflow and, therefore, it is suitable for creating custom GYN brachytherapy applicators. Our current clinical practice includes the use of custom GYN applicators made of commercially available PC-ISO when doing so can improve the patient's treatment.  PMID:25679174

  10. Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted high energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 nanoflakes have been prepared by high energy ball milling (HEBM) with oleic acid. → The morphology, structure and magnetic properties of Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 have been investigated. → These Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 nanoflakes had a thickness of 50-400 nm and a grain size of 15-21 nm. → The as-made samples had sustained little oxidation after surfactant-assisted HEBM. → Oleic acid was efficient to protect the powders from oxidation. - Abstract: Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 nanoflakes with larger specific surface and higher resistance to oxidation have been prepared by high energy ball milling (HEBM) with oleic acid. The morphology, structure and magnetic properties of Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively. The experimental results showed that the as-made samples had sustained little oxidation after surfactant-assisted HEBM suggesting that oleic acid was efficient to protect the powders from oxidation. These Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 nanoflakes have great potential to be used for the preparation of high performance Terfenol composites with reduced eddy current heating.

  11. Examining the critical roles of human CB2 receptor residues Valine 3.32 (113) and Leucine 5.41 (192) in ligand recognition and downstream signaling activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqarni, Mohammed; Myint, Kyaw Zeyar; Tong, Qin; Yang, Peng; Bartlow, Patrick; Wang, Lirong; Feng, Rentian; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2014-09-26

    We performed molecular modeling and docking to predict a putative binding pocket and associated ligand-receptor interactions for human cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2). Our data showed that two hydrophobic residues came in close contact with three structurally distinct CB2 ligands: CP-55,940, SR144528 and XIE95-26. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments and subsequent functional assays implicated the roles of Valine residue at position 3.32 (V113) and Leucine residue at position 5.41 (L192) in the ligand binding function and downstream signaling activities of the CB2 receptor. Four different point mutations were introduced to the wild type CB2 receptor: V113E, V113L, L192S and L192A. Our results showed that mutation of Val113 with a Glutamic acid and Leu192 with a Serine led to the complete loss of CB2 ligand binding as well as downstream signaling activities. Substitution of these residues with those that have similar hydrophobic side chains such as Leucine (V113L) and Alanine (L192A), however, allowed CB2 to retain both its ligand binding and signaling functions. Our modeling results validated by competition binding and site-directed mutagenesis experiments suggest that residues V113 and L192 play important roles in ligand binding and downstream signaling transduction of the CB2 receptor.

  12. Determination of factors through Monte Carlo method for Fricke dosimetry from {sup 192}Ir sources for brachytherapy; Determinacao por Monte Carlo de fatores para dosimetria Fricke de fontes de {sup 192}Ir para braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Mariano Gazineu; Salata, Camila; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: marianogd08@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/LCR), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2014-07-01

    The Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas develops a methodology for the determination of the absorbed dose to water by Fricke chemical dosimetry method for brachytherapy sources of {sup 192}Ir high dose rate and have compared their results with the laboratory of the National Research Council Canada. This paper describes the determination of the correction factors by Monte Carlo method, with the Penelope code. Values for all factors are presented, with a maximum difference of 0.22% for their determination by an alternative way. (author)

  13. Interstitial brachytherapy with 192-IR in treatment of recurrent malignant primary brain tumors. Braquiterapia intersticial con iridio-192 en el tratamiento de recidivas de tumores cerebrales tras cirugia y radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenes, R.; Martinez, R.; Victoria, C.; Nuez, L.; Clavo, B.; Sancedo, G. (Clinica Puerta de Hierro. Madrid (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Seven patients with recurrent malignant primary brain tumors after surgery and radiation therapy were treated at the Clinica Puerta de Hierro (Madrid) by interstitial brachytherapy with 192-Ir sources. Implantations were performed using computerized tomography and dose prescription were determined following the Paris system rules for interstitial implants. The means dose deliberated was 50 to 65 Gy to the reference isodoses. At the last follow-up all patients except for one are alive and without evidence of progression of the disease. (Author) 35 refs.

  14. Anisotropy measurement of {sup 192} Ir sources used in high dose rate brachytherapy; Medida da anisotropia de fontes de Ir-192 utilizadas em braquiterapia de altas taxa de dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Keli Cristina; Khoury, Helen J.; Luz, Lidia Cristina P. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the dose distribution around the Ir-192 source used in MicroSelectron-HDR remote after loader system. The measurements were made in air with the source stationary, positioned at the position 1, from the indexer of the microSelectron-HDR. Measurements were made using TLD and for radial distances of 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 cm, for values of the angle from 0 deg c to 360 deg C in steps of 15 deg C. (author)

  15. Determination of transit dose profile for a {sup 192}Ir HDR source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, G. P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo 05508-000, Brazil and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Rubo, R. A.; Santos, G. R. dos [Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo - HC/FMUSP, Sao Paulo 05403-900 (Brazil); Minamisawa, R. A. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Antunes, P. C. G.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Several studies have reported methodologies to calculate and correct the transit dose component of the moving radiation source for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning systems. However, most of these works employ the average source speed, which varies significantly with the measurement technique used, and does not represent a realistic speed profile, therefore, providing an inaccurate dose determination. In this work, the authors quantified the transit dose component of a HDR unit based on the measurement of the instantaneous source speed to produce more accurate dose values. Methods: The Nucletron microSelectron-HDR Ir-192 source was characterized considering the Task Group 43 (TG-43U1) specifications. The transit dose component was considered through the calculation of the dose distribution using a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNP5, for each source position and correcting it by the source speed. The instantaneous source speed measurements were performed in a previous work using two optical fibers connected to a photomultiplier and an oscilloscope. Calculated doses were validated by comparing relative dose profiles with those obtained experimentally using radiochromic films. Results: TG-43U1 source parameters were calculated to validate the Monte Carlo simulations. These agreed with the literature, with differences below 1% for the majority of the points. Calculated dose profiles without transit dose were also validated by comparison with ONCENTRA{sup Registered-Sign} Brachy v. 3.3 dose values, yielding differences within 1.5%. Dose profiles obtained with MCNP5 corrected using the instantaneous source speed profile showed differences near dwell positions of up to 800% in comparison to values corrected using the average source speed, but they are in good agreement with the experimental data, showing a maximum discrepancy of approximately 3% of the maximum dose. Near a dwell position the transit dose is about 22% of the dwell dose delivered

  16. GIn192Arg polymorphism in paraoxonase 1 gene is associated with Alzheimer disease in a Chinese Han ethnic population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-ming; ZHANG Zhen-xin; ZHANG Jun-wu; ZHOU Yong-tao; TANG Mou-ni; WU Cheng-bin; HONG Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is thought to be an important mechanism in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an enzyme located on high-density lipoprotein,can prevent LDL from oxidation to some extent. It is also a potent cholinesterase inhibitor and an arylesterase,combating organophosphate poisoning and metabolization of environmental neurotoxins which might be responsible for neurodegeneration with aging. We evaluated the association of Gln192Arg polymorphism in the PON1 gene with AD in a Chinese Han ethnic population.Methods Patients and age-matched controls were recruited from outpatient clinics and a population-based epidemiological survey, respectively. Gln192Arg polymorphism in the PON1 gene was detected by allele-specific PCR technique in 521 patients with AD and 578 healthy controls.Results The presence of at least one of PON1 R alleles (Q/R or R/R) was lower in AD patients than in the controls (82.7% vs 87.4%; x2 = 4.68, P = 0.03). PON1 gene R allele frequency was lower in AD patients than in the controls (60.7% vs 64.7%, X2=3.85, P = 0.05). One-way ANOVA showed that PON1 genotype had no effect on the age of onset for developing AD. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated the age and sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the risk of AD in PON1 of PON1 R allele carriers was 0.71 (P = 0.044, 95%CI, 0.51 - 0.99).Conclusion Our results indicate that Gln192Arg polymorphism in the PON1 gene is associated with AD, and PON1 R allele might be a protective factor for AD in a Chinese Han ethnic population.

  17. Estimation of distance error by fuzzy set theory required for strength determination of HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Datta, D; Sharma, S D; Chourasiya, G; Babu, D A R; Sharma, D N

    2014-04-01

    Verification of the strength of high dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir brachytherapy sources on receipt from the vendor is an important component of institutional quality assurance program. Either reference air-kerma rate (RAKR) or air-kerma strength (AKS) is the recommended quantity to specify the strength of gamma-emitting brachytherapy sources. The use of Farmer-type cylindrical ionization chamber of sensitive volume 0.6 cm(3) is one of the recommended methods for measuring RAKR of HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources. While using the cylindrical chamber method, it is required to determine the positioning error of the ionization chamber with respect to the source which is called the distance error. An attempt has been made to apply the fuzzy set theory to estimate the subjective uncertainty associated with the distance error. A simplified approach of applying this fuzzy set theory has been proposed in the quantification of uncertainty associated with the distance error. In order to express the uncertainty in the framework of fuzzy sets, the uncertainty index was estimated and was found to be within 2.5%, which further indicates that the possibility of error in measuring such distance may be of this order. It is observed that the relative distance li estimated by analytical method and fuzzy set theoretic approach are consistent with each other. The crisp values of li estimated using analytical method lie within the bounds computed using fuzzy set theory. This indicates that li values estimated using analytical methods are within 2.5% uncertainty. This value of uncertainty in distance measurement should be incorporated in the uncertainty budget, while estimating the expanded uncertainty in HDR (192)Ir source strength measurement.

  18. Search for Excited Leptons in $e^+ e^-$ Interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$=192 - 202 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, L; Balandras, A; Baldew, S V; Todorova-Nová, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Cucciarelli, S; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Dufournaud, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Khan, R A; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Kopp, A; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Lugnier, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Marian, G; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Oulianov, A; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Park, H K; Park, I H; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Seganti, A; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Sztaricskai, T; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, A; Zilizi, G; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    Excited leptons are searched for using the L3 detector at LEP. The data collected at centre-of-mass energies in the range from 192 up to 202 GeV correspond to a total luminosity of 233 $\\rm pb^{-1}$. No evidence of either pair production of excited leptons, nor of single production is found. From the searches for pair produced excited leptons, lower mass limits close to the kinematic limit are set. From the searches for singly produced excited leptons, upper limits on their couplings are derived in the mass range up to 200 GeV.

  19. Study of Z Boson Pair Production in $e^+ e^-$ Interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 192-202 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, L; Balandras, A; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Conventi, F; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Cucciarelli, S; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Dufournaud, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Khan, R A; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Kopp, A; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Lugnier, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Marian, G; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Oulianov, A; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Park, H K; Park, I H; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Seganti, A; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Sztaricskai, T; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, A; Zilizi, G; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    The cross section for the production of Z boson pairs is measured using the data collected by the L3 detector at LEP in 1999 in $\\rm e^+e^-$ collisions at centre--of--mass energies ranging from 192 GeV up to 202 GeV. Events in all the visible final states are selected, measuring the cross section of this process. The special case of final states containing b quarks is also investigated. All results are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions.

  20. Limited external irradiation and interstitial 192iridium implant in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between January 1976 and March 1982, 80 patients with histologically proven diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region were treated with definitive radiotherapy. Sixty-five (81%) of these patients had locally advanced tumors (Stage III and IV); 49% of patients had clinically palpable cervical lymphadenopathy. All patients received a combined external megavoltage and interstitial irradiation. The dose of external irradiation was limited to 4500-5000 cGy over 41/2 to 51/2 weeks. This was followed by interstitial 192iridium implants to doses of 2000-2500 cGy in 50-60 hours for T1, T2 lesions and 3000-4000 cGy in 60-100 hours for T3, T4 lesions. The neck masses were also separately implanted to deliver additional doses of 2000-4000 cGy in 50-80 hours. Overall local tumor control was observed in 84% of patients with a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. An absolute 3-year disease free survival of the entire group was 72%. Treatment related complications such as soft tissue necrosis or osteoradionecrosis occurred in 6% (5/80) of patients. The salvage of neck failures and local failures was possible in 78 and 38% of patients, respectively, either by surgery or by re-irradiation employing interstitial 192iridium implants. Functional and esthetic integrity was well preserved in most cases

  1. Investigation of Dosimetric Parameters of $^{192}$Ir MicroSelectron v2 HDR Brachytherapy Source Using EGSnrc Monte Carlo Code

    CERN Document Server

    Naeem, Hamza; Zheng, Huaqing; Cao, Ruifen; Pei, Xi; Hu, Liqin; Wu, Yican

    2016-01-01

    The $^{192}$Ir sources are widely used for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatments. The aim of this study is to simulate $^{192}$Ir MicroSelectron v2 HDR brachytherapy source and calculate the air kerma strength, dose rate constant, radial dose function and anisotropy function established in the updated AAPM Task Group 43 protocol. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code package is used to calculate these dosimetric parameters, including dose contribution from secondary electron source and also contribution of bremsstrahlung photons to air kerma strength. The Air kerma strength, dose rate constant and radial dose function while anisotropy functions for the distance greater than 0.5 cm away from the source center are in good agreement with previous published studies. Obtained value from MC simulation for air kerma strength is $9.762\\times 10^{-8} \\textrm{UBq}^{-1}$and dose rate constant is $1.108\\pm 0.13\\%\\textrm{cGyh}^{-1} \\textrm{U}^{-1}$.

  2. Quality assurance programme in high dose rate brachytherapy with Iridium-192 source. Recommendations of the French Medical Physicists Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on Quality Assurance in High Dose Rate brachytherapy with Iridium-192 source has been prepared by the task group of the Brachytherapy committee of the French Medical Physicists Society. This report provides recommendations on what should be tested, the methods to be used, the test frequencies and the tolerances. The Quality Assurance Programme concerns mainly the Q.A. on the treatment unit, the treatment planning system and the patient procedure. Tolerances and action levels are linked to international recommendations. Safety standards are linked to national legislation and to international recommendations. It is the responsibility of the Institution to verify that the source calibration provided by the manufacturer is correct. The calibration of the Iridium-192 source should be an in-air measurement of air-kerma using an ionization chamber. The recommended tolerance between manufacturer and Institution calibration is 3 %. Quality Control on remote afterloading systems should include consideration of the accuracy and reproducibility of positioning of sources in the applicators. Safety features must also be evaluated regularly and emergency procedures should be tested regularly and posted in a prominent place. After the detailed acceptance tests of dose calculation algorithm, routine checks should be done after software update. An independent dose calculation is recommended before treatment. The recommended agreement with the computer calculation should be within 10%. A written dosimetry report for each brachytherapy procedure is recommended to be inserted in patient charts. The results of all tests should be recorded in a logbook. Fault conditions should be carefully documented

  3. Oncologic and functional outcome of base of tongue cancer treated with external-beam radiation and I-192 implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses tumor control and functional outcome for squamous cancer of the base of the tongue managed with external irradiation plus Ir-192 implant. Between January 1981 and June 1990, 36 previously untreated patients were treated with 5,000-5,400 cGy of external-beam radiation plus a 2,000-3,000 cGy boost to the base of tongue with an Ir-192 implant. Negative necks were irradiated alone, and positive necks were treated with irradiation followed by neck dissection. Crude local control by T stage are as follows: T1, 10 of 11; T2, 13 of 14; T3, 8 of 10; and T4 1 of 1. Actuarial local control is 87.5%. Of the four local failures, two were salvaged by surgery. Neck control was achieved in 35 of 36 patients. Complications occurred in 25%. When implantation was done with the nonlooping technique, the injury rate was statistically higher than when done with the looping technique (6 of 12 = 50% vs 3 of 24 = 12.5%, P = .02)

  4. Proposal of a postal system for Ir-192 sources calibration used in high dose rate brachytherapy with LiF:Mn:Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters; Proposta de um sistema postal para a calibracao de fontes de {sup 192} Ir, utilizadas em braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose, com dosimetros termoluminescentes de LiF: Mn: Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, W.S.; Borges, J.C.; Almeida, C.E.V. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. CNEN Caixa Postal 37750, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    A proposal in order to improve the brachytherapy quality control and to allow postal intercomparison of Ir-192 sources used in high dose rate brachytherapy has been presented. The LiF: Mn: Ti (TLD 100) detector has been selected for such purpose. The experimental array and the TLDs irradiation and calibration techniques, at the treatment units, have been specified in the light of more recent methodology of Ir-192 calibration sources. (Author)

  5. An asteroseismic constraint on the mass of the axion from the period drift of the pulsating DA white dwarf star L19-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córsico, Alejandro H.; Romero, Alejandra D.; Althaus, Leandro G.; García-Berro, Enrique; Isern, Jordi; Kepler, S. O.; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Sullivan, Denis J.; Chote, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We employ an asteroseismic model of L19-2, a relatively massive (Mstar ~ 0.75 Msolar) and hot (Teff ~ 12 100 K) pulsating DA (H-rich atmosphere) white dwarf star (DAV or ZZ Ceti variable), and use the observed values of the temporal rates of period change of its dominant pulsation modes (Π ~ 113 s and Π ~ 192 s), to derive a new constraint on the mass of the axion, the hypothetical non-barionic particle considered as a possible component of the dark matter of the Universe. If the asteroseismic model employed is an accurate representation of L19-2, then our results indicate hints of extra cooling in this star, compatible with emission of axions of mass ma cos2β lesssim 25 meV or an axion-electron coupling constant of gae lesssim 7 × 10-13.

  6. 联合检测血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2在非小细胞肺癌患者中的诊断%Clinical diagnostic value of combined detection of serum Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖长征; 徐文莉; 魏晟潇; 许瑞环; 刘紫菱; 罗艺

    2014-01-01

    目的::探讨联合检测血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2在非小细胞肺癌患者中的诊断。方法:采用化学发光免疫法检测92例非小细胞肺癌患者、83例肺部良性疾病患者和90例健康体检者血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2的浓度,并判断两者的相关性。比较单独与联合检测Cyfra21-1、CK19-2G2对于诊断非小细胞肺癌的灵敏度和特异性。结果:非小细胞肺癌组血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2水平显著高于肺部良性疾病组和健康对照组( P<0.01);非小细胞肺癌患者血清Cyfra 21-1与CK19-2G2水平呈正相关性( P<0.05)。两者联合诊断非小细胞肺癌的灵敏度为82.7%、特异性为78%。结论:Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2是有效的诊断非小细胞肺癌的肿瘤标志物。血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2水平在非小细胞肺癌的诊断中有临床应用价值,两者联合检测的灵敏度和特异性高。%Objective:To investigate the clinical diagnostic value of the combined detection of serum Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 in patients with the non-small cell lung cancer ( NSCLC ) . Methods:The levels of serum Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 in 92 cases of NSCLC,83 of benign lung diseases and 90 of healthy controls were detected by chemiluminescent immunoassay. And the correlation between Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 was evaluated.Moreover,the sensitivity and specificity of combined detection of serum Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 for of the diagnosis of the NSCLC was compared with detection of either alone.Results:The Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 levels in serum of the NSCLC patients were significantly higher than those with benign lung disease and healthy controls (P<0.01).The Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 levels of the NSCLC patients were positively correlated (P<0. 05).Combined detection of both biomarkers in NSCLC yielded a sensitivity of 82.7% and a specificity of 78%. Conclusions:Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 are effective tumor markers for the diagnosis of NSCLC. With high sensitivity and specificity of

  7. Clinical diagnostic value of combined detection of serum Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer%联合检测血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2在非小细胞肺癌患者中的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖长征; 徐文莉; 魏晟潇; 许瑞环; 刘紫菱; 罗艺

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical diagnostic value of the combined detection of serum Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 in patients with the non-small cell lung cancer ( NSCLC ) . Methods:The levels of serum Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 in 92 cases of NSCLC,83 of benign lung diseases and 90 of healthy controls were detected by chemiluminescent immunoassay. And the correlation between Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 was evaluated.Moreover,the sensitivity and specificity of combined detection of serum Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 for of the diagnosis of the NSCLC was compared with detection of either alone.Results:The Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 levels in serum of the NSCLC patients were significantly higher than those with benign lung disease and healthy controls (P<0.01).The Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 levels of the NSCLC patients were positively correlated (P<0. 05).Combined detection of both biomarkers in NSCLC yielded a sensitivity of 82.7% and a specificity of 78%. Conclusions:Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 are effective tumor markers for the diagnosis of NSCLC. With high sensitivity and specificity of the combined detection,serum Cyfra 21-1 and CK19-2G2 levels are clinically useful in the diagnosis of NSCLC.%目的::探讨联合检测血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2在非小细胞肺癌患者中的诊断。方法:采用化学发光免疫法检测92例非小细胞肺癌患者、83例肺部良性疾病患者和90例健康体检者血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2的浓度,并判断两者的相关性。比较单独与联合检测Cyfra21-1、CK19-2G2对于诊断非小细胞肺癌的灵敏度和特异性。结果:非小细胞肺癌组血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2水平显著高于肺部良性疾病组和健康对照组( P<0.01);非小细胞肺癌患者血清Cyfra 21-1与CK19-2G2水平呈正相关性( P<0.05)。两者联合诊断非小细胞肺癌的灵敏度为82.7%、特异性为78%。结论:Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2是有效的诊断非小细胞肺癌的肿瘤标志物。血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2

  8. Unexpected Modulation of Recall B and T Cell Responses after Immunization with Rotavirus-like Particles in the Presence of LT-R192G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Basset

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available LT-R192G, a mutant of the thermolabile enterotoxin of E. coli, is a potent adjuvant of immunization. Immune responses are generally analyzed at the end of protocols including at least 2 administrations, but rarely after a prime. To investigate this point, we compared B and T cell responses in mice after one and two intrarectal immunizations with 2/6 rotavirus-like particles (2/6-VLP and LT-R192G. After a boost, we found, an unexpected lower B cell expansion measured by flow cytometry, despite a secondary antibody response. We then analyzed CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs and CD4+CD25+Foxp3− helper T cells after in vitro (restimulation of mesenteric lymph node cells with the antigen (2/6-VLP, the adjuvant (LT-R192G or both. 2/6-VLP did not activate CD4+CD25+Foxp3− nor Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice, whereas they did activate both subsets from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP in the presence of adjuvant. LT-R192G dramatically decreased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice but not from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP and adjuvant. Moreover, in this case, LT-R192G increased Foxp3 expression on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, suggesting specific Treg activation during the recall. Finally, when both 2/6-VLP and LT-R192G were used for restimulation, LT-R192G clearly suppressed both 2/6-VLP-specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3− and Foxp3+ T cells. All together, these results suggest that LT-R192G exerts different effects on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, depending on a first or a second contact. The unexpected immunomodulation observed during the recall should be considered in designing vaccination protocols.

  9. Applicability of a prototype for determination of absorbed dose using brachytherapy equipment with Ir-192 sources; Aplicabilidade de um prototipo para determinacao da dose absorvida utilizando equipamentos de braquiterapia com fontes de IR-192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne Lucia Bormann; Almeida, Mayara Gabriella Oliveira de; Vieira, Rafaela Etelvina de Amorim; Silva, Waldecy Ananias da; Nascimento, Rizia Keila, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mayaradqf@hotmail.com, E-mail: rodriguesss@hootmail.com, E-mail: waldecy@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: riziakeila@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work aims at the development and improvement of a device to perform the absolute dosimetry sources of Ir-192 using the Fricke solution contained in a flask. The Fricke solution used was prepared using amounts of ferrous ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and sulfuric acid, diluted with water tri distilled pre-established in the literature. The spectrophotometer used was a UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Beckman DU-640 Counter) for measuring the optical density at wavelength 304 nm. The calculation for determining the radial dose takes into account the radial distance and the angle formed with the transverse axis of the source. As the results obtained can be seen that the states of Pernambuco, Ceara, Paraiba e Piaui are in accordance with the recommendations of international standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which considers not acceptable a difference greater than 5% of prescribed dose and measured dose.

  10. Metal stent and endoluminal high-dose rate 192iridium brachytherapy in palliative treatment of malignant biliary tract obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since December 1989, 9 patients with inoperable malignant biliary tract obstruction were treated palliatively by a combined modality treatment consisting of placement of a permanent biliary endoprosthesis followed by intraluminal high dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy. A dose of 10 Gy was delivered in a hyperfractionated schedule at the point of reference in a distance of 7.5 mm of centre of the source. External small field radiotherapy (50.4 Gy, 1.8 Gy per day, 5 fractions per week) was also given in six cases (M/O, Karnofsky >60%). In 9/9 cases an unrestrained bile flow and an interruption of pruritus was achieved, in 78% (7/9) of cases the duration of palliation was as long as the survival time (median survival time 7.5 months). (orig.)

  11. Ultimate treatment for a patient with severe traumatic brain injury without intake for 192 hours after Wenchuan massive earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jian-wen; ZHOU Hu-tian; YANG Tao; CHENG Jing-min; QU Yan; LI Cui-ying; LI Qing-jie; L(U) Ji-yun; CHENG Shou-long; LIU Jian-jun; KUANG Yong-qin; HUANG Hai-dong; YANG Li-bin; HE Wei-qi; ZHAO Kai; SONG Li-xin; ZHENG Xiao-dong; LIU Shu-xin; SUN Yan; HE Hong-lian; WU Jiang; LIU Xu-sheng; LU Min

    2009-01-01

    @@ At 14:28 (2:28 pm) on May 12, 2008, a magnitude 8 earthquake, which was a rare event, occurred in Sichuan Province of China and led to deaths of thousands of people. In the Longmen Mountain fault zone, which is located 40 miles from the earthquake center at Wenchuan, the Chinese military used a variety of treatment methods to rescue the injured and successfully treated a victim with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who survived without food or water intake for 192 hours. Two hundred and twenty-four hours after the earthquake, the patient underwent craniotomy and removal of an intracerebral hematoma. The injury to the patient was severe and the rescue time was the longest for this earthquake. Detailed information is provided in this report.

  12. Dosimetric impact of an 192Ir brachytherapy source cable length modeled using a grid-based Boltzmann transport equation solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose distributions of an 192Ir source (model VS2000) in homogeneous water geometry calculated using a deterministic grid-based Boltzmann transport equation solver (GBBS) in the commercial treatment planning system (TPS) (BRACHYVISION-ACUROS v8.8). Methods: Using percent dose differences (%ΔD), the GBBS (BV-ACUROS) was compared to the (1) published TG-43 data, (2) MCNPX Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the 192Ir source centered in a 15 cm radius water sphere, and (3) TG-43 output from the TPS using vendor supplied (BV-TG43-vendor) and user extended (BV-TG43-extended) 2D anisotropy functions F(r,θ). BV-ACUROS assumes 1 mm of NiTi cable, while the TPS TG-43 algorithm uses data based on a 15 cm cable. MC models of various cable lengths were simulated. Results: The MC simulations resulted in >20% dose deviations along the cable for 1, 2, and 3 mm cable lengths relative to 15 cm. BV-ACUROS comparisons with BV-TG43-vendor and BV-TG43-extended yielded magnitude of differences, consistent with those seen in MC simulations. However, differences >20% extended further (θ≤10 deg.) when using the vendor supplied anisotropy function Fven(r,θ). These differences were also seen in comparisons of F(r,θ) derived from the TPS output. Conclusions: The results suggest that %ΔD near the cable region is larger than previously estimated. The spatial distribution of the dose deviation is highly dependent on the reference TG-43 data used to compare to GBBS. The differences observed, while important to realize, should not have an impact on clinical dosimetry in homogeneous water.

  13. Planck cold clumps in the $\\lambda$ Orionis complex: I. Discovery of an extremely young Class 0 protostellar object and a proto-brown dwarf candidate in a bright rimmed clump PGCC G192.32-11.88

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wu, Yuefang; Lee, Chang Won; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Tatematsu, Kenichi; Choi, Minho; Juvela, Mika; Thompson, Mark; Goldsmith, Paul F; Liu, Sheng-yuan; Naomi, Hirano; Koch, Patrick; Henkel, Christian; Sanhueza, Patricio; He, JinHua; Rivera-Ingraham, Alana; Wang, Ke; Cunningham, Maria R; Tang, Ya-Wen; Lai, Shih-Ping; Yuan, Jinghua; Li, Di; Fuller, Gary; Kang, Miju; Luong, Quang Nguyen; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Yang, Ji; Xu, Ye; Hirota, Tomoya; Mardones, Diego; Qin, Sheng-Li; Chen, Huei-Ru; Kwon, Woojin; Meng, FanYi; Zhang, Huawei; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Yi, Hee-Weon

    2015-01-01

    We are performing a series of observations with ground-based telescopes toward Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) in the $\\lambda$ Orionis complex in order to systematically investigate the effects of stellar feedback. In the particular case of PGCC G192.32-11.88, we discovered an extremely young Class 0 protostellar object (G192N) and a proto-brown dwarf candidate (G192S). G192N and G192S are located in a gravitationally bound bright-rimmed clump. The velocity and temperature gradients seen in line emission of CO isotopologues indicate that PGCC G192.32-11.88 is externally heated and compressed. G192N probably has the lowest bolometric luminosity ($\\sim0.8$ L$_{\\sun}$) and accretion rate (6.3$\\times10^{-7}$ M$_{\\sun}$~yr$^{-1}$) when compared with other young Class 0 sources (e.g. PACS Bright Red sources (PBRs)) in the Orion complex. It has slightly larger internal luminosity ($0.21\\pm0.01$ L$_{\\sun}$) and outflow velocity ($\\sim$14 km~s$^{-1}$) than the predictions of first hydrostatic cores (FHSCs). G192N...

  14. Comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K8 of high dose-rate Ir-192 brachytherapy standards for reference air kerma rate of the VSL and the BIPM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, J.T.; De Pooter, J.A.; Andersen, Claus E.;

    2014-01-01

    An indirect comparison of the standards for reference air kerma rate for 192Ir high dose rate brachytherapy sources of the Dutch Metrology Institute (VSL), The Netherlands, and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out at the VSL in November 2009. The comparison resu...

  15. The atomic structure of protons and hydrides in Sm1.92Ca0.08Sn2O7-δ pyrochlore from DFT calculations and FTIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Nicolai Christian; Eurenius, K. E. J.; Rossmeisl, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    A combined density functional theory and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study of the structure and specific site preference of protons and hydrides in the pyrochlore Sm1.92Ca0.08Sn2O7-δ is presented. Two protonic sites of particular high stability are identified, both located on O(1) oxy...

  16. PON1 Q192R genetic variant and response to clopidogrel and prasugrel: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and a meta-analysis of clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Jessica L; Close, Sandra L; Wiviott, Stephen D; Man, Michael; Duvvuru, Suman; Walker, Joseph R; Sundseth, Scott S; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Delaney, Jessica T; Hulot, Jean-Sebastien; Murphy, Sabina A; Paré, Guillaume; Price, Matthew J; Sibbing, Dirk; Simon, Tabassome; Trenk, Dietmar; Antman, Elliott M; Sabatine, Marc S

    2016-04-01

    Clopidogrel and prasugrel are antiplatelet therapies commonly used to treat patients with cardiovascular disease. They are both pro-drugs requiring biotransformation into active metabolites. It has been proposed that a genetic variant Q192R (rs662 A>G) in PON1 significantly alters the biotransformation of clopidogrel and affects clinical outcomes; however, this assertion has limited support. The relationship between this variant and clinical outcomes with prasugrel has not been studied. We genotyped PON1 Q192R in 275 healthy subjects treated with clopidogrel or prasugrel and 2922 patients with an ACS undergoing PCI randomized to treatment with clopidogrel or prasugrel in the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial. A meta-analysis was performed including 13 studies and 16,760 clopidogrel-treated patients. Among clopidogrel-treated subjects, there were no associations between Q192R and active drug metabolite levels (P = 0.62) or change in platelet aggregation (P = 0.51). Consistent with these results, in clopidogrel-treated patients in TRITON-TIMI 38, there was no association between Q192R and the rates of CV death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (RR 11.2 %, QR 8.6 %, and QQ 9.3 %; P = 0.66) or stent thrombosis (RR 2.4 %, QR 0.7 %, and QQ 1.6 %, P = 0.30), with patients with the putative at-risk Q variant having numerically lower event rates. Likewise, among prasugrel-treated subjects, there were no associations between Q192R and active drug metabolite levels (P = 0.88), change in platelet aggregation (P = 0.97), or clinical outcomes (P = 0.72). In a meta-analysis, the Q variant was not significantly associated with MACE (QQ vs. RR 1.22, 95 % CI 0.84-1.76) or stent thrombosis (QQ vs. RR OR 1.36, 95 % CI 0.77-2.38). Furthermore, when restricted to the validation studies, the OR (95 % CI) for MACE and stent thrombosis were 0.99 (0.77-1.27) and 1.23 (0.74-2.03), respectively. In the present study, the Q192R genetic variant in PON1 was not associated with the pharmacologic or clinical

  17. SU-F-19A-02: Comparison of Absorbed Dose to Water Standards for HDR Ir-192 Brachytherapy Between the LCR, Brazil and NRC, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salata, C; David, M; Almeida, C de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio De Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); El Gamal, I; Cojocaru, C; Mainegra-Hing, E; McEwen, M [National Research Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare absorbed dose to water standards for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry developed by the Radiological Science Laboratory of Rio de Janeiro State University (LCR) and the National Research Council, Canada (NRC). Methods: The two institutions have separately developed absorbed dose standards based on the Fricke dosimetry system. There are important differences between the two standards, including: preparation and read-out of the Fricke solution, irradiation geometry of the Fricke holder in relation to the Ir-192 source, and determination of the G-value to be used at Ir-192 energies. All measurements for both standards were made directly at the NRC laboratory (i.e., no transfer instrument was used) using a single Ir-192 source (microSelectron v2). In addition, the NRC group has established a self-consistent method to determine the G-value for Ir-192, based on an interpolation between G-values obtained at Co-60 and 250kVp X-rays, and this measurement was repeated using the LCR Fricke solution to investigate possible systematic uncertainties. Results: G-values for Co-60 and 250 kVp x-rays, obtained using the LCR Fricke system, agreed with the NRC values within 0.5 % and 1 % respectively, indicating that the general assumption of universal G-values is appropriate in this case. The standard uncertainty in the determination of G for Ir-192 is estimated to be 0.6 %. For the comparison of absorbed dose measurements at the reference point for Ir-192 (1 cm depth in water, perpendicular to the seed long-axis), the ratio Dw(NRC)/Dw(LCR) was found to be 1.011 with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.7 %, k=1. Conclusion: The agreement in the absorbed dose to water values for the LCR and NRC systems is very encouraging. Combined with the lower uncertainty in this approach compared to the present air-kerma approach, these results reaffirm the use of Fricke solution as a potential primary standard for HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy.

  18. SU-F-19A-02: Comparison of Absorbed Dose to Water Standards for HDR Ir-192 Brachytherapy Between the LCR, Brazil and NRC, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare absorbed dose to water standards for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry developed by the Radiological Science Laboratory of Rio de Janeiro State University (LCR) and the National Research Council, Canada (NRC). Methods: The two institutions have separately developed absorbed dose standards based on the Fricke dosimetry system. There are important differences between the two standards, including: preparation and read-out of the Fricke solution, irradiation geometry of the Fricke holder in relation to the Ir-192 source, and determination of the G-value to be used at Ir-192 energies. All measurements for both standards were made directly at the NRC laboratory (i.e., no transfer instrument was used) using a single Ir-192 source (microSelectron v2). In addition, the NRC group has established a self-consistent method to determine the G-value for Ir-192, based on an interpolation between G-values obtained at Co-60 and 250kVp X-rays, and this measurement was repeated using the LCR Fricke solution to investigate possible systematic uncertainties. Results: G-values for Co-60 and 250 kVp x-rays, obtained using the LCR Fricke system, agreed with the NRC values within 0.5 % and 1 % respectively, indicating that the general assumption of universal G-values is appropriate in this case. The standard uncertainty in the determination of G for Ir-192 is estimated to be 0.6 %. For the comparison of absorbed dose measurements at the reference point for Ir-192 (1 cm depth in water, perpendicular to the seed long-axis), the ratio Dw(NRC)/Dw(LCR) was found to be 1.011 with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.7 %, k=1. Conclusion: The agreement in the absorbed dose to water values for the LCR and NRC systems is very encouraging. Combined with the lower uncertainty in this approach compared to the present air-kerma approach, these results reaffirm the use of Fricke solution as a potential primary standard for HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy

  19. 192例IgA肾病临床与牛津病理分型的分析%Analysis of the clinical characteristics and the Oxford classification of 192 cases of IgA nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马也娉; 李荣山; 王晨; 乔玉峰; 高丽芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨IgA肾病患者的临床表现与牛津病理分型的相关性.方法 分析192例IgA肾病患者的临床表现(年龄、性别、病程、血压、血尿、24 h尿蛋白定量、血肌酐、血清白蛋白、甘油三酯、胆固醇、估计肾小球滤过率(eGFR))与病理资料(系膜细胞增生、内皮细胞增生、节段硬化或粘连、肾小管萎缩或间质纤维化、小动脉积分、细胞或细胞纤维新月体)的相关性.结果 (1)192例IgA肾病患者临床表现以蛋白尿合并血尿最多见,为72例(37.5%),依次为肾病综合征42例(21.9%),肾功能不全29例(15.1%),合并高血压72例(37.5%);(2)牛津病理分型中M1占60.0%,E1占55.2%,S1占46.9%,T0、T1、T2分别占59.9%、22.9%、17.2%,46.9%的患者存在小动脉内膜增厚,48.5%存在细胞或细胞纤维新月体,部分病理类型与年龄有关(P<0.01);(3)尿蛋白定量与系膜细胞增生、肾小管萎缩或间质纤维化、细胞或细胞纤维新月体有关(P <0.01或P<0.05).血压、肾功与节段硬化或粘连、肾小管萎缩或间质纤维化、小动脉内膜增厚、细胞或细胞纤维月体有关(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 牛津病理分型对IgA肾病的治疗和预后评价有很好的指导作用.%Objective To investigate the relationship of the clinical characteristics and the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy.Methods Clinical presentation (age,gender,course of disease,blood pressure,hematuria,24-hour proteinuria,serum creatinine,serum albumin,triglyceride,cholesterol,and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)),pathological data (mesangial hypercellularity,endocapillary hypercellularity,segmental sclerosis or adhesions,tubular atrophy or interstitial fibrosis,artery score,and cellular + fiberocellular crescents) and their correlation of 192 patients with IgA nephropathy patients were analyzed.Results (1)Clinically,hematuria + albuminuria type was the most common among 192 the patients

  20. Bile duct sensitivity to high-dose-rate afterloading irradiation with iridium 192. Experimental investigations in pigs. Strahlenempfindlichkeit des gesunden Gallengangs bei High-dose-rate-Afterloadingbestrahlung mit Iridium 192. Experimentelle Untersuchungen am Schwein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H.J. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik und Roentgen- und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany) Pathologisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany) Tierhygienisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Freund, U. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik und Roentgen- und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany) Pathologisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany) Tierhygienisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Bruggmoser, G. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik und Roentgen- und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany) Pathologisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany) Tierhygienisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Laaff, H. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik und Roentgen- und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany) Pathologisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany) Tierhygienisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Kluger, U.W. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik und Roentgen- und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany) Pathologisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Ger

    1993-12-01

    This animal study was designed to assess the tolerance of the normal bile duct to a single intraluminal high-dose-rate afterloading irradiation. This information is essential for treatment recommendations in irradiation therapy of malignant bile duct stenoses. In 16 pigs bile duct catheters were inserted surgically. Over these devices single intraductal doses of 7.5 Gy and 15 Gy were applied using an iridium-192 source. After a period of two to three months the bile ducts and the surrounding structures were investigated by means of cholangiography, angiography, and macropathological and histological investigations. A single intraductal dose of 7.5 Gy leads to a slightly scarred shrinkage of the bile duct with sclerosis and obliteration of the capillary vessels. Vasculitis and necrosis of the bile duct wall are still evident three months after irradiation. A single dose of 15 Gy leads to severe lesions with widespread necroses of the bile duct wall which tend to bleed, and result in a high degree of shrinkage of the bile duct. The radiation damage is most prevalent near the papilla and in the narrow segments near the liver. Single intraluminal high-dose-rate afterloading doses of 7.5 and 15 Gy cause significant lesions and complications at the bile ducts. As the intact bile duct is the Achilles heel of intraductal therapy, considerably lower single doses are recommended for a fractioned treatment. (orig.)

  1. Chemonuclear studies for identification for new production routes for the therapeutically useful radionuclides {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt, und {sup 195m}Pt; Kernchemische Studien zur Entwicklung neuerer Produktionsverfahren fuer die therapierelevanten Radionuklide {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt, und {sup 195m}Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, K.

    2005-12-15

    New production routes for the therapeutically useful radionuclides {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt were investigated. Cross section data were measured using the stacked-foil technique and compared with theoretical calculations. A production method for the platinum nuclides was developed. The {sup 141}Pr(p, 2n){sup 140}Nd and {sup nat}Ce({sup 3}He, xn){sup 140}Nd reactions were investigated for production of {sup 140}Nd. Cross section data of nuclear reactions leading to the side products {sup 141}Nd, {sup 139}Nd and {sup 139}Ce could also be achieved. The experimental data were compared with theoretical calculations using the code ALICE-IPPE. A comparison of the calculated thick target yields showed that the {sup 141}Pr(p, 2n){sup 140}Nd reaction gives a higher yield. The {sup 192}Os(p, n){sup 192}Ir reaction was examined in the context of the production of {sup 192}Ir. Cross section data were determined and compared with theoretical calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE and EMPIRE II. The yield of this reaction was compared with the yield of the reactor production of this nuclide. The reactor production seems to be more suitable because of a higher purity and yield. Cross section data were measured for the {sup 192}Os({alpha}, n){sup 195m}Pt, {sup 192}Os({alpha}, 3n){sup 193m}Pt and {sup 192}Os({sup 3}He, 4n){sup 191}Pt reactions. The activity of {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt was determined by X-ray spectroscopy after a chemical separation procedure. The ALICE-IPPE code was found to be inappropriate to reproduce the experimental values. The calculated yields were compared with the yields of other reactions, especially the reactor production of {sup 195m}Pt. The yield of the {sup 192}Os({alpha}, n){sup 195m}Pt reaction is lower compared to the yield of the reactor production, but offers lower target costs and higher specific activity. A production method for {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt was developed. Batch yields of 0.9 MBq

  2. Refresher course title: human health effects abstract title: Case Report: Iridium 192 - Health effects during 20 years after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case Report has presented health effects of high level of irradiation with gamma rays from 192Ir on the patient M. L. during 21 years after an incident. The main purpose was to investigate long time consequences of partial high level irradiation on human health. Locally, short-term irradiation with high, deadly dose, caused acute radiation syndrome with reversible disorder of function of the individual, most exposed, organs. Frequency of chromosomal aberrations (dicentric), characteristic for direct irradiation, was increased. However, dicentric analyzes did not give expected result for an acute radioactivity illness. Radio-dermatitis had begun already after the incident, while changes on the heart began gradually, not earlier than six months, up to two years after the incident. Irradiated parts of the patient skin have been changed with auto-transplanted skin and appropriate therapy had been taken. More than two decades after the irradiation, system (leukemia) nor solitary tumor on near organs (liver, heart, lungs, bones) did not happened. Radiation illness did not happened in spite of very large dose, because impacts were local and body was uneven irradiated. Also, an appropriate therapy was organized and potential illness did not happen. (authors)

  3. Refresher course title: human health effects abstract title: Case Report: Iridium 192 - Health effects during 20 years after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snezana, Milacica [Belgrade Univ. of Institute of Occupational Medicine and Radiological Protection, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Jadranko, Simic [South East Europe Consultants, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-07-01

    Case Report has presented health effects of high level of irradiation with gamma rays from {sup 192}Ir on the patient M. L. during 21 years after an incident. The main purpose was to investigate long time consequences of partial high level irradiation on human health. Locally, short-term irradiation with high, deadly dose, caused acute radiation syndrome with reversible disorder of function of the individual, most exposed, organs. Frequency of chromosomal aberrations (dicentric), characteristic for direct irradiation, was increased. However, dicentric analyzes did not give expected result for an acute radioactivity illness. Radio-dermatitis had begun already after the incident, while changes on the heart began gradually, not earlier than six months, up to two years after the incident. Irradiated parts of the patient skin have been changed with auto-transplanted skin and appropriate therapy had been taken. More than two decades after the irradiation, system (leukemia) nor solitary tumor on near organs (liver, heart, lungs, bones) did not happened. Radiation illness did not happened in spite of very large dose, because impacts were local and body was uneven irradiated. Also, an appropriate therapy was organized and potential illness did not happen. (authors)

  4. The Fornax Deep Survey with VST. I. The extended and diffuse stellar halo of NGC~1399 out to 192 kpc

    CERN Document Server

    Iodice, E; Grado, A; Limatola, L; Spavone, M; Napolitano, N R; Paolillo, M; Peletier, R F; Cantiello, M; Lisker, T; Wittmann, C; Venhola, A; Hilker, M; D'Abrusco, R; Pota, V; Schipani, P

    2016-01-01

    [Abrigded] We have started a new deep, multi-imaging survey of the Fornax cluster, dubbed Fornax Deep Survey (FDS), at the VLT Survey Telescope. In this paper we present the deep photometry inside two square degrees around the bright galaxy NGC1399 in the core of the cluster. We found a very extended and diffuse envelope surrounding the luminous galaxy NGC1399: we map the surface brightness out to 33 arcmin (~ 192 kpc) from the galaxy center and down to about 31 mag/arcsec^2 in the g band. The deep photometry allows us to detect a faint stellar bridge in the intracluster region between NGC1399 and NGC1387. By analyzing the integrated colors of this feature, we argue that it could be due to the ongoing interaction between the two galaxies, where the outer envelope of NGC1387 on its east side is stripped away. By fitting the light profile, we found that it exists a physical break radius in the total light distribution at R=10 arcmin (~58 kpc) that sets the transition region between the bright central galaxy and...

  5. Combined treatment of localized prostata cancer with HDR-Iridium 192 remote brachytherapy and external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The localized prostate cancer can be treated curatively by radiation therapy. The combined treatment of external beam irradiation and HDR-Iridium 192 remote brachytherapy allows higher radiation doses within the tumor without increasing radiation sequelae. Patients and Methods: Patients of our clinic have been treated with this combined procedure since 1991. Between 1991 and 1994 15 patients received 2x9 Gy of high-dose-rate brachytherapy, followed by 36 Gy external beam irradiation (group A). Because of the frequent local failures in group A, the reference dose of external beam irradiation was increased to 50.4 Gy after brachytherapy between 1994 and 1996. Results: Seven of 15 patients (47%) in group A developed a local recurrence after a median of 17 (13 to 30) months. In group B (20 patients) local failure occurred in 3 patients (15%) after 11, 16 and 32 months. Conclusion: The combined radiation therapy of localized prostate cancer cannot substitute radical prostatectomy completely, but it is a promising alternative in the curative treatment in selected patients. (orig.)

  6. Search for Chargino and Neutralino Production at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 192-209 GeV at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Allison, J; Amaral, P; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Büsser, K; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Ciocca, C; Csilling, Akos; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Günther, P O; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hoffman, K; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, Dean A; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Klein, K; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Krüger, K; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Layter, J G; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Masetti, G; Marchant, T E; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J A; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Moed, S; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Okpara, A N; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Tran, P; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 438 pb-1 of e+e- data from the OPAL detector, taken with the LEP collider running at centre-of-mass energies of 192-209 Gev, are analyzed to search for evidence of chargino pair production, e+e- -> tilde chi^+_1 tilde chi^-_1, or neutralino associated production, e+e- -> tilde chi^0_2 tilde chi^0_1. Limits are set at the 95% confidence level on the product of the cross-section for the process e+e- -> tilde chi^+_1 tilde chi^-_1 and its branching ratios to topologies containing jets and missing energy, of jest with a lepton and missing energy, and on the product of the cross-section for e+e- -> tilde chi^0_2 tilde chi^0_1 and its branching ratio to jets. R-parity conservation is assumed throughout this paper. When these results are interpreted in the context of the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, limits are also set on the masses of the tilde chi^+-_1, tilde chi^0_1 and tilde chi^0_2, and regions of the parameter space of the model are ruled out. Nearly model-independent limits...

  7. /sup 192/Ir pharyngoepiglottic fold interstitial implants. The key to successful treatment of base tongue carcinoma by radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffinet, D.R.; Fee, W.E. Jr.; Wells, J.; Austin-Seymour, M.; Clarke, D.; Mariscal, J.M.; Goode, R.L.

    1985-03-01

    Twenty-eight patients with squamous carcinomas of the base tongue were seen and evaluated in a conjoint Head and Neck Tumor Board at Stanford between 1976 and 1982. Fourteen patients were treated by combined external beam and interstitial irradiation, 11 of whom had Stage III and IV carcinomas (American Joint Committee). An initial dose of 5000 to 5500 rad was first delivered by external beam irradiation in 5 to 5.5 weeks, followed approximately 3 weeks later by an iridium 192 interstitial implant boost by the trocar and loop technique. The key to successful treatment of these neoplasms was found to be the use of a lateral percutaneous cervical technique, which placed horizontal loops through the oropharyngeal wall above and below the hyoid bone; the superior loop included the pharyngoepiglottic fold and the tonsilloglossal groove. Standard multiple loop implants (submentally inserted) of the base tongue from the vallecula anteriorly to the circumvallate papillae were also used routinely. This approach has been successful, since 10 of the 14 patients (71%) remain without evidence of disease (mean follow-up, 32 months). There have been only two local recurrences, both on the pharyngoepiglottic fold in patients who did not receive the now standard pharyngoepiglottic fold/lateral pharyngeal wall implants. No patients have relapsed after 18 months. The other 14 patients were treated prospectively during the same period by combining initial resection, radical neck dissection, and postoperative irradiation.

  8. 肺癌患者血清中CK19-2G2和Cyfra21-1的测定及其对肺癌的诊断价值%Detection of serum CK19-2G2 and Cyfra21-1 protein and comparison of their diagnostic value for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高佳; 王海; 齐军

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the value of serum CK19-2G2 and Cyfra21-1 in diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods The serum concentration of CK19-2G2 and Cyfra21-1 was detected in 104 patients with lung cancer, 71 with benign lung diseases and 105 healthy volunteers. The value of the two parameters in the diagnosis of lung cancer was evaluated with ROC curve analysis. The mean level of CK19-2G2 in the three groups was compared with that of Cyfra21-1 by Mann-Whitney U test, and the correlation between these two parameters was calculated using Pearson coefficient correlation test. Results The mean serum CK19-2G2 concentration in the lung cancer group was 2.87 mU/ml, significantly higher than that in the group with benign lung diseases ( 1.02 mU/ml) and healthy volunteer group ( 0. 01 mU/ml) ( P = 0.000). The serum concentration of CK19-2G2 was positively correlated with that of Cyfra21-1, with a Pearson coefficient correlation of 0. 543. Furthermore, the mean serum CK19-2G2 level in squamous cell carcinoma group (8.35 mU/ml) was significantly higher than that in the other pathologic groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion CK19-2G2, with a higher specificity, may be a better tumor marker than CK19-2G2 in respect of specificity for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially for squamous lung carcinoma, and deserves further study.%目的 测定肺癌患者血清中细胞角蛋白19(CK19)降解片段CK19-2G2的浓度,并评价其对肺癌的诊断价值.方法 采用CK19-2G2和Cyfr21-1的检测试剂盒,分别检测104例肺癌患者、7l例肺部炎症患者和105例健康体检者的血清标本,采用Pearson相关分析判断二者的相关性.运用受试者工作特性曲线(ROC)分析CKl9-2G2和Cyfra21-1的检测效能,并确定CK19-2G2诊断肺癌的临界值.比较CK19-2G2和Cyfra21-1诊断肺癌的灵敏度和准确率.结果 肺癌组、肺部炎症组和健康对照组血清CK19-2G2的中位浓度分别为2.87、1.02和0.01 mU/ml,肺癌组显著高于肺部炎

  9. Establishment of in vitro 192Ir γ-ray dose-response relationship for dose assessment by the lymphocyte dicentric assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Maria; Meronka, Katarzyna; Szewczak, Kamil

    2012-03-01

    In vitro dose-response relationships are used to describe the relation between dicentric chromosomes and radiation dose for human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The dicentric yield depends on both the dose and the radiation quality. Thus, for reliable dose estimation in vitro dose responses must be determined for different radiation qualities. This paper reports the work for setting up the relationship for the dicentric production in the lymphocytes exposed in vitro to 192Ir g-rays at Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLOR). In a case of a radiation accident in industrial radiography using 192Ir sealed sources, this will be the basis for the indirect evaluation of the g-ray dose to which an accidental victim was exposed.

  10. A dosimetric comparison of 169Yb and 192Ir for HDR brachytherapy of the breast, accounting for the effect of finite patient dimensions and tissue inhomogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulou, G; Papagiannis, P; Angelopoulos, A; Karaiskos, P; Georgiou, E; Baltas, D

    2006-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulation dosimetry is used to compare 169Yb to 192Ir for breast high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy applications using multiple catheter implants. Results for bare point sources show that while 169Yb delivers a greater dose rate per unit air kerma strength at the radial distance range of interest to brachytherapy in homogeneous water phantoms, it suffers a greater dose rate deficit in missing scatter conditions relative to 192Ir. As a result of these two opposing factors, in the scatter conditions defined by the presence of the lung and the finite patient dimensions in breast brachytherapy the dose distributions calculated in a patient equivalent mathematical phantom by Monte Carlo simulations for the same implant of either 169Yb or 1921r commercially available sources are found comparable. Dose volume histogram results support that 169Yb could be at least as effective as 192Ir delivering the same dose to the lung and slightly reduced dose to the breast skin. The current treatment planning systems' approach of employing dosimetry data precalculated in a homogeneous water phantom of given shape and dimensions, however, is shown to notably overestimate the delivered dose distribution for 169Yb. Especially at the skin and the lung, the treatment planning system dose overestimation is on the order of 15%-30%. These findings do not undermine the potential of 169Yb HDR sources for breast brachytherapy relative to the most commonly used 192Ir HDR sources. They imply, however, that there could be a need for the amendment of dose calculation algorithms employed in clinical treatment planning of particular brachytherapy applications, especially for intermediate photon energy sources such as 169Yb.

  11. p.Q192R SNP of PON1 seems not to be Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis Risk Factors in an Asymptomatic and Normolipidemic Brazilian Population Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zanetti Scherrer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Evidences suggest that paraoxonase 1 (PON1 confers important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Objective:To investigate the relationships between p.Q192R SNP of PON1, biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerosis in an asymptomatic, normolipidemic Brazilian population sample.Methods:We studied 584 volunteers (females n = 326, males n = 258; 19-75 years of age. Total genomic DNA was extracted and SNP was detected in the TaqMan® SNP OpenArray® genotyping platform (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA. Plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were determined and PON1 activity was measured using paraoxon as a substrate. High-resolution β-mode ultrasonography was used to measure cIMT and the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in a subgroup of individuals (n = 317.Results:The presence of p.192Q was associated with a significant increase in PON1 activity (RR = 12.30 (11.38; RQ = 46.96 (22.35; QQ = 85.35 (24.83 μmol/min; p Conclusion:In low-risk individuals, the presence of the p.192Q variant of PON1 is associated with a beneficial plasma lipid profile but not with carotid atherosclerosis.

  12. A practical implementation of the 2010 IPEM high dose rate brachytherapy code of practice for the calibration of {sup 192}Ir sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awunor, O A; Lecomber, A R; Richmond, N; Walker, C, E-mail: Onuora.Awunor@stees.nhs.uk [Regional Medical Physics Department, James Cook University Hospital, Marton Road, Middlesbrough, TS4 3BW (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-21

    This paper details a practical method for deriving the reference air kerma rate calibration coefficient for Farmer NE2571 chambers using the UK Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) code of practice for the determination of the reference air kerma rate for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources based on the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) air kerma standard. The reference air kerma rate calibration coefficient was derived using pressure, temperature and source decay corrected ionization chamber response measurements over three successive {sup 192}Ir source clinical cycles. A secondary standard instrument (a Standard Imaging 1000 Plus well chamber) and four tertiary standard instruments (one additional Standard Imaging 1000 Plus well chamber and three Farmer NE2571 chambers housed in a perspex phantom) were used to provide traceability to the NPL primary standard and enable comparison of performance between the chambers. Conservative and optimized estimates on the expanded uncertainties (k = 2) associated with chamber response, ion recombination and reference air kerma rate calibration coefficient were determined. This was seen to be 2.3% and 0.4% respectively for chamber response, 0.2% and 0.08% respectively for ion recombination and 2.6% and 1.2% respectively for the calibration coefficient. No significant change in ion recombination with source decay was observed over the duration of clinical use of the respective {sup 192}Ir sources.

  13. An asteroseismic constraint on the mass of the axion from the period drift of the pulsating DA white dwarf star L19-2

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, Alejandro H; Althaus, Leandro G; García-Berro, Enrique; Isern, Jordi; Kepler, S O; Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Sullivan, Denis J; Chote, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We employ an asteroseismic model of L19-2, a relatively massive ($M_{\\star} \\sim 0.75 M_{\\sun}$) and hot ($T_{\\rm eff} \\sim 12\\,100$ K) pulsating DA (H-rich atmosphere) white dwarf star (DAV or ZZ Ceti variable), and use the observed values of the temporal rates of period change of its dominant pulsation modes ($\\Pi \\sim 113$ s and $\\Pi \\sim 192$ s), to derive a new constraint on the mass of the axion, the hypothetical non-barionic particle considered as a possible component of the dark matter of the Universe. If the asteroseismic model employed is an accurate representation of L19-2, then our results indicate hints of extra cooling in this star, compatible with emission of axions of mass $m_{\\rm a} \\cos^2 \\beta \\lesssim 25$ meV or an axion-electron coupling constant of $g_{\\rm ae} \\lesssim 7 \\times 10^{-13}$.

  14. 血清CK19-2G2、CYFRA 21-1和CA-125联合检测在肺癌诊断中的应用%Value of serum CK19-2G2,CYFRA 21-1 and CA-125 detecting in lung cancer diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 李道堂; 陈彦卿; 李涛

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨血清CK19-2G2、CYFRA 21-1、CA-125联合检测对肺癌的诊断价值.方法 采用放射免疫法检测了110例肺癌患者、70例肺部良性疾病患者及30例健康体检者的血清CK19-2G2、CYFRA 21-1和CA-125.结果 肺癌组血清CK19-2G2、CYFRA 21-1和CA-125水平及阳性检出率显著高于正常对照组和肺部良性疾病组(P均<0.01).CK19-2G2、CYFRA 21-1在肺鳞癌中呈高表达,CA-125在肺腺癌中呈高表达.三者联合检测肺癌的灵敏度为84.5%,特异性为77%.结论 血清CK19-2G2、CYFRA 21-1、CA-125水平在肺癌的诊断中有应用价值.三者联合检测诊断肺癌灵敏度高.

  15. SU-E-T-102: Determination of Dose Distributions and Water-Equivalence of MAGIC-F Polymer Gel for 60Co and 192Ir Brachytherapy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, A; Nicolucci, P [University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Analyse the water-equivalence of MAGIC-f polymer gel for {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir clinical brachytherapy sources, through dose distributions simulated with PENELOPE Monte Carlo code. Methods: The real geometry of {sup 60} (BEBIG, modelo Co0.A86) and {sup 192}192Ir (Varian, model GammaMed Plus) clinical brachytherapy sources were modelled on PENELOPE Monte Carlo simulation code. The most probable emission lines of photons were used for both sources: 17 emission lines for {sup 192}Ir and 12 lines for {sup 60}. The dose distributions were obtained in a cubic water or gel homogeneous phantom (30 × 30 × 30 cm{sup 3}), with the source positioned in the middle of the phantom. In all cases the number of simulation showers remained constant at 10{sup 9} particles. A specific material for gel was constructed in PENELOPE using weight fraction components of MAGIC-f: wH = 0,1062, wC = 0,0751, wN = 0,0139, wO = 0,8021, wS = 2,58×10{sup −6} e wCu = 5,08 × 10{sup −6}. The voxel size in the dose distributions was 0.6 mm. Dose distribution maps on the longitudinal and radial direction through the centre of the source were used to analyse the water-equivalence of MAGIC-f. Results: For the {sup 60} source, the maximum diferences in relative doses obtained in the gel and water were 0,65% and 1,90%, for radial and longitudinal direction, respectively. For {sup 192}Ir, the maximum difereces in relative doses were 0,30% and 1,05%, for radial and longitudinal direction, respectively. The materials equivalence can also be verified through the effective atomic number and density of each material: Zef-MAGIC-f = 7,07 e .MAGIC-f = 1,060 g/cm{sup 3} and Zef-water = 7,22. Conclusion: The results showed that MAGIC-f is water equivalent, consequently being suitable to simulate soft tissue, for Cobalt and Iridium energies. Hence, gel can be used as a dosimeter in clinical applications. Further investigation to its use in a clinical protocol is needed.

  16. Characterization of TLD-100 in powders for dosimetric quality control of 192 Ir sources used in brachytherapy of high dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetric at the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) calibrated a lot of powdered TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) in terms of absorbed dose to water Dw for the energy of: 60Co, 137Cs, X rays of 250 and 50 kVp. Later on, it is carried out an interpolation of the calibration for the energy of the 192Ir. This calibration is part of a dosimetric quality control program, to solve the problems of traceability for the measurements carried out by the users of 192Ir sources employed in the treatments of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR) at the Mexican Republic. The calibrations of the radiation beams are made with the following protocols: IAEA TRS-398 for the 60Co for Dw, using a secondary standard ionization chamber PTW N30013 calibrated in Dw by the National Research Council (NRC, Canada). AAPM TG-43 for Dw in terms of the strength kerma Sk, calibrating this last one quantity for the 137Cs radioactive source, with a well chamber HDR 1000 PLUS traceable to the University of Wisconsin (US). AAPM TG-61 for X ray of 250 and 50 kVp for Dw start to Ka using field standard a Farmer chamber PTW 30001 traceable to K for the Central Laboratory of Electric Industries (CLEI, France). The calibration curves (CC) they built for the response of the powder TLD: RTLD vs Dw: For the energy of 60Co, 137Cs, X rays of 250 and 50 kVp. Fitting them with the least square method weighed by means of a polynomial of second grade that corrects the supra linearity of the response. iii. Each one of the curves was validated with a test by lack of fitting and for the Anderson Darling normality test, using the software MINITAB in both cases. iv. The sensibility factor (Fs) for each energy corresponds to the slope of the CC, v. The Fs for the two 192Ir sources used are interpolated: one for a Micro Selectron source and the other one a Vari Source source. Finally, a couple of capsules were sent to two hospitals that have the HDR Brachytherapy with sources of 192Ir and that

  17. Loss of an iridium-192 source and therapy misadministration at Indiana Regional Cancer Center, Indiana, Pennsylvania, on November 16, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On December 1, 1992, the Indiana Regional Cancer Center reported to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Region I that they believed a 1.37 E + 11 becquerel (3.7-curie) iridium-192 source from their Omnitron 2000 high dose rate remote brachytherapy afterloader had been found at a biohazard waste transfer station in Carnegie, Pennsylvania. After notifying the NRC, this cancer center, one of several operated by the licensee, Oncology Services Corporation, retrieved the source, and Region I dispatched an inspector and a supervisor to investigate the event. The source was first detected when it triggered radiation alarms at a waste incinerator facility in. Warren, Ohio. The licensee informed the NRC that the source wire had apparently broken during treatment of a patient on November 16, 1992, leaving the source in the patient. On the basis of the seriousness of the incident, the NRC elevated its response to an Incident Investigation. The Incident Investigation Team initiated its investigation on December 3, 1992. The investigation team concluded that the patient received a serious misadministration and died on November 21, 1992, and that over 90 individuals were exposed to radiation from November 16 to December 1, 1992. In a press release dated January 26, 1993, the Indiana County Coroner stated that the cause of death listed in the official autopsy report was ''Acute Radiational Exposure and Consequences Thereof'' An almost identical source wire failure occurred with an afterloader in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on December 7, 1992, but with minimal radiological consequences. This incident was included in the investigation. This report discusses the Omnitron 2000 high dose rate afterloader source-wire failure, the reasons why the failure was not detected by Indiana Regional Cancer Center, the potential consequences to the patient, the estimated radiological doses to workers and the public, and regulatory aspects associated with this incident

  18. Performance of Serum microRNAs -122, -192 and -21 as Biomarkers in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip P Becker

    Full Text Available Liver biopsies are the current gold standard in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH diagnosis. Their invasive nature, however, still carries an increased risk for patients' health. The development of non-invasive diagnostic tools to differentiate between bland steatosis (NAFL and NASH remains crucial. The aim of this study is the evaluation of investigated circulating microRNAs in combination with new targets in order to optimize the discrimination of NASH patients by non-invasive serum biomarkers.Serum profiles of four microRNAs were evaluated in two cohorts consisting of 137 NAFLD patients and 61 healthy controls. In a binary logistic regression model microRNAs of relevance were detected. Correlation of microRNA appearance with known biomarkers like ALT and CK18-Asp396 was evaluated. A simplified scoring model was developed, combining the levels of microRNA in circulation and CK18-Asp396 fragments. Receiver operating characteristics were used to evaluate the potential of discriminating NASH.The new finding of our study is the different profile of circulating miR-21 in NASH patients (p<0.0001. Also, it validates recently published results of miR-122 and miR-192 to be differentially regulated in NAFL and NASH. Combined microRNA expression profiles with CK18-Asp396 fragment level scoring model had a higher potential of NASH prediction compared to other risk biomarkers (AUROC = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.754-0.908; p<0.001. Evaluation of score model for NAFL (Score = 0 and NASH (Score = 4 had shown high rates of sensitivity (91% and specificity (83%.Our study defines candidates for a combined model of miRNAs and CK18-Asp396 levels relevant as a promising expansion for diagnosis and in turn treatment of NASH.

  19. Surface dose characterisation of the Varian Ir-192 HDR conical surface applicator set with a vertically orientated source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conical surface applicators with an Ir-192 high-dose-rate brachytherapy source are a common modality for the treatment of non-melanomatous skin cancer with high tumour control rates. Surface dose characterisation of the Varian Varisource GammaMed+ IX afterloader vertical type surface applicators is performed two dimensionally using high-resolution film dosimetry. The focus of this study was to determine if Varian surface applicators with a vertical source suffer from the dose distribution irregularities reported for comparable applicators. Our goal was to evaluate if the irregularities found affected treatment and dose output verification procedures. Ionisation chamber-based verification of applicator output was established according to guidelines provided by the manufacturer. For additional measurement of surface dose Gafchromic EBT3 film dosimetry was used. The term ''therapeutic dose'' was defined as 85 % of the prescribed dose level. For the 10 different applicator inserts evaluated, cold spots were observed. Mean cold spot size was 2.0 mm x 3.6 mm (± 0.6 mm). The cold spots were dosimetrically well below 85 % of the prescribed dose. The cold spot was situated 2.2 mm (1.4-2.7 mm) unilaterally from the central axis and caused general asymmetry in the dose profiles intersecting the cold spot area. A source tilt of approximately 8 (± 1 ) was determined for the source used for irradiation. A central underdosed area exceeding 15 % of the prescribed dose has not been previously reported. Source tilt was observed and found to affect clinical use and possibly treatment outcome in applicators using a vertically arranged source. Surface applicators with a vertically orientated source were subject to dose irregularities that could impact on chamber-based applicator output verification procedures. We recommend film dosimetry-backed applicator commissioning to avoid systematic errors. (orig.)

  20. SU-E-T-457: Design and Characterization of An Economical 192Ir Hemi-Brain Small Animal Irradiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grams, M; Wilson, Z; Sio, T; Beltran, C; Tryggestad, E; Gupta, S; Blackwell, C; McCollough, K; Sarkaria, J; Furutani, K [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To describe the design and dosimetric characterization of a simple and economical small animal irradiator. Methods: A high dose rate 192Ir brachytherapy source from a commercially available afterloader was used with a 1.3 centimeter thick tungsten collimator to provide sharp beam penumbra suitable for hemi-brain irradiation of mice. The unit is equipped with continuous gas anesthesia to allow robust animal immobilization. Dosimetric characterization of the device was performed with Gafchromic film. The penumbra from the small animal irradiator was compared under similar collimating conditions to the penumbra from 6 MV photons, 6 MeV electrons, and 20 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator as well as 300 kVp photons from an orthovoltage unit and Monte Carlo simulated 90 MeV protons. Results: The tungsten collimator provides a sharp penumbra suitable for hemi-brain irradiation, and dose rates on the order of 200 cGy/minute were achieved. The sharpness of the penumbra attainable with this device compares favorably to those measured experimentally for 6 MV photons, and 6 and 20 MeV electron beams from a linear accelerator. Additionally, the penumbra was comparable to those measured for a 300 kVp orthovoltage beam and a Monte Carlo simulated 90 MeV proton beam. Conclusions: The small animal irradiator described here can be built for under $1,000 and used in conjunction with any commercial brachytherapy afterloader to provide a convenient and cost-effective option for small animal irradiation experiments. The unit offers high dose rate delivery and sharp penumbra, which is ideal for hemi-brain irradiation of mice. With slight modifications to the design, irradiation of sites other than the brain could be accomplished easily. Due to its simplicity and low cost, the apparatus described is an attractive alternative for small animal irradiation experiments requiring a sharp penumbra.

  1. SU-E-T-457: Design and Characterization of An Economical 192Ir Hemi-Brain Small Animal Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the design and dosimetric characterization of a simple and economical small animal irradiator. Methods: A high dose rate 192Ir brachytherapy source from a commercially available afterloader was used with a 1.3 centimeter thick tungsten collimator to provide sharp beam penumbra suitable for hemi-brain irradiation of mice. The unit is equipped with continuous gas anesthesia to allow robust animal immobilization. Dosimetric characterization of the device was performed with Gafchromic film. The penumbra from the small animal irradiator was compared under similar collimating conditions to the penumbra from 6 MV photons, 6 MeV electrons, and 20 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator as well as 300 kVp photons from an orthovoltage unit and Monte Carlo simulated 90 MeV protons. Results: The tungsten collimator provides a sharp penumbra suitable for hemi-brain irradiation, and dose rates on the order of 200 cGy/minute were achieved. The sharpness of the penumbra attainable with this device compares favorably to those measured experimentally for 6 MV photons, and 6 and 20 MeV electron beams from a linear accelerator. Additionally, the penumbra was comparable to those measured for a 300 kVp orthovoltage beam and a Monte Carlo simulated 90 MeV proton beam. Conclusions: The small animal irradiator described here can be built for under $1,000 and used in conjunction with any commercial brachytherapy afterloader to provide a convenient and cost-effective option for small animal irradiation experiments. The unit offers high dose rate delivery and sharp penumbra, which is ideal for hemi-brain irradiation of mice. With slight modifications to the design, irradiation of sites other than the brain could be accomplished easily. Due to its simplicity and low cost, the apparatus described is an attractive alternative for small animal irradiation experiments requiring a sharp penumbra

  2. Using LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs to estimate the absorbed dose to water in liquid water around an 192Ir brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The absorbed dose to water is the fundamental reference quantity for brachytherapy treatment planning systems and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) have been recognized as the most validated detectors for measurement of such a dosimetric descriptor. The detector response in a wide energy spectrum as that of an192Ir brachytherapy source as well as the specific measurement medium which surrounds the TLD need to be accounted for when estimating the absorbed dose. This paper develops a methodology based on highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs to directly estimate the absorbed dose to water in liquid water around a high dose rate 192Ir brachytherapy source. Methods: Different experimental designs in liquid water and air were constructed to study the response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs when irradiated in several standard photon beams of the LNE-LNHB (French national metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation). Measurement strategies and Monte Carlo techniques were developed to calibrate the LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors in the energy interval characteristic of that found when TLDs are immersed in water around an192Ir source. Finally, an experimental system was designed to irradiate TLDs at different angles between 1 and 11 cm away from an 192Ir source in liquid water. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to correct measured results to provide estimates of the absorbed dose to water in water around the 192Ir source. Results: The dose response dependence of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs with the linear energy transfer of secondary electrons followed the same variations as those of published results. The calibration strategy which used TLDs in air exposed to a standard N-250 ISO x-ray beam and TLDs in water irradiated with a standard137Cs beam provided an estimated mean uncertainty of 2.8% (k = 1) in the TLD calibration coefficient for irradiations by the 192Ir source in water. The 3D TLD measurements performed in liquid water were obtained with a maximum uncertainty of 11% (k = 1) found

  3. EME 192 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pascall, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dudoff, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    I spent the quarter working in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Materials Engineering Division. The group I have been working with (I’ve been here for two summers already) focuses on advanced manufacturing techniques such as stereolithography, electrophoretic deposition, and the printing of silicon based inks. Part of the goal of what is done in our group is to create designer materials not by altering the composition but by altering the micro-architecture. Our technology can create shapes that are not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques. This allows us to create structures that are light, yet very strong and stiff. It also allows us to create materials with property gradients. In other words, we can make structures and parts that are stronger in some locations than others. I have been working with electrophoretic deposition for the duration of my stay and have focused on advancing the technology from a thin-film technique to a true additive manufacturing paradigm. Put succinctly, electrophoretic deposition is the deposition of particles in suspension with electric fields. Particles have a potential on the surface which allows them to be driven to an electrode using an electric field. The particles then deposit onto the conductive regions of the substrate, traditionally, the entire surface. Electrophoretic deposition is powerful in that it can handle a wide variety of materials (ceramics, metals, bacteria), create material gradients in the deposits, and create layered deposition of multiple materials. A drawback of traditional electrophoretic deposition is that patterned deposits are only possible with a non-reconfigurable patterned electrode. A technique was developed at LLNL that allows for the arbitrary patterning of the electric field using photoconductive electrodes and light. This way, you can create interesting shapes and reconfigure the pattern of the deposit using the same electrode. A photoconductive electrode is made by hydrothermally growing titania nanorods onto a transparent current collector. A photomask is used to block incoming some light and only allow the desired pattern of light through. The photoconductive electrode then activates when and where the light hits, once an electric field is applied. Particles will migrate to the areas of illumation and deposit.

  4. AAPM and GEC-ESTRO guidelines for image-guided robotic brachytherapy: Report of Task Group 192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, Tarun K., E-mail: tarun.podder@uhhospitals.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44122 (United States); Beaulieu, Luc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Univ de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Caldwell, Barrett [Schools of Industrial Engineering and Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Cormack, Robert A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Crass, Jostin B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Dicker, Adam P.; Yu, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States); Fenster, Aaron [Department of Imaging Research, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Fichtinger, Gabor [School of Computer Science, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Meltsner, Michael A. [Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, Wisconsin 53711 (United States); Moerland, Marinus A. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3508 GA (Netherlands); Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Salcudean, Tim [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Song, Danny Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Thomadsen, Bruce R. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In the last decade, there have been significant developments into integration of robots and automation tools with brachytherapy delivery systems. These systems aim to improve the current paradigm by executing higher precision and accuracy in seed placement, improving calculation of optimal seed locations, minimizing surgical trauma, and reducing radiation exposure to medical staff. Most of the applications of this technology have been in the implantation of seeds in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the techniques apply to any clinical site where interstitial brachytherapy is appropriate. In consideration of the rapid developments in this area, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) commissioned Task Group 192 to review the state-of-the-art in the field of robotic interstitial brachytherapy. This is a joint Task Group with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). All developed and reported robotic brachytherapy systems were reviewed. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the safe and consistent use of these systems are also provided. Manual seed placement techniques with a rigid template have an estimated in vivo accuracy of 3–6 mm. In addition to the placement accuracy, factors such as tissue deformation, needle deviation, and edema may result in a delivered dose distribution that differs from the preimplant or intraoperative plan. However, real-time needle tracking and seed identification for dynamic updating of dosimetry may improve the quality of seed implantation. The AAPM and GEC-ESTRO recommend that robotic systems should demonstrate a spatial accuracy of seed placement ≤1.0 mm in a phantom. This recommendation is based on the current performance of existing robotic brachytherapy systems and propagation of uncertainties. During clinical commissioning, tests should be conducted to ensure that this level of accuracy is achieved. These tests

  5. AAPM and GEC-ESTRO guidelines for image-guided robotic brachytherapy: report of Task Group 192.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Tarun K; Beaulieu, Luc; Caldwell, Barrett; Cormack, Robert A; Crass, Jostin B; Dicker, Adam P; Fenster, Aaron; Fichtinger, Gabor; Meltsner, Michael A; Moerland, Marinus A; Nath, Ravinder; Rivard, Mark J; Salcudean, Tim; Song, Danny Y; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Yu, Yan

    2014-10-01

    In the last decade, there have been significant developments into integration of robots and automation tools with brachytherapy delivery systems. These systems aim to improve the current paradigm by executing higher precision and accuracy in seed placement, improving calculation of optimal seed locations, minimizing surgical trauma, and reducing radiation exposure to medical staff. Most of the applications of this technology have been in the implantation of seeds in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the techniques apply to any clinical site where interstitial brachytherapy is appropriate. In consideration of the rapid developments in this area, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) commissioned Task Group 192 to review the state-of-the-art in the field of robotic interstitial brachytherapy. This is a joint Task Group with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). All developed and reported robotic brachytherapy systems were reviewed. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the safe and consistent use of these systems are also provided. Manual seed placement techniques with a rigid template have an estimated in vivo accuracy of 3-6 mm. In addition to the placement accuracy, factors such as tissue deformation, needle deviation, and edema may result in a delivered dose distribution that differs from the preimplant or intraoperative plan. However, real-time needle tracking and seed identification for dynamic updating of dosimetry may improve the quality of seed implantation. The AAPM and GEC-ESTRO recommend that robotic systems should demonstrate a spatial accuracy of seed placement ≤1.0 mm in a phantom. This recommendation is based on the current performance of existing robotic brachytherapy systems and propagation of uncertainties. During clinical commissioning, tests should be conducted to ensure that this level of accuracy is achieved. These tests should

  6. External beam irradiation plus 192Ir implant after breast-preserving surgery in women with early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide more information for the clinician and to analyze the impact of the boost with brachytherapy on the local disease-free survival (LDFS), disease-free survival (DFS), specific overall survival (OS), and cosmesis, a retrospective study of external radiation therapy and 192Ir implantation in early breast cancer at Institut Catala d'Oncologia has been undertaken. Patients and Methods: From 1986 to 1996, 530 patients were selected for this study with a median follow-up period of 39.5 months (range, 10-115 months). External radiation therapy (combined with brachytherapy) was administered postoperatively to the breast in all patients. Mean given dose was 48.7 Gy (range, 42-52 Gy) with external radiation therapy to the breast, and 16.8 Gy (range, 10-27 Gy) was the mean dose with brachytherapy. Variables have been tested for cosmesis. Univariate and multivariate analysis have also been carried out. Results: Mean age of the patients was 54 years (range, 28-81 years). Stages were distributed as follows: 350 patients (66%) in Stage I, 173 in Stage II (32.8%), and 7 in Stage III (1.1%). Pathologic distribution was 445 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (84%), 20 patients with infiltrating lobular carcinoma (4%), and 65 patients (12%) of a miscellaneous group. OS for the entire group was 89.4% and 85.9% at 5 and 7 years respectively. Probability of DFS was 81.7% and 70.1% at 5 and 7 years. The LDFS was 94.9% and 91.7% at 5 and 7 years. The MFS probability was 85.5% and 76.9% at 5 and 7 years, respectively. Univariate analysis demonstrated that age (older than 52 years), premenopausal status, moderate and high histologic grades (Grades II-III), and presence of intraductal comedocarcinoma were prognostic factors for local relapse. Multivariate analysis for local disease-free survival demonstrated that only perineural or muscular infiltration remain as prognostic factors. Tumor dose bed of 70 Gy or higher had a negative impact in breast subcutaneous

  7. AAPM and GEC-ESTRO guidelines for image-guided robotic brachytherapy: Report of Task Group 192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade, there have been significant developments into integration of robots and automation tools with brachytherapy delivery systems. These systems aim to improve the current paradigm by executing higher precision and accuracy in seed placement, improving calculation of optimal seed locations, minimizing surgical trauma, and reducing radiation exposure to medical staff. Most of the applications of this technology have been in the implantation of seeds in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the techniques apply to any clinical site where interstitial brachytherapy is appropriate. In consideration of the rapid developments in this area, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) commissioned Task Group 192 to review the state-of-the-art in the field of robotic interstitial brachytherapy. This is a joint Task Group with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). All developed and reported robotic brachytherapy systems were reviewed. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the safe and consistent use of these systems are also provided. Manual seed placement techniques with a rigid template have an estimated in vivo accuracy of 3–6 mm. In addition to the placement accuracy, factors such as tissue deformation, needle deviation, and edema may result in a delivered dose distribution that differs from the preimplant or intraoperative plan. However, real-time needle tracking and seed identification for dynamic updating of dosimetry may improve the quality of seed implantation. The AAPM and GEC-ESTRO recommend that robotic systems should demonstrate a spatial accuracy of seed placement ≤1.0 mm in a phantom. This recommendation is based on the current performance of existing robotic brachytherapy systems and propagation of uncertainties. During clinical commissioning, tests should be conducted to ensure that this level of accuracy is achieved. These tests

  8. Correlation between paraoxonase 1 Q192R polymorphism and cardiovascular adverse events after treatment with clopidogrel: a Meta-analysis%对氧磷酶1 Q192R基因多态性与氯吡格雷治疗后心血管不良事件相关性的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新刚; 赵坤; 鲁燕侠; 赵志刚; 刘振华

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价对氧磷酶1(paraoxonase 1 ,PON1) Q192R基因多态性与氯吡格雷治疗后发生心血管不良事件的相关性. 方法 检索Web of Knowledge、PubMed、ScienceDirect、Embase、Cochrane Library,中国知网、万方数据库和维普中文科技期刊数据库(建库到2015年3月),收集符合纳入标准的前瞻性队列研究,采用Review Manager 5.3软件进行Meta分析.结果 采用比值比(OR)及其95%置信区间(CI)表示. 结果共有12项研究纳入Meta分析,患者共10 090例,其中亚洲人2 113例、欧洲人7 396例,北美洲人581例;PON1 Q192R基因型为QQ者4 096例,QR+ RR者5 994例.研究质量评价结果均为高质量.亚洲人群亚组中PON1 192QQ基因型者心血管事件发生率为8.1% (38/472),QR+ RR基因型者为10.8%(177/1 641),OR=1.06,95% CI为0.64 ~ 1.75,P=0.82;北美洲人群亚组中PON1 192QQ基因型者心血管事件发生率为10.4% (27/260),QR+ RR基因型者为10.9% (35/321),OR =0.95,95% CI为0.56 ~ 1.63,P=0.42;欧洲人群亚组中PON1 192QQ基因型者心血管事件发生率为6.5% (217/3 364),QR+ RR基因型者为5.6% (225/4 032),OR=1.21,95% CI为0.85 ~ 1.73,P=0.28.3个亚组合并后,PON1 192QQ基因型者心血管事件发生率为6.9% (282/4 096),QR+ RR基因型者为7.3% (437/5 994),OR=1.13,95% CI为0.89 ~ 1.44,P=0.33.漏斗图分析表明纳入研究不存在明显的发表偏倚或选择性偏倚. 结论 PON1 Q192R基因多态性与氯吡格雷治疗后的心血管不良事件之间没有明显相关性.%Objective To evaluate the correlation between paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Q192R polymorphism and cardiovascular adverse events in patients treated with clopidogrel.Methods Web of Knowledge, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure,Wanfang, and CQVIP were searched from the inception to March 2015 and prospective cohort studies in accordance with the criteria were collected.Meta-analysis was performed using Rev

  9. A simplified analytical approach to estimate the parameters required for strength determination of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources using a Farmer-type ionization chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Srinivasan, P; Sharma, S D; Mayya, Y S

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the strength of high dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir brachytherapy sources on receipt from the vendor is an important component of a quality assurance program. Owing to their ready availability in radiotherapy departments, the Farmer-type ionization chambers are also used to determine the strength of HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources. The use of a Farmer-type ionization chamber requires the estimation of the scatter correction factor along with positioning error (c) and the constant of proportionality (f) to determine the strength of HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources. A simplified approach based on a least squares method was developed for estimating the values of f and M(s). The seven distance method was followed to record the ionization chamber readings for parameterization of f and M(s). Analytically calculated values of M(s) were used to determine the room scatter correction factor (K(sc)). The Monte Carlo simulations were also carried out to calculate f and K(sc) to verify the magnitude of the parameters determined by the proposed analytical approach. The value of f determined using the simplified analytical approach was found to be in excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulated value (within 0.7%). Analytically derived values of K(sc) were also found to be in good agreement with the Monte Carlo calculated values (within 1.47%). Being far simpler than the presently available methods of evaluating f, the proposed analytical approach can be adopted for routine use by clinical medical physicists to estimate f by hand calculations.

  10. A simplified analytical approach to estimate the parameters required for strength determination of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources using a Farmer-type ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measuring the strength of high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir brachytherapy sources on receipt from the vendor is an important component of a quality assurance program. Owing to their ready availability in radiotherapy departments, the Farmer-type ionization chambers are also used to determine the strength of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources. The use of a Farmer-type ionization chamber requires the estimation of the scatter correction factor along with positioning error (c) and the constant of proportionality (f) to determine the strength of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources. A simplified approach based on a least squares method was developed for estimating the values of f and Ms. The seven distance method was followed to record the ionization chamber readings for parameterization of f and Ms. Analytically calculated values of Ms were used to determine the room scatter correction factor (Ksc). The Monte Carlo simulations were also carried out to calculate f and Ksc to verify the magnitude of the parameters determined by the proposed analytical approach. The value of f determined using the simplified analytical approach was found to be in excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulated value (within 0.7%). Analytically derived values of Ksc were also found to be in good agreement with the Monte Carlo calculated values (within 1.47%). Being far simpler than the presently available methods of evaluating f, the proposed analytical approach can be adopted for routine use by clinical medical physicists to estimate f by hand calculations. - Highlights: ► RAKR measurement of a brachytherapy source by 7 distance method requires the evaluation of ‘f’. ► A simplified analytical approach based on least square method to evaluate ‘f’ and ‘Ms’ was developed. ► Parameter ‘f’ calculated by proposed analytical approach was verified using the Monte Carlo method. ► Proposed analytical approach can be adopted for routine use to estimate ‘f’.

  11. Application of the Cavity theory in the calibration of the powder TLD-100 for energies of 60 Co, 137 Cs, 192 Ir and RX 50, 250 k Vp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A powder lot TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) in absorbed dose terms in water Dw for the following radiation sources: 60 Co, 137 Cs and RX 50 and 250 k Vp is calibrated; to continuation is made a lineal interpolation of the TLD response in function of the effective energy of the sources to calibrate a source of 192 Ir. The calibration of those fields in Dw are carried out with aid of the Bragg-Gray cavity theory, the one which finds implicit in the following protocols: IAEA-TRS 398 for the 60 Co and the AAPM TG61 for X Rays of 50 and 250 k Vp. Additionally the AAPM protocol TG43 to determine the Dw in function of the kerma intensity Sk in the case of the 137 Cs is used. The calibration curves for the response of the TLD-100 RTLD vs Dw, corresponding to each one of the sources already mentioned are constructed. The RTLD vs Dw by least heavy square by means of a second order polynomial that corrects the supralineality of the response is adjusted. The curves are validated by lack of LOF adjustment and by the Anderson Darling normality test. Later the factors of sensitivity (Fs) for the sources of 192 Ir: Micro Selectron and Vari Source are interpolated, used respectively in the A and B hospitals for treatments of brachytherapy of high dose rate (HDR), the expanded uncertainties associated to the Dw and Fs are also determined. Finally, an acrylic phantom and a couple of capsules are already sent to the hospitals mentioned, to verify a nominal Dw of 2 Gy, in a case an underestimate in 5.5% in the imparted Dw and in other an overestimation in a range of -1.5 to -8.0% was obtained. The obtained results in this work establish the bases for the development of a national dosimetric quality control program for brachytherapy of HDR with sources of 192 Ir. (Author)

  12. A Genetic Biomarker of Oxidative Stress, the Paraoxonase-1 Q192R Gene Variant, Associates with Cardiomyopathy in CKD: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dounousi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxidative stress is a hallmark of CKD and this alteration is strongly implicated in LV hypertrophy and in LV dysfunction. Methods and Patients. We resorted to the strongest genetic biomarker of paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity, the Q192R variant in the PON1 gene, to unbiasedly assess (Mendelian randomization the cross-sectional and longitudinal association of this gene-variant with LV mass and function in 206 CKD patients with a 3-year follow-up. Results. The R allele of Q192R polymorphism associated with oxidative stress as assessed by plasma 8-isoPGF2α (P=0.03 and was dose-dependently related in a direct fashion to LVMI (QQ: 131.4 ± 42.6 g/m2; RQ: 147.7 ± 51.1 g/m2; RR: 167.3 ± 41.9 g/m2; P=0.001 and in an inverse fashion to systolic function (LV Ejection Fraction (QQ: 79 ± 12%; RQ: 69 ± 9%; RR: 65 ± 10% P=0.002. On longitudinal observation, this gene variant associated with the evolution of the same echocardiographic indicators [LVMI: 13.40 g/m2 per risk allele, P=0.005; LVEF: −2.96% per risk allele, P=0.001]. Multivariate analyses did not modify these associations. Conclusion. In CKD patients, the R allele of the Q192R variant in the PON1 gene is dose-dependently related to the severity of LVH and LV dysfunction and associates with the longitudinal evolution of these cardiac alterations. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that oxidative stress is implicated in cardiomyopathy in CKD patients.

  13. In-house validation of an Event-specific Method for the Quantification of Oliseed Rape Topas 19/2 using Real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzara, Marco; LUQUE PEREZ Encarnacion; Bevilacqua, A; Van den Eede, Guy

    2011-01-01

    The European Union Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF), established by Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003, has carried out an in-house validation study to assess the performance of a quantitative event-specific method on the oilseed rape event Topas 19/2 (unique identifier ACS-BN007-1). In accordance to Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 of 22 September 2003 on genetically modified food and feed and to Regulation (EC) No 641/2004 of 6 April 2004 on detailed rules for the implementatio...

  14. Shape effects along the Z=82 line: study of the $\\beta$- decay of $^{188,190,192}$Pb using total absorption spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Caballero ontanaya, L; Garcia borge, M J; Malbrunot, S

    2002-01-01

    This proposal is aimed at the study of the $\\beta$- decay of the neutron-deficient $^{188,190,192}$Pb nuclei. The main motivation of the proposed experiment is to determine the Gamow-Teller strength distribution in the daughter nuclei using the Total Absorption Spectrometer "Lucrecia". Recent theoretical results show that from this measurement the shapes of the ground states of the decaying Pb nuclei can be inferred. This study offers an independent way to study the phenomenon of shape co-existence in a region of particular interest.

  15. Search for Neutral Higgs Bosons of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in $e^+ e^-$ Interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$=192-202 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, L; Balandras, A; Baldew, S V; Todorova-Nová, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Cucciarelli, S; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Dufournaud, D; Duinker, P; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Khan, R A; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Kopp, A; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Lugnier, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Marian, G; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Oulianov, A; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Park, H K; Park, I H; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Seganti, A; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Sztaricskai, T; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, A; Zilizi, G; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    A search for the lightest neutral CP-even and the neutral CP-odd Higgs bosons of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model is performed using 233.2 pb-1 of integrated luminosity collected with the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies 192-202 GeV. No signal is observed and lower mass limits are given as a function of tan(beta) for two scalar top mixing hypotheses. For tan(beta) greater than 0.8, they are mh > 83.4 GeV and mA > 83.8 GeV at 95 % confidence level.

  16. The Effect of Regular Moderate Exercise on miRNA-192 Expression Changes in Kidney of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hajar Oghbaei; Naser Ahmadi Asl; Farzam Sheikhzadeh; Mohammad Reza Alipour; Amir Mahdi Khamaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the regular moderate exercise effect on the miR-192 expression changes in kidney of Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 10, including Sedentary Control group, Healthy 60 days Exercise group, diabetic group and Diabetic 60 days Exercise. Diabetes was induced by injection of 60 mg/kg Streptozotocin and after 48 hour blood glucose levels higher than 250 mg/dl were in...

  17. Relationships between PON1 Q192R polymorphism and clinical outcome of antiplatelet treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Bu, Shu-Hong; Lu, Xiao-Tong; Li, Li-Xia; Xu, A-Jing; Tang, Yue-Nian; Zhang, Jian

    2014-09-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to assess the relationships between the PON1 Q192R (rs662 T>C) polymorphism and the clinical outcome of antiplatelet treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A range of electronic databases were searched: Web of Science (1945-2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), PubMed (1966-2013), EMBASE (1980-2013), CINAHL (1982-2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982-2013) without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. The crude odds ratio (OR) with their 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Six clinical cohort studies with a total number of 5,189 patients undergoing PCI for coronary heart disease were included. Our meta-analysis revealed that the PON1 Q192R polymorphism was correlated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients receiving antiplatelet treatment after PCI (C allele vs. T allele: OR = 1.22, 95 % CI 1.04-1.43, P = 0.014; CT+CC vs. TT: OR = 1.38, 95 % CI 1.03-1.86, P = 0.029; CC vs. TT: OR = 1.45, 95 % CI 1.05-1.99, P = 0.024; respectively), especially among Asians. Furthermore, we found significantly positive correlations between the PON1 Q192R polymorphism and the incidence of stent thrombosis in patients receiving antiplatelet treatment after PCI (C allele vs. T allele: OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.08-1.87, P = 0.011; CT+CC vs. TT: OR = 1.93, 95 % CI 1.01-3.67, P = 0.046; CC vs. TT: OR = 2.18, 95 % CI 1.09-4.35, P = 0.027; respectively). Our meta-analysis of clinical cohort studies provides evidence that the PON1 Q192R polymorphism may increase the risk of MACE and stent thrombosis in patients receiving antiplatelet treatment after PCI.

  18. Search for supersymmetric particles assuming R-parity non-conservation in $e^+e^-$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 192 to 208 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    Searches for pair-production of supersymmetric particles under the assumption of non-conservation of R-parity with a dominant LLEbar or UbarDbarDbar term have been performed using the data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies from 192 up to 208 GeV. No excess of data above Standard Model expectations was observed. The results were used to constrain the MSSM parameter space and to derive limits on the masses of supersymmetric particles.

  19. Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al2O3:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during Ir-192 brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik; Nielsen, Søren Kynde; Greilich, Steffen;

    2009-01-01

    A prototype of a new dose-verification system has been developed to facilitate prevention and identification of dose delivery errors in remotely afterloaded brachytherapy. The system allows for automatic online in vivo dosimetry directly in the tumor region using small passive detector probes...... outer diameter). The system was tested in the range from 0 to 4 Gy using a solid-water phantom, a Varian GammaMed Plus Ir-192 PDR afterloader, and dosimetry probes inserted into stainless-steel brachytherapy needles. The calibrated system was found to be linear in the tested dose range...

  20. Development and implementation of a remote audit tool for high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 brachytherapy using optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to create a mailable phantom with measurement accuracy suitable for Radiological Physics Center (RPC) audits of high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy sources at institutions participating in National Cancer Institute-funded cooperative clinical trials. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) were chosen as the dosimeter to be used with the phantom.Methods: The authors designed and built an 8 × 8 × 10 cm3 prototype phantom that had two slots capable of holding Al2O3:C OSLDs (nanoDots; Landauer, Glenwood, IL) and a single channel capable of accepting all 192Ir HDR brachytherapy sources in current clinical use in the United States. The authors irradiated the phantom with Nucletron and Varian 192Ir HDR sources in order to determine correction factors for linearity with dose and the combined effects of irradiation energy and phantom characteristics. The phantom was then sent to eight institutions which volunteered to perform trial remote audits.Results: The linearity correction factor was kL= (−9.43 × 10−5× dose) + 1.009, where dose is in cGy, which differed from that determined by the RPC for the same batch of dosimeters using 60Co irradiation. Separate block correction factors were determined for current versions of both Nucletron and Varian 192Ir HDR sources and these vendor-specific correction factors differed by almost 2.6%. For the Nucletron source, the correction factor was 1.026 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.023–1.028], and for the Varian source, it was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.995–1.005). Variations in lateral source positioning up to 0.8 mm and distal/proximal source positioning up to 10 mm had minimal effect on dose measurement accuracy. The overall dose measurement uncertainty of the system was estimated to be 2.4% and 2.5% for the Nucletron and Varian sources, respectively (95% CI). This uncertainty was sufficient to establish a ±5% acceptance criterion for source strength audits under a formal RPC audit

  1. Intercomparison of calibration procedures of high dose rate {sup 192} Ir sources in Brazil and a proposal of a new methodology; Intercomparacao de procedimientos de calibracao de fontes de {sup 192} Ir de alta taxa de dose no Brasil e proposta de uma nova metodologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, M.H.; Almeida, C.E. de [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes IRD/CNEN. Caixa Postal 37750 CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to report the results of an intercomparison of the calibration procedures for {sup 192} Ir sources presently in use in Brazil and to proposal a calibration procedure to derive the N{sub k} for a Farmer type ionization chamber for {sup 192} Ir energy by interpolating from a {sup 60} Co gamma-rays and 250 kV x-rays calibration factors. the intercomparison results were all within {+-} 3.0 % except one case where 4.6 % was observed and latter identified as a problem with N-k value for X-rays. The method proposed by the present work make possible the improvement of the metrological coherence among the calibration laboratories and their users once the N{sub k} values could then provided by any of the members of SSDL network. (Author)

  2. Cooperative Experiment and Uncertainty Analysis for Transgenic Rapeseed TOPAS 19/2 Plasmid Molecule%转基因油菜TOPAS19/2质粒分子多家协同实验及不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳方方; 张玲; 宋贵文; 曹应龙; 盛灵慧; 黄峥; 王晶; 秦培勇; 卢长明

    2012-01-01

    质粒分子是转基因产品核酸定量检测的一类新型标准物质,具有易制备、周期短、成本低等特点.采用实时荧光定量PCR技术,并协同7家实验室对转基因油菜TOPAS19/2质粒分子进行了基因组的可替代性研究、协同实验研究及不确定度评定.T检验表明,质粒和基因组所产生的内源和外源基因标准曲线的斜率和线性相关系数没有显著性差异.对多家定值的数据进行了统计分析得出,TOPAS19/2质粒分子的量值结果为0.910,扩展标准不确定度(K=2)为0.013.%By the feature of easy acquisition,low cost and short cycle,plasmid reference materials could be used for GMO quantifications. In this experiment,real-time quantitative PCR was used to quantify GMO rapeseed TOPAS 19/ 2 collaboratively with 7 laboratories. The genome substitutability,collaborative experiment and uncertainty evaluation were carried out on transgenie rapeseed TOPAS19/2 plasmid molecule. T test showed thai there were no significant differences between the slope of standard curve and linear correlation coefficient produced by endogenous and exogenous genes of two standards. The statistical analysis conducted on several laboratories' fixed data showed that the quantity value of Rapeseed TOPAS 19/2 was 0.910 with an uncertainty of 0.013 (K = 2).

  3. Characterization of a mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, LT(R192G/L211A), as a safe and effective oral adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth B; Lawson, Louise B; Freytag, Lucy C; Clements, John D

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that the adjuvant properties of the heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli (LT) and Vibrio cholerae (CT) have been known for more than 20 years, there are no available oral vaccines containing these molecules as adjuvants, primarily because they are both very potent enterotoxins. A number of attempts with various degrees of success have been made to reduce or eliminate the enterotoxicity of LT and CT so they can safely be used as oral adjuvants or immunogens. In this report we characterize the structural, enzymatic, enterotoxic, and adjuvant properties of a novel mutant of LT, designated LT(R192G/L211A), or dmLT. dmLT was not sensitive to trypsin activation, had reduced enzymatic activity for induction of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells, and exhibited no enterotoxicity in the patent mouse assay. Importantly, dmLT retained the ability to function as an oral adjuvant for a coadministered antigen (tetanus toxoid) and to elicit anti-LT antibodies. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that the reduced enterotoxicity of this molecule compared to native LT or the single mutant, LT(R192G), is a consequence of increased sensitivity to proteolysis and rapid intracellular degradation in mammalian cells. In conclusion, dmLT is a safe and powerful detoxified enterotoxin with the potential to function as a mucosal adjuvant for coadministered antigens and to elicit anti-LT antibodies without undesirable side effects. PMID:21288994

  4. Monte Carlo study of the impact of a magnetic field on the dose distribution in MRI-guided HDR brachytherapy using Ir-192

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, E.; Seevinck, P. R.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Viergever, M. A.; Moerland, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    In the process of developing a robotic MRI-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy treatment, the influence of the MRI scanner’s magnetic field on the dose distribution needs to be investigated. A magnetic field causes a deflection of electrons in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field, and it leads to less lateral scattering along the direction parallel with the magnetic field. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to determine the influence of the magnetic field on the electron behavior and on the total dose distribution around an Ir-192 source. Furthermore, the influence of air pockets being present near the source was studied. The Monte Carlo package Geant4 was utilized for the simulations. The simulated geometries consisted of a simplified point source inside a water phantom. Magnetic field strengths of 0 T, 1.5 T, 3 T, and 7 T were considered. The simulation results demonstrated that the dose distribution was nearly unaffected by the magnetic field for all investigated magnetic field strengths. Evidence was found that, from a dose perspective, the HDR prostate brachytherapy treatment using Ir-192 can be performed safely inside the MRI scanner. No need was found to account for the magnetic field during treatment planning. Nevertheless, the presence of air pockets in close vicinity to the source, particularly along the direction parallel with the magnetic field, appeared to be an important point for consideration.

  5. High-dose rate iridium-192 brachytherapy with flexible applicator. A trial toward decrease of stress during treatment and improvement of quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We tried to improve the materials and methods of high-dose rate Iridium-192 brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer and evaluated the stress during the treatment in 20 patients with whom the therapy was performed. Rigid applicators made of stainless steel of 1.6 mm in diameter were indwelt with a template as usual for 30 hours in 14 patients (group A). Flexible applicators made of polyoxymethylene rosin (POM) of 2.0 mm in diameter were indwelt without a template for 30 hours after the applicator insertion in 6 patients (group B). We made inquiries about lumbago, inconvenience and necessity of assistant help and sleep in the course of therapy, and urinary incontinence and erectile function after the course of therapy as the QOL. The stress during the course of therapy in the patients of group B was obviously less than that of group A. There were no significant differences in urinary incontinence and erectile function after the course of therapy between group A and B. In this study, our trial successfully reduced the stress during the course of therapy in the patients with localized prostate cancer in the course of high-dose rate Iridium-192 brachytherapy. (author)

  6. Attitudes and treatment outcome of breast conservation therapy for stage I and II breast cancer using peroperative iridium-192 implant boost to the tumour bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast conservation therapy for early breast cancer is an established but grossly under-utilized treatment option in India for various reasons. Breast conservation therapy was offered to 200 suitable breast cancer patients between June 1993 and June 1998. Fifty-one patients (25%) opted for breast conservation and the remaining preferred mastectomy. In patients agreeing to conservation therapy, surgery was performed first along with peroperative implantation of iridium-192 to deliver a boost. Whole breast irradiation of 45 Gy was delivered 3-4 weeks after the boost. Cosmesis was assessed at the end of 6 months from completion of therapy. The main reason for refusal of breast conservation therapy was fear of recurrence in the remaining breast (60%). There were no loco-regional failures in our study at a median follow up of 42 months; one patient experienced a systemic relapse. Cosmesis was good to excellent in 80% of patients. Breast conservation therapy using peroperative iridium-192 implant provides excellent loco-regional disease control and cosmesis. The results of our study indicate that patient preference for mastectomy is an important reason for the under-utilization of breast conservation therapy in India. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  7. High-dose rate iridium-192 brachytherapy with flexible applicator. A trial toward decrease of stress during treatment and improvement of quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Keiji; Kasahara, Kotaro; Karashima, Takashi; Inoue, Yuichiro; Kariya, Shinji; Inomata, Taisuke; Yoshida, Shoji; Shuin, Taro [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We tried to improve the materials and methods of high-dose rate Iridium-192 brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer and evaluated the stress during the treatment in 20 patients with whom the therapy was performed. Rigid applicators made of stainless steel of 1.6 mm in diameter were indwelt with a template as usual for 30 hours in 14 patients (group A). Flexible applicators made of polyoxymethylene rosin (POM) of 2.0 mm in diameter were indwelt without a template for 30 hours after the applicator insertion in 6 patients (group B). We made inquiries about lumbago, inconvenience and necessity of assistant help and sleep in the course of therapy, and urinary incontinence and erectile function after the course of therapy as the QOL. The stress during the course of therapy in the patients of group B was obviously less than that of group A. There were no significant differences in urinary incontinence and erectile function after the course of therapy between group A and B. In this study, our trial successfully reduced the stress during the course of therapy in the patients with localized prostate cancer in the course of high-dose rate Iridium-192 brachytherapy. (author)

  8. A generic high-dose rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source for evaluation of model-based dose calculations beyond the TG-43 formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballester, Facundo, E-mail: Facundo.Ballester@uv.es [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa [Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 85, Sweden and Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm SE-171 76 (Sweden); Granero, Domingo [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia E-46014 (Spain); Haworth, Annette [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Mourtada, Firas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware 19713 (United States); Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Zourari, Kyveli; Papagiannis, Panagiotis [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 MikrasAsias, Athens 115 27 (Greece); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Siebert, Frank-André [Clinic of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24105 (Germany); Sloboda, Ron S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); and others

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In order to facilitate a smooth transition for brachytherapy dose calculations from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism to model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), treatment planning systems (TPSs) using a MBDCA require a set of well-defined test case plans characterized by Monte Carlo (MC) methods. This also permits direct dose comparison to TG-43 reference data. Such test case plans should be made available for use in the software commissioning process performed by clinical end users. To this end, a hypothetical, generic high-dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source and a virtual water phantom were designed, which can be imported into a TPS. Methods: A hypothetical, generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source was designed based on commercially available sources as well as a virtual, cubic water phantom that can be imported into any TPS in DICOM format. The dose distribution of the generic {sup 192}Ir source when placed at the center of the cubic phantom, and away from the center under altered scatter conditions, was evaluated using two commercial MBDCAs [Oncentra{sup ®} Brachy with advanced collapsed-cone engine (ACE) and BrachyVision ACUROS{sup TM}]. Dose comparisons were performed using state-of-the-art MC codes for radiation transport, including ALGEBRA, BrachyDose, GEANT4, MCNP5, MCNP6, and PENELOPE2008. The methodologies adhered to recommendations in the AAPM TG-229 report on high-energy brachytherapy source dosimetry. TG-43 dosimetry parameters, an along-away dose-rate table, and primary and scatter separated (PSS) data were obtained. The virtual water phantom of (201){sup 3} voxels (1 mm sides) was used to evaluate the calculated dose distributions. Two test case plans involving a single position of the generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source in this phantom were prepared: (i) source centered in the phantom and (ii) source displaced 7 cm laterally from the center. Datasets were independently produced by

  9. 南京“5.7”192Ir源放射事故患者的临床救治%Medical management of the victim exposed to 192Ir source at "5.7" accident in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉龙; 王优优; 余道江; 戴宏; 卞华慧; 陈炜博; 李元; 陈学英; 冯骏超

    2016-01-01

    acute radiation sickness,but had a better prognosis.Severe local radiation injury had a protracted course.The key of treatment lied in myocutaneous flap transplantations,and microsurgery operation,VSD technique and MSCs infusion guaranteed the success of the surgery treatment.Moreover,anti-infection,nutrition support,and psychological intervention also contributed to the recovery the patient.%目的 通过对南京“5.7”192Ir源放射事故患者的剂量估算、临床表现和医学处理的总结,探讨类似放射损伤的救治技术和发生、发展规律.方法 医护人员询问受照患者的详细病史,进行物理剂量和生物剂量估算,应用红外线热成像仪动态监测损伤部位的温度改变.进行综合分析,确定诊断和治疗方案.治疗上,全身和局部治疗并重,躯体治疗和心理治疗同步,采取综合措施.给予改善微循环、增强免疫功能、营养支持、抗感染、应用粒细胞集落刺激因子(G-CSF)及对症治疗等进行全身治疗;局部治疗包括镇痛、换药、清创及两次肌皮瓣移植术、脐带间充质干细胞(MSCs)输注、负压封闭引流(VSD)等.结果 患者全身生物剂量估算结果为1.51 Gy,物理估算右下肢皮肤最大剂量值约为4 100 Gy,该结果和临床表现一致;患者受照后约40 d平稳进入恢复期;经过378 d的精心救治,右下肢Ⅳ度急性放射性皮肤损伤伤口愈合,但仍存在活动障碍.结论 早期进行局部不均匀照射的生物剂量估算结果与临床诊断相符,结合系统的医学检查指导救治方案的制定;轻度骨髓型急性放射病病程分期不明显,预后较好;局部严重放射性损伤迁延不愈,肌皮瓣移植是治疗的关键,显微外科技术、VSD封闭式引流技术及MSCs输注是手术成功的关键;抗感染、营养治疗及心理疏导对患者全身及局部的康复起到了积极作用.

  10. Identification and Analysis of Conserved Sequence Motifs in Cytochrome P450 Family 2: FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL ROLE OF A MOTIF 187RFDYKD192 IN CYP2B ENZYMES*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Oezguen, Numan; Kumar, Santosh; Hindupur, Aditya; Braun, Werner; Muralidhara, B. K.; Halpert, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a multiple alignment of 175 cytochrome P450 (CYP) family 2 sequences, 20 conserved sequence motifs (CSMs) were identified with the program PCPMer. Functional importance of the CSM in CYP2B enzymes was assessed from available data on site-directed mutants and genetic variants. These analyses suggested an important role of the CSM 8, which corresponds to187RFDYKD192 in CYP2B4. Further analysis showed that residues 187, 188, 190, and 192 have a very high rank order ...

  11. A simplified analytical approach to estimate the parameters required for strength determination of HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources using a Farmer-type ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sudhir [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, CTCRS, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Srinivasan, P. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, S.D., E-mail: sdsharma_barc@rediffmail.com [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, CTCRS, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Mayya, Y.S. [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, CTCRS, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Measuring the strength of high dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources on receipt from the vendor is an important component of a quality assurance program. Owing to their ready availability in radiotherapy departments, the Farmer-type ionization chambers are also used to determine the strength of HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources. The use of a Farmer-type ionization chamber requires the estimation of the scatter correction factor along with positioning error (c) and the constant of proportionality (f) to determine the strength of HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources. A simplified approach based on a least squares method was developed for estimating the values of f and M{sub s}. The seven distance method was followed to record the ionization chamber readings for parameterization of f and M{sub s}. Analytically calculated values of M{sub s} were used to determine the room scatter correction factor (K{sub sc}). The Monte Carlo simulations were also carried out to calculate f and K{sub sc} to verify the magnitude of the parameters determined by the proposed analytical approach. The value of f determined using the simplified analytical approach was found to be in excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulated value (within 0.7%). Analytically derived values of K{sub sc} were also found to be in good agreement with the Monte Carlo calculated values (within 1.47%). Being far simpler than the presently available methods of evaluating f, the proposed analytical approach can be adopted for routine use by clinical medical physicists to estimate f by hand calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAKR measurement of a brachytherapy source by 7 distance method requires the evaluation of 'f'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simplified analytical approach based on least square method to evaluate 'f' and 'M{sub s}' was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parameter 'f' calculated by proposed analytical

  12. Intermediate temperature ionic conductivity of Sm1.92Ca0.08Ti2O7–δ pyrochlore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eurenius, Karinh E. J.; Bentzer, Henrik Karnøe; Bonanos, Nikolaos;

    2011-01-01

    The results of concentration cell electromotive force methods (EMF) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements on the pyrochlore system Sm1.92Ca0.08Ti2O7–δ are presented. The data have been used to estimate total and partial conductivities and determine transport numbers for protons...... and oxide ions under various conditions. The EMF techniques employed include corrections for electrode polarisation resistance. The measurements were performed using wet and dry atmospheres in a wide range using mixtures of H2, N2, O2, and H2O in the temperature region where proton conductivity was expected...... (500–300 °C). The impedance measurements revealed the conductivity to be mainly ionic under all conditions, with the highest total conductivity measured being 0.045 S/m under wet oxygen at 500 °C. Both bulk and grain boundary conductivity was predominantly ionic, but electronic conductivity appeared...

  13. Description of E4 Transitions in A = 192, 194,196, 198 Platinum Isotopes in a Microscopic sdgIBM- 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZhanJun; YANG Jie; WANG Xin; LIU Yong

    2001-01-01

    Influence of the effective fermion hexadecapole force newly incorporated in a microscopic sdgIBM-1 on spectra, reduced E2 and E4 transition matrix elements (T(E2)s and T(E4)s) in the even-even platinum isotopes (A = 192,194,196,198) is investigated in terms of numerical calculations. It is found that the introduced interaction causes only limited modification to the spectrum and T(E2)s, apart from a few exceptions. However, it plays an essential role in describing E4 transitions. Thus in the case that the interaction is incorporated with certain strength, a reasonable description of all the E4 transitions in the platinum isotopes is reached in the microscopic sdgIBM-1 in comparing both to experimental data and the results calculated in phenomenological boson model.``

  14. 美国花235亿造“太阳”:192束激光打造恒星温度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    日前,被誉为"人造太阳"的美国国家点火装置NIF完成了首次综合点火实验——192束激光系统发射的能量打造出600万华氏度高温,这相当于恒星或大行星核心的温度。NIF作为全球最大的激光核聚变装置,从1997年开始建造起已经花掉了纳税人35.5亿美元(约合人民币235亿元)。研究人员不惜代价不仅为了研

  15. Search for shape coexistence in {sup 188,190}Pb via fine structure in the alpha decay of {sup 192,194}Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Davids, C.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The interaction between coexisting shapes in nuclei near closed shells was of great interest in the past decade. Excited 0{sup +} states at low energy can often be identified as the bandheads of structures with differing shapes built on those states, These structures were identified in {sup 190-198}Pb via beta decay and alpha decay {open_quotes}fine structure{close_quotes} studies. Coexistence of different shapes in Pb nuclei was predicted by Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations, in which both the oblate and prolate minima were predicted to have excitation energies near 1 MeV. It was our intention to continue the systematic study of the Pb nuclides by searching for excited O{sup +} states in {sup 188}Pb by observing the fine structure in the alpha decay of {sup 192}Po.

  16. Determination of $\\alpha_s$ from Hadronic Event Shapes in $e^+ e^-$ Annihilation at $192 \\le \\sqrt{s} \\le 208$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hakobyan, R S; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zilizi, G; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented from a study of the structure of high energy hadronic events recorded by the L3 detector at sqrt(s)>192 GeV. The distributions of several event shape variables are compared to resummed O(alphaS^2) QCD calculations. We determine the strong coupling constant at three average centre-of-mass energies: 194.4, 200.2 and 206.2 GeV. These measurements, combined with previous L3 measurements at lower energies demonstrate the running of alphaS as expected in QCD and yield alphaS(mZ) = 0.1227 +- 0.0012 +- 0.0058, where the first uncertainty is experimental and the second is theoretical.

  17. Measurement of hadron and lepton-pair production in $e^{+}e^{-}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 192 - 208 GeV$ at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, S W; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; De Asmundis, R; Deglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Jin, B N; Jindal, P; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kraber, M; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P; Rembeczki, S; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, G; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2006-01-01

    Hadron production and lepton-pair production in e+e- collisions are studied with data collected with the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies sqrt{s}=192-208GeV. Using a total integrated luminosity of 453/pb, 36057 hadronic events and 12863 lepton-pair events are selected. The cross sections for hadron production and lepton-pair production are measured for the full sample and for events where no high-energy initial-state-radiation photon is emitted prior to the collisions. Lepton-pair events are further investigated and forward-backward asymmetries are measured. Finally, the differential cross sections for electron-positron pair-production is determined as a function of the scattering angle. An overall good agreement is found with Standard Model predictions.

  18. MiR-192-Mediated Positive Feedback Loop Controls the Robustness of Stress-Induced p53 Oscillations in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Moore

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a critical role in cellular stress and cancer prevention. A number of post-transcriptional regulators, termed microRNAs, are closely connected with the p53-mediated cellular networks. While the molecular interactions among p53 and microRNAs have emerged, a systems-level understanding of the regulatory mechanism and the role of microRNAs-forming feedback loops with the p53 core remains elusive. Here we have identified from literature that there exist three classes of microRNA-mediated feedback loops revolving around p53, all with the nature of positive feedback coincidentally. To explore the relationship between the cellular performance of p53 with the microRNA feedback pathways, we developed a mathematical model of the core p53-MDM2 module coupled with three microRNA-mediated positive feedback loops involving miR-192, miR-34a, and miR-29a. Simulations and bifurcation analysis in relationship to extrinsic noise reproduce the oscillatory behavior of p53 under DNA damage in single cells, and notably show that specific microRNA abrogation can disrupt the wild-type cellular phenotype when the ubiquitous cell-to-cell variability is taken into account. To assess these in silico results we conducted microRNA-perturbation experiments in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Time-lapse microscopy of cell-population behavior in response to DNA double-strand breaks, together with image classification of single-cell phenotypes across a population, confirmed that the cellular p53 oscillations are compromised after miR-192 perturbations, matching well with the model predictions. Our study via modeling in combination with quantitative experiments provides new evidence on the role of microRNA-mediated positive feedback loops in conferring robustness to the system performance of stress-induced response of p53.

  19. Early breast cancer: influence of type of boost (electrons vs iridium-192 implant) on local control and cosmesis after conservative surgery and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between December 1981 and December 1988, 329 consecutive patients with stage I and II breast cancers who underwent wide excision (n = 261) or quadrantectomy (n = 68) with (n = 303) or without (n = 26) axillary dissection were referred to radiotherapy. Final margins of resection were microscopically free from tumor involvement in all cases. Radiotherapy consisted in 40-45 Gy over 4-4.5 weeks to the breast, with (n = 168) or without (n = 161) regional nodal irradiation of 45-50 Gy over 4.5-5 weeks. A mean booster dose of 15 Gy was delivered to the primary site by iridium-192 implant in 169 patients (group 1) or by electrons in 160 patients (group 2). Twenty-seven percent (n = 88) of patients received tamoxifen for ≥ 2 years. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 22% (n = 71) of patients. Groups 1 and 2 were not strictly comparable. Group 1 patients were significantly younger, had smaller tumors, were treated with cobalt at 5 x 2 Gy per week and axillary dissection was more frequently performed. Group 2 patients were more frequently bifocal and more frequently treated by quadrantectomy and tamoxifen, and irradiation used accelerator photons at 4 x 2.50 Gy per week. No difference in terms of follow-up and survival rates was observed between the two groups. For all patients the 5- and 10-year local breast relapse rates were 6.7% and 11%, respectively. No difference was observed regarding local control either by the electron or the iridium-192 implant boosts. Axillary dissection and age had an impact on the breast cosmetic outcome. Furthermore, the cosmetic results seemed to be poorer in group 1 than in group 2. This may be related to other factors; group 1 patients were treated with telecobalt and axillary dissection was more frequently performed; on the other hand, group 2 patients were treated with accelarator photons

  20. SU-F-19A-10: Recalculation and Reporting Clinical HDR 192-Ir Head and Neck Dose Distributions Using Model Based Dose Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively re-calculate dose distributions for selected head and neck cancer patients, earlier treated with HDR 192Ir brachytherapy, using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and compare results to distributions from the planning system derived using TG43 formalism. To study differences between dose to medium (as obtained with the MC code) and dose to water in medium as obtained through (1) ratios of stopping powers and (2) ratios of mass energy absorption coefficients between water and medium. Methods: The MC code Algebra was used to calculate dose distributions according to earlier actual treatment plans using anonymized plan data and CT images in DICOM format. Ratios of stopping power and mass energy absorption coefficients for water with various media obtained from 192-Ir spectra were used in toggling between dose to water and dose to media. Results: Differences between initial planned TG43 dose distributions and the doses to media calculated by MC are insignificant in the target volume. Differences are moderate (within 4–5 % at distances of 3–4 cm) but increase with distance and are most notable in bone and at the patient surface. Differences between dose to water and dose to medium are within 1-2% when using mass energy absorption coefficients to toggle between the two quantities but increase to above 10% for bone using stopping power ratios. Conclusion: MC predicts target doses for head and neck cancer patients in close agreement with TG43. MC yields improved dose estimations outside the target where a larger fraction of dose is from scattered photons. It is important with awareness and a clear reporting of absorbed dose values in using model based algorithms. Differences in bone media can exceed 10% depending on how dose to water in medium is defined

  1. 联合检测血清Cyfra21-1、CK19-2G2在非小细胞肺癌患者中的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖长征; 徐文莉; 魏晟潇; 许瑞环; 刘紫菱; 罗艺

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨联合检测血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2在非小细胞肺癌患者中的诊断。方法:采用化学发光免疫法检测92例非小细胞肺癌患者、83例肺部良性疾病患者和90例健康体检者血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2的浓度,并判断两者的相关性。比较单独与联合检测Cyfra21-1、CK19-2G2对于诊断非小细胞肺癌的灵敏度和特异性。结果:非小细胞肺癌组血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2水平显著高于肺部良性疾病组和健康对照组(P〈0.01);非小细胞肺癌患者血清Cyfra 21-1与CK19-2G2水平呈正相关性(P〈0.05)。两者联合诊断非小细胞肺癌的灵敏度为82.7%、特异性为78%。结论:Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2是有效的诊断非小细胞肺癌的肿瘤标志物。血清Cyfra 21-1、CK19-2G2水平在非小细胞肺癌的诊断中有临床应用价值,两者联合检测的灵敏度和特异性高。

  2. Radiological protection on interstitial brachytherapy and dose determination and exposure rate of an Ir-192 source through the MCNP-4B; Proteccion radiologica en braquiterapia intersticial y determinacion de la dosis y tasa de exposicion de una fuente de Ir-192 mediante el MCNP-4B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales L, M.E. [INEN, Av. Angamos Este 2520- Surquillo, Lima (Peru)

    2006-07-01

    The present work was carried out in the Neurological Sciences Institute having as objective to determine the dose and the rate of exhibition of the sources of Iridium 192, Iodine 125 and Palladium 103; which are used to carry out implant in the Interstitial Brachytherapy according to the TG43. For it we carry out a theoretical calculation, its are defined in the enter file: the geometry, materials of the problem and the radiation source, etc; in the MCNP-4B Monte Carlo code, considering a punctual source and for the dose determination we simulate thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD): at 5 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm and 200 cm of the source. Our purpose is to analyze the radioprotection measures that should take into account in this Institute in which are carried out brain biopsies using a Micro mar stereotactic mark, and in a near future with the collaboration of a doctor and a cuban physique seeks to be carried out the Interstitial Brachytherapy technique with sources of Ir-192 for patient with tumors like glioblastoma, astrocytoma, etc. (Author)

  3. Long term effect of cervix carcinoma treated by HDR 192 Ir afterloding intracavitory radiotherapy combined with external irradiation.%高剂量率192Ir后装腔内加外照射治疗宫颈癌的远期疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王青; 侯晓玲; 赵淑红

    2001-01-01

    Objective To analyze retrosrectively long- term effect of cervix carcinona treated by HDR 192Ir afterloading intracavitory radiotherapy combined with external irradiation. Methods From Mar 1993 to Dec 1994, 128 cases of cervix cancer(age from 29 years to 80 years) were treated with combination of external irradiation and HDR 192Ir afterloading intracavitory radiotherapy. 47 cases were stage Ⅱ and 81 were stage Ⅲ. The dose of external radiotherapy was 40 Gy or 50 Gy and afterloading irradiation was given in 6 or 7 fractions of 8 Gy. Results The overall local tumor control was 94.5%, the 1,3,5 year survival rates were 91.61%, 81.89%and 67.36%. The 1,3,5 year survival rates of stage Ⅱ and stage Ⅲ cases were 95.28% and 89. 47%, 87.19% and 79.50%, 72.76% and 64.95% (P>0.05). The rate of severe complications was 7.03% (9/128). Conclusion HDR 192Ir afterloading intracavitory radiotherapy combined with external irradiation for cervix carcinoma is effective and less side effects.%目的分析高剂量率192Ir后装腔内加外照射治疗宫颈癌的远期疗效及并发症。方法对128例Ⅱ、Ⅲ期放疗后宫颈癌进行了回顾分析。其中Ⅱ期47例,Ⅲ期81例。全盆腔外照射Dr20Gy/10次,全盆中间挡铅4cmDr20Gy~30Gy/10次~15次;后装A点剂量48Gy~56Gy/6次~7次。结果 1、3、5年生存率分别为91.61%、81.8%和67.36%;Ⅱ、Ⅲ期1、3、5年生存率无统计学差异(P>0.05);远期严重并发症的发生率7.03%(9/128)。结论高剂量率192Ir后装腔内加外照射治疗宫颈癌疗效肯定,并发症少。盆腔局部复发仍是放疗失败的主要原因。

  4. Characterization of TLD-100 in powders for dosimetric quality control of {sup 192} Ir sources used in brachytherapy of high dose rate; Caracterizacion de TLD-100 en polvo para control de calidad dosimetrico de fuentes de Ir{sup 192} usadas en braquiterapia de alta tasa de dosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaiza C, S.P

    2007-07-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetric at the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) calibrated a lot of powdered TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) in terms of absorbed dose to water D{sub w} for the energy of: {sup 60}Co, {sup 137C}s, X rays of 250 and 50 kVp. Later on, it is carried out an interpolation of the calibration for the energy of the {sup 192}Ir. This calibration is part of a dosimetric quality control program, to solve the problems of traceability for the measurements carried out by the users of {sup 192}Ir sources employed in the treatments of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR) at the Mexican Republic. The calibrations of the radiation beams are made with the following protocols: IAEA TRS-398 for the {sup 60}Co for D{sub w}, using a secondary standard ionization chamber PTW N30013 calibrated in D{sub w} by the National Research Council (NRC, Canada). AAPM TG-43 for D{sub w} in terms of the strength kerma Sk, calibrating this last one quantity for the {sup 137}Cs radioactive source, with a well chamber HDR 1000 PLUS traceable to the University of Wisconsin (US). AAPM TG-61 for X ray of 250 and 50 kVp for D{sub w} start to Ka using field standard a Farmer chamber PTW 30001 traceable to K for the Central Laboratory of Electric Industries (CLEI, France). The calibration curves (CC) they built for the response of the powder TLD: R{sub TLD} vs D{sub w}: For the energy of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, X rays of 250 and 50 kVp. Fitting them with the least square method weighed by means of a polynomial of second grade that corrects the supra linearity of the response. iii. Each one of the curves was validated with a test by lack of fitting and for the Anderson Darling normality test, using the software MINITAB in both cases. iv. The sensibility factor (F{sub s}) for each energy corresponds to the slope of the CC, v. The F{sub s} for the two {sup 192}Ir sources used are interpolated: one for a Micro Selectron source and the other one a Vari Source source. Finally, a couple of

  5. Volume and dose rate dependent (MDR-LDR Ir-192 afterloading interstitial brachytherapy) treatment optimisation, for squamouscell carcinoma of the lip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: From 1/1/90 to 1/1/95, 53 patients with squamouscell carcinoma of the lip were treated by MDR or LDR Ir-192 afterloading interstitital brachytherapy. We compare the oncological and aesthetical results and sequelae depending on the volume and the dose rate. Material and methods: 53 patients, 41 men and 12 women, median age = 66y; 48 primary tumors (T1 = 26; T2 = 16; T3 = 6; N0 = 47; N1 = 1; M0 = 48) and 5 recurrencies; squamouscell carcinoma (grade 1 =45, g2 =6, g3 =2); clinical extension: buccal comissure=3, check =2, muscular =15, skin =7, lower and upper lip =1. Before radiotherapy, 28 biopsies and 25 excisional surgeries (19 with positive margins, 6 with negative margins) were performed. Brachytherapy was performed alone (dose 60-75 Gy BD85%) or as a boost (dose 10-30 Gy BD85%) associated with external beam (dose 46-50 Gy). MDR or LDR microselectron's afterloading was done after a computerised dosimetry (Paris System): treatment mean time = 30, 98 hours; mean volume = 10,2 cc (T1-T2 8, 61cc); Ir - 192 activity = range 0,7 - 4,792 mCi/cm; reference dose rate 45,6 - 290, 1 cGy/h. Results: 46 patients are alive without cancer, 1 died without responding, 6 died from non oncological diseases; 8 patients had recurrences (5 local, 3 nodal) but are alive. Mean follow-up 30,83 months (range 3-60m), mean DFS = 22,49 m (range 5-57m). Acute secondary effects: 30 radioepithelyties (grade 1 = 7, g2=23, g3=14), and 39 radiomucitis (g1=3; g2=23; g3=13); mean time for complete healing = 21, 66 days. Sequelae: moderate sclerosis of the skin =11, skin retraction = 1, hyperpigmentation2, depigmentation= 10, edema= 6, gingivitis= 7. Aesthetical results: good32; moderate= 18; bad= 2, very bad= 1 (uncontrolled tumor). Conclusions: The sequelae and aesthetical results are closely dependent on the treated volume and the dose rate, less dependent on the total dose, and independent on the Iridium activity. Complete healing time does not influence the late aesthetical results

  6. Dose specification for 192Ir high dose rate brachytherapy in terms of dose-to-water-in-medium and dose-to-medium-in-medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose calculation in high dose rate brachytherapy with 192Ir is usually based on the TG-43U1 protocol where all media are considered to be water. Several dose calculation algorithms have been developed that are capable of handling heterogeneities with two possibilities to report dose: dose-to-medium-in-medium (Dm,m) and dose-to-water-in-medium (Dw,m). The relation between Dm,m and Dw,m for 192Ir is the main goal of this study, in particular the dependence of Dw,m on the dose calculation approach using either large cavity theory (LCT) or small cavity theory (SCT). A head and neck case was selected due to the presence of media with a large range of atomic numbers relevant to tissues and mass densities such as air, soft tissues and bone interfaces. This case was simulated using a Monte Carlo (MC) code to score: Dm,m, Dw,m (LCT), mean photon energy and photon fluence. Dw,m (SCT) was derived from MC simulations using the ratio between the unrestricted collisional stopping power of the actual medium and water. Differences between Dm,m and Dw,m (SCT or LCT) can be negligible (<1%) for some tissues e.g. muscle and significant for other tissues with differences of up to 14% for bone. Using SCT or LCT approaches leads to differences between Dw,m (SCT) and Dw,m (LCT) up to 29% for bone and 36% for teeth. The mean photon energy distribution ranges from 222 keV up to 356 keV. However, results obtained using mean photon energies are not equivalent to the ones obtained using the full, local photon spectrum. This work concludes that it is essential that brachytherapy studies clearly report the dose quantity. It further shows that while differences between Dm,m and Dw,m (SCT) mainly depend on tissue type, differences between Dm,m and Dw,m (LCT) are, in addition, significantly dependent on the local photon energy fluence spectrum which varies with distance to implanted sources. (paper)

  7. Characterization of motorcycle accident victims attended by the mobile emergency service (SAMU-192, Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil - 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34ispec.11524

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betise Mery Alencar Sousa Macau Furtado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study described the epidemiological characteristics of victims of accidents involving motorcycles, attended by the Mobile Emergency Service (SAMU-192 in the city of Recife (PE in 2006. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that analyzed a sample of 703 cases. The results showed that 81.8% were male, aged 20 to 29 years. It was noted that 406 of them were wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. The accidents occurred most frequently on Sundays (19.3% between 18:00 and 24:00 hours (0.28%. The extremities were the most affected body segment, with 341 occurrences. Regarding the severity of injuries, it was found that 37.6% were superficial or mild (scrapes, cuts and bruises. These results demonstrate the need for educational campaigns to encourage the use of personal protective equipment among motorcyclists. The best way to reduce the risks and damages from motorcycle accidents is through primary prevention. For this, are needed integrated intersectoral actions aimed at reducing the incidence and severity of injuries.  

  8. Development of methods for activity determination for radionuclides with double decay emission β- β+ / electron capture - application to the standardization of 192Ir, 152Eu and 186 Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work alternative procedures have been developed for standardization of radionuclides with double decay, β- β+ / electron capture using the 4πβ-γ coincidence technique, applying different systems. Two 4πβ-γ coincidence systems were used: one with a 4π gas-flow proportional counter coupled to a pair of NaI(Tl) scintillators and the other one with the same type of proportional counter coupled to HPGe detector. The radionuclides selected for this standardization, due to great interest in nuclear medicine, detector calibration and industrial radiography, were 192Ir, 152Eu and 186 Re. The first and the second were part of international comparisons sponsored by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), France, who supplied the radioactive solution. For 186Re, the gamma-ray emission probability per decay was measured by means REGe spectrometer system, previously calibrated with standard ampoules. All the uncertainties involved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  9. Multi-Photon Events with Large Missing Energy in $e^{+}e^{-}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=192-209 GeV$

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Allison, J; Amaral, P; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Büsser, K; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Ciocca, C; Csilling, A; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Günther, P O; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, R J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hoffman, K; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, Dean A; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Krüger, K; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Layter, J G; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Masetti, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J A; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, N; Michelini, A; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Moed, S; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Tran, P; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2004-01-01

    Events with a final state consisting of two or more photons and large missing transverse energy have been observed in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies in the range 192 - 209 GeV using the OPAL detector at LEP. Cross-section measurements are performed within the kinematic acceptance of the selection and compared with the expectation from the Standard Model process e+e- -> nu nu gamma gamma(gamma). No evidence for new physics contributions to this final state is observed. Upper limits on sigma (e+e- -> XX) BR^2(X -> Ygamma) are derived for the case of stable and invisible Y. In the case of massive Y the combined limits obtained from all the data range from 10 fb to 60 fb, while for the special case of massless Y the range is 20 fb to 40 fb. The limits apply to pair production of excited neutrions (X=nu^*,Y=nu), to neutralino production (X=~chi^0_2, Y=~chi^0_1) and to supersymmetric models in which X=~chi^0_1 and Y=~G is a light gravitino.

  10. Alcohol consumption and interpersonal injury in a pediatric oral and maxillofacial trauma population: a retrospective review of 1,192 trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Peter; Laverick, Sean; Makubate, Boikanyo; Jones, David Carl

    2015-06-01

    The social, financial, and health implications of adult alcohol-related oral and maxillofacial trauma have been recognized for several years. Affordability and widespread accessibility of alcohol and issues of misuse in the pediatric trauma population have fostered concerns alcohol may be similarly implicated in young patients with orofacial trauma. The aim of this study was to review data of pediatric facial injuries at a regional maxillofacial unit, assess the prevalence of alcohol use, and review data of patients sustaining injury secondary to interpersonal violence. This study is a retrospective, 3-year review of a Regional Maxillofacial Unit (RMU) trauma database. Inclusion criterion was consecutive facial trauma patients under 16 years of age, referred to RMU for further assessment and/or management. Alcohol use and injuries sustained were reviewed. Of 1,192 pediatric facial trauma patients, 35 (2.9%) were associated with alcohol intake. A total of 145 (12.2%) alleged assault as the mechanism of injury, with older (12-15 years) (n = 129; 88.9%), male (n = 124; 85.5%) (p role of alcohol in the pediatric trauma population is essential.

  11. Metal stent and endoluminal high-dose rate [sup 192]iridium brachytherapy in palliative treatment of malignant biliary tract obstruction. First experiences. Metallgeflecht-Endoprothese und intraluminare High-dose-rate-[sup 192]Iridium-Brachytherapie zur palliativen Behandlung maligner Gallengangsobstruktionen. Erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakisch, B.; Stuecklschweiger, G.; Poier, E.; Leitner, H.; Poschauko, J.; Hackl, A. (Universitaets-Klinik fuer Radiologie, Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie, Graz (Austria)); Klein, G.E.; Lammer, J.; Hausegger, K.A. (Universitaets-Klinik fuer Radiologie, Abt. fuer Spezielle Roentgendiagnostik und Digitale Bilddiagnostische Verfahren, Graz (Austria))

    1992-06-01

    Since December 1989, 9 patients with inoperable malignant biliary tract obstruction were treated palliatively by a combined modality treatment consisting of placement of a permanent biliary endoprosthesis followed by intraluminal high dose-rate [sup 192]Ir brachytherapy. A dose of 10 Gy was delivered in a hyperfractionated schedule at the point of reference in a distance of 7.5 mm of centre of the source. External small field radiotherapy (50.4 Gy, 1.8 Gy per day, 5 fractions per week) was also given in six cases (M/O, Karnofsky >60%). In 9/9 cases an unrestrained bile flow and an interruption of pruritus was achieved, in 78% (7/9) of cases the duration of palliation was as long as the survival time (median survival time 7.5 months). (orig.).

  12. A study on room design and radiation safety around room for Co-60 after loading HDR brachytherapy unit converted from room for Ir-192 after loading HDR brachytherapy unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Gurjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Use of Co-60 source in place of Ir-192 in high dose rate brachytherapy unit (HDR unit has come for discussion in recent publications. Co-60 based system has been advocated for centers which have fewer brachytherapy procedures as it has comparative economically and administrative advantage. This study has direct practical application for such institutions, which are at the cusp of moving from Ir-192 to Co-60 based brachytherapy. Aims: Conversion of Ir-192 HDR room to Co-60 HDR room and to analyze radiation safety around the room. Materials and Methods: Uniform thickness of 15 cm concrete was added to all walls (except one wall adjoining to linear accelerator bunker to convert existing room forIr-192 HDR unit to suitable room for Co-60 HDR unit. Radiation survey around room was done. Actual and calculated wall thicknesses were compared. Results: Radiation survey data indicates that modified room is suitable for Co-60 HDR unit and all values are in full conformity to annual dose limits mentioned in Safety Code for Radiation Therapy Sources (SCRTS, Atomic Energy Regulatory Body (AERB; the regulatory body in India. Also, modified wall thicknesses are appropriate for annual design dose limits mentioned in Safety Report Series No. 47 of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA. However, console wall thickness (0.45 m is less than the calculated thickness (0.53 m for instantaneous dose rate (IDR design dose limit (7.5 ΅Sv/h as perabove safety report of IAEA. Conclusions: The modified wall thicknesses are appropriate for annual design dose limits. However, console wall thickness is less than the required thickness for IDR design dose limit. It has been suggested to add 2.64 cm steel on console wall. It has been found that design dose limits should be considered while making room layout plan and regulatory body should add these constraints inSCRTS.

  13. The mean photon energy ĒF at the point of measurement determines the detector-specific radiation quality correction factor kQ,M in (192)Ir brachytherapy dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chofor, Ndimofor; Harder, Dietrich; Selbach, Hans-Joachim; Poppe, Björn

    2016-09-01

    The application of various radiation detectors for brachytherapy dosimetry has motivated this study of the energy dependence of radiation quality correction factor kQ,M, the quotient of the detector responses under calibration conditions at a (60)Co unit and under the given non-reference conditions at the point of measurement, M, occurring in photon brachytherapy. The investigated detectors comprise TLD, radiochromic film, ESR, Si diode, plastic scintillator and diamond crystal detectors as well as ionization chambers of various sizes, whose measured response-energy relationships, taken from the literature, served as input data. Brachytherapy photon fields were Monte-Carlo simulated for an ideal isotropic (192)Ir point source, a model spherical (192)Ir source with steel encapsulation and a commercial HDR GammaMed Plus source. The radial source distance was varied within cylindrical water phantoms with outer radii ranging from 10 to 30cm and heights from 20 to 60cm. By application of this semiempirical method - originally developed for teletherapy dosimetry - it has been shown that factor kQ,M is closely correlated with a single variable, the fluence-weighted mean photon energy ĒF at the point of measurement. The radial profiles of ĒF obtained with either the commercial (192)Ir source or the two simplified source variants show little variation. The observed correlations between parameters kQ,M and ĒF are represented by fitting formulae for all investigated detectors, and further variation of the detector type is foreseen. The herewith established close correlation of radiation quality correction factor kQ,M with local mean photon energy ĒF can be regarded as a simple regularity, facilitating the practical application of correction factor kQ,M for in-phantom dosimetry around (192)Ir brachytherapy sources. ĒF values can be assessed by Monte Carlo simulation or measurement. A technique describing the local measurement of ĒF will be published separately. PMID

  14. Single-channel 1.92 Tbit/s, Pol-Mux-64 QAM coherent Nyquist pulse transmission over 150 km with a spectral efficiency of 7.5 bit/s/Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuya, David Odeke; Kasai, Keisuke; Yoshida, Masato; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2014-10-01

    Coherent Nyquist pulses have been used for optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) digital coherent transmission, and a single-channel 1.92 Tbit/s, Pol-Mux-64 QAM coherent Nyquist pulse transmission over 150 km is demonstrated. The ability to considerably reduce the spectral bandwidth of the data signal enabled us to increase the spectral efficiency from 3.2 bit/s/Hz to 7.5 bit/s/Hz when using a Gaussian pulse train.

  15. A novel -192c/g mutation in the proximal P2 promoter of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha gene (HNF4A) associates with late-onset diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Jakob; Hansen, Sara P; Lajer, Maria;

    2006-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that mutations in the P2 promoter of the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4 alpha gene (HNF4A) cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), while single nucleotide polymorphisms in this locus are associated with type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined 1,189 bp...... of the P2 promoter and the associated exon 1D of HNF4A for variations associated with diabetes in 114 patients with type 2 diabetes, 72 MODYX probands, and 85 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. A -192c/g mutation was found in five patients. We screened 1,587 diabetic subjects and 4......,812 glucose-tolerant subjects for the -192c/g mutation and identified 5 diabetic and 1 glucose-tolerant mutation carriers (P=0.004). Examination of the families showed that carriers of the -192c/g mutation had a significantly impaired glucose-stimulated insulin release and lower levels of serum total...

  16. On the diophantine equation y(y+1)(y+2)(y+3)=19^2k x(x+1)(x+2)(x+3)%关于不定方程y(y+1)(y+2)(y+3)=19^2k x(x+1)(x+2)(x+3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凯; 黄洪波

    2011-01-01

    运用不定方程组的特征以及整除的性质等初等方法,证明了不定方程y(y+1)(y+2)(y+3)=19^2k x(x+1)(x+2)(x+3)无正整数解.%In this paper, using the characteristics of variable equations and the divisible nature of the elementary method, the paper prove the diophantine equation y(y+1)(y+2)(y+3)=19^2k x(x+1)(x+2)(x+3) no positive integer solutions.

  17. 新型肿瘤标志物细胞角蛋白19片段2G2诊断肺癌的临床价值%Diagnostic value of a new tumor marker CK19-2G2 for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏艳; 梁峰; 刘畅; 贾志凌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of a new tumor marker CK19-2G2 for lung cancer.Methods The serum levels of CK19-2G2 in 150 lung cancer patients,50 pulmonitis patients and 50 healthy controls were detected with chemoluminescence.The diagnostic efficacy between the serum levels of CK19-2G2 and CYFRA21-1 were compared.Results The sensitivity and accuracy of CK19-2G2 were 55.3 % (83/150) and 80.3 % (281/350),respectively,while the sensitivity and accuracy of CYFRA21-1 were 28.0 % (42/150) and 67.4 % (236/350),respectively.The differences were significant (P < 0.001).Conclusion The detection of CK19-2G2 may be a new diagnostic tumor marker for lung cancer.%目的 探讨新型肿瘤标志物细胞角蛋白19片段2G2(CK19-2G2)血清水平对肺癌的诊断价值.方法 采用化学发光法检测并比较了150例肺癌、50例肺炎和150名健康体检者空腹血清中CK19-2G2水平,对比血清CK19-2G2与CYFRA21-1水平对肺癌的诊断效能.结果 CK19-2G2诊断肺癌的敏感度和准确度分别为55.3%(83/150)、80.3%(281/350),而CYFRA21-1诊断肺癌的敏感度和准确度分别为28.0%(42/150)、67.4%(236/350).CK19-2G2敏感度和准确度高于CYFRA21-1(P< 0.001).结论 新型肿瘤标志物CK19-2G2血清水平能够起到肺癌临床辅助诊断的作用.

  18. CYP2C19*2 and Other Allelic Variants Affecting Platelet Response to Clopidogrel Tested by Thrombelastography in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Liu; Xiao-Yan Nie; Yong Zhang; Yun Lu; Lu-Wen Shi; Wei-Min Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background:To investigate the contributions ofCYP2C 19 polymorphisms to the various clopidogrel responses tested by thrombelastography (TEG) in Chinese patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS).Methods:Patients were screened prospectively with ACS diagnose and were treated with clopidogrel and aspirin dual antiplatelet therapy.CYP2C 19 loss of function (LOF) and gain of function (GOF) genotype,adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-channel platelet inhibition rate (PIR) tested by TEG and the occurrence of 3-month major adverse cardiovascular events and ischemic events were assessed in 116 patients.Results:High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) prevalence defined by PIR <30% by TEG in ADP-channel was 32.76% (38/116).With respect to the normal wild type,CYP2C 19*2,and *3 LOF alleles,and * 17 GOF alleles,patients were classified into three metabolism phenotypes:41.38% were extensive metabolizers (EMs),56.90% were intermediate metabolizers (IMs),and 1.72% were poor metabolizers (PMs).Of the enrolled patients,31.47%,5.17%,and 0.43%,respectively,were carriers of *2,*3,and * 17 alleles.The HTPR incidence differed significantly according to CYP2C 19 genotypes,accounting for 18.75%,41.54%,and 100.00% in EMs,IMs,and PMs,respectively.Eighteen (17.24%) ischemic events occurred during the 3-month follow-up,and there was a significant difference in ischemic events between HTPR group and nonhigh on-treatment platelet reactivity group.Conclusions:Genetic CYP2C 19 polymorphisms are relative to the inferior,the antiplatelet activity after clopidogrel admission and may increase the incidence of ischemic events in patients with ACS.

  19. Nuclear Factor κB is Required for Tumor Growth Inhibition Mediated by Enavatuzumab (PDL192), a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody to TweakR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, James W; Kim, Han K; Tanlimco, Sonia G; Doan, Minhtam; Fox, Melvin; Lambert, Peter; Chao, Debra T; Sho, Mien; Wilson, Keith E; Starling, Gary C; Culp, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    TweakR is a TNF receptor family member, whose natural ligand is the multifunctional cytokine TWEAK. The growth inhibitory activity observed following TweakR stimulation in certain cancer cell lines and the overexpression of TweakR in many solid tumor types led to the development of enavatuzumab (PDL192), a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody to TweakR. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of action of enavatuzumab's tumor growth inhibition and to provide insight into the biology behind TweakR as a cancer therapeutic target. A panel of 105 cancer lines was treated with enavatuzumab in vitro; and 29 cell lines of varying solid tumor backgrounds had >25% growth inhibition in response to the antibody. Treatment of sensitive cell lines with enavatuzumab resulted in the in vitro and in vivo (xenograft) activation of both classical (p50, p65) and non-classical (p52, RelB) NFκB pathways. Using NFκB DNA binding functional ELISAs and microarray analysis, we observed increased activation of NFκB subunits and NFκB-regulated genes in sensitive cells over that observed in resistant cell lines. Inhibiting NFκB subunits (p50, p65, RelB, p52) and upstream kinases (IKK1, IKK2) with siRNA and chemical inhibitors consistently blocked enavatuzumab's activity. Furthermore, enavatuzumab treatment resulted in NFκB-dependent reduction in cell division as seen by the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 both in vitro and in vivo. The finding that NFκB drives the growth inhibitory activity of enavatuzumab suggests that targeting TweakR with enavatuzumab may represent a novel cancer treatment strategy.

  20. Nuclear Factor κB is required for tumor growth inhibition mediated by enavatuzumab (PDL192, a humanized monoclonal antibody to TweakR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Purcell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TweakR is a TNF receptor family member, whose natural ligand is the multifunctional cytokine TWEAK. The growth inhibitory activity observed following TweakR stimulation in certain cancer cell lines and the overexpression of TweakR in many solid tumor types led to the development of enavatuzumab (PDL192, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody to TweakR. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of action of enavatuzumab’s tumor growth inhibition and to provide insight into the biology behind TweakR as a cancer therapeutic target. A panel of 105 cancer lines was treated with enavatuzumab in vitro; and 29 cell lines of varying solid tumor backgrounds had >25% growth inhibition in response to the antibody. Treatment of sensitive cell lines with enavatuzumab resulted in the in vitro and in vivo (xenograft activation of both classical (p50, p65 and non-classical (p52, RelB NFκB pathways. Using NFκB DNA binding functional ELISAs and microarray analysis, we observed increased activation of NFκB subunits and NFκB regulated genes in sensitive cells over that observed in resistant cell lines. Inhibiting NFκB subunits (p50, p65, RelB, p52 and upstream kinases (IKK1, IKK2 with siRNA and chemical inhibitors consistently blocked enavatuzumab’s activity. Furthermore, enavatuzumab treatment resulted in NFκB-dependent reduction in cell-division as seen by the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 both in vitro and in vivo. The finding that NFκB drives the growth inhibitory activity of enavatuzumab suggests that targeting TweakR with enavatuzumab may represent a novel cancer treatment strategy.

  1. Comparison of organ doses for patients undergoing balloon brachytherapy of the breast with HDR {sup 192}Ir or electronic sources using Monte Carlo simulations in a heterogeneous human phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mille, Matthew M.; Xu, X. George; Rivard, Mark J. [Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation via interstitial balloon brachytherapy is a fast and effective treatment method for certain early stage breast cancers. The radiation can be delivered using a conventional high-dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir gamma-emitting source or a novel electronic brachytherapy (eBx) source which uses lower energy x rays that do not penetrate as far within the patient. A previous study [A. Dickler, M. C. Kirk, N. Seif, K. Griem, K. Dowlatshahi, D. Francescatti, and R. A. Abrams, ''A dosimetric comparison of MammoSite high-dose-rate brachytherapy and Xoft Axxent electronic brachytherapy,'' Brachytherapy 6, 164-168 (2007)] showed that the target dose is similar for HDR {sup 192}Ir and eBx. This study compares these sources based on the dose received by healthy organs and tissues away from the treatment site. Methods: A virtual patient with left breast cancer was represented by a whole-body, tissue-heterogeneous female voxel phantom. Monte Carlo methods were used to calculate the dose to healthy organs in a virtual patient undergoing balloon brachytherapy of the left breast with HDR {sup 192}Ir or eBx sources. The dose-volume histograms for a few organs which received large doses were also calculated. Additional simulations were performed with all tissues in the phantom defined as water to study the effect of tissue inhomogeneities. Results: For both HDR {sup 192}Ir and eBx, the largest mean organ doses were received by the ribs, thymus gland, left lung, heart, and sternum which were close to the brachytherapy source in the left breast. eBx yielded mean healthy organ doses that were more than a factor of {approx}1.4 smaller than for HDR {sup 192}Ir for all organs considered, except for the three closest ribs. Excluding these ribs, the average and median dose-reduction factors were {approx}28 and {approx}11, respectively. The volume distribution of doses in nearby soft tissue organs that were outside the PTV were also

  2. Characterization of motorcycle accident victims attended by the mobile emergency service (SAMU-192, Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil = Caracterização das vítimas de acidentes de motocicleta atendidas pelo serviço de atendimento móvel de urgência (SAMU-192, Recife, Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Gomes Medeiros Fernandes da Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study described the epidemiological characteristics of victims of accidents involving motorcycles, attended by the Mobile Emergency Service (SAMU-192 in the city of Recife (PE in 2006. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that analyzed a sample of 703 cases. The results showed that 81.8% were male, aged 20 to 29 years. It was noted that 406 of them were wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. The accidents occurred most frequently on Sundays (19.3% between 18:00 and 24:00 hours (0.28%. The extremities were the most affected body segment, with 341 occurrences. Regarding the severity of injuries, it was found that 37.6% were superficial or mild (scrapes, cuts and bruises. These results demonstrate the need for educational campaigns to encourage the use of personal protective equipment among motorcyclists. The best way to reduce the risks and damages from motorcycle accidents is through primary prevention. For this, are needed integrated intersectoral actions aimed at reducing the incidence and severity of injuries.Descrevem-se as características epidemiológicas das vítimas de acidentes envolvendo motocicletas atendidas pelo Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (SAMU-192, da cidade do Recife (PE, no ano de 2006. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de corte transversal, no qual foi analisada uma amostra de 703 atendimentos. Os resultados mostraram que 81,8% eram do sexo masculino, na faixa etária entre 20 e 29 anos. Observou-se que 406 motociclistas utilizavam o capacete no momento do acidente. Os acidentes ocorreram com maior frequência no domingo (19,3%, no horário compreendido entre as 18h e 24h (0,28%. As extremidades foram o segmento do corpo mais atingidos com 341 ocorrências. Quanto à gravidade das lesões, verificou-se que 37,6% eram superficiais ou de baixa gravidade (escoriações, cortes e contusões. Esses resultados são importantes para demonstrar a necessidade de campanhas educativas incentivando o uso

  3. Do high-risk infants have a poorer outcome from primary repair of coarctation? Analysis of 192 infants over 20 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGuinness, Jonathan G

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Balloon angioplasty for infant coarctation is associated with a high recurrence rate, making operative repair the gold standard for low-risk infants. Debate exists as to whether high-risk infants might be better served with primary angioplasty. We compared the outcome in high-risk versus low-risk infants over 20 years, in a center that always used surgical repair as the primary intervention. METHODS: Of 192 infants from 1986 to 2005, 56 were considered "high-risk," defined as requiring prostaglandin infusion together with either epinephrine infusion for 24 hours preoperatively, or ventilation and milrinone infusion for 24 hours preoperatively. All high-risk patients had a period of ventricular dysfunction prior to surgery, ranging from mild to severe. Outcomes were compared using Bonferroni comparison of means or the Fischer exact test as appropriate. RESULTS: Although the high-risk patients were smaller (3.3 +\\/- 0.1 vs 4.2 +\\/- 0.2 kg, p < 0.01), younger (18 +\\/- 4 vs 57 +\\/- 7 days, p < 0.01), and more often required a concomitant pulmonary artery band (25% vs 15%, p = 0.05), their cross-clamp times were the same as the low-risk patients (18.9 +\\/- 0.9 vs 18.0 +\\/- 0.4 minutes, p = 0.27) and there was no difference in postoperative morbidity (7% vs 3%, p = 0.11). However, there was a trend toward higher perioperative mortality (7% vs 2%, p = 0.07). When compared with the published studies of primary angioplasty in comparable high-risk infants, the mortality rate in our surgically treated high-risk group is much lower. Additionally, only 11% of our high-risk group required reintervention, with two-thirds treated successfully with a single angioplasty at 3.8 +\\/- 2.2 years later, far lower than recurrence rates with primary angioplasty. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that primary surgical repair of coarctation in infants who are high risk should be the primary treatment, with angioplasty reserved for recurrent coarctation.

  4. SU-E-T-580: On the Significance of Model Based Dosimetry for Breast and Head and Neck 192Ir HDR Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppa, V; Pappas, E; Pantelis, E; Papagiannis, P [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Major, T; Polgar, C [National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric and radiobiological differences between TG43-based and model-based dosimetry in the treatment planning of {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy for breast and head and neck cancer. Methods: Two cohorts of 57 Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) and 22 head and neck (H&N) patients with oral cavity carcinoma were studied. Dosimetry for the treatment plans was performed using the TG43 algorithm of the Oncentra Brachy v4.4 treatment planning system (TPS). Corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed using MCNP6 with input files automatically prepared by the BrachyGuide software tool from DICOM RT plan data. TG43 and MC data were compared in terms of % dose differences, Dose Volume Histograms (DVHs) and related indices of clinical interest for the Planning Target Volume (PTV) and the Organs-At-Risk (OARs). A radiobiological analysis was also performed using the Equivalent Uniform Dose (EUD), mean survival fraction (S) and Tumor Control Probability (TCP) for the PTV, and the Normal Tissue Control Probability (N TCP) and the generalized EUD (gEUD) for the OARs. Significance testing of the observed differences performed using the Wilcoxon paired sample test. Results: Differences between TG43 and MC DVH indices, associated with the increased corresponding local % dose differences observed, were statistically significant. This is mainly attributed to their consistency however, since TG43 agrees closely with MC for the majority of DVH and radiobiological parameters in both patient cohorts. Differences varied considerably among patients only for the ipsilateral lung and ribs in the APBI cohort, with a strong correlation to target location. Conclusion: While the consistency and magnitude of differences in the majority of clinically relevant DVH indices imply that no change is needed in the treatment planning practice, individualized dosimetry improves accuracy and addresses instances of inter-patient variability observed. Research

  5. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with iridium-192 multicatheter PDR/HDR brachytherapy. Preliminary results of the German-Austrian multicenter trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    that accelerated partial breast irradiation with iridium-192 interstitial multicatheter PDR/HDR implants is feasible with low perioperative morbidity, low acute and mild late toxicity, and does not significantly affect cosmetic results at a median follow-up of 24 months. (orig.)

  6. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with iridium-192 multicatheter PDR/HDR brachytherapy. Preliminary results of the German-Austrian multicenter trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, O.J.; Lotter, M.; Sauer, R.; Strnad, V. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Poetter, R.; Resch, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Univ. Hospital AKH Wien, Vienna (Austria); Hammer, J. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital Linz, Linz (Austria); Hildebrandt, G. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Poehls, U.; Beckmann, M.W. [Dept. of Gynecology, Univ. Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    : this analysis indicates that accelerated partial breast irradiation with iridium-192 interstitial multicatheter PDR/HDR implants is feasible with low perioperative morbidity, low acute and mild late toxicity, and does not significantly affect cosmetic results at a median follow-up of 24 months. (orig.)

  7. 可兼容AES-128、AES-192、AES-256串行AES加密解密电路设计%Compatible AES-128、AES-192、AES-256 Serial AES Encryption and Decryption Circuit Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩少男; 李晓江

    2010-01-01

    通过分析AES算法的基本原理,对算法中的AES-128、AES-192、AES-256三种不同的加密解密模式进行了综合设计,有效地利用了公共模块,与单个分别实施各个加密解密模式相比,大大减少了硬件电路面积.针对目前AES实现方法中的key产生模块进行了理论分析,提出了一种新的实现电路结构.设计出的串行AES硬件加密解密电路经综合后得到的芯片面积为31 286门,最高工作频率为66MHz,可以满足目前的大部分无线传感网络的数据交换速率的需求.

  8. Dose calculation in eye brachytherapy with Ir-192 threads using the Sievert integral and corrected by attenuation and scattering with the Meisberg polynomials; Calculo de dosis en braquiterapia ocular con hilos de Ir-192 utilizando la integral de Sievert y cooregida por atenuacion y dispersion con los polinomios de Meisberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivanco, M.G. Bernui de; Cardenas R, A. [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Angamos No. 2520, Surquillo, Lima (Peru)]. e-mail: gisellebdv@hotmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The ocular brachytherapy many times unique alternative to conserve the visual organ in patients of ocular cancer, one comes carrying out in the National Institute of Neoplastic Illnesses (INEN) using threads of Iridium 192; those which, they are placed in radial form on the interior surface of a spherical cap of gold of 18 K; the cap remains in the eye until reaching the prescribed dose by the doctor. The main objective of this work is to be able to calculate in a correct and practical way the one time that the treatment of ocular brachytherapy should last to reach the dose prescribed by the doctor. To reach this objective I use the Sievert integral corrected by attenuation effects and scattering (Meisberg polynomials); calculating it by the Simpson method. In the calculations by means of the Sievert integral doesn't take into account the scattering produced by the gold cap neither the variation of the constant of frequency of exposure with the distance. The calculations by means of Sievert integral are compared with those obtained using the Monte Carlo Penelope simulation code, where it is observed that they agree at distances of the surface of the cap greater or equal to 2mm. (Author)

  9. The Val{sup 192}Leu mutation in the {alpha}-subunit of {beta}-hexosaminidase A is not associated with the B1-variant form of Tay-Sachs disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y.; Vavougios, G.; Hinek, A. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Substitution mutations adversely affecting the {alpha}-subunit of {beta}-hexosaminidase A ({alpha}{beta}) (EC 3.2.1.52) result in Tay-Sachs disease. The majority affect the initial folding of the pro-{alpha} chain in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in its retention and degradation. A much less common occurrence is a mutation that specifically affects an {open_quotes}active-site{close_quotes} residue necessary for substrate binding and/or catalysis. In this case, hexosaminidase A is present in the lysosome, but it lacks all {alpha}-specific activity. This biochemical phenotype is referred to as the {open_quotes}B1-variant form{close_quotes} of Tay-Sachs disease. Kinetic analysis of suspected B1-variant mutations is complex because hexosaminidase A is heterodimeric and both subunits possess similar active sites. In this report, we examine a previously identified B1-variant mutation, {alpha}-Val{sup 192}Leu. Chinese hamster ovary cells were permanently cotransfected with an {alpha}-cDNA-construct encoding the substitution and a mutant {beta}-cDNA ({beta}-Arg{sup 211}Lys), encoding a {beta}-subunit that is inactive but normal in all other respects. We were surprised to find that the Val{sup 192}Leu substitution produced a pro-{alpha} chain that did not form {alpha}-{beta} dimers and was not transported to the lysosome. Finally, we reexamined the hexosaminidase activity and protein levels in the fibroblasts from the original patient. These data were also not consistent with the biochemical phenotype of the B1 variant of Tay-Sachs disease previously reported to be present. Thus, we conclude that the Val{sup 192}Leu substitution does not specifically affect the {alpha}-active site. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. 1.92 Tb/s coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON with no high-speed ONU-side electronics over 100 km SSMF and 1:64 passive split.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijetic, Neda; Huang, Ming-Fang; Ip, Ezra; Shao, Yin; Huang, Yue-Kai; Cvijetic, Milorad; Wang, Ting

    2011-11-21

    Record 1.92-Tb/s (40λ × 48 Gb/s/λ) coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON without high-speed ONU-side ADCs/DACs/DSP/RF clock sources is demonstrated over 100 km straight SSMF with a 1:64 passive split. Novel optical-domain OFDMA sub-band selection, coherent detection, and simple RF components are exploited. As the first experimental verification of a next-generation optical platform capable of delivering 1 Gb/s to 1000(+) users over 100 km, the new architecture is promising for future optical access/metro systems.

  11. Production techniques and quality control of sealed radioactive sources of palladium-103, iodine-125, iridium-192 and ytterbium-169. Final report of a coordinated research project 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have been used extensively for many years for several medical and industrial applications either in the form of an open source or encapsulated in an appropriate metallic container (sealed source). The design and technology for the preparation of radioactive sealed sources is an area of continuous development to satisfy an ever increasing demand for a larger variety of shapes, sizes, type of radioisotope and levels of radioactivity required for newer and specialized applications. In medicine, sealed sources using the radioisotopes of 125I, 192Ir and 103Pd are commonly used for brachytherapy for the treatment of malignant diseases, and for bone density measurements. In industry, they are widely used for non-destructive testing (NDT), radiation processing, 'on-line' process control systems and on-line elemental analysis of mineral resources. Some well-known examples of such sources are 60Co for industrial nucleonic gauges, 192Ir sources for industrial radiography, 241Am sources for smoke detectors and chemical analysers and, more recently, 169Yb for NDT measurements of thin metallic tubes and plates. The current challenges in development include the production of miniature size sources with a high level of activity, a high degree of uniformity in the distribution of the radioactivity and the highest degree of safety, requiring stringent quality control methods. The IAEA has been promoting and supporting activities designed to increase the utilization of radiation and radioisotopes in several areas. In particular, in view of the proven benefits of, and an increasing demand for radioactive sealed sources for medical and industrial applications, upon the recommendation of several experts, a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radioactive Sources for Emerging Therapeutic and Industrial Applications was begun in 2002. The aim of the CRP was the optimization and testing of procedures and methods for the fabrication and quality control of

  12. Effective treatment of Stage I uterine papillary serous carcinoma with high dose-rate vaginal apex radiation (192Ir) and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is a morphologically distinct variant of endometrial carcinoma that is associated with a poor prognosis, high recurrence rate, frequent clinical understaging, and poor response to salvage treatment. We retrospectively analyzed local control, actuarial overall survival (OS), actuarial disease-free survival (DFS), salvage rate, and complications for patients with Federation International of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) (1988) Stage I UPSC. Methods and Materials: This retrospective analysis describes 38 patients with FIGO Stage I UPSC who were treated with the combinations of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, total abdominal hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO), with or without a surgical staging procedure. Twenty of 38 patients were treated with a combination of low dose-rate (LDR) uterine/vaginal brachytherapy using 226Ra or 137Cs and conventional whole-abdomen radiation therapy (WART) or whole-pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT). Of 20 patients (10%) in this treatment group, 2 received cisplatin chemotherapy. Eighteen patients were treated with high dose-rate (HDR) vaginal apex brachytherapy using 192Ir with an afterloading device and cisplatin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (CAP) chemotherapy (5 of 18 patients). Only 6 of 20 UPSC patients treated with combination LDR uterine/vaginal brachytherapy and conventional external beam radiotherapy underwent complete surgical staging, consisting of TAH/BSO, pelvic/para-aortic lymph node sampling, omentectomy, and peritoneal fluid analysis, compared to 15 of 18 patients treated with HDR vaginal apex brachytherapy. Results: The 5-year actuarial OS for patients with complete surgical staging and adjuvant radiation/chemotherapy treatment was 100% vs. 61% for patients without complete staging (p = 0.002). The 5-year actuarial OS for all Stage I UPSC patients treated with postoperative HDR vaginal apex brachytherapy and systemic chemotherapy was 94% (18

  13. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation of Li1.02Mn1.92Al0.02Fe0.02Cr0.02O4 - x Fx (x=0, 0.08 Synthesized by Solid-State Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the cycle performance of spinel LiMn2O4 as the cathode of 4-V-class lithium secondary batteries, spinel phases Li1.02Mn1.92Al0.02Fe0.02Cr0.02O4 - xFx (x=0, 0.08 have been successfully prepared by a conventional solid-state method. The structure and physicochemical properties of this as-prepared powder were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and galvanostatic charge-discharge test in detail. The results reveal that the multiple doping spinel Li1.02Mn1.92Al0.02Fe0.02Cr0.02O4F0.08 have better electrochemical performance than the undoped or only metal-element doped material, which may be contributed to the multiple cation and anion doping to lead to a more stable spinel framework with good capacity retention rate.

  14. Study of link transitions between superdeformed well and normally deformed well in Hg{sup 192} and research and development for a new concept of {gamma} photons detection: the Agata array; Etude des liens entre puits superdeforme et puits normalement deforme dans {sup 192}Hg et recherche et developpement pour un nouveau concept de detection de photons {gamma}: le multidetecteur AGATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roccaz, J

    2006-07-15

    The atomic nucleus can adopt a very elongated shape with an axis ratio 2:1, this is the superdeformation phenomenon. Nowadays more than 300 superdeformed bands have been identified at high spin, but the determination of excitation energies, spins and parities of the associated states have been established for only one tenth of these bands. The former quantities (E{sup *}, I, {pi}) can only be determined via the linking gamma-transitions between the superdeformed (sd) and the normally deformed (nd) states. Within the framework of this thesis, we have investigated the Hg{sup 192} nucleus in order to establish E{sup *}, I and {pi}. This nucleus is predicted to be doubly magic at superdeformation and hence is taken as a reference in the mass {approx} 190 region. The experiment was carried out at Strasbourg using the Euroball-IV array and the vivitron accelerator. The obtained results are not convincing and seem to be at the limit of the performances of Euroball. Next generation of arrays will abandon the Compton-shields and use tracking concept to reconstruct the trajectories of incident photons, and therefore we expect a huge increase of efficiency. The second part of this work was focused on the research and development work for the AGATA (Advanced GAmma Tracking Array) project. We have performed simulations with the GEANT-4 code and developed tracking methods to reconstruct pair-creation events. The full AGATA will be operational around 2015 and will enhance by around two orders of magnitude the observational limits. (author)

  15. The association of the PON1 Q192R polymorphism with coronary heart disease: findings from the British Women's Heart and Health cohort study and a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiessling Matthew

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been inconsistent results from case-control studies assessing the association of the PON1 Q192R polymorphism with coronary heart disease (CHD. Most studies have included predominantly men and the association in women is unclear. Since lipid levels vary between the sexes the antioxidant effect of PON1 and any genes associated with it may also vary by sex. We have examined the association of the PON1 Q192R polymorphism with CHD in a large cohort of British women and combined the results from our cohort study with those from all other published studies. Results The distribution of genotypes was the same among women with CHD and those without disease. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval of having CHD comparing those with either the QR or RR genotype to those with QQ genotype (dominant model of association was 1.03 (0.89, 1.21 and the per allele odds ratio was 0.98 (0.95, 1.01. In a meta-analysis of this and 38 other published studies (10,738 cases and 17,068 controls the pooled odds ratio for the dominant effect was 1.14 (1.08, 1.20 and for the per allele effect was 1.10 (1.06, 1.13. There was evidence of small study bias in the meta-analyses and the dominant effect among those studies with 500 or more cases was 1.05 (0.96, 1.15. Ethnicity and reporting of whether the genotyping was done blind to the participants clinical status also contributed to heterogeneity between studies, but there was no difference in effect between studies with 50% or more women compared to those with fewer women and no difference between studies of healthy populations compared to those at high risk (with diabetes, renal disease of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Conclusion There is no robust evidence that the PON1 Q192R polymorphism is associated with CHD risk in Caucasian women or men.

  16. 192例听神经瘤术中神经电生理监测%Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring of facial nerve during vestibular Schwannoma surgery: An experience of 19 2 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷厉; 袁贤瑞; 刘尚明; 李学军; 刘庆; 袁盾; Samir

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨听神经瘤术中电生理监测技术常见问题的处理,提高面神经解剖保留率.方法 192例听神经瘤患者手术时均在面神经电生理监测下进行,采用枕下乙状窦后经内听道人路,显微外科切除肿瘤,术后对面神经功能进行评估.结果 肿瘤全切183例(95.3%),面神经完整解剖保留185例(96.4%).长期随访病例面神经功能良好率83.0%,术中F波监测结果 与术后面神经功能之间有较好的一致性.结论 听神经瘤术中神经电生理监测的运用可明显提高面神经的解剖保留率和功能保留优良率,术中F波监测不仅可实时反馈面神经功能状态,而且可为术后面神经功能的预测提供依据.%Objective To investigate the management of common problems of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring and to improve the function protection of facial nerve during vestibular Schwannoma surgery. Methods 192 patients underwent microsurgical resection of vestibular Schwannomas through subocipital retrosigmoid approach with intraoperative facial nerve monitoring. Facial nerve function was assessed postoperatively. Results Of all the 192 cases, total resection of tumor was achieved in 183 cases (95%). Facial nerve was preserved anatomically in 185 cases ( 96. 4 % ) . Long term follow up revealed good outcome of facial nerve function ( 92.4 % ) . Conclusion Intraoperative nerve monitoring can effectively increase the preservation rate of facial nerve anatomically and functionally.

  17. Effects of breast-air and breast-lung interfaces on the dose rate at the planning target volume of a MammoSite catheter for Yb-169 and Ir-192 HDR sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazeca, Mario J.; Medich, David C.; Munro, John J. III [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Avenue, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Radiation Laboratory, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Avenue, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Source Production and Equipment Co., Inc., 113 Teal Street, St. Rose, Louisiana 70087 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To study the effects of the breast-air and breast-lung interfaces on the absorbed dose within the planning target volume (PTV) of a MammoSite balloon dose delivery system as well as the effect of contrast material on the dose rate in the PTV. Methods: The Monte Carlo MCNP5 code was used to simulate dose rate in the PTV of a 2 cm radius MammoSite balloon dose delivery system. The simulations were carried out using an average female chest phantom (AFCP) and a semi-infinite water phantom for both Yb-169 and Ir-192 high dose rate sources for brachytherapy application. Gastrografin was introduced at varying concentrations to study the effect of contrast material on the dose rate in the PTV. Results: The effect of the density of the materials surrounding the MammoSite balloon containing 0% contrast material on the calculated dose rate at different radial distances in the PTV was demonstrated. Within the PTV, the ratio of the calculated dose rate for the AFCP and the semi-infinite water phantom for the point closest to the breast-air interface (90 deg.) is less than that for the point closest to the breast-lung interface (270 deg.) by 11.4% and 4% for the HDR sources of Yb-169 and Ir-192, respectively. When contrast material was introduced into the 2 cm radius MammoSite balloon at varying concentrations, (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%), the dose rate in the AFCP at 3.0 cm radial distance at 90 deg. was decreased by as much as 14.8% and 6.2% for Yb-169 and Ir-192, respectively, when compared to that of the semi-infinite water phantom with contrast concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, respectively. Conclusions: Commercially available software used to calculate dose rate in the PTV of a MammoSite balloon needs to account for patient anatomy and density of surrounding materials in the dosimetry analyses in order to avoid patient underdose.

  18. Effects of neural stem cell transplantation on ability of learning and memory and AChE positiove fibers of hippocampus on animal model of Alzheimer's disease with 192-IgG-saporin%神经干细胞移植对192-IgG-saporin老年性痴呆模型鼠的学习记忆及海马胆碱能纤维的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘学兵; 龙大宏; 罗秀梅; 杨丹迪; 涂腊根; 宣爱国

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨神经干细胞(NSCs)移植对192-IgG-saporin致老年性痴呆模型鼠学习记忆和海马胆碱能纤维再生的影响.方法 采用192-IgG-saporin(2.5μg/5μL)侧脑室注射SD大鼠建立痴呆模型后,行基底前脑神经干细胞移植,4周后行Y迷宫检测,并观察大鼠海马胆碱能纤维数的变化.结果 Y迷宫检测显示大鼠的学习、记忆能力,模型组(107.38±9.34、3.75±0.71)与正常组比较明显下降(P<0.01),而移植组(75.26±5.33、5.45±0.51)有所改善(P<0.05);免疫组化显示模型组大鼠海马CA1区辐射层和齿状回分子层胆碱能阳性纤维,模型组与正常组比较,CA1辐射层和齿状回分子层纤维密度分别减少到11.07%和12.96%(P<0.01),与正常组比较均而干细胞移植组则分别恢复到正常组的81.39%和75.30%(P>0.05).结论 神经干细胞能促进192-IgG-saporin AD动物模型鼠学习记忆能力的恢复及海马胆碱能纤维的再生.

  19. Spin-alignment and g-factor measurement of the I{sup {pi}}=12{sup +} isomer in {sup 192}Pb produced in the relativistic-energy fragmentation of a {sup 238}U beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Ciemala, M.; Grebosz, J.; Lach, M.; Maier, K.H.; Mazurek, K.; Meczynski, W.; Myalski, S.; Styczen, J.; Zieblinski, M. [H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics PAN, Krakow (Poland); Gerl, J.; Becker, F.; Caceres, L.; Doornenbal, P.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Kojuharov, I.; Prokopowicz, W.; Saito, N.; Saito, T.R.; Wollersheim, H.J. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Neyens, G.; Mallion, S.; Vermeulen, N. [Inst. voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Atanasova, L.; Detistov, P. [Univ. of Sofia ' St. Kl. Ohridski' (Bulgaria). Faculty of Physics; Balabanski, D.L. [Univ. degli Studi di Camerino (Italy); INFN sez. Perugia, Dipt. di Fisica, Camerino (Italy); Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bednarczyk, P. [H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics PAN, Krakow (Poland); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Brambilla, S.; Million, B.; Wieland, O. [INFN Sez. di Milano (Italy); Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Crespi, F.C.L.; Leoni, S.; Montanari, D. [INFN Sez. di Milano (Italy); Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Chamoli, S.K.; Hass, M.; Lakshmi, S. [Weizman Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Chmel, S. [Fraunhofer INT, Euskirchen (Germany); Daugas, J.M. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon Cedex (France); Georgiev, G. [Univ. Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, CSNSM, Orsay-Campus (France); Gladnishki, K. [Univ. of Sofia ' St. Kl. Ohridski' (Bulgaria). Faculty of Physics; Univ. degli Studi di Camerino (Italy); INFN sez. Perugia, Dipt. di Fisica, Camerino (Italy); Hoischen, R.; Rudolph, D. [Lund Univ., Dept. of Physics, Lund (Sweden); Ilie, G. [Univ. zu Koeln, Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Ionescu-Bujor, M. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Jolie, J. [Univ. zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany)] [and others

    2010-08-15

    The feasibility of measuring g -factors using the TDPAD method applied to high-energy, heavy fragmentation products is explored. The 2623keV I{sup {pi}}=12{sup +} isomer in {sup 192}Pb with {tau}=1.57{mu}s has been produced using the fragmentation of a 1A GeV {sup 238}U beam. The results presented demonstrate for the first time that such heavy nuclei produced in a fragmentation reaction with a relativistic beam are sufficiently well spin-aligned. Moreover, the rather large value of the alignment, 28(10)% of the maximum possible, is preserved during the separation process allowing the determination of magnetic moments. The measured values of the lifetime, {tau}=1.54(9) {mu}s, and the g-factor, g=-0.175(20), agree with the results of previous investigations using fusion-evaporation reactions. (orig.)

  20. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q-LT(S63K/R192G/L211A in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxian Zhang

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STa(P13F fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LT(R192G elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011. In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STa(A14Q and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LT(S63K/R192G/L211A, tmLT, constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTa(A14Q-tmLT that carried 3 copies of STa(A14Q for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea.

  1. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-LT(S63K/R192G/L211A) in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengxian; Knudsen, David E; Liu, Mei; Robertson, Donald C; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa) disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STa(P13F)) fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LT(R192G) elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011). In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STa(A14Q)) and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LT(S63K/R192G/L211A), tmLT), constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT) that carried 3 copies of STa(A14Q) for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea.

  2. Relationship between Q192R polymorphisms in paraoxonase 1 gene and young ischemic stroke%对氧磷酶基因1 Glnl92Arg多态性与青年缺血性脑卒中的关联研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竞丽; 李劲频; 汪晓玲; 杨乙

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨青年缺血性脑卒中与对氧磷酶基因1(PONI)Gln192Arg(Q192R)多态性的关系.方法 用聚合酶链反应技术检测2004年10月至2008年10月广西医科大学第一附属医院神经内科收治入院的131例青年缺血性脑卒中患者和135名健康对照者PONI基因Q192R多态性,并测定两组的血脂水平,同时应用颈动脉B超检测了131例患者颈动脉内膜中膜厚度.结果 青年缺血性脑卒中患者RR基因型分布显著高于对照组(P0.05).青年缺血性脑卒中患者192RR基因型携带者和非携带者中吸烟、高血压、糖尿病的比例及体质指数差异无统计学意义;而携带者的颈动脉内膜中膜厚度较非携带者明显增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 PON1基因Q192R多态性与青年缺血性脑卒中的遗传易感性相关,其中RR基因型可能是青年缺血性脑卒中的危险因素.其机制有可能是通过影响颈动脉内膜中膜的厚度加速动脉粥样硬化而起作用.%Objective To investigate the relationship between polymorphisms in paraoxonasel (PON1) gene Glnl92Arg( Q192R) and arterial ischemic stroke in young adults.Methods The Q192R genotype was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction in 131 young adults with ischemic stroke and 135 age-and gender-matched controls. The plasma lipids were also determined in patients and controls respectively. Furthermore, carotid artery intuna-media thickness ( IMT) in patients were measured by carotid ultrasonography. Results The distributions of Q192R genotype frequency were significantly different between patients with ischemic stroke and control individuals. And the patients had more RR genotypes than control individuals (P <0.05). Odds ratio (OR) for stroke were 1. 743 (95% confidence interval [ CI] , 1.032-2. 943) in subjects with RR genotype. We also studied the relationship between the polymorphisms and the lipid concentration in patients and control individuals. However, no significant association

  3. ESTABLISHMENT OF PARAOXONASE AND ARYLESTERASE ACTIVITY OF PARAOXONASE 1 (PON1 IN DEPENDENCE ON 55(L/M AND 192(Q/R DNA POLYMORPHISM IN ADULT PEOPLE WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel SÝKORA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase 1 is a calcium-dependent esterase located on high density lipoproteins (HDL. It inhibits LDL peroxidation and hydrolysis of oxide forms of phospholipides and therefore significantly affects the development of ateroscletosis. The aim of this study was to establish the paraoxonase and arylesterase activity of PON1 in adult people with Down syndrome (DS. Adults with DS (10 men and 10 women ages 16 to 37 years participated and were compared to a control group (10 men and 10 women age ranging from 17 to 45 years. The 55(L/M and 192(Q/R DNA polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method and paraoxonase and arylesterase activity was investigated in every patient. The results showed the reduction of PON1 activity in people with DS, in contrast to the decreased development of atherosclerosis in DS. Therefore it can be concluded, that PON1 does not have a direct effect on the lower prevalence of atherosclerosis in people with DS.

  4. Serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat of the adenoviral L4-33K splicing enhancer protein is essential for function and reorganization of the protein to the periphery of viral replication centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestberg, Sara, E-mail: sara.ostberg@imbim.uu.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Toermaenen Persson, Heidi, E-mail: heidi.tormanen.persson@imbim.uu.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Akusjaervi, Goeran, E-mail: goran.akusjarvi@imbim.uu.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-11-25

    The adenovirus L4-33K protein is a key regulator involved in the temporal shift from early to late pattern of mRNA expression from the adenovirus major late transcription unit. L4-33K is a virus-encoded alternative splicing factor, which enhances processing of 3 Prime splice sites with a weak sequence context. Here we show that L4-33K expressed from a plasmid is localized at the nuclear margin of uninfected cells. During an infection L4-33K is relocalized to the periphery of E2A-72K containing viral replication centers. We also show that serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat of the conserved carboxy-terminus of L4-33K, which is critical for the splicing enhancer function of L4-33K, is necessary for the nuclear localization and redistribution of the protein to viral replication sites. Collectively, our results show a good correlation between the activity of L4-33K as a splicing enhancer protein and its localization to the periphery of viral replication centers.

  5. A correlation between the magnetic and structural properties of isochronally annealed Cu-free FINEMET alloy with composition Fe{sub 72}B{sub 19.2}Si{sub 4.8}Nb{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, A.K.; Singh, M.N.; Upadhyay, Anuj [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Indore (India); Satalkar, M.; Shah, M.; Kane, S.N. [D. A. University, Magnetic Materials Laboratory, School of Physics, Indore (India); Ghodke, N. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore (India); Varga, L.K. [RISSPO, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-08-24

    In this paper, structural changes in Cu-free FINEMET alloy (Fe{sub 72}B{sub 19.2}Si{sub 4.8}Nb{sub 4}) invoked by isochronal thermal annealing were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy techniques. Detailed radial distribution function analysis of SXRD data showed that the first coordination shell in the amorphous matrix is preserved for annealing up to 400 C (1 h), whereas changes were observed in the second coordination shell. Annealing at 600 C (1 h) showed crystalline phase emanating over the amorphous background in SXRD data and a corresponding large decrease in the width of the first coordination shell. The width of the second coordination shell decreased with increasing annealing temperature. The magnetic properties such as remanence field, saturation magnetization and loss were found to have a positive correlation with the changes in the structural parameters of the second coordination shell, for all the samples (as quenched as well as annealed at various temperatures). We propose that the rearrangement of magnetic amorphous matrix on annealing also contributes to modifying the exchange interaction between ferromagnetic nanocrystalline domains and hence changes magnetic parameters, in addition to the growth of these domains, on annealing. (orig.)

  6. Calibration of a {sup 19} {sup 2}Ir source for high dose brachytherapy using various techniques; Calibracion de una fuente de {sup 192} Ir para braquiterapia de alta tasa de dosis mediante diversas tecnicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montilla Prieto, Tedicel C., E-mail: tcdicel@gmaiLcam [Instituto de Oncologia Dr. Miguel Perez Carreno, Barbula (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Departamento de Fisica y Dosimetria; Padron Rivero, Alvaro D., E-mail: alvarodpadronr@yahoo.com.ve [Universidad de Carabobo, Barbula (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas

    2013-10-01

    In this research we studied three experimental procedures for calibration of a source of {sup 192}Ir to high dose rate for clinical brachytherapy use, and thus were compared and analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each. For this study we quantified the value of the current kerma rate reference in air by three procedures: source calibration using a well chamber, with an cylindrical ionization chamber in air, and a cylindrical ionization chamber on a phantom, and this magnitude was compared with the value provided by the manufacturer of the source and thereby obtaining the deviation corresponding . Thus, it was found that the deviation corresponding to the source calibration making use of a well chamber, remained within tolerance, while the cylindrical ionization chamber in air and on phantom exceeded the standards established in some documents. However, although both the measurement in air and in the phantom are the procedures for the final calibration source, these can be used to verify that the delivered dose are in tolerance.

  7. Influence of Maintenance Intervals on Performance and Emissions of a 192 kWel Biogas Gas Otto CHP Unit and Results of Lubricating Oil Quality Tests—Outcome from a Continuous Two-Year Measuring Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jungbluth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we focus on long-term and permanent measurements of approximately two years on a 192 kWel Gas Otto CHP (combined heat and power unit at a full-scale research biogas plant. In detail the influence of 600 h and 1800 h maintenance intervals on electrical efficiency consumption and exhaust gas emissions such as NOx and CO have been studied under real life conditions. Lubricating oil quality analyses throughout the CHP operation time are presented to show the destructive changes in property and its influence on condition based maintenance. The results confirm the well-known fact that after readjustment of the air-fuel ratio after 1800 h maintenance the emission values for NOx decline while CO increases. The emission-optimized operation mode leads to lower engine efficiency. The maintenance tasks carried out at 600 h intervals lead to lower NOx emissions in nine cases while in 14 cases the emissions remained unchanged. The permanent measurements proved their legitimacy showing various emission deviations from the limiting values prior and post maintenance. The results show that by monitoring the lubricating oil quality, the oil change intervals can be maximized while ensuring that engine performance is not endangered, and a longer engine lifespan can be expected. The oil analyses allow the operator to reduce maintenance expenditures while minimizing wear.

  8. 192名规范化培训护士营养知识态度及行为的调查分析%Knowledge,Attitude and Behavior of Nutrition of Nurses Received Standard Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晶晶; 林征; 谢晓峰

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解规范化培训护士营养知识、态度、行为现状及培训需求,分析相关影响因素,为护士营养规范化培训提供理论依据.方法 采用自行设计调查问卷及一般自我效能感量表对192 名规范化培训护士进行营养知识、态度及行为的调查分析.结果 规范化培训护士的营养态度较好,营养知识水平一般,营养行为水平偏低;营养知识、态度及行为均与自我效能感呈正相关(P<0.05 或P<0.01).营养知识的主要影响因素是护龄(P<0.05)、学校是否开设营养课程(P<0.01)及自我效能感(P<0.05);营养态度的主要影响因素是所在科室开展优质护理的级别(P<0.05)及自我效能感(P<0.01);营养行为的主要影响因素是学历(P<0.05)及自我效能感(P<0.01).护士希望获得的培训内容是营养与健康、营养与疾病、食物的合理搭配和烹调等.结论 规范化培训护士的营养知信行现状不容乐观,应根据需求开展有效可行的营养规范化培训,提高规范化培训护士的自我效能感,改善其营养知识、态度和行为.%Objective To understand the status and training demands of the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in nurses received standardized training and to provide theoretic basis of nutrition training. Methods A self-designed questionnaire and General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale were used to survey 192 nurses received standardized training about their KAP of nutrition. Results The nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice scores were (73.6±9.7), (77.9±9.8), (65.5±11.7) respectively. A positive correlation was determined between nutritional KAP and nurses' self-efficacy (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that nursing age, nutritional course at school and self-efficacy were related to nutritional knowledge (P<0.05 or P< 0.01); the rank of quality nursing and self-efficacy were related to nutritional attitude (P<0.05 or P<0

  9. Evaluation of a Wet Chemistry Method for Isolation of Cyclotron Produced [211At]Astatine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Watanabe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A “wet chemistry” approach for isolation of 211At from an irradiated bismuth target is described. The approach involves five steps: (1 dissolution of bismuth target in conc. HNO3; (2 removal of the HNO3 by distillation; (3 dissolution of residue in 8 M HCl; (4 extraction of 211At from 8 M HCl into DIPE; and (5 extraction of 211At from DIPE into NaOH. Results from 55 “optimized” 211At isolation runs gave recovery yields of approximately 78% after decay and attenuation corrections. An attenuation-corrected average of 26 ± 3 mCi in the target provided isolated (actual yields of 16 ± 3 mCi of 211At. A sixth step, used for purification of 211At from trace metals, was evaluated in seven runs. In those runs, isolated 211At was distilled under reductive conditions to provide an average 71 ± 8% recovery. RadioHPLC analyses of the isolated 211At solutions, both initial and after distillation, were obtained to examine the 211At species present. The primary species of 211At present was astatide, but astatate and unidentified species were also observed. Studies to determine the effect of bismuth attenuation on 211At were conducted to estimate an attenuation factor (~1.33 for adjustment of 211At readings in the bismuth target.

  10. Production of Astatine-211 at the Duke University Medical Center for its regional distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalutsky, Michael [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Systemic targeted radiation therapy and radioimmunotherapy continue to be important tools in the treatment of certain cancers. Because of their high energy and short path length, alpha particle emitters such as 211At are more effective than either external beam x- ray or in vivo beta radiation in delivering potentially curative doses of radiation. The limited clinical trials that have been conducted to date have yielded encouraging responses in some patients, e.g., malignant brain tumors. In order to escalate the additional necessary research and development in radiochemistry, radiobiology and efficacy evaluation of alpha particle radiotherapeutics, it is universally agreed that access to an affordable, reliable supply of 211At is warranted. In conjunction with the Department of Energy's intent to enhance stable and radioactive isotope availability for research applications, it is the primary objective of this project to improve 211At production and purification capabilities at Duke so that this radionuclide can be supplied to researchers at other institutions throughout the US.The most widely used 211At production method involves the α,2n reaction on Bismuth using a cyclotron with beams ≤ 28 MeV. Yields can be enhanced with use of an internal target that allows for a higher alpha fluence plus efficient heat dissipation in the target. Both of these items are in place at Duke; however, in order to support production for multi-institutional use, irradiation campaigns in excess of 50 µAp and four hours duration will be needed. Further, post-irradiation processing equipment is lacking that will enable the distribution process. Financial support is sought for i) a shielded, ventilated processing/containment hood; ii) development of a post-irradiation target retrieval system; iii) fabrication of a 211At distillation and recovery module and iv) a performance review and, where needed, an enhancement of seven major subsystems that comprise the CS-30 Cyclotron. With these modifications in place, routine production of ≥200 mCi of At-211 should be readily achievable, given our methodological development of At-211 target preparation, internal target irradiation and dry distillation to recover the radionuclide.

  11. Final Report for grant entitled "Production of Astatine-211 for U.S. Investigators"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, Daniel Scott

    2012-12-12

    Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides hold great promise in the therapy of cancer, but few alpha-emitters are available to investigators to evaluate. Of the alpha-emitters that have properties amenable for use in humans, 211At is of particular interest as it does not have alpha-emitting daughter radionuclides. Thus, there is a high interest in having a source of 211At for sale to investigators in the US. Production of 211At is accomplished on a cyclotron using an alpha-particle beam irradiation of bismuth metal. Unfortunately, there are few cyclotrons available that can produce an alpha particle beam for that production. The University of Washington has a cyclotron, one of three in the U.S., that is currently producing 211At. In the proposed studies, the things necessary for production and shipment of 211At to other investigators will be put into place at UW. Of major importance is the efficient production and isolation of 211At in a form that can be readily used by other investigators. In the studies, production of 211At on the UW cyclotron will be optimized by determining the best beam energy and the highest beam current to maximize 211At production. As it would be very difficult for most investigators to isolate the 211At from the irradiated target, the 211At-isolation process will be optimized and automated to more safely and efficiently obtain the 211At for shipment. Additional tasks to make the 211At available for distribution include obtaining appropriate shipping vials and containers, putting into place the requisite standard operating procedures for Radiation Safety compliance at the levels of 211At activity to be produced / shipped, and working with the Department of Energy, Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program, to take orders, make shipments and be reimbursed for costs of production and shipment.

  12. 22 CFR 19.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... excludes premium pay for overtime, night, Sunday and holiday work, allowances, post and special... study or training in residence in a high school, trade school, technical or vocational institute, junior... be deemed to have ceased to be a student during any interim between school years, semesters, or...

  13. 49 CFR 19.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recipient's regular accounting practices. (d) Advance means a payment made by Treasury check or other... contract. (i) Cost sharing or matching means that portion of project or program costs not borne by the... to be unallowable, in accordance with the applicable Federal cost principles or other terms...

  14. 49 CFR 192.490 - Direct assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... made primarily of steel or iron to evaluate the effects of a threat in the first column must carry out the direct assessment according to the standard listed in the second column. These standards do...

  15. 49 CFR 192.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a current production facility to a transmission line or main. Gulf of Mexico and its inlets means the waters from the mean high water mark of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets open to the... pipeline or the storage of gas, in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce....

  16. 40 CFR 63.192 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application for approval of construction or reconstruction, 40 CFR 63.5 of this chapter, will not be required... this subpart shall obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or part 71 from the appropriate permitting authority. (1) If EPA has approved a State operating permit program under 40 CFR part 70, the permit...

  17. 32 CFR 192.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... origin), Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, or American Indian or Alaskan native. Relief for the... purchase arrangement with, a housing facility, when its agent has been found to have discriminated...

  18. 49 CFR 192.616 - Public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-English speaking population in the operator's area. (h) Operators in existence on June 20, 2005, must have... follows the guidance provided in the American Petroleum Institute's (API) Recommended Practice (RP) 1162... procedural manual as to why compliance with all or certain provisions of the recommended practice is...

  19. Epidemiological of unintentional injuries in children:analysis of 192 cases treated in pediatgric inyensive care unit%儿童意外伤害病因及预后

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玉倩; 崔云; 张育才; 徐梁; 戎群芳; 腾国良

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童意外伤害患儿的流行病学特征及预后情况。方法对上海交通大学附属儿童医院儿童重症监护室2011年10月~2014年9月收治的意外伤害患儿,进行回顾性研究。结果该阶段共收治意外伤害患儿192例,占 PICU 收治患儿总数的6.40%;男孩116例,女孩76例。婴幼儿组(0~3岁)108例,意外发生率最高(56.77%),学龄前儿童组(~6岁)50例(26.04%),学龄儿童组(~10岁)20例(10.42%),青春期组(~15岁)14例(7.29%)。意外伤害种类按照例数排序依次为车祸伤、高空坠落伤、跌落或撞击致脑外伤、药物中毒、气道异物、溺水、消化道异物、颈部外伤、切割伤。死亡人数32例,死亡率16.7%,3年病死率分别为14.28%,15.68%,28.57%。0~3岁婴幼儿组是构成死亡病例的主要群体。溺水是主要意外死亡原因,其次为药物中毒。结论意外伤害发生率和病死率有逐年上升趋势,以跌落或撞击致脑外伤和药物中毒增长最为明显。随儿童年龄增长,意外伤害发生率降低。婴幼儿易发生车祸伤和高空坠落伤,年长儿要注意预防溺水、药物中毒。%Objective To explore the causes and prognosis of unintentional injuries admitted to pediatric intensive care unit. Methods The clinical data of 192 children with unintentional injuries ,116 boys and 76 girls, treated in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of the Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University from September 2011 to September 2011, accounting for 6.40% of the total number of the children admitted to the PICU. treated patients. were analyzed according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10. Results The incidence rates of unintentional injuries of the children aged 0~~3 (n=108), 3~6 (n=50), 6~10 (n=29), and 10~15 (n=14) were 56.77%, 26.04%, 10.42%, and (7.29% respectively. The types of unintentional

  20. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 192 - Listed Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Propanedinitrile) Melphalan (L-Phenylalanine, 4- -) Mercury and compounds, N.O.S. Mercury fulminate (Fulminic acid...-Naphthalendisulfonic acid, 3,3′- -4,4′-diyl)bis(azo)]bis(5-amino-4-hydroxy-, tetrasodium salt) Uracil mustard (2,4-(1H... vanadate (Vanadic acid, ammonium salt) Aniline (Benzenamine) Antimony and compounds, N.O.S. 1 1...

  1. 22 CFR 192.22 - Description of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... civil right by taking advantage of the Act. (k) Further relief. Section 700 (50 U.S.C. App. 590... occupied for dwelling, business, or agricultural purpose, executed by persons who subsequently become... policy loan, except upon certain conditions, shall not exercise any right with respect to the...

  2. Iridium 192 nomogram system for single plane implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomograms for square planar arrays spanning the range from 3 X 3 cm to 10 X 10 cm were developed. The nomograms are intended to be used for pretreatment planning of implant geometry, so that the therapist may enter the operating room with a plan for the optimal implant in mind. We show that clinically useful implants are those in which the reference isodoses are fully coupled. Decoupling occurs when ribbon spacing exceeds approximately 1.2 cm and leads to undesirable ''cold spots'' within the treatment volume. Ribbon spacing of 1.0 cm is recommended. This represents a trade-off between adequate ribbon coupling and minimum tissue damage from trocar placement. For clinically useful arrays, the area enclosed by the reference isodose contour (85% of the maximum dose rate) is approximately 50% of the array area. Reference isodose contour and its enclosed area are independent of seed strength for a given array, as long as all seeds within the array are of equal strength

  3. 9 CFR 381.192 - Penalties inapplicable to carriers.

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    2010-01-01

    ... receipt, carriage, holding, or delivery, in the usual course of business, as a carrier, of poultry or... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Transportation; Exportation; or Sale...

  4. 40 CFR 192.31 - Definitions and cross-references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... closure plan. (i) Closure plan means the plan required under § 264.112 of this chapter. (j) Existing portion means that land surface area of an existing surface impoundment on which significant quantities of... limited to, physical conditions at the site; inclement weather or climatic conditions; an act of God;...

  5. 19 CFR 19.2 - Applications to bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... qualification, character, and experience of the applicant (e.g. personal history, financial and business data... Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... of conditionally duty-free merchandise to personal-use quantities; and (4) A statement by...

  6. 19 CFR 192.11 - Description of the AES.

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    2010-04-01

    ... commodity export information (see, 15 CFR 30.16) to submit such information electronically, rather than on... 30 of the Census Regulations (15 CFR part 30, subpart E), denominated Electronic Filing Requirements—Exporters. These Census Regulations (15 CFR part 30, subpart E) provide that exporters may choose to...

  7. 22 CFR 192.32 - Administration of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... patient. (g) Eligible persons will be reimbursed by the Office for authorized travel to obtain an evaluation of their claim under paragraph (b) of this section and for other authorized travel to...

  8. 49 CFR 192.229 - Limitations on welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and found acceptable under the sections 6 or 9 of API Standard 1104 (incorporated by reference, see... accordance with the qualifying test; or (ii) For welders who work only on service lines 2 inches (51 millimeters) or smaller in diameter, two sample welds tested and found acceptable in accordance with the...

  9. 49 CFR 192.465 - External corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other impressed current power source must be inspected six times each calendar year, but with intervals not exceeding 21/2 months, to insure that it is operating. (c) Each reverse current switch, each diode... intervals are impractical for separately protected short sections of mains or transmission lines, not...

  10. 40 CFR 192.20 - Guidance for implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and perform remedial actions with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the full... compliance with the standard. Computational models, theories, and prevalent expert judgment may be used to... methods that the Department of Energy has approved for use under Pub. L. 92-314 (10 CFR part 712), or...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 192 - Procedures and Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prompt attention. An inquiry into the complaint shall begin within 3 working days after receipt of the... first person and try to use direct quotes. Do not use pronouns such as “he,” “she,” or “they.” Clearly... working days of receipt of the inquiry report: a. Informal Hearing. Give written notice to the...

  12. 40 CFR 192.21 - Criteria for applying supplemental standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... radioactive materials are involved. Examples are residual radioactive materials under hard surface public roads and sidewalks, around public sewer lines, or in fence post foundations. Supplemental standards....12(c) is technically impracticable from an engineering perspective. (g) The groundwater meets...

  13. 49 CFR 192.481 - Atmospheric corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... calendar years, but with intervals not exceeding 39 months Offshore At least once each calendar year, but... attention to pipe at soil-to-air interfaces, under thermal insulation, under disbonded coatings, at pipe supports, in splash zones, at deck penetrations, and in spans over water. (c) If atmospheric corrosion...

  14. Patient effective dose from endovascular brachytherapy with 192Ir sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perma, L; Bianchi, C; Nicolini, G; Novario, R; Tanzi, F; Conte, L

    2002-01-01

    The growing use of endovascular brachytherapy has been accompanied by the publication of a large number of studies in several fields, but few studies on patient dose have been found in the literature. Moreover, these studies were carried out on the basis of Monte Carlo simulation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the effective dose to the patient undergoing endovascular brachytherapy treatment with 112Ir sources, by means of experimental measurements. Two standard treatments were taken into account: an endovascular brachytherapy of the coronary artery corresponding to the activity x time product of 184 GBq.min and an endovascular brachytherapy of the renal artery (898 GBq.min). Experimental assessment was accomplished by thermoluminescence dosemeters positioned in more than 300 measurement points in a properly adapted Rqndo phantom. A method has been developed to estimate the mean organ doses for all tissues and organs concerned in order to calculate the effective dose associated with intravascular brachytherapy. The normalised organ doses resulting from cronary treatment were 2.4 x 10(-2) mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1) for lung, 0.9 x 10(-2) mSv.GBSq(-1).min(-1) for oesophagus and 0.48 x 10(-2) mS.GBq(-1).min(-1) for bone marrow. During brachytherapy of the renal artery, the corresponding normalised doses were 4.2 x 10(-2) mS.GBq(-1).min(-1) for colon, 7.8 x 10(-2) mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1) for stomach and 1.7 x 10(-2) mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1) for liver. Coronary treatment iJnvlled an efl'fective dose of (0.046 mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1), whereas the treatment of the renal artery resulted in an effective dose of 0.15 mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1); there were many similarities with data from former studies. Based on these results it can be concluded that the dose level of patients exposed during brachytherapy treatment is low.

  15. Dosimetry of wires and single ribbons of Iridium 192; Dosimetria de alambres y ribbons individuales de Iridio-192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzucco, L.D. [Centro Medico Nuclear S.R.L. San Juan (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this work is in order to present in table formats the dosimetry of wires and single ribbons of Iridium with lengths 1-12 cm for each one linear source along the bisector which is perpendicular at tissue sources (water) computed for linear activity 1 mCi/cm in the case of wires, and 1 mCi/seed for ribbons. The above tables are of direct use, adaptable at particular cases so they facilitate logarithmic graphics of doses in function of the distance for interpolation and use in the treatments planning. It was shown that for two sources with identical linear activity and total length, one of the equidistant seeds at 1 cm (ribbon) and one wire on the other hand, the differences in dose rates in near positions can be about the 15% so corroborating that it is not possible to use wire tables for seeds neither vice versa. Moreover it was elaborated tables of practical direct use for dose rate in water at c Gy/hr for wires and Ribbons 1-12 cm length and from 0.5-10 cm of distance in the perpendicular bisector at the Iridium implant. (Author)

  16. Microstructural evolution of nanosized Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9/Ni infiltrate in a Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92-Sr0.94Ti0.9Nb0.1O3-δ based SOFC anode under electrochemical evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Ramos, Tania;

    investigations of Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9/Ni (hereafter CGO/Ni)-infiltrated Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92 composited Sr0.94Ti0.9Nb0.1O3-δ (STN94/8YSZ) anode in a symmetric cell design under a short electrochemical evaluation test (fingerprint test), applying electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at mild 3% H2O/H2 and harsh 50...

  17. Instability and growth of nanoscale Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9/NiO infiltrate in Sr0.94Ti0.9Nb0.1O3-Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92 anodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley;

    2014-01-01

    Microstructural evolution of Ce0.8Gd0.2O 1.9/NiO (CGO/NiO) co-infiltrated nanoparticles in Sr 0.94Ti0.9Nb0.1O3-Zr 0.84Y0.16O1.92 (STN94-YSZ) anodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is investigated during electrochemical testing in a symmetric cell setup. The CGO/NiO infiltrated symmetric cells...... structure of an average diameter of 5 nm to individual well-connected, but phase-separated, CGO and Ni particles of 50 nm in average. This study confirms that instability and growth of CGO/NiO infiltrates in STN-based SOFC electrodes affect the morphology and can potentially be linked to reported losses in...

  18. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion source RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE,CERN

    OpenAIRE

    Rothe, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spec...

  19. KN192L07: WHOI cruise 192 leg 07 aboard the R/V Knorr from 2007-12-30 - 2008-01-17 (NODC Accession 0071302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Post-cruise download of raw data from shipboard computer(s) as furnished by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Shipboard Scientific Support Group and archived...

  20. 12 CFR 19.192 - Sanctions relating to conduct in an adjudicatory proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... failure to comply: (1) Constitutes contemptuous conduct; (2) Materially injures or prejudices another... improper action or failure to act. (c) Procedure for imposition of sanctions. (1) Upon the motion of any... party or a party's representative to respond orally immediately after the act or inaction covered...

  1. SU-E-J-192: Comparative Effect of Different Respiratory Motion Management Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of four-dimensional computed tomography imaging for causing artifacts. Audio-visual biofeedback systems associated with patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches), representing simpler visual coaching techniques without guiding waveform are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching to reduce respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. Methods: We collected data from eleven healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as audio-visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. Results: All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared to free breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86, and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and wave model differed significantly (p < 0.05). Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18, and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and all coaching techniques differed significantly (p < 0.05). For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to free breathing, bar model, and Abches. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. Conclusion: The efficacy of audio-visual biofeedback to reduce respiratory irregularity compared with Abches. Our results showed that audio-visual biofeedback combined with a wave model can potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management, although all techniques could reduce respiratory irregularities

  2. 49 CFR 192.9 - What requirements apply to gathering lines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... gathering line must comply with requirements of this part applicable to transmission lines, except the... onshore gathering line must comply with the requirements of this part applicable to transmission lines... maintenance tasks. (d) Type B lines. An operator of a Type B regulated onshore gathering line must comply...

  3. Comparative dosimetry of GammaMed Plus high-dose rate 192 Ir brachytherapy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative dosimetry of GammaMed (GM Plus high-dose rate brachytherapy source was performed by an experiment using 0.1-cc thimble ionization chamber and simulation-based study using EGSnrc code. In-water dose measurements were performed with 0.1-cc chamber to derive the radial dose function (r = 0.8 to 20.0 cm and anisotropy function (r = 5.0 cm with polar angle from 10° to 170°. The nonuniformity correction factor for 0.1-cc chamber was applied for in-water measurements at shorter distances from the source. The EGSnrc code was used to derive the dose rate constant (L, radial dose function g L (r and anisotropy function F(r, q of GM Plus source. The dosimetric data derived using EGSnrc code in our study were in very good agreement relative to published data for GM Plus source. The radial dose function up to 12 cm derived from measured dose using 0.1-cc chamber was in agreement within ±3% of data derived by the simulation study.

  4. 49 CFR 192.199 - Requirements for design of pressure relief and limiting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Except for rupture discs, each pressure relief or pressure limiting device must: (a) Be constructed of..., pipe, and fittings located between the system to be protected and the pressure relieving device,...

  5. Tank 241-T-201, core 192 analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-08-07

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-T-201. Push mode core segments were removed from Riser 3 between April 24, 1997, and April 25, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-T-201 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1997), Letter of Instruction for Core Sample Analysis of Tanks 241-T-201, 241-T-202, 241-T-203, and 241-T-204 (LOI) (Bell, 1997), Additional Core Composite Sample from Drainable Liquid Samples for Tank 241-T-2 01 (ACC) (Hall, 1997), and Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses exceeded the notification limits stated in DQO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group, and are not considered in this report.

  6. Characterization of HDR Ir-192 source for 3D planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Antunes, Paula C.G.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D., E-mail: gabriel.fonseca@usp.b, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.b, E-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rubo, Rodrigo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC/FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia; Minamisawa, Renato A., E-mail: renato.minamisawa@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ferreira, Louise A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2011-07-01

    Brachytherapy treatment involves surgical or cavitary insertion of radioactive sources for diseases treatments, such as: lung, gynecologic or prostate cancer. This technique has great ability to administer high doses to the tumor, with adjacent normal tissue preservation equal or better than external beam radiation therapy. Several innovations have been incorporated in this treatment technique, such as, 3D treatment planning system and computer guided sources. In detriment to scientific advances there are no protocols that relate dose with tumor volume, organs or A point, established by ICRU38 and used to prescribe dose in treatment planning system. Several international studies, like as EMBRACE, the multicentre international study, has been trying to correlate the dose volume using 3D planning systems and medical images, as those obtained by CT or MRI, to establish treatment protocols. With the objective of analyzing the 3D dose distribution, a micro Selectron-HDR remote afterloading device for high dose-rate (HDR) was characterized in the present work. Through the data provided by the manufacturer the source was simulated, using the MCNP5 code to calculate American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 report (AAPM TG43) specified parameters. The simulations have shown great agreement when compared to the ONCENTRA planning system results and those provided by literature. The micro Selectron-HDR remote afterloading device will be utilized to simulate 3D dose distribution through CT images processed by an auxiliary software which process DICOM images. (author)

  7. 34 CFR 403.192 - What are the requirements for program improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plan must be developed in consultation with teachers, parents, and students concerned with or affected... individuals who are members of special populations. Cross Reference: See 34 CFR 403.204. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under Control No. 1830-0030) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 2327(b))...

  8. Relationship of PON1 192 and 55 gene polymorphisms to calcific valvular aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moura, Luis M; Faria, Susana; Brito, Miguel;

    2012-01-01

    Paraoxonases may exert anti-atherogenic action by reducing lipid peroxidation. Previous studies examined associations between polymorphisms in the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene and development of coronary artery disease (CAD), with inconsistent results. Given the similarities in clinical and pathophy...

  9. 49 CFR 192.113 - Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resistance welded 1.00 Electric flash welded 1.00 Submerged arc welded 1.00 Furnace butt welded .60 Other... class Longitudinal joint factor (E) ASTM A 53/A53M Seamless 1.00 Electric resistance welded 1.00 Furnace....00 ASTM A 381 Double submerged arc welded 1.00 ASTM A 671 Electric-fusion-welded 1.00 ASTM A...

  10. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YCL055W, YGL192W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available h this prey as bait (0) Literature on bait (YPD) 13 Literature on prey (YPD) 11 Literature shared by bait and prey 3 Literature shari...ng score 5 CuraGen (0 or 1) 0 S. Fields (0 or 1) 0 Assoc

  11. The treatment of 783 keloid scars by iridium 192 interstitial irradiation after surgical excision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keloids are frequent in Martinique; for a population of 360,000, we treat on average 6 keloids per month, and not all are passed on to us. Between 1977 and 1988, 544 patients (of whom 97% were of mixed race), with a total of 855 keloids, were treated by interstitial radiotherapy immediately following total excision. Recurrence rate is 21%, as against 50 to 80% for surgery alone, according to most authors (depending on whether or not surgery was accompanied by a postoperative injection of corticosteroids). This recurrence rate is about the same as for external radiotherapy, but we prefer our method for practical reasons (cost, equipment, radiobiology, technique). 90% of recurrences occurred in the year following therapy, which proves that a follow-up time of at least twelve months is needed for a study of keloids, or even 18 months according to some authors. In our experience, the keloids that are the most likely to recur are the largest and those giving rise to most symptoms. Bruising and loosened stitches, but in particular infection during therapy, largely favour a recurrence, and in any case jeopardize a good cosmetic result. In our series, the symptoms disappeared or were much improved in 80% of cases, and the cosmetic result was judged good by 75% of the patients

  12. 49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... segment from damage due to excavation activities. (5) Controlling internal corrosion (i) Develop and... cleaning pigs and sample accumulated liquids. Use inhibitors when corrosive gas or liquids are present. (v... sulfide is greater than 0.5 grain per hundred cubic feet (8 ppm) of gas, implement a pigging and...

  13. German Basic Course. Cumulative Word List: Lessons 1-92. German-English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary contains all the words and idioms in the nine volumes of the elementary and intermediate phases of a basic course in German. In each entry the German word is listed first followed by the English word and the number of the lesson in which the word first appeared. (AMH)

  14. German Basic Course. Cumulative Word List: Lessons 1-92. English-German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary contains all the words and idioms in the nine volumes of the elementary and intermediate phases of a basic course in German. In each entry the English word is listed first followed by the German word and the number of the lesson in which the word first appeared. (AMH)

  15. Ir-192 HDR transit dose and radial dose function determination using alanine/EPR dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcina, Carmen S Guzman [Departamento de FIsica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Almeida, Adelaide de [Departamento de FIsica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose R Oliveira [Setor de FIsica Medica-CEB-UNICAMP e Setor de Radioterapia-CAISM-UNICAMP (Brazil); Abrego, Felipe Chen [Departamento de FIsica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo [Departamento de FIsica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2005-03-21

    Source positioning close to the tumour in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is not instantaneous. An increment of dose will be delivered during the movement of the source in the trajectory to its static position. This increment is the transit dose, often not taken into account in brachytherapeutic treatment planning. The transit dose depends on the prescribed dose, number of treatment fractions, velocity and activity of the source. Combining all these factors, the transit dose can be 5% higher than the prescribed absorbed dose value (Sang-Hyun and Muller-Runkel, 1994 Phys. Med. Biol. 39 1181-8, Nath et al 1995 Med. Phys. 22 209-34). However, it cannot exceed this percentage (Nath et al 1995). In this work, we use the alanine-EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) dosimetric system using analysis of the first derivative of the signal. The transit dose was evaluated for an HDR system and is consistent with that already presented for TLD dosimeters (Bastin et al 1993 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 26 695-702). Also using the same dosimetric system, the radial dose function, used to evaluate the geometric dose degradation around the source, was determined and its behaviour agrees better with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulations (Nath et al 1995, Williamson and Nath 1991 Med. Phys. 18 434-48, Ballester et al 1997 Med. Phys. 24 1221-8, Ballester et al 2001 Phys. Med. Biol. 46 N79-90) than with TLD measurements (Nath et al 1990 Med. Phys. 17 1032-40)

  16. Spectrum of {gamma} rays connecting superdeformed and normal states in {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.G.; Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Almost a hundred superdeformed bands were found in the mass 150 and 190 regions. Nevertheless, the energies and spins of the SD levels are still not measured (with one possible exception). Many attempts were made to decipher the highly-fragmented pathways connecting SD and normal states, but with hitherto no success. We adopted a new approach that consists of characterizing the overall spectral shape of the {gamma} rays linking SD and normal states.

  17. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDR091C, YLR192C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nslation initiation; facilitates binding of a multifactor complex (MFC) of translation initiation factors to...ogenesis and translation initiation; facilitates binding of a multifactor complex (MFC) of translation initi

  18. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) No person may operate a segment of a high pressure distribution system at a pressure that exceeds the... segment of a distribution system otherwise designed to operate at over 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage, unless..., particularly known corrosion and the actual operating pressures. (b) No person may operate a segment...

  19. 49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a low-pressure distribution system at a pressure high enough to...) No person may operate a low pressure distribution system at a pressure lower than the...

  20. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Packing and Unitization, 19-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint Military Packaging Training Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This correspondence course on methods and techniques of packing materials and equipment for shipment and storage is designed to familiarize students with the subject matter area and to serve as a background for a more detailed and specialized study. One of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational…