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  1. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

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    ... gov/ency/article/003472.htm Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test measures the level of the enzyme AST in ...

  2. Common reference intervals for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in serum: results from an IFCC multicenter study.

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    Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Henny, Joseph; Queraltó, Josep; Ziyu, Shen; Özarda, Yeşim; Chen, Baorong; Boyd, James C; Panteghini, Mauro

    2010-11-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) measurements are important for the assessment of liver damage. The aim of this study was to define the reference intervals (RIs) for these enzymes in adults, paying attention to standardization of the methods used and careful selection of the reference population. AST, ALT and GGT were measured with commercial analytical systems standardized to the IFCC-recommended reference measurement systems. Three centers (two in Italy and one in China) measured their own freshly collected samples; one of these centers also measured frozen samples from the Nordic Countries RI Project and from a Turkish center. RIs were generated using non-parametric techniques from the results of 765 individuals (411 females and 354 males, 18-85 years old) selected on the basis of the results of other laboratory tests and a specific questionnaire. AST results from the four regions (Milan, Beijing, Bursa and Nordic Countries) were statistically different, but these differences were too small to be clinically relevant. Likewise, differences between the upper reference limits for genders was only 1.7 U/L (0.03 μkat/L), allowing a single RI of 11-34 U/L (0.18-0.57 μkat/L) to be defined. Interregional differences were not statistically significant for ALT, but partitioning was required due to significant gender differences. RIs for ALT were 8-41 U/L (0.13-0.68 μkat/L) for females and 9-59 U/L (0.15-0.99 μkat/L) for males, respectively. The upper reference limits for GGT from the Nordic Country population were higher than those from the other three regions and results from this group were excluded from final calculations. The GGT RIs were 6-40 U/L (0.11-0.66 μkat/L) for females and 12-68 U/L (0.20- 1.13 μkat/L) for males, respectively. For AST and ALT, the implementation of common RIs appears to be possible, because no differences between regions were observed. However, a common RI for GGT that is

  3. Aspartate Aminotransferase and Alanine Aminotransferase Detection on Paper-Based Analytical Devices with Inkjet Printer-Sprayed Reagents

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    Hsiang-Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available General biochemistry detection on paper-based microanalytical devices (PADs uses pipette titration. However, such an approach is extremely time-consuming for large-scale detection processes. Furthermore, while automated methods are available for increasing the efficiency of large-scale PAD production, the related equipment is very expensive. Accordingly, this study proposes a low-cost method for PAD manufacture, in which the reagent is applied using a modified inkjet printer. The optimal reaction times for the detection of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT are shown to be 6 and 7 min, respectively, given AST and ALT concentrations in the range of 5.4 to 91.2 U/L (R2 = 0.9932 and 5.38 to 86.1 U/L (R2 = 0.9944. The experimental results obtained using the proposed PADs for the concentration detection of AST and ALT in real human blood serum samples are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using a traditional spectrophotometric detection method by National Cheng Kung University hospital.

  4. Prognostic value of pretreatment serum alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Huang, Hao; Wang, Xue-Ping; Li, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Xin; Lin, Jian-Hua; Kang, Ting; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Pei-Song

    2017-08-14

    The levels of liver function tests (LFTs) are often used to assess liver injury and non-liver disease-related mortality. In our study, the relationship between pretreatment serum LFTs and overall survival (OS) was evaluated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Our purpose was to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in ESCC patients. A retrospective study was performed in 447 patients with ESCC, and follow-up period was at least 60 months until death. The prognostic significance of serum LFTs were determined by univariate and multivariate Cox hazard models. LFTs including ALT, AST, LSR, GGT, TBA and LDH were analyzed. Serum LSR (HR: 0.592, 95% CI = 0.457-0.768, p < 0.001 and GGT (HR: 1.507, 95% CI = 1.163-1.953, p = 0.002) levels were indicated as significant predictors of OS. The 5-year OS among patients with higher LSR levels was longer compared with those patients with decreased LSR levels, not only in the whole cohort but also in the subgroups stratified by pathological stage (T1-T2 subgroup, T3-T4 subgroup, N0 subgroup and M0 subgroup). We also found that patients with a higher GGT might predict worse OS than patients with a normal GGT, not only in the whole cohort but also in the subgroups stratified by pathological stage (T3-T4 subgroup and N1-N2 subgroup). Both increased levels of LSR and decreased levels of GGT might predict shorter overall survival in ESCC patients. Our findings suggest that serum LSR and GGT levels could be used as a key predictor of survival in patients with ESCC.

  5. Serum γ-Glutamyltransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity in Healthy Blood Donor of Different Ethnic Groups in Gorgan.

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    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab

    2016-07-01

    Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups.

  6. Correlation between Aminotransferase Ratio (AST/ALT and Other Biochemical Parameters in Chronic Liver Disease of Viral Origin

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    Shah Md Fazlul Karim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years the ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT in patients of chronic liver disease (CLD of various origins has gained much attention. This variable is readily available, easy to interpret, and inexpensive and the clinical utility of the AST/ALT ratio in the diagnostic workup of patients with CLD is quite promising. Objective: The present study was designed to find out the link between aminotransferase (AST/ALT ratio with commonly measured biochemical parameters of liver function tests in CLD of viral origin. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Forty four biopsy proven diagnosed subjects of chronic viral hepatitis without cirrhosis of both sex were selected purposively. With aseptic precaution 5 mL venous blood was collected from each subject and common liver function tests (serum AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, serum total protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, serum albumin/globulin ratio, prothrombin time and viral serology (HBsAg, Anti HDV antibody, Anti HCV antibody were performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 19 for Windows. Pearson’s correlation test was done to determine association between AST/ALT with other biochemical parameters. Results: Mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 32.55±10.55 years (range 20-50 years with 48 (77.7% male and 14 (22.6% female subjects. Pearson’s correlation test was done between AST to ALT ratio with other biochemical parameters and prothrombin time showed significant positive correlation (p <0.01. Conclusion: In our study we found significant positive correlation between AST/ALT with prothrombin time in CLD subjects without cirrhosis.

  7. Alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase ratio is the best surrogate marker for insulin resistance in non-obese Japanese adults

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    Kawamoto Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to examine how liver markers are associated with insulin resistance in Japanese community-dwelling adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included 587 men aged 58 ± 14 (mean ± standard deviation; range, 20–89 years and 755 women aged 60 ± 12 (range, 21–88 years. The study sample consisted of 998 (74.4% non-obese [body mass index (BMI 2] and 344 (25.6% overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 subjects. Insulin resistance was defined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR of at least 2.5, and HOMA-IR and potential confounders were compared between the groups. Areas under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC were used to compare the power of these serum markers. Results In non-obese subjects, the best marker of insulin resistance was alanine aminotransferase (ALT/aspartate aminotransferase (AST ratio of 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.63-0.77. In overweight subjects, AUC values for the ALT/AST ratio and ALT were 0.66 (0.59-0.72 and 0.66 (0.59-0.72, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses for HOMA-IR showed that ALT/AST ratios were independently and significantly associated with HOMA-IR as well as other confounding factors in both non-obese and overweight subjects. The optimal cut-off point to identifying insulin resistance for these markers yielded the following values: ALT/AST ratio of ≥0.82 in non-obese subjects and ≥1.02 in overweight subjects. In non-obese subjects, the positive likelihood ratio was greatest for ALT/AST ratio. Conclusions In non-obese Japanese adults, ALT/AST ratio may be the best reliable marker of insulin resistance.

  8. Association of the Aspartate Aminotransferase to Alanine Aminotransferase Ratio with BNP Level and Cardiovascular Mortality in the General Population: The Yamagata Study 10-Year Follow-Up

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    Miyuki Yokoyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early identification of high risk subjects for cardiovascular disease in health check-up is still unmet medical need. Cardiovascular disease is characterized by the superior increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT. However, the association of AST/ALT ratio with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels and cardiovascular mortality remains unclear in the general population. Methods and Results. This longitudinal cohort study included 3,494 Japanese subjects who participated in a community-based health check-up, with a 10-year follow-up. The AST/ALT ratio increased with increasing BNP levels. And multivariate logistic analysis showed that the AST/ALT ratio was significantly associated with a high BNP (≥100 pg/mL. There were 250 all-cause deaths including 79 cardiovascular deaths. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that a high AST/ALT ratio (>90 percentile was an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality after adjustment for confounding factors. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that cardiovascular mortality was higher in subjects with a high AST/ALT ratio than in those without. Conclusions. The AST/ALT ratio was associated with an increase in BNP and was predictive of cardiovascular mortality in a general population. Measuring the AST/ALT ratio during routine health check-ups may be a simple and cost-effective marker for cardiovascular mortality.

  9. Influence of convulsants on rat brain activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilová, M.; Haugvicová, Renata; Kubová, Hana; Dršata, J.; Mareš, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 12 (2001), s. 1285-1291 ISSN 0364-3190 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : alanine aminotransferase * aspartale aminotransferase Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.638, year: 2001

  10. PPARα regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thulin, Petra; Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth; Tomkiewicz, Celine; Norjavaara, Ensio; Aggerbeck, Martine; Hellmold, Heike; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian; Glinghammar, Bjoern

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPARα agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum

  11. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight correlations before and after hemodialysis session

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    Edmundo Pessoa Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate alanine aminotransferase levels before and after a hemodialysis session and to correlate these values with the hematocrit rate and weight loss during hemodialysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight were measured and correlated before and after a single hemodialysis session for 146 patients with chronic renal failure. An receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve for the serum alanine aminotransferase levels collected before and after hemodialysis was plotted to identify hepatitis C virus-infected patients. RESULTS: The mean weight loss of the 146 patients during hemodialysis was 5.3% (p < 0.001. The mean alanine aminotransferase levels before and after hemodialysis were 18.8 and 23.9 IU/, respectively, denoting a significant 28.1% increase. An equally significant increase of 16.4% in the hematocrit rate also occurred after hemodialysis. The weight loss was inversely correlated with the rise in both the alanine aminotransferase level (r = 0.3; p < 0.001 and hematocrit rate (r = 0.5; p < 0.001. A direct correlation was found between the rise in alanine aminotransferase levels and the hematocrit during the hemodialysis session (r = 0.4; p < 0.001. Based on the ROC curve, the upper limit of the normal alanine aminotransferase level should be reduced by 40% relative to the upper limit of normal if the blood samples are collected before the hemodialysis session or by 60% if blood samples are collected after the session. CONCLUSION: In the present study, significant elevations in the serum alanine aminotransferase levels and hematocrit rates occurred in parallel to a reduction in body weight after the hemodialysis session. These findings suggest that one of the factors for low alanine aminotransferase levels prior to hemodialysis could be hemodilution in patients with chronic renal failure.

  12. ELEVATED ALT AND AST IN AN ASYMPTOMATIC PERSON

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    KEW ST

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -Abnormal liver function test with raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT and raised aspartate aminotransferase (AST are commonly seen in primary care setting. -Chronic alcohol consumption, drugs, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and chronic viral hepatitis are common causes associated with raised ALT and AST. -In chronic viral hepatitis, the elevation of liver enzyme may not correlate well with the degree of liver damage. -Non-hepatic causes of raised ALT and AST include polymyositis, acute muscles injury, acute myocardial infarction and hypothyroidism. -In the primary care setting, the doctor should obtain a complete history regarding the risk factors for viral hepatitis, substance abuse and request investigations accordingly. -Suspected chronic viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis are best referred to hepatologist for further management.

  13. Associations of White Blood Cell Count,Alanine Aminotransferase,and Aspartate Aminotransferase in the First Trimester withGestational Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Zhao, Li-li; Li, Wei; Ping, Fan; Ma, Liang-kun; Nie, Min

    2016-06-10

    Objective To explore the associations of white blood cell (WBC) count,alanine aminotransferase (ALT),and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in the first trimester of pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Totally 725 GDM women and 935 women who remained euglycemic throughout pregnancy were enrolled in this study. Pre-pregnancy weight/height were recorded. WBC,ALT,and AST levels were detected between 8 and 12 weeks of pregnancy.At 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy,the glucose and insulin levels were measured. The WBC,ALT,and AST levels were compared between two groups,and the associations of WBC,ALT,and AST levels with the blood glucose and insulin levels were retrospectively analyzed. Meanwhile,the potential associations of those factors with the occurrence of GDM were analzyed. Results WBC count [9.41(8.15,10.84)?10(9)/L vs. 9.04 (7.64,10.37)?10(9)/L,P=1.0?10(-5)] and ALT levels [18.00(12.00,30.00)U/L vs. 16.00 (11.00,26.00)U/L,P=0.004] in the first trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased in GDM subjects than in normal glucose tolerance(NGT)subjects;however,the AST level showed no significant difference between these two groups [41.00 (26.00,43.00)U/L vs. 41.00 (23.00,43.00)U/L,P=0.588]. Logistic regression analysis illustrated that elevated WBC count was an independent risk factor for GDM after adjustment for age,pre-pregnancy body mass index,blood pressure,and family history of diabetes(OR=1.119,P=0.001). The ROC curve revealed that threshold of WBC count was 7.965?10(9)/L(AUC=0.566,P=1?10(-5)),which had a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 31.3%. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was positively correlated with WBC count(B=0.051,P=0.022,R(2)=0.083);1-hour blood glucose after oral 50 grams of sugar (B=0.044,P=0.001,R(2)=0.044) and fasting plasma true insulin(B=0.214,P=0.032,R(2)=0.066) were positively correlated with WBC count;1-hour true insulin after 100 grams

  14. The Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Ultrasonographic Indices of Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients Undergoing Low Calorie Diet

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    Farzad Shidfar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Studies have shown that there is a strong relation between the increase in the aminotransferase levels and fat accumulation in the liver with cardiovascular complications, independent of all aspects of the metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to examine the effect of virgin olive oil on alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST and the severity of steatosis in the NAFLD patients undergoing a weight-loss diet. Methods. This clinical trial was carried out on 50 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (mean age of 45.91 ± 9.61 years, mean BMI of 29.7 ± 0.58 Kg/m2 and the subjects were randomly assigned to the olive oil group (receiving the equivalent of 20% of their total daily energy requirement from olive oil or the control group (with normal consumption of oil for 12 weeks. All the patients received a hypocaloric diet during the study. At the beginning and the end of the study, the serum levels of ALT and AST and liver steatosis were measured. Findings. A significant decrease in the level of ALT enzymes was observed in the control group at the end of the study (P = 0.004. In the olive oil group, both enzymes decreased compared to baseline measurements (P<0.01. There were significant differences in the ALT and AST levels between the two groups (P<0.02. The severity of liver steatosis did not change significantly during the study. Conclusion. The consumption of a low calorie diet enriched with olive oil, along with slight weight reduction, reinforces the desired effects of weight loss in improving the levels of the hepatic enzymes.

  15. Alanine Aminotransferase, ?-Glutamyltransferase, and Incident Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Abigail; Harris, Ross; Sattar, Naveed; Ebrahim, Shah; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate and compare associations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) with incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: ALT and GGT were studied as determinants of diabetes in the British Women's Heart and Health Study, a cohort of 4,286 women 60-79 years old (median follow-up 7.3 years). A systematic review and a meta-analysis of 21 prospective, population-based studies of ultrasonography, which diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NA...

  16. The Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Ultrasonographic Indices of Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients Undergoing Low Calorie Diet.

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    Shidfar, Farzad; Bahrololumi, Samaneh Sadat; Doaei, Saeid; Mohammadzadeh, Assieh; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadimanesh, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies have shown that there is a strong relation between the increase in the aminotransferase levels and fat accumulation in the liver with cardiovascular complications, independent of all aspects of the metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to examine the effect of virgin olive oil on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the severity of steatosis in the NAFLD patients undergoing a weight-loss diet. This clinical trial was carried out on 50 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (mean age of 45.91 ± 9.61 years, mean BMI of 29.7 ± 0.58 Kg/m 2 ) and the subjects were randomly assigned to the olive oil group (receiving the equivalent of 20% of their total daily energy requirement from olive oil) or the control group (with normal consumption of oil) for 12 weeks. All the patients received a hypocaloric diet during the study. At the beginning and the end of the study, the serum levels of ALT and AST and liver steatosis were measured. A significant decrease in the level of ALT enzymes was observed in the control group at the end of the study ( P = 0.004). In the olive oil group, both enzymes decreased compared to baseline measurements ( P groups ( P < 0.02). The severity of liver steatosis did not change significantly during the study. The consumption of a low calorie diet enriched with olive oil, along with slight weight reduction, reinforces the desired effects of weight loss in improving the levels of the hepatic enzymes.

  17. Protein Homeostasis Defects of Alanine-Glyoxylate Aminotransferase: New Therapeutic Strategies in Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I

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    Angel L. Pey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase catalyzes the transamination between L-alanine and glyoxylate to produce pyruvate and glycine using pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP as cofactor. Human alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase is a peroxisomal enzyme expressed in the hepatocytes, the main site of glyoxylate detoxification. Its deficit causes primary hyperoxaluria type I, a rare but severe inborn error of metabolism. Single amino acid changes are the main type of mutation causing this disease, and considerable effort has been dedicated to the understanding of the molecular consequences of such missense mutations. In this review, we summarize the role of protein homeostasis in the basic mechanisms of primary hyperoxaluria. Intrinsic physicochemical properties of polypeptide chains such as thermodynamic stability, folding, unfolding, and misfolding rates as well as the interaction of different folding states with protein homeostasis networks are essential to understand this disease. The view presented has important implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies based on targeting specific elements of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase homeostasis.

  18. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

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    Jessen, Holly Jean [Chanhassen, MN; Liao, Hans H [Eden Prairie, MN; Gort, Steven John [Apple Valley, MN; Selifonova, Olga V [Plymouth, MN

    2011-10-04

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  19. Irritable Bowel Syndrome May Be Associated with Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase and Metabolic Syndrome.

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    Lee, Seung Hwa; Kim, Kyu Nam; Kim, Kwang Min; Joo, Nam Seok

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed close relationships between hepatic injury, metabolic pathways, and gut microbiota. The microorganisms in the intestine also cause irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to examine whether IBS was associated with elevated hepatic enzyme [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) levels, and metabolic syndrome (MS). This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. The case and control groups comprised subjects who visited our health promotion center for general check-ups from June 2010 to December 2010. Of the 1127 initially screened subjects, 83 had IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The control group consisted of 260 age- and sex-matched subjects without IBS who visited our health promotion center during the same period. Compared to control subjects, patients with IBS showed significantly higher values of anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist circumference), liver enzymes, γ-GT, and lipid levels. The prevalences of elevated ALT (16.9% vs. 7.7%; p=0.015) and γ-GT (24.1% vs. 11.5%; p=0.037) levels were significantly higher in patients with IBS than in control subjects. A statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of MS between controls and IBS patients (12.7% vs. 32.5%; p<0.001). The relationships between elevated ALT levels, MS, and IBS remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding factors. On the basis of our study results, IBS may be an important condition in certain patients with elevated ALT levels and MS.

  20. Clinical relevance and discriminatory value of elevated liver aminotransferase levels for dengue severity.

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    Lee, Linda K; Gan, Victor C; Lee, Vernon J; Tan, Adriana S; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C

    2012-01-01

    Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT ≥ 1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT ≥ 1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve=0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve=0.56; 95% CI: 0.52-0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue.

  1. Alanine aminotransferase and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-38)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deetman, Petronella E.; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; Navis, Gerjan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Introduction Combined data suggest a bimodal association of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with mortality in the general population. Little is known about the association of ALT with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. We therefore investigated the association of ALT with all-cause,

  2. Alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and all-cause mortality: results from a population-based Danish twins study alanine aminotransferase, GGT and mortality in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Abigail; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background/Aims: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are widely used markers of liver disease. Several population-based cohort studies have found associations of these liver enzymes with all-cause mortality. None of these studies controlled for genetic...... for potential confounders and existing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Environmental developmental origins may explain the association, but larger twin studies are required to replicate our findings....

  3. Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates training programs on aminotransferase activity in overweight and obese elderly women

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    Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska

    2015-12-01

    3 Chair of Vascular and Internal Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland     Corresponding author: Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska, PT, PhD Chair of Clinical Neuropsychology, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 9 Street, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland E-mail address: m_hagner-derengowska@wp.pl     ABSTRACT Background & Aims: Elevation of alanine (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities may appear as liver injury due to fat storage and other enzyme sources, such as rhabdomyolysis. Elevated ALT is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in an elderly population. The aims of this study was to determine the effect of a 10-weeks training program on the serum activity of these enzymes in postmenopausal women with overweight and obesity. Methods: The study comprised 81 postmenopausal women with overweight and obesity: 34 (42% of whom completed a 10-weeks Nordic Walking (NW rehabilitation program, 27 (33% of whom completed a Pilates rehabilitation program, and 20 (25% of whom were the control group. Blood for testing for ALT, AST, and other parameters of metabolic syndrome was collected before the program commenced and after it finished. Results: Elevated (> 34 U/l ALT and AST activities presented in 9 (11% and 7 (9% of the patients, respectively. A reduction in ALT and AST activities was observed in 43 (53% of the subjects, and in 61%, 59% and 40%, and 47%, 63% and 50% of the individuals who completed the NW and Pilates programs and were in the control group, respectively. Conclusions: The outcome of the training programs on aminotransferase serum activities in postmenopausal women with overweight and obesity was individually different and not related to exercise type.   Keywords: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, obesity, Nordic Walking, Pilates.

  4. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic wheat and sorghum events expressing the barley alanine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Pamela A; Quach, Truyen; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Dweikat, Ismail M; Soundararajan, Madhavan; Clemente, Tom

    2017-12-01

    The expression of a barley alanine aminotransferase gene impacts agronomic outcomes in a C3 crop, wheat. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has become one of the major agronomic inputs in crop production systems. Strategies to enhance nitrogen assimilation and flux in planta are being pursued through the introduction of novel genetic alleles. Here an Agrobacterium-mediated approach was employed to introduce the alanine aminotransferase from barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvAlaAT, into wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), regulated by either constitutive or root preferred promoter elements. Plants harboring the transgenic HvAlaAT alleles displayed increased alanine aminotransferase (alt) activity. The enhanced alt activity impacted height, tillering and significantly boosted vegetative biomass relative to controls in wheat evaluated under hydroponic conditions, where the phenotypic outcome across these parameters varied relative to time of year study was conducted. Constitutive expression of HvAlaAT translated to elevation in wheat grain yield under field conditions. In sorghum, expression of HvAlaAT enhanced enzymatic activity, but no changes in phenotypic outcomes were observed. Taken together these results suggest that positive agronomic outcomes can be achieved through enhanced alt activity in a C3 crop, wheat. However, the variability observed across experiments under greenhouse conditions implies the phenotypic outcomes imparted by the HvAlaAT allele in wheat may be impacted by environment.

  5. Salivary lactate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicka, Barbara; Skoskiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases resulting from impaired insulin secretion and/or action. DM is characterized by hyperglycemia that can lead to the dysfunction or damage of organs, including the salivary glands.The aim of this study was to compare the levels of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in diabetic patients.The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). The study comprised 90 adults of both sexes, aged 21 to 57 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups: type 1 diabetics (D1), type 2 diabetics (D2), and a healthy control group (C). Each group consisted of 30 age- and sex-matched subjects. Total protein (P, by Lowry method), LDH, AST, ALT (with Alpha Diagnostics kits), and salivary flow rate were measured in unstimulated mixed saliva. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured with DCA 2000 Reagent Kit. The obtained data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman rank at a significance level of P salivary LDH, AST, and ALT in D1 compared with D2 and C confirm that salivary glands of D1 might be attributed to autoimmunological damage associated with the pathomechanism of DM.

  6. Hepatic aminotransferases of normal and IUGR fetuses in cord blood at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocylowski, Rafal; Dubiel, Mariusz; Gudmundsson, Saemundur; Fritzer, Elfriede; Kiserud, Torvid; von Kaisenberg, Constantin

    2012-07-01

    The accepted standard for assessing the wellbeing of the newborn is the Apgar score and blood gas analysis. However, the prediction of neonatal morbidity or mortality is limited. In small-for-gestation (SGA) fetuses at 18-38 weeks of gestation, pO(2) is normals. To test the hypothesis, that fetuses with intra uterine growth restriction (IUGR) have elevated AST (GOT) and ALT (GPT) aminotransferases as a result of hypoxic liver cell injury, and to establish references ranges. Prospective cohort study, serum of umbilical artery (n=156) and vein (n=180), 599 normal singletons at 37(+0)-42(+0)weeks, neonates with IUGR (n=41), analysis for pH, birthweight and maternal weight, spontaneous vs cesarean section, vein vs artery and for the sex. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, GOT) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, GPT) were measured in normals and IUGR neonates. Neonates with IUGR (n=41) had AST values that were not different from the reference group, but had significantly lower ALT (-1.49, 95% CI -1.98 to -1.00 vs 0.14, 95% CI -0.42-0.13), (pblood were not elevated. Rather, a substantially reduced ALT suggests a down-regulated hepatic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) on aspartate and alanine aminotransferase in Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, J.; Puppo, J.

    1999-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, copper and lead and their effects on aspartate and alanine aminotransferases in digestive gland, gills, foot and soft body in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were examined. The animals were exposed to different concentrations: Cd (200-600 μg·l -1 ), Pb (350-700 μg·l -1 ) and Cu (10-20 μg·l -1 ) for 7 days. The highest concentrations were found in digestive gland for cadmium and copper, and in gills for lead, and the lowest values were observed in the foot. Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), in general, was not inhibited by cadmium, lead or copper during the exposure. Only in clams exposed to cadmium (600 μg·l -1 , 7 days) and copper (20 μg·l -1 , 5 days) were observed significant differences (P -1 . A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between ALT and metal accumulation for cadmium, copper and lead in gills. In the case of soft body, only cadmium and lead showed a significant correlation. In summary, R. philippinarum can be considered a bioindicator species for cadmium and lead accumulation and ALT could be useful as biomarker of sublethal stress for these metals in soft tissues and gills. Only gills can be considered an adequate target tissue for copper. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ACTIVITY OF ALANIN-AMINOTRANSFERASE IN HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vasile

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents a comparative study on the activity of one aminotransferase - alaninaminotransferase, in the digestive tube of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp and Aristichthys nobilis (bighead carp. The enzymatic activity has been determined colorimetrically, with 2, 4 - dinitrophenyl hydrazine, the results obtained being expressed as UE / g / min. It was observed that, comparatively with the alanin-aminotransferase activity recorded in silver carp, in the case of bighead carp, the values recorded are much lower.

  9. Statin-related aminotransferase elevation according to baseline aminotransferases level in real practice in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Lee, S H; Kim, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Lee, H; Yim, H W; Kim, S-H; Choi, I-Y; Yoon, K-H; Kim, J H

    2016-06-01

    Higher rate of statin-related hepatotoxicity has been reported for Koreans than for Westerners. Moreover, statin-related aminotransferase elevation for those who show borderline levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (≤×3 of UNL) at baseline has not been fully investigated. Post-statin changes AST/ALT levels during the first year for 21 233 Korean outpatients at two large academic teaching hospitals from January 2009 to December 2013 were analysed using electronic health record data. The date of the first statin prescription was set as baseline. We also performed a comparative analysis of statin-related AST/ALT elevations according to the type of statin, followed by an analysis of clinical risk factors. The progression rate to abnormal AST/ALT values [>×3 the upper normal limit (UNL)] was significantly higher (2·4-16% vs. 0·3-1·7%, P ×1, but ≤×3 of UNL) compared with normal AST/ALT values at baseline. Those with normal baseline AST/ALT did not show significantly different progression rate between different statin medications (P = 0·801). However, patients taking pitavastatin (HR = 0·76, P = 0·657) were least likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT, whereas those taking fluvastatin (HR = 2·96, P = 0·029) were the most likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT compared with atorvastatin for patients who were with baseline borderline AST/ALT. However, given the small sample sizes and the observational nature of our study, these need further study. It is advisable to regularly monitor AST/ALT levels even in patients with AST/ALT increases >×1. Future studies should aim to determine the possible risk factors for each specific statin type by analysing various confounding variables. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Role of aminotransferases in glutamate metabolism of human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinger, James J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Lewis, Ian A. [Princeton University, Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics (United States); Markley, John L., E-mail: markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Human erythrocytes require a continual supply of glutamate to support glutathione synthesis, but are unable to transport this amino acid across their cell membrane. Consequently, erythrocytes rely on de novo glutamate biosynthesis from {alpha}-ketoglutarate and glutamine to maintain intracellular levels of glutamate. Erythrocytic glutamate biosynthesis is catalyzed by three enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutamine aminohydrolase (GA). Although the presence of these enzymes in RBCs has been well documented, the relative contributions of each pathway have not been established. Understanding the relative contributions of each biosynthetic pathway is critical for designing effective therapies for sickle cell disease, hemolytic anemia, pulmonary hypertension, and other glutathione-related disorders. In this study, we use multidimensional {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multiple reaction mode mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) to measure the kinetics of de novo glutamate biosynthesis via AST, ALT, and GA in intact cells and RBC lysates. We show that up to 89% of the erythrocyte glutamate pool can be derived from ALT and that ALT-derived glutamate is subsequently used for glutathione synthesis.

  11. Pattern of AST and ALT changes in Relation to Hemolysis in sickle cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nsiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Elevated aminotransferase levels are commonly associated with compromised hepatic integrity from various insults. In sickle cell disease, aspartate transaminase (AST is also released via intravascular hemolysis. This study was done to determine the pattern of changes in AST and alanine transaminase (ALT, in particular the AST:ALT ratio, and to relate these to the hemolytic state, which we consider to be more important than hepatic and cardiac dysfunction in some individuals with sickle cell disease. Methods Serum aminotransferase levels were measured in 330 subjects with sickle cell disease, as well as hemoglobin, reticulocytes, and lactate dehydrogenase. The AST:ALT ratio was designated as a hemolytic marker, and simple and multivariate regression analyses were carried out between this ratio and other hemolytic markers. Results Mean AST and ALT levels were 48.24 % 27.78 and 26.48 % 22.73 U/L, respectively. However, for 49 subjects without sickle cell disease, mean AST and ALT levels were the same, ie, 23.0 U/L. In the subjects with sickle cell disease, the increases in AST levels were far higher than for ALT, supporting its release via intravascular hemolysis. In 95.8% of the subjects with sickle cell disease, the AST:ALT ratio was > 1, but our results did not suggest overt malfunctioning of the liver and heart in the majority of subjects. Conclusion Regression analyses support the use of the AST:ALT ratio as a hemolytic marker, because it has an inverse association with the hemoglobin level. Whether in steady state or in crisis, provided hepatic and cardiac integrity has not been compromised, subjects with sickle cell disease would have higher AST levels due to the hemolytic nature of the condition. This is the first report highlighting the AST:ALT ratio in sickle cell disease.

  12. Liver alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in normotriglyceridaemic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindhelm, RK; Diamant, M; Bakker, SJL; van Dijk, RAJM; Scheffer, PG; Teerlink, T; Kostense, PJ; Heine, RJ

    Background Plasma levels of liver transaminases, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), are elevated in most cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Elevated ALT levels are associated with insulin resistance, and subjects with NAFLD have features of the metabolic syndrome that confer

  13. Liver alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in normotriglyceridaemic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindhelm, R.K.; Diamant, M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; van Dijk, R.A.; Scheffer, P.G.; Teerlink, T.; Kostense, P.J.; Heine, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Plasma levels of liver transaminases, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), are elevated in most cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Elevated ALT levels are associated with insulin resistance, and subjects with NAFLD have features of the metabolic syndrome that confer

  14. AST Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/asttest.html AST Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an AST Test? AST (aspartate aminotransferase) is an enzyme that is ...

  15. Impact of increasing alanine aminotransferase levels within normal range on incident diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Shan Wang; Ting-Tsung Chang; Wei-Jen Yao; Shan-Tair Wang; Pesus Chou

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal alanine aminotransferase level (ALT) levels might be associated with type 2 diabetes, but whether higher ALT levels within the normal range predict the risk is unknown. Methods: We followed a community-based cohort of 3446 individuals who were ≥35 years old without diabetes and hepatitis B or C in southern Taiwan for 8 years (1997–2004) to study the risk for type 2 diabetes with different normal ALT levels. Results: Among the 337 incident diabetes cases, 16.0% were from those w...

  16. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    Aims The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. Material and Methods The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40–70 years, who participated from 2005–2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008–2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. Results During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422–0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124–0.337, Pmetabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome. PMID:27560931

  17. Influence of Preoperative Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST Level on the Prognosis of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Lin Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to analyze preoperative serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels and their effect on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC after surgical operation. These analyses were performed retrospectively in patients with NSCLC followed by surgery; participants were recruited between January 2004 and January 2008. All clinical information and laboratory results were collected from medical records. We explored the association between preoperative serum AST and recurrence-free survival (RFS, and the overall survival (OS of NSCLC patients. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox multivariate analysis, stratified by the AST median value, were used to evaluate the prognostic effect. A chi-squared test was performed to compare clinical characteristics in different subgroups. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 231 patients were enrolled. The median RFS and OS were 22 and 59 months, respectively. The AST levels were divided into two groups, using a cut-off value of 19 U/L: High AST (>19 U/L, n = 113 vs. low AST (≤19 U/L, n = 118. Multivariate analysis indicated that preoperative serum AST > 19 U/L (hazard ratio (HR = 0.685, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.493–0.994, p = 0.046 for RFS, HR = 0.646, 95% CI: 0.438–0.954, p = 0.028 for OS was an independent prognostic factor for both RFS and OS. High preoperative serum AST levels may serve as a valuable marker to predict the prognosis of NSCLC after operation.

  18. Coffee consumption is associated with lower serum aminotransferases in the general Korean population and in those at high risk for hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myueng Guen; Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Man Woo; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Jun

    2016-12-01

    The favourable effects of coffee on liver enzymes have been reported worldwide. This study investigated the association between coffee consumption and serum aminotransferase concentration in Korean adults. Data were obtained from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentration were defined as >30 IU/L for men and >19 IU/L for women. The risk of elevated ALT and AST according to general characteristics and frequency of coffee consumption were tested by chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of elevated ALT was 27.4%, 27.8%, and 26.9% in subjects who drank =2 times/day, respectively. The proportions of individuals with elevated AST were 32.5%, 33.1%, and 26.7% in subjects who drank =2 times/day, respectively. The aORs for elevated ALT and AST were significantly lower in subjects who drank >=2 times of coffee/day than in those who drank =2 times/day was associated with lower ORs for elevated ALT in the high-risk group overall and in the viral hepatitis and obesity subgroups, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, reduced frequency of coffee consumption was associated with an increased risk for elevated liver enzymes, although an association between coffee consumption and elevated ALT was not observed in women or current smokers. Higher coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of elevated aminotransferase concentration in Korean adults.

  19. Analysis of the enzymatic properties of a broad family of alanine aminotransferases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra H McAllister

    Full Text Available Alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT has been studied in a variety of organisms due to the involvement of this enzyme in mammalian processes such as non-alcoholic hepatocellular damage, and in plant processes such as C4 photosynthesis, post-hypoxic stress response and nitrogen use efficiency. To date, very few studies have made direct comparisons of AlaAT enzymes and fewer still have made direct comparisons of this enzyme across a broad spectrum of organisms. In this study we present a direct kinetic comparison of glutamate:pyruvate aminotransferase (GPAT activity for seven AlaATs and two glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferases (GGAT, measuring the K(M values for the enzymes analyzed. We also demonstrate that recombinant expression of AlaAT enzymes in Eschericia coli results in differences in bacterial growth inhibition, supporting previous reports of AlaAT possessing bactericidal properties, attributed to lipopolysaccharide endotoxin recognition and binding. A probable lipopolysaccharide binding region within the AlaAT enzymes, homologous to a region of a lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP in humans, was also identified in this study. The AlaAT enzyme differences identified here indicate that AlaAT homologues have differentiated significantly and the roles these homologues play in vivo may also have diverged significantly. Specifically, the differing kinetics of AlaAT enzymes and how this may alter the nitrogen use efficiency in plants is discussed.

  20. Inhibition study of alanine aminotransferase enzyme using sequential online capillary electrophoresis analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lina; Chen, Yuanfang; Yang, Li

    2014-12-15

    We report the study of several inhibitors on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme using sequential online capillary electrophoresis (CE) assay. Using metal ions (Na(+) and Mg(2+)) as example inhibitors, we show that evolution of the ALT inhibition reaction can be achieved by automatically and simultaneously monitoring the substrate consumption and product formation as a function of reaction time. The inhibition mechanism and kinetic constants of ALT inhibition with succinic acid and two traditional Chinese medicines were derived from the sequential online CE assay. Our study could provide valuable information about the inhibition reactions of ALT enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors are associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Svensson, Elisabeth; Rungby, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current literature lacks data on markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We therefore, conducted a cross-sectional study to examine modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors associated with elevated alanine...... aminotransferase (ALT) levels as a marker of NAFLD in new T2DM patients. METHODS: Alanine aminotransferase levels were measured in 1026 incident T2DM patients enrolled in the nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) cohort. We examined prevalence of elevated ALT (>38 IU/L for women....../L (interquartile range: 22-41 IU/L) in men. Elevated ALT was found in 16% of incident T2DM patients. The risk of elevated ALT was increased in patients who were diabetes debut [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-3.33], in those with alcohol overuse (>14...

  2. [Association between occupational stress and aminotransferase activity in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Song, L; Qiang, Y; Liu, H R; Qiu, F Y; Li, X Z; Song, H

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the association between occupational stress and activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A case-control study was performed. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, among the staff members of enterprises and public institutions aged 20~60 years who underwent physical examination in The Affiliated Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and The People's Hospital of Wuzhong from October 2011 to October 2012, 622 patients with metabolic syndrome who did not have a blood relationship with each other were enrolled as case group, and 600 healthy staff members who also did not have a blood relationshipwith each otherwere enrolled as control group. Questionnaire investigation, chronic occupational stress investigation, physical examination, and laboratory tests were performed for all subjects. Results: Compared with the control group, the case group had significantly higher serum levels and abnormal rates of AST and ALT ( t =-4.338 and-5.485, χ(2)=11.168 and 34.302, all P occupational stresses in both groups ( F =2.192 and 2.567, χ(2)=2.694 and 5.402, all P >0.05) , but there were significant differencesbetween the subgroups in all subjects ( F =5.005, χ(2)=6.398, all P occupational stresses in the case group, the control group, and all subjects ( F =0.845, 0.450, and 1.416, χ(2)=2.564, 1.344, and 3.147, all P >0.05) . The partial correlation analysis showed that the total score of occupational stress was positively correlated withthe serum level of AST ( r =0.071, P 0.05) , and that the serum level of AST was positively correlated with that of ALT ( r =0.736, P occupational stress was positively correlated with the serum level of AST ( r =0.069, P 0.05) , and the serum level of AST was positively correlated with that of ALT ( r =0.730, P occupational stress ( b =0.131, P =0.013) . Conclusion: Occupational stress is associated with increased serum level

  3. Effect of Phenanthrene on the Tissue Structure of Liver and Aminotransferase Enzymes in Yellowfin Seabream (Acanthopagrus latus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Shirmohammadi*

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs such as phenanthrene (Phe represent one of the most abundant forms of organic pollutants. The aim of this study was to assess changes in plasma levels of aminotransferase enzymes, total protein and liver tissue as biomarkers of yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus exposed to Phe for 14 d. Methods: The research was carried out in January 2016 at Khorramshahr University of Marine Sciences and Technology, Khorramshahr, Iran. Some 72 fish were injected with 2, 20, 40 and 70 mg/kg of Phe. Then tissue and blood samples were obtained at 1, 4, 7 and 14 d after injection. Results: Exposure of fish to Phe resulted in a significant increase of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and decrease of total protein after 7 d of the experiment (P<0.05. The main histopathological alteration was showed in different sampling days including nucleus margination, hypertrophy, vacuolation, melanomacrophages aggregates, sinusoid dilation, degeneration and picnotic nucleus. Degree of tissue change (DTC of liver was recorded in the Phe-exposed fish from normal range to moderate changes. Conclusion: The studied biomarkers such as changes in concentrations of ALT, AST and total protein as well as tissue damages in liver may be served as beneficial biomarker to assess Phe toxicity in yellowfin seabream.

  4. Alanine aminotransferase variants conferring diverse NUE phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chandra H; Good, Allen G

    2015-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT, E.C. 2.6.1.2), is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to 2-oxoglutarate to produce glutamate and pyruvate, or vice versa. It has been well documented in both greenhouse and field studies that tissue-specific over-expression of AlaAT from barley (Hordeum vulgare, HvAlaAT) results in a significant increase in plant NUE in both canola and rice. While the physical phenotypes associated with over-expression of HvAlaAT have been well characterized, the role this enzyme plays in vivo to create a more N efficient plant remains unknown. Furthermore, the importance of HvAlaAT, in contrast to other AlaAT enzyme homologues in creating this phenotype has not yet been explored. To address the role of AlaAT in NUE, AlaAT variants from diverse sources and different subcellular locations, were expressed in the wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 background and alaat1;2 (alaat1-1;alaat2-1) knockout background in various N environments. The analysis and comparison of both the physical and physiological properties of AlaAT over-expressing transgenic plants demonstrated significant differences between plants expressing the different AlaAT enzymes under different external conditions. This analysis indicates that the over-expression of AlaAT variants other than HvAlaAT in crop plants could further increase the NUE phenotype(s) previously observed.

  5. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal E; Allison, Kathryn; Bonde, Robert K; Murphy, David; Harvey, John W

    2008-06-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 micromol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement

  6. Aminotransferases and Leucine Aminopeptidase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Stojevic, Z.; Milinkovic-Tur, S.; Simpraga, M.; Miljanic, S.

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that irradiation of mammals by gama-rays cause increase of some enzyme activity in their blood plasma (Miller and Gates 1949; Milch and Albaum 1959; Hughes 1958; Miholjcic et al. 1979). In our previous papers (Kraljevic et al., 1982; Kraljevic and Emanovic 1993) it has been shown that activities of some enzymes in the blood plasma of chickens after an intramuscular injection of radioactive isotope 32 P. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of gamma-ray irradiation of the whole body of chickens upon activity of some enzymes in their blood plasma. We also wanted to investigate whether the activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP) may serve as an additional test for functional liver damage in chickens caused by gamma-ray. Fifty day old hybrid male chickens of heavy Jata breeds were irradiated by gamma-ray in the dose of 7,23±0,95 Gy. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 15 after irradiation. Activity of AST, ALT, and LAP in the blood plasma were determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. At the end of the experiment all birds were sacrificed and, as well as died birds were photomorphologically and histologically investigated. The obtained results showed decrease of activity of all three enzymes during the whole period of investigation, but significant decrease showed only AST and LAP. It seems that both enzymes may serve as additional test for functional liver damage in chickens by external gamma-rays. (author)

  7. Regional adipose tissue and elevations in serum aminotransferases in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Phyllis C; Kotler, Donald P; Overton, E Turner; Lewis, Cora E; Rimland, David; Bacchetti, Peter; Scherzer, Rebecca; Gripshover, Barbara

    2008-06-01

    The association of fat distribution with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevations is not well-defined in HIV-infected individuals. Obesity is associated with hepatic steatosis, and ALT is a marker of steatosis in the general population. Cross-sectional analysis of 1119 HIV-infected and 284 control subjects. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing determined HCV infection. Magnetic resonance imaging measured regional adipose tissue volume. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was positively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (+9.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8 to 17.6), HIV-monoinfected subjects (+8.0%, 95% CI: 4.2 to 12.1), and controls (+5.9%, 95% CI: 2.0 to 10.1). In contrast, lower trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was negatively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (-14.3%, 95% CI: -24.7 to -4.2) and HIV-monoinfected subjects (-11.9%, 95% CI: -18.4 to -5.3); there was a trend toward an association in controls (-7.1%, 95% CI: -22.7 to 5.9). Estimated associations between regional adipose tissue and AST were small and did not reach statistical significance. More VAT and less lower trunk SAT are associated with elevated ALT, which likely reflects the presence of steatosis. There was little association with AST. HCV infection and having more VAT or less lower trunk SAT are independently associated with elevated ALT in HIV infection. Study regarding the association between VAT, trunk SAT, HCV, and progression of steatosis and fibrosis is needed in HIV-infected individuals.

  8. Plasma Levels of Alanine Aminotransferase in the First Trimester Identify High Risk Chinese Women for Gestational Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Junhong; Zhang, Cuiping; Wang, Peng; Li, Nan; Li, Weiqin; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Ma, Ronald CW; Chan, Juliana CN; Yang, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) predicts type 2 diabetes but it is uncertain whether it also predicts gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We recruited 17359 Chinese women with ALT measured in their first trimester. At 24?28?weeks of gestation, all women underwent a 50-gram 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT) followed by a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test if GCT result was ?7.8?mmol/L. Restricted cubic spline analysis was used to examine full-range risk associations of ALT levels wit...

  9. Effect of streptococcal preparation (picibanil) on the postoperative rise in serum alanine aminotransferase activity in patients with urogenital cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Taketa, Kazuhisa; Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Yonesuke; Asahi, Toshihiko; Okimune, Masaaki

    1980-01-01

    The effect of Picibanil, a streptococcal agent, on the development of liver injury after operations for urogenital cancer was studied retrospectively in the light of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. The series comprised 32 cases receiving Picibanil and 33 controls with otherwise comparable clinical backgrounds. Picibanil reduced the incidence of postoperative ALT rise over 50 U/l within 6 weeks but increased it thereafter. The increase in ALT activity after 6 weeks was relativel...

  10. Effect of Arsenic and Chromium on the Serum Amino-Transferases Activity in Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Yerramilli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: 2.6.1.2 and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1 play a crucial role in transamination reactions and can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate hepatotoxicity and cellular damage. While histopathological studies in liver tissue require more time and expertise, simple and reliable biochemical analysis of ALT and AST can be used for a rapid assessment of tissue and cellular damage within 96 h. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of arsenic and hexavalent chromium on the activity of ALT and AST in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for 24 h and 96 h. Significant increase in the activity of ALT (P < 0.01 from controls in arsenic exposed fish indicates serious hepatic damage and distress condition to the fish. However, no such significant changes were observed in chromium-exposed fish suggesting that arsenic is more toxic to the fish. These findings indicate that ALT and AST are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in Labeo rohita.

  11. A gene duplication led to specialized gamma-aminobutyrate and beta-alanine aminotransferase in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gorm; Andersen, Birgit; Dobritzsch, D.

    2007-01-01

    and related yeasts have two different genes/enzymes to apparently 'distinguish' between the two reactions in a single cell. It is likely that upon duplication similar to 200 million years ago, a specialized Uga1p evolved into a 'novel' transaminase enzyme with broader substrate specificity.......In humans, beta-alanine (BAL) and the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) are transaminated by a single aminotransferase enzyme. Apparently, yeast originally also had a single enzyme, but the corresponding gene was duplicated in the Saccharomyces kluyveri lineage. SkUGA1 encodes a homologue...... to characterize the substrate specificity and kinetic parameters of the four enzymes. It was found that the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is needed for enzymatic activity and alpha-ketoglutarate, and not pyruvate, as the amino group acceptor. SkPyd4p preferentially uses BAL as the amino group donor (V...

  12. Effect of quality protein maize diet on liver integrity and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of quality protein maize (QPM) diet on the histology of the liver and on the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in albino wistar rats. The AST level in rats fed QPM diet was 57.4 ± 8.92U/L which compared favourably with that ...

  13. Clinical value of spleen acoustic radiation force impulse, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio in predicting esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Dakun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the spleen stiffness of patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis by spleen acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR, as well as the clinical value of these three noninvasive techniques in predicting esophageal varices (EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 247 patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were enrolled, and ARFI was used to measure real-time spleen stiffness. APRI and AAR were calculated. Gastroscopy was performed within one week before and after measurement to clarify the degree of EV. With the results of gastroscopy as the gold standard, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to compare the clinical value of spleen ARFI value, APRI, and AAR in the diagnosis of EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups. ResultsThere were significant differences between the EV group (n=169 and the non-EV group (n=78 in spleen ARFI stiffness (3.64±0.53 m/s vs 2.97±0.65 m/s, t=-7.93, P<0.001, APRI (0.87±091 vs 0.52±0.80, t=-2.90, P=0.004, and AAR (1.54±0.67 vs 1.29±0.55, t=-2.93, P=0.004. Spleen ARFI, APRI, and AAR had an area under the ROC curve of 0.80, 0.72, and 0.63, respectively, in predicting EV in patients with liver cirrhosis, there was a significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and AAR (P=0.005, while there was no significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and APRI (P=0.10. ConclusionARFI is a real-time ultrasound elastography technique, and compared with APRI and AAR, spleen stiffness measured by ARFI can predict EV in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis more accurately and noninvasively and thus holds promise for clinical application.

  14. Degradation of pyrimidines in Saccharomyces kluyveri: transamination of beta-alanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnackerz, K D; Andersen, G; Dobritzsch, D

    2008-01-01

    Beta-alanine is an intermediate in the reductive degradation of uracil. Recently we have identified and characterized the Saccharomyces kluyveri PYD4 gene and the corresponding enzyme beta -alanine aminotransferase ((Sk)Pyd4p), highly homologous to eukaryotic gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransferase ...

  15. Endocannabinoid receptor blockade reduces alanine aminotransferase in polycystic ovary syndrome independent of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Alison J; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Coady, Anne-Marie; Elshewehy, Abeer M M; Dakroury, Youssra; Ahmed, Lina; Atkin, Stephen L; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

    2017-07-14

    Evidence suggests that endocannabinoid system activation through the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is associated with enhanced liver injury, and CB1 antagonism may be beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of rimonabant (CB1 antagonist) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a hepatocellular injury marker, and a hepatic inflammatory cytokine profile. Post hoc review of 2 studies involving 50 obese women with PCOS and well matched for weight, randomised to weight reducing therapy; rimonabant (20 mg od) or orlistat (120 mg tds), or to insulin sensitising therapy metformin, (500 mg tds), or pioglitazone (45 mg od). No subject had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Treatment with rimonabant for 12 weeks reduced both ALT and weight (p weight. There was a significant reduction of weight with orlistat (p weight loss and hepatic inflammatory markers in obese women with PCOS without NAFLD. ISRCTN58369615 (February 2007; retrospectively registered) ISRCTN75758249 (October 2007; retrospectively registered).

  16. Clinical characteristics associated with hepatic steatosis on ultrasonography in patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Luz Narciso-Schiavon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The main causes of hepatic steatosis (HS are alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Although liver biopsy is the gold standard for NAFLD diagnosis, the finding of abnormal aminotransferases in abstinent individuals, without known liver disease, suggests the diagnosis of NAFLD in 80-90% of the cases. Identification of clinical factors associated with HS on abdominal ultrasound may enable diagnoses of fatty liver non-invasively and cost-effectively. The aim here was to identify clinical variables associated with HS in individuals with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a single tertiary care center. METHODS: Individuals with elevated ALT, serologically negative for hepatitis B and C, were evaluated by reviewing medical files. Patients who did not undergo abdominal ultrasonography were excluded. RESULTS: Among 94 individuals included, 40% presented HS on ultrasonography. Compared with individuals without HS, those with fatty liver were older (P = 0.043, with higher body mass index (BMI (P = 0.003, diabetes prevalence (P = 0.024, fasting glucose levels (P = 0.001 and triglycerides (P = 0.003. Multivariate analysis showed that BMI (odds ratio, OR = 1.186; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.049-1.341; P = 0.006 and diabetes mellitus (OR = 12.721; 95% CI: 1.380-117.247; P = 0.025 were independently associated with HS. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical findings such as history of diabetes and high BMI may predict the presence of HS on ultrasonography in individuals with elevated ALT and negative serological tests for hepatitis.

  17. Alcohol intake, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes, and liver damage and disease in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Gronbaek, M.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2009-01-01

    the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Biochemical tests for the detection of liver damage were specific for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-ALT ratio (AST/ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, coagulation factors, and erythrocyte...... volume. RESULTS: Increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing erythrocyte volume, AST/ALT, and levels of ALT, gamma-GT, albumin, bilirubin, coagulation factors, and with decreasing levels of alkaline phosphatase. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for alcoholic liver disease overall were...

  18. Effect of X-irradiation on the alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the liver, kidney and spleen of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungowska-Klin, B; Lozinska, M; Wojtaszek, J [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT and GPT) activities and the protein content were measured in the liver, kidney and spleen homogenates of mice exposed to a single whole body X-irradiation with a 900 R dose. The assays were performed in 6 h intervals during the first day and 24 h intervals from the 2nd until the 6th day after the exposure. Significant differences in the enzymatic activity were found in the course of 24 h in control animals and a marked increase of this activity was found after irradiation. This may be explained by changes in the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane for enzyme molecules.

  19. Measurement and purification of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT enzyme activity in patients with celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghreed U. Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is the most common genetically - based disease in correlation with food intolerance. The aim of this study is to measure the activity of ALT enzyme and purify enzyme from sera women with celiac disease. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity has been assayed in (30 women serum samples with celiac disease, age range between (20-40 year and (30 serum of healthy women as control group, age range between (22-38 year. In the present study, the mean value of ALT activity was significantly higher in patients with celiac disease than healthy group (p<0.01. The ALT enzyme was partial purified from sera women with celiac disease by dialysis, gel filtration using Sephadex G- 50 and ion exchange chromatography using DEAE- cellulose A-50 . The results showed a single peak by using gel filtration and the activity reached 31-15 U/L .Two isoenzymes were obtained by using ion exchange chromatography and the purity degree of isoenzymse (I, II were (5.7 and (5.53 fold respectively

  20. Liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and the effects of mutations associated with Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppici, Elisa; Montioli, Riccardo; Cellini, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) (EC 2.6.1.44) catalyses the conversion of l-alanine and glyoxylate to pyruvate and glycine, a reaction that allows glyoxylate detoxification. Inherited mutations on the AGXT gene encoding AGT lead to Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I (PH1), a rare disorder characterized by the deposition of calcium oxalate crystals primarily in the urinary tract. Here we describe the results obtained on the biochemical features of AGT as well as on the molecular and cellular effects of polymorphic and pathogenic mutations. A complex scenario on the molecular pathogenesis of PH1 emerges in which the co-inheritance of polymorphic changes and the condition of homozygosis or compound heterozygosis are two important factors that determine the enzymatic phenotype of PH1 patients. All the reported data represent relevant steps toward the understanding of genotype/phenotype correlations, the prediction of the response of the patients to the available therapies, and the development of new therapeutic approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Body weight changes, haematological and serum biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, platelet, lymphocytes, neutrophil, cholesterol, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) values of the rams fed ammonium sulphate fortified diets were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control. Haemoglobin concentration ...

  2. Biochemical assessement of liver enzymes in immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study aims at the estimation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutmyltransferase GGT (Liver enzymes) in Human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) and/or Acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS) patients in parts of Edo State, Nigeria.

  3. Evaluation of liver marker enzymes and biochemical indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver marker enzymes, total protein, amylase and glucose were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats treated with aqueous extract of Pennisetum purpureum. The liver marker enzymes evaluated were alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Sixteen wistar rats were grouped into ...

  4. Comparative study of C-Reactive Protein and other biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum levels of C-reactive proteins (CRP), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin and globulins were investigated using high sensitivity Immunoturbidometric and colorimetric techniques in individuals with hepatitis (n=50), Malaria (n=50) and 40 control subjects in age ...

  5. [Establishing biological reference intervals of alanine transaminase for clinical laboratory stored database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Song, Binbin; Shen, Junfei; Wu, Jiong; Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Beili; Pan, Baishen

    2015-08-25

    To establish an indirect reference interval based on the test results of alanine aminotransferase stored in a laboratory information system. All alanine aminotransferase results were included for outpatients and physical examinations that were stored in the laboratory information system of Zhongshan Hospital during 2014. The original data were transformed using a Box-Cox transformation to obtain an approximate normal distribution. Outliers were identified and omitted using the Chauvenet and Tukey methods. The indirect reference intervals were obtained by simultaneously applying nonparametric and Hoffmann methods. The reference change value was selected to determine the statistical significance of the observed differences between the calculated and published reference intervals. The indirect reference intervals for alanine aminotransferase of all groups were 12 to 41 U/L (male, outpatient), 12 to 48 U/L (male, physical examination), 9 to 32 U/L (female, outpatient), and 8 to 35 U/L (female, physical examination), respectively. The absolute differences when compared with the direct results were all smaller than the reference change value of alanine aminotransferase. The Box-Cox transformation combined with the Hoffmann and Tukey methods is a simple and reliable technique that should be promoted and used by clinical laboratories.

  6. Weight reduction improves markers of hepatic function and insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: There was a 26.99%, 40.8%, 33.81%, 32.73%, 37.8% and 15 % reduction in mean values of Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Gamma – Glutamyltransferase (GGT) and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance- index (HOMA-IR) and BMI ...

  7. Increased liver alkaline phosphatase and aminotransferase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of daily, oral administration of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark (2mg/kg body weight) for 18days on the alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities of rat liver and serum were investigated. Compared with the control, the activities of liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ...

  8. ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Wistar adult male rats was ...

  9. A quest for normal values of serum aminotransferase and its association with age and body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, M.A.; Farooq, Y.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reference range for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for young healthy individuals in our population and to find out effects of age and body mass index on alanine aminotransferase. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital Rawalpindi; from Dec 2009 to April 2010. Material and Methods: Five hundred and fifty three young healthy adults were included in the study. Detailed history was taken. Parameters like Age, height and weight were measured. Relevant investigations were carried out for each subject which included blood complete picture, Chest X-Ray, ECG, Urine routine examination, liver function tests, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, plasma glucose (F), Anti HCV antibodies, HBsAg, HIV antibodies and VDRL. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: Age of subjects ranged from 19 to 50 years (29 +- 6) years, BMI 15.59 to 29.8, (21.58 +- 2). Serum alanine aminotransferase ranged from 17 to 81 IU/l, (29.9 +- 8) IU/l. Serum alanine aminotransferase for subjects with body mass index more than 25 Kg/m2 was 29.6 +- 7 IU/L. There is no significant difference in value of mean ALT overall and in those with BMI of more than 25 (p=0.149) Conclusion: Mean serum alanine aminotransferase value in young healthy adults included in this study was 29.9 +- 8 IU/L which is lower than normal reference provided at present which is 40 IU/l. Statistical analysis revealed that serum ALT is not significantly influenced by age and BMI. (author)

  10. Preliminary Studies on Some Haematological and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean serum values of sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate, as well as urea, creatinine and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) enzyme did not differ from the normal values, while the mean aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme value appeared to be lower than the normal range.In conclusion, the RBC, PCV ...

  11. Effect of subchronic administration of ethanolic leaf extract of croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biochemical effcts of ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus on serum alkaline phosphatase(SAP),aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ,alanine aminotransferase(ALT),serum total protein and albumin were studied.The levels of these enzymes and that of total protein and albumin in the extract treated rats were not ...

  12. Acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root was studied on rats. The indices of the study were the liver enzymes (transaminases), cholesterol, creatinine and urea serum levels as well as the ionic analysis. Both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed a ...

  13. A Micro-Platinum Wire Biosensor for Fast and Selective Detection of Alanine Aminotransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Nguyen Thanh Thuy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a miniaturized biosensor based on permselective polymer layers (overoxidized polypyrrole (Ppy and Nafion® modified and enzyme (glutamate oxidase (GlutOx immobilized micro-platinum wire electrode for the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT was fabricated. The proposed ALT biosensor was measured electrochemically by constant potential amperometry at +0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The ALT biosensor provides fast response time (~5 s and superior selectivity towards ALT against both negatively and positively charged species (e.g., ascorbic acid (AA and dopamine (DA, respectively. The detection range of the ALT biosensor is found to be 10–900 U/L which covers the range of normal ALT levels presented in the serum and the detection limit and sensitivity are found to be 8.48 U/L and 0.059 nA/(U/L·mm2 (N = 10, respectively. We also found that one-day storage of the ALT biosensor at −20 °C right after the sensor being fabricated can enhance the sensor sensitivity (1.74 times higher than that of the sensor stored at 4 °C. The ALT biosensor is stable after eight weeks of storage at −20 °C. The sensor was tested in spiked ALT samples (ALT activities: 20, 200, 400, and 900 U/L and reasonable recoveries (70%~107% were obtained.

  14. Avaliação hematológica e dosagem bioquímica de ALT, AST e creatinina em elefante-marinho-do-sul, Mirounga leonina (linnaeus, 1758, encontrado no litoral de Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes Bastos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999 the Aquatic Mammals Rescue Center - AMRC has been working in the rescue and rehabilitation of stranded cetaceans and pinnipeds on the coast of Bahia, Brazil. This paper presents and analyses the blood cells count and clinical chemistry of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and creatinine of a southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina (LINNAEUS, 1758, found on February the 11th at Barra Beach, Salvador, BA. The specimen was an orphan male calf, with 137cm of length and estimated weight of 49kg. It presented bad nutritional conditions and a shark bite on the right shoulder area. Clinical management was performed for 56 days, anthelmintic Febendazole was utilized, and the bite was treated with iodined alcohol, Nitrofurazone solution and Kethanserin, simultaneously with Enrofloxacin 10%, Potenay®, Vitamin B Complex and Benerva®. On the 16th the animal presented a right unilateral conjuntivitis, treated with Cloranphenicol oftalmic pomade until the end of its stay in the captive. During this period a total of six blood samples were collected, three for total blood counts and the others for the biochemistry determination of ALT, AST and creatinine. According to the haematological analysis the seal developed an anaemia which was classified as microcytic and normochromic. Lymphopenia, eosinopenia and monocytopenia were also observed, possibly due to its handling and stress conditions. The clinical chemistry presented low values for AST and creatinine, although this did not represent the existence of any pathologic context or disease with clinical significance.

  15. Sub-Acute Hepatoxicity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub–acute toxicity study of the aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was carried out on albino rats. Doses of 250mg, 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg per kilogram body weight of the extract were administered orally for 21 days. The activities of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), ...

  16. The efficacy of aspartate aminotransferase-toplatelet ratio index for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood nonalcoholic steatohepatitis for medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Childhood obesity is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and it has become one of the most common causes of childhood chronic liver diseases which significant as a cause of liver related mortality and morbidity in children in the United States. The development of simpler and easier clinical indices for medical practice is needed to identify advanced hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD instead of invasive method like liver biopsy. FibroScan and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI have been proposed as a simple and noninvasive predictor to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in several liver diseases. APRI could be a good alternative to detect pathologic change in childhood NAFLD. The purpose of this study is to validate the efficacy of APRI for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD based on FibroScan. Methods: This study included 23 children with NAFLD who underwent FibroScan. Clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation including APRI was performed. To confirm the result of this study, 6 patients received liver biopsy. Results: Factors associated with hepatic fibrosis (stiffness measurement &gt;5.9 kPa Fibroscan were triglyceride, AST, alanine aminotransferase, platelet count, APRI and collagen IV. In multivariate analysis, APRI were correlated with hepatic fibrosis (&gt;5.9 kPa. In receiver operating characteristics curve, APRI of meaningful fibrosis (cutoff value, 0.4669; area under the receiver operating characteristics, 0.875 presented sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 66%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 64%. Conclusion: APRI might be a noninvasive, simple, and readily available method for medical practice to predict hepatic fibrosis of childhood NAFLD.

  17. Possible protective role of palm oil and beef liver on the kidney and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of eight weeks of a diesel-contaminated diet on liver and kidney of Wistar Albino rats, as well as the possible protective role of palm oil and beef liver. There was a significant increase in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of rats fed with ...

  18. Assessment the effect of N Acetyl Cysteine on liver function test in patient with elective Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver ischemic insults are important sources of liver injuries leading to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and mediating liver cell injury. Glutathione mediated mechanisms are among the most important defense mechanisms of the liver; N-acetylcysteine (NAC provides cysteine for glutathione defense mechanisms. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are at increased risk of liver ischemia. This study was performed to assess the role of NAC in prevention of liver ischemia.Materials and Methods: In a double blind, randomized clinical trial, 90 patients entered the study in two groups (45 in each. Patients in the NAC group received 150 mg/Kg NAC after induction of anesthesia and the other group, the same volume of placebo. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and bilirubin were checked before and after the surgery. ANOVA was used for data analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: No difference between the two groups regarding basic variables; however, the postoperative values of AST and ALT were lower in the NAC group with statistically significant difference. Also, postoperative levels of total bilirubin were lower in the NAC group compared with the control group; a statistically significant difference.Conclusion: Patients undergoing CABG are advised to receive prophylactic 150 mg/Kg NAC to improve their postoperative levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin.Keywords: glutathione antioxidant mechanism, N-acetylcysteine; Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, bilirubin, liver ischemia.

  19. Allele-specific characterization of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase variants associated with primary hyperoxaluria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Lage

    Full Text Available Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1 (PH1 is a rare autosomal recessive kidney stone disease caused by deficiency of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT, which is involved in glyoxylate detoxification. Over 75 different missense mutations in AGT have been found associated with PH1. While some of the mutations have been found to affect enzyme activity, stability, and/or localization, approximately half of these mutations are completely uncharacterized. In this study, we sought to systematically characterize AGT missense mutations associated with PH1. To facilitate analysis, we used two high-throughput yeast-based assays: one that assesses AGT specific activity, and one that assesses protein stability. Approximately 30% of PH1-associated missense mutations are found in conjunction with a minor allele polymorphic variant, which can interact to elicit complex effects on protein stability and trafficking. To better understand this allele interaction, we functionally characterized each of 34 mutants on both the major (wild-type and minor allele backgrounds, identifying mutations that synergize with the minor allele. We classify these mutants into four distinct categories depending on activity/stability results in the different alleles. Twelve mutants were found to display reduced activity in combination with the minor allele, compared with the major allele background. When mapped on the AGT dimer structure, these mutants reveal localized regions of the protein that appear particularly sensitive to interactions with the minor allele variant. While the majority of the deleterious effects on activity in the minor allele can be attributed to synergistic interaction affecting protein stability, we identify one mutation, E274D, that appears to specifically affect activity when in combination with the minor allele.

  20. Effect of ionising radiation and salt of cadmium on the activity enzymes in serum of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, I.; Danova, D.; Kalenicova, Z.; Toropila, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated changes of activities alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum of broiler chickens exposed to single of whole-body dose of 3 Gy gamma rays and concentration of cadmium 6 mg · kg -1 live weight. Samples of our experiment was analyse on the 7, 14. and 21 day after irradiation. (authors)

  1. Control of alanine metabolism in rat liver by transport processes or cellular metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Fafournoux, P; Rémésy, C; Demigné, C

    1983-01-01

    1. Factors governing hepatic utilization of alanine were studied in vivo and in vitro in rats adapted to increasing dietary protein. 2. Hepatic alanine utilization was enhanced 5-fold with a 90%-casein diet, compared with a 13%-casein diet. The increased uptake resulted from enhanced fractional extraction in the presence of high concentrations of alanine in the portal vein. 3. The increase in alanine metabolism on high-protein diets was associated with an increase in alanine aminotransferase ...

  2. Porcine alanine transaminase after liver allo-and xenotransplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Ekser, Burcin; Gridelli, Bruno; Cooper, David K.C.

    2012-01-01

    Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) are measured following liver transplantation as indicators of hepatocellular injury. During a series of orthotopic liver allo-and xenotransplants, we observed that there was an increase in AST in all cases. The anticipated concomitant rise in ALT did not occur when a wild-type (WT) pig was the source of the liver graft, but did occur when a baboon or a genetically engineered (α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout [GTKO]) pig was t...

  3. Alanine aminotransferase is associated with an adverse nocturnal blood glucose profile in individuals with normal glucose regulation.

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    Jian Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and risk of type 2 diabetes is well-studied, the effects of slightly increased ALT levels within the normal range on the temporal normal glucose profile remains poorly understood. METHODS: A total of 322 Chinese subjects without impaired glucose tolerance or previous diagnoses of diabetes were recruited for study from 10 hospitals in urban areas across China. All subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM system for three consecutive days. The diurnal (06∶00-20∶00 and nocturnal (20∶00-06∶00 mean blood glucose (MBG levels were calculated. Subjects were stratified by ALT quartile level and correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: The median ALT level was 17 IU/L, and subjects with ALT ≥17 IU/L had higher nocturnal MBG level than those with ALT 0.05. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis of elevated nocturnal MBG identified increased HOMA-IR, elevated ALT levels, and decreased homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function as independent factors (all, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Mildly elevated ALT levels, within the normal range, are associated with unfavorable nocturnal glucose profiles in Chinese subjects with normal glucose regulation.

  4. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-08-24

    Both the serum uric acid (SUA) level and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are related to metabolic syndrome. However, the association between SUA and elevated ALT has not been elucidated in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SUA and elevated ALT in the general population of China; A total of 11,572 adults (≥35 years of age) participated in this survey. Elevated ALT was defined as >40 U/L. SUA ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in males or ≥6.0 mg/dL in females was defined as hyperuricemia. SUA within the reference range was divided into quartiles, and its associations with elevated ALT were evaluated by logistic regressions; A total of 7.4% participants had elevated ALT. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.9% in males and 7.3% in females. There was a significantly positive dose-response association between SUA levels and the prevalence of elevated ALT. After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive relationship for elevated ALT was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR]: 2.032, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.443-2.861 for men; OR: 2.045, 95% CI: 1.221-3.425 for women, both p < 0.05). Within the reference range, the association between SUA and elevated ALT persisted in the fourth quartile (OR: 1.467, 95% CI: 1.063-2.025 for men; OR: 1.721, 95% CI: 1.146-2.585 for women, both p < 0.05); Our results indicated that an increased SUA level, even within the reference range, was independently associated with elevated ALT in Chinese adults.

  5. Dextran Sulfate Sodium Inhibits Alanine Synthesis in Caco-2 Cells

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    Carolyn M. Slupsky

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand and characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS has been used to induce acute and chronic colitis in animal models by causing intestinal epithelium damage. The mechanism of action of DSS in producing this outcome is not well understood. In an effort to understand how DSS might impact epithelial cell metabolism, we studied the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 incubated with 1% DSS over 56 hours using 1H NMR spectroscopy. We observed no difference in cell viability as compared to control cultures, and an approximately 1.5-fold increase in IL-6 production upon incubation with 1% DSS. The effect on Caco-2 cell metabolism as measured through changes in the concentration of metabolites in the cell supernatant included a three-fold decrease in the concentration of alanine. Given that the concentrations of other amino acids in the cell culture supernatant were not different between treated and control cultures over 56 hours suggest that DSS inhibits alanine synthesis, specifically alanine aminotransferase, without affecting other key metabolic pathways. The importance of alanine aminotransferase in inflammatory bowel disease is discussed.

  6. measurements of iron status and survival in african iron overload

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), garnma-glutamyl transpeptidase. (-yGT), bilirubin, glucose and sodi~ were measured using an automated clinical chemistry analyser. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was determined using the Westergren method. C-reactive ...

  7. Effects of adenosine on the organ injury and dysfunction caused by hemorrhagic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Adenosine has been shown in animal and human studies to decrease the post-ischemic myocardial injury by lowering the levels of tumor necrosis factor-a. The objectives of the study was to examine the protective effects of adenosine on the organ injury (liver, kidney, pancreas) associated with hemorrhagic shock in rats. Methodology: The study was conducted at Cardiovascular Physiology laboratory, King Saud University, Riyadh in 2007-2008. Anesthetized male Sprague- Dawley rats were assigned to hemorrhage and resuscitation treated with 20mM adenosine , untreated, or similar time matched control groups (n=6 per group). Rats were hemorrhaged for one hour using a reservoir model. Arterial blood pressure was monitored for one hour, and maintained at a mean arterial blood pressure of 40 mmHg. Adenosine 20mM was injected intra-arterially, before resuscitation in the adenosine treated group. Resuscitation was performed by re infusion of the sheded blood for 30 minutes. Arterial blood samples were analyzed for biochemical indicators of multiple organ injury: 1) liver function: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 2) renal function: urea and creatinine, 3) pancreatic function: amylase. Results: In the control group there was no significant rise in the serum levels of (i) urea and creatinine, (ii) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), (iii) amylase. While in the adenosine treated group, resuscitation from one hour of hemorrhagic shock resulted in significant rises in the serum levels of (i) urea and creatinine, (ii) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), (iii) amylase. Treatment of rats with 20mM adenosine before resuscitation following one hour of hemorrhagic shock decreased the multiple organ injury and dysfunction caused by hemorrhagic shock. Conclusion: Adenosine attenuated the renal, liver and pancreatic injury caused by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. Thus

  8. Increased alanine aminotransferase levels and associated characteristics among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients: Results from the DD2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Thomsen, Reimar W.; Rungby, Jørgen

    Objectives: Elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) have been linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We examined ALAT levels in newly diagnosed T2D...... quartile (>32IU/L / >41IU/L for women/men). As compared to people with ALAT values in the lowest quartile, those with high ALAT were younger (median age 57 vs. 64 years, pobese (median BMI 31.2 vs. 29.1 kg/m2, p=0.004), and had a larger waist circumference (111 vs. 101 cm, p....0001) and higher median CRP levels (2.8 vs. 1.8 mg/L, p=0.0147). They also had substantially poorer glucose control (HbA1c 7.40 vs. 6.90%, p=0.084; fasting blood glucose 7.56 vs. 6.86 mmol/L, pvs. 4.15 mmol/L, p=0.006), whereas blood pressure was similar...

  9. Concentrações de creatino quinase, aspartato aminotransferase e desidrogenase lática em potros do nascimento até os seis meses de idade Concentration of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in foals from birth up to sixth month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisiane Lourdes Da Cás

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Dez potros da raça Puro Sangue de Corrida (PSC, de ambos os sexos, foram avaliados quanto à concentração das enzimas séricas creatino quinase (CK, aspartato aminotransferase (AST e deshidrogenase lática (DHL. Foram colhidas amostras sangüíneas diariamente do 1º ao 7ºdia de vida e depois aos 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias de idade. A concentração da CK mostrou um decréscimo significativo (pTen Thoroughbred foals, male and female, had the seric concentration of creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH determined. Blood samples were collected every day from days 1 to 7 and on days 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 of age. CK activity decreased significantly (p< 0.0003 in the first week and showed significant variation between day 15 and 6 months of age. AST showed a significant (p< 0.0001 increase in its values until 102 days of age, decreasing subsequently until 6 months of age. LDH values decreased significantly (p< 0.0002 between days 15 and 120, increasing subsequently until 6 months of age. At 6 months of age CK, AST and LDH activities were close to those of adult horses.

  10. Evaluation of liver function tests of HIV positive patients on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver enzymes-alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase (AST, ALT and ALP), bilirubin and serum proteins were determined using standard laboratory methods and these parameters were used to evaluate the liver function of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive patients receiving ...

  11. Peroxisomal alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase AGT1 is indispensable for appressorium function of the rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae.

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    Vijai Bhadauria

    Full Text Available The role of β-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in fungal pathogenesis is well documented. However, an ambiguity still remains over their interaction in peroxisomes to facilitate fungal pathogenicity and virulence. In this report, we characterize a gene encoding an alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1 in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative agent of rice blast disease, and demonstrate that AGT1 is required for pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGT1 resulted in the failure of penetration via appressoria; therefore, mutants lacking the gene were unable to induce blast symptoms on the hosts rice and barley. This penetration failure may be associated with a disruption in lipid mobilization during conidial germination as turgor generation in the appressorium requires mobilization of lipid reserves from the conidium. Analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein expression using the transcriptional and translational fusion with the AGT1 promoter and open reading frame, respectively, revealed that AGT1 expressed constitutively in all in vitro grown cell types and during in planta colonization, and localized in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal localization was further confirmed by colocalization with red fluorescent protein fused with the peroxisomal targeting signal 1. Surprisingly, conidia produced by the Δagt1 mutant were unable to form appressoria on artificial inductive surfaces, even after prolonged incubation. When supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(++pyruvate, appressorium formation was restored on an artificial inductive surface. Taken together, our data indicate that AGT1-dependent pyruvate formation by transferring an amino group of alanine to glyoxylate, an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle is required for lipid mobilization and utilization. This pyruvate can be converted to non-fermentable carbon sources, which may require reoxidation of NADH generated by the β-oxidation of fatty acids to NAD(+ in

  12. Early changes in GABA and dlutamine levels and aminotransferase activity in rat brain after total-body γ-irradiation with absolutely lethal doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, V.A.; Karpovich, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of gaama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (GL) as well as GABA-aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase activities were measured in rat cerebellum, cerebral cortex and truncus cerebri 1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 hr following total-body γ-irradiation ( 60 Co) with a dose of 30 Gy. All the indices under study changed in a similar way in the cortex and truncus cerebri while in the cerebellum, GABA level increased and GABA-α-ketoglutarate aminotransfearse activity decreased 60 min after irradiation. The levels of GABA and GL in the cortex and truncus cerebri decreased immediately and increased 24 hr after irradiation. Activity of aminotransferases changed in a phase manner: changes in aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase activity were more pronounced than those of GABA-α-ketoglutarate aminotransferase activity and correlated with the glutamate level changes

  13. Hb and dyslipidaemia as predicting markers of serum alanine aminotransferase elevation in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Kuo-Ching; Chang, Chun-Chao; Owaga, Eddy; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Huang, Tzu-chieh; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chang, Jung-Su

    2016-04-01

    Fe is an essential element for erythropoiesis and Hb synthesis. High Hb levels affect the blood's viscosity and are associated with cardiovascular dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to examine relationships of Hb and cardiometabolic abnormalities with the risk of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in adolescents. A population-based, cross-sectional study. National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (2010-2011, adolescents). Healthy adolescents aged 13-18 years. In total, 1941 adolescents (963 boys and 978 girls) were entered in the study. The mean age was 15·3 (sd 0·1) years (boys, 15·3 (sd 0·1) years; girls, 15·2 (sd 0·1) years). ALT tertile cut-off points for boys were 11 and 16 U/l, and for girls were 9 and 12 U/l. Girls without dyslipidaemia and presenting in the highest quartile (Q1) of Hb (>13·6 g/dl) were 1·89 and 3·76 times more likely to have raised serum ALT (9 and >12 U/l, respectively) than the reference (lowest quartile of Hb (Q1), 12 U/l) than the reference (Q1 of Hb, 15·4 g/dl), who were 7·40 times more likely to have elevated serum ALT of >16 U/l than the reference (Q1 of Hb, Hb level is a predictor of elevated serum ALT in adolescent girls with dyslipidaemia. Our study also highlights the importance of further research to establish cut-off points for Hb and its utility in diagnosing and preventing the onset of dyslipidaemia in adolescents.

  14. Relationships between cerebral autoregulation and markers of kidney and liver injury in neonatal encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J K; Perin, J; Parkinson, C; O'Connor, M; Gilmore, M M; Reyes, M; Armstrong, J; Jennings, J M; Northington, F J; Chavez-Valdez, R

    2017-08-01

    We studied whether cerebral blood pressure autoregulation and kidney and liver injuries are associated in neonatal encephalopathy (NE). We monitored autoregulation of 75 newborns who received hypothermia for NE in the neonatal intensive care unit to identify the mean arterial blood pressure with optimized autoregulation (MAP OPT ). Autoregulation parameters and creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were analyzed using adjusted regression models. Greater time with blood pressure within MAP OPT during hypothermia was associated with lower creatinine in girls. Blood pressure below MAP OPT related to higher ALT and AST during normothermia in all neonates and boys. The opposite occurred in rewarming when more time with blood pressure above MAP OPT related to higher AST. Blood pressures that optimize cerebral autoregulation may support the kidneys. Blood pressures below MAP OPT and liver injury during normothermia are associated. The relationship between MAP OPT and AST during rewarming requires further study.

  15. Chinese medicine Jinlida (JLD) ameliorates high-fat-diet induced insulin resistance in rats by reducing lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Zang, Sha-Sha; Song, An; Liu, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Chao; Song, Guang-Yao; Li, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Ya-Jun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Liu, Chen-Xi; Kang, Jun-Cong; Ren, Lu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present paper reports the effects of Jinlida (JLD), a traditional Chinese medicine which has been given as a treatment for high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted to provide evidence in support of the affects of JLD on insulin resistance induced by HFD. The affect of JLD on blood glucose, lipid, insulin, adiponectin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) in serum and lipid conten...

  16. Efeitos da farinha de folhas de mandioca sobre a atividade das enzimas AST, ALT, FA e lipídios hepáticos de ratos Wistar Effects of cassava leaves flour on the AST, ALT, ALP enzymes activity and hepatic lipids of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Séfora de Melo

    2008-12-01

    Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP enzymes activity, but they significantly increased the Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT enzyme activity. The histopathologic study showed hepatocytes cytoplasm vacuolization for all groups. However, the number of animals with sharp vacuolization was higher in the groups that received diets with CLF , which also showed higher levels of hepatic lipids, total cholesterol, and greater ratio liver weight / body weight. These results indicate that the antinutrients in the cassava leaves, such as tannins, cyanide, and saponins are probably responsible for the reduction in the hepatic function of animals fed with CLF.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of alanine aminotransferase elevation among normal weight, overweight and obese youth in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maura; Flores, Yvonne N; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Salmeron, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among a sample of normal weight, overweight and obese youth from two urban populations in Central Mexico. Baseline data from 1262 youth aged 8-19 years who participated in the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study from March 2004 to April 2006 were reviewed, including 680 girls and 582 boys, with a total of 83 participants with elevated ALT level (>40 U/L). Information was obtained from self-administered questionnaires, anthropometric results and clinical measurements. Associations of interest were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 3.8% of girls and 9.8% of boys had elevated ALT levels. Elevated ALT was observed in 28.9% of the obese and 14.2% of the overweight participants. Metabolic syndrome (MS) occurred in 6.1% of the study population and those with MS had a high percentage of elevated ALT (14.5% of girls and 40.0% of boys, respectively). Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were also associated with a greater risk of elevated ALT. Obesity and certain metabolic risk factors are important predictors for elevated ALT. Screening for ALT levels in obese youth could help to identify those at risk and reduce the possibility of future liver diseases. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and risks of abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase in Hispanics: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Jung Pan

    Full Text Available Study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and risk factors for and association with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT as markers of hepatic injury in a large Hispanic health disparity cohort with high rates of obesity.Analysis of data from a prospective cross-sectional population based study. From 2004-7, we randomly recruited 2000 community participants to the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort collecting extensive socioeconomic, clinical and laboratory data. We excluded 153 subjects due to critical missing data. Pearson chi-square tests and Student's t-tests were used for categorical and continuous variable analysis, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for elevated ALT.The mean age of the cohort was 45 years and 67% were females. The majority of the cohort was either overweight (32.4% or obese (50.7%. Almost half (43.7% had MS and nearly one-third diabetes. Elevated ALT level was more prevalent in males than females. Obesity was a strong risk for abnormal ALT in both genders. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and young age were risks for elevated ALT in males only, whereas increased fasting plasma glucose was associated with elevated ALT in females only.We identified high prevalence of MS and markers of liver injury in this large Mexican American cohort with gender differences in prevalence and risk factors, with younger males at greatest risk.

  19. The effect of aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of crude leaf extract of Carica papaya (Linn) on aspartate aminostransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes, neutrophils, thrombocytes and on body weight of normal albino rats were investigated. Albino rats weighing between 74 g and 90.5 g, of both sexes ...

  20. Metabolism of [15N]alanine in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalot, M.; Finlay, R.D.; Ek, H.; Söderström, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chalot, M., Finlay, R. D., Ek, H., and Söderström, B. 1995. Metabolism of [ 15 N]alanine in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. Experimental Mycology 19, 297-304. Alanine metabolism in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus was investigated using [ 15 N]alanine. Short-term exposure of mycelial discs to [ 15 N]alanine showed that the greatest flow of 15 N was to glutamate and to aspartate. Levels of enrichment were as high as 15-20% for glutamate and 13-18% for aspartate, whereas that of alanine reached 30%. Label was also detected in the amino-N of glutamine and in serine and glycine, although at lower levels. Preincubation of mycelia with aminooxyacetate, an inhibitor of transamination reactions. resulted in complete inhibition of the flow of the label to glutamate, aspartate, and amino-N of glutamine, whereas [ 15 N]alanine rapidly accumulated. This evidence indicates the direct involvement of alanine aminotransferase for translocation of 15 N from alanine to glutamate. Alanine may be a convenient reservoir of both nitrogen and carbon. (author)

  1. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  2. Effect of nitrate poisoning on some biochemical parameters in rats

    OpenAIRE

    M. B. Mahmood; O. H. Azeez; J. S. Hassan

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of potassium nitrate on glucose, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the possible ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). Male Wister rats are used as experimental model divided into three groups (each of 6-8 rats) and treated for six weeks as follows: Group 1: served as control; Group 2: received 2 % potassium nitrate added to the forage and Group 3: received 2 % potassium nit...

  3. High serum alanine aminotransferase is associated with the risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chang Mo; Yun, Kyung Eun; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Park, Dong Il

    2017-07-01

    An elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is frequently observed in subjects with metabolic syndrome, which is associated with the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA). However, the relationship between ALT and CRA remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether high serum ALT is associated with the risk of CRA in a metabolically healthy population. We conducted this cross-sectional study in 27,717 asymptomatic Korean adults who underwent a health checkup. Subjects were categorized as adenoma-free, hyperplastic polyp, low-risk adenoma, or high-risk adenoma. High-risk adenoma was defined as three or more adenomas, any adenoma ≥ 10 mm, or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia or villous features. Among all participants, 10.3% and 1.5% of cases were categorized as low-risk and high-risk adenoma, respectively. In multivariate analyses adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, alcohol intake, regular exercise, aspirin and analgesics use, family history of colon cancer, education level, fatty liver, high-sensitivity C reactive protein, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, an increase in ALT was positively associated with the prevalence of low-risk and high-risk adenoma (P for trend = 0.029 and 0.027, respectively). The highest quartile group of ALT level showed a significantly increased prevalence in low-risk (odds ratio, 1.17) and high-risk adenoma (odds ratio, 1.48) groups compared with the lowest quartile group. This phenomenon persisted in the subgroup analysis in men, but not in women. In the asymptomatic healthy population, high serum ALT is significantly associated with the risk of CRA. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Changes of basic metabolic parameters after single gamma irradiation in broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falis, M.; Benova, K.; Toropila, M.; Sesztakova, E.; Vargova, M.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation of the effect of radiation on animal organisms helps us to develop methods of protection against its unfavourable influences. The presented study focused on changes in the concentration of corticosterone, and the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum of broilers irradiated with gamma rays. The serum corticosterone had increased on day one after irradiation. The increase in serum corticosterone can be ascribed to the stress action of ionizing radiation on the broilers. (authors)

  5. Elevated alanine aminotransferase independently predicts new onset of depression in employees undergoing health screening examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, S; Toker, S; Armon, G; Melamed, S; Berliner, S; Shapira, I; Halpern, Z; Santo, E; Shibolet, O

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance and hepatic inflammation. Similarly, patients with depression exhibit insulin resistance and increased inflammatory markers. However, no study has shown a clear association between elevated ALT and the development of depression. The aim of the study was to test whether elevated ALT, a surrogate marker for NAFLD, predicts the development of depression. The present prospective cohort study investigated 12 180 employed adults referred for health examinations that included fasting blood tests and anthropometric measurements between 2003 and 2010. Exclusion criteria were: baseline minor/major depression, excessive alcohol consumption and other causes for ALT elevation. Depression was evaluated by the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) score. The final cohort included 5984 subjects [69.4% men, aged 45.0 (s.d. = 10.24) years]. The incidence rate of minor and major depression was 3.8% and 1.4%, respectively. Elevated ALT was a significant independent predictor for the occurrence of minor [odds ratio (OR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-2.92] and major (OR 3.132, 95% CI 1.81-5.40) depression after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, education level, serum levels of lipids, glucose, smoking and physical activity. Adding subjective health and affective state parameters (sleep disturbances, self-rated health, anxiety and burnout) as potential mediators only slightly ameliorated the association. Persistently elevated ALT was associated with the greatest risk for minor or major depression as compared with elevation only at baseline or follow-up (p for trend depressive symptoms, thus suggesting that NAFLD may represent an independent modifiable risk factor for depression.

  6. Clinical significance of elevated serum aminotransferases levels in asymptomatic individuals with hepatitis C infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafees, M.; Ditta, A.; Jafferi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C is a common and important cause of chronic liver disease that often remains asymptomatic and most of the times discovered incidentally by routine serologic or biochemical testing. Aminotransferases (AST and ALT) reflect alterations in liver function/inflammation in liver diseases. The current study was conducted to examine the utilization and limitations of these biochemical markers in subjects with asymptomatic HCV infection. Aims and Objectives: To find out how many subjects with asymptomatic HCV infection have normal or elevated serum AST and ALT levels. Subjects and Methods: Study Design: Cross sectional. Study Duration: Seven months from November 2008 to July 2009. Study Universe: Services Hospital, Lahore. Study Population: This study included 413 subjects attending the outpatient departments of hospital with minor complaints. The random population of subjects was referred to the clinical laboratory of Services Hospital, Lahore for LFTs, HBsAg and anti-HCV screening from OPD department of the hospital. A total of 413 persons of all ages were analyzed during this study. There were 263 subjects who were sero - positive for anti-HCV (141 females, 122 males; median age 35 +- 11.34 years) and 150 in the control group (80 of them were females and 70 males with median age 32 +- 12.97 years) were sero-negative for both HBsAg and anti - HCV. Subjects Selection Criteria: In this study, only anti - HCV sero - positive subjects were included who was sero - negative for HBsAg or dual infection (both HBsAg and anti - HCV) and not on anti - viral therapy. Control group was sero - negative for both - HBsAg and anti - HCV antibodies. Data Collection: We assayed levels of serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and screened blood for HBsAg and anti-HCV. ELISA technique was used for viral hepatitis markers. Results: Out of 263 subjects tested positive for anti-HCV antibodies in their blood, 90.76 % and 87.45 % had elevated AST and ALT levels (ALT = 40 U

  7. Routine blood tests to predict liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yung-Yu; Tung, Shui-Yi; Lee, Kamfai; Wu, Cheng-Shyong; Wei, Kuo-Liang; Shen, Chien-Heng; Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Yi-Hsiung

    2012-02-28

    To verify the usefulness of FibroQ for predicting fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C, compared with other noninvasive tests. This retrospective cohort study included 237 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy before treatment. FibroQ, aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), AST to platelet ratio index, cirrhosis discriminant score, age-platelet index (API), Pohl score, FIB-4 index, and Lok's model were calculated and compared. FibroQ, FIB-4, AAR, API and Lok's model results increased significantly as fibrosis advanced (analysis of variance test: P fibrosis score in chronic hepatitis C compared with other noninvasive tests. FibroQ is a simple and useful test for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  8. SERUM ACTIVITIES OF ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINE KINASE AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN HORSES WITH COLIC ATIVIDADE SÉRICA DAS ENZIMAS ASPARTATO AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINA QUINASE E LACTATO DESIDROGENASE EM EQÜINOS COM CÓLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Evangelista Santana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventy equines distributed in two experimental groups were used, G1 (20 healthy equines, and G2 (50 equines with colic. Blood samples were obtained by jugular vein puncture in ten different moments. The variables aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined by spectrophotometric assay using specific reagents. The average values presented by the animals of the G2 for variables CK, AST, and LDH were higher (P<0.05 than the values presented by the animals of the G1 in all the evaluation moments. The results showed for G2 animals suggest the existence of acute muscle injury. The muscle injuries in equines with colic were attributed to the tissue hypoperfusion, and the muscular damage.

    KEY WORDS: Acute abdomen, horses, muscles enzyme. De setenta eqüinos, distribuídos em dois grupos experimentais – G1 (vinte eqüinos hígidos e G2 (cinqüenta eqüinos com cólica –, colheram-se amostras de sangue em dez diferentes momentos, mediante punção da jugular, para a determinação da atividade sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatina quinase (CK e lactato desidrogenase (LDH. Os valores médios apresentados pelos animais do G2, para as variáveis CK, AST e LDH, foram superiores (P<0,05 aos valores médios apresentados pelos animais do G1 em todos os momentos de avaliação. Os resultados apresentados pelos animais com cólica (G2 sugerem a existência de lesão muscular aguda, porém com tendência a cura, e foram atribuídos a hipoperfusão tecidual e a traumas musculares. A análise seriada das enzimas CK, AST e LDH auxilia tanto no diagnóstico de lesões musculares em eqüinos com cólica como no acompanhamento da evolução do processo de cura.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Abdômen agudo, cavalos, enzimas musculares.

  9. Níveis séricos de enzimas de função hepática em frangos de corte de criação industrial clinicamente saudáveis Serum levels of hepatic enzyme function in clinically healthy broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borsa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The values for the main hepatic enzymes included in the profiles of screen clinical biochemistry, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (FA, lactate desidrogenase (LDH and gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT, in samples of serum of broiler chickens in industrial system, clinically healthy, starting from the seventh day of life, until the slaughter (42 days in weekly intervals were determined. Significant variations were not observed in the analyses in relation to the age of the birds for none of the appraised enzymes.

  10. Biochemical changes in the kidney and liver of rats following administration of ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O S; Akanji, M A

    2011-09-01

    Furtherance to a previous report on the anti-trypanosomal properties of Psidium guajava aqueous leaf extract in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei, we have evaluated the effects of the daily intraperitoneal administration of P. guajava leaf extract to rats on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in the kidney, liver and serum. The results obtained revealed that the administration of the extract produced significant increase in the serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP and ACP when compared with the control (p < 0.05). Also AST, ALT and ALP and ACP activities in the tissues of animals administered the extract revealed inconsistent changes (p < 0.05) relative to control. The increase in the serum activity of ALP may be an indicator that there was a likely compromise to the integrity of the plasma membrane as a result of the ethanolic extract administration. This could have caused leakages of the other enzymes investigated, which may explain the corresponding increases in the serum activities of AST, ALT and ACP observed.

  11. The usefulness of physical examination and laboratory data in pediatric patients with blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramori, Katsumi; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Zaizen, Yoshio; Tsuno, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of clinical and laboratory data in pediatric patients with abdominal blunt trauma, the case records of 43 pediatric cases with blunt trauma who were admitted to our hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Among these patients, 23 were determined to have intraabdominal injury. Abdominal physical examination was not statistically identified to be a predictor of intraabdominal injury, however, the hematocrit and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were significantly aberrant in these cases. Furthermore, the mean AST and ALT values in the non-hepatic injury cases were also apt to be higher than those in the no-injury group. These findings suggested that the serum AST and ALT may be possible predictors of intraabdominal injury, not only that restricted to the liver. Additionally, in our cases, abdominal CT examination was more diagnostic than ultrasound examination. Accordingly, in cases of pediatric abdominal blunt trauma with aberrant serum values of the liver transaminases, CT san should be performed electively. (author)

  12. In vitro effects of sodium benzoate on the activities of aspartate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro effects of varying concentrations sodium benzoate on the activities of aspartate (E.C. 2.6.1.1) and alanine (E.C. 2.6.1.2) aminotransferases (AST and ALT, respectively) and alkaline phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.1; abbreviated as ALP) from human erythrocytes of different genotypes (HbAA, HbAS and HbSS) were ...

  13. Complex association of serum alanine aminotransferase with the risk of future cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarideh, Mohsen; Aryan, Zahra; Ghajar, Alireza; Noshad, Sina; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Baber, Usman; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Esteghamati, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to determine the prospective association between baseline serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people with type 2 diabetes. In an open cohort setting, people with type 2 diabetes were followed for their first ever CVD presentation from 1995 to 2015. Statistical methods included Cox regression analysis for reporting of hazard ratios (HRs), artificial neural network modelings, and risk reclassification analyses. We found a nearly constant CVD hazard with baseline serum ALT levels below the 30 IU/L mark, whereas baseline serum ALT levels ≥ 30 IU/L remained an independent predictor of lower CVD rates in patients with type 2 diabetes in the final multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model (HR: 0.204, 95%CI [0.060-0.689], p for trend value = 0.006). Age, male gender and fasting plasma insulin levels independently predicted baseline serum ALT ≥ 30 IU/L among the population cohort. Augmentation of serum ALT into the weighted Framingham risk score resulted in a considerable net reclassification improvement (NRI) of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction in the study population (NRI = 9.05% (8.01%-10.22%), p value < 0.05). Serum ALT could successfully reclassify about 9% of the population with type 2 diabetes across the CHD-affected and CHD-free categories. Overall, our findings demonstrate a complex and nonlinear relationship for the risk of future CVD by baseline serum ALT levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Further studies are warranted to confirm whether this complex association could be translated into a clearly visible U or J-shaped figure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of (R)-selective ω-aminotransferases by exploring evolutionary sequence space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Park, Joon Ho; Kim, Byung-Gee; Seo, Joo-Hyun

    2018-03-01

    Several (R)-selective ω-aminotransferases (R-ωATs) have been reported. The existence of additional R-ωATs having different sequence characteristics from previous ones is highly expected. In addition, it is generally accepted that R-ωATs are variants of aminotransferase group III. Based on these backgrounds, sequences in RefSeq database were scored using family profiles of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT) and d-alanine aminotransferase (DAT) to predict and identify putative R-ωATs. Sequences with two profile analysis scores were plotted on two-dimensional score space. Candidates with relatively similar scores in both BCAT and DAT profiles (i.e., profile analysis score using BCAT profile was similar to profile analysis score using DAT profile) were selected. Experimental results for selected candidates showed that putative R-ωATs from Saccharopolyspora erythraea (R-ωAT_Sery), Bacillus cellulosilyticus (R-ωAT_Bcel), and Bacillus thuringiensis (R-ωAT_Bthu) had R-ωAT activity. Additional experiments revealed that R-ωAT_Sery also possessed DAT activity while R-ωAT_Bcel and R-ωAT_Bthu had BCAT activity. Selecting putative R-ωATs from regions with similar profile analysis scores identified potential R-ωATs. Therefore, R-ωATs could be efficiently identified by using simple family profile analysis and exploring evolutionary sequence space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fibrosis index based on four factors better predicts advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis than aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Wang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: FIB-4 could predict hepatic fibrosis in CHC patients. By adding two parameters (age and alanine aminotransferase, FIB-4 better predicts advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis than APRI in CHC patients.

  16. and alanine (EC. 2.6.1.2) transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activities of aspartate (E.C. 2.6.1.1) and alanine (E.C. 2.6.1.2) transaminases (AST and ALT, respectively), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (E.C. 3.1.3.1) were determined in erythrocytes obtained from 20 HbAA, 15 HbAS and 12 HbSS human subjects. The results showed that the three enzymes had different levels of ...

  17. Structural analysis and mutant growth properties reveal distinctive enzymatic and cellular roles for the three major L-alanine transaminases of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Soler, Esther; Fernandez, Francisco J; López-Estepa, Miguel; Garces, Fernando; Richardson, Andrew J; Quintana, Juan F; Rudd, Kenneth E; Coll, Miquel; Vega, M Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In order to maintain proper cellular function, the metabolism of the bacterial microbiota presents several mechanisms oriented to keep a correctly balanced amino acid pool. Central components of these mechanisms are enzymes with alanine transaminase activity, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that interconvert alanine and pyruvate, thereby allowing the precise control of alanine and glutamate concentrations, two of the most abundant amino acids in the cellular amino acid pool. Here we report the 2.11-Å crystal structure of full-length AlaA from the model organism Escherichia coli, a major bacterial alanine aminotransferase, and compare its overall structure and active site composition with detailed atomic models of two other bacterial enzymes capable of catalyzing this reaction in vivo, AlaC and valine-pyruvate aminotransferase (AvtA). Apart from a narrow entry channel to the active site, a feature of this new crystal structure is the role of an active site loop that closes in upon binding of substrate-mimicking molecules, and which has only been previously reported in a plant enzyme. Comparison of the available structures indicates that beyond superficial differences, alanine aminotransferases of diverse phylogenetic origins share a universal reaction mechanism that depends on an array of highly conserved amino acid residues and is similarly regulated by various unrelated motifs. Despite this unifying mechanism and regulation, growth competition experiments demonstrate that AlaA, AlaC and AvtA are not freely exchangeable in vivo, suggesting that their functional repertoire is not completely redundant thus providing an explanation for their independent evolutionary conservation.

  18. Porcine alanine transaminase after liver allo-and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekser, Burcin; Gridelli, Bruno; Cooper, David K C

    2012-01-01

    Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) are measured following liver transplantation as indicators of hepatocellular injury. During a series of orthotopic liver allo-and xenotransplants, we observed that there was an increase in AST in all cases. The anticipated concomitant rise in ALT did not occur when a wild-type (WT) pig was the source of the liver graft, but did occur when a baboon or a genetically engineered (α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout [GTKO]) pig was the source of the graft. We hypothesized that the cience of Galα1,3Gal in GTKO pig livers may render pig hepatocytes similar to human and baboon hepatocytes in their response to hepatocellular injury. Reviewing the literature, after WT pig liver allotransplantation or xenotransplantation, in the majority of reports, although changes in AST were reported, no mention was made of changes in ALT, suggesting that there was no change in ALT. However, Ramirez et al. reported two cases of liver xenotransplants from hCD55 pigs, following which there were increases in both AST and ALT, suggesting that it is not simply the cience of expression of Galα1,3Gal that is the cause. We acknowledge that our observation is based on a small number of experiments, but we believe it is worth recording. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. The Association of Elevated Serum Alanine Aminotransferase with Metabolic Syndrome in A Military Population in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sabayan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is rapidly rising at an alarming rate through all parts of the world. Elevated serum aminotransferase was proposed as a marker for early detection of MetS. In this investigation we primarily aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its components among army and secondly to explore the association between elevated serum aminotransferase and the components of metabolic syndrome. Methods: A total of 380 army personnel from a military camp in Southern Iran participated in this cross-sectional study. Life style related characteristics, anthropometric features, serum aminotransferase and components of MetS, based on National Cholesterol Education Program—Adult Treatment Panel III, were measured. Statistical significant was set as p value less than 0.05. Results: The mean age of participants was 35.0± 7.5 year-old and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 8.1%. The prevalence of the components of MetS including; central obesity, abnormal fasting blood glucose, hypertension, hypertriglycridemia and low HDL cholesterol level was 8.6%, 10.4%, 18.5%, 31%, and 45.5% respectively. MetS had significant relationship with obesity (P<0.001 and abnormal Waist Circumferance/Hip Circumference ratio (P<0.001. Twenty-six percent of subjects had ALT ≥ 41 U/L and 4.9% of them had ALT ≥ 81. Elevated serum aminotransferase had significant association with presence of MetS (P= 0.007. Conclusion: Although prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the studied army population was not high, life style modification of army members is recommended. Liver function tests should be included in routine health checkup of military personnel.

  20. Crystal structure of the S187F variant of human liver alanine: Aminotransferase associated with primary hyperoxaluria type I and its functional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppici, Elisa; Fodor, Krisztian; Paiardini, Alessandro; Williams, Chris; Voltattorni, Carla Borri; Wilmanns, Matthias; Cellini, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The substitution of Ser187, a residue located far from the active site of human liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), by Phe gives rise to a variant associated with primary hyperoxaluria type I. Unexpectedly, previous studies revealed that the recombinant form of S187F exhibits a remarkable loss of catalytic activity, an increased pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) binding affinity and a different coenzyme binding mode compared with normal AGT. To shed light on the structural elements responsible for these defects, we solved the crystal structure of the variant to a resolution of 2.9 Å. Although the overall conformation of the variant is similar to that of normal AGT, we noticed: (i) a displacement of the PLP-binding Lys209 and Val185, located on the re and si side of PLP, respectively, and (ii) slight conformational changes of other active site residues, in particular Trp108, the base stacking residue with the pyridine cofactor moiety. This active site perturbation results in a mispositioning of the AGT-pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate (PMP) complex and of the external aldimine, as predicted by molecular modeling studies. Taken together, both predicted and observed movements caused by the S187F mutation are consistent with the following functional properties of the variant: (i) a 300- to 500-fold decrease in both the rate constant of L-alanine half-transamination and the kcat of the overall transamination, (ii) a different PMP binding mode and affinity, and (iii) a different microenvironment of the external aldimine. Proposals for the treatment of patients bearing S187F mutation are discussed on the basis of these results. Proteins 2013; 81:1457–1465. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23589421

  1. Evaluation of metabolic enzymes in response to Excel Mera 71, a glyphosate-based herbicide, and recovery pattern in freshwater teleostean fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in Indian teleostean fishes, namely, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), for an exposure to 30 days of Excel Mera 71 (17.2 mg/L), a glyphosate formulation, and subsequent depuration under Liv.52, a plant extract at a dose of 187.5 mg/d/250 L for the same period in the same tissues under laboratory condition. ALT activity was significantly increased (PExcel Mera 71 caused alterations in the metabolic enzymatic activities in fish tissues and AST showed the highest alteration in both the fishes, while lowest in ALP and ALT in A. testudineus and H. fossilis, respectively. During depuration under Liv.52, all the enzyme activities came down towards the control condition which indicated the compensatory response by the fish against this herbicidal stress and it was in the following order: AST>ALT>ALP, in A. testudineus, while H. fossilis showed the following trend: ALT>AST>ALP. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of herbicidal pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern.

  2. Influence of Prescribed Herbal and Western Medicine on Patients with Abnormal Liver Function Tests: A Retrospective Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Ram; Yim, Je-Min; Kim, Won-Il

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and the efficacy of Korean herbal, western and combination medicine use in patients with abnormal liver function tests. Methods: We investigated nerve disease patients with abnormal liver function tests who were treated with Korean herbal, western and combination medicine at Dong-Eui University Oriental Hospital from January 2011 to August 2011. We compared aspartic aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-bil) levels before and after taking medicine and excluded patients who had liver-related disease when admitted. Results: AST and ALT were decreased significantly in patients who had taken herbal, western medicine. AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. Compare to herbal medicine, AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken western medicine, and ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. There were no significant differences between western and combination medicine. Conclusions: This study suggests that prescribed Korean herbal medicine, at least, does not injure liver function for patients’, moreover, it was shown to be effective in patients with abnormal liver function tests. PMID:25780634

  3. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

  4. Preoperative Aspartate Aminotransferase-to-Platelet Ratio Index Predicts Perioperative Liver-Related Complications Following Liver Resection for Colorectal Cancer Metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amptoulach, S.; Gross, G.; Sturesson, C.

    2017-01-01

    -related). In multivariate regression analysis, the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index was independently associated with liver-related complications (odds ratio: 1.149, p = 0.003) and perioperative liver failure (odds ratio: 1.155, p = 0.012). The latter was also true in the subcohort of patients......Background and Aims: There are limited data on the potential role of preoperative non-invasive markers, specifically the aspartate-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio and the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, in predicting perioperative liver-related complications after hepatectomy...... collected from medical records. The nontumorous liver parenchyma in the surgical specimens of 31 patients was re-evaluated. Results: Overall, 215 patients were included. In total, 40% underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 47% major resection, while 47% had perioperative complications (6% liver...

  5. Keratin-18 and microRNA-122 complement alanine aminotransferase as novel safety biomarkers for drug-induced liver injury in two human cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulin, Petra; Nordahl, Gunnar; Gry, Marcus; Yimer, Getnet; Aklillu, Eleni; Makonnen, Eyasu; Aderaye, Getachew; Lindquist, Lars; Mattsson, C Mikael; Ekblom, Björn; Antoine, Daniel J; Park, B Kevin; Linder, Stig; Harrill, Alison H; Watkins, Paul B; Glinghammar, Björn; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina

    2014-03-01

    There is a demand for more sensitive, specific and predictive biomarkers for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) than the gold standard used today, alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The aim of this study was to qualify novel DILI biomarkers (keratin-18 markers M65/M30, microRNA-122, glutamate dehydrogenase and alpha-foetoprotein) in human DILI. Levels of the novel biomarkers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in two human DILI cohorts: a human volunteer study with acetaminophen and a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) study. In the acetaminophen study, serum M65 and microRNA-122 levels were significantly increased at an earlier time point than ALT. Furthermore, the maximal elevation of M65 and microRNA-122 exceeded the increase in ALT. In the HIV/TB study, all the analysed novel biomarkers increased after 1 week of treatment. In contrast to ALT, the novel biomarkers remained stable in a human cohort with exercise-induced muscular injury. M65 and microRNA-122 are potential biomarkers of DILI superior to ALT with respect to sensitivity and specificity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Inhibition of glutamine synthesis induces glutamate dehydrogenase-dependent ammonia fixation into alanine in co-cultures of astrocytes and neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dadsetan, Sherry; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Sørensen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    study it was investigated if the glutamine synthetase (GS) inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) would enhance alanine synthesis by blocking the GS-dependent ammonia scavenging process. Hence, co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes were incubated for 2.5h with [U-(13)C]glucose to monitor de novo......It has been previously demonstrated that ammonia exposure of neurons and astrocytes in co-culture leads to net synthesis not only of glutamine but also of alanine. The latter process involves the concerted action of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT). In the present...

  7. Serum alanine aminotransferase predicts interventricular septum thickness and left ventricular mass in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Juan; Fernández, Sandra; Sánchez-Hernández, Joan; Romeo, June H; Ballesta-Lopez, Carlos; Guell, Javier; Mearin, Fermin

    2014-06-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a marker of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and predicts type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) as well as coronary events independently of traditional risk factors and the features of the metabolic syndrome. The extent to which interventricular septum thickness (IVS) and left ventricular mass (LVM) are associated with ALT levels in cohorts of individuals with body weights ranging from overweight to morbid obesity and NAFLD remains still unknown. This was a cross-sectional pilot study involving 151 young White participants with liver ultrasound-proven NAFLD. Standard echocardiograms were used to define LVM, IVS, and left ventricle diastolic function [mitral inflow velocity pattern (E/A ratio) and mitral annulus velocity by tissue Doppler imaging (Em/Am ratio)]. Participants were classified according to ALT quartiles: p25, p50, p75, and p100. The study included 36 men and 115 women with an age of 38.4 ± 0.7 years and BMI of 43.9 ± 0.6 kg/m2. p100 participants disclosed significantly higher homeostasis model assessment (P=0.003), DM2 (P=0.002), and hypertension (P=0.01) prevalence, whereas LVM, IVS, E/A, and Em/Am ratios were significantly higher in this group when compared with their p25 peers (PDM2. ALT levels predict both IVS and LVM in NAFLD individuals irrespective of their BMI, DM2, hypertension, age, and sex. ALT levels behave as a surrogate marker of left ventricular hypertrophy in overweight and/or obese NAFLD patients. Hence, it seems worth obtaining cardiac ultrasounds in NAFLD patients with elevated ALT levels.

  8. Elevated alanine aminotransferase is strongly associated with incident metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS is rapidly increasing worldwide and associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity. However, the impact of ALT activity on MetS incidence is inconsistent in published literature. We therefore estimated the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS through a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All published prospective cohort studies on the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS were retrieved from Pubmed, Embase, and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI. In all, seven prospective cohort studies, with 31545 participants and 2873 cases of incident MetS were recruited. If there was insignificant heterogeneity (P-value>0.05 and I(2<50%, the fixed-effect model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs of incident MetS induced by raised ALT. Otherwise, the random-effect model was used. The calculated RR was 1.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-2.14 when the incidence of MetS was compared between the highest versus the lowest classification of ALT activities. The pooled RR was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.11-1.16 in dose-response analysis with 5 units per liter (U/l of ALT increment. Subgroup analysis suggested that gender disparity might be the main origin of heterogeneity in overall analysis (P = 0.007 between RRs of gender-specific subgroups evaluated with 5 U/l increments of ALT. Women had a higher dose-response risk of MetS incidence (1.38, 95% CI: 1.20-1.55 than men. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of results. No publication bias was found in our meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Current evidence from prospective studies supports the association between ALT elevation and increasing MetS incidence. This association is closer and more consistent in female population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and to investigate the potential mechanism of

  9. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  10. Hepatoprotective Effect of Citral on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Sayuri Uchida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High doses of acetaminophen (APAP lead to acute liver damage. In this study, we evaluated the effects of citral in a murine model of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP. The liver function markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT were determined to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of citral. The livers were used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO production and in histological analysis. The effect of citral on leukocyte migration and antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro. Citral pretreatment decreased significantly the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and γGT, MPO activity, and NO production. The histopathological analysis showed an improvement of hepatic lesions in mice after citral pretreatment. Citral inhibited neutrophil migration and exhibited antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that citral protects the liver against liver toxicity induced by APAP.

  11. Estimation of liver parameters and oxidative stress in chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis in Erbil governorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakey, Musher Ismail Salih; Abdoulrahman, Kamaran Kaiani

    2017-09-01

    The present study aims to evaluate iron related parameters in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on hemodialysis (HD). The study was carried out in Kidney Dialysis Center of Hawler Teaching Hospital in Erbil governorate. This study comprised (76) patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis and 41 healthy subjects as a control group of same ages. All hemodialysis patients were taking erythropoietin. The blood samples were taken from the patients before and after the process of hemodialysis for liver parameters and oxidative stress estimations. The results of this study showed lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, total bilirubin, total protein and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), while higher levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), direct bilirubin and malondialdeyhde (MDA) before analysis was seen. Hemodialysis causes increasing in AST, ALT, albumin, total bilirubin, total protein and decreasing in ALP, direct bilirubin MDA and TAC.

  12. PGC-1α regulates alanine metabolism in muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatazawa, Yukino; Qian, Kun; Gong, Da-Wei; Kamei, Yasutomi

    2018-01-01

    The skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, depositing energy as protein/amino acids, which are degraded in catabolic conditions such as fasting. Alanine is synthesized and secreted from the skeletal muscle that is used as substrates of gluconeogenesis in the liver. During fasting, the expression of PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors, is increased in the liver and regulates gluconeogenesis. In the present study, we observed increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and alanine aminotransferase 2 (ALT2) in the skeletal muscle during fasting. In C2C12 myoblast cells overexpressing PGC-1α, ALT2 expression was increased concomitant with an increased alanine level in the cells and medium. In addition, PGC-1α, along with nuclear receptor ERR, dose-dependently enhanced the ALT2 promoter activity in reporter assay using C2C12 cells. In the absence of glucose in the culture medium, mRNA levels of PGC-1α and ALT2 increased. Endogenous PGC-1α knockdown in C2C12 cells reduced ALT2 gene expression level, induced by the no-glucose medium. Taken together, in the skeletal muscle, PGC-1α activates ALT2 gene expression, and alanine production may play roles in adaptation to fasting.

  13. Activity of aminotransferases in organs of rats during hypoxia of enclosed space of the action of thiamine bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сніжана Сергіївна Чернадчук

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is studied an aminotransferase activity during injection of thiamin bromide in rat tissues in normal and hypoxic enclosed space. After injection of thiamine bromide we have set reduction of AST and ALT activity, relative to control, except by the brain tissue, where there was an increase of investigated indicators. The decrease of activity of the investigated elements is occurred in animals which before hypoxia were injection of thiamine bromide

  14. Possible Ameliorative Effect of Chicory Extract (Cichorium Intybus) on Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, N. N; Farag, M. F. S.; Darwish, M. M

    2011-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Chicorium intybus (Chicory) against radiation induced-oxidative stress and changes in the levels of 150-180 g were divided into four groups. Group 1: control animals, group 2: animals orally administrated with chicory extract at a daily dose of 250 mg/kg b.wt/day for four weeks, group 3: animals exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy), group 4: animals orally administrated with chicory extract two weeks before and two weeks after irradiation. Serum level of creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lipid profile was measured.also concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), Catalase (CAT) and TBARS level was estimated in the cardiac tissue. The results showed decreased body weight and heart weight in irradiated animals. Compared to the control normal rats, irradiated rats had higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), serum creatinine phosphokinase(CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Moreover, cardiac tissue TBARS was markedly increased while SOD, GSH and CAT were significantly decreased. Oral and heart weights, serum cardiac enzymes and lipid profile. Cardiac GSH, SOD and CAT were significantly increased while TBARS was markedly reduced, membrane bound enzymes in rats' heart was investigated. Rats weighing about administration of chicory extract at doses of 250 mg/kg b.wt. improved the body compared to irradiated rats. These results may suggest a strong antioxidant effect of chicory, which was effective in mitigating adverse effect of γ irradiation on animals

  15. Accuracy of the paracetamol-aminotransferase product to predict hepatotoxicity in paracetamol overdose treated with a 2-bag acetylcysteine regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Gunja, Naren; McNulty, Richard; Graudins, Andis

    2018-03-01

    Paracetamol concentration is a highly accurate risk predictor for hepatotoxicity following overdose with known time of ingestion. However, the paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product can be used as a risk predictor independent of timing or ingestion type. Validated in patients treated with the traditional, "three-bag" intravenous acetylcysteine regimen, we evaluated the accuracy of the multiplication product in paracetamol overdose treated with a two-bag acetylcysteine regimen. We examined consecutive patients treated with the two-bag regimen from five emergency departments over a two-year period. We assessed the predictive accuracy of initial multiplication product for the primary outcome of hepatotoxicity (peak alanine aminotransferase ≥1000IU/L), as well as for acute liver injury (ALI), defined peak alanine aminotransferase ≥2× baseline and above 50IU/L). Of 447 paracetamol overdoses treated with the two-bag acetylcysteine regimen, 32 (7%) developed hepatotoxicity and 73 (16%) ALI. The pre-specified cut-off points of 1500 mg/L × IU/L (sensitivity 100% [95% CI 82%, 100%], specificity 62% [56%, 67%]) and 10,000 mg/L × IU/L (sensitivity 70% [47%, 87%], specificity of 97% [95%, 99%]) were highly accurate for predicting hepatotoxicity. There were few cases of hepatotoxicity irrespective of the product when acetylcysteine was administered within eight hours of overdose, when the product was largely determined by a high paracetamol concentration but normal aminotransferase. The multiplication product accurately predicts hepatotoxicity when using a two-bag acetylcysteine regimen, especially in patients treated more than eight hours post-overdose. Further studies are needed to assess the product as a method to adjust for exposure severity when testing efficacy of modified acetylcysteine regimens.

  16. BIOCHEMICAL STATUS OF BLOOD SERUM OF RAINBOW TROUT Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792 UNDER DIFFERENT KEEPING AND FEEDING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhem Hasković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the blood serum of the rainbow trout in relation to various physico-chemical properties of water and diet composition. Fish were reared in two ponds that were supplied by water from different sources. The identified differences in the biochemical parameters are caused by different environmental factors in ponds and different feed composition. Low oxygen values caused by different temperatures is a key stress factor of the noted differences. Statistically significant differences are noted for AST (aspartate aminotransferase, ALT (alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, urea and iron (0.00. Evident were also different mineral concentrations of Ca and P (0.05 as well as glucose and cholesterol (0.05.

  17. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Lijun; Xie, Yuxi; Wu, Guikai; Cheng, Aibin; Liu, Xiaogang; Zheng, Rongjuan; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEM) on liver injury induced by acute alcohol administration in mice. Mice received ethanol (5?g/kg?BW) by gavage every 12?hrs for a total of 3 doses. HEM (200?mg/kg?BW) was gavage before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level, Maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS), and activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activat...

  18. Liver Function Indicators Performed Better to Eliminate Cardioembolic Stroke than to Identify It from Stroke Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ge; Yuan, Ruozhen; Hao, Zilong; Lei, Chunyan; Xiong, Yao; Xu, Mangmang; Liu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the etiology of ischemic stroke is essential to acute management and secondary prevention. The value of liver function indicators in differentiating stroke subtypes remains to be evaluated. A total of 1333 acute ischemic stroke patients were included. Liver function indicators collected within 24 hours from stroke onset, including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and bilirubin (BILI), were collapsed into quartiles (Q) and also dichotomized by Q1. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to identify the independent association between liver function indicators and cardioembolic stroke (SCE). Area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted, and sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Spe), positive prospective value (PPV), and negative prospective value (NPV) were determined to evaluate the predictive value of liver function indicators for SCE. AST, GGT, and BILI were associated with SCE. After adjustment, only AST was related to SCE independently. The incidence of SCE in the Q1 of AST, GGT, and BILI, particularly in the Q1 of AST, was quite low. The ability of AST, GGT, and BILI to identify SCE was poor, with low AUC, Sen, and PPV. The value of AST, GGT, and BILI in eliminating SCE from stroke subtypes was good, with high Spe and moderate NPV, and was enhanced after combining each liver function indicator. Results of present study demonstrated that AST, GGT, and BILI, particularly AST, had a potential to eliminate SCE from stroke subtypes, and the ability of eliminating SCE would be strengthened after combining each liver function indicator together. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. STATUS OF ANTIOXIDANT AND LIVER FUNCTION IN TYPE-2 DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING NEPALGUNJ MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Thanpari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most common metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. This study aims to investigate the status of antioxidants and liver function in type-2 diabetic patients among patients attending OPD of Nepalgunj Medical College, Banke, Nepal.Methods: A total of 280 samples were recruited to evaluate aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin (TB, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD.Determination of all biochemical parameters were carried out using Kit Methods.Results: AST level was elevated in maximum number of patients, 64 (36.57% out of175 males and 59 (56.19% out of 105 females followed by ALT elevation in females and ALP elevation in males, 50 (47.61% out of 105 and 57(32.57% out of 175 respectively.Conclusion: Antioxidants & LFTs were found to be statistically significant when compared with healthy controls.

  20. [Effect of Low-Intensity 900 MHz Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Brain Enzyme Activities Linked to Energy Metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, M S; Nersesova, L S; Gazaryants, M G; Meliksetyan, G O; Malakyan, M G; Bajinyan, S A; Akopian, J I

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with the effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR), power density 25 μW/cm2, on the following rat brain and blood serum enzyme activities: creatine kinase (CK), playing a central role in the process of storing and distributing the cell energy, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that play a key role in providing the conjunction of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The comparative analysis of the changes in the enzyme activity studied at different times following the two-hour single, as well as fractional, radiation equivalent of the total time showed that the most radiosensitive enzyme is the brain creatine kinase, which may then be recommended as a marker of the radio frequency radiation impact. According to the analysis of the changing dynamics of the CK, ALT and AST activity level, with time these changes acquire the adaptive character and are directed to compensate the damaged cell energy metabolism.

  1. Efficiency of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace as antioxidant against gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, I.Z.A.; Kattab, H.A.H.; Sheashea, E.A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing attention has been given to the roles of free radicals generated through oxidative stres. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidative role lycopene extracted from tomato processing wastes or pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male rats were adminstered lycopene by a daily intragastric gavage(0.24mg/rat/day) or supplemented in a standard casein diet (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) reduced ghutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were determined in liver homogenate, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). asparate aminotransferase (AST), toral protein, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio were investigated 2 and 13 days post irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in MDA, ALT,AST, albumin levels and A/G ratio. Meanwhile, radiation exposure caused significant reduction in weight gain, SOD activity, GSH, total protein and globulin levels

  2. Antioxidant activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace toward gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, T.M.M.; EL MASRY, F.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the anti oxidative activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male Swiss albino rats were orally administered by lycopene (1.2 mg/rat/day) using suitable stomach tube 7 days before exposure to a sublethal single dose (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) levels in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood were determined, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase activity (GGT) were investigated 7 and 15 days post-irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in plasma levels of MDA, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, as well as significant reduction in GSH content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood. Administration of lycopene by using suitable stomach tube pre-irradiation has significantly ameliorated the radiation-induced disturbances in all the investigated parameters

  3. Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Carthamus tinctorius oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats

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    Rahimi Parivash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Carthamus tinctorius Linn.(Safflower seed oil was investigated in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by administration of 120 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate. The seed oil of safflower at dose of 200 mg/kg was administered as single dose per day to diabetic rats for a period of 28 days. The effect of oil on blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, low density (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL and enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also determined. Results: Levels of blood glucose, TC, TGs, LDL, ALT, AST and ALP decreased and HDL increased in alloxan induced diabetic rats after treatment with 200 mg/kg safflower seed oil for 28 days. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that seed oil of safflower seems to be useful for the prevention of diabetes complications.

  4. Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry Measurement of Aminotransferase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Li, Xin; Zhang, Chengsen; Xu, Yang; Cooks, R. Graham

    2017-06-01

    A change in enzyme activity has been used as a clinical biomarker for diagnosis and is useful in evaluating patient prognosis. Current laboratory measurements of enzyme activity involve multi-step derivatization of the reaction products followed by quantitative analysis of these derivatives. This study simplified the reaction systems by using only the target enzymatic reaction and directly detecting its product. A protocol using paper spray mass spectrometry for identifying and quantifying the reaction product has been developed. Evaluation of the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was chosen as a proof-of-principle. The volume of sample needed is greatly reduced compared with the traditional method. Paper spray has a desalting effect that avoids sprayer clogging problems seen when examining serum samples by nanoESI. This very simple method does not require sample pretreatment and additional derivatization reactions, yet it gives high quality kinetic data, excellent limits of detection (60 ppb from serum), and coefficients of variation <10% in quantitation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. High alanine aminotransferase is associated with decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity and predicts the development of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    -sectionally associated with obesity and whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance and prospectively associated with a decline in hepatic insulin sensitivity and the development of type 2 diabetes. Our findings indicate that high ALT is a marker of risk for type 2 diabetes and suggest a potential role of the liver...... with prospective changes in liver or whole-body insulin sensitivity and/or insulin secretion and whether these elevated enzymes predict the development of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians. We measured ALT, AST, and GGT in 451 nondiabetic (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) Pima Indians (aged 30 +/- 6 years, body fat...... 33 +/- 8%, ALT 45 +/- 29 units/l, AST 34 +/- 18 units/l, and GGT 56 +/- 40 units/l [mean +/- SD]) who were characterized for body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), whole-body insulin sensitivity (M), and hepatic insulin sensitivity (hepatic glucose output [HGO...

  6. Sex-Specific Association between Metabolic Abnormalities and Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in a Military Cohort: The CHIEF Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wen Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of metabolic syndrome (MetS components with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, a marker of hepatic injury, may differ between men and women. However, the sex-specific association in a military young population which has a low prevalence of MetS was unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional examination in 6738 men and 766 women, aged 18–50 years, from the cardiorespiratory fitness study in armed forces (CHIEF in eastern Taiwan. The components of MetS were defined according to the updated International Diabetes Federation (IDF ethnic criteria for Asians. Elevated ALT levels were defined as ≥40 U/L for both sexes and ≥30 U/L for women alternatively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the sex-specific association between MetS components and elevated ALT. The prevalence of MetS and elevated ALT in men were 11.9% and 12.7% respectively, and in women were 3.5%, and 3.8% respectively. In men, high-density lipoprotein < 40 mg/dL, blood pressures ≥ 130/85 mmHg, serum triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL, and waist size ≥ 90 cm were associated with elevated ALT (odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals: 1.59 (1.34–1.90, 1.40 (1.19–1.65, 2.00 (1.68–2.39, and 1.68 (1.38–2.04; all p < 0.001; whereas in women, only fasting plasma glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL was associated with elevated ALT ≥ 40 U/L (OR: 7.59 (2.35–24.51, p = 0.001 and ALT ≥ 30 U/L (2.67 (0.89–7.95, p = 0.08. Our findings suggest that the relationship between metabolic abnormalities and elevated ALT may differ by sex, possibly due to the MetS more prevalent in young adult men than in women.

  7. Evaluation of the phagocitary capacity of the mononuclear system in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice employing Tc-99m Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Nelson, David Lee; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Barbosa, Alfredo Jose Afonso; Araujo, Ivana Durval; Machado, Leonardo Augusto da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Infections and endotoxemia continue to be the principal causes of morbidity and mortality of patients with obstructions of the bile duct. The objective of the present work was the investigation of the phagocitary capacity of the mononuclear system in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice utilizing Tc-99m E.coli. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly higher in jaundiced rats than in the control animals (p 3 ), but no significant alterations were observed in the lungs of either group. This dates could contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in cases of bacteraemia, renal failure and pulmonary dysfunction observed in clinical analyses of obstructive jaundice.(author)

  8. Analysis of some biochemical and haematological parameters for Mucuna pruriens (DC) seed powder in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudi, Ndukwe Henry; Simeon, Omale; Chinyere, Aguiyi John

    2011-10-01

    The biochemical and haematological effects of the seed powder of Mucuna pruriens in male rats were evaluated to establish some biological properties of this potential biopesticide currently undergoing investigation. The result showed that Mucuna pruriens seed extract produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in white blood cell (WBC) count, as well as in bilirubin concentrations, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), protein and creatinine levels measured. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in comparison with the experimental control. PCV, Hb, albumin level and WBC differential counts gave no significant difference between treated and control groups. The results revealed metabolic imbalance in the rats which suggests a mild cholestasis effect of the extract.

  9. Fast and Cost-Effective Biochemical Spectrophotometric Analysis of Solution of Insect “Blood” and Body Surface Elution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Łoś

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Using insect hemolymph (“blood” and insect body surface elutions, researchers can perform rapid and cheap biochemical analyses to determine the insect’s immunology status. The authors of this publication describe a detailed methodology for a quick marking of the concentration of total proteins and evaluation of the proteolytic system activity (acid, neutral, and alkaline proteases and protease inhibitors, as well as a methodology for quick “liver” tests in insects: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and urea and glucose concentration analyses. The meaning and examples of an interpretation of the results of the presented methodology for biochemical parameter determination are described for the example of honey bees.

  10. Morphology and Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatic Injury in Rats under Simulated Weightlessness and the Protective Effects of Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jun; Li, Zhili; Tian, Jijing; She, Ruiping; Wang, Desheng; Wang, Huijuan; Lv, Dongqiang; Chang, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term simulated weightlessness on liver morphology, enzymes, glycogen, and apoptosis related proteins by using two-month rat-tail suspension model (TS), and liver injury improvement by rat-tail suspension with resistance training model (TS&RT). Microscopically the livers of TS rats showed massive granular degeneration, chronic inflammation, and portal fibrosis. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling and loss of membrane integrity were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The similar, but milder, morphological changes were observed in the livers of TS&RT rats. Serum biochemistry analysis revealed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly higher (ptraining slightly improved hepatic damage. PMID:26000905

  11. AST-500 safety analysis experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falikov, A A; Bakhmetiev, A M; Kuul, V S; Samoilov, O B [OKBM, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    Characteristic AST-type NHR safety features and requirements are described briefly. The main approaches and results of design and beyond-design accidents analyses for the AST-500 NHR, and the results of probabilistic safety assessments are considered. It is concluded that the AST-500 possesses a high safety level in virtue of the development and realization in the design of self-protection, passivity and defence-in-depth principles. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs.

  12. Validation of three noninvasive laboratory variables to predict significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ado, Ayman A.; Al-Swat, Khalid; Azzam, N.; Al-Faleh, Faleh; Ahmed, S.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the clinical utility of the platelet count, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, and the AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) score in predicting the presence or absence of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C in Saudi Arabia. Liver biopsy procedures performed on chronic hepatitis C patients in our gastroenterology unit at King Khalid University Hospital were traced form records between 1998 to 2003. The hospital computer database was then accessed and detailed laboratory parameters obtained. By plotting receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), three selected models (platelet count, AST/ALT ratio and the APRI score) were compared in terms of the best variable to predict significant fibrosis. Two hundred and forty-six patients with hepatitis C were included in this analysis. Overall, 26% of patients had advanced fibrosis. When comparing the three above mentioned prediction models, APRI score was the one associated with the highest area under the curve (AUC) = 0.812 (95%Cl, 0.756-0.868) on the ROC curves, compared to the platelet count and AST/ALT ratio, which yielded an AUC of 0.783 (0.711-0.855) and 0.716 (0.642-0.789), respectively. The APRI score seemed to be the best predictive variable for the presence or absence of advanced fibrosis in Saudi hepatitis C patients. (author)

  13. Hepatic enzyme decline after pediatric blunt trauma: a tool for timing child abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amy L; Lindberg, Daniel M; Burke, Bonnie L; Shults, Justine; Holmes, James F

    2008-09-01

    Previous research in adult patients with blunt hepatic injuries has suggested a pattern of serum hepatic transaminase concentration decline. Evaluating this decline after pediatric blunt hepatic trauma could establish parameters for estimating the time of inflicted injuries. Deviation from a consistent transaminase resolution pattern could indicate a developing complication. Retrospective review of pediatric patients with injuries including blunt liver trauma admitted to one of four urban level 1 trauma centers from 1990 to 2000. Cases were excluded for shock, death within 48 h, complications, or inability to determine injury time. Transaminase concentration decline was modeled by individual patients, by injury grade, and as a ratio with regard to injury time. One hundred and seventy-six patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) clearance changed significantly over time. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) fell more slowly. Of the 118 patients who had multiple measurements of AST, for 112 (95%) the first concentration obtained was the highest. When ALT was greater than AST, the injury was older than 12h (97% specificity (95% CI, 95-99%), sensitivity 42% (95% CI, 33-50%)). Patients with enzymes that rose after 14 h post-injury were more likely to develop complications (RR=24, 95% CI 10-58). Hepatic transaminases rise rapidly after uncomplicated blunt liver injury, then fall predictably. Persistently stable or increasing concentrations may indicate complications. ALT>AST indicates subacute injury.

  14. High serum carotenoids are associated with lower risk for developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase among Japanese subjects: the Mikkabi cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Minoru; Nakamura, Mieko; Ogawa, Kazunori; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Yano, Masamichi

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have shown that antioxidant vitamins and/or carotenoids may reduce liver disease, but this association has not been well established with thorough longitudinal cohort studies. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate whether serum carotenoids at baseline are associated with the risk of developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) among Japanese subjects. We conducted a follow-up study of 1073 males and females aged between 30 and 79 years at baseline from the Mikkabi prospective cohort study. Those who participated in the baseline study and completed follow-up surveys were examined longitudinally. Exclusions included excessive alcohol consumption (≥60 g alcohol/d), hepatitis B and C and having a history of medication use for liver disease. A cohort of 213 males and 574 females free of elevated serum ALT (>30 IU/ml) at baseline was studied. Over a mean follow-up period of 7·4 (sd 3·1) years, thirty-one males and forty-nine females developed new elevated serum ALT. After adjustments for confounders, the hazard ratios for elevated serum ALT in the highest tertiles of basal serum β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and total provitamin A carotenoids against the lowest tertiles were 0·43 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·81), 0·51 (CI 0·27, 0·94) and 0·52 (CI 0·28, 0·97), respectively. For α-carotene and lycopene, borderline reduced risks were also observed; however, these were not significant. Our results further support the hypothesis that antioxidant carotenoids, especially provitamin A carotenoids, might help prevent earlier pathogenesis of non-alcoholic liver disease in Japanese subjects.

  15. Higher Ratio of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Could Predict Outcomes in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Kim

    Full Text Available The role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in the surveillance and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serially measured serum AFP levels in HCC progression or recurrence after initial treatment.A total of 722 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with HCC and treated at the National Cancer Center, Korea, between January 2004 and December 2009 were enrolled. The AFP ratios between 4-8 weeks post-treatment and those at the time of HCC progression or recurrence were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to correlate the post-treatment AFP ratios with the presence of HCC progression or recurrence.The etiology of HCC was related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in 562 patients (77.8%, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in 74 (10.2%, and non-viral cause in 86 (11.9%. There was a significant decrease in serum AFP levels from the baseline to 4 to 8 weeks after treatment (median AFP, 319.6 ng/mL vs. 49.6 ng/mL; p 1.0 was an independently associated with HCC progression or recurrence. Among the different causes of HCC analyzed, this association was significant only for HCC related to chronic hepatitis B (p< 0.001 and non-viral causes (p<0.05, and limited only to patients who had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels.Serial measurements of serum AFP ratios could be helpful in detecting progression or recurrence in treated patients with HBV-HCC and normal ALT.

  16. Higher Ratio of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Could Predict Outcomes in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in the surveillance and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serially measured serum AFP levels in HCC progression or recurrence after initial treatment. Methods A total of 722 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with HCC and treated at the National Cancer Center, Korea, between January 2004 and December 2009 were enrolled. The AFP ratios between 4–8 weeks post-treatment and those at the time of HCC progression or recurrence were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to correlate the post-treatment AFP ratios with the presence of HCC progression or recurrence. Results The etiology of HCC was related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 562 patients (77.8%), chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 74 (10.2%), and non-viral cause in 86 (11.9%). There was a significant decrease in serum AFP levels from the baseline to 4 to 8 weeks after treatment (median AFP, 319.6 ng/mL vs. 49.6 ng/mL; p 1.0 was an independently associated with HCC progression or recurrence. Among the different causes of HCC analyzed, this association was significant only for HCC related to chronic hepatitis B (p< 0.001) and non-viral causes (p<0.05), and limited only to patients who had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Conclusion Serial measurements of serum AFP ratios could be helpful in detecting progression or recurrence in treated patients with HBV-HCC and normal ALT. PMID:27304617

  17. Structural studies of Pseudomonas and Chromobacterium ω-aminotransferases provide insights into their differing substrate specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayer, Christopher; Isupov, Michail N.; Westlake, Aaron; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray structures of two ω-aminotransferases from P. aeruginosa and C. violaceum in complex with an inhibitor offer the first detailed insight into the structural basis of the substrate specificity of these industrially important enzymes. The crystal structures and inhibitor complexes of two industrially important ω-aminotransferase enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum have been determined in order to understand the differences in their substrate specificity. The two enzymes share 30% sequence identity and use the same amino acceptor, pyruvate; however, the Pseudomonas enzyme shows activity towards the amino donor β-alanine, whilst the Chromobacterium enzyme does not. Both enzymes show activity towards S-α-methylbenzylamine (MBA), with the Chromobacterium enzyme having a broader substrate range. The crystal structure of the P. aeruginosa enzyme has been solved in the holo form and with the inhibitor gabaculine bound. The C. violaceum enzyme has been solved in the apo and holo forms and with gabaculine bound. The structures of the holo forms of both enzymes are quite similar. There is little conformational difference observed between the inhibitor complex and the holoenzyme for the P. aeruginosa aminotransferase. In comparison, the crystal structure of the C. violaceum gabaculine complex shows significant structural rearrangements from the structures of both the apo and holo forms of the enzyme. It appears that the different rigidity of the protein scaffold contributes to the substrate specificity observed for the two ω-aminotransferases

  18. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2 polymorphisms have considerable impact on methylarginine and β-aminoisobutyrate metabolism in healthy volunteers.

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    Anja Kittel

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma concentrations of asymmetric (ADMA and symmetric (SDMA dimethylarginine have repeatedly been linked to adverse clinical outcomes. Both methylarginines are substrates of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2. It was the aim of the present study to simultaneously investigate the functional relevance and relative contributions of common AGXT2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to plasma and urinary concentrations of methylarginines as well as β-aminoisobutyrate (BAIB, a prototypic substrate of AGXT2. In a cohort of 400 healthy volunteers ADMA, SDMA and BAIB concentrations were determined in plasma and urine using HPLC-MS/MS and were related to the coding AGXT2 SNPs rs37369 (p.Val140Ile and rs16899974 (p.Val498Leu. Volunteers heterozygous or homozygous for the AGXT2 SNP rs37369 had higher SDMA plasma concentrations by 5% and 20% (p = 0.002 as well as higher BAIB concentrations by 54% and 146%, respectively, in plasma and 237% and 1661%, respectively, in urine (both p<0.001. ADMA concentrations were not affected by both SNPs. A haplotype analysis revealed that the second investigated AGXT2 SNP rs16899974, which was not significantly linked to the other AGXT2 SNP, further aggravates the effect of rs37369 with respect to BAIB concentrations in plasma and urine. To investigate the impact of the amino acid exchange p.Val140Ile, we established human embryonic kidney cell lines stably overexpressing wild-type or mutant (p.Val140Ile AGXT2 protein and assessed enzyme activity using BAIB and stable-isotope labeled [²H₆]-SDMA as substrate. In vitro, the amino acid exchange of the mutant protein resulted in a significantly lower enzyme activity compared to wild-type AGXT2 (p<0.05. In silico modeling of the SNPs indicated reduced enzyme stability and substrate binding. In conclusion, SNPs of AGXT2 affect plasma as well as urinary BAIB and SDMA concentrations linking methylarginine metabolism to the common genetic trait of hyper

  19. Hyperoxygenated hydrogen-rich solution suppresses shock- and resuscitation-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yangjie; Liu, Ting; Mei, Xiaopeng; Meng, Xiangzhong; Gou, Xingchun; Deng, Bin; Xu, Hao; Xu, Lixian

    2017-12-01

    It is not known whether simultaneous delivery of hydrogen and oxygen can reduce injury caused by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR). This study investigated the therapeutic potential of hyperoxygenated hydrogen-rich solution (HHOS), a combined hydrogen/oxygen carrier, in a rat model of HSR-induced liver injury. Rats (n = 60) were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 6 per group at each time point). One group underwent sham operation, and the others were subjected to severe hemorrhagic shock and then treated with lactated Ringer's solution (LRS), hydrogen-rich solution, hyperoxygenated solution, or HHOS. At 2 and 6 h after resuscitation, blood samples (n = 6) were collected from the femoral artery and serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured. Rats were then sacrificed, and histopathological changes in the liver were evaluated by quantifying the percentage of apoptotic cells by caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling. Inflammation was assessed by assessing malondialdehyde content and tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 expression. Compared to lactated Ringer's solution, hydrogen-rich solution, or hyperoxygenated solution groups, serum AST and alanine aminotransferase levels and IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and malondialdehyde expression in liver tissue were decreased by HHOS treatment. The number of caspase-3- and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells was decreased (P < 0.05) by HHOS treatment, 2 and 6 h after resuscitation. HHOS has protective effects against liver injury in a rat model of HSR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of chlorpyrifos and enrofloxacin on selected enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, D; Spodniewska, A

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effect of chlorpyrifos and/or enrofloxacin on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the blood and brain, and the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum. The experiment was conducted on Wistar strain rats. Chlorpyrifos was administered with a stomach tube at a dose of 0.04 LD50 for 28 days and enrofloxacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg bw for 5 consecutive days. The experiment found that enrofloxacin changed the activity of the enzymes under study only to a small extent. At the dose applied in the experiment, chlorpyrifos decreased the activity of AChE significantly, both in blood and in the brain, and increased the activity of ALT and AST in rat serum. The administration of chlorpyrifos in combination with enrofloxacin changed the activity of the enzymes under study only slightly. A weaker, but longer, inhibition of AChE activity in both blood and the brain was observed in this group compared to the animals exposed only to chlorpyrifos. However, although enrofloxacin, like chlorpyrifos, increases the activity of ALT and AST in serum, their combined administration did not increase the hepatotoxic effect. Copyright© by the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  1. Serum hepatic biochemistry and electrophoretic protein profile of healthy and Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice treated with extracts of Agaricus blazei Murill

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    Durval Verçosa Junior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Compounds isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill represent a group of promising natural immunomodulators for use in the treatment of neoplasms. We have evaluated the serum biochemical profile of healthy and Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice treated with different extracts of A. blazei. Total, supernatant, and polysaccharide extracts of A. blazei were obtained from suspensions (at acidic or neutral pH kept in a water bath at 60 °C or in an ultrasonic bath at 37 °C. After oral administering the extracts to mice for 21 days, blood samples were collected for determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine kinase (CK, urea, total protein, albumin, globulins, and alpha-, beta- and gamma-globulin fractions. The presence of the tumor led to a significant increase in serum CK and AST activities and in the concentrations of total globulin and the gamma-globulin fraction, and to a decrease in the albumin and alpha2-globulin levels. The polysaccharide extracts of A. blazei reduced the serum AST and ALT activities, probably due to a hepatoprotective effect. In addition, polysaccharide and supernatant extracts inhibited the tumor-induced increase in gamma-globulin levels. Thus, the supernatant and polysaccharide fractions of the extract of A. blazei have potential for use in complementary antineoplastic treatments.

  2. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured in the serum. The liver was removed to evaluate the histopathologic changes. The I/R group had a significant increase in AST, ALT, MDA, and TNF-α levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity compared with the sham group. The use of IFX significantly reduced the ALT, AST, MDA and TNF-α levels and significantly increased GSH-Px activity. IFX attenuated the histopathologic changes. IFX has a protective effect on liver I/R injury. This liver protective effect may be related to antioxidant and anti-TNF-α effects. We propose that, for the relief of liver injury subsequent to transplantation, liver resection, trauma, and shock, tentative treatments can be incorporated with IFX, which is already approved for clinical use.

  3. The protective role of Aegle marmelos on aspirin-induced gastro-duodenal ulceration in albino rat model: a possible involvement of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamal K; Roy, Chandan

    2012-01-01

    Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM), family: Rutaceae) which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameters. Mucosal thickness (MT), ulcer index (UI), different biochemical parameters, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in all the groups, to study the possible involvement of antioxidants with gastroduodenal protection. A significant decrease in MT, SOD and CAT activities and GSH level and a significant increase in UI, AST, ALT, and ALP activities and LPO level were observed in aspirin treated stomach and duodenum of albino rats. Pretreatment with AM fruit pulp extract for 14 consecutive days showed the reverse effects of aspirin suggesting gastro-duodenal protective and anti- ulcerogenic properties of AM through its antioxidant mechanism.

  4. Routine testing of liver function before and after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: is it necessary?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Nasir Zaheer

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Liver function tests (LFTs) include alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin. The role of routine testing before and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was evaluated in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 355 patients were retrospectively analyzed by examining the LFTs the day before, the day after, and 3 weeks after the surgery. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Student t test were performed to determine statistical significance. RESULTS: Alterations in the serum AST, ALT, and GGT were seen on the first postoperative day. Minor changes were seen in bilirubin and ALP. An overall disturbance in the LFTs was seen in more than two-thirds of the cases. Repeat LFTs performed after 3 weeks on follow-up were found to be within normal limits. CONCLUSION: Mild-to-moderate elevation in preoperative LFTs may not be associated with any deleterious effect, and, in the absence of clinical indications, routine preoperative or postoperative liver function testing is unnecessary.

  5. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on obesity in MSG mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Perez-Garcia, Ma Dolores; Almanza-Perez, Julio C; Romero-Nuñez, Eunice; Campos-Sepulveda, Efrain A; Vazquez-Carrillo, Laura I; Roman-Ramos, Ruben

    2007-10-08

    The aim of the present investigation was determine whether a standardized Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces aqueous extract has an effect on body weight in an obese animal model induced by the administration of monosodium glutamate. Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract, containing 33.64 mg of total anthocyanins per each 120 mg of extract, was orally administered (120 mg/kg/day) for 60 days to healthy and obese mice, and body weight gain, food and liquid intake, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were measured. Hibiscus sabdariffa administration significantly reduced body weight gain in obese mice and increased liquid intake in healthy and obese mice. ALT levels were significantly increased on the 15th and 45th days in obese mice, but AST levels did not show significant changes. Mortality was not observed in the Hibiscus sabdariffa treated groups. Triglycerides and cholesterol levels showed non-significant reductions in animals treated with Hibiscus sabdariffa. Our data confirm the anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa reported by the Mexican population.

  6. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

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    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  7. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  8. Simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients with an alanine aminotransferase level lower than 2 times upper limit of normal

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    LI Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with an alanine aminotransferase (ALT level of <2 times upper limit of normal (ULN. MethodsThe clinical data of 278 CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN (ULN=40 U/L were analyzed retrospectively. Significant liver inflammation was defined as a liver inflammatory activity grade (G ≥2. The t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used for non-normally distributed continuous data; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum markers in significant liver inflammation. ResultsOf the 278 CHB patients enrolled, 175 (62.9% had no significant liver inflammation (G0-1 group and 103 (37.1% had significant liver inflammation (G2-4 group. There were significant differences in ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, albumin, globulin, prothrombin time (PT, platelet, absolute neutrophil count, hyaluronic acid (HA, glycocholic acid, precollagen Ⅲ, and collagen type Ⅳ(ⅣC between the two groups (all P<0.05. The multivariate regression analysis showed that GGT, PT, ⅣC, and HA were independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT<2×ULN (OR=1.015, 1.600, 1.151, and 1.014, P=0.008, 0.021, 0.003, and 0.018. The areas under the ROC curve for GGT, PT, IVC, and HA to diagnose significant liver inflammation were 0.804, 0.722, 0.707, and 0.632, respectively. The cut-off value of 48.5 U/L for GGT to predict significant liver inflammation had a specificity of 90.3% and a negative

  9. Modulation of liver enzymes by an Iranian preparation of Echinacea purpurea

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    A. Manayi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B, a common infectious disease of liver, is transmitted by blood and body fluids like semen and vaginal fluid that carry hepatitis B virus (HBV.  In chronic infection, medical care is required to decrease possibility of cirrhosis and liver cancer. In the present report, the hepatoprotective effect of an Echinacea purpurea preparation (Echiherb® has been described in a patient who suffered from HBV infection. The levels of both enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT decreased to their normal level after 6 weeks of treatment. Therefore, this report may provide a new perspective for protection of liver in patients with HBV infection along with other diseases which damage liver cells using E. purpurea preparations.

  10. Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels within Normal Range Have Different Associations with Augmentation Index and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Nondrinkers and Drinkers: A Chinese Community-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels within normal range were associated with augmentation index (AIx and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers in Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods. There were 4165 participants with serum ALT levels within normal range. Results. Alcohol drinking was observed in 1173 participants (28.2%. In multivariate analysis, serum ALT levels of nondrinkers were independently associated with age, sex, body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and AIx, while serum ALT levels of drinkers were independently associated with age, sex, BMI, triglyceride, and LDL-c (p<0.05 for all. Conclusions. Associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with age, sex, body height and weight, and blood lipid were simultaneously present in participants with and without alcohol drinking, while associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with AIx, blood pressure, and glucose were seen in nondrinkers rather than in drinkers. These findings not only provide the evidence that serum ALT levels, even within the normal range, have different associations with arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers but also are helpful in understanding the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the hepatic function to arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors.

  11. Assessment of Growth and Development in Children With Hepatitis B Positivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Tugba; Eren, Erdal; Koruk, Suda Tekin

    2014-12-01

    Chronic infections and liver diseases may influence the growth and development of children by leading to malnutrition. In this study, demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and laboratory findings for children with hepatitis B positivity were analyzed. A total of 43 cases were admitted to our clinic between January 2012 and February 2013 and detected to have HBsAg positivity. Malnutrition was detected in 11 cases (25.6%) and obesity in three cases (6.9%). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were significantly higher in malnourished patients compared to those without malnutrition. The weight to height was significantly higher in patients with positive HBeAg compared to children with negative HBeAg. We found that the weight standard deviation scores (SDS) ratios dropped as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and AST levels increased and height SDS ratios decreased. In addition, body mass index (BMI) decreased as AST and alpha feto protein (AFP) values increased. While a significant relationship was not detected between insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and ALT, a significantly negative correlation was detected between IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 and AST. We found a malnutrition rate of 25.6% in children with HBsAg positivity. We also found that weight and height SDS rates decreased as ALT and AST levels increased. In addition, we detected that BMI decreased as AST and AFP values increased. We consider that hepatic inflammation is the factor that affects growth. Monitoring of growth and development during follow-up of children who are detected to have HBsAg positivity would be beneficial to determine the mechanism and causes of growth retardation.

  12. Determinação das atividades séricas de creatina quinase, lactato desidrogenase e aspartato aminotransferase em eqüinos de diferentes categorias de atividade Determination of serum activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase in horses of different activities classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Câmara e Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST seric activities in horses of different activity classes (athlete, traction, and reproduction, were compared. Fifty-eight horses were alloted into three groups - group 1 with 20 athletes, "vaquejada" competitors; group 2 with 20 breeding horses; and group 3 with 18 draft horses, averaging 10 working hours daily. The average values for CK serum activity were 80.2, 83.9, and 94.4 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Result of group 3 was significantly different from the other groups. The averages values for LDH were 102.5, 98.6, and 112.8 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with no statistical difference between groups. The AST averages were 56.8, 33.0, and 50.1 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with group 2 significantly differing from the others. Clinical biochemistry values of muscular function in horses varied according to activity category.

  13. Performance of an Optimized Paper-Based Test for Rapid Visual Measurement of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT in Fingerstick and Venipuncture Samples.

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    Sidhartha Jain

    Full Text Available A paper-based, multiplexed, microfluidic assay has been developed to visually measure alanine aminotransferase (ALT in a fingerstick sample, generating rapid, semi-quantitative results. Prior studies indicated a need for improved accuracy; the device was subsequently optimized using an FDA-approved automated platform (Abaxis Piccolo Xpress as a comparator. Here, we evaluated the performance of the optimized paper test for measurement of ALT in fingerstick blood and serum, as compared to Abaxis and Roche/Hitachi platforms. To evaluate feasibility of remote results interpretation, we also compared reading cell phone camera images of completed tests to reading the device in real time.96 ambulatory patients with varied baseline ALT concentration underwent fingerstick testing using the paper device; cell phone images of completed devices were taken and texted to a blinded off-site reader. Venipuncture serum was obtained from 93/96 participants for routine clinical testing (Roche/Hitachi; subsequently, 88/93 serum samples were captured and applied to paper and Abaxis platforms. Paper test and reference standard results were compared by Bland-Altman analysis.For serum, there was excellent agreement between paper test and Abaxis results, with negligible bias (+4.5 U/L. Abaxis results were systematically 8.6% lower than Roche/Hitachi results. ALT values in fingerstick samples tested on paper were systematically lower than values in paired serum tested on paper (bias -23.6 U/L or Abaxis (bias -18.4 U/L; a correction factor was developed for the paper device to match fingerstick blood to serum. Visual reads of cell phone images closely matched reads made in real time (bias +5.5 U/L.The paper ALT test is highly accurate for serum testing, matching the reference method against which it was optimized better than the reference methods matched each other. A systematic difference exists between ALT values in fingerstick and paired serum samples, and can be

  14. Effect of Eight Weeks Forced Swimming Training with Methadone Supplementation on Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase, and Alkaline Phosphatase of Rats

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    Seyed Ali Hoseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Narcotics abuse can induce liver disorders; nevertheless, exercises improve liver disorders. The present research aimed to review the effect of eight weeks forced swimming training with methadone supplementation on liver enzymes of rats. Material & Method: In this experimental research, 48 rats were selected, and after one week adaptation to lab environment, they were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats including (1 forced swimming training, (2 methadone supplementation, (3 forced swimming training with methadone supplementation, and (4 control. Groups 2 and 3 used 2 mg/kg methadone daily for 8 weeks. Also, groups 1 and 3 swam for 8 weeks, three sessions per week and each session for 30 minutes. For statistical analysis of data, one way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used (α≤0.05. Results: Findings showed that forced swimming training, methadone supplementation, and forced swimming training with methadone supplementation had no significant effect on AST (P=0.90 and ALT (P=0.99 enzymes; forced swimming training had significant effect on increase of ALP (P=0.001; also, forced swimming training, compared with methadone supplementation and combination of forced swimming training with methadone supplementation, had significant effect on increase of ALP (P=0.001. Conclusion: Accordingly, 8 weeks of forced swimming training with methadone has possibly no significant effect on liver enzymes.

  15. The antioxidant effects of vitamin C on liver enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotranferease, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities in rats under Paraquat insult

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    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is a bipyridylium herbicide; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT, alanine aminotranferease (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT] of rats under this toxic insult. Male rats in groups (A, B, C and D were intraperitoneally injected with different sublethal increasing doses (0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 g/kg body weigh of PQ respectively on monthly basis. Subsequently, the subgroups (A2, B2, C2 and D2 were given orally, 200 mg/L vitamin C, while the subgroups A1, B1, C1, and D1, received only water. Four animals per subgroup were decapitated on monthly basis and blood samples taken for enzyme assay. The parameters studied were - SGOT, SGPT, ALP and GGT - liver enzymes. The dose and time dependent PQ toxicity effect resulted in highly elevated Liver enzymes activities. The subgroups on vitamin C had significantly lower enzyme activities when compared to the same subgroups on only PQ insult. But the values were high when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2. These results were indication that vitamin C when given at moderate doses and maintained for a longer period could be a life saving adjunct to toxic insult.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of a VEGFR-2 inhibitor compound on alanine aminotransferase gene expression and enzymatic activity in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Carmen; Bera, Monali; Jessen, Bart; Sace, Fred; Stevens, Greg J; Trajkovic, Dusko; Yang, Amy H; Evering, Winston

    2011-08-17

    Traditional assessment of drug-induced hepatotoxicity includes morphological examination of the liver and evaluation of liver enzyme activity in serum. The objective of the study was to determine the origin of drug-related elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the absence of morphologic changes in the liver by utilizing molecular and immunohistochemical techniques. Sixteen female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups (control and treated, n = 4 per group) and treated rats were dosed orally twice daily (400 mg/kg/day) for 7 days with a VEGFR-2 compound (AG28262), which in a previous study caused ALT elevation without morphological changes. Serum of both treated and control animals were evaluated on day 3 of treatment and at day 8. Three separate liver lobes (caudate, right medial, and left lateral) were examined for determination of ALT tissue activity, ALT gene expression and morphological changes. ALT activity was significantly (p < 0.01) elevated on day 3 and further increased on day 8. Histologic changes or increase in TUNEL and caspase3 positive cells were not observed in the liver lobes examined. ALT gene expression in the caudate lobe was significantly up-regulated by 63%. ALT expression in the left lateral lobe was not significantly affected. Statistically significant increased liver ALT enzymatic activity occurred in the caudate (96%) and right medial (41%) lobes but not in the left lateral lobe. AG28262, a VEFG-r2 inhibitor, causes an increase in serum ALT, due in part to both gene up-regulation. Differences between liver lobes may be attributable to differential distribution of blood from portal circulation. Incorporation of molecular data, such as gene and protein expression, and sampling multiple liver lobes may shed mechanistic insight to the evaluation of hepatotoxicity.

  17. Catalytic Stereoinversion of L-Alanine to Deuterated D-Alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moozeh, Kimia; So, Soon Mog; Chin, Jik

    2015-08-03

    A combination of an achiral pyridoxal analogue and a chiral base has been developed for catalytic deuteration of L-alanine with inversion of stereochemistry to give deuterated D-alanine under mild conditions (neutral pD and 25 °C) without the use of any protecting groups. This system can also be used for catalytic deuteration of D-alanine with retention of stereochemistry to give deuterated D-alanine. Thus a racemic mixture of alanine can be catalytically deuterated to give an enantiomeric excess of deuterated D-alanine. While catalytic deracemization of alanine is forbidden by the second law of thermodynamics, this system can be used for catalytic deracemization of alanine with deuteration. Such green and biomimetic approach to catalytic stereocontrol provides insights into efficient amino acid transformations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Posttraumatic levels of liver enzymes can reduce the need for CT in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Peter James; Østerballe, Lene; Hillingsø, Jens

    2016-01-01

    alternative diagnostic modalities. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are hepatic enzymes, which are elevated in peripheral blood in relation to liver injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential role of normal liver transaminase levels in the decision......BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard in the initial evaluation of the hemodynamically stable patient with suspected liver trauma. However, the adverse effects of radiation exposure are of specific concern in the pediatric population. It is therefore desirable to explore...... algorithm in suspected pediatric blunt liver trauma. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutively collected data from children (0-17 years) with blunt liver trauma, admitted to a single trauma centre in Denmark, between 2000 and 2013. Patients underwent abdominal CT during initial evaluation...

  19. Screening for elevated risk of liver disease in preschool children (aged 2-5 years) being seen for obesity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacher, Daniel R; Ariza, Adolfo J; Fishbein, Mark H; Binns, Helen J

    2014-01-01

    Elevated alanine aminotransferase can heighten concern for the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Guidelines recommend alanine aminotransferase screening of obese children start at the age of 10 years. We examined alanine aminotransferase values routinely obtained for tertiary obesity care among preschool (2-5 years) and school-age children. Medical records of children attending a tertiary obesity clinic and with alanine aminotransferase measured within 6 months of the initial visit were reviewed. Children with known genetic abnormalities were excluded. Children were grouped by age to focus attention on groups not covered by screening guidelines. Associations with elevated alanine aminotransferase (>30 IU/L) were examined. A total of 284 records were analyzed (73 preschool, 143 young school-age (6-9 years), 68 older school-age (10-11 years)). Children were primarily Hispanic and had body mass index ≥ 99th percentile (preschool children 92%, young school-age 73%, older school-age 59%). In all, 26% of preschool children had elevated alanine aminotransferase (young school-age 30%, older school-age 44%). Preschool children with elevated alanine aminotransferase had higher body mass index compared to preschool children with alanine aminotransferase ≤ 30 IU/L (median body mass index 27.8 kg/m(2) vs 24.0 kg/m(2); Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.003), but there was no disparity for elevated alanine aminotransferase related to Hispanic ethnicity. For older children, Hispanic ethnicity, not body mass index, predicted elevated alanine aminotransferase. Alanine aminotransferase elevation was common in these preschool children. Screening severely obese children for elevated alanine aminotransferase should begin at the age of 2 years.

  20. Screening for elevated risk of liver disease in preschool children (aged 2–5 years being seen for obesity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Beacher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Elevated alanine aminotransferase can heighten concern for the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Guidelines recommend alanine aminotransferase screening of obese children start at the age of 10 years. We examined alanine aminotransferase values routinely obtained for tertiary obesity care among preschool (2–5 years and school-age children. Methods: Medical records of children attending a tertiary obesity clinic and with alanine aminotransferase measured within 6 months of the initial visit were reviewed. Children with known genetic abnormalities were excluded. Children were grouped by age to focus attention on groups not covered by screening guidelines. Associations with elevated alanine aminotransferase (>30 IU/L were examined. Results: A total of 284 records were analyzed (73 preschool, 143 young school-age (6–9 years, 68 older school-age (10–11 years. Children were primarily Hispanic and had body mass index ≥ 99th percentile (preschool children 92%, young school-age 73%, older school-age 59%. In all, 26% of preschool children had elevated alanine aminotransferase (young school-age 30%, older school-age 44%. Preschool children with elevated alanine aminotransferase had higher body mass index compared to preschool children with alanine aminotransferase ≤ 30 IU/L (median body mass index 27.8 kg/m2 vs 24.0 kg/m2; Mann–Whitney U test, p = 0.003, but there was no disparity for elevated alanine aminotransferase related to Hispanic ethnicity. For older children, Hispanic ethnicity, not body mass index, predicted elevated alanine aminotransferase. Conclusion: Alanine aminotransferase elevation was common in these preschool children. Screening severely obese children for elevated alanine aminotransferase should begin at the age of 2 years.

  1. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Hu; B. Chen; J. Qian; L. Jin; T. Jin; D. Lu [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Department of Occupational and Environmental Health

    2010-03-15

    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.

  2. Effect of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis on some biochemical parameters in ewes

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    N. A. J. Al- Hussary

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of infection of ewes with toxoplasmosis and/or brucellosis on someserum biochemical parameters. Ninety six samples of blood were collected from aborted ewes at different stages of gestation,suspected to be infected with toxoplasmosis and /or brucellosis from different regions in Nineveh governorate. The percentageof toxoplasma and brucella infection depending on Latex Agglutination Test (LAT and Rose Bengal Test were 21.88% and23.96% respectively. The results of biochemical analysis showed that infection with toxoplasma caused significant elevation ofserum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Aswell as the concentrations of glucose, total protein and copper. Where as the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and theconcentration of calcium and zinc were reduced. Infection with brucellosis caused a significant increased in serum AST, ALTand LDH, ALP and creatin phosphokinase (CPK activities, and glucose, zinc and cholesterol concentrations. While serumcalcium and total protein concentration were decreased. Association of toxoplasma and brucella infection induced significantelevation of serum AST, ALT and LDH and CPK activities and the concentrations of glucose and copper with significant reduction in serum ALP activity and both calcium and zinc concentrations. It was concluded from this study that infection ofewes with toxoplasma and/or brucella caused changes in some biochemical parameters in the serum.

  3. A prospective randomized comparison of continuous hemihepatic with intermittent total hepatic inflow occlusion in hepatectomy for liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guanlin; Wen, Tianfu; Yan, Lunan; Li, B O; Wu, Guochang; Yang, Jian; Lu, Bo; Chen, Zheyu; Liao, Zhixue; Ran, Shun; Yu, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether continuous hemihepatic inflow occlusion (HHO) during hepatectomy can be safer than and be as effective as intermittent total hepatic inflow occlusion (THO) in reducing blood loss. Eighty patients undergoing liver resections were included in a prospective randomized study comparing the intra- and postoperative course under THO (n=40) or HHO (n=40). THO was performed with periods of 20 minutes of occlusion and 5 minutes of releasing, while HHO was performed with continuous occlusion. The surface area of liver transection, amount of blood loss, measurements of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and postoperative evolution were recorded. The two groups were similar at entry in terms of preoperative liver function and in the proportion of patients experiencing major hepatectomy. The total ischemic time of the two groups was similar (p=0.37), but the operative time in the THO group was longer than in the HHO group (p=0.02). No significant difference was found between the HHO and THO group in blood loss during liver parenchyma transection (p=0.14), the elevations of ALT and AST on the first postoperative day (ALT: p=0.12; AST: p=0.66) and postoperative morbidity (p=0.35). On the basis of our findings, if it is feasible, continuous HHO is recommended for complex liver resection.

  4. Hemihepatic versus total hepatic inflow occlusion during hepatectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Qing; Yang, Jia-Yin; Yan, Lu-Nan

    2011-07-14

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing hepatectomy with hemihepatic vascular occlusion (HHO) compared with total hepatic inflow occlusion (THO). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hemihepatic vascular occlusion and total hepatic inflow occlusion were included by a systematic literature search. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate blood loss, transfusion requirement, and liver injury based on the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Either the fixed effects model or random effects model was used. Four RCTs including 338 patients met the predefined inclusion criteria. A total of 167 patients were treated with THO and 171 with HHO. Meta-analysis of AST levels on postoperative day 1 indicated higher levels in the THO group with weighted mean difference (WMD) 342.27; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 217.28-467.26; P = 0.00 001; I(2) = 16%. Meta-analysis showed no significant difference between THO group and HHO group on blood loss, transfusion requirement, mortality, morbidity, operating time, ischemic duration, hospital stay, ALT levels on postoperative day 1, 3 and 7 and AST levels on postoperative day 3 and 7. Hemihepatic vascular occlusion does not offer satisfying benefit to the patients undergoing hepatic resection. However, they have less liver injury after liver resections.

  5. PhAST: pharmacophore alignment search tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnke, Volker; Hofmann, Bettina; Grgat, Tomislav; Proschak, Ewgenij; Steinhilber, Dieter; Schneider, Gisbert

    2009-04-15

    We present a ligand-based virtual screening technique (PhAST) for rapid hit and lead structure searching in large compound databases. Molecules are represented as strings encoding the distribution of pharmacophoric features on the molecular graph. In contrast to other text-based methods using SMILES strings, we introduce a new form of text representation that describes the pharmacophore of molecules. This string representation opens the opportunity for revealing functional similarity between molecules by sequence alignment techniques in analogy to homology searching in protein or nucleic acid sequence databases. We favorably compared PhAST with other current ligand-based virtual screening methods in a retrospective analysis using the BEDROC metric. In a prospective application, PhAST identified two novel inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase product formation with minimal experimental effort. This outcome demonstrates the applicability of PhAST to drug discovery projects and provides an innovative concept of sequence-based compound screening with substantial scaffold hopping potential. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Lingmao Formula Combined with Entecavir for HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Mildly Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Methods. 301 patients were randomly assigned to receive Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir (treatment group or placebo combined with entecavir (control group for 52 weeks. The outcomes of interest included the reduction of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg loss, HBeAg seroconversion, ALT normalization, and histological improvement. Results. The mean decrease of serum HBV DNA level from baseline and the percentage of patients who had reduction in serum HBV DNA level ≥2 lg copies/mL in treatment group were significantly greater than that in control group (5.5 versus 5.4 lg copies/mL, P=0.010; 98.5% versus 92.6%, P=0.019. The percentage of HBeAg loss in treatment group was 22.8%, which was much higher than a percentage of 12.6% in control group (P=0.038. There was no significant difference between the two groups in histological improvement. Safety was similar in the two groups. Conclusions. The combination of Lingmao Formula with entecavir could result in significant decrease of serum HBV DNA and increase of HBeAg loss for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated ALT without any serious adverse events. Clinical trial registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-09000594.

  7. Exercise Training and Calorie Restriction Influence the Metabolic Parameters in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to overweight or obesity, and physical exercise is one of the important modulators of this body weight gain. Female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy surgery (OVX or sham operation (SO. OVX and SO groups were randomized into new groups based on the voluntary physical activity (with or without running and the type of diet for 12 weeks. Rats were fed standard chow (CTRL, high triglyceride diet (HT, or restricted diet (CR. The metabolic syndrome was assessed by measuring the body weight gain, the glucose sensitivity, and the levels of insulin, triglyceride, leptin, and aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The exercise training combined with the CR resulted in improvements in the glucose tolerance and the insulin sensitivity. Plasma TG, AST, and ALT levels were significantly higher in OVX rats fed with HT but these high values were suppressed by exercise and CR. Compared to SO animals, estrogen deprivation with HT caused a significant increase in leptin level. Our data provide evidence that CR combined with voluntary physical exercise can be a very effective strategy to prevent the development of a metabolic syndrome induced by high calorie diet.

  8. [Hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide)-induced hepatic dysfunction confirmed by drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takayuki; Mori, Takehiko; Karigane, Daiki; Kikuchi, Taku; Koda, Yuya; Toyama, Takaaki; Nakajima, Hideaki; Okamoto, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man with refractory leukemia transformed from myelodysplastic syndrome was placed on hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide) at a daily dose of 500 mg. Because of insufficient cytoreductive efficacy, the dose was increased to 1,500 mg five days later. Eight days after the initiation of hydroxyurea, the patient started complaining of chills, fever, and vomiting. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were markedly elevated to 5,098 and 3,880 IU/l from 44 and 59 IU/l in one day, respectively. Tests for hepatitis viruses were all negative. With the discontinuation of hydroxyurea, AST and ALT returned to their former levels within two weeks. A drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test for hydroxyurea was positive with a stimulating index of 2.0. Hepatic dysfunction has been recognized as one of the side effects of hydroxyurea. However, there have been only a limited number of reports demonstrating drug allergy to have a role in hepatic dysfunction accompanied by fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. The findings of our case strongly suggest that all presentations could be explained by drug allergy. Physicians should be mindful of the potential for acute and severe hepatic dysfunction due to allergic reaction against hydroxyurea.

  9. Protection effect of piper betel leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shun-Chieh; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lin, Jing-Jing; Peng, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2007-01-01

    Piper betel leaves (PBL) are used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. PBL has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antimutation. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of PBL extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in a rat model. Fibrosis and hepatic damage, as reveled by histology and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were induced in rats by an administration of CCl(4) (8%, 1 ml/kg body weight) thrice a week for 4 weeks. PBL extract significantly inhibited the elevated AST and ALT activities caused by CCl(4) intoxication. It also attenuated total glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST alpha isoform activity, and on the other hand, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The histological examination showed the PBL extract protected liver from the damage induced by CCl(4) by decreasing alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-sma) expression, inducing active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression though Ras/Erk pathway, and inhibiting TIMP2 level that consequently attenuated the fibrosis of liver. The data of this study support a chemopreventive potential of PBL against liver fibrosis.

  10. Bio-sample detection on paper-based devices with inkjet printer-sprayed reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wun-Hong; Chu, Chien-Hung; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2015-12-01

    The reagent required for bio-sample detection on paper-based analytical devices is generally introduced manually using a pipette. Such an approach is time-consuming; particularly if a large number of devices are required. Automated methods provide a far more convenient solution for large-scale production, but incur a substantial cost. Accordingly, the present study proposes a low-cost method for the paper-based analytical devices in which the biochemical reagents are sprayed onto the device directly using a modified commercial inkjet printer. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by performing aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) tests using simple two-dimensional (2D) paper-based devices. In both cases, the reaction process is analyzed using an image-processing-based colorimetric method. The experimental results show that for AST detection within the 0-105 U/l concentration range, the optimal observation time is around four minutes, while for ALT detection in the 0-125 U/l concentration range, the optimal observation time is approximately one minute. Finally, for both samples, the detection performance of the sprayed-reagent analytical devices is insensitive to the glucose concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of nitrate poisoning on some biochemical parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of potassium nitrate on glucose, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and the possible ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C. Male Wister rats are used as experimental model divided into three groups (each of 6-8 rats and treated for six weeks as follows: Group 1: served as control; Group 2: received 2 % potassium nitrate added to the forage and Group 3: received 2 % potassium nitrate together with 1 % ascorbic acid added to rat's forage. Nitrate treatment in group 2 leads to high significant increase levels of glucose in 3rd, 4th, and 5th weeks, cholesterol level increased significantly in both 4th and 5th weeks, while ALT levels increased in the 4th, 5th and 6th weeks, and AST increased significantly in the 5th and 6th weeks. Addition of ascorbic acid with potassium nitrate, lead to reverse all the parameters nearly to normal. It was concluded that potassium nitrate causes significant toxic effect on some biochemical parameters which was ameliorated by ascorbic acid.

  12. Asteroids Dynamic Site-AstDyS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The AstDyS online information service (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys/) contains data on numbered and multi - opposition asteroids, including orbital elements, their uncertainty, proper elements, ephemerides with uncertainty, and more. AstDyS also provides additional scientific output computed from the raw observational data. This value added currently includes: more accurate orbits computed with advanced dynamical and observational error model s; their uncertainty, as expressed by the covariance matrix formalism; ephemerides computed on request for each observer, with uncertainty; mean and proper orbital elements (for this output, AstDyS is the primary source worldwide); statistical quality control, providing a rigorous observational error model. All this is available with a sophisticated web interface, providing multiple search functions and online computations as well as complete orbital and residual files. There are several ways in which the A stDyS service could be expanded and improved in the next future, like the explicit classification of asteroids into asteroid families, the classification of resonant asteroids, and an updated self - consistent population model (to be used, e.g., for survey simulations). The IAU Division I endorsed the proposal for AstDyS to become an IAU (permanent) service, which would include the IAU supervision of the AstDyS system, keeping under control the quality of the work and the continuous update under conditions of scientific competition.

  13. Independent predictors of fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Noreen; Afendy, Arian; Stepanova, Maria; Nader, Fatema; Srishord, Manirath; Rafiq, Nila; Goodman, Zachary; Younossi, Zobair

    2009-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease. We investigated factors associated with advanced fibrosis in NAFLD. The study included 432 patients with histologically proven NAFLD (26.8% with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH] and 17.4% with moderate-to severe fibrosis). NASH was defined as steatosis, lobular inflammation, and ballooning degeneration with or without Mallory-Denk bodies and/or fibrosis. Fibrosis was classified into 2 groups: those with no or minimal fibrosis and those with moderate-to-severe fibrosis. Groups were compared using Mann-Whitney and chi-square method analyses. A model was constructed using a stepwise bidirectional method; its predictive power was measured using a 10-fold cross-validation technique. Patients with NASH were more likely to be male (P < .0001); have lower hip-to-waist ratios (P = .03); were less likely to be African American (P = .06); have higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT; P < .0001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; P < .0001), and serum triglycerides (P = .0154), but lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .0001). Patients with moderate-to-severe fibrosis were older (P = .0245); more likely to be male (P = .0189), Caucasian (P = .0382), have diabetes mellitus (P = .0238), and hypertension (P = .0375); and have a lower hip-to-waist ratio (P = .0077) but higher serum AST (P < .0001) and ALT (P < .0001) levels. The multivariate analysis model to predict moderate-to-severe fibrosis included male sex, Caucasian ethnicity, diabetes mellitus, and increased AST and ALT levels (model P value < .0001). In patients with NAFLD, diabetes mellitus and aminotransferase levels are independent predictors of moderate-to-severe fibrosis. They can be used to identify NAFLD patients at risk for advanced fibrosis.

  14. Clinical and laboratory findings in patients with dengue associated with hepatopathy

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    Delso do Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hepatic disorders caused by dengue infection may progress to severe manifestations, including mortality and morbidity. Cytokines are involved in it, such as the migration inhibitory factor of macrophages (MIF, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, natural killer cells (NK, B lymphocytes, and macrophages. METHODS: This study was carried out from January to April 2007 at a public hospital from the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Brazil. Sixty-eight patients were studied concerning hepatic alterations, with 56 reported having classic dengue, 6 with hemorrhagic dengue grade I, and 6 with hemorrhagic dengue grade II. RESULTS: Among the 56 with classic dengue, 83.3% had aspartate aminotransferase (AST alterations, and 69.6% had altered alanine aminotransferase (ALT. For those with hemorrhagic dengue grade I, 100% had AST alterations, and 83.3% had altered ALT. All the patients with hemorrhagic dengue grade II had AST and ALT alterations. AST variations reached 22.0 and 907.0, with an average value of 164.6. For ALT, we found variations between 25.0 and 867.0, with an average value of 166.07. There had been statistical significance between dengue clinical shapes and hepatic function markers. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the infection was predominant in adults, females, and in those with low income and education. The liver enzymes were of larger amount in hemorrhagic dengue, but there was weak statistical evidence of the clinical manifestations and transaminases. Major signs and clinical symptoms were fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, weakness, severe pain behind the eyes, and rashes.

  15. Perfil da aspartato aminotransferase e alanina aminotransferase e biometria do fígado de codornas japonesas

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa,Anderson de Almeida; Müller,Elisa Sialino; Moraes,George Henrique Kling de; Umigi,Regina Tie; Barreto,Sergio Luiz de Toledo; Ferreira,Ronaldo Martins

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se determinar o perfil da aspartato aminotransferase e alanina aminotransferase e a biometria do fígado de codornas poedeiras (Coturnix coturnix japonica) de 1 a 25 dias de idade. Avaliaram-se o peso vivo e o peso do fígado e as atividades das aspartato e alanina aminotransferases no fígado utilizando-se 90 codornas de 1 dia de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis idades e cinco repetições, considerando cada animal uma unidade experimental. Aos 1,...

  16. Analysis of circulating angiopoietin-like protein 3 and genetic variants in lipid metabolism and liver health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Anne Lundby; Carayol, Jérôme; Blædel, Trine

    2018-01-01

    Background: Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), a liver-derived protein, plays an important role in the lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Using data available from the DiOGenes study, we assessed the link with clinical improvements (weight, plasma lipid, and insulin levels) and changes in liver...... markers, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), adiponectin, fetuin A and B, and cytokeratin 18 (CK-18), upon low-calorie diet (LCD) intervention. We also examined the role of genetic variation in determining the level of circulating ANGPTL3 and the relation between the identified...... genetic markers and markers of hepatic steatosis. Methods: DiOGenes is a multicenter, controlled dietary intervention where obese participants followed an 8-week LCD (800 kcal/day, using a meal replacement product). Plasma ANGPTL3 and liver markers were measured using the SomaLogic (Boulder, CO) platform...

  17. Short-term exercise reduces markers of hepatocyte apoptosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fealy, Ciaran E; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    and after the exercise intervention. The Matsuda index was used to assess insulin sensitivity. We observed significant decreases in CK18 fragments (558.4 ± 106.8 vs. 323.4 ± 72.5 U/l, P vs. 24.3 ± 4.8 U/l, P vs. 69...... changes in fat oxidation and circulating sFasL (rho = -0.65, P vs. 17.5 ± 2.1%, NS). We conclude that short-term exercise reduces a circulatory marker of hepatocyte apoptosis in obese individuals with NAFLD and propose that changes....... We therefore examined the effect of a short-term exercise program on markers of apoptosis-plasma cytokeratin 18 (CK18) fragments, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), soluble Fas (sFas), and sFas ligand (sFasL)-in 13 obese individuals with NAFLD [body mass index 35.2 ± 1...

  18. Serum biochemical profile of laying hens in the region of Araçatuba, SPPerfil bioquímico das galinhas poedeiras na região de Araçatuba-SP.

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    Paulo César Ciarlini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of reference values is extremely important for successful diagnosis and treatament. Considering that in most species the serum chemistry profile is influenced by race, climate and management, we decided to determine the values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, uric acid, creatinine, creatine kinase (CK, phosphatase alkaline (ALP, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, total protein (TP and albumin of Dekalb hens in the region of Araçatuba - SP. All samples were processed soon after harvesting in an automatic biochemical analyzer calibrated and monitored with control serum levels I and II. The following confidence intervals were obtained: 44-65,5 U / L (AST; 18,4-21,2 U / L (ALT, 2.1-2.5 mg / dL (uric acid; 1.7 to 5.7 U / L (CK; CI 1.2-2.2 mg / dL (creatinine, 1276-1506 U / L (FA; 18-23,4 U / L (GGT; 27.12 to 29 g / L (PT, from 11.4 to 12.16 g / L (albumin.O estabelecimento de valores bioquímicos de referência é de extrema importância para o sucesso do diagnóstico e do tratamento. Considerando que na maioria das espécies o perfil bioquímico sérico sofre influência de raça, clima e manejo, decidiu-se determinar os valores de aspartato aminotransferase (AST, alanina aminotransferase (ALT, ácido úrico, creatinina, creatina quinase (CK, fostatase alcalina (FA, gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT, proteína total (PT e albumina de galinhas poedeiras da linhagem Dekalb da região de Araçatuba – SP. Todas as amostras foram processadas logo após a colheita em um analisador bioquímico automatizado previamente calibrado e monitorado com soros controles nível I e II. Obtiveram-se os seguintes intervalos de confiança: 44-65,5 U/L (AST; 18,4-21,2 U/L (ALT; 2,1–2,5 mg/dL (ácido úrico ; 1,7– 5,7 U/L (CK ; 1,2–2,2 mg/dL (creatinina; 1276–1506 U/L (FA; 18-23,4 U/L (GGT; 27,12– 29 g/L (PT; 11,4 – 12,16 g/L (albumina.

  19. PLASMA INSULIN AND IGF-1 AND HEPATIC ACTIVITY IN SAANEN GOAT KIDS, AROUND WEANING

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    Damiano Magistrelli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Weaning is a crucial event in the life of young ruminants. At weaning ruminal and digestive activity are still incomplete, so weaning may coincide with a period of growth stasis. Since insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 can play a fundamental role in post-natal development, the aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma variations of insulin and IGF-1 levels and their relationships with the hepatic activity, around weaning.For this purpose, eleven 3-days-old Saanen goat kids were randomly divided into MILK (6 animals and WMIX (5 animals groups. All kids were fed goat milk to age 29 days. After that, MILK kids continued to receive milk, while WMIX ones underwent weaning, based on the progressive replacement of milk with solid feed. WMIX kids were completely weaned on day 48. Blood samples were weekly analyzed for metabolic traits, insulin and IGF-1 levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities. On day 50, all animals were slaughtered, liver weight was recorded and liver samples were analyzed for DNA, RNA, phospholipids, glicogen and soluble protein content, ALT and AST activity.On day 50, plasma insulin and IGF-1 were lower in WMIX group, as possible consequence of the lower plasma glucose and amino acids levels. Liver weight was not different between groups, but liver weight expressed as percentage of body weight was lower in WMIX kids and highly correlated to plasma IGF-1. Liver glycogen was also lower in WMIX kids, as possible consequence of the lower plasma glucose.Hepatic ALT and AST activities were not different between groups and both were strongly correlated to plasma insulin. Moreover, insulin was positively correlated to the proteosynthetic capability per cell (RNA/DNA of the liver.Our results indicate that the adopted livestock practice permitted the normal development of the animal used, avoiding growth stasis. Anyway, weaning altered plasma insulin and IGF-1, without affecting

  20. Evaluation of hepatocyte-derived microRNA-122 for diagnosis of acute and chronic hepatitis of dogs

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    S. R. Eman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of hepatocyte-derived microRNA (miRNA-122 in acute and chronic hepatitis of dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 26 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, 16 dogs out of 26 showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinical, ultrasonographic, hematobiochemical and ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy for cytological and histopathological investigations. On the basis of these results, 7 dogs out of 16 dogs were found to be suffering from acute hepatitis and 9 dogs suffering from chronic hepatitis. 10 clinically healthy dogs were kept as control. Serum hepatocyte-derived miRNA-122 was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in all dogs. Results: The dogs suffering from acute hepatitis manifested jaundice, vomiting, and depression while dogs with chronic hepatitis manifested anorexia, abdominal distension, weight loss, and melena. Hematological parameters showed normocytic normochromic anemia and thrombocytopenia in both acute and chronic hepatitis groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin were significantly higher than control values in acute hepatitis. In chronic hepatitis, total protein and albumin were significantly lower than control values with normal ALT, AST, ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase values. Ultrasonography revealed a diffuse decrease in hepatic echogenicity in acute hepatitis while the increase in hepatic echogenicity and anechoic ascetic fluid in chronic hepatitis. Cytology revealed hepatic vacuolar degeneration and histopathology revealed necrosis and apoptosis of hepatocyte in acute hepatitis while revealed massive fibrous tissue proliferation in hepatic parenchyma in chronic hepatitis. Serum miRNA-122 analysis, normalized for glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase expression

  1. Semen quality, lipid peroxidation, and seminal plasma antioxidant status in horses with different intensities of physical exercise

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    Helena Härtlová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare markers of semen quality, sperm membrane damage, and the seminal plasma antioxidant activity in warmblood stallions with and without sport workload stress. Four stallions were used for breeding only (control and four both for breeding and competition in jumping. Semen samples were collected at 14-day intervals (from June to August from each stallion (5 ejaculates per stallion. Immediately after sperm collection, a conventional examination of the ejaculate was processed. Catalytic activities of enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanin aminotransferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and indicator of lipoperoxidation - F2α isoprostanes were measured in samples of seminal plasma. Contrary to basic semen quality indicators, the values of seminal plasma pH, aspartate aminotransferase and alanin aminotransferase were significantly (P 2α isoprostanes and the activity of superoxide dismutase were significantly (P 0.05 increased by stress. The antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathion peroxidase increased during the monitored period and reflected changes in F2α isoprostane concentration. We can conclude that even the conventional basic sperm indicators stay within the reference ranges of the biochemical indicators of seminal plasma such as pH or AST/ALT activity may be negatively influenced by sport workload stress. Increased concentrations of F2α isoprostanes indicate that lipoperoxidation can be a mechanism of cell membrane destabilization, which is counteracted by an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. This is the first report of oxidative stress symptoms in normospermic equine semen in relation to stallion sport workload.

  2. Inhibition of glutamine synthesis induces glutamate dehydrogenase-dependent ammonia fixation into alanine in co-cultures of astrocytes and neurons.

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    Dadsetan, Sherry; Bak, Lasse K; Sørensen, Michael; Keiding, Susanne; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Ott, Peter; Leke, Renata; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2011-09-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that ammonia exposure of neurons and astrocytes in co-culture leads to net synthesis not only of glutamine but also of alanine. The latter process involves the concerted action of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT). In the present study it was investigated if the glutamine synthetase (GS) inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) would enhance alanine synthesis by blocking the GS-dependent ammonia scavenging process. Hence, co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes were incubated for 2.5h with [U-(13)C]glucose to monitor de novo synthesis of alanine and glutamine in the absence and presence of 5.0 mM NH(4)Cl and 10 mM MSO. Ammonia exposure led to increased incorporation of label but not to a significant increase in the amount of these amino acids. However, in the presence of MSO, glutamine synthesis was blocked and synthesis of alanine increased leading to an elevated content intra- as well as extracellularly of this amino acid. Treatment with MSO led to a dramatic decrease in glutamine content and increased the intracellular contents of glutamate and aspartate. The large increase in alanine during exposure to MSO underlines the importance of the GDH and ALAT biosynthetic pathway for ammonia fixation, and it points to the use of a GS inhibitor to ameliorate the brain toxicity and edema induced by hyperammonemia, events likely related to glutamine synthesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake with normal liver enzymes in HIV-HCV infected individuals: results from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study.

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    Carrieri, M Patrizia; Lions, Caroline; Sogni, Philippe; Winnock, Maria; Roux, Perrine; Mora, Marion; Bonnard, Philippe; Salmon, Dominique; Dabis, François; Spire, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to investigate whether polyphenol rich food intake through coffee and/or daily chocolate consumption could play a role in reducing liver enzymes levels. Longitudinal data collection included self-administered questionnaires and medical data (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver enzymes). Two analyses were performed to assess the association between coffee (≥3 cups a day) and daily chocolate intake and abnormal values of AST and ALT (AST or ALT >2.5 × upper normal limit (UNL)) (N=990) over time, after adjustment for known correlates. Logistic regression models based on generalized estimating equations were used to take into account the correlations between repeated measures and estimate adjusted odds ratio. After adjustment, patients reporting elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake were less likely to present abnormal ALT (OR=0.65; p=0.04 and OR=0.57; p=0.04, for coffee and chocolate respectively), while only patients reporting elevated coffee consumption were less likely to have abnormal AST values (p=0.05). Nevertheless, the combined indicator of coffee and chocolate intake was most significantly associated with approximately 40% reduced risk of abnormal liver enzymes (p=0.003 for AST; p=0.002 for ALT). Elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake appear to be associated with reduced levels of liver enzymes in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Further experimental and observational research is needed to better understand the role that polyphenol intake or supplementation can play on liver disease and liver injury. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of isotretinoin on triglycerides and liver aminotransferases Influência da isotretinoína nas transaminases hepáticas e triglicerídeos

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    Andreia Salezze Vieira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isotretinoin has been used to treat the most severe cases of acne; however, it may provoke adverse events in mucocutaneous and hepatic tissues, lead to alterations in lipid levels and cause teratogenicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and triglyceride levels in patients who had been treated with oral isotretinoin dispensed by the São Mateus/ES pharmacy for special drugs. METHODS: A retrospective, observational, longitudinal study was conducted by carrying out a secondary analysis of each patient's data. RESULTS: Of the 130 patients who received isotretinoin between January and December 2009, only 70 were actually treated for 3 months or more and handed in the results of their laboratory tests. Of these 70 patients, 39 (55.7% were female. The mean age of the women (23.9 years was higher than the mean age of the men (20.1 years. There was a statistically significant increase in the levels of triglycerides (87.01 ± 48.25 versus 105.32 ± 48.76 mg/dL, AST (20.44 ± 6.26 versus 24.38 ± 11.92 U/L and ALT (18.24 ± 8.31 versus 23.34 ± 20.03 U/L performed prior to and 3 months or more after oral isotretinoin treatment. After treatment with oral isotretinoin, triglyceride levels had increased beyond the normal range in 11% of the patients, while 8.6% had elevated AST levels and 7.3% had increased ALT levels. CONCLUSION: The results in this population show that the use of oral isotretinoin for the treatment of acne may result in altered triglyceride, AST and ALT levels. These findings are in accordance with data published previously in the scientific literature, confirming the need to monitor these patients.FUNDAMENTOS: A isotretinoína tem sido usada no tratamento dos casos mais graves de acne, embora possa induzir reações adversas nos tecidos mucocutâneos e hepáticos, alterações nos níveis lipídicos e

  5. Valor preditivo de marcadores séricos de fibrose hepática em pacientes portadores de hepatite crônica viral C Predictive value of serum markers of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C

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    Leila Maria Soares Tojal de Barros Lima

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os marcadores séricos têm sido empregados na avaliação da fibrose hepática em pacientes portadores de hepatite crônica C (HCC. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a capacidade do índice aspartato aminotransferase (AST/alanina aminotransferase (ALT, dos níveis séricos de gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT, contagem de plaquetas, do índice AST/plaquetas (APRI e do ácido hialurônico (AH em predizer a intensidade da fibrose hepática na HCC e a variação desses marcadores após tratamento com interferon. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Em 72 pacientes portadores de hepatite C determinamos no soro o índice AST/ALT, GGT, plaquetas, índice APRI (obtido pelo quociente AST/plaquetas e o AH, que foram comparados ao estadiamento histológico, segundo os critérios de METAVIR. Receberam tratamento com interferon e ribavirina 65 pacientes. Os indivíduos que concluíram o tratamento (n = 33 realizaram nova dosagem dos marcadores séricos de fibrose para comparar com os níveis pré-tratamento. RESULTADOS: Observamos que a GGT, a contagem de plaquetas, o índice APRI e o AH se correlacionaram com estádio de doença hepática (p INTRODUCTION: Serum markers have been used in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC. AIMS: We evaluated the capacity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST/alanine aminotransferase (ALT ratio, gama-glutamyltransferase (GGT levels, platelet count, the AST to platelet ratio index (APRI and serum hyaluronic acid (HA to predict the intensity of hepatic fibrosis in patients with CHC and the variation of these markers after therapy with interferon. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 72 patients with hepatitis C, AST/ALT ratio, GGT levels, platelet count, the APRI index (calculated as the ratio of AST to platelets and serum HA concentration were determined and compared to histological staging according to the scoring system of METAVIR. Sixty-five patients received interferon and ribavirin therapy. The individuals that

  6. The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats

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    Nazan Keskin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay.In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups.The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. 

  7. DETERMINAÇÃO DOS VALORES MÉDIOS DAS ENZIMAS AST, DHL, gGT E FAS NO SORO DE EQUINOS SADIOS EM SANTA MARIA, RS

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    Sônia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram usados 50 eqüinos sadios provenientes do Batalhão de Polícia Montada da Brigada Militar em Santa Maria, RS, sendo 43 machos e 7 fêmeas com idade variadas a partir de 3 anos. Foram colhidos 10ml de sangue da jugular para determinação dos valores da atividade sérica das enzimas aspartato-aminotransferase (AST, desidrogenase lática (DHL, gama-glutamiltransferase (gGT e fosfatase alcalina sérica (FAS. Os resultados encontrados para AST foi de 101 - 190U/I com média de 130UI; DHL foi de 100 - 421 U/l com média de 182U/I; gGT foi de 2 - 27U/I com média de 6.5U/I e FAS foi de 103 - 335U/I com média de 190U/I. A partir de outubro/1992 estes valores passaram a ser referência no laboratório de Patologia Clínica do Hospital de Clinicas Veterinárias da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria.

  8. Possible hepatotoxic consequence of nevirapine use in juvenile albino rats

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    Elias Adikwu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nevirapine (NVP is used in human immunodeficiency virus exposed neonates. This could present safety concern due to decreased liver metabolizing enzymes activity and renal clearance in neonates. Aims: To determine the hepatotoxic effect of NVP in juvenile albino rats. Methods: Juvenile albino rats were weighed, divided into groups and treated orally with 4-32 mg/kg/day of NVP for 14 days including a recovery group. The control groups were treated with water (placebo and normal saline (solvent. At the end of NVP treatment, rats were weighed and sacrificed, blood was collected and serum extracted. Serum was analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin (TB and conjugated bilirubin (CB. The liver was harvested via dissection, weighed and evaluated for AST, ALT, ALP, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA levels and histological damage. Results: The body, absolute and relative liver weights of rats in NVP treated groups were not significantly different (p>0.05 when compared to placebo. However, serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, TB and CB were significantly increased (p<0.05 in a dose-dependent manner in NVP-treated groups. Furthermore, liver levels of ALT, ALP, AST and MDA were significantly increased (p<0.05 while SOD, CAT, and GSH were decreased in a dose dependent manner in NVP-treated groups. NVP-treated rats were characterized by varying degrees of hepatic morphological alterations. However, in the recovery group, the effects of NVP were reversed. Conclusions: This study observed dose-dependent and reversible hepatotoxicity in nevirapine- treated juvenile albino rats.

  9. Refeeding with a high-protein diet after a 48 h fast causes acute hepatocellular injury in mice.

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    Oarada, Motoko; Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Nikawa, Takeshi; Kohno, Shohei; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Gonoi, Tohru

    2012-05-01

    Elucidating the effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting on disease development is of interest in relation to excessive protein ingestion and irregular eating habits in developed countries. The objective of the present study was to address the hepatic effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting. Mice were fasted for 48 h and then refed with a test diet containing 3, 15, 35, 40, 45 or 50 % casein. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and liver immediate-early gene expression levels were sequentially measured for the first 24 h after initiation of refeeding. Refeeding with a 50 % casein diet after 48 h of fasting led to a rapid (within 2-3 h) and abnormal elevation in serum ALT (P = 0·006) and AST (P = 0·001) activities and a marked increase in liver Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ) osteosarcoma oncogene (P = 0·007) and nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (P = 0·002) mRNA levels. In contrast, refeeding of the 3, 15 or 35 % casein diets produced no substantial increases in serum ALT and AST activities in mice. Refeeding of 40, 45 or 50 % casein increased serum ALT and AST activities in proportion to this dietary casein content. In mice refed the 3, 15 or 35, but not 50 %, casein diets, liver heat shock protein 72 transcript levels greatly increased. We conclude from these data that the consumption of a high-protein diet after fasting causes acute hepatocellular injury in healthy animals, and propose that careful attention should be paid to the use of such diets.

  10. Amelioration of cadmium-induced changes in biochemical parameters of the muscle of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio by Vitamin C and Chitosan

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    Mahdi Banaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of administering antioxidants, including vitamin C and chitosan on oxidative stress markers in muscle as edible tissues of Cyprinus carpio exposed to cadmium chloride. In this experiment, by exposing to 0.2 mg/L cadmium chloride for 21 days, fish were fed a normal diet, diet containing chitosan (1000 mg/kg diet, vitamin C (1000 mg/kg diet or both vitamin C and chitosan. Oxidative stress markers, including the activity of catalase, total antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA as well as biochemical parameters, including the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE were measured. Fish exposure to cadmium chloride significantly increased AST, LDH, CPK, catalase, and MDA activity, while it significantly decreased AST and AChE activity, and levels of total antioxidant in muscle cells. Administration of chitosan or vitamin C alone or in combination with each other to fish exposed to cadmium chloride was effective in regulating ALT, CPK, and catalase activity. Although administration of vitamin C and chitosan caused a significant decrease in MDA, AST and LDH, these enzymes were still significantly higher than those in the control group. Administration of vitamin C and chitosan had no significant effects on the activity of AChE and levels of total antioxidant. Although, chitosan alone could not prevent oxidative stress damages in muscle tissues of cadmium-treated fish, administration of vitamin C combined with chitosan may increase the efficiency of antioxidant defense system and improve the detoxification system in the muscles of fish exposed to cadmium chloride.

  11. Brain alanine formation as an ammonia-scavenging pathway during hyperammonemia: effects of glutamine synthetase inhibition in rats and astrocyte–neuron co-cultures

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    Dadsetan, Sherry; Kukolj, Eva; Bak, Lasse K; Sørensen, Michael; Ott, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Schousboe, Arne; Keiding, Susanne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2013-01-01

    Hyperammonemia is a major etiological toxic factor in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. Brain ammonia detoxification occurs primarily in astrocytes by glutamine synthetase (GS), and it has been proposed that elevated glutamine levels during hyperammonemia lead to astrocyte swelling and cerebral edema. However, ammonia may also be detoxified by the concerted action of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) leading to trapping of ammonia in alanine, which in vivo likely leaves the brain. Our aim was to investigate whether the GS inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) enhances incorporation of 15NH4+ in alanine during acute hyperammonemia. We observed a fourfold increased amount of 15NH4 incorporation in brain alanine in rats treated with MSO. Furthermore, co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes exposed to 15NH4Cl in the absence or presence of MSO demonstrated a dose-dependent incorporation of 15NH4 into alanine together with increased 15N incorporation in glutamate. These findings provide evidence that ammonia is detoxified by the concerted action of GDH and ALAT both in vivo and in vitro, a mechanism that is accelerated in the presence of MSO thereby reducing the glutamine level in brain. Thus, GS could be a potential drug target in the treatment of hyperammonemia in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23673435

  12. Brain alanine formation as an ammonia-scavenging pathway during hyperammonemia: effects of glutamine synthetase inhibition in rats and astrocyte-neuron co-cultures.

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    Dadsetan, Sherry; Kukolj, Eva; Bak, Lasse K; Sørensen, Michael; Ott, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Schousboe, Arne; Keiding, Susanne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2013-08-01

    Hyperammonemia is a major etiological toxic factor in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. Brain ammonia detoxification occurs primarily in astrocytes by glutamine synthetase (GS), and it has been proposed that elevated glutamine levels during hyperammonemia lead to astrocyte swelling and cerebral edema. However, ammonia may also be detoxified by the concerted action of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) leading to trapping of ammonia in alanine, which in vivo likely leaves the brain. Our aim was to investigate whether the GS inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) enhances incorporation of (15)NH4(+) in alanine during acute hyperammonemia. We observed a fourfold increased amount of (15)NH4 incorporation in brain alanine in rats treated with MSO. Furthermore, co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes exposed to (15)NH4Cl in the absence or presence of MSO demonstrated a dose-dependent incorporation of (15)NH4 into alanine together with increased (15)N incorporation in glutamate. These findings provide evidence that ammonia is detoxified by the concerted action of GDH and ALAT both in vivo and in vitro, a mechanism that is accelerated in the presence of MSO thereby reducing the glutamine level in brain. Thus, GS could be a potential drug target in the treatment of hyperammonemia in patients with hepatic encephalopathy.

  13. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

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    Hao, Lijun; Xie, Yuxi; Wu, Guikai; Cheng, Aibin; Liu, Xiaogang; Zheng, Rongjuan; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEM) on liver injury induced by acute alcohol administration in mice. Mice received ethanol (5 g/kg BW) by gavage every 12 hrs for a total of 3 doses. HEM (200 mg/kg BW) was gavage before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level, Maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS), and activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. HEM administration markedly (P < 0.05) decreased serum ALT, AST, and MDA levels. The hepatic histopathological observations showed that HEM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. In conclusion, we observed that HEM (200 mg/kg BW) supplementation could restrain the hepatic damage caused by acute alcohol exposure.

  14. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

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    Lijun Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEM on liver injury induced by acute alcohol administration in mice. Mice received ethanol (5 g/kg BW by gavage every 12 hrs for a total of 3 doses. HEM (200 mg/kg BW was gavage before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST level, Maleic dialdehyde (MDA level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS, and activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. HEM administration markedly (P<0.05 decreased serum ALT, AST, and MDA levels. The hepatic histopathological observations showed that HEM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. In conclusion, we observed that HEM (200 mg/kg BW supplementation could restrain the hepatic damage caused by acute alcohol exposure.

  15. Defining the optimal cut-off values for liver enzymes in diagnosing blunt liver injury.

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    Koyama, Tomohide; Hamada, Hirohisa; Nishida, Masamichi; Naess, Paal A; Gaarder, Christine; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-01-25

    Patients with blunt trauma to the liver have elevated levels of liver enzymes within a short time post injury, potentially useful in screening patients for computed tomography (CT). This study was performed to define the optimal cut-off values for serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in patients with blunt liver injury diagnosed with contrast enhanced multi detector-row CT (CE-MDCT). All patients admitted from May 2006 to July 2013 to Teikyo University Hospital Trauma and Critical Care Center, and who underwent abdominal CE-MDCT within 3 h after blunt trauma, were retrospectively enrolled. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the optimal cut-off values for AST and ALT were defined, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Of a total of 676 blunt trauma patients 64 patients were diagnosed with liver injury (Group LI+) and 612 patients without liver injury (Group LI-). Group LI+ and LI- were comparable for age, Revised Trauma Score, and Probability of survival. The groups differed in Injury Severity Score [median 21 (interquartile range 9-33) vs. 17 (9-26) (p tool for CT scan in patients otherwise eligible for observation only or as a transfer criterion to a facility with CT scan capability.

  16. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines.

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    Zong, L; Yu, Q H; Du, Y X; Deng, X M

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis.

  17. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines

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    Zong, L. [Second Military Medical University, Changhai Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai, China, Department of Anesthesiology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); No. 82 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Department of Anesthesiology, Jiangsu, China, Department of Anesthesiology, No. 82 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Jiangsu (China); Yu, Q. H. [Second Military Medical University, Changhai Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai, China, Department of Gastroenterology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Du, Y. X. [No. 82 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Department of Anesthesiology, Jiangsu, China, Department of Anesthesiology, No. 82 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Jiangsu (China); Deng, X. M. [Second Military Medical University, Changhai Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai, China, Department of Anesthesiology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-03-03

    Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis.

  18. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong, L.; Yu, Q.H.; Du, Y.X.; Deng, X.M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis

  19. Nutritional prognostic scores in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma treated by percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting combined with 125I seed intracavitary irradiation: A retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peiyuan; Pang, Qing; Wang, Yong; Qian, Zhen; Hu, Xiaosi; Wang, Wei; Li, Zongkuang; Zhou, Lei; Man, Zhongran; Yang, Song; Jin, Hao; Liu, Huichun

    2018-06-01

    We mainly aimed to preliminarily explore the prognostic values of nutrition-based prognostic scores in patients with advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA).We retrospectively analyzed 73 cases of HCCA, who underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (PTBS) combined with I seed intracavitary irradiation from November 2012 to April 2017 in our department. The postoperative changes of total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and albumin (ALB) were observed. The preoperative clinical data were collected to calculate the nutrition-based scores, including controlling nutritional status (CONUT), C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI). Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox regression model were used for overall survival (OS) analyses.The serum levels of TBIL, DBIL, ALT, AST, and ALP significantly reduced, and ALB significantly increased at 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. The median survival time of the cohort was 12 months and the 1-year survival rate was 53.1%. Univariate analysis revealed that the statistically significant factors related to OS were CA19-9, TBIL, ALB, CONUT, and PNI. Multivariate analysis further identified CA19-9, CONUT, and PNI as independent prognostic factors.Nutrition-based prognostic scores, CONUT and PNI in particular, can be used as predictors of survival in unresectable HCCA.

  20. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

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    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  1. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Bauhinia hookeri extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice and characterization of its bioactive compounds by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, Eman; Martiskainen, Olli; Seif el-Din, Sayed H; Sabra, Abdel-Nasser A; Hammam, Olfat A; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2014-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Bauhinia hookeri ethanol extract (BHE) against CCl4-induced liver injury was investigated in mice. BHE was administered (500 and 1000 mg/kg/day) along with CCl4 for 6 weeks. The hepatic marker enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in the serum. The antioxidant parameters: glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated in the liver homogenate. BHE treatment significantly inhibited the CCl4-induced increase in ALT (44 and 64%), AST (36 and 46%), ALP (28 and 42%), and MDA (39 and 51%) levels at the tested doses, respectively. Moreover, BHE treatment markedly increased the activity of antioxidant parameters GSH, GPx, GR, GST, and SOD. Histological observations confirmed the strong hepatoprotective activity. These results suggest that a dietary supplement of BHE could exert a beneficial effect against oxidative stress and various liver diseases by enhancing the antioxidant defense status, reducing lipid peroxidation, and protecting against the pathological changes of the liver. The hepatoprotective activity of BHE is mediated, at least in part, by the antioxidant effect of its constituents. The active constituents of BHE were identified by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS/MS.

  2. Effects of fumonisin B1 on selected biological responses and performance of broiler chickens

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    Ricardo H. Rauber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of three doses of fumonisin B1 (0, 100, and 200mg/kg of feed on biological variables (relative weight of liver [RWL], total plasma protein [TPP], albumin [Alb], calcium [Ca], phosphorus [P], uric acid [UA], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma glutamyltransferase [GGT], alkaline phosphatase [AP], total cholesterol [Chol], triglycerides [Tri], sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratio [SA:SO], and C-reactive protein [CRP], morphological evaluation of the small intestine (villus height [VH], crypt depth [CD], and villus-to-crypt ratio [V:C], histological evaluation, and on performance (body weight [BW], feed intake [FI], and feed conversion rate [FCR] of broiler chickens. Significant effects of FB were observed on BW and FI (reduced, on RWL, TPP, Ca, ALT, AST, GGT, Chol, and Tri (increased at both 14 and 28 days evaluations. In addition, significant increase was observed on FCR, Alb, P, SA:SO, and CRP and significant reduction in UA, VH, and V:C only at the 28 days evaluation. Significant histological lesions were observed on liver and kidney of FB inoculated broilers at 14 and 28 days. Those results show that FB has a significant effect on biological and histological variables and on performance of broiler chickens.

  3. Hepatocurative potential of sesquiterpene lactones of Taraxacum officinale on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, A; Jeyachandran, R; Cindrella, L; Thangadurai, D; Veerapur, V P; Muralidhara Rao, D

    2010-06-01

    The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The diagnostic markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin contents were significantly elevated, whereas significant reduction in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation, liver weight and liver protein were observed in CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Post-treatment with ETO and SL significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the lower levels of hepatic enzyme markers, such as serum transaminase (ALT, AST), ALP and total bilirubin. Further, significant reduction in the liver weight and liver protein in drug-treated hepatotoxic mice and also reduced oxidative stress by increasing reduced glutathione content and decreasing lipid peroxidation level has been noticed. The histopathological evaluation of the liver also revealed that ETO and SL reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl 4 . The results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones have a protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by the administration of CCl 4 in mice. Furthermore, observed activity of SL may be due to the synergistic action of two sesquiterpene lactones identified from enriched ethyl acetate fraction by HPLC method.

  4. A vegetarian diet does not protect against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A cross-sectional study between Buddhist priests and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Hun; Oh, Dong Jun; Kwon, Ki Hwan; Lee, Jun Kyu; Koh, Moon Soo; Lee, Jin Ho; Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2015-07-01

    There is limited data that supports a role for a vegetarian diet in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between vegetarian diets and NAFLD, considering metabolic syndrome and obesity. This is a cross-sectional, retrospective study comparing the prevalence of NAFLD of 615 Buddhist priests and age-, sex-, Body mass index (BMI)-and presence/absence of metabolic syndrome-matched controls who underwent routine health checkups in a health promotion center. Diagnosis and severity of NAFLD was determined based on ultrasonographic findings. The prevalence of NAFLD was not statistically significantly different between the Buddhist priests and the general population (29.9% vs. 25.05%, p=0.055). The Buddhist priest group had higher serum albumin, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum triglyceride levels and lower serum total bilirubin, serum fasting glucose, and serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels than the general population group. In univariate analysis and multivariate analysis, NAFLD was associated with old age, male gender, increased BMI, increased waist circumference, metabolic syndrome, high albumin, high glucose, high AST, high ALT, high gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), high triglycerides, low HDL, high low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high total cholesterol. The vegetarian diet does not protect against NAFLD.

  5. Safety Assessment of a New Pigmented Safflower Seed Coat (A82 by a Feeding Study on Rat

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    Soraya Karami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is an annual herbaceous plant, cultivated mainly for the seed which is used for edible oil extraction and bird feeding. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of a new pigmented variety of safflower (A82 seeds. The results showed that oral administration of A82 seeds significantly increased the body weight of male rats in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Biochemical tests showed that A82 seeds significantly increased the serum levels of AST (Aspartate aminotransferase (p<0.05, slightly reduced the serum levels of ALT (Alanine aminotransferase and significantly reduced ALP (p<0.05 levels in a dose dependent manner. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen and Cr (Creatinine were not significantly changed in A82 seed treated groups. Also, testosterone levels were not significantly changed by administration of different doses of A82. However, Johnson scoring showed slightly decrease in experimental groups. No organ weight or histological changes were observed in liver, kidney, spleen, heart and brain of A82 seed treated animals. These results indicate that A82 seeds have not any toxic effects in Wistar rats. Future studies are required to clarify the exact mechanism by which A82 seeds alter AST levels and body weight in rat.

  6. Protective Effect of Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Nancy Sayuri; Silva-Filho, Saulo Euclides; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Wiirzler, Luiz Alexandre Marques; Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; Cavalcante, Heitor Augusto Otaviano; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Becker, Tânia Cristina Alexandrino; Silva, Expedito Leite; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus or lemongrass essential oil (LGO), it was used in an animal model of acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP). Swiss mice were pretreated with LGO (125, 250 and 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and SLM (standard drug, 200[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for a duration of seven days, followed by the induction of hepatotoxicity of APAP (single dose, 250[Formula: see text]mg/kg). The liver function markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase were determined to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of the LGO. The livers were used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide (NO) production and histological analysis. The effect of LGO on leukocyte migration was evaluated in vitro. Anti-oxidant activity was performed by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro. LGO pretreatment decreased significantly the levels of ALT, AST and ALP compared with APAP group. MPO activity and NO production were decreased. The histopathological analysis showed an improved of hepatic lesions in mice after LGO pretreatment. LGO inhibited neutrophil migration and exhibited anti-oxidant activity. Our results suggest that LGO has protective activity against liver toxicity induced by paracetamol.

  7. Hematology, plasma biochemistry, and tissue enzyme activities of invasive red lionfish captured off North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E T; Stoskopf, M K; Morris, J A; Clarke, E O; Harms, C A

    2010-12-01

    The red lionfish Pterois volitans is important not only in the aquarium trade but also as an invasive species in the western Atlantic. Introduced to waters off the southeastern coast of the United States, red lionfish have rapidly spread along much of the East Coast and throughout Bermuda, the Bahamas, and much of the Caribbean. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were evaluated in red lionfish captured from the offshore waters of North Carolina to establish baseline parameters for individual and population health assessment. Blood smears were evaluated for total and differential white blood cell counts, and routine clinical biochemical profiles were performed on plasma samples. To improve the interpretive value of routine plasma biochemistry profiles, tissue enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT], lactate dehydrogenase [LD], and creatine kinase [CK]) were analyzed from liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract, and heart tissues from five fish. The hematological and plasma biochemical values were similar to those of other marine teleosts except that the estimated white blood cell counts were much lower than those routinely found in many species. The tissue enzyme activity findings suggest that plasma LD, CK, and AST offer clinical relevance in the assessment of red lionfish.

  8. Protection of Liver as a Remote Organ after Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Renal Ischemic Postconditioning

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    Behjat Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of local renal ischemic postconditioning (POC on liver damage after renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. Male rats were divided into three groups  (n=8. They underwent a right nephrectomy before induction of 45 minutes of left kidney ischemia or sham operation. POC was performed by four cycles of 10 seconds of ischemia and 10 seconds of reperfusion just at the beginning of 24 hours of reperfusion. Then blood and liver samples were collected to measure serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and liver oxidative stress parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA level. Renal IR caused a significant increase in liver functional indices as demonstrated by increased serum AST and ALT compared to sham group. These parameters reduced significantly in POC group compared to IR group. Liver MDA levels increased and SOD activity decreased in IR group compared to sham group. Induction of POC reduced the elevated liver MDA levels and increased the reduced liver SOD activity. These results revealed that renal IR injury causes liver damage as a remote organ and POC protects liver from renal IR injury by a modification in the hepatic oxidative stress status.

  9. Evaluation of the Hepatoprotective Effects of Lantadene A, a Pentacyclic Triterpenoid of Lantana Plants against Acetaminophen-induced Liver Damage

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    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of lantadene A against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice was studied. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin, along with histo-pathological analysis. Silymarin was used as positive control. A bimodal pattern of behavioural toxicity was exhibited by the lantadene A-treated group at the beginning of the treatment. However, treatment with lantadene A and silymarin resulted in an increase in the liver weight compared with the acetaminophen treated group. The results of the acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiments showed that mice treated with lantadene A (500 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in the activity of ALT, AST and ALP and the level of bilirubin, which were all elevated in the acetaminophen treated group (p < 0.05. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and a maximum improvement in the histoarchitecture was seen. The lantadene A-treated group showed remarkable protective effects against histopathological alterations, with comparable results to the silymarin treated group. The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of lantadene A against the model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen, which is likely related to its potent antioxidative activity.

  10. A Retrospective Mid- and Long-term Follow-up Study on the Changes in Hematologic Parameters in the Highly Exposed Residents of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in Taean, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Hyun; Hong, Jee-Young; Lee, Moo-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze changes in hematologic parameters in the residents of the areas highly contaminated by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in 2007 and those who participated in the clean-up activities. Methods According to demographic characteristics, health status and behavior, and level of exposure to oil, we compared the hematologic results in 2009 and 2012 among 701 residents. The hematologic parameters were composed of white blood cell (WBC) count, and levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit (Hct), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), total cholesterol (T-chol), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG). Results Paired t-test revealed that the WBC count and levels of Hct, AST, ALT, glucose, and HbA1c significantly increased, whereas the BUN, Cr, HDL, and TG levels significantly decreased. Multiple linear regression modelling showed a relationship between the level of exposure to oil and temporal changes in Hct, glucose, HbA1c, and BUN levels. Conclusion Our results suggest a relationship between level of exposure to oil and changes in hematologic parameters over 3 years. Further studies should be conducted to determine the impact of oil spill on health such as the occurrence of diseases. PMID:29164048

  11. [Discussion of Chinese syndrome typing in acute hepatic failure model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-liang; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Xian-bo

    2011-05-01

    To study Chinese syndrome typing of acute hepatic failure (AHF) mice model by screening effective formulae. Lipoplysaccharides (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GaIN) was intraperitoneally injected to mice to establish the AHF mice model. Yinchenhao Decoction, Huanglian Jiedu Decoction, Buzhong Yiqi Decoction, and Xijiao Dihuang Decoction were administered to model mice respectively by gastrogavage. The behavior and the survival rate were monitored. The liver function and pathological changes of liver tissues were detected. In all the tested classic recipes, the survival rate was elevated from 10% to 60% by administration of Xijiao Dihuang Decoction. Five h after modeling, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was (183.95 +/- 52.00) U/L, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (235.70 +/- 34.03) U/L in Xijiao Di-huang Decoction Group, lower than those of the model control group, but with insignificant difference (ALT: 213.32 +/- 71.93 U/L; AST: 299.48 +/- 70.56 U/L, both P > 0.05). Xijiao Dihuang Decoction could obviously alleviate the liver injury. Xijiao Dihuang Decoction was an effective formula for LPS/D-GaIN induced AHF model. According to syndrome typing through formula effect, heat toxin and blood stasis syndrome dominated in the LPS/D-GalN induced AHF mice model.

  12. Biochemical and cellularchanges in Oreochromis niloticus related to the water pollution of a degraded river - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.13207

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    Ary Gomes da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polluted water at three sites in the Marinho River, Brazil, on Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilápia were investigated using histological, hematological and biochemical approaches. Fish exposed to the impacted water demonstrated that histological changes in gills were accompanied by nuclear and micronuclei abnormalities in cells. The activity of liver and plasma biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and liver glutathione S-transferase (GST showed an expressive change due to the. The results were also correlated with the highest levels of Cu+2, Zn+2 and Mn+2 in the water. The data of this study evidenced the importance of using a set of biomarkers to quantify pollution in lentic ecosystems. Additionally, histological analyses of gills and erythrocytes have proven to be an important instrument for signaling the impact of pollutants in rivers.  

  13. Protective effects of tropisetron on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Reza; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Rashidian, Amir; Kazmi, Sareh; Jafarian, Amir Hossein; Karimi, Gholamreza; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2017-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) causes morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of tropisetron against AP induced by cerulein. Cerulein (50μg/kg, 5 doses) was used to induce AP in mice. Six hours after final cerulein injection, animals were decapitated. Hepatic/pancreatic enzymes in the serum, pancreatic content of malondialdehyde (MDA), pro-inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. Tropisetron significantly attenuated pancreatic injury markers and decreased the amount of elevated serum amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), MPO activities and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels caused by AP in mice. Tropisetron didn't affect the pancreatic levels of MDA. Our results suggest that tropisetron could attenuate cerulein-induced AP by combating inflammatory signaling. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm its efficacy in patients with AP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The Possible Efficacy of Artichoke in Fluconazole Related Hepatotoxicity

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    Hüseyin Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although fluconazole related hepatotoxicity (FRH is rare, mortal acute hepatic necrosis and jaundice were reported in immunocompromised states such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and bone marrow transplant (BMT. We present a case of a patient with multiple sclerosis who developed hepatotoxicity with the use of a single 150 mg fluconazole tablet for fungal vaginitis, 10 days after methylprednisolone pulse treatment. Our patient’s alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels were decreased, 1200 U/L and 800 U/L, respectively, and bilirubin levels were consistent at 37 mg/dL. Artichoke which has anticholestatic and antioxidant properties was used by our patient. She consumed a 30 mg artichoke leaf extract tea 3 times a day. The bilirubin levels significantly declined at the end of the first week and all liver function tests were normalized within 2 months.

  15. Analysis of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) and ADA1 and ADA2 isoenzyme activities in HIV positive and HIV-HBV co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Iraj; Abdi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Abbas; Wahedi, Mohammad Saleh; Menbari, Shahoo; Lahoorpour, Fariba; Rahbari, Rezgar

    2011-08-01

    To determine adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity as a possible diagnostic marker in HIV and HIV-HBV co-infected patients. Blood samples were collected from 72 healthy, 33 HIV positive and 30 HIV-HBV co-infected subjects. Blood CD4+ cell count was recorded and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total ADA, and ADA1 and ADA2 isoenzyme activities were determined. Serum ALT, AST, total ADA and ADA2 isoenzyme activities were significantly higher in HIV positive and HIV-HBV co-infected groups compare to the control (pADA activities (R(2)=0.589, pADA was significantly increased in HIV and HIV-HBV co-infections. Therefore, because of its low cost and simplicity to perform, ADA activity might be considered as a useful diagnostic tool among the other markers in these diseases. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Influence of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid contents in roots of melon seedling under hypoxia stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Jing-Rui; Xia, Qing-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hong-Bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigated the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid content under hypoxia stress by accurately controlling the level of dissolved oxygen in hydroponics, using the roots of melon 'Xiyu 1' seedlings as the test material. The results showed that compared with the control, the growth of roots was inhibited seriously under hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the hypoxia-treated roots had significantly higher activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the contents of GABA, pyruvic acid, alanine (Ala) and aspartic acid (Asp). But the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and alpha-keto glutaric acid in roots under hypoxia stress was obviously lower than those of the control. Exogenous treatment with GABA alleviated the inhibition effect of hypoxia stress on root growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the contents of endogenous GABA, Glu, alpha-keto glutaric acid and Asp. Furthermore, under hypoxia stress, the activities of GAD, GDH, GOGAT, GS, ALT, AST as well as the contents of pyruvic acid and Ala significantly decreased in roots treated with GABA. However, adding GABA and viny-gamma-aminobutyric acid (VGB) reduced the alleviation effect of GABA on melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results suggested that absorption of GABA by roots could alleviate the injury of hypoxia stress to melon seedlings. This meant that GABA treatment allows the normal physiological metabolism under hypoxia by inhibiting the GAD activity through feedback and maintaining higher Glu content as well as the bal- ance of carbon and nitrogen.

  17. Accuracy of the paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product to predict hepatotoxicity in modified-release paracetamol overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Graudins, Andis

    2017-06-01

    The paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product (APAP × ALT) is a risk predictor of hepatotoxicity that is somewhat independent of time and type of ingestion. However, its accuracy following ingestion of modified-release formulations is not known, as the product has been derived and validated after immediate-release paracetamol overdoses. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the accuracy of the multiplication product to predict hepatotoxicity in a cohort of patients with modified-release paracetamol overdose. We assessed all patients with modified-release paracetamol overdose presenting to our hospital network from October 2009 to July 2016. Ingestion of a modified-release formulation was identified by patient self-report or retrieval of the original container. Hepatotoxicity was defined as peak alanine aminotransferase ≥1000 IU/L, and acute liver injury (ALI) as a doubling of baseline ALT to more than 50 IU/L. Of 1989 paracetamol overdose presentations, we identified 73 modified-release paracetamol exposures treated with acetylcysteine. Five patients developed hepatotoxicity, including one who received acetylcysteine within eight hours of an acute ingestion. No patient with an initial multiplication product paracetamol overdose treated with acetylcysteine, the paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product demonstrated similar accuracy and temporal profile to previous reports involving mostly immediate-release formulations. Above a cut-point of 10,000 mg/L × IU/L, it was very strongly associated with the development of acute liver injury and hepatotoxicity, especially when calculated more than eight hours post-ingestion. When below 1500 mg/L × IU/L the likelihood of developing hepatotoxicity was very low. Persistently high serial multiplication product calculations were associated with the greatest risk of hepatotoxicity.

  18. Liver histology in hepatitis C virus positive patients with normal and elevated alanine amino transferase levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatty, S.A.; Shaikh, N.A.; Akhter, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    To compare liver histology in HCV RNA positive patients with normal and elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Level (AST). This Cohort (prospective) study was conducted at Civil Hospital Karachi from Jan 2007 to July 2007. Forty patients with positive HCV RNA were included. Their liver function tests were followed for three months. Those having normal ALT on three occasions were taken as controls and those having elevated ALT were taken as cases. Liver biopsy was performed, Specimens were reviewed by single pathologist. Scheuer's scoring for grading of inflammation and staging of fibrosis of chronic hepatitis was used. Out of Forty patients having positive HCV RNA, 14 (35%) were male and 26 (65%) were female. Mean ALT in control group was 27.3 +- 6.1mu/l, mean ALT in cases was 91.7 +- 39.95 mu/l. Mean age in controls was 34.2 +- 10.75 years and in cases was 33.6 +- 9.40 years. On histopathology, the mean grade of inflammation in controls was 1.40 +- 0.681 while in cases was 1.20 +- 0.834, which was not statistically significantly different in the two groups (p= 0.411). Similarly mean staging of fibrosis in controls was 1.20 +- 0.768 and in cases was 1.35 +- 1.348 which was also not statistically different in the two groups (p=0.668). Stage 3 and 4 fibrosis was seen only in raised ALT group and not in the controls. Patients with persistently normal ALT and elevated ALT, although had similar grading of inflammation but the fibrosis score was more in elevated ALT group. None of the patients with normal ALT had normal histology, so decision for antiviral treatment should be individualized in this group also (JPMA 59:832; 2009). (author)

  19. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Portulaca Oleracea on the serum concentreation of Hepatic enzymes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Hyperlipidemia can be cause a variety of diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and fatty liver and subsequent liver enzyme increases. The Portulaca Oleracea plant has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Therefore, in this study the effect of Portulca Oleracea herb extract on serum liver enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT or AST, alanine aminotransferase (SGPT or ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in rats were studied. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=10. Control group with normal diet, fat diet group and other groups, the experimental group received the same diet plus fat Portulaca oleracea extract maximum dose (800, the mean dose of (400, and a minimum dose of (200 mg / kg or intraperitoneally injection (ip and sort of Atorvastatin (10 mg kg. After the end of this period (21 days, blood sampling was performed and collected data were analyzed using the t and Tukey test, and SPSS software version 11.5. Results Comparison of statistical results indicated that alanine aminotransferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP increase in the control group that received only fatty foods, while the experimental groups received extract of Portulaca Oleracea, and groups receiving Atorvastatin had reduced levels of liver enzymes. Conclusion: Regarding hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic antioxidant activity of the extract and its effect on reducing liver enzymes, plant extracts can be recommended to improve liver function.

  20. Clinical implications in the prevalence and associated cardiovascular factors of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels among elderly agricultural and fishing population in Taipei, Taiwan: experience at a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Hu, Yi-Chun; Shen, Hsi-Che; Chang, Hui-Te; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    To discuss the prevalence and associated factors related to an elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level among the elderly agricultural and fishing population. A total of 6542 (3989 males and 2553 females) healthy adults voluntarily admitted to a teaching hospital for a physical checkup in 2010 in Taipei, Taiwan. Fasting blood samples were drawn via venipuncture, and clinical nurses interviewed the study participants using a structured questionnaire from. The overall prevalence of an elevated serum ALT level was 18.2% and revealed a statistically significant decrease with increasing age (P < 0.001). The men exhibited a higher prevalence than the women (19.7% vs 15.9%; P < 0.001). Male sex; younger age; and presence of obesity, hypertension, hyperuricemia, and hypoalbuminemia were significantly associated with an elevated serum ALT level. Sex-related differences were also revealed. For the men, type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.57), hypercholesterolemia (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.22-2.83), hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04-1.73), and low high-density lipoprotein (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.51) were significantly related to an elevated serum ALT level, but this was not so for the women. The disparity of ALT in age groups was revealed. Several sex-related differences were indicated pertaining to the prevalence of an elevated serum ALT level among elderly specific occupational population.

  1. Alanine water complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Vanesa; Sanz, M Eugenia; Peña, Isabel; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-04-10

    Two complexes of alanine with water, alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2), have been generated by laser ablation of the amino acid in a supersonic jet containing water vapor and characterized using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. In the observed complexes, water molecules bind to the carboxylic group of alanine acting as both proton donors and acceptors. In alanine-H2O, the water molecule establishes two intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming a six-membered cycle, while in alanine-(H2O)2 the two water molecules establish three hydrogen bonds forming an eight-membered ring. In both complexes, the amino acid moiety is in its neutral form and shows the conformation observed to be the most stable for the bare molecule. The microsolvation study of alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2) can be taken as a first step toward understanding bulk properties at a microscopic level.

  2. Effect of mammals’ excretory function on aspartate aminotransferase activity in Glechoma hederacea leaves in conditions of Cd pollution

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    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis of research of Cd impact on the activity of the enzyme of aspartate aminotransferase (AST nitrogen metabolism and the content of water-soluble protein fraction (albumin in Glechoma hederacea L. leaves, which dominated in the research area (in natural floodplain oak forest with Stellaria holostea L.. Cd was introduced in the form of salts of Cd(NO32 in the range of concentrations of: 0.25, 1.25, 2.5 g/m2, equivalent to the inclusion of Cd in 1, 5, 10 doses of MAC. Increase (P < 0.05 in the activity of AST 2.6–3.0 times (with adding Cd salts at a dose of 1 and 5 МAС and albumin content by 37% (with adding Cd salts at a dose of 10 МAС compared to control (the area without Cd pollution and excretory activity of mammals was shown. Using of excreta of some representatives of mammals (for example, Capreolus capreolus L. contributed to reduction of Cd toxic effects and restoring of the functional metabolic activity of AST by 23% (with Cd 1 МAС and by 34% (Cd 5 МAС. It is the evidence of protective function of mammals and their normalization effect at the above concentrations of Cd. Whereas the adding of Cd salts at a dose of 10 МAС led to 3 times’ inhibition of AST activity, the toxic effect of metal by excretory function of mammals was not reduced. Observations revealed the albumin content normalization by 22% in the presence of Cd 1MAC respectively (with the introduction of C. capreolus excreta and to the control level (the area without Cd pollution and excretory activity of mammals with the excreta of Sus scrofa L. in the setting of Cd 10 MAC. It proves the need to use the different mammal species for integrated and comprehensive normalization of ecosystems under conditions of uncontrolled anthropogenic pollution.

  3. Identificação de ponto de corte no nível sérico da alanina aminotransferase para rastreamento da hepatite C em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em hemodiálise Identification of the cutoff value for serum alanine aminotransferase in hepatitis C screening of patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson Cavalcanti Gouveia

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em hemodiálise apresentam níveis séricos mais baixos de alanina aminotransferase. Para estabelecer melhor ponto de corte nos níveis de ALT, no diagnóstico da hepatite C, avaliaram-se mensalmente, durante 6 meses os níveis desta enzima em 235 pacientes em hemodiálise, sendo excluídos aqueles que apresentassem média acima do limite superior da normalidade. O ponto de corte foi identificado através da construção de curva ROC. Entre 202 pacientes, 15 (7,4% apresentavam anti-VHC positivo e 187 (92,6% negativo, com média de ALT de 0,7 e de 0,5 do limite superior (p The patients with chronic renal failure in hemodialysis present low levels of serum alanine aminotransferases. In order to establish a better cutoff value for ALT in hepatitis C screening of hemodialysis patients, the ALT levels were measured monthly in 235 patients, being excluded those that presented average above the upper limit of normality. The cutoff value was identified by construction of a ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic. Among 202 patients, 15 (7.4% presented antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV and 187 (92.6% were anti-HCV negative , with an ALT average of 0.7 and of 0.5 from ULN (p <0.0001, respectively. The better cutoff value for ALT was at 0.6 from ULN, with sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 75% in anti-HCV screening. These results suggest that ULN of ALT could be reduced for 60% from conventional limit, when we are evaluating patients with CRF in hemodialysis.

  4. Effect of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Salivary Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity

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    Steiven Adhitya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Aspartate aminotransferase is one of biological indicator in gingival crevicular fluid (CGF. Force orthodontic application could increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in CGF. However, the increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in saliva due to orthodontic force and its correlation between aspartate aminotransferase activity and tooth movement remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate application orthodontic force on the aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva based on the duration of force and finding correlation between tooth movement and aspartate aminotransferase activity. Methods: Twenty saliva samples collected before extraction of first premolar, at the time of force application for canine retraction and after force application. The canines retraction used 100 grams of interrupted force (module chain for thirty days. The collection of saliva and the measurement of tooth movement were carried out 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days after force application. The measurement of aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva was done using spectrophotometer. Results: Application of orthodontic force influences the salivary aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=25.290, p=0.000. Furthermore, tooth movement correlated with aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=0.429, p=0.000. Conclusion: Aspartate aminotransferase activity could be used as tooth movement indicator that related to the duration of force application.DOI : 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.128

  5. Low normal thyroid function attenuates serum alanine aminotransferase elevations in the context of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in white people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van den Berg, Eline H.; van der Klauw, Melanie; Blokzijl, Hans

    Objectives: Thyroid hormones play a key role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Although hypothyroidismis associated with increased prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the relationship of NAFLD with low normal thyroid function is unclear. We tested the association of serum alanine

  6. Urinary and Serum Metabolomics Analyses Uncover That Total Glucosides of Paeony Protect Liver against Acute Injury Potentially via Reprogramming of Multiple Metabolic Pathways

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    Haojie Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Total glucosides of paeony (TGP have been confirmed to be hepatoprotective. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the metabolic profiles of urine and serum in rats with carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced experimental liver injury and TGP administration by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS. The vehicle or a single dose of TGP was intragastrically administered to Wistar rats once a day for 14 consecutive days. To induce ALI, 50% CCl4 was injected intraperitoneally into these rats 2 hours after the last time administration of saline of TGP at the 14th day. The results indicated that TGP administration could protect rats from CCl4-induced ALI and alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST elevation, as well as hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammation. Furthermore, metabolomics analysis showed that TGP treatment significantly attenuated CCl4-triggered deregulation of multiple metabolites in both urine and serum, including glycine, alanine, proline, and glutamine. Metabolite set enrichment and pathway analyses demonstrated that amino acid cycling and glutathione metabolism were two main pathways involved in CCl4-induced experimental liver injury and TGP administration. Taken together, these findings revealed that regulation of metabolites potentially plays a pivotal role in the protective effect of TGP on ALI.

  7. Dose response of alanine and methyl alanine towards gamma and in-situ alpha irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, M.; Rajeswari, B.; Bhide, M.K.; Rane, Vinayak; Kadam, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    In situ alpha and external gamma dose response of two ESR (electron spin resonance) dosimetric materials namely alanine and methyl alanine were investigated. It was observed that alanine dosimeter had a better dose response in comparison to methyl alanine for the in-situ alpha irradiation by using 239 Pu powder. On the other hand, in case of gamma radiation, methyl alanine was found to have the sensitivity as twice that of alanine. (author)

  8. Effect of Capreolus capreolus and Sus scrofa excreta on alanine aminotransferase activity in Glechoma hederacea leaves in conditions of Cd pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects the analysis of Cd impact on the total activity (nM pyruvic acid/ml s of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 2.6.1.2 nitrogen metabolism and the content (mg/ml of water-soluble protein fraction (albumin in Glechoma hederacea L. leaves subject, which dominated in the research area (natural floodplain oak with Stellaria holostea L.. Cd was introduced in the form of salts Cd(NO32 in the concentrations of 0.25, 1.25 and 2.50 g/m2, equivalent to Cd in 1, 5 and 10 doses of MAC. The content of doses of MAC of Cd (5 mg/kg soil was taken into account during introduction. We observed the inhibition of the activity of ALT 3–4 times (with adding the Cd salts at a dose of 1 and 5 МAС compared to controls (area without pollution of Cd and excreta of mammals. This stress reaction took place in the protein complex as well. Thus, albumin content was equal to 72% and 80% (with Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (the area without pollution and excretory functions of mammals. It proved nonspecific response to stress. Using excreta of Capreolus capreolus L. and Sus scrofa L. shows the reduction of Cd effects and increasing the metabolic activity of ALT by 41% and 105%, respectively (with adding of Cd 1 MAC compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 1 MAC. The effect of Cd 5 MAC is offset (only with the introduction of C. capreolus excreta compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 5 MAC. Normalization of the albumin content (with adding of Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (сontrol of Cd at a dose 1 MAC and сontrol of Cd at a dose 5 MAC with using of excreta of C. capreolus was observed. In conditions of Cd at a doze 10 MAC the ALT activity was reduced 2 times with the introduction of excreta of C. capreolus as S. scrofa compared to control (Cd at a dose 10 MAC. The introduction of excreta of S. scrofa compared with C. capreolus restored the albumin content by 10% to the control. Thus, the feasibility of using different biological

  9. Functional analysis of the ASTE11 gene from the dimorphic yeast Arxula adeninivorans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fiki, A.; El Metabteb, G.; Boer, E.; Kunze, G.

    2010-01-01

    Arxula adeninivorans is dimorphic yeast with unusual biochemical and physiological characteristic. It is thermo- and osmo- resistance and it can use a wide range of carbon sources for growth. One kinase of the HOG pathway, the MAPKKK is encoded by ASTE11 gene which was isolated from A. adeninivorans. The aste11 mutant was achieved by gene disruption procedure. The Sck1p gene encoding MAPKKK in S. cerevisiae can complement with aste11 mutation. Growth rate of G1211/pAL-ALEU2m, G1211/pAL-ALEU2m-ASTE11 (over-expression transformants) and IS1 [aleu2 aste11 ALEU2] (aste11 mutant), the ASTE11 expression level dose not correlates with salt resistance. However, the growth rate of G1211/pAL-ALEU2m, G1211/pAL-ALEU2m-ASTE11 (over-expression transformants) and IS1 [aleu2 aste11::ALEU2] (aste11 mutant) and the response to thermo stress were affected in the deleted mutant, the Aste11p influenced the thermo resistance of A. adeninivorans. The MAPKKK encoding by STE11 gene from various yeast species is involved in the mating process. The mutant strains and their transformants were lost the capacity to mate. Assessment of the ASTE11 promoter activity with lacZ reporter gene confirmed its inducibility by osmolaytes.

  10. Evaluation of miR-122 as a Serum Biomarker for Hepatotoxicity in Investigative Rat Toxicology Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapova, T; Devanarayan, V; LeRoy, B; Liguori, M J; Blomme, E; Buck, W; Maher, J

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs involved in regulation of gene expression. Certain microRNAs, including miR-122, seem to have ideal properties as biomarkers due to good stability, high tissue specificity, and ease of detection across multiple species. Recent reports have indicated that miR-122 is a highly liver-specific marker detectable in serum after liver injury. The purpose of the current study was to assess the performance of miR-122 as a serum biomarker for hepatotoxicity in short-term (5-28 days) repeat-dose rat toxicology studies when benchmarked against routine clinical chemistry and histopathology. A total of 23 studies with multiple dose levels of experimental compounds were examined, and they included animals with or without liver injury and with various hepatic histopathologic changes. Serum miR-122 levels were quantified by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Increases in circulating miR-122 levels highly correlated with serum elevations of liver enzymes, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH). Statistical analysis showed that miR-122 outperformed ALT as a biomarker for histopathologically confirmed liver toxicity and was equivalent in performance to AST and GLDH. Additionally, an increase of 4% in predictive accuracy was obtained using a multiparameter approach incorporating miR-122 with ALT, AST, and GLDH. In conclusion, serum miR-122 levels can be utilized as a biomarker of hepatotoxicity in acute and subacute rat toxicology studies, and its performance can rival or exceed those of standard enzyme biomarkers such as the liver transaminases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Association of ALT and the metabolic syndrome among Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Ugalde-Casas, Patricia A; Lam-Franco, Lorena; Bustamante-Careaga, Humberto; Serrano-González, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Norma G; Martínez, Ubaldo

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS); Hispanics being particularly predisposed. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is considered a marker of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associations between ALT elevations and MetS in normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexican children and adolescents, since data in Mexico is scarce. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage body fat, blood pressure, glucose, lipid profiles, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured in 236, 6-12yo normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexicans from eight public schools. The results showed that elevated ALT (>40 IU/L) was found in 17.7% of the obese and overweight population, with no gender difference. The prevalence of elevated ALT increased linearly across BMI categories (p = 0.001), from 0.0% for the normal-weight group (95%CI 0.0-€“8.0) to 22.4% for the obese one (95%CI 16.2-€“30.2). AST/ALT ratio obese one. The prevalence of MetS was strongly associated with elevated ALT (p = 0.002), 50% in the elevated ALT group (95%CI 34.1-€“65.9) and 24.1% in the normal ALT one (95%CI 18.1-€“31.3). There was also a strong association between MetS and an AST/ALT ratio obese children. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostic and prognostic factors for acute encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motojima, Yukiko; Nagura, Michiaki; Asano, Yoshitaka; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Takada, Eiko; Sakurai, Yoshio; Moriwaki, Koichi; Tamura, Masanori

    2016-11-01

    Acute encephalopathy has the possibility of sequelae. While early treatment is required to prevent the development of sequelae, differential diagnosis is of the utmost priority. The aim of this study was therefore to identify parameters that can facilitate early diagnosis and prediction of outcome of acute encephalopathy. We reviewed the medical charts of inpatients from 2005 to 2011 and identified 33 patients with febrile status epilepticus. Subjects were classified into an acute encephalopathy group (n = 20) and a febrile convulsion group (n = 13), and the parameters serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ammonia (NH 3 ), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau protein, and CSF interleukin-6 compared between them. Furthermore, the relationship between each parameter and prognosis was investigated in the encephalopathy group. Significant differences in serum AST, ALT, and LDH were observed between the febrile convulsion and acute encephalopathy group. Moreover, a significant difference in serum LDH was noted between the patients with and without developmental regression at the time of hospital discharge in the encephalopathy group. In particular, CSF tau protein was found to be highly likely to indicate progress, with CSF tau protein >1000 pg/dL associated with poor prognosis leading to developmental regression. Serum AST, ALT and LDH may be related to early diagnosis and prognosis, and should be carefully investigated in patients with encephalopathy. CSF tau protein could also be used as an indicator of poor prognosis in acute encephalopathy. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Water-soluble C60 fullerenes reduce manifestations of acute cholangitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznietsova, H. M.; Lynchak, O. V.; Dziubenko, N. V.; Osetskyi, V. L.; Ogloblya, O. V.; Prylutskyy, Yu I.; Rybalchenko, V. K.; Ritter, U.; Scharff, P.

    2018-03-01

    Sclerosing cholangitis is the liver disease of uncertain etiology, extremely unfavorable prognosis and lack of effective medication therapy. Therefore, the effect of water-soluble biocompatible C60 fullerenes (C60FAS) on the liver functional state on rat acute-cholangitis model was aimed to be discovered. Acute cholangitis was simulated by single α-naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT, 100 mg/kg) per os administration; C60FAS (0.5 mg/kg) was administered either per os or intraperitoneally in 24 and 48 h after ANIT ingestion, and in 72 h the animals were sacrificed. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the total and direct bilirubin, creatinine and urea in the blood serum were determined, and the liver morphological state was assessed. In animals experienced ANIT-induced acute cholangitis, the total and direct bilirubin, creatinine, ALT, AST, ALP and LDH 1.5-4-fold increase were observed, indicating cytolysis of hepatocytes, cholestasis, and renal dysfunction. The features of periductal fibrosis, biliary epithelium atrophy, and portal-portal linking septa formation were detected, confirming the sclerosing cholangitis development. C60FAS promoted to the normalization of direct and total bilirubin levels, the ALT activity and diminution of fibrotic features. In addition, C60FAS intraperitoneal administration also normalized the ALP activity, indicating the attenuation of disease symptoms. However, the AST activity and creatinine level remained unchanged, and the LDH activity even increased, manifesting the partial persistence of cholestasis and renal dysfunction. Thus, the therapeutic application of C60FAS promotes a partial protection of liver against cholangitis.

  14. Waldenström makroglobulinemili hastada rituksimab tedavisi sonrası gelişen gizli hepatit B reaktivasyonu

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    Vedat Aslan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab has beenused extensively in the treatment of B-cell lymphoma.Several studies reported hepatitis B virus (HBV reactivationafter rituximab. The majority of these cases havebeen described in chronic carriers of HBV, whereas reactivationin occult hepatitis B virus (OHBV carriers mayoccur.The presented case with the diagnosis of Waldenström’smacroglobulinemia was HBsAg negative and anti HBcIgGpositive before chemotherapy. The patient was started onCVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone chemotherapy.However, no clinical or laboratory responsewas obtained and the patient was considered unresponsiveto three cycles of CVP therapy. Therefore R-CHOP(rituximab, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristineand prednisolone was planned as the second therapy.Laboratory work-up after the first cycle of R-CHOP therapyrevealed an aspartate aminotransferase (AST levelof 267 U/L and alanine aminotransferase (ALT level of318 U/L. HBsAg and anti HBcIgG were positive and HBVDNA was 56400 IU/ml. Lamivudin 100 mg/day was started.Four weeks after the initiation of lamivudin therapy,ALT and AST levels returned to normal. Currently, the patienthas received the fourth cycle of R-CHOP therapy.ALT and AST levels continue to be in normal range. Thiscondition was considered to be the reactivation of OHBVfollowing rituximab.The aim of this case presentation is to call attention toHBV reactivation possibility in cases taking immunosupressivemedications like Rituximab. J Clin Exp Invest2012; 3(4: 541-544Key words: Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia, rituximab,occult HBV infection

  15. Biochemical and histological changes in whole body gamma-irradiated rats feed on wheat, barely and corn bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Hassan, A.A.; Ragab, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to study the effect of adding 3 different of dietary fibers (wheat, barley or corn bran) to normal balanced diet on liver function, blood, cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose level to counteract their elevation in whole body gamma irradiation rats. The experimental diets (balanced diet + fibre additive) were fed for 4 weeks. Samples (blood and tissue) were collected at intervals of times 7, 14 and 28 days post exposure to single dose (7 Gy) gamma irradiation. The control group consumed a fibre diet for 4 weeks, but not irradiated. The minimum aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and the lowest blood total cholestrol, triglycerides and blood glucose were observed in rats (irradiated and non-irradiated rats) fed on wheat bran experimental diet (barley or corn bran). It could be concluded that wheat fibers were more effective, as compared with other fibers contained in balanced diet, in improving the investigated parameters observed after whole body gamma irradiation exposure

  16. Toxicological evaluation of Cladophora glomerata Kützing and Microspora floccosa Thuret in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahprathanchai, Prannapus; Saenphet, Kanokporn; Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee; Aritajat, Salika

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Cladophora glomerata and Microspora floccosa ethanolic extracts in rats. Acute toxicity was tested with a single oral administration of the extract at a dose of 25 g/kg bd wt. Mortality, behavior, amount of food intake, body weight, and any abnormalities of the visceral organs, were observed. The results showed that the extract caused neither mortality, nor abnormalities. Subchronic toxicity was tested by administering the extract at doses of 0.5 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg for 60 days. Differences in body weight, hematology and blood biochemistry (alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate aminotransferase, AST; blood urea nitrogen, BUN and creatinine, Cre) were not detected among the control and treatment groups. Although the packed cell volume of the male rats treated with 1.0 g/kg extract was significantly lower than the controls (p< or =0.05), the level was in the standard range for rat hematocrit.

  17. Antihyperglycaemic and organic protective effects on pancreas, liver and kidney by polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus SG-02 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Juan; Hu, Chunlong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jianjun; Ren, Zhenzhen; Song, Xinling; Jia, Le

    2017-09-07

    The present work was designed to investigate the antihyperglycaemic and protective effects of two Hericium erinaceus intracellular polysaccharide (HIPS) purified fractions (HIPS1 and HIPS2) from mycelia of H. erinaceus SG-02 on pancreas, liver and kidney in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The supplementation of HIPS1 and HIPS2 significantly decreased the blood glucose (GLU) levels; suppressed the abnormal elevations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels in serum; improved the antioxidant enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT)) activities; and attenuated the pathological damage to these organs. The HIPS1 showed superior effects in antihyperglycaemia and organic protection than HIPS2 possible owing to the abundant functional groups (-NH 2 , -COOH and S=O) in HIPS1, indicating that H. erinaceus SG-02 could be used as a functional food and natural drug for the prevention of diabetes and its complications.

  18. Toxicological analysis and effectiveness of oral Kalanchoe pinnata on a human case of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Santos, E C; Da Silva, S A G; Costa, S S; Santos, A P P T; Almeida, A P; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    2003-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is an extremely difficult disease to treat. Previously, it was shown that oral Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) leaf extract is strongly effective against murine leishmaniasis. Here, it is shown that the serum levels of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), urea and alkaline phosphatase were unchanged in mice orally treated with supraoptimal Kp doses for 30 days, indicating the absence of chronic toxicity to the liver, heart or kidney. Additionally, evidence is presented that human leishmaniasis may also be controlled with oral Kp. A 36-year-old man with an active cutaneous leishmaniasis was orally treated with 30 g wet weight of Kp leaves/day for 14 days. During the Kp treatment, the lesion stopped growing and slightly decreased. No adverse reactions or toxicity was observed. This study reports for the first time that Kalanchoe pinnata contains substances potentially active and safe for the oral treatment of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effectiveness of hepatoprotective drugs for anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenya Saito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of hepatoprotective drugs for DIH (drug induced hepatotoxicity during tuberculosis treatment is not clear. We evaluated the effectiveness of hepatoprotective drugs by comparing the period until the normalization of hepatic enzymes between patients who were prescribed with the hepatoprotective drugs after DIH was occurred and patients who were not prescribed with the hepatoprotective drugs. Methods During 2006–2010, 389 patients with active tuberculosis were included in this study. DIH was defined as elevation of peak serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and/or alanine aminotransferase (ALT of more than twice the upper limit of normal (ULN. We divided the patients into the severe (peak serum AST and/or ALT elevation of >5 times the ULN, moderate (peak serum AST and/or ALT elevation of >3 to ≤5 times the ULN, and mild DIH groups (peak serum AST and/or ALT elevation of >2 to ≤3 times the ULN. We compared the average period until the normalization of hepatic enzymes between patient subgroups with and without hepatoprotective drugs (ursodeoxycholic acid: UDCA, stronger neo-minophagen C: SNMC, and glycyrrhizin. Results In the severe group, there was no significant difference in the average period until the normalization between subgroups with and without hepatoprotective drugs (21.4 ± 10.8 vs 21.5 ± 11.1 days, P = 0.97. In the mild group, the period was longer in the subgroup with hepatoprotective drugs than that without hepatoprotective drugs (15.7 ± 6.2 vs 12.4 ± 7.9 days, P = 0.046. Conclusion Regardless of the severity, hepatoprotective drugs did not shorten the period until the normalization of hepatic enzymes.

  20. Associations of Insulin Resistance and Glycemia With Liver Enzymes in Hispanic/Latino Youths: Results From the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Rudolph, Bryan J; Lazo, Mariana; Gallo, Linda C; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Cotler, Scott J; Qi, Qibin; Seeherunvong, Tossaporn; Vidot, Denise C; Strickler, Howard D; Kaplan, Robert C; Isasi, Carmen R

    2017-11-03

    Associations of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia with a panel of liver enzymes have not been well studied in a young, heterogenous Hispanic/Latino population. We aimed to assess the associations of insulin resistance and glycemia with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as measured by liver enzymes and the pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index (PNFI), and whether these associations are modified by body mass index and mediated by inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1317 boys and girls aged 8 to 16 years from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth. We used Poisson regression to assess the associations of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (>25 U/L in boys, >22 U/L in girls), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (≥37 U/L), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (≥17 U/L), and PNFI (≥9; a function of age, waist circumference, and triglyceride level). HOMA-IR was associated with elevated ALT, AST, GGT, and PNFI [prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for each 1-unit increase in the natural log of HOMA-IR: 1.99 (1.40-2.81), 2.15 (1.12-4.12), 1.70 (1.26-2.30), and 1.98 (1.43-2.74), respectively]. Associations were observed in overweight/obese children, but not in normal weight children (P-interaction=0.04 for AST and P-interaction=0.07 for GGT). After further adjustment for adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, e-selectin, and PAI-1, associations of HOMA-IR with liver enzymes and PNFI were attenuated, but remained statistically significant for AST and PNFI. Insulin resistance was associated with NAFLD in overweight/obese Hispanic/Latino youth, and this association may be partially mediated by inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

  1. Transferases activity in blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated during incubation by low dose gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    In our earlier studies chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma rays before incubation showed a significantly higher growth than controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and plasma glucose in the same chickens were also significantly higher. These results suggested that low-dose gamma-radiation stimulated certain metabolic processes in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of low-dose ionising radiation on AST and ALT activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated during incubation. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Avian, line 34) were exposed to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation (6 0C o) on the seventh day of incubation, i.e. at the time when the organogenesis in chickens is completed. The control group of chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 32 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. On day 10, AST and ALT activity were significantly higher in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs, but it significantly dropped for both enzymes on day 20. Our results indicate that exposure of eggs to low-dose gamma-radiation on the seventh day of incubation affects AST and ALT activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. However, this effect is somewhat different from the effects of egg exposure to low-dose gamma radiation before incubation.(author)

  2. Disk suspension method: a novel and safe technique for the retraction of the liver during laparoscopic surgery (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibao, Kazunori; Higure, Aiichiro; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2011-08-01

    A good operative field is important for safe operations, but it is sometimes difficult to obtain a satisfactory operative field in laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery. We developed a novel and safe technique for the retraction of the liver and falciform ligament during laparoscopic surgery, and evaluated its technical feasibility and safety. Forty-three patients with gastric cancer were divided into two groups: disk suspension group (DS group; snake retractor and elastic band fixation with a silicon disk), and fixed retractor group (FR group; snake retractor and nonelastic band fixation without a silicon disk). To evaluate liver damage during retraction, we measured the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels preoperatively and on postoperative day (POD) 1. In the DS group, all liver lobes were adequately retracted and the hepatoduodenal and gastrohepatic ligaments were fully exposed. This procedure took less than 3 min. On the other hand, 5 of 18 patients of the FR group had insufficient surgical fields for laparoscopic gastrectomy because of soft and/or large livers. Although the preoperative AST and ALT levels were not different between the two groups, the DS group did not display increases in both AST and ALT levels, whereas the FR group showed increases in both on POD 1 (AST: 50.2 ± 8.4 IU/l vs. 124.2 ± 37.7 IU/l, P = 0.07; and ALT: 35.6 ± 6.4 IU/l vs. 106.1 ± 36.2 IU/l, P = 0.07). No complications related to the liver retraction were observed in the DS group. However, liver congestion was evident in six patients and minor liver injury in two patients of the FR group during the esophagojejunostomy. The DS method is a simple and safe and provides a better surgical field during laparoscopic surgery of the upper abdomen without damaging the liver.

  3. Effect of aspartame on oxidative stress and monoamine neurotransmitter levels in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Salem, Neveen A; Hussein, Jihan Seid

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in normal circumstances and after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) in mice. Aspartame (0.625-45 mg/kg) was given via subcutaneous route at the time of endotoxin administration. Mice were euthanized 4 h later. Reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; TBARS), and nitrite concentrations were measured in brain and liver. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and glucose were determined in brain. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in liver. The administration of only aspartame (22.5 and 45 mg/kg) increased brain TBARS by 17.7-32.8%, decreased GSH by 25.6-31.6%, and increased TNF-α by 16.7-44%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, AST, ALT, or ALP. The administration of LPS increased nitrite in brain and liver by 26.8 and 37.1%, respectively; decreased GSH in brain and liver by 21.6 and 31.1%, respectively; increased brain TNF-α by 340.4%, and glucose by 39.9%, and caused marked increase in brain monoamines. LPS increased AST, ALT, and ALP in liver tissue by 84.4, 173.7, and 258.9%, respectively. Aspartame given to LPS-treated mice at 11.25 and 22.5 mg/kg increased brain TBARS by 15.5-16.9%, nitrite by 12.6-20.1%, and mitigated the increase in monoamines. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, ALT, AST, or ALP. Thus, the administration of aspartame alone or in the presence of mild systemic inflammatory response increases oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, but not in the liver.

  4. Assessement of glycaemia and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinekinase, gamma glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in thoroughbred horses submitted to exercise of different intensities/ Avaliação da glicemia e da atividade sérica de aspartato aminotransferase, creatinoquinase, gama-glutamiltransferase e lactato desidrogenase em eqüinos puro sangue inglês (PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joandes Henrique Fonteque

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the influence of exercise of different intensities on biochemical parameters in Thoroughbred horses blood was collected from 60 animals, 30 males and 30 females.The animals were subdivided in two groups : 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 24 to 36 months of age and not in training, and after 12 months of training; 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 36 to 48 months of age in training. Blood samples were collected before and after trot and gallop. Plasmatic glucose was analyzed through a colorimetric method, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT were analyzed through kinetic methods. Results show a statistically significant increase in plasmatic glucose after trot and gallop independent of gender, while the increases in CK and LDH were different for males and females. Variations for AST and GGT were not statistically significant.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as alterações na bioquímica sérica em eqüinos PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 60 eqüinos PSI, distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: 30 animais sendo 15 machos e 15 fêmeas, com idade de 24 a 36 meses, não submetidos a treinamento e após um período de 12 meses de treinamento e 30 eqüinos de 36 a 48 meses, em fase de treinamento, antes e após o trote . Dos animais de 36 a 48 meses foram selecionados 20 machos e 10 fêmeas e colhido sangue antes e após o galope. Determinou-se, por métodos colorimétricos, os valores da glicose plasmática e, por métodos cinéticos, as enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatinoquinase (CK, lactato desidrogenase (LDH e gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT. A análise estatística dos resultados comprovou a ocorrência de aumento significativo (p < 0,05 dos valores da glicose plasmática após o trote e galope para ambos os sexos. Para as enzimas CK e LDH ocorreram

  5. Evaluation of the phagocitary capacity of the mononuclear system in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice employing Tc- 99m Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Odília Fernandes Diniz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Infections and endotoxemia continue to be the principal causes of morbidity and mortality of patients with obstructions of the bile duct. The objective of the present work was the investigation of the phagocitary capacity of the mononuclear system in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice utilizing Tc-99m E.coli. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly higher in jaundiced rats than in the control animals (p Nos pacientes com obstrução do ducto biliar, as infecções e a endotoxemia continuam sendo uma das principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade. O objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar a capacidade fagocitária do sistema mononuclear, em um modelo experimental de icterícia obstrutiva, utilizando Tc-99m E.coli. Os níveis de aspartato aminotransferase (AST, alanina aminotransferase (ALT e fosfatase alcalina (PAL nos ratos com ligadura do ducto biliar comum (CBD encontram-se significativamente mais elevados do que nos ratos sham. (p < 0.001. O fígado dos animais ictéricos apresentou uma significativa redução na captação da Tc-99m E.coli quando comparado com o controle. Os dados mostraram também, que houve um aumento significativo na captação da Tc-99m E.coli pelo pulmão dos ratos ictéricos (p < 0.01. O exame histológico dos cortes de fígado dos animais ictéricos apresentou proliferação intensa e difusa dos ductos biliares e uma acentuada poliploidia dos hepatócitos (volume médio: 843 µm³, Não foram observadas alterações significativas nos pulmões de nenhum grupo.

  6. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Walter, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems • Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space • Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life • Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability • Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system.

  7. Prevalence of abnormal serum liver enzymes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Chen, Yintao; Dong, Siyuan; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients and identify contributing risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in rural areas of China, and 1,198 type 2 diabetic patients with complete data were recruited. Elevated ALT and AST levels were defined as >40 U/L. Prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes was analyzed and multivariable analysis was used to identify independent risk factors. 10.3% and 6.1% diabetic patients had elevated ALT and elevated AST, respectively. The prevalence of elevated liver enzymes was gender-related; it was 13.8% in men and 7.5% in women for elevated ALT, and 7.4% in men and 3.1% in women for elevated AST. High triglyceride was positively associated with both elevated ALT (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.08-3.01, p = 0.024) and elevated AST (OR 2.24, 95%CI 1.08-4.65, p = 0.031), while taking anti-diabetes medicine was inversely related to both elevated ALT (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.80, p = 0.005) and elevated AST (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17-0.82, p = 0.014). The risk of elevated ALT in diabetic patients increased with the presence of obesity (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.07-6.01, p = 0.034), and was lower in women (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72, p = 0.003). Hypertension (OR 4.33, 95% CI 1.41-13.30, p = 0.011), current drinking status (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.21-6.96, p = 0.017) and national minority (OR 3.26, 95%CI 1.31-8.12, p = 0.011) were risk factors for elevated AST. A relatively high prevalence of abnormal serum liver enzymes in diabetic patients was demonstrated in China, especially in males. More attention should be paid to preventing liver injuries in diabetic patients.

  8. Alanine dosimetry for clinical applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, M.

    2006-05-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Therapy level alanine dosimetry at the UK Nationational Physical Laboratory, alanine as a precision validation tool for reference dosimetry, composition of alanine pellet dosimeters, the angular dependence of the alanine ESR spectrum, the CIAE alanine dosimeter for radiotherapy level, a correction for temporal evolution effects in alanine dosimetry, next-generation services foe e-traceability to ionization radiation national standards, establishing e-traceability to HIST high-dose measurement standards, alanine dosimetry of dose delivery from clinical accelerators, the e-scan alanine dosimeter reader, alanine dosimetry at ISS, verification of the integral delivered dose for IMRT treatment in the head and neck region with ESR/alanine dosimetry, alanine dosimetry in helical tomotherapy beams, ESR dosimetry research and development at the University of Palermo, lithium formate as a low-dose EPR radiation dosimeter, sensitivity enhancement of alanine/EPR dosimetry. (HSI)

  9. beta-Chloro-L-alanine inhibition of the Escherichia coli alanine-valine transaminase.

    OpenAIRE

    Whalen, W A; Wang, M D; Berg, C M

    1985-01-01

    beta-Chloro-L-alanine, an amino acid analog which inhibits a number of enzymes, reversibly inhibited the Escherichia coli K-12 alanine-valine transaminase, transaminase C. This inhibition, along with the inhibition of transaminase B, accounted for the isoleucine-plus-valine requirement of E. coli in the presence of beta-chloro-L-alanine.

  10. Cryoablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with High-Risk for Percutaneous Ablation: Safety and Efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun, E-mail: jywon@yuhs.ac; Kim, Man Deuk; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun; Shin, Wonseon; Shin, Minwoo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Seung Up [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of cryoablation in the treatment of subcapsular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) adjacent to various organs.Materials and MethodsTwenty-eight patients with subcapsular HCC were treated with cryoablation in our institution. The degree of peri-procedural pain was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS). Technical success, local tumor progression, and overall disease progression rates were calculated. Procedure-related complications were identified by reviewing electronic medical records. Biochemical data, including serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin levels before and after the procedure were collected.ResultsSubcapsular HCC tumors were located near the gallbladder, colon, stomach, kidney, diaphragm, or abdominal wall. The technical success rate of cryoablation was 96.4 % (27/28). Local recurrence- and progression-free survival rates were 96 and 84 % at 6 months, and 82 and 43 % at 1 year, respectively. All patients survived during the follow-up period. The VAS pain score ranged from 0 to 3 (mean, 1.57). A major complication occurred in one patient (3.6 %) and minor complications occurred at a rate of 17.9 %. Transient elevations of serum AST, ALT, and bilirubin levels were observed.ConclusionCryoablation is a safe and an effective procedure for the treatment of subcapsular HCC adjacent to various major organs.

  11. Diagnosis of different liver fibrosis characteristics by blood tests in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calès, Paul; Boursier, Jérôme; Chaigneau, Julien; Lainé, Fabrice; Sandrini, Jeremy; Michalak, Sophie; Hubert, Isabelle; Dib, Nina; Oberti, Frédéric; Bertrais, Sandrine; Hunault, Gilles; Cavaro-Ménard, Christine; Gallois, Yves; Deugnier, Yves; Rousselet, Marie C

    2010-10-01

    Our aim was to develop an accurate, non-invasive, blood-test-based method for identifying the main characteristics of liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fibrosis was staged according to NASH-CRN and Metavir systems in 226 patients with NAFLD. A fully automated algorithm measured the fractal dimension (FD) and the area of fibrosis (AOF). Independent predictors of diagnostic targets were determined using bootstrap methods. (i) Development. Significant fibrosis defined by NASH-CRN F ≥2 was diagnosed by weight, glycaemia, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and prothrombin index [area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)=0.867]; significant fibrosis defined by Metavir F ≥2 was diagnosed by weight, age, glycaemia, AST, ALT, ferritin and platelets (FibroMeter AUROC=0.941, Pfibrosis staging, Metavir staging was a better reference for blood test. Thus, the patient rate with predictive values ≥90% by tests was 97.3% with Metavir reference vs. 66.5% with NASH-CRN reference (Pfibrosis score for significant fibrosis, but not for severe fibrosis or cirrhosis, with both staging systems. Relationships between fibrosis lesions were well reflected by blood tests, e.g., the correlation between histological area and FD of fibrosis (r(s) =0.971, Pblood tests (r(s) =0.852, Pfibrosis in NAFLD can be diagnosed and quantified by blood tests with excellent accuracy. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Influence of season and sex on hemato-biochemical traits in adult turkeys under arid tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Gattani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of season and sex on hemato-biochemical parameters of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo in the arid tropical environment. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 20-week old turkeys consisting of 20 males and 20 females. Blood was collected from all turkeys during January and May. Hemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were estimated in whole blood and glucose, protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, calcium, phosphorus, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST in serum. Result: Season has significant (p<0.05 effect on Hb concentration, RBC, and PCV in both male and female. Male has significantly higher (p<0.05 Hb concentration, RBC, and PCV. There is no significant effect of sex, and season was observed on MCV, MCH, and MCHC. Glucose, protein, albumin, globulin, and A/G ratio were significantly (p<0.05 affected by season and sex. AST and ALT were significantly (p<0.05 affected by season in both sexes. There is no significant difference was recorded on calcium, phosphorus due to season and sex. Conclusion: Under arid tropical environment, turkey hemato-biochemical parameters are influenced by both sex and season.

  13. Effect of Vitamin B5 on Liver Enzyme Levels in Bile Duct Ligation Cholestatic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Emami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Accumulation of toxic bile salts in a bile duct ligation (BDL animal model plays a pivotal role in the induction of liver fibrosis. Vitamin B5 is an essential nutrient, which acts as a cofactor in many detoxification system enzymes. In the present research, the antifibrotic effect of vitamin B5 was investigated on liver cholestasis induced by BDL in rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups: Control, sham-operated, vitamin B5 (5, 50, and 100mg/kg bw, BDL, and BDL+vitamin B5 (5, 50, and 100mg/kg bw. After BDL, rats were given vitamin B5 via intragastric gavage for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, blood was collected from heart and activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes, were measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. Results: In the BDL animals, the serum activities of AST, ALT, and ALP significantly increased (p<0.001. Treatment of BDL rats with vitamin B5 significantly attenuated these changes. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that vitamin B5 has hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects in the cholestatic liver, which is likely due to the antioxidative and free radical scavenging effects of this vitamin.

  14. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN and lipopolysaccharide (LPS in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis.

  15. Mean Platelet Volume and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Koçer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne zoonotic infection caused by Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and mean platelet volume (MPV which are simple markers of subclinical inflammation and CCHF. We also investigated the relationship of these markers with coagulation parameters.Methods: Thirty-one suspected CCHF patients, who submitted to Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between 2009 and 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. Among thirty-one patients, nineteen were laboratory confirmed CCHF patients diagnosed by RT-PCR or CCHFV-specific IgM positivity. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatinin phosphokinase (CK, coagulation parameters, white blood cell counts (WBCs, and platelet counts of patient group were compared with twenty-five healthy individuals.Results: MPV, AST, ALT, LDH, CK and coagulation parameters were significantly higher in patients with CCHF than the controls, whereas WBCs, neutrophil, lymphocyte, hemoglobin, platelet counts and NLR were significantly lower (p<0.05. We found no significant correlation between MPV, NLR and coagulation parameters.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that MPV and NLR may be beneficial markers in the diagnosis of CCHF. But these parameters should not be considered stand-alone tests for this use owing to nonspecificity with other diseases.

  16. The protective effect of vildagliptin in chronic experimental cyclosporine A-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbeeny, Nagla A; Nader, Manar A

    2016-03-01

    The study examined the effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, vildagliptin, in cyclosporine (CsA)-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 4 groups treated for 28 days: control (vehicle), vildagliptin (10 mg/kg, orally), CsA (20 mg/kg, s.c.), and CsA-vildagliptin group. Liver function was assessed by measuring serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (γGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and albumin, and histopathological changes of liver were examined. Oxidative stress markers were evaluated. Assessment of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity in hepatic nuclear extract, serum DPP-4, and expression of Bax and Bcl2 were also done. CsA-induced hepatotoxicity was evidenced by increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, and γGT; a decrease in serum albumin; and a significant alteration in hepatic architecture. Also, significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) levels, increased expression Bax proteins with deceased expression of Bcl2, and increased hepatic activity of NF-κB and serum DPP-4 level were observed upon CsA treatment. Vildagliptin significantly improved all altered parameters induced by CsA administration. Vildagliptin has the potential to protect the liver against CsA-induced hepatotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress, DPP-4 activity, apoptosis, and inflammation.

  17. [Effect of Dendrobium officinale granule on long-term-alcohol-induced hypertension rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Gui-Yuan; Xia, Chao-Qun; Chen, Su-Hong; Su, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Pang; Li, Bo; Gao, Jian-Li

    2013-10-01

    To observe the effect of Dendrobium officinale granule (DOG) on symptoms, blood pressure and serum biochemical indexes of long-term-alcohol-induced hypertension rats. The alcohol-induced hypertension rat model was established by feeding alcohol drink to normal rats (the alcohol volume fraction increases from 5% to 22%). Since the 4th week, DOG was administered for 32 weeks, once everyday. During the experiment, body weight, kinematic parameters (locomotor activities, grip strength, duration of vertigo) and blood pressures (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure) were detected regularly. On the 28th and 32nd weeks, blood samples were collected to determine serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid (UA), creatinine (Cr), cholesterol (CH) and triglycerides (TG). (1) Sign: The DOG-administered group showed reduction in the duration of vertigo and increase in appetite, body weight, locomotor activities and grip strength. (2) Blood pressure: The DOG-administered group showed significant decrease in blood pressure since the 8th week. (3) Biochemical indexes: The DOG-administered group showed notable decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP, Cr, UA, TG level, but without significant change in TC level. The long-term administration of DOG can relieve alcohol-induced hypertension, while alleviating general signs, liver and kidney injuries and abnormal blood fat biochemical indexes.

  18. Investigation of the Protective Effect of Kefir against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Handan; Yılmaz, Hikmet; Irak, Kıvanç; Yıldırım, Serkan; Mert, Nihat

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to investigate the protective effects of kefir against myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol (ISO). The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, each group consisting of 8 rats. The control group, the kefir group (5 mL/kg/d kefir administered to rats as intra-gastric gavage for 60 d), the ISO group (100 mg/kg ISO was administered to rats, s.c. on 61. and 62. d), and kefir+ISO group (5 mL/kg/d kefir was administered to rats intra gastric gavage for 60 days prior to ISO, 100 mg/kg in two doses on day 61 and 62). 12 h after the last ISO dose, all rats were decapitated and their blood samples were collected. Cardiac tissue was reserved for histopathological examination. creatine kinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, total cholesterol,very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and glucose were measured by autoanalyzer, whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels were measured spectrophotometrically. It was determined that in the group of kefir+ISO, the levels of AST (pkefir in myocardial infarction induced by ISO can protect the heart with its antioxidant characteristic and minimize the toxic damage created by ISO. PMID:29805276

  19. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Flavonoids from Bauhinia hookeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Al-Sayed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, the total ethanol extract of Bauhinia hookeri showed a significant hepatoprotective effect in CCl 4-induced toxicity model in mice. However, the active components responsible for the activity were not identified. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine if the activity of B. hookeri extract is due to its flavonoid content. The hepatoprotective activity of B. hookeri flavonoids was determined by measuring the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST in the culture medium of HepG2 cells challenged with CCl 4. The lipid peroxidation and antioxidant parameters, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH were estimated in the cell lysates. The isolated flavonoids were identified by mass, UV and NMR spectral data. This study revealed that B. hookeri flavonoid fraction and its pure compounds ( kaempferol 3-O-β- D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β- D-glucoside and c atechin 3-O-α- L-rhamnoside possess a promising hepatoprotective activity as evidenced from the normalized levels of ALT and AST. This was attributed partly to their potent antioxidant activity as demonstrated by the increased GSH levels, SOD activity and reduced lipid peroxidation. The whole flavonoid fraction showed the highest cytoprotective activity and was more effective than silymarin. This study highlights a promising natural hepatoprotective remedy derived from B. hookeri.

  20. Cryoablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with High-Risk for Percutaneous Ablation: Safety and Efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun; Kim, Man Deuk; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun; Shin, Wonseon; Shin, Minwoo; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Seung Up

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of cryoablation in the treatment of subcapsular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) adjacent to various organs.Materials and MethodsTwenty-eight patients with subcapsular HCC were treated with cryoablation in our institution. The degree of peri-procedural pain was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS). Technical success, local tumor progression, and overall disease progression rates were calculated. Procedure-related complications were identified by reviewing electronic medical records. Biochemical data, including serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin levels before and after the procedure were collected.ResultsSubcapsular HCC tumors were located near the gallbladder, colon, stomach, kidney, diaphragm, or abdominal wall. The technical success rate of cryoablation was 96.4 % (27/28). Local recurrence- and progression-free survival rates were 96 and 84 % at 6 months, and 82 and 43 % at 1 year, respectively. All patients survived during the follow-up period. The VAS pain score ranged from 0 to 3 (mean, 1.57). A major complication occurred in one patient (3.6 %) and minor complications occurred at a rate of 17.9 %. Transient elevations of serum AST, ALT, and bilirubin levels were observed.ConclusionCryoablation is a safe and an effective procedure for the treatment of subcapsular HCC adjacent to various major organs.

  1. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: assessment of non-invasive indices predicting hepatic steatosis and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzos, Stergios A; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Kountouras, Jannis; Mintziori, Gesthimani; Chatzis, Panagiotis; Papadakis, Efstathios; Katsikis, Ilias; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance contributes to the pathogenesis of both polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-invasive indices of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in PCOS women with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this cross-sectional study, three non-invasive indices for hepatic steatosis [NAFLD liver fat score, lipid accumulation product (LAP) and hepatic steatosis index (HIS)] and four for fibrosis [FIB-4, aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-Platelet Ratio Index (APRI), body mass index (BMI)-Age-Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)-Triglycerides (BAAT) and BMI AST/ALT Ratio Diabetes (BARD)] were calculated in 314 PCOS women (77 with, 237 without MetS) and 78 controls. All steatosis indices were significantly higher in the PCOS than the control group (NAFLD liver fat score: -0.139 ± 0.117 vs. -0.976 ± 0.159, psteatosis indices were significantly higher in PCOS women with than without MetS (NAFLD liver fat score: 1.874 ± 0.258 vs. -0.793 ± 0.099, phepatic steatosis were significantly higher in PCOS, especially in the presence of MetS, whereas indices of hepatic fibrosis yielded controversial results. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the long-term outcomes of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis indices in PCOS women.

  2. Study on pretreatment of FPS-1 in rats with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiqing; Liu, Kexuan; Wu, Weikang; Chen, Chao; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Xuanhong

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether FPS-1, the water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from fuzi, protected against hepatic damage in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, and its mechanism. SD rats were subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia, followed by 120 min reperfusion. FPS-1 (160 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 5 days before ischemia-reperfusion injury in treatment group. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and albumin (ALB) were assayed to evaluate liver functions. Liver samples were taken for histological examination and determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), that catalase (CAT) in liver. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in mitochondria were measured with colorimetry method. Morphological changes were also investigated by using both light microscopy and electron microscopy (EM). In addition, apoptosis and oncosis were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI immunofluorescent flow cytometry analysis. Serum AST and ALT levels were elevated in groups exposed to ischemia-reperfusion (p FPS-1 reversed all these biochemical parameters as well as histological alterations, evidently by increased SOD, CAT, reduced MDA and histological scores compared to the model group (p FPS-1 could attenuate the necrotic states by the detection of immunofluorescent flow cytometry analysis. Pretreatment with FPS-1 reduced hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through its potent antioxidative effects and attenuation of necrotic states.

  3. Hepatoprotective properties of aqueous leaf extract of Persea Americana, Mill (Lauraceae) 'avocado' against CCL4-induced damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brai, Bartholomew I C; Adisa, Rahmat A; Odetola, Adebimpe A

    2014-01-01

    Natural products from plants have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidants and hepatoprotective activities. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Persea americana (AEPA) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats was investigated. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 and olive oil [3 ml/kg, subcutaneously (sc)] after pre-treatment for 7 days with AEPA. Hepatoprotective effects of AEPA was evaluated by estimating the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of total bilirubin (TBL). The effects of AEPA on biomarkers of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) and antioxidant enzymes namely, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were measured in liver post mitochondrial fraction. AEPA and Reducdyn® showed significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotective activity by decreasing the activities of ALT, AST, ALP and reducing the levels of TBL. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls were also decreased dose-dependently in the AEPA-treated rats. Pre-treatment with AEPA also decreased the serum levels of glutathione significantly. These data revealed that AEPA possesses significant hepatoprotective effects against CCl4-induced toxicity attributable to its constituent phytochemicals. The mechanism of hepatoprotection seems to be through modulation of antioxidant enzyme system.

  4. Biochemical changes and manifestations of envenomation produced by Odonthobuthus doriae venom in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Mirakabadi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many toxins from scorpion venoms cause neurotransmitters release by activating the autonomic system. The aim of the present work was to determine osmotic fragility of red blood cells (RBCs and serum biochemical changes produced by the venom of Odonthobuthus doriae (O. doriae, a dangerous species of scorpion in Iran. For this study we selected 2 groups, each one containing 10 New Zealand white rabbits weighing 2 ± 0.2 kg. In vivo and in vitro osmotic fragilities as well as packed cell volume (PCV were determined. Serum was separated and used for determination of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, uric acid (UA, triglycerides, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, EC 2.6.1.1, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 2.6.1.2. Results indicate that Odonthobuthus doriae venom (0.5 mg/kg, IV causes a significant increase (p<0.05 of serum glucose, UA, PCV, ALT, and AST. Increase was also observed in BUN, but it was not statistically significant. On the other hand a significant decrease (p<0.05 was observed in triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Increased in vivo osmotic fragility of RBCs was significant too, but in vitro osmotic fragility did not show a significant change. These results support the hypothesis that the biochemical variation caused by scorpion venom can be due to an autonomic storm and release of catecholamines.

  5. Effects of endurance and endurance-strength exercise on biochemical parameters of liver function in women with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnik, Damian; Ratajczak, Marzena; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Mądry, Edyta; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Hansdorfer-Korzon, Rita; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Bogdański, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the standard therapy for obesity involves physical exercise, well-planned studies of the changes in liver function in response to different exercise intensities in obese subjects are scarce. The aim of the present study was to examine a question of how does exercise mode affect the liver function. 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into two exercise groups: endurance (group A) and endurance-strength (group B). Women in each group exercised for 60min 3 times/week for a 3-month period. Markers of liver function: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and bilirubin levels were quantified. We found significant differences in ALT (pexercise. Blood ALT and AST tended to decrease in group B, increase in group A. Significant reduction in serum GGT level after exercise in both groups was observed (pexercise led to changes in serum ALP activity and total or direct bilirubin level. However, endurance-strength training resulted in significant decreases in serum indirect bilirubin (pexercise (group B). The mode of exercise does matter: endurance-strength exercise led to a greater improvement, compared to endurance exercise, in the liver function in women with abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale R. Ajuwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis, red palm oil (RPO (Elaeis guineensis, or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P<0.05 elevation in conjugated dienes (CD and malondialdehyde (MDA levels, significantly (P<0.05 decreased reduced glutathione (GSH and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P<0.05 decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status.

  7. Expressão do Mg+2, CK, AST e LDH em equinos finalistas de provas de enduro Endurance horses finalists: expression of Mg+2, CK, AST and LDH in horse finalists of endurance race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana V.F. Sales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o equino atleta vem sendo cada vez mais requerido. Dessa forma, as exigências por alto desempenho têm fomentado o interesse pelo estudo das afecções relacionadas com a fisiopatologia de diversas enfermidades dos equinos. A relação entre o íon magnésio e o exercício físico tem recebido atenção significativa visto que este íon está intimamente relacionado ao tecido muscular estriado esquelético. Além disso, dentre as principais estratégias para a detecção e acompanhamento clínico de lesões musculares, destacam-se a avaliação das atividades das enzimas creatino quinase (CK, lactato desidrogenase (LDH e aspartato aminotransferase (AST. A busca pelo estabelecimento de parâmetros que se relacionam entre si é um fator determinante na compreensão de alterações fisiológicas encontradas diante do esforço em equinos atletas. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar como as concentrações sanguíneas do íon magnésio e as atividades enzimáticas das enzimas CK, LDH e AST comportaram-se em equinos Puro Sangue Árabe finalistas de provas de enduro de 90km e relacionar as possíveis alterações com o tipo de esforço físico desempenhado pelos animais. Foram avaliadas a atividade enzimática das enzimas CK, LDH, AST e a concentração do íon magnésio no exercício em relação ao repouso de 14 equinos clinicamente hígidos da raça Puro Sangue Árabe, sendo 9 machos e 5 fêmeas, com idades variando entre 6 a 12 anos, submetidos a treinamento para enduro e participantes de provas de 90 km. Pode-se observar que as variáveis acima mencionadas sofreram aumento com diferença estatística em relação ao repouso. O exercício físico de enduro determinou a ocorrência de alterações nas atividades enzimáticas das enzimas CK (p≤0,001, LDH (p=0,0001, AST (p=0,0007 e na concentração do íon magnésio (p=0,0004, no exercício em relação ao repouso (p≤0,05. Fato que determinou altera

  8. Establishing a synthetic pathway for high-level production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via β-alanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks into plastic monomers can decrease our fossil dependence and reduce global CO2 emissions. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is a potential chemical building block for sustainable production of superabsorbent polymers and acrylic plastics. With the object......Microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks into plastic monomers can decrease our fossil dependence and reduce global CO2 emissions. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is a potential chemical building block for sustainable production of superabsorbent polymers and acrylic plastics......-alanine and its subsequent conversion into 3HP using a novel ß-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase discovered in Bacillus cereus. The final strain produced 3HP at a titer of 13.7±0.3 g・L-1 with a 0.14±0.0 C-mol・C-mol-1 yield on glucose in 80 hours in controlled fed-batch fermentation in mineral medium at pH 5......, and this work therefore lays the basis for developing a process for biological 3HP production....

  9. Production of D-alanine from DL-alanine using immobilized cells of Bacillus subtilis HLZ-68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangyang; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Caifei; Yu, Xiaodong; Huang, Fei; Huang, Shihai; Li, Lianwei; Liu, Shiyu

    2017-09-13

    Immobilized cells of Bacillus subtilis HLZ-68 were used to produce D-alanine from DL-alanine by asymmetric degradation. Different compounds such as polyvinyl alcohol and calcium alginate were employed for immobilizing the B. subtilis HLZ-68 cells, and the results showed that cells immobilized using a mixture of these two compounds presented higher L-alanine degradation activity, when compared with free cells. Subsequently, the effects of different concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol and calcium alginate on L-alanine consumption were examined. Maximum L-alanine degradation was exhibited by cells immobilized with 8% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol and 2% (w/v) calcium alginate. Addition of 400 g of DL-alanine (200 g at the beginning of the reaction and 200 g after 30 h of incubation) into the reaction solution at 30 °C, pH 6.0, aeration of 1.0 vvm, and agitation of 400 rpm resulted in complete L-alanine degradation within 60 h, leaving 185 g of D-alanine in the reaction solution. The immobilized cells were applied for more than 15 cycles of degradation and a maximum utilization rate was achieved at the third cycle. D-alanine was easily extracted from the reaction solution using cation-exchange resin, and the chemical and optical purity of the extracted D-alanine was 99.1 and 99.6%, respectively.

  10. A study of the irradiation temperature coefficient for L-alanine and DL-alanine dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, M. F.; Lin, M.; Cooper, S. L.; Cui, Y.; Chen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Alanine dosimetry is now well established both as a reference and routine dosemeter for industrial irradiation processing. Accurate dosimetry under the relatively harsh conditions of industrial processing requires a characterisation of the parameters that influence the dosemeter response. The temperature of the dosemeter during irradiation is a difficult quantity to measure so that the accuracy of the temperature coefficient that governs the dosemeter response becomes a critical factor. Numerous publications have reported temperature coefficients for several types of alanine dosemeters. The observed differences in the measured values were commonly attributed to the differences in the polymer binder or the experimental design of the measurement. However, the data demonstrated a consistent difference in the temperature coefficients between L-alanine and DL-alanine. Since there were no commonalities in the dosemeter composition or the measurement methods applied, a clear conclusion is not possible. To resolve this issue, the two isomeric forms of alanine dosemeters were prepared and irradiated in an identical manner. The results indicated that the DL-alanine temperature coefficient is more than 50% higher than the L-alanine temperature coefficient. (authors)

  11. Reliability and Validity of Korean Version of Apraxia Screen of TULIA (K-AST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Yang, You-Na; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jin-Youn; Jeong, Eunhwa; Kim, Bo-Ram; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of Korean version of AST (K-AST) as a bedside screening test of apraxia in patients with stroke for early and reliable detection. AST was translated into Korean, and the translated version received authorization from the author of AST. The performances of K-AST in 26 patients (21 males, 5 females; mean age 65.42±17.31 years) with stroke (23 ischemic, 3 hemorrhagic) were videotaped. To test the reliability and validity of K-AST, the recorded performances were assessed by two physiatrists and two occupational therapists twice at a 1-week interval. The patient performances at admission in Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), self-care and transfer categories of Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and motor praxis area of Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment, the second edition (LOTCA-II) were also evaluated. Scores of motor praxis area of LOTCA-II was used to assess the validity of K-AST. Inter-rater reliabilities were 0.983 (preliable and valid test for bedside screening of apraxia.

  12. Variation of Traditional Biomarkers of Liver Injury After an Ultramarathon at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, Jill N; Olewinski, Lucianne; Khodaee, Morteza

    2018-03-01

    Significant elevations of traditional biomarkers of liver injury can occur as a result of running an ultramarathon. Traditional serum biomarker levels of liver injury will significantly increase as the result of participating in this 161-km race at altitude. Prospective cross-sectional study. Level 3. A total of 64 (before) and 83 (after) volunteer runners participated in a prospective observational field-based study at the Leadville 100 ultramarathon race. Changes in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase (CK), and bilirubin levels were measured. Of 669 athletes who started the race, 352 successfully completed the race within the 30-hour cutoff (53%). Of 36 runners who had pre- and postrace blood samples taken, the mean ALT, AST, and bilirubin levels were increased from 23 ± 10 U/L, 23 ± 5 U/L, and 0.60 ± 0.29 mg/dL to 117 ± 106 U/L, 485 ± 500 U/L, and 1.60 ± 0.61 mg/dL, respectively (all P athletes' age, sex, body mass index, or finishing time. Significant positive linear correlations between AST, ALT, and LDH with CK were seen. Athletes in this study did not seek medical attention after the race based on an electronic survey (92% response rate). Significant elevations of traditional biomarkers of liver injury occurred as a result of running an ultramarathon at altitude. These correlated with CK, a marker of muscle injury. When reviewing laboratory studies of traditional biomarkers of liver injury in athletes after an ultramarathon, significant elevations may be seen from baseline but are likely to be of no clinical consequence.

  13. Diagnostic performance of traditional hepatobiliary biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennulat, Daniela; Magid-Slav, Michal; Rehm, Sabine; Tatsuoka, Kay S

    2010-08-01

    Nonclinical studies provide the opportunity to anchor biochemical with morphologic findings; however, liver injury is often complex and heterogeneous, confounding the ability to relate biochemical changes with specific patterns of injury. The aim of the current study was to compare diagnostic performance of hepatobiliary markers for specific manifestations of drug-induced liver injury in rat using data collected in a recent hepatic toxicogenomics initiative in which rats (n = 3205) were given 182 different treatments for 4 or 14 days. Diagnostic accuracy of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Tbili), serum bile acids (SBA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (Chol), and triglycerides (Trig) was evaluated for specific types of liver histopathology by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. To assess the relationship between biochemical and morphologic changes in the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, a second ROC analysis was performed on a subset of rats (n = 2504) given treatments (n = 152) that did not cause hepatocellular necrosis. In the initial analysis, ALT, AST, Tbili, and SBA had the greatest diagnostic utility for manifestations of hepatocellular necrosis and biliary injury, with comparable magnitude of area under the ROC curve and serum hepatobiliary marker changes for both. In the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, ALT increases were observed with biochemical or morphologic evidence of cholestasis. In both analyses, diagnostic utility of ALP and GGT for biliary injury was limited; however, ALP had modest diagnostic value for peroxisome proliferation, and ALT, AST, and total Chol had moderate diagnostic utility for phospholipidosis. None of the eight markers evaluated had diagnostic value for manifestations of hypertrophy, cytoplasmic rarefaction, inflammation, or lipidosis.

  14. Standardization of clinical enzyme analysis using frozen human serum pools with values assigned by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qing; Chen, Baorong; Zhang, Rui; Zuo, Chang

    Variation in clinical enzyme analysis, particularly across different measuring systems and laboratories, represents a critical but long-lasting problem in diagnosis. Calibrators with traceability and commutability are imminently needed to harmonize analysis in laboratory medicine. Fresh frozen human serum pools were assigned values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by six laboratories with established International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures. These serum pools were then used across 76 laboratories as a calibrator in the analysis of five enzymes. Bias and imprecision in the measurement of the five enzymes tested were significantly reduced by using the value-assigned serum in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration. The median (interquartile range) of the relative biases of ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH were 2.0% (0.6-3.4%), 0.8% (-0.8-2.3%), 1.0% (-0.5-2.0%), 0.2% (-0.3-1.0%) and 0.2% (-0.9-1.1%), respectively. Before calibration, the interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs) in the analysis of patient serum samples were 8.0-8.2%, 7.3-8.5%, 8.1-8.7%, 5.1-5.9% and 5.8-6.4% for ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH, respectively; after calibration, the CVs decreased to 2.7-3.3%, 3.0-3.6%, 1.6-2.1%, 1.8-1.9% and 3.3-3.5%, respectively. The results suggest that the use of fresh frozen serum pools significantly improved the comparability of test results in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration.

  15. The effects of serial intravascular transfusions in ascitic/hydropic RhD-alloimmunized fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craparo, F J; Bonati, F; Gementi, P; Nicolini, U

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of serial intravascular transfusions on RhD-alloimmunized fetuses with ascites/hydrops at the time of the first transfusion by measuring multiple hematological/biochemical blood variables. Thirty-one singleton pregnancies were referred for management of RhD alloimmunization. Seven fetuses had hydrops on presentation and were transfused immediately. The remainder underwent weekly ultrasound examinations, and fetal blood sampling and transfusion were performed on development of ascites. In the 104 samples collected overall from the 31 fetuses, glucose, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total protein, total and direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, amylase, pseudocholinesterase (PCHE), creatine kinase, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured and compared with a reference range for non-anemic fetuses. The median gestational age at first transfusion was 26 (range, 18-34) weeks. There were three fetal losses after the first transfusion, two of which were due to procedure-related complications; one further loss occurred. At the first transfusion fetal hematocrit, pO2, total protein, PCHE, creatinine and urea concentrations were significantly decreased compared to reference data, while total and direct bilirubin, AST, ALT, amylase, triglyceride and uric acid concentrations were increased. In all surviving fetuses ascites/hydrops had disappeared by the second transfusion. Fetal pO2, total protein, AST, ALT and PCHE concentrations had normalized by the third transfusion. Correction of fetal anemia did not affect the other variables. RhD-alloimmunized fetuses with ascites/hydrops at the time of the first transfusion had a survival rate of 87%. Alterations of several biochemical fetal blood indices are present at the first sampling/transfusion, but most variables normalize with intravascular transfusions. Copyright 2005 ISUOG.

  16. Clinicopathologic evaluation of hepatic lipidosis in periparturient dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Roubies, Nikolaos; Panousis, Nikolaos; Pourliotis, Konstantinos; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2007-01-01

    Fatty change of the liver (FCL) is very common in dairy cattle periparturiently. Many laboratory methods have been implicated in order to assist the diagnosis. To investigate whether FCL in dairy cattle could be evaluated by assessment of ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT) by means of an assay modified for bovine serum, other enzyme activity, serum bile acids (SBA) concentration, or other biochemical constituents. A total of 187 dairy cattle were included: 106 were suspected to have liver dysfunction and were examined after referral by veterinarians; 70 were clinically healthy with mild FCL; and 11 were clinically healthy without FCL. Blood and liver biopsy samples were obtained after clinical examination. Histologic examination by light microscopy and classification of samples according to the severity of FCL was done, and total lipid and triglyceride concentration was measured. In serum, OCT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) activity as well as SBA, glucose, ketones, total bilirubin (tBIL), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration were measured. OCT and AST activity and tBIL concentration correlate well with the degree of FCL. SBA concentration does not contribute well to FCL diagnosis. The majority of FCL cases appeared within the first 21 days-in-milk (DIM). The majority of moderate-to-severe and severe FCL cases arose in the first 7 DIM. Except for OCT, AST, and tBIL, none of the biochemical tests used, including SBA, had sufficient discriminatory power to differentiate reliably between mild and severe FCL because of poor sensitivity. A weak correlation between clinical signs and the extent of FCL was evident.

  17. Biochemical assessment of physical training: a tool to sports dietitians-nutritionists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz Urdampilleta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The high demand in athletes creates the need to control the process of adaptation to training. The aim of this review is to analyze the biochemical parameters of utility for biological control of the athlete, and provide tools to sports dietitian-nutritionist in the follow-up of the training.Glucose and lipid profile parameters are widely used but insufficient to control training. The lactic acid level in the plasma is the most common tool to assess training load, where values higher than 4 mmol/l, suggest an intensive training. Other enzymes in high concentrations such as creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and two transaminases: glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT or aspartate transaminase (AST or aspartate aminotransferase (AAT and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT or alanine transaminase or aminotransferase (ALT suggest that the training load was high producing microscopic tearing of the muscle fibers. Determination of other substrates such as ammonia, glutamine, or testosterone/cortisol ratio, used to detect a possible overtraining syndrome. Likewise the latest research suggest that high cortisol levels decrease the immune system.Moreover, an increase of urea, alanine or ketone bodies are related to muscle glycogen stores depleted. Therefore, the information provided by these parameters is useful for the sports dietitian-nutritionist for dietary and nutritional interventions to achieve more effective in function of the training goals.

  18. Secretion of d-alanine by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsube, Satoshi; Sato, Kazuki; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Escherichia coli has an l-alanine export system that protects the cells from toxic accumulation of intracellular l-alanine in the presence of l-alanyl-l-alanine (l-Ala-l-Ala). When a DadA-deficient strain was incubated with 6.0 mM l-Ala-l-Ala, we detected l-alanine and d-alanine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis at a level of 7.0 mM and 3.0 mM, respectively, after 48 h incubation. Treatment of the culture supernatant with d-amino acid oxidase resulted in the disappearance of a signal corresponding to d-alanine. Additionally, the culture supernatant enabled a d-alanine auxotroph to grow without d-alanine supplementation, confirming that the signal detected by HPLC was authentic d-alanine. Upon introduction of an expression vector harbouring the alanine racemase genes, alr or dadX, the extracellular level of d-alanine increased to 11.5 mM and 8.5 mM, respectively, under similar conditions, suggesting that increased metabolic flow from l-alanine to d-alanine enhanced d-alanine secretion. When high-density DadA-deficient cells preloaded with l-Ala-l-Ala were treated with 20 µM carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), secretion of both l-alanine and d-alanine was enhanced ~twofold compared with that in cells without CCCP treatment. In contrast, the ATPase inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide did not exert such an effect on the l-alanine and d-alanine secretion. Furthermore, inverted membrane vesicles prepared from DadA-deficient cells lacking the l-alanine exporter AlaE accumulated [3H]D-alanine in an energy-dependent manner. This energy-dependent accumulation of [3H]D-alanine was strongly inhibited by CCCP. These results indicate that E. coli has a transport system(s) that exports d-alanine and that this function is most likely modulated by proton electrochemical potential.

  19. Comparison of the Influence on the Liver Function Between Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal and rh-TSH Before High-Dose Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yeon-Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Yun, Kuk-No; Yim, Sung Kyun; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Sohn, Myung-Hee [Chonbuk National Univ. Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone level (TSH) is essential to stimulate the uptake of radioiodine into thyroid remnants and metastases and metastases of thyroid cancer when a patient under-goes high-dose radioiodine therapy. Nowadays, recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) is increasingly used instead of the classic method of thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). However, beyond the therapeutic effects, clinical differences between the two methods have not yet been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of the two methods, especially on liver function. We identified 143 evaluable patients who were further divided into two groups: THW and rh-TSH. We first reviewed the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, which were measured during the admission period for total thyroidectomy. We called these liver enzyme levels 'base AST' and 'base ALT.' We also assessed other chemistry profiles, including AST, ALT, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), and triglyceride (TG), which were measured on admission day for high-dose radioiodine therapy. We called these liver enzyme levels 'follow-up AST'and 'follow-up ALT.' We compared the changes in base and follow-up liver enzyme levels and the other chemistry profiles between the two groups. The base AST and base ALT levels of the two groups were within normal range, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. In contrast to these base liver enzyme levels, follow-up AST and ALT levels than did the rh-TSH group. Patients in the THW group. Patients in the THW group also had higher levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol than did the patients in the rh-TSH group. However there were no statistically significant differences in ALP, total bilirubin, and triglyceride levels between the two groups. In this retrospective analysis of liver

  20. The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p = 0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p = 0.02). The GGT levels

  1. Comparison of alanine dosimeters using silicone as their binder to a commercial, polystyrene-bound, alanine dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, S.; Urena-Nunez, F.

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of practical boron-containing alanine ESR dosimeters for gamma-neutron mixed field irradiation dosimeters depends in part on whether the γ response characteristics of these silicone-bound dosimeters are comparable to those of a commercially available dosimeter that has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (International Dose Assurance Service) as a transfer reference dosimeter. This work presents the results of the comparison of 3 batches of silicone-bound alanine dosimeters. The first batch consists of a mixture of alanine and boric acid; the second, alanine and borax; and the last contains only alanine. Results indicate that γ response characteristics of the silicone-bound samples are comparable to those of the commercial, polystyrene-bound, alanine dosimeter and that silicone has a strong potential as a binding substance for alanine ESR dosimetry. (Author)

  2. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hugo Peralta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor.

  3. Selection of D-Alanine-Tolerant Rice Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hisashi, Manabe; Koji, Ohira; Aizu Junior College of Fukushima Prefecture; Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Tohoku University

    1984-01-01

    By repeating subculture of rice cells (parent cells) in a D-alanine containing medium, we could select rice cells which grew well in the D-alanine medium. The D-alanine-tolerant cells absorbed a fairly small amount of D-alanine from the medium and did not accumulate much D-alanine in the cells. Aggregation of D-alanine-tolerant cells was greater than that of parent cells. D-Alanine metabolism of D-alanine.-tolerant cells did not increase in comparison with parent cells.

  4. Elevated Aminotransferase Activity as an Indication of Muscular Dystrophy: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Zamora

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Five male children are reported in whom incidental recognition of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity initiated investigation to identify the cause of suspected hepatocellular injury. All five were later diagnosed with X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy. The serum level of ALT, generally considered to be specific for hepatocellular injury, was increased two to 25 times above normal in all the reported cases. Paradoxically, the increase in ALT activity was greater than that of serum aspartate aminotransferase (three to 16 times normal, an enzyme whose elevation is generally recognized as being less specific and indicative of muscle, cardiac, kidney, pancreatic, red blood cell or hepatic injury. At presentation to the gastrointestinal service, one case, age 2.5 months, had no symptoms or signs of neuromuscular dysfunction, while the other four had previously unrecognized hypertrophy of the calves, proximal limb weakness, positive Gower’s sign or delayed gross motor skills. All five patients had marked elevation of serum creatine kinase activity and histopathologically confirmed muscular dystrophy. The practical clinical implication of this report is that children with elevated serum ALT, in the absence of other signs and symptoms of hepatic injury, may have occult muscular disease - most frequently muscular dystrophy. Although the clinical signs of muscular dystrophy may be subtle or absent, early determination of creatine kinase will suggest the correct diagnosis and minimize extensive and invasive investigation focusing on hepatic injury.

  5. Comparison of EPR response of alanine and Gd₂O₃-alanine dosimeters exposed to TRIGA Mainz reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrale, M; Schmitz, T; Gallo, S; Hampel, G; Longo, A; Panzeca, S; Tranchina, L

    2015-12-01

    In this work we report some preliminary results regarding the analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) response of alanine pellets and alanine pellets added with gadolinium used for dosimetry at the TRIGA research reactor in Mainz, Germany. Two set-ups were evaluated: irradiation inside PMMA phantom and irradiation inside boric acid phantom. We observed that the presence of Gd2O3 inside alanine pellets increases the EPR signal by a factor of 3.45 and 1.24 in case of PMMA and boric acid phantoms, respectively. We can conclude that in the case of neutron beam with a predominant thermal neutron component the addition of gadolinium oxide can significantly improve neutron sensitivity of alanine pellets. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of both response of alanine and Gd-added alanine pellets with FLUKA code were performed and a good agreement was achieved for pure alanine dosimeters. For Gd2O3-alanine deviations between MC simulations and experimental data were observed and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Exogenous _D-Alanine on _D-Alanyl-_D-alanine Content in Leaf Blades of Oryza australiensis Domin

    OpenAIRE

    Hisashi, Manabe; Aizu Junior College of Fukushima Prefecture

    1986-01-01

    In seedlings of Oryza australiensis Domin (W0008), most of the D-alanyl-D-alanine was distributed in the leaf blades. In excised leaf blades of W0008, exogenous D-alanine was incorporated into D-alanyl-D-alanine irrespective of the light condition as in Sasanishiki. With cultivation in D-alanine medium for several days, the D-alanyl-D-alanine content in W0008 leaf blades was found to increase, but no other D-alanine-containing dipeptides such as D-alanylglycine or D-alanyl-L-alanine were dete...

  7. A new method for synthesis of As-Te chalcogenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalov, Leonid; Nezhdanov, Aleksey; Usanov, Dmitry; Markelov, Aleksey; Trushin, Vladimir; Chidichimo, Giuseppe; De Filpo, Giovanni; Gogova, Daniela; Mashin, Aleksandr

    2017-11-01

    A novel Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition method for synthesis of amorphous AsxTe100-x (31 ≤ x ≤ 49) films is demonstrated. The innovative process has been developed in a non-equilibrium low-temperature argon plasma under reduced pressure, employing for the first time volatile As and Te as precursors. Utilization of inorganic precursors, in contrast to the typically used in CVD metal-organic precursors, has given us the chance to achieve ≿halcogenide As-Te films of very high quality and purity. Phase and structural evolution of the As-Te system, based on equilibrium coexistence of two phases (AsTe and As2Te3) has been studied. The dependence of structure and optical bandgap of the chalcogenide materials on their composition was established. The newly developed process is cost-effective and enables deposition of As-Te films with a thickness ranging from 10 nm to 10 μm, the latter is highly desireable for one-mode planar waveguides applications and in other components of integral optics.

  8. Clinical, biochemical and haemathological effects in Rhamdia quelen exposed to cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Montanha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The acute intoxication of Cypermethrin in Silver Catfish (Rhamdia quelen was evaluated. Animals weighing 56.67±4.43g and measuring 18.92±1.16cm were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cypermethrin for the species in hydrological conditions during 96 hours. A total of 52 fish divided into three groups were used and received the following concentrations of Cypermethrin: 0 (n=12; 1.5 (n=20 and 2.5 (n=20mg/L. The intoxicated animals suffered behavioral changes such as loss of balance, swimming alteration, dyspnea, upright swimming and sudden spiral swimming movements. As soon as the 96-hour period was over, a blood collection for hematological and biochemical analyses was performed. A complete haemogram test, plasmatic protein test, albumin, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were studied. The values of erythrocytes, hematocrits, haemoglobin, total number of leukocytes, thrombocyte, ALT, AST and ALP changed according to the groups. The results have shown that the environmental contamination by Cypermethrin is toxic to the species.

  9. A clinical and biochemical profile of biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram, M.; Mushraf, M.

    2007-01-01

    To describe clinical and biochemical features of patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fifty patients of either and of all ages were included, who had ultrasound evidence of fatty liver, deranged liver enzymes, and negative history of alcohol uptake. Serological/biochemical tests/markers of other liver diseases were negative. Each subject underwent liver biopsy reported by a single histopathologist. Clinical (symptoms, hypertension, hepatomegaly, and obesity) and biochemical evaluation (for diabetes, lipid abnormalities, and aspartate to alanine aminotransferase ratio (AST/ALT)) of each subject was done. Chi-square and t-tests were used for p-value calculation for finding significant difference between fatty liver and non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis groups. Thirty three (66%) patients were female and 34% were male. Mean age was 45.50+-11.50 years. Histopathologically, 62% subjects had fatty liver alone, while 38% had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Fatigue (100%), hypertriglyceridemia (80%), hepatomegaly (72%), AST/ALT ratio <1 (72%), and obesity/overweight (54%) were common NAFLD-related features. Except for hypertriglycedemia (p-value 0.008), no statistically significant association was noted between these features and histopathological subtypes of NAFLD. NAFLD-related clinical and biochemical features included fatigue, obesity, hepatomegaly, AST/ALT ratio <1, and hypertriglycedemia. Significant relationship existed between hypertriglyceridemia and NASH. (author)

  10. Prebiotic competence of spirulina on the production performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Rawshon Jamil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the prebiotic effects of Spirulina as a growth and immunity promoter for broiler chickens. Birds (n=100 were randomly and equally distributed into four groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3 and fed on a diet containing 0, 2, 4 and 8 g Spirulina/kg feed respectively for 4 weeks. The body weight was significantly (P<0.05 increased in the treatment groups fed with Spirulina diet from 7th days to 28th days old. FCR was also significantly (P<0.05 decreased among the treatment groups. Hematological parameters were significantly (P<0.05 increased except ESR which was decreased significantly (P<0.05 in the treatment group. Aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and alanine aminotransferase (AST level were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in all the treatment groups. The study suggests that, Spirulina is a good natural feed additive which has a tremendous effect to improve the broiler production and thereby may reduce the production cost. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 304-309

  11. EFFICACY OF PROBIOTICS INTAKE ON INTERNAL MILIEU OF HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mellen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the functional efficiency of probiotic preparation on selected blood biochemical parameters of ISA Brown hens. Feed in the experimental group of hens was enriched with a probiotic preparation in the dose of 500g.t-1 consisted of freeze-dried cultures: Lactobacillus bulgaricus LAT 187, L. acidophilus LAT 180, L. helveticus LAT 179, L. delbrueckii ssp. Lactis LAT 182, Streptococcus thermophiles LAT 205, Enterococcus faecium E-253 with concentration of 5.109 (CFU LAB living organisms in 1 gram. Blood samples were collected in 25 and 48 week of hens’ age. Biochemical parameters of mineral profile (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorides, energetic profile (plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, bilirubin, glucose, and activities of serum liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase AST, alanine aminotransferase ALT, alkaline phosphatase ALP were analysed using Ecoline kits and a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyser Microlab 300 (Vilat Scientific, Dieren, The Nederland. Probiotic preparation reduced (P<0.05 serum cholesterol and triglycerides content. No significant effects of probiotic on remaining parameters were confirmed.

  12. Effect of modified fasting therapy on body weight, fat and muscle mass, and blood chemistry in patients with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koh-Woon; Song, Mi-Yeon; Chung, Seok-Hee; Chung, Won-Seok

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and safety of modified fasting therapy using fermented medicinal herbs and exercise on body weight, fat and muscle mass, and blood chemistry in obese subjects. Twenty-six patients participated in a 14-day fast, during which they ingested a supplement made from fermented medicinal herbs and carbohydrates (intake: 400-600 kcal/d). The schedule included 7 prefasting relief days and 14 days of stepwise reintroduction of food. The patients also took part in an exercise program that incorporated Qigong, weight training, and walking exercises. The efficacy of treatments was observed by assessing body fat mass and muscle mass, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, and triglycerides in each study period. Specific symptoms or side effects were reported. Body weight and body fat mass both decreased significantly by (5.16 ± 0.95) and (3.89 ± 0.79) kg (both P fasting therapy using fermented medicinal herbs and exercise could be effective and safe on obese patients.

  13. Comparative Analysis of EPA/DHA-PL Forage and Liposomes in Orotic Acid-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Rats and Their Related Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mengru; Zhang, Tiantian; Han, Xiuqing; Tang, Qingjuan; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2018-02-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one predictive factor of death from various illnesses. The present study was to comparatively investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids forage (EPA-PL and DHA-PL) and liposomes (lipo-EPA and lipo-DHA) on NAFLD and demonstrate the possible protective mechanisms involved. The additive doses of EPA-PL and DHA-PL in all treatment groups were 1% of total diets, respectively. The results showed that Lipo-EPA could significantly improve hepatic function by down-regulating orotic acid-induced serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 55.6% and 34.2%, respectively (p DHA could also significantly suppress hepatic lipid accumulation mainly by enhancement of hepatic lipolysis and cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, DHA-PL played a certain role in inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and accelerating cholesterol efflux. The results obtained in this work might contribute to the understanding of the biological activities of EPA/DHA-PL and liposomes and further investigation on its potential application values for food supplements.

  14. Antiplasmodial activity of methanolic extract of asparagus officinalis l. stem on plasmodium berghei infected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minari, J.B.; Adutuga, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the antiplasmodial activity of methanolic extract of Asparagus officinalis L. stem on Plasmodium berghei infected mice. To investigate this, the mice were infected with P.berghei to cause malaria. The mice were simultaneously given oral doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight) of methanolic extract of A. officinalis L. stem. The phytochemical constituents of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoid and steroid. The extract administered to the infected mice significantly suppressed the parasite. The extract also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the activities of serum aspatate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphate (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT). White blood corpuscles (WBC), red blood corpuscles (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), packed cell volume (PCV), platelets (PLT) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) showed significant (P<0.05) increase after the administration of the extract while mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) showed significant (P<0.05) reduction. Present findings suggests that the plant extract contains phytochemicals that have antiplasmodial and hepatoprotective properties. (author)

  15. Oral administration of Saccharomyces boulardii ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats via reducing intestinal permeability and modulating gut microbial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Zhu, Lin; Xie, Ao; Yuan, Jieli

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of orally administrated Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) on the progress of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis, 34 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups including the control group (n = 8), the cirrhotic group (n = 10), the preventive group (n = 8), and the treatment group (n = 8). Results showed that the liver expression levels of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (Col1A1), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly in cirrhotic rats compared with control and decreased by S. boulardii administration. Treatment of S. boulardii also attenuated the increased endotoxin levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines in CCl4-treated rats. And, these were associated with the changes of intestinal permeability and fecal microbial composition. Our study suggested that oral administration of S. boulardii can promote the liver function of CCl4-treated rats, and the preventive treatment of this probiotic yeast may decelerate the progress of liver fibrosis.

  16. A Polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum Improves Liver Function in Type 2 Diabetic Rats via Antioxidant Action and Short-Chain Fatty Acids Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ke-Xue; Nie, Shao-Ping; Tan, Le-He; Li, Chuan; Gong, De-Ming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-03-09

    The present study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of polysaccharide isolated from Ganoderma atrum (PSG-1) on liver function in type 2 diabetic rats. Results showed that PSG-1 decreased the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), while increasing hepatic glycogen levels. PSG-1 also exerted strong antioxidant activities, together with upregulated mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt) in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were significantly higher in the liver, serum, and faeces of diabetic rats after treating with PSG-1 for 4 weeks. These results suggest that the improvement of PSG-1 on liver function in type 2 diabetic rats may be due to its antioxidant effects, SCFA excretion in the colon from PSG-1, and regulation of hepatic glucose uptake by inducing GLUT4 translocation through PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

  17. Basic design decisions for advanced AST-type NHRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureyeva, L.V.; Egorov, V.V.; Malamud, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of the AST-500 reference design decisions and of the experience gained in the RF during the pilot NDHPs development and construction, the advanced NHR AST-500M has been developed recently by OKB Mechanical Engineering, as well as a whole series of heating and co-generation reactor plants of various unit power. All the designs represent enhanced safety reactor plants meeting the contemporary national requirements and international recommendations for nuclear plants of the new generation. The main objectives for the advanced NHR development are considered. New design decisions and engineering improvements are described briefly. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs

  18. Basic design decisions for advanced AST-type NHRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureyeva, L V; Egorov, V V; Malamud, V A [OKBM, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    On the basis of the AST-500 reference design decisions and of the experience gained in the RF during the pilot NDHPs development and construction, the advanced NHR AST-500M has been developed recently by OKB Mechanical Engineering, as well as a whole series of heating and co-generation reactor plants of various unit power. All the designs represent enhanced safety reactor plants meeting the contemporary national requirements and international recommendations for nuclear plants of the new generation. The main objectives for the advanced NHR development are considered. New design decisions and engineering improvements are described briefly. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs.

  19. 21 CFR 172.540 - DL-Alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true DL-Alanine. 172.540 Section 172.540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents and Related Substances § 172.540 DL-Alanine. DL-Alanine (a racemic mixture of D- and L-alanine...

  20. Association between ABCG2 and SLCO1B1 polymorphisms and adverse drug reactions to regorafenib: a preliminary study
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Akimitsu; Ando, Hitoshi; Ura, Takashi; Komori, Azusa; Hasegawa, Ayako; Taniguchi, Hiroya; Kadowaki, Shigenori; Muro, Kei; Tajika, Masahiro; Kobara, Makiko; Matsuzaki, Masahide; Hashimoto, Naoya; Maeda, Mieko; Kojima, Yasushi; Aoki, Masahiro; Kondo, Eisaku; Mizutani, Akiyoshi; Fujimura, Akio

    2017-05-01

    Due to the occurrence of severe adverse drug reactions to regorafenib, a drug used in cancer therapy, the identification of a predictive marker(s) is needed to increase the therapeutic applicability of this compound. We therefore investigated whether polymorphisms in the ABCG2 and SLCO1B genes are associated with adverse drug reactions to regorafenib. For these analyses, 37 Japanese cancer patients were treated with regorafenib, genotyped for polymorphisms in ABCG2 and SLCO1B, and evaluated for drug-related adverse drug reactions. There was no association between the ABCG2 421C>A variant and adverse drug reactions to regorafenib. After treatment, the incidences of increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as increased total bilirubin (grade ≥ 2) were 8%, 4%, and 12%, and 42%, 25%, and 25% among SLCO1B1*1b carriers and non-carriers, respectively. There were no significant associations between elevated ALT and bilirubin and the SLCO1B1*1b allele. However, there were significantly lower incidences of increased AST (8% vs. 42%) and anemia (16% vs. 50%) in SLCO1B1*1b carriers than in non-carriers. The absence of SLCO1B1*1b allele appears to be associated with the development of adverse drug reactions to regorafenib; however, further studies involving larger test groups and other populations are needed to confirm these findings.
.

  1. Effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum) Supplementation on Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Liver and Kidney of Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EI-Tawil, G A [Radiation Biology Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-07-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation provokes oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbances. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L. Leguminosae), one of the oldest medicinal plants rich in polyphenolic compounds is known to possess antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of fenugreek, against {gamma}-radiation-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney tissues of rats. In parallel, the alteration in the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as markers of liver function, creatinine and urea levels as markers of kidney function. In addition, serum glucose and insulin levels were determined as markers for carbohydrate metabolism. Irradiated rats were whole body exposed to 3.5 Gy (Acute dose) {gamma}-radiations. Fenugreek-treated irradiated rats received 1g fenugreek seed powder/kg body weight/day, by gavages, during 7 days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed on the 1 sl day after irradiation. The results obtained demonstrated that exposure to ionizing radiation induced significant decreases in SOD and CAT activities and GSH content associated to significant increase of TBARS levels in liver and kidney. Fenugreek treatment has significantly attenuated radiation-induced oxidative stress in both tissues, which was substantiated by the significant amelioration of serum ALP, AST and ALT activities, creatinine, urea, glucose, and insulin levels. It could be concluded that fenugreek would protect from oxidative damage and metabolic disturbances induced by ionizing irradiation.

  2. Hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and ameliorative effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and vitamin E in acetaminophen treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azeem, Amal S; Hegazy, Amany M; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Farrag, Abdel-Razik H; El-Sayed, Eman M

    2013-09-01

    Ginger is a remedy known to possess a number of pharmacological properties. This study investigated efficacy of ginger pretreatment in alleviating acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into six groups; negative control, acetaminophen (APAP) (600 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection); vitamin E (75 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), vitamin E + APAP, and ginger + APAP. Administration of APAP elicited significant liver injury that was manifested by remarkable increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), arginase activities, and total bilirubin concentration. Meanwhile, APAP significantly decreased plasma total proteins and albumin levels. APAP administration resulted in substantial increase in each of plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs), malondialdhyde (MDA) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, ginger or vitamin E treatment prior to APAP showed significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the hepatic marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and arginase) and total bilirubin in plasma. In addition, they remarkably ameliorated the APAP-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA). Pretreatment by ginger or vitamin E significantly restored TAGs, and total protein levels. Histopathological examination of APAP treated rats showed alterations in normal hepatic histoarchitecture, with necrosis and vacuolization of cells. These alterations were substantially decreased by ginger or vitamin E. Our results demonstrated that ginger can prevent hepatic injuries, alleviating oxidative stress in a manner comparable to that of vitamin E. Combination therapy of ginger and APAP is recommended especially in cases with hepatic disorders or when high doses of APAP are required.

  3. Chinese medicine Jinlida (JLD) ameliorates high-fat-diet induced insulin resistance in rats by reducing lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Sha-Sha; Song, An; Liu, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Chao; Song, Guang-Yao; Li, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Ya-Jun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Liu, Chen-Xi; Kang, Jun-Cong; Ren, Lu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present paper reports the effects of Jinlida (JLD), a traditional Chinese medicine which has been given as a treatment for high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted to provide evidence in support of the affects of JLD on insulin resistance induced by HFD. The affect of JLD on blood glucose, lipid, insulin, adiponectin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) in serum and lipid content in skeletal muscle was measured. Genes and proteins of the AMPK signaling pathway were analyzed by real time RT-PCR and Western blot. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) and other genes involved in mitochondrial function and fat oxidation were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Histological staining was also performed. JLD or pioglitazone administration ameliorated fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), ALT, AST and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) (P < 0.05). Treatment with JLD or pioglitazone significantly reverted muscle lipid content (P < 0.05). JLD (1.5 g/kg) significantly increased plasma adiponectin concentration by 60.17% and increased AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation in skeletal muscle (P < 0.05). JLD administration increased levels of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 by 1.48 and 1.29 respectively. Levels of genes involved in mitochondrial function and fat oxidation were increased. This study provides the molecular mechanism by which JLD ameliorates HFD-induced insulin resistance in rats.

  4. Subacute intramuscular toxicity of the acetylcholinesterase reactivating agent Hi-6 in rats and dogs. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, B.S.; Tomlinson, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    Studies herein describe the toxicity of HI-6 in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs following i.m. injection for 14 days. Dose levels were 0, 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day for 10 rats/sex/dose and 0, 35, 70, and 140 mg/kg/day for 4 dogs/sex/dose. Three rats at the high dose, 2 males and 1 female, died prior to scheduled sacrifice. Reduced weight gain, decreased activity, tremors, hunched posture,and poor grooming were seen in high dose survivors. Increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at the mid and high doses suggested hepatotoxicity, although liver weights and histology were normal. Hematology parameters were unaffected except for slight, dose-related increases of platelets in both sexes. Injection site inflammation was seen; however, serum creatine kinase activity was not altered. In dogs, slight weight loss, vomiting, salivation, and diarrhea occurred at the high dose, but no deaths were observed at any of the doses. As with rats, dose-related increases in ALT and AST activities occurred at the mid and high doses, and were, in this case, accompanied at the high dose by hepatomegaly and hepatocellular vacuolization. Cardiotoxicity was evidenced by increased relative heart weights and subtle ECG changes, the latter of which occurred almost exclusively at the highest dose. Injection site inflammation, which was accompanied by dose-related elevations in serum CK-MM2 activity, was also observed.

  5. Assessment of the Amount of Hepatohistopatological and Enzymatic Changes after Chronic Lead Intoxication In Utero and Throughout Life in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Mohammadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In order to evaluate the functional changes of liver after lead intoxication, activity of enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, as well as pathological changes of the liver were assessed in the present study.Methods: Male and female Albino Rats (40 in total in five 8-rat groups were exposed to 0, 5, 10, 15, and 40mg lead acetate dissolved in 1 liter drinking water, from the onset of embryonic life to 16th week of life. At the end of 16th week, the animals were anesthetized with chloroform, and blood sampling from heart was performed. After serum separation for biochemical analysis, liver was taken out and fixed in 15% formalin for histopathological studies. Activity of ALT, AST, and ALP, as well as lead concentration of the serum samples were measured using spectrophotometrical method and graphite furnace atomic absorption, respectively. The tissue sections were histologically studied under light microscopy after staining by hematoxylin/eosin. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's test, and p<0.05 was considered significant.Results: In this study, liver enzymes activities had direct relation with the serum lead concentration, and showed a significant increase compared to the control groups. Histological changes were observed as inflammation, lymphocyte infiltration to liver tissue, and liver cells necrosis.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, long-time exposure to lead results in dose- and time-dependent liver injury.

  6. Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida

    2013-01-01

    To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2 000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of fermented ginseng and its major constituent compound K in a rat model of paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igami, Kentaro; Shimojo, Yosuke; Ito, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Toshitsugu; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2015-04-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the effect of fermented ginseng (FG) and fermented red ginseng (FRG) against rat liver injury caused by paracetamol (acetaminophen (APAP)). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the serum and histopathological changes in the liver were analysed to determine the degree of liver injury. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression levels altered in the rat livers. Phosphorylated Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were detected using western blot analysis to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of compound K. Pretreatment with FG, containing compound K at high concentration, attenuated AST as well as ALT levels in rats, while no obvious effect was observed in the group that received FRG, whose content of compound K was lower than that of FG. In addition, the results of our histopathological analysis were consistent with changes in the serum biochemical analysis. DNA microarray analysis indicated that JNK- and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-related genes were involved in the hepatotoxicity. Notably, compound K, a major ginsenoside in FG, inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK in HepG2 cells. FG was shown to possess hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol (APAP)-induced liver injury better than FRG. Compound K might play an important role for an anti-inflammatory activity of FG by inhibiting JNK signalling in the liver. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum) Supplementation on Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Liver and Kidney of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Tawil, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation provokes oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbances. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L. Leguminosae), one of the oldest medicinal plants rich in polyphenolic compounds is known to possess antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of fenugreek, against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney tissues of rats. In parallel, the alteration in the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as markers of liver function, creatinine and urea levels as markers of kidney function. In addition, serum glucose and insulin levels were determined as markers for carbohydrate metabolism. Irradiated rats were whole body exposed to 3.5 Gy (Acute dose) γ-radiations. Fenugreek-treated irradiated rats received 1g fenugreek seed powder/kg body weight/day, by gavages, during 7 days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed on the 1 sl day after irradiation. The results obtained demonstrated that exposure to ionizing radiation induced significant decreases in SOD and CAT activities and GSH content associated to significant increase of TBARS levels in liver and kidney. Fenugreek treatment has significantly attenuated radiation-induced oxidative stress in both tissues, which was substantiated by the significant amelioration of serum ALP, AST and ALT activities, creatinine, urea, glucose, and insulin levels. It could be concluded that fenugreek would protect from oxidative damage and metabolic disturbances induced by ionizing irradiation

  9. Effect of trans-chalcone on hepatic IL-8 through the regulation of miR-451 in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi-Sales Elham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Trans-chalcone is a chalcone with hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanism of these positive effects, especially on miR-451 as an inflammatory regulator, is poorly understood. In this regard, this microRNA (miRNA acts by inhibition of hepatic interleukin-8 (IL-8 production in the liver which is one of the main proinflammatory cytokines. Th is study for the first time examined the effect of trans-chalcone on miR-451/IL-8 pathway. Methods. In present study, 21 male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=7 per each group: control which received solvent (NS, groups 2 (N2T and 3 (N6T, which received transchalcone for 2 and 6 weeks, respectively. Hepatic level of miR-451 was measured by qRT-PCR. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST as well as hepatic level of IL-8 protein were measured. Results. Trans-chalcone decreased hepatic level of IL-8 protein and serum level of ALT aft er 2 weeks of treatment without significant change in hepatic miR-451. Moreover, it increased hepatic level of miR-451 and reduced hepatic IL-8 as well as AST and ALT aft er 6 weeks. Conclusion. Based on the results of present study, miR-451/IL-8 pathway is a possible mechanism for hepatoprotective action of trans-chalcone in long-term.

  10. Does Pay-For-Performance Program Increase Providers Adherence to Guidelines for Managing Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Ju; Huang, Nicole; Chen, Long-Sheng; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Li, Chung-Pin; Wu, Chen-Yi; Chang, Yu-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Many people are concerned about that the quality of preventive care for patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suboptimal. Taiwan, a hyperendemic area of chronic HBV and HCV infection, implemented a nationwide pay-for-performance (P4P) program in 2010, which aimed to improve the preventive care provided to HBV and HCV patients by increasing physicians' adherence to guidelines through financial incentives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the early effects of the P4P program on utilization of preventive services by HBV and HCV patients. Using a quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching method, we matched the HBV and HCV patients enrolled in the P4P program with non-enrollees in 2010, resulting in 21,643 patients in each group. Generalized estimating equations was applied to examine the difference-in-difference effects of P4P program enrollment on the utilization of three guideline-recommended preventive services (regular outpatient follow-up visits, abdominal ultrasonography (US) examinations, and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) tests by HBV and HCV patients. The P4P program enrollees were significantly more likely to attend twice-annual follow-up visits, to receive recommended US examinations and AST/ALT tests, than non-enrollees. The results of our preliminary assessment indicate that financial incentives offered by the P4P program was associated with a modest improvement in adherence to guidelines for better chronic HBV and HBC management.

  11. Protective Effect of Low Dose Gamma Irradiation against Oxidative Damage in Rats Administrated with Ferric- Nitrilotriacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansonr, S.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the beneficial adaptive response of low dose gamma-irradiation. Low dose gamma-irradiation (LDR) might be effective for the prevention of various reactive oxygen species-related diseases. Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a strong oxidant, which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radical and causes injuries of various organs including the kidney and liver. This study was designed to investigate the ability of low dose gamma-irradiation to restrain Fe-NT A induced oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley male albino rats were subjected to low dose gamma-irradiation (50 cGy). Animals were challenged with Fe-NT A (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Results showed that Fe-NTA enhances lipid peroxidation (LPx) accompanied with reduction in glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and phase-U metabolizing enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Fe-NTA also enhances the concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities. Exposure to low dose gamma- irradiation (3 h after Fe-NTA administration) resulted in a significant decrease in LPx, BUN, serum creatinine contents as well as ALT, AST and GGT enzyme activities. GSH content; GST and antioxidant enzymes were also recovered to significant level. Thus, our data suggest that exposure to LDR might be a useful antioxidant mediator to suppress the Fe-NTA induced-oxidative damage in rats

  12. Protective Effect of Low Dose Gamma Irradiation against Oxidative Damage in Rats Administrated with Ferric- Nitrilotriacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansonr, S.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the beneficial adaptive response of low dose gamma-irradiation. Low dose gamma-irradiation (LDR) might be effective for the prevention of various reactive oxygen species-related diseases. Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a strong oxidant, which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radical and causes injuries of various organs including the kidney and liver. This study was designed to investigate the ability of low dose gamma-irradiation to restrain Fe-NT A induced oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley male albino rats were subjected to low dose gamma-irradiation (50 cGy). Animals were challenged with Fe-NT A (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Results showed that Fe-NTA enhances lipid peroxidation (LPx) accompanied with reduction in glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and phase-U metabolizing enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Fe-NTA also enhances the concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities. Exposure to low dose gamma- irradiation (3 h after Fe-NTA administration) resulted in a significant decrease in LPx, BUN, serum creatinine contents as well as ALT, AST and GGT enzyme activities. GSH content; GST and antioxidant enzymes were also recovered to significant level. Thus, our data suggest that exposure to LDR might be a useful antioxidant mediator to suppress the Fe-NTA induced-oxidative damage in rats

  13. Exogenous normal lymph reduces liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharides in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.L.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is one of the target organs damaged by septic shock, wherein the spread of endotoxins begins. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous normal lymph (ENL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, LPS, and LPS+ENL groups. LPS (15 mg/kg) was administered intravenously via the left jugular vein to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups. At 15 min after the LPS injection, saline or ENL without cell components (5 mL/kg) was administered to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups, respectively, at a rate of 0.5 mL/min. Hepatocellular injury indices and hepatic histomorphology, as well as levels of P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and Na + -K + -ATPase, were assessed in hepatic tissues. Liver tissue damage occurred after LPS injection. All levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in plasma as well as the wet/dry weight ratio of hepatic tissue in plasma increased. Similarly, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and MPO levels in hepatic tissues were elevated, whereas Na + -K + -ATPase activity in hepatocytes decreased. ENL treatment lessened hepatic tissue damage and decreased levels of AST, ALT, ICAM-1, and MPO. Meanwhile, the treatment increased the activity of Na + -K + -ATPase. These results indicated that ENL could alleviate LPS-induced liver injury, thereby suggesting an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of liver injury accompanied by severe infection or sepsis

  14. Hepatic Stellate Cell-Derived Microvesicles Prevent Hepatocytes from Injury Induced by APAP/H2O2

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    Renwei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, previously described for liver-specific mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, appear to contribute to liver regeneration. Microvesicles (MVs are nanoscale membrane fragments, which can regulate target cell function by transferring contents from their parent cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HSC-derived MVs on xenobiotic-induced liver injury. Rat and human hepatocytes, BRL-3A and HL-7702, were used to build hepatocytes injury models by n-acetyl-p-aminophenol n-(APAP or H2O2 treatment. MVs were prepared from human and rat HSCs, LX-2, and HST-T6 and, respectively, added to injured BRL-3A and HL-7702 hepatocytes. MTT assay was utilized to determine cell proliferation. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and hoechst33258 staining. Western blot was used for analyzing the expression of activated caspase-3. Liver injury indicators, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in culture medium were also assessed. Results showed that (1 HSC-MVs derived from LX-2 and HST-T6 were positive to CD90 and annexin V surface markers; (2 HSC-MVs dose-dependently improved the viability of hepatocytes in both injury models; (3 HSC-MVs dose-dependently inhibited the APAP/H2O2 induced hepatocytes apoptosis and activated caspase-3 expression and leakage of LDH, ALT, and AST. Our results demonstrate that HSC-derived MVs protect hepatocytes from toxicant-induced injury.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5118 - Alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alanine. 582.5118 Section 582.5118 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... § 582.5118 Alanine. (a) Product. Alanine (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. Effect of AST-120 on Endothelial Dysfunction in Adenine-Induced Uremic Rats

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    Yuko Inami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Chronic kidney disease (CKD represents endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte adhesion is recognized as the initial step of arteriosclerosis. Indoxyl sulfate (IS is considered to be a risk factor for arteriosclerosis in CKD. Oral adsorbent AST-120 retards deterioration of renal function, reducing accumulation of IS. In the present study, we determined the monocyte adhesion in the adenine-induced uremic rats in vivo and effects of AST-120 on the adhesion molecules. Methods. Twenty-four rats were divided into control, control+AST-120, adenine, and adenine+AST-120 groups. The number of monocytes adherent to the endothelium of thoracic aorta by imaging the entire endothelial surface and the mRNA expressions of adhesion and atherosclerosis-related molecules were examined on day 49. The mRNA expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were also examined. Results. Adenine increased the number of adherent monocytes, and AST-120 suppressed the increase. The monocyte adhesion was related to serum creatinine and IS in sera. Overexpression of VCAM-1 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the arterial walls was observed in uremic rats. IS induced increase of the ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions in vitro. Conclusion. It appears that uremic condition introduces the monocyte adhesion to arterial wall and AST-120 might inhibit increasing of the monocyte adherence with CKD progression.

  17. Clinical and laboratory findings in patients with dengue associated with hepatopathy Achados clínicos e laboratoriais em pacientes com dengue associada à hepatopatia

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    Delso do Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hepatic disorders caused by dengue infection may progress to severe manifestations, including mortality and morbidity. Cytokines are involved in it, such as the migration inhibitory factor of macrophages (MIF, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, natural killer cells (NK, B lymphocytes, and macrophages. METHODS: This study was carried out from January to April 2007 at a public hospital from the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Brazil. Sixty-eight patients were studied concerning hepatic alterations, with 56 reported having classic dengue, 6 with hemorrhagic dengue grade I, and 6 with hemorrhagic dengue grade II. RESULTS: Among the 56 with classic dengue, 83.3% had aspartate aminotransferase (AST alterations, and 69.6% had altered alanine aminotransferase (ALT. For those with hemorrhagic dengue grade I, 100% had AST alterations, and 83.3% had altered ALT. All the patients with hemorrhagic dengue grade II had AST and ALT alterations. AST variations reached 22.0 and 907.0, with an average value of 164.6. For ALT, we found variations between 25.0 and 867.0, with an average value of 166.07. There had been statistical significance between dengue clinical shapes and hepatic function markers. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the infection was predominant in adults, females, and in those with low income and education. The liver enzymes were of larger amount in hemorrhagic dengue, but there was weak statistical evidence of the clinical manifestations and transaminases. Major signs and clinical symptoms were fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, weakness, severe pain behind the eyes, and rashes.INTRODUÇÃO: Afecções hepáticas causadas pela infecção da dengue podem evoluir para quadro grave, incluindo mortalidade e morbidade. O mecanismo de lesão do fígado está relacionado com a exacerbação da resposta imune. As citocinas estão envolvidas nele como fator inibidor da migração de macrófagos (MIF, fator de necrose

  18. Histological vis-a-vis biochemical assessment on the toxic level and antineoplastic efficacy of a synthetic drug Pt-ATP on experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Shipra; Sadhu, Arpita Sengupta; Patra, Swarup; Mukherjea, Kalyan K

    2008-11-12

    Cisplatin, a platinum based anticancer drug has played a vital role in the treatment of cancers by chemical agents, but in view of the serious toxicity including nephrotoxicity of cisplatin, various other platinum based drugs have been synthesized and screened to overcome its toxicity. A Pt-ATP compound was prepared in our laboratory hoping to have reduced or no toxicity along with the potentiality of reducing neoplasm growth. A Pt-ATP compound was prepared. It was first screened for its antineoplastic efficacy. Confirming that, subsequent experiments were carried on to test its toxicity on animals, viz. Albino Swiss mice. The animals were randomly divided into four sets--Set I: Erhlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) challenged mice; Set II: Normal mice; Set III: Drug treated mice, Set IVA Cisplatin (CDDP) treated mice, Set IV B EAC challenged Cisplatin treated mice. Set I was used to test antineoplasticity of the drug, Set II and Set III for studying drug toxicity and Set IV was treated with CDDP. Set II was used as a control. Animals were sacrificed after 5 days, 10 days 15 days and 20 days of drug administration on the 6th, 11th, 16th and 21st days respectively for Set I, II and III. Set IVA was sacrificed only on the 16th day and Set IV B on 6th and 11th days. For Set I only tumor cell count and packed cell volume (PCV) of tumor cells were recorded. For Set II and III, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) assays were done using serum while blood creatinine and creatine were assayed from blood filtrate. For cytotoxicity assessment liver, spleen and kidney tissues were collected and subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after extensive treatment. Set IV A was only studied for the biochemical parameters viz. aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) assays were done using serum while blood creatinine and creatine were assayed from blood filtrate. Set IV B was studied for tumor cell count after treatment with

  19. Hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging in patients with liver disease: correlation of liver enhancement with biochemical liver function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuk, Guido M.; Schaefer, Stephanie G.; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Department of Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Spengler, Ulrich [Department of Internal Medicine I, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA in relation to various liver function tests in patients with liver disorders. Fifty-one patients with liver disease underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI. Based on region-of-interest (ROI) analysis, liver signal intensity was calculated using the spleen as reference tissue. Liver-spleen contrast ratio (LSCR) and relative liver enhancement (RLE) were calculated. Serum levels of total bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin level (AL), prothrombin time (PT), creatinine (CR) as well as international normalised ratio (INR) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were tested for correlation with LSCR and RLE. Pre-contrast LSCR values correlated with total bilirubin (r = -0.39; p = 0.005), GGT (r = -0.37; p = 0.009), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), ALT (r = -0.29; p = 0.046), PT (r = 0.52; p < 0.001), GLDH (r = -0.55; p = 0.044), INR (r = -0.42; p = 0.003), and MELD Score (r = -0.53; p < 0.001). After administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA bilirubin (r = -0.45; p = 0.001), GGT (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), PT (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), AST (r = -0.46; p = 0.002), ALT (r = -0.31; p = 0.030), INR (r = -0.45; p = 0.001) and MELD Score (r = -0.56; p < 0.001) significantly correlated with LSCR. RLE correlated with bilirubin (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), PT (r = 0.42; p = 0.003), GGT (r = -0.33; p = 0.020), INR (r = -0.36; p = 0.011) and MELD Score (r = -0.43; p = 0.003). Liver-spleen contrast ratio and relative liver enhancement using Gd-EOB-DTPA correlate with a number of routinely used biochemical liver function tests, suggesting that hepatobiliary MRI may serve as a valuable biomarker for liver function. The strongest correlation with liver enhancement was found for the MELD Score. (orig.)

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of an Almond-enriched, Hypocaloric Diet on Liver Function Tests in Overweight/Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazarfard, Zohreh; Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Salehi, Mousa; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2016-03-01

    Gradual weight reduction has been shown to be associated with improvements in liver enzymes. However, some evidence demonstrated that liver enzymes may transiently increase immediately after a diet-induced weight loss. This study was designed to assess the effects of a hypocaloric, almond-enriched diet (AED) compared with a hypocaloric nut-free diet (NFD) on liver function tests in the context of a three-month weight reduction program in overweight/obese women. This randomized controlled clinical trial was registered at Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with ID number of IRCT2013062313751N1. Overweight and obese Iranian women [n = 108; age = 42.7 y, body mass index = 29.6 kg/m(2)] were randomly assigned to consume an AED or NFD. The carefully planned hypocaloric diets were identical for both groups except for the AED group who consumed 50 grams of almonds daily for three months. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory measurements including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were assessed before and immediately after the intervention. Of 108 participants, 50 women in AED group and 50 women in NFD group completed the protocol of the study (response rate: 92.6 %). The AED led to a median weight loss of 3.79 kg (interquartile range: 4.4 kg). Significant decreases within AED and NFD were observed in ALT (-16.6 ± 16.3 and -11.7 ± 16.8, P < 0.001, respectively). Similar significant decreases were observed in AST (-13.6 ± 15.7 and -7.7 ± 16.1; P < 0.001, respectively). The decrease in GGT was also significant in both groups (-11.4 ± 21.6 and -6.2 ± 19.8; P < 0.001 respectively). ALT, AST and GGT decreased significantly in the AED group compared to the NFD group (P < 0.001). AED improved liver enzymes in obese women. However, mild, transient increases in ALT and AST values can be observed immediately after an NFD in women.

  1. Effect of Qianggan capsules on insulin resistance index and liver fibrosis score in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OU Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of Qianggan capsules on liver fibrosis score and insulin resistance index in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Methods A total of 85 NAFLD patients who were treated in the Eighth People′s Hospital of Shanghai from August 2014 to July 2015 were enrolled and randomly divided into treatment group (45 patients and control group (40 patients. The patients in the treatment group were given Qianggan capsules, and those in the control group were given polyene phosphatidylcholine capsules. The course of treatment was 24 weeks for both groups. The changes in serum aminotransferases [aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT], homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and NAFLD fibrosis score (NAFLDFS after treatment were observed in both groups. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, before-after comparison within each group was made by paired t-test; and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results Both groups showed significant improvements in ALT and AST levels after treatment (all P<0.01. After treatment the treatment group showed significant reductions in HOMA-IR and NAFLDFS (3.58±0.85 vs 2.48±078,t=6.40,P<0.01; -1.78±1.24 vs -2.35±0.98,t=2.40,P<0.01 and the treatment group had significantly lower HOMA-IR and NAFLDFS than the control group(12.48±0.78 vs 3.09±0.89, t=3.36, P<0.01; -2.35±0.98 vs -1.48±1.08, t=3.80, P<0.01. No serious adverse events were observed during the course of treatment. Conclusion Qianggan capsules not only reduce the levels of serum aminotransferases, but also improve insulin resistance and reduce fibrosis degree in NAFLD patients.

  2. Functional Characterization of Alanine Racemase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe: a Eucaryotic Counterpart to Bacterial Alanine Racemase

    OpenAIRE

    Uo, Takuma; Yoshimura, Tohru; Tanaka, Naotaka; Takegawa, Kaoru; Esaki, Nobuyoshi

    2001-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe has an open reading frame, which we named alr1+, encoding a putative protein similar to bacterial alanine racemase. We cloned the alr1+ gene in Escherichia coli and purified the gene product (Alr1p), with an Mr of 41,590, to homogeneity. Alr1p contains pyridoxal 5′-phosphate as a coenzyme and catalyzes the racemization of alanine with apparent Km and Vmax values as follows: for l-alanine, 5.0 mM and 670 μmol/min/mg, respectively, and for d-alanine, 2.4 mM and 350 μmo...

  3. Complement C3a binding to its receptor as a negative modulator of Th2 response in liver injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zha, Wan-sheng; Zhang, Jia-xiang; Li, Shu-long; Wang, Hui; Ye, Liang-ping; Shen, Tong; Wu, Chang-hao; Zhu, Qi-xing

    2014-08-17

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a major occupational health hazard and causes occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis (OMLDT) and liver damage. Recent evidence suggests immune response as a distinct mode of action for TCE-induced liver damage. This study aimed to explore the role of the key complement activation product C3a and its receptor C3aR in TCE-induced immune liver injury. A mouse model of skin sensitization was induced by TCE in the presence and absence of the C3aR antagonist SB 290157. Liver function was evaluated by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in conjunction with histopathological characterizations. C3a and C3aR were detected by immunohistochemistry and C5b-9 was assessed by immunofluorescence. IFN-γ and IL4 expressions were determined by flow cytometry and ELISA. The total sensitization rate was 44.1%. TCE sensitization caused liver cell necrosis and inflammatory infiltration, elevated serum ALT and AST, expression of C3a and C3aR, and deposition of C5b-9 in the liver. IFN-γ and IL-4 expressions were up-regulated in spleen mononuclear cells and their serum levels were also increased. Pretreatment with SB 290157 resulted in more inflammatory infiltration in the liver, higher levels of AST, reduced C3aR expression on Kupffer cells, and decreased IL-4 levels while IFN-γ remained unchanged. These data demonstrate that blocking of C3a binding to C3aR reduces IL4, shifts IFN-γ and IL-4 balance, and aggravates TCE-sensitization induced liver damage. These findings reveal a novel mechanism whereby modulation of Th2 response by C3a binding to C3a receptor contributes to immune-mediated liver damage by TCE exposure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Association between hepatic steatosis and serum liver enzyme levels with atrial fibrillation in the general population: The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Marcello Ricardo Paulista; Meffert, Peter J; Baumeister, Sebastian Edgar; Lieb, Wolfgang; Siewert, Ulrike; Schipf, Sabine; Koch, Manja; Kors, Jan A; Felix, Stephan Burkhard; Dörr, Marcus; Targher, Giovanni; Völzke, Henry

    2016-02-01

    Hepatic steatosis (HS) affects up to 35% of adults in the general population. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent sustained arrhythmia and has a substantial impact on healthcare costs. We analyzed cross-sectional associations of HS and serum liver enzyme levels with prevalent AF in a general population sample. We analyzed data from 3090 women and men, aged 20-81 years, from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania. HS was determined by ultrasonography. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) were measured photometrically. AF was determined by automatic electrocardiographic analysis software. The prevalences of HS and AF were 30.3% and 1.49%, respectively. ALT, AST and GGT showed a positive linear association with the risk of prevalent AF, after multivariable adjustment. The adjusted odds ratios for AF per 1-standard deviation increment in log-transformed serum liver enzyme levels were 1.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 2.35; p = 0.006) for ALT, 1.47 (95%CI: 1.07 to 2.02; p = 0.017) for AST and 2.17 (95%CI: 1.64 to 2.87; p < 0.001) for GGT. In contrast, ultrasonographic HS was not associated with AF. Our findings indicate that moderately elevated serum liver enzymes, but not sonographic liver hyperechogenicity, were associated with increased AF prevalence in the general adult population. The hepatic release of increased levels of serum liver enzymes might be accompanied by higher levels of pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant and pro-fibronogenic mediators that might lead to structural and electrical remodeling of the atrium resulting in the development and persistence of AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Independent and supra-additive effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and metabolic syndrome on the elevation of serum liver enzyme levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Park

    Full Text Available We investigated the independent and combined effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome on abnormal liver function, i.e., the elevation of serum liver enzyme levels. Participants of a Korean population-based prospective cohort aged ≥30 years without liver disease, diabetes, or cardiovascular diseases were included. Information on alcohol consumption, smoking status, and metabolic syndrome, defined as per the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel III, were applied to evaluate their impact on serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome were the significant individual factors that elevated serum liver enzyme levels. Supra-additive effects of metabolic syndrome and either alcohol consumption or cigarette smoking were also identified. The combination of heavy drinking (≥24 g/day and metabolic syndrome conferred an effect that was higher than the sum of the two individual effects (Synergic Index (SI: AST, 2.37 [1.20-4.67]; GGT, 1.91 [1.17-3.13]. Only GGT level (odds ratio 6.04 [3.68-9.94], SI 2.33 [1.24-4.41] was significantly elevated when the effect of moderate drinking (20 pack years, 1.80 for ≥24 g/day and ≤20 pack years, 2.03 for ≥24 g/day and >20 pack years, while only the combined effect of drinking ≥24 g/day and smoking >20 pack years elevated the AST level (SI 4.55 [3.12-6.61]. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome was not supra-additive. To prevent fatty liver disease and other related diseases, a multifactorial prevention strategy that includes limited alcohol consumption, smoking cessation and rectification of adverse metabolic profiles is required.

  6. Does laboratory automation for the preanalytical phase improve data quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Montagnana, Martina; Brocco, Giorgio; Voi, Monica; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2013-10-01

    Our aim was to evaluate whether automation for the preanalytical phase improves data quality. Blood from 100 volunteers was collected into two vacuum tubes. One sample from each volunteer was respectively assigned to (G1) traditional processing, starting with centrifugation at 1200 g for 10 min, and (G2) the MODULAR PRE-ANALYTICALS EVO-MPA system. The routine clinical chemistry tests were performed in duplicate on the same instrument Cobas 6000 module. G1 samples were uncapped manually and immediately placed into the instrument. G2 samples were directly fed from the MPA system to the instrument without further staff intervention. At the end, (1) the G1 samples were stored for 6 h at 4 °C as prescribed in our accredited laboratory and (2) the G2 samples were stored for 6 h in the MPA output buffer. Results from G1 and G2, before and after storage, were compared. Significant increases were observed in G1 compared with G2 samples as follows: (1) before storage for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphate (P), magnesium (MG), iron (FE), and hemolysis index and (2) after storage for total cholesterol (COL), triglycerides (TG), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), uric acid (UA), ALP, pancreatic amylase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), g-glutamyltransferase (GGT), LDH, creatine kinase (CK), calcium (CA), FE, sodium (NA), potassium (K), and hemolysis index. Moreover, significant increases were observed in (3) G1-after versus G1-before storage samples for COL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG, TP, ALB, BUN, CRE, UA, AST, ALT, GGT, LDH, P, CA, MG, FE, NA, K, and hemolysis index and (4) G2-after versus G2-before storage only for BUN, AST, LDH, P, and CA. In conclusion, our results show that the MPA system improves the quality of laboratory testing.

  7. Role of ascorbic acid supplement in reducing oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in lead intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Y.; Hussain, M.M.; Aleem, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to measure the oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in lead intoxicated sprague dawley rats with and without supplementation of ascorbic acid. Study Design: Randomized Control Trial. Place of Study: Physiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi. (From Oct 2007 to Sep 2008) Material and Methods: One hundred and five male rats (age, 90-120 days; weight 200 - 250 gm) were divided into three groups each having 35 rats. Rats of group 1 and group 2 were given weekly injections of sodium acetate (10 mg /kg body weight) and lead acetate (10 mg /kg body weight) respectively, whereas rats of group 3 were administered lead acetate(10 mg /kg body weight) through weekly injections and ascorbic acid in drinking water (500 mg/l). After 6 weeks, 4 ml of blood was drawn from each rat by cardiac puncture. The blood was allowed to clot and serum was separated for estimation of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels on spectrophotometer; and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels on Merck Micorlab 200. Results: Lead intoxication of rats revealed that serum MDA levels were raised to 7.8 +- 0.48 micro mol/l (control, 3.2 +-0.39 micro mol/l), ALT levels to 76.26 +- 5.88 IU/l (control, 44.1 +- 3.26) and AST levels to 258.06 +- 13.30 IU/l (control, 156.2 +- 4.97). Ascorbic acid supplementation significantly lowered serum MDA levels (3.8 +- 0.34 micro mol/l), ALT levels (52.26 +-4.57 IU/l) and AST levels (188.13 +- 12.91 IU/l). Conclusion: Ascorbic acid supplementation ameliorates lead intoxication probably by reducing the oxidative stress, thus preventing the development of hepatotoxicity, but this amelioration is not equal to the control. (author)

  8. Gastric emptying in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hessel

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the gastric emptying (GE of liquids in fasted and sucrose-fed rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen. The GE of three test meals (saline, glucose and mayonnaise was evaluated in Wistar rats. For each meal, the animals were divided into two groups (N = 24 each. Group I was fed a sucrose diet throughout the experiment (66 h while group II was fasted. Forty-two hours after the start of the experiment, each group was divided into two subgroups (N = 12 each. Subgroup A received a placebo and subgroup B was given acetaminophen (1 g/kg. Twenty-four hours later, the GE of the three test meals was assessed and blood samples were collected to measure the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and acetaminophen. In group IB, the mean AST and ALT values were 515 and 263 IU/l, respectively, while for group IIB they were 4014 and 2472 IU/l, respectively. The mean serum acetaminophen levels were higher in group IIB (120 µg/ml than in group IB (87 µg/ml. The gastric retention values were significantly higher in group IIB than in group IIA for all three test meals: saline, 51 vs 35%; glucose, 52 vs 38% and mayonnaise, 51 vs 29% (median values. The correlation between gastric retention and AST levels was significant (P<0.05 for group IIB for the three test meals: r = 0.73, 0.67 and 0.68 for saline, glucose and mayonnaise, respectively. We conclude that GE is altered in rats with hepatic lesions induced by acetaminophen, and that these alterations may be related to the liver cell necrosis caused by the drug.

  9. Relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Xiaoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and serum level of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP. MethodsA total of 160 patients who underwent physical examination in the Affiliated Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from July to November 2010 were included in our study. These subjects were divided into two groups according to the diagnostic criteria for NAFLD formulated by the Chinese Medical Association: control group (n=71 and NAFLD group (n=89. The two groups were compared with respect to general condition, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, AFABP, serum insulin, and other serological indices. The relationship of serum AFABP with NAFLD and other metabolic parameters was analyzed using the Spearman linear correlation coefficient. Comparison of measurement data was made by t test and rank sum test; comparison of enumeration data was made by chi-square test. ResultsThere were more males than females in the NAFLD group. Compared with the control group, the NAFLD group had higher BMI and levels of blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and uric acid and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL level; in addition, the NAFLD group had significantly higher serum AFABP and insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that serum AFABP was positively correlated with NAFLD, BMI, HOMA-IR, serum insulin, blood glucose, TG, ALT, AST, and uric acid but negatively correlated with HDL. After adjustment for sex, age, and BMI, serum AFABP was positively correlated with NAFLD, HOMA-IR, serum insulin, blood glucose, TG, ALT, and uric acid, but had no significant correlation with HDL and AST. ConclusionSerum AFABP is closely associated with NAFLD and may be an independent plasma marker of this disease. AFABP plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  10. Antioxidants as recipes for efavirenz-induced liver damage: A study in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Adikwu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hepatotoxicity is a clinical challenge associated with the use of efavirenz (EFV. This study investigated the effects of n-acetylcysteine (NAC, vitamins C and E on EFV-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Methods: Rats were divided into groups and administered with NAC (20mg/kg, Vit C (50mg/kg, Vit  E (50mg/kg, Vit C+ E and 60mg/kg of EFV respectively. Rats were also divided into groups and pretreated with NAC, Vit C, E, and combined doses of Vit C+E prior to treatment with EFV for 15 days respectively. After drug administration rats were sacrificed and serum was collected and evaluated for liver function parameters. Rats were dissected, liver was collected weighed and evaluated for alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (AST, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, malondialdehyde (MDA, super oxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, gluthatione peroxidase (GPX levels and pathological damage. Results: Effects were not significant (p>0.05 on body and liver weights, however, the levels of AST, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, CB, TB and MDA were increased significantly (p<0.05 whereas SOD, CAT, SOD, GSH and GPX were decreased significantly (p<0.05 in EFV-treated rats in comparison to control. The liver of EFV-treated rats showed necrosis of hepatocytes. Nevertheless, EFV-induced alterations in the above parameters were significantly (p<0.05 ameliorated in antioxidants pretreated rats.  The combined doses of Vit C and E produced the best and significant (p<0.05 ameliorative effects in comparison to their individual doses. Conclusion: This study shows the prospects of antioxidants as candidates for the treatments of efavirenz-induced hepatotoxicity.

  11. Analysis of weaning-induced stress in Saanen goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, D; Aufy, A A; Pinotti, L; Rosi, F

    2013-08-01

    In young ruminants' life, weaning often coincides with a period of growth stasis and poor welfare. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of coping with the new diet on behavioural and haematological stress indicators in goat kids subjected to a commonly adopted weaning practice. Immediately after birth, male Saanen goat kids were divided into two groups: MILK and WMIX. All were fed colostrum for the first 3 days and then goat milk to the age of 29 days. After that, MILK kids continued to receive milk, while the WMIX kids underwent weaning and were completely weaned by day 48. Animal behaviour was recorded daily. From day 23-50, blood samples were taken weekly and analysed for indicators of stress and immune function. No abnormal behaviour, such as injurious behaviours or stereotypies, was observed in either of the experimental groups throughout the experimental period. During the last week, fasting plasma cortisol level was significantly lower, whereas plasma activity of both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was significantly higher in WMIX kids, in relation to the MILK ones. Anyway, data were within the normal physiological range and no difference was observed neither in plasma haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, albumin and antithrombin III, nor in plasma immunoglobulin A and G, at any time, signalling no stressful condition. Therefore, differences observed in cortisol, ALT and AST could be the consequence of the metabolic changes that occur during the transition from pre-ruminant to ruminant state. The gradual weaning at 48 days of age did not result in any stressful condition and had no negative effect on weight gain. Results suggest that parameters commonly adopted to provide information on animal stress, such as cortisol and aminotransferase activity, can vary in relation to the physiological status of the animals and may bias stress assessment. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Kirjavahetus Kaarel Robert Pustaga / Karl Ast Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rumor, Karl, pseud., 1886-1971

    2009-01-01

    Kirjavahetus Rio de Janeiros elava Karl Ast Rumori ja New Yorgis elava Kaarel Robert Pusta vahel Eesti kongressi kokkukutsumise vajalikkuse, väliseesti ühingute ja nõukogude, ajakirjanduse ning üldise poliitilise olukorra teemadel

  13. Transport of the alpha-amino-mono-carboxylic acid L-alanine by the beta-alanine carrier of the rabbit ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Munck, B G

    1987-01-01

    The proposal that the beta-alanine carrier of the rabbit ileum is a high affinity carrier of the neutral amino acids was examined by means of measurements of influx across the brush border membrane of the intact epithelium using L-alanine as a representative of the neutral amino acids. Confirming...... the proposal, evidence was provided for mutual competitive inhibition between beta-alanine and L-alanine; and it was also demonstrated that a process contributes to the influx of L-alanine, which is characterized by a maximum rate of transport equal to that of beta-alanine and a Kt, which is equal to the Ki...... of L-alanine against the influx of beta-alanine. In the concentration range 0.01 to 0.125 mM the influx of L-alanine was found to be linearly related to the concentration indicating a significant unstirred layer influence on present and previous estimates of the Kt values for influx of amino acids...

  14. Independent predictive factors for significant liver histological changes in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal alanine aminotransferase level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the independent predictive factors for significant liver histological changes (SLHCs in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and a normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT level. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 116 previously untreated patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load (HBV DNA≥105 copies/ml chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level (<50 U/L who were hospitalized in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center Affiliated to Fudan University from June 2013 to August 2015. The definition of SLHCs was inflammation ≥G2 and/or fibrosis≥S2. The t-test or Mann-Whitney U rank sum test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine independent predictive factors for SLHCs. ResultsOf all the 116 patients, 47(40.5% had SLHCs. The multivariate analysis showed that age (OR=2.828, P<0.05, ALT (OR=1.011, P<0.05, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT (OR=1.089, P<0.05 were independent predictors for SLHCs in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level. The patients aged ≤30 years had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those aged>30 years (21.6% vs 49.4%, χ2=6.42, P=0.015, the patients with ALT ≤30 U/L had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those with 30 U/L<ALT≤50 U/L (17.6% vs 50.0%, χ2=19.86, P<0.001, and the patients with GGT≤40 U/L had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those with GGT>40 U/L (28.8% vs 66.7%, χ2=28.63, P<0.001. ConclusionIn patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level, those with an age of>30 years, ALT>30 U/L, and GGT>40 U/L tend to develop SLHCs and need liver biopsy.

  15. Evaluation of fatty liver by using in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Park, Hyong-Hu; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and their correlations with weight, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) value, and age. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used as a reference in this study. We selected 68 people as subjects, among which 14 were volunteers with normal AST/ALT values ( liver function study and 54 were non-alcoholic fatty liver patients for whom ultrasonic images had been obtained within 3 months of the study. In this study, the liver was more enhanced than the spleen or kidney. When the Eq. (3) formula was applied to normal volunteers, the difference between the in-phase and the opposed-phase images was -3.54 ± 12.56. The MRS study result showed a high sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 100% ( p = 0.000) when the cutoff value was 20%. Furthermore, this result showed a high sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80% with a similar cutoff when the Eq. (2) formula was applied to non-alcoholic fatty liver patients ( p = 0.000). The MRS study revealed a strong correlation between normal volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver patients (r = 0.59, p = 0.04). The correlations between AST/ALT and Eq. (3) (r = 0.45, p = 0.004), age and Eq. (3) (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), and weight and Eq. (3) (r = 0.77, p = 0.000) values were all statistically significant. In the case of non-alcoholic liver disease, MRS was found to be significantly correlated with Eq. (1) (r = 0.39, p = 0.002), Eq. (2) (r = 0.68, p = 0.04), Eq. (3) (r = 0.67, p = 0.04), and AST/ALT (r = 0.77, p = 0.000). In conclusion, in-phase and opposed-phase images can help to distinguish a normal liver from a fatty liver in order to identify non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The intensity difference between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR signals showed valuable correlations with respect to weight, AST/ALT value, and age, with all values being above the mild lipid value (r = 0.3).

  16. Análisis de algunas variables hematológicas, bioquímicas y clínicas en la anemia drepanocítica. Resultados preliminares Analysis of some hematological, biochemical and clinical variables in cases of sickle cell anemia.Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Estrada del Cueto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 59 pacientes mayores de 18 años con anemia drepanocítica distribuidos en: grupo 1 (23 sin síndrome torácico agudo (STA, priapismo, ni úlceras maleolares; grupo 2 (39 que han presentado alguna de las complicaciones anteriores. En el grupo 2 se observó disminución significativa de la hemoglobina (Hb y la Hb fetal, así como aumento de plaquetas, deshidrogenasa láctica (LDH, aspartato aminotransferasa (AST, alanino aminotransferasa (ALT, bilirrubina total (BT, directa (BD e indirecta (BI, fosfatasa alcalina (FAL, creatin kinasa-MB (CK-MB y de la frecuencia de accidente vascular encefálico. La frecuencia de STA, úlceras maleolares y priapismo en el grupo 2, fue del 83,3; 33,3 y 50 %, respectivamente. El análisis de regresión lineal múltiple en el total de enfermos tomando como variable dependiente la LDH, mostró correlación negativa significativa para la Hb y el Hto y positiva para creatinina, AST, ALT, BT, BD, BI, FAL y CK-MB. La frecuencia de hipertensión pulmonar fue del 18,2 % (n= 10. Estos estudios pueden ser útiles en el diagnóstico precoz de complicaciones relacionadas con la hemólisis.A total of 59 patients aged over 18 with sickle cell anemia were studied distributed in: group 1 (23 without acute thoracic syndrome (ACS, priapism and malleolus ulcers; group 2 (39 with some of above complications. In group 2 there was a significant decrease of hemoglobin (Hb and the fetal Hb and a platelet increase, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin (TB, alkaline phosphatase (APH, creatine kinase-MB (ck-MB and of encephalic stroke frequency. The frequency of AST, malleolus ulcers and priapism in group 2 was of 83.3 %, 33.3 % and 50 %, respectively. The multiple linear regression analysis in all patients considering the LDH as a negati ve correlation significant for Hb and the Hto and positive for creatinine, AST, ALT, TB, DB, IB, APH and CK-MB. The

  17. Highly Efficient Fumed Silica Nanoparticles for Peptide Bond Formation: Converting Alanine to Alanine Anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengchen; Jordan, Jacob S; Yarger, Jeffery L; Holland, Gregory P

    2017-05-24

    In this work, thermal condensation of alanine adsorbed on fumed silica nanoparticles is investigated using thermal analysis and multiple spectroscopic techniques, including infrared (IR), Raman, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Thermal analysis shows that adsorbed alanine can undergo thermal condensation, forming peptide bonds within a short time period and at a lower temperature (∼170 °C) on fumed silica nanoparticle surfaces than that in bulk (∼210 °C). Spectroscopic results further show that alanine is converted to alanine anhydride with a yield of 98.8% during thermal condensation. After comparing peptide formation on solution-derived colloidal silica nanoparticles, it is found that fumed silica nanoparticles show much better efficiency and selectivity than solution-derived colloidal silica nanoparticles for synthesizing alanine anhydride. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy provides evidence that the high efficiency for fumed silica nanoparticles is likely related to their unique surface features: the intrinsic high population of strained ring structures present at the surface. This work indicates the great potential of fumed silica nanoparticles in synthesizing peptides with high efficiency and selectivity.

  18. Procedure for preparation of 3-fluor-D-alanine, 2-deutero-3-fluor-D-alanine and 2,3,3-trideutero-3-fluor-D-alanine and their salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollonitsch, J.; Kahan, F.M.

    1971-01-01

    Procedures for the preparation of 3-fluor-D-alanine, 2-deutero-3-fluor-D-alanine and 2,3,3-trideutero-3-fluor-D-alanine, and salts of these compounds, are described. These new compounds are useful antibacterial substances not only applicable in the disinfection of pharmaceutical, dental and medical equipment, but also in the treatment of diseases caused by bacteria, and may be administered orally. While 3-fluor-L-alanine metabolises rapidly with toxic results, 3-fluor-D-alanine is much more slowly broken down in vivo and is not harmful in normal doses. Further it has been found that deuteration gives new deutero-analogues which are less subject to metabolic breaking down and still retain the antibacterial strength of the original compound. The in vivo activity is thereby increased and maintained. (JIW)

  19. Alanine flux in obese and healthy humans as evaluated by 15N- and 2H3-labeled alanines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffer, L.J.; Yang, R.D.; Matthews, D.E.; Bistrian, B.R.; Bier, D.M.; Young, V.R.

    1988-01-01

    Estimates of plasma alanine flux as measured in humans using L-[ 15 N]-alanine or L-[3,3,3- 2 H 3 ]alanine were compared by simultaneous intravenous infusion of both tracers. Plasma isotope enrichments were measured by chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 16 obese women before and during a hypocaloric diet and in 4 normal men in the postabsorptive and fed states, the fluxes were highly correlated (r2 = 0.93) although plasma alanine flux with the 2 H tracer was two to three times greater than that obtained with [ 15 N]alanine. The fluxes decreased with the hypocaloric diet in obese subjects and increased during the fed state in healthy adults. Thus, although the estimates of alanine flux differed according to the tracer used, both appear to give equivalent information about changes in alanine kinetics induced by the nutritional conditions examined

  20. Determination of toxic effects of commercial and local mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase were seen with statistical significance at P < 0.05 between the group exposed to rice husk and the control and also between the rice husk and mosquito coil groups respectively. The results showed increased levels of alanine aminotransferase which could indicate acute liver ...

  1. Simultaneous determination of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in plasma and urine with dual-column reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Stroomer, A. E.; Peters, G. J.; van Gennip, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    F-beta-Alanine and beta-alanine were detected in plasma and urine samples with fluorescence detection of orthophthaldialdehyde derivatives of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine after separation with dual-column reversed-phase HPLC. The detection limits of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in the HPLC

  2. AGS Spallation Target Experiment (ASTE) Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    1999-01-01

    An experiment on mercury spallation target with high energy proton beam, called as the AGS Spallation Target Experiment (ASTE) Collaboration, has been performed at Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in USA, in cooperation among the laboratories in Japan, Europe and USA. The experimental setup, scope and preliminary results are presented in the paper. (author)

  3. Water-resistant alanine-EPR dosimeter alanpol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peimel-Stuglik, Zofia; Bryl-Sandelewska, Teresa; Mirkowski, Krzysztof; Sartowska, Bozena

    2009-01-01

    Alanpol-water-resistant alanine-electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimeter consisted of cheap DL-α-alanine (9.8-27%) suspended in polyethylene matrix was presented. The rods (O=2.8 mm) were extruded from a hot mixture of alanine and low-density polyethylene. No grinding or crushing was used for alanine preparation. An orientation of cylindrical crystals, up to 300 μm long in parallel to the rod axis was responsible for some differences in a shape of EPR signal. These differences had no negative consequences for dosimetric applications. Signal-to-dose dependence was linear up to 10 kGy. Standard deviation of dosimetric answer was up to ±1.8% and up to 2.4% for dosimeters with 9.8% and 27% of DL-α-alanine, respectively. Irradiation temperature coefficient for both dosimeters was equal 0.2%/ deg. C. Hydrophobic properties of polyethylene and small number of alanine crystals located on the surface of the rod led to high resistance of dosimeters to water and humidity. The 24 h soaking of irradiated dosimeters in liquid water-reduced EPR signals by 3-4% and by 2-3% for dosimeters with 27% and 9.8% of DL-α-alanine, respectively. Three month storage time of irradiated dosimeters in room conditions decreases EPR signal for ∼3%.

  4. Alanine-polymer dosemeter of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasinski, Z.; Mirkowski, K.; Panta, P.; Stachowicz, W.

    1994-01-01

    The method of chemical preparation of alanine-copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate has been worked out. The material has been in a form of rods. The content of alanine has not exceeded 30%. The ESR signal of alanine radicals has been detected after exposition to ionizing radiation. The dose-response relationship has been presented

  5. Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003473.htm Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme ALT in ...

  6. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-01-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO 2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [ 14 C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO 2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  7. Clinical experience with ursodeoxycholic acid (Urdoxa in complex therapy of chronic viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Esaulenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic virus hepatitis (32 patients, 13 with chronic hepatitis B and 19 with chronic hepatitis C ages from 20 to 72 with elevated levels of bilirubin and active alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase, received ursodeoxycholic acid (Urdoxa over the course of 12 weeks. During therapy alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels decreased. Urdoxa demonstrated good tolerance, efficacy and no visible side effects. Thus, Urdoxa could be used in treatment of chronic viral hepatitis with cytolytic and cholestatic syndromes.

  8. Alanine metabolism in pyridoxine-depleted rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Mitsuko; Abe, Midori

    1976-01-01

    Alanine metabolism in normal and pyridoxine-deficient rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. Incorporation of 14 C-alanine into various liver components was determined and no difference was shown between normal and deficient animals in the incorporation into liver homogenates, lipid, protein and plasma glucose. Using the liver slice system, gluconeogenic activity from alanine or pyruvate was 40% lower in deficient rats compared with the activity of normal rats. However, inhibition was completely removed by the addition of 2-oxoglutarate to alanine. Penicillamine did not affect glucose formation from alanine in the liver slice. (auth.)

  9. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eros Antonio de, E-mail: erosaa@cardiol.br; Ozaki, Michiko Regina [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5): G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16{sup th} day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg); G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg); G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg); G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg). After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  10. Role of Liver Function Enzymes in Diagnosis of Choledocholithiasis in Biliary Colic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hussein Mirshamsi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Liver functional tests due to inflammatory process which induced by cholecystitis might changed and some clinicians suggested that these changes might help us to stone prediction in common bile ducts and decrease hazards of performing ERCP and other invasive procedures. Present study was performed for assessment of role of liver functional test in diagnosis of common bile duct stone in patients with cholecystitis and help in their management. Present prospective study was performed between April 2010 and March 2011 on 350 patients who come to our hospital with cholecystitis or biliary colic diagnosis. Patients with cholesistitis diagnosis were underwent operation for removing gall bladder stone and retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was performed for patients with suspicious to biliary colic and common bile duct (CBD stones. Ultrasonography, Aspartate Aminotransferases (AST, Alanine Aminotransferases (ALT, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP and direct and total serum bilirubin were measured for all of participated patients. Mean of AST. ALT, ALP and total and direct bilirubin were had no significant differences between two study groups. In logistic regression analysis, after entering into the model only CBD diameter (OR: 20; P=0.00 and elevated serum level of ALT (OR: 2; P=0.04 were remained into the model and were known as independent predictor of cholelithiasis. Elevated level of liver enzymes had not main role in CBD diagnosis and ERCP had no to perform for suspicious CBD stone only with elevated liver enzyme and even with normal ultrasonography findings. Endosonography as non invasive procedure recommend for patients before ERCP.

  11. The association between dietary lifestyles and hepatocellular injury in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Toyoto; Arai, Kaori; Saito, Norimitsu; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2013-12-01

    Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum, relevant to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, has been often reported from Asian countries and the U.S., and it may be associated with lifestyle behavior. To clarify whether specific dietary behavior is associated with hepatocellular injury, we explored liver markers and dietary lifestyles (e.g., breakfast-skipping, eating for lunch, and snacking) in 1,809 male employees, aged 19-59 years, belonging to a health insurance union of automobile dealerships in Japan. ALT, γ-glutamyltransferase, and asparate aminotransferase (AST) were positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI) (P instant noodle ingestion for lunch to ALT elevation (> 30 IU/L), after adjusting for possible confounders including age, BMI, and drinking, were 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75) at 1-2 times/week and 1.47 (1.07-2.01) at ≥ 3 times/week, compared to those who seldom ate instant noodles. Likewise, the OR of the ingestion at ≥ 3 times/week to γ-glutamyltransferase elevation (> 50 IU/L) was 1.42 (1.02-1.99), but the OR to elevated AST (> 30 IU/L) was not statistically significant. Habitual ethanol intake was significantly associated with hepatocellular injury, though the threshold of daily ethanol intake differed among liver markers. Despite the low OR, habitual instant noodle ingestion for lunch is associated with ALT elevation. Since the average content of saturated fatty acids in instant noodles is considerably high among cereal foods in Japan, workers with this habit should be advised to avoid having unbalanced diets.

  12. Green Tea attenuates some biochemical disorders induced by γ- irradiation in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.S.; Amin, N.E.; Aziz, M.M.; Ain-Shoka, A.; Abdel-Latif, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    While radiation hazards, due to free radical generation, present an enormous challenge for biological and medical safety, green tea extract is a potent scavenger of a variety of free radicals. This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of green tea against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage in the liver and kidney in male rats using vitamin E as a reference drug. Green tea aqueous extract (300 mg/Kg body weighty) or vitamin E (40 mg/ Kg body weighty) were administered to male albino rats via gavages during 21 successive days before whole body exposure to gamma rays (6.5 Gy), from cesium-137 source, and during 7 days after irradiation. The animals were sacrificed the 7th day post-irradiation. The levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), urea, and creatinine, as well as activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased in sera of the irradiated rats. Moreover, radiation induced disturbances in liver and kidney content of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn). Treatment with green tea extract and or vitamin E before and post irradiation were significantly ameliorated the levels of cholesterol, TG, creatinine, and urea, as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP in serum. Also, green tea extract and or vitamin E achieved significant amelioration liver and kidney contents of Ca, Mg and Mn. In conclusion, green tea extract and or vitamin E show a radioprotective impact against ionizing-radiation-induced liver and kidney injury

  13. Serum phospholipid omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Da-Jun; Zhu, Qi-Qian; Si, Xu-Wei; Guan, Li-Li; You, Qiao-Ying; Yu, Zhong-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum phospholipid omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). 51 patients with T2DM and NAFLD (T2DM+NAFLD group), 50 with T2DM alone (T2DM group), 45 with NAFLD alone (NAFLD group), and 42 healthy control subjects (NC group) were studied. Serum ω-3 PUFA profiles were analyzed by gas chromatography, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and serum lipid concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment method (HOMA-IR). HOMA-IR levels were higher in the T2DM+NAFLD group than in the T2DM, NAFLD and NC groups (p<0.05), as were ALT, AST, GGT, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) concentrations (p<0.05). Conversely, serum ω-3 PUFA levels were significantly lower in the T2DM+NAFLD group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The ω-3 PUFA level was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR, TC, LDL-C and TG. Serum phospholipid ω-3 PUFA levels were significantly decreased in patients with T2DM and NAFLD, and were negatively related with insulin resistance. Thus, reduced ω-3 PUFAs may play an important role in the development of T2DM and NAFLD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A new dietary strategy for long-term treatment of the metabolic syndrome is compared with the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines: the MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Abete, Itziar; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Forga, Luis; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2014-02-01

    The long-term effects of dietary strategies designed to combat the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new dietary strategy based on macronutrient distribution, antioxidant capacity and meal frequency (MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) diet) for the treatment of the MetS when compared with the American Heart Association guidelines, used as Control. Subjects with the MetS (fifty-two men and forty-one women, age 49 (se 1) years, BMI 36·11 (se 0·5) kg/m²) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary groups. After a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, during which a nutritional assessment was made for the participants every 15 d, a 4-month self-control period began. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning anthropometry, but only the RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in body weight ( - 1·7%; P= 0·018), BMI ( - 1·7%; P= 0·019), waist circumference ( - 1·8%; P= 0·021), waist:hip ratio ( - 1·4%; P= 0·035) and android fat mass ( - 6·9%; P= 0·008). The RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations ( - 26·8%; P= 0·008 and - 14·0%; P= 0·018, respectively), while the Control group exhibited a significant increase in glucose (7·9%; P= 0·011), AST (11·3%; P= 0·045) and uric acid (9·0%; Ptreatment for the MetS.

  15. Potential protective effect of honey against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Reem M; Zaki, Hala F; Seif El-Nasr, Mona M; Agha, Azza M

    2012-11-01

    Paracetamol overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity that leads to liver failure in both humans and experimental animals. The present study investigates the protective effect of honey against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. We have used silymarin as a standard reference hepatoprotective drug. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed by measuring biochemical parameters such as the liver function enzymes, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Equally, comparative effects of honey on oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondialdyhyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also evaluated in the rat liver homogenates.  We estimated the effect of honey on serum levels and hepatic content of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) because the initial event in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity has been shown to be a toxic-metabolic injury that leads to hepatocyte death, activation of the innate immune response and upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Paracetamol caused marked liver damage as noted by significant increased activities of serum AST and ALT as well as the level of Il-1β. Paracetamol also resulted in a significant decrease in liver GSH content and GPx activity which paralleled an increase in Il-1β and MDA levels. Pretreatment with honey and silymarin prior to the administration of paracetamol significantly prevented the increase in the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers, and reduced both oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Histopathological evaluation of the livers also revealed that honey reduced the incidence of paracetamol-induced liver lesions. Honey can be used as an effective hepatoprotective agent against paracetamol-induced liver damage.

  16. Glyphosate-based herbicide affects biochemical parameters in Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 and Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes, 1837

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Lucia Loro

    Full Text Available Rhamdia quelen (silver catfish and Leporinus obtusidens (piava were exposed to a commercial formulation Roundup(r, a glyphosate-based herbicide at concentrations of 0.2 or 0.4 mg/L for 96 h. The effects of the herbicide were analyzed on the alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities and glucose in plasma, glucose and protein in the mucus layer, nucleotide hydrolysis in the brain, and protein carbonyl in the liver. The parameters were chosen, owing to a lack of information concerning integrated analysis, considering oxidative damage parameters, liver damage, and effects on the mucus layer composition and triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase activities. Plasmatic glucose levels were reduced in both species, whereas the transaminase activities (ALT and AST increased after exposure to the herbicide. Herbicide exposure increased protein and glucose levels in the mucus layer in both species. There was a reduction in both NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity in the brain of piava, and increased enzyme activity in silver catfish at both concentrations tested. The species showed an increase in protein carbonyl in the liver after exposure to both concentrations of the glyphosate. Our results demonstrated that exposure to Roundup(r caused liver damage, as evidenced by increased plasma transaminases and liver protein carbonyl in both of the fish species studied. The mucus composition changed and hypoglycemia was detected after Roundup(r exposure in both species. Brain nucleotide hydrolysis showed a different response for each fish species studied. These parameters indicated some important and potential indicators of glyphosate contamination in aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Improved clinicopathologic assessments of acute liver damage due to trauma in Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan M; Holthaus, Lisa; Barron, Heather Wilson; Divers, Stephen J; McBride, Michael; Almy, Frederic; Bush, Sharon; Latimer, Kenneth S

    2012-06-01

    Increased activities of certain biochemical enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) have been associated with blunt liver injury in many species. To evaluate changes in plasma hepatic biochemical parameters in acute avian liver disease caused by trauma and to compare biochemical changes with histologic lesions in hepatic parenchyma, 30 healthy fasted Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) were divided into 2 groups, and traumatic liver injury was caused by endoscopic liver biopsy (group 1) or by liver biopsy and crushing injury to the hepatic parenchyma with endoscopic forceps (group 2) in anesthetized birds. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, and 120 hours in alternate groups to compare analyte values after injury with those at baseline. Results showed consistently decreased plasma ALP activity (excluding 1 time point) throughout the study, which was thought to be associated with isoflurane administration. Plasma glutamate dehydrogenase activity initially increased but rapidly declined thereafter and was attributed to acute focal hepatocellular injury. In both groups, increases in plasma AST, ALT, and LDH activities was most likely caused by muscle injury because creatine kinase activity was concurrently increased. Compared with baseline values, bile acid concentration and y-glutamyl transferase activity were not affected by liver biopsy or crush injury. Plasma sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was the most specific indicator of liver injury in both groups. Histologic changes correlated poorly with biochemical results, possibly because the small area of hepatic parenchyma that was damaged did not affect enzyme values substantially.

  18. Exogenous normal lymph reduces liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharides in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.G. Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The liver is one of the target organs damaged by septic shock, wherein the spread of endotoxins begins. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous normal lymph (ENL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, LPS, and LPS+ENL groups. LPS (15 mg/kg was administered intravenously via the left jugular vein to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups. At 15 min after the LPS injection, saline or ENL without cell components (5 mL/kg was administered to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups, respectively, at a rate of 0.5 mL/min. Hepatocellular injury indices and hepatic histomorphology, as well as levels of P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO, and Na+-K+-ATPase, were assessed in hepatic tissues. Liver tissue damage occurred after LPS injection. All levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST in plasma as well as the wet/dry weight ratio of hepatic tissue in plasma increased. Similarly, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and MPO levels in hepatic tissues were elevated, whereas Na+-K+-ATPase activity in hepatocytes decreased. ENL treatment lessened hepatic tissue damage and decreased levels of AST, ALT, ICAM-1, and MPO. Meanwhile, the treatment increased the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase. These results indicated that ENL could alleviate LPS-induced liver injury, thereby suggesting an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of liver injury accompanied by severe infection or sepsis.

  19. Hepatic necro-inflammation and elevated liver enzymes: Evaluation with MRI perfusion imaging with gadoxetic acid in chronic hepatitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.-B.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Yu, C.-W.; Kao, J.-H.; Lee, H.-S.; Liang, P.-C.; Wei, S.-Y.; Hwang, R.-M.; Shih, T.T.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate liver necro-inflammation and function by using gadoxetic acid-enhanced dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), with histological analysis as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Seventy-nine subjects (21 healthy subjects; 58 chronic hepatitis patients) who received gadoxetic acid-enhanced DCE-MRI were divided into three subgroups: no (A0, n = 31), mild (A1, n = 27), and moderate–severe (A2–A3, n = 21) activities. Two DCE-MRI models were measured: (1) a dual-input single-compartment model to obtain absolute arterial, portal venous, and total blood flow, arterial fraction (ART), distribution volume, and mean transit time; (2) a curve analysis method to obtain peak, slope, and AUC (area under curve). The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels also obtained. Statistical testing included Kruskal–Wallis tests for continuous data, Pearson's correlation tests, and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: Hepatic necro-inflammatory activity grades were significantly correlated with fibrotic stages, serum ALT level, ART and AUC. ART was helpful to predict the mild activity (≤A1 versus >A1; Az = 0.728), whereas AUC could differentiate no activity from any activity (A0 versus >A0; Az = 0.703). Peak, slope and AUC were all associated with AST and ALT (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced DCE-MRI parameters may be used to evaluate the severity of hepatic necro-inflammation and function

  20. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Therapeutic potential of alpha-ketoglutarate against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita Mehra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG is a cellular intermediary metabolite of Krebs cycle, involved in energy metabolism, amino acid synthesis, and nitrogen transport. It is available over-the-counter and marketed as a nutritional supplement. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that dietary α-KG has the potential to maintain cellular redox status and thus can protect various oxidative stress induced disease states. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective role of α-KG in acetaminophen (APAP induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. Group I (Vehicle control: Normal Saline, Group II (APAP: A single intraperitoneal injection of 0.6 g/kg, Group III (APAP + α-KG: APAP as in Group II with α-KG treatment at a dose of 2 g/kg, orally for 5 days. Then the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP with oxidative stress markers including malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and histopathology were analyzed. Results: The results indicate that APAP caused significant elevations in ALT, AST, ALP, and MDA levels, while GSH, SOD, and CAT were significantly depleted while co-administration of α-KG showed a significant (P < 0.05 reduction in the severity of these damages. Histologically, the liver showed inflammation and necrosis after APAP treatment, which were significantly restored with co-administration of α-KG. Conclusion: These results indicate the possible therapeutic potential of α-KG in protecting liver damage by APAP in rats.

  2. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eros Antonio de; Ozaki, Michiko Regina

    2014-01-01

    Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5): G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16 th day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg); G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg); G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg); G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg). After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

  3. Esculetin Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride-Mediated Hepatic Apoptosis in Rats

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    Chuan-Sung Chiu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esculetin (ESC is a coumarin that is present in several plants such as Fraxinus rhynchophylla and Artemisia capillaris. Our previous study found that FR ethanol extract (FREtOH significantly ameliorated rats’ liver function. This study was intended to investigate the protective mechanism of ESC in hepatic apoptosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride. Rat hepatic apoptosis was induced by oral administration of CCl4. All rats were administered orally with CCl4 (20%, 0.5 mL/rat twice a week for 8 weeks. Rats in the ESC groups were treated daily with ESC, and silymarin group were treated daily with silymarin. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST as well as the activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase in the liver were measured. In addition, expression of liver apoptosis proteins and anti-apoptotic proteins were detected. ESC (100, 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevated activities of serum ALT and AST caused by CCl4 and significantly increased the activities of catalase, GPx and SOD. Furthermore, ESC (100, 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the levels of the proapoptotic proteins (t-Bid, Bak and Bad and significantly increased the levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. ESC inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. In addition, the levels of activated caspase-9 and activated caspase-3 were significantly decreased in rats treated with ESC than those in rats treated with CCl4 alone. ESC significantly reduced CCl4-induced hepatic apoptosis in rats.

  4. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Associated Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaoğulları, Selin; Tepe, Derya; Uçaktürk, Seyit Ahmet; Karaca Kara, Fatma; Demirel, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    Childhood-onset obesity is associated with increased mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. Dyslipidemia has a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of CVD. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of dyslipidemia and related factors among obese children and adolescents. Obese patients aged between 2 and 18 years were included in the study. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), fasting glucose levels, insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and liver ultrasound findings were evaluated retrospectively. Among 823 obese patients, 353 (42.9%) met the dyslipidemia criteria: 21.7% had hypertriglyceridemia, 19.7% had low levels of HDL-C, 18.6% had hypercholesterolemia, and 13.7% had high levels of LDL-C. Older age and/or high body mass index (BMI) were related to increased prevalence of dyslipidemia. Hepatosteatosis was more common among dyslipidemic patients. The frequency of insulin resistance (IR) and of higher levels of ALT and TSH were also detected in dyslipidemic patients. Patients with both dyslipidemia and grade 2-3 hepatosteatosis had higher levels of ALT, AST and TSH and lower levels of fT4. Prevalence of dyslipidemia is high in obese children, and hypertriglyceridemia is in the foreground. Higher levels of IR and more apparent abnormal liver function test results are observed in the context of dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis coexistence. Metabolic and hormonal alterations related with thyroid functions may also be associated with dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis in obese patients.

  5. Effect of the Antibiotic Neomycin on the Toxicity of the Glycoside Vicine in Rats

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    Mahmoud S. Arbid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vicine is hydrolyzed by microflora to highly reactive free radical generating compound divicine which causes mortality and other adverse effects. This study in the rats established the effect of a broad spectrum and poorly absorbed antibiotic, neomycin sulfate on the toxicity of vicine. The results showed extremely decrease in mortality rate in the group pretreated with neomycin. Hemoglobin (Hb concentration, hematocrit (Hct value, and red blood cells (RBCs count were significantly decreased after injection of vicine and the improvement of these values in the group pretreated with neomycin. The same results were observed in white blood cells (WBCs. The results showed a significant decrease in glucose level and returned to normal in group pretreated with neomycin. Glutathione (GSH was significantly decreased in the vicine group and returned to normal value in the group pretreated with neomycin. Lipid peroxide (TBARs was significantly increased in the group treated with vicine and neomycin pretreated group decreased to the normal level. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PD activity was significantly decreased and returned to normal level in rats pretreated with neomycin. Serum protein and globulin were significantly decreased but serum albumin showed insignificant decrease in vicine and neomycin groups compared to control. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were significantly decreased in the vicine group. The group pretreated with neomycin showed significantly increased activities of AST and ALT compared with vicine group. In conclusion, neomycin pretreatment of rats injected with glycoside vicine decreased to a great extent of its toxic and mortality effects and is useful in favism and hemolytic anemia.

  6. Osthole attenuates hepatic injury in a rodent model of trauma-hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huang-Ping; Liu, Fu-Chao; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidences show that osthole possesses anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects following shock-like states, but the mechanism of these effects remains unknown. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects in injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p38 MAPK plays any role in the osthole-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure maintained at approximately 35-40 mmHg for 90 minutes), followed by fluid resuscitation. During resuscitation, a single dose of osthole (3 mg/kg, intravenously) with and without a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB-203580 (2 mg/kg, intravenously), SB-203580 or vehicle was administered. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations and various hepatic parameters were measured (n = 8 rats/group) at 24 hours after resuscitation. The results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased hepatic myeloperoxidase activity, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 levels, and plasma ALT and AST concentrations. These parameters were significantly improved in the osthole-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Osthole treatment also increased hepatic phospho-p38 MAPK expression compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of SB-203580 with osthole abolished the osthole-induced beneficial effects on the above parameters and hepatic injury. These results suggest that the protective effect of osthole administration on alleviation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage, which is, at least in part, through p38 MAPK-dependent pathway.

  7. Exogenous normal lymph reduces liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharides in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.L.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhang, J. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, China, Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei (China)

    2014-02-17

    The liver is one of the target organs damaged by septic shock, wherein the spread of endotoxins begins. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous normal lymph (ENL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, LPS, and LPS+ENL groups. LPS (15 mg/kg) was administered intravenously via the left jugular vein to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups. At 15 min after the LPS injection, saline or ENL without cell components (5 mL/kg) was administered to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups, respectively, at a rate of 0.5 mL/min. Hepatocellular injury indices and hepatic histomorphology, as well as levels of P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase, were assessed in hepatic tissues. Liver tissue damage occurred after LPS injection. All levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in plasma as well as the wet/dry weight ratio of hepatic tissue in plasma increased. Similarly, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and MPO levels in hepatic tissues were elevated, whereas Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity in hepatocytes decreased. ENL treatment lessened hepatic tissue damage and decreased levels of AST, ALT, ICAM-1, and MPO. Meanwhile, the treatment increased the activity of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase. These results indicated that ENL could alleviate LPS-induced liver injury, thereby suggesting an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of liver injury accompanied by severe infection or sepsis.

  8. New potential nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with antileukotrienic effects: influence on model proteins with catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netopilová, Miloslava; Drsata, Jaroslav; Beránek, Martin; Palicka, Vladimír

    2002-01-01

    Unspecific and side effects caused by interaction with proteins belong to common problems of many structures synthesized as potential medicaments. Possible in vitro interactions with proteins of a group of phenylsulfonyl benzoic acid derivatives (VUFB 19363, 19369, 19370, 19371, and 19760) as new potential anti-inflammatory compounds with anti-leukotrienic activities were studied in the present work. Three purified enzymes were used as model proteins with catalytic activities: Pig heart aspartate aminotransferase (AST, EC 2.6.1.1), alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 2.6.1.2), and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, EC 4.1.1.15) from E. coli. Catalytic activities during incubation of individual compounds (6 x 10(-5) M solution to 5 x 10(-2) M suspension) at 37 degrees C with enzymes served as criteria of stability and function of the proteins. No immediate influence of any compound studied on enzyme activities was found. Aminotransferase activities were not affected even during incubation up to 20 d. In the case of GAD, the compounds VUFB 19369, 19370, 19371, and 19760 had stabilizing influence on GAD activity during incubation at enzyme concentrations of 11.25 and 5.62 mg prot/l. The lack of an immediate effect of compounds and the stability of enzymes during incubation them are favorable and support the prospective of the compounds as potential drugs.

  9. Análise sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase e gama glutamiltranspeptidase de coelhos adultos tratados com extrato bruto de própolis

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    J. N. Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Diversos trabalhos têm atribuído a própolis inúmeras propriedades farmacológicas, dentre elas podemos citar, como exemplo, efeitos antibacteriano, antiviral, antiinflamatório, regenerador do tecido cartilaginoso, inibidor da formação de radicais livres e redutor de níveis sangüíneo de glicose e triacilglicerol. Alguns efeitos colaterais são atribuídos à própolis principalmente em doses elevadas. Muitos efeitos tóxicos da própolis são atribuídos ao álcool etílico presente no extrato.Dentre alguns efeitos tóxicos citados em literatura como realmente da própolis temos a dermatite e o aumento da uréia sangüínea. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar se o extrato bruto de própolis ocasiona algum efeito adverso nos níveis séricos de alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e gama – glutamiltranspeptidase de coelhos saudáveis. O experimento teve 30 dias de duração, sendo as dosagens dos constituintes do sangue (alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e gama – glutamiltranspeptidase realizadas a 0, 15 e 30 dias. Os resultados indicaram que, de o extrato bruto de própolis na forma testadea, não ocasionou alteração relevante nos níveis séricos das enzimas marcadoras de metabolismo hepático. Palavras-chave: Própolis, alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase, gama glutamiltranpeptidase, toxicologia.

  10. Aminotransferaza asparaginianowa – kluczowy enzym w metabolizmie ogólnoustrojowym człowieka

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    Dagmara Otto-Ślusarczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspartate aminotransferase is an organ - nonspecific enzyme located in many tissues of the human body where it catalyzes reversible reaction of transamination. There are two aspartate aminotransferase isoforms - cytoplasmic (AST1 and mitochondrial (AST2, that usually occur together and interact with each other metabolically. Both isoforms are homodimers containing highly conservative regions responsible for catalytic properties of enzyme. The common feature of all aspartate aminotransfeses is Lys – 259 residue covalent binding with prosthetic group - pyridoxal phosphate. The differences in the primary structure of AST isoforms determine their physico-chemical, kinetic and immunological properties. Because of the low concentration of L-aspartate (L-Asp in the blood, AST is the only enzyme, which supply of this amino acid as a substrate for many metabolic processes, such as urea cycle or purine and pyrimidine nucleotides in the liver, synthesis of L-arginine in the kidney and purine nucleotide cycle in the brain and the skeletal muscle. AST is also involved in D-aspartate production that regulates the metabolic activity at the auto-, para- and endocrine level. Aspartate aminotransferase is a part of the malate-aspartate shuttle in the myocardium, is involved in gluconeogenesis in the liver and kidney, glyceroneogenesis in the adipose tissue, and synthesis of neurotransmitters and neuro-glial pathway in the brain. Recently, the significant role of AST in glutaminolysis - normal metabolic pathway in tumor cells, was demonstrated. The article is devoted the role of AST, known primarily as a diagnostic liver enzyme, in metabolism of various human tissues and organs.

  11. Protection against hyperthermic cell killing by alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, A.; Henle, K.J.; Moss, A.J.; Nagle, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Compounds capable of protecting cells against hyperthermia may provide new insights into potential mechanisms of thermotolerance and cellular heat death. The authors characterized heat protection by alanine and related compounds as a function of concentration, temperature and preincubation time. Alanine was added either to complete medium or to HBSS before hyperthermia. Maximal heat protection required 3 hr, 37 0 ; longer preincubation intervals resulted in lower levels of protection. Addition of alanine to medium after hyperthermia had no protective effect. Protection was concentration dependent with a 20- or 200-fold increase in cell survival after 40 min, 45 0 C at 60 mM in medium or in HBSS, respectively. Higher alanine concentrations up to 120mM did not significantly increase heat protection. A 45 0 -heat survival curve showed that 100mM alanine increased the D/sub q/ by approx. 12 min with little change in the D/sub o/. Hyperthermia of 1 hr at temperatures between 42 0 and 45 0 indicated that 100mM alanine shifted the isotoxic temperature by 0.5 Celsius degrees. Polymers of either L or D,L alanine and related compounds, like pyruvate, also protected cells against heat killing. These results indicate that heat protection by alanine shows characteristics that are not shared by polyhydroxy compounds

  12. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas Resinovarans Strain AST2.2 Isolated from Enriched Cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Anish Sharma*,; Jyotsana Pandit; Ruchika Sharma and; Poonam Shirkot

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain AST2.2 with chlorpyrifos degrading ability was isolated by enrichment technique from apple orchard soil with previous history of chlorpyrifos use. Based on the morphological, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, AST2.2 strain was identified as Pseudomonas resinovarans. The strain AST2.2 utilized chlorpyrifos as the sole source of carbon and energy. This strain exhibited growth upto 400mg/l concentration of chlorpyrifos and exhibited high extracellular organopho...

  13. Effect of an Oral Adsorbent, AST-120, on Dialysis Initiation and Survival in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Shingo Hatakeyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral adsorbent AST-120 has the potential to delay dialysis initiation and improve survival of patients on dialysis. We evaluated the effect of AST-120 on dialysis initiation and its potential to improve survival in patients with chronic kidney disease. The present retrospective pair-matched study included 560 patients, grouped according to whether or not they received AST-120 before dialysis (AST-120 and non-AST-120 groups. The cumulative dialysis initiation free rate and survival rate were compared by the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the impact of AST-120 on dialysis initiation. Our results showed significant differences in the 12- and 24-month dialysis initiation free rate (P<0.001, although no significant difference was observed in the survival rate between the two groups. In conclusion, AST-120 delays dialysis initiation in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients but has no effect on survival. AST-120 is an effective therapy for delaying the progression of CKD.

  14. Precision holography for N={2}^{\\ast } on S 4 from type IIB supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobev, Nikolay; Gautason, Friðrik Freyr; van Muiden, Jesse

    2018-04-01

    We find a new supersymmetric solution of type IIB supergravity which is holographically dual to the planar limit of the four-dimensional N={2}^{\\ast } supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on S 4. We study a probe fundamental string in this background which is dual to a supersymmetric Wilson loop in the N={2}^{\\ast } theory. Using holography we calculate the expectation value of this line operator to leading order in the 't Hooft coupling. The result is a non-trivial function of the mass parameter of the N={2}^{\\ast } theory that precisely matches the result from supersymmetric localization.

  15. Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity. PMID:21689445

  16. The Effect of Symbiotic Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, C-reactive Protein and Ultrasound Findings in Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharian, Atefe; Askari, Gholamreza; Esmailzade, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Mohammadi, Vida

    2016-01-01

    Regarding to the growing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), concentrating on various strategies to its prevention and management seems necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of symbiotic on C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes, and ultrasound findings in patients with NAFLD. Eighty NAFLD patients were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants received symbiotic in form of a 500 mg capsule (containing seven species of probiotic bacteria and fructooligosaccharides) or a placebo capsule daily for 8 weeks. Ultrasound grading, CRP, and liver enzymes were evaluated at the baseline and the end of the study. In the symbiotic group, ultrasound grade decreased significantly compared to baseline (P symbiotic supplementation was not associated with changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels. In the placebo group, there was no significant change in steatosis grade whereas ALT and AST levels were significantly increased (P = 0.002, P = 0.02, respectively). CRP values remained static in either group. Symbiotic supplementation improved steatosis in NAFLD patients and might be useful in the management of NAFLD or protective against its progression.

  17. Ethnicity and elevated liver transaminases among newly diagnosed children with type 2 diabetes

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    Hudson Omar D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the influence of ethnicity on liver transaminases among adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods A retrospective medical chart review of 57 (30 males and 27 females newly diagnosed patients with T2DM. Ethnicity was determined by self-report and height, weight, body mass index (BMI and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c were obtained using standard clinical procedures. Fasting levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were collected prior to the initiation of any therapy. Results Age, gender, height, weight, BMI, and HbA1c did not differ between ethnic groups. Compared to African-Americans, Hispanics had significantly higher ALT (23.9 ± 3.4 vs. 107.8 ± 20.3, p=0.002 and AST (17.7 ± 2.5 vs. 71.1 ± 15.7, p Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that Hispanic children with T2DM may be at higher risk for developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and indicate that a comprehensive hepatic evaluation is warranted in this population. Future studies that incorporate more precise and proximal measures of liver health are warranted in this population.

  18. Green tea polyphenols ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through upregulating AMPK activation in high fat fed Zucker fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi; Kim, Jane; Cheng, Jing; Ong, Madeleine; Lao, Wei-Guo; Jin, Xing-Liang; Lin, Yi-Guang; Xiao, Linda; Zhu, Xue-Qiong; Qu, Xian-Qin

    2017-06-07

    To investigate protective effects and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Male ZF rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 wk then treated with GTP (200 mg/kg) or saline (5 mL/kg) for 8 wk, with Zucker lean rat as their control. At the end of experiment, serum and liver tissue were collected for measurement of metabolic parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), inflammatory cytokines and hepatic triglyceride and liver histology. Immunoblotting was used to detect phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). Genetically obese ZF rats on a HFD presented with metabolic features of hepatic pathological changes comparable to human with NAFLD. GTP intervention decreased weight gain (10.1%, P = 0.052) and significantly lowered visceral fat (31.0%, P liver in GTP treated rats. The protective effects of GTP against HFD-induced NAFLD in genetically obese ZF rats are positively correlated to reduction in hepatic lipogenesis through upregulating the AMPK pathway.

  19. Graphene oxide sheets-based platform for induced pluripotent stem cells culture: toxicity, adherence, growth and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Marcela; Andrade, Patricia F.; Durán, Nelson; Luzo, Angela C. M.; Fávaro, Wagner J.

    2015-05-01

    It was prepared the graphene oxide (GO) sheets by suspension of GO in ultrapure deionized water or in Pluronic F-68 using a ultrasonicator bath. Total characterization of GO sheets was carried out. The results on suspension of GO in water showed excellent growth and cell adhesion. GO/Pluronic F-68 platform for the growth and adhesion of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) that exhibits excellent properties for these processes. GO in water suspension exhibited an inhibition of the cell growth over 5 μg/mL In vivo study with GO suspended in water (100 μg/mL) on Fisher 344 rats via i.p. administration showed low toxicity. Despite GO particle accumulates in the intraperitoneal cavity, this fact did not interfere with the final absorption of GO. The AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and ALT (alanine aminotransferase) levels (liver function) did not differ statistically in all experimental groups. Also, creatinine and urea levels (renal function) did not differ statistically in all experimental groups. Taking together, the data suggest the great potential of graphene oxide sheets as platform to ACSs, as well as, new material for treatment several urological diseases.

  20. Blood biochemical changes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 fed different levels of copper sulphate and zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Aydın Uncumusaoğlu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, copper toxicity, was investigated after the addition of zeolite to the diet of common carps (Cyprinus carpio. The experiment included four groups with three replicates each. The 4 group feeds were [CuSO4; CuSO4 + Zeolite; Zeolite, and the control without CuSO4 or Zeolite with three replicates each. Fishes were kept in 80 L glass aquariums with 10 fishes with a mean weight of 60.6 ± 0.2 g. At the end of each period, a necropsy was performed on fishes from each treatment, and gross clinical signs were recorded. We found significant changes in the blood parameters of the common carps with or without different levels of zeolite and copper. Changes in cholesterol (CHOL, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, calcium (Ca2+, phosphorus (P+, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, chloride (Cl-, magnesium (Mg2+, and ferrous (Fe+2 were also significant. Our results suggest that zeolite can be used in fish feeds at a rate of 40 mg/l to mitigate the toxic effects of copper.

  1. Resveratrol Ameliorates Experimental Alcoholic Liver Disease by Modulating Oxidative Stress

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    He Peiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of resveratrol in alcoholic liver disease (ALD. Alcohol was administered to healthy female rats starting from 6% (v/v and gradually increased to 20% (v/v by the fifth week. After 16 weeks of intervention, liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT] were analyzed using a chemistry analyzer, while hepatic antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress markers, and caspase 3 activity were assessed using ELISA kits. Furthermore, hepatic CYP2E1 protein levels and mRNA levels of antioxidant and inflammation-related genes were determined using western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. The results showed that resveratrol significantly attenuated alcohol-induced elevation of liver enzymes and improved hepatic antioxidant enzymes. Resveratrol also attenuated alcohol-induced CYP2E1 increase, oxidative stress, and apoptosis (caspase 3 activity. Moreover, genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation were regulated by resveratrol supplementation. Taken together, the results suggested that resveratrol alleviated ALD through regulation of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation, which was mediated at the transcriptional level. The data suggests that resveratrol is a promising natural therapeutic agent against chronic ALD.

  2. Anti-Glycemic and Anti-Hepatotoxic Effects of Mangosteen Vinegar Rind from Garcinia mangostana Against HFD/STZ-Induced Type II Diabetes in Mice

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    Karim Naymul

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on anti-glycemic and anti-hepatotoxic effects of mangosteen vinegar rind (MVR on five weeks high-fat diet (HFD / single dose streptozotocin (STZ 30 mg/kg BW induced male ICR diabetic mice. Mice were randomly divided into five groups (n=6, normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic groups treated with MVR 100, 200 mg/kg BW and glibenclamide 60 mg/kg BW for one week. After the treatment, lipid profile, glycogen and bilirubin contents, oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, MDA, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities, antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT were measured in plasma and/or liver tissues. MVR and glibenclamide treatment to HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice significantly reduced their plasma glucose, plasma lipid profile, and hepatic lipid profile (P<0.05. Increased hepatic glycogen content indicates improvement of insulin sensitivity. Moreover, oxidative damage markers were ameliorated in MVR- and glibenclamide-treated groups compared to the diabetic control group. MVR with phenolic compounds content of 75 mg GAE/g dry weight and antioxidant potential of 303 mmol/L Trolox/g dry weight acted as a hepatoprotective agent against oxidative damage.

  3. Effects of dietary ABATE® on reproductive success, duckling survival, behavior, and clinical pathology in game-farm mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Spann, James W.; Heinz, Gary; Bunck, Christine M.; Lamont, Thair

    1983-01-01

    Forty-four pairs of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed ABATE® 4E (temephos) to yield 0, 1, or 10 ppm ABATE® beginning before the initiation of lay, and terminating when ducklings were 21 days of age. The mean interval between eggs laid was greater for hens fed 10 ppm ABATE® than for controls. Clutch size, fertility, hatchability, nest attentiveness of incubating hens, and avoidance behavior of ducklings were not significantly affected by ABATE® ingestion. The percentage survival of ducklings to 21 days of age was significantly lower in both treated groups than in controls, but brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was not inhibited in young which died before termination of the study. In 21-day-old ducklings, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity increased and plasma nonspecific cholinesterase (ChE) activity was inhibited by about 20% in both treatment groups, but there were no significant differences in brain AChE or plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, or plasma uric acid concentration. Clinical chemistry values of adults were not affected. No ABATE®, ABATE® sulfoxide, or ABATE® sulfone residues were found in eggs or tissue samples.

  4. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a hepatoprotective and antioxidant extract of pea by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seida, Ahmed A; El Tanbouly, Nebal D; Islam, Wafaa T; Eid, Hanaa H; El Maraghy, Shohda A; El Senousy, Amira S

    2015-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the hydroalcoholic extract (PE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by-product were evaluated, using CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatic damage in rats. These activities were assessed via measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein and albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), protein thiols (PSH), nitrite/nitrate levels, glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as, histopathological evaluation. PE revealed significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities mostly found in n-butanol fraction. Chromatographic fractionation of this active fraction led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides namely, quercetin-3-O-sophorotrioside (1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E sinapoyl)-sophorotrioside (3), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E feruloyl)-sophorotrioside (4) and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). The isolated compounds were quantified in PE, using a validated HPLC method and the nutritional composition of pea by-product was also investigated. Our results suggest that pea by-product contained biologically active constituents which can be utilised to obtain high value added products for nutraceutical use.

  5. Immunization of Mice with Anthrax Protective Antigen Limits Cardiotoxicity but Not Hepatotoxicity Following Lethal Toxin Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Scott Devera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protective immunity against anthrax is inferred from measurement of vaccine antigen-specific neutralizing antibody titers in serum samples. In animal models, in vivo challenges with toxin and/or spores can also be performed. However, neither of these approaches considers toxin-induced damage to specific organ systems. It is therefore important to determine to what extent anthrax vaccines and existing or candidate adjuvants can provide organ-specific protection against intoxication. We therefore compared the ability of Alum, CpG DNA and the CD1d ligand α-galactosylceramide (αGC to enhance protective antigen-specific antibody titers, to protect mice against challenge with lethal toxin, and to block cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. By measurement of serum cardiac Troponin I (cTnI, and hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, it was apparent that neither vaccine modality prevented hepatic intoxication, despite high Ab titers and ultimate survival of the subject. In contrast, cardiotoxicity was greatly diminished by prior immunization. This shows that a vaccine that confers survival following toxin exposure may still have an associated morbidity. We propose that organ-specific intoxication should be monitored routinely during research into new vaccine modalities.

  6. Camel Milk Beneficial Effects on Treating Gentamicin Induced Alterations in Rats

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    Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of camel milk (CM against gentamicin (GM induced biochemical changes in the rat serum was evaluated. Four groups of six albino rats were used for control, CM fed, injected with GM(i.p., and then fed and injected with GM. The results showed that the administration of GM significantly altered the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in rat serum. CM restored these parameters to almost their normal range in group IV. Additionally, the present study showed that injection of rats with gentamicin caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity while the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione s-transferase (GST activity decreased significantly (P≤0.05. Administration of CM significantly (P≤0.05 inhibited the formation of MDA and activity of MPO and upregulated the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GST activity. The overall findings of this study demonstrated that pretreatment with CM gave protection against GM induced hepatic damage possibly by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, and hence camel milk can be identified as a new therapeutic agent.

  7. The Great Impostor: Transaminitis Masking the Coinfection of Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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    Sunit Tolia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of syphilis continues to rise in the United States over the past 15 years. This disease process is classified into stages and may present with a coinfection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. Case Report. We present a case of a 32-year-old African American male who presented with cutaneous manifestations of secondary syphilis and transaminitis. A workup revealed that the transaminitis was secondary to underlying syphilitic hepatitis in the presence of HIV coinfection. The patient had a reactive rapid plasma reagin (RPR of 1 : 64 TU and reactive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA. Lab findings showed alkaline phosphate (ALP of 648 unit/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST of 251 unit/L, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT of 409 unit/L. Conclusion. Syphilitic hepatitis is a recognized entity in the medical literature. It is a manifestation of secondary syphilis and it is more commonly seen in coinfected patients with both syphilis and HIV. Therefore, primary care physicians should keep infectious etiologies (e.g., syphilis and HIV in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with unexplained liver dysfunction in a cholestatic pattern.

  8. Protective Effects of Quercetin and Quercetin-5',8-Disulfonate against Carbon Tetrachloride-Caused Oxidative Liver Injury in Mice

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    Yanmang Cui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the major factors in the pathogenesis of liver disease. Quercetin is a plant-based antioxidant traditionally used as a treatment for hepatic injury, but its poor solubility affects its bioavailability. We here report the regulative effects on hepatoprotection and absorption in mice of quercetin sulfation to form quercetin-5',8-disulfonate (QS, a novel synthetic compound. Oral administration of both QS and the parent quercetin at 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg·bw prior to acute CCl4 oxidative damage in mice, effectively attenuated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA levels (p < 0.05, and suppressed the CCl4-induced depletion of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD. Selective 5',8-sulfation of quercetin increased the hepatoprotective effect, and its relative absorption relative to quercetin (p < 0.05 as indicated by an improved 24-hour urinary excretion and a decreased fecal excretion determined by HPLC. These results and histopathological observations collectively demonstrate that quercetin sulfation increases its hepatoprotective effects and absorption in mice, and QS has potential as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for liver diseases.

  9. Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and protective effect against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Min; He, Shujian; Wang, Lu; Cao, Xinmin; Cao, Lili; Jiang, Shaotong

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate physicochemical characterization of the oil extracted from foxtail millet bran (FMBO), and the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice. GC-MS analysis revealed that unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) account for 83.76% of the total fatty acids; in particular, the linoleic acid (C18:2) is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and the compounds of squalene and six phytosterols (or phytostanols) were identified in unsaponifiable matter of FMBO. The antioxidant activity examination of FMBO in vitro showed highly ferric-reducing antioxidant power and scavenging effects against DPPH· and HO· radicals. Furthermore, the protective effect of FMBO against acute hepatic injuries induced by ethanol was verified in mice. In this, intragastric administration with different dosages of FMBO in mice ahead of acute ethanol administration could observably antagonize the ethanol-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), and the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively, along with enhanced hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels relative to the control. Hepatic histological changes were also observed and confirmed that FMBO is capable of attenuating ethanol-induced hepatic injury.

  10. Effect of extracts from Ixeris dentata on radiation-induced oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Youn, Y. D. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, H. J.; Kim, J. G. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Extracts from different parts (root or leaf) of Ixeris dentata and with different extraction method (using water or ethanol) were examined for their potential depense against oxidative stress. It is famous as a remedial material for alleviation of fever, hematopoiesis, pneumonia and inflammation of the liver in folk medicine. The present study was designed to explore in vivo the antioxidant effects of water - and ethanol- extracts of I. dentata. The extracts of the plant were tested for their free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH assay. For the in vivo studies, male F344 rats (3 week - old) received po administration of both extracts 0.5 mg/ml during 5 days before whole- body irradiation. Six hours after irradiation, we measured the body and organ weight and collected blood. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT ) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed a similar pattern six hours after irradiation. In case of water extracts - dietary group after irradiation, the levels of all enzymes has a tendency to decrease toward to base levels. Therefore, the results reflects the antioxidant activity of I. dentata extracts and its potential to protect against radiation damage.

  11. Hematological and biochemical characters of monosex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 cultivated using methyltestosterone

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    Alaa El-Din H. Sayed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of steroid-treated feeds as 17 α-methyltestosterone for the production of all-male populations is widespread in tilapia aquaculture. The aim of the present study was to investigate the misuse effects of methyltestosterone on monosex farmed Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus by evaluation of hematological and biochemical values. The fishes were obtained from four localities (Assiut as a control, Beheira, Alexandria and Kafr el-Sheikh: three farms from each governorate as farmed monosex produced using methyltestosterone. The total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin rate, hematocrit percentage, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, white blood cell count, blood platelets, lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophils and basophils were determined. The results showed that there were changes in the erythrocytic series and in the defense white blood cells. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, glucose, cholesterol, total protein, uric acid and creatinine were determined for biochemical study. These alterations are considered an indication for performance and health of fish in the monosex culture medium indicating the side effects of overdose induction of MT.

  12. Changes of cytochrome P4501A mRNA expression and physiology responses in the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.Y.; An, K.W.; Shin, H.S.; An, M.I.; Jo, P.G. [Korean Maritime University, Pusan (Republic of Korea). Division of Marine Environmental and Bioscience

    2008-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is generated by the incomplete combustion of organic substances such as oil and coal, and is a widespread organic environmental contaminant in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To determine the effects of BaP on organisms, we investigated its time- and dose-related effects on the levels of cytochrome P4501A (P4501A) mRNA in the liver and gills of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and measured the plasma glucose, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The full-length olive flounder P4501A cDNA consists of 1566 nucleotides and encodes a 521-amino-acid protein. In the liver and gills, the expression of P4501A mRNA was highest 6 h after exposure to both 10 and 30 gl{sup -1} BaP, and then decreased. In addition, the plasma parameters increased with exposure. These results suggest that P4501A plays an important role in the detoxification of BaP, which stressed the olive flounder. Therefore, these physiological parameters may be indicators of BaP-induced stress responses.

  13. Liver enzymes and psychological well-being response to aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Kader, Shehab M; Al-Jiffri, Osama H; Al-Shreef, Fadwa M

    2014-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a medical condition that has broad implications for a person's physical and psychological health. The aim of this study was to detect changes in liver enzymes and psychological well-being in response to aerobic exercise training in patients with CHC. Fifty CHC patients were included in two equal groups. The first group (A) received aerobic exercise training in addition to their regular medical treatment. The second group (B) received no training and only has their regular medical treatment. The program consisted of three sessions per week for three months. There was a significant decrease in mean values of Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Gamma - Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI ) & Profile of Mood States(POMS) and increase in Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in group (A) after treatments, but the changes in group (B) were not significant. Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) at the end of the study. Aerobic exercise training improves hepatic enzymes and psychological well-being in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  14. Biochemical and histopathological profiling of Wistar rat treated with Brassica napus as a supplementary feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Md. Mahmudul Hasan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic changes together with cardiovascular and hepatic factors are related to the development of diseases like myocardial lipidosis, heart disease, and profound toxicity. The aim of this animal study is to determine the effects of high erucic acid containing rapeseed oil (Brassica napus L. varieties on liver, kidney and heart muscles in Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups where each group containing four rats. Group A was considered as control diet group, while Group B rapeseed wild oil group and Group C rapeseed hybrid oil group were considered as experimental diet groups. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT,alkaline phosphatase(ALP, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB and creatinine of two experimental groups were significantly elevated while compared to the control groups (p  0.05. Noticeable tissue injury observed in this study is a sign of the relative toxicity of erucic acid containing rapeseed oil to mammalian species. The use of Brassica napus as a supplementary feed ingredient should be, therefore, thoroughly considered Keywords: Rapeseed oil, Rattus norvegicus, Serum enzymes, Erucic acid, Tissue profiling

  15. Neurocognitive, mental health, and glucose disorders in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Faghih, Mahya; Mirabdollahi, Mansuoreh; Kiani, Mahdi; Fathi, Arezoo; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase-like organophosphates (OPs). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed farmers in terms of neurocognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and haematological factors. The exposed group was compared to 187 healthy age-, sex-, and education-matching controls. Neurocognitive impairment was measured using the Subjective Neurocognition Inventory (SNI) and mental health status using the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). The subjects were also tested for fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cholesterol (CL), triglycerides (TG), creatinine, oral glucose tolerance test (GTT), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The exposed farmers showed higher FBG (peczema, saliva secretion, fatigue, headache, sweating, abdominal pain, nausea, superior distal muscle weakness, inferior distal muscle weakness, inferior proximal muscle weakness, breath muscle weakness, hand tingling, foot tingling, epiphoria, polyuria, miosis, dyspnoea, bradycardia, and rhinorrhoea, which all significantly correlated with the number of working years. These findings indicate that farmers who work with OPs are prone to neuropsychological disorders and diabetes.

  16. Treatment of upper gastrointestinal fistula and leakage with personal stage nutrition support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Wang; Zhi-Su Liu; Qun Qian; Quan Sun; Ding-Yu Pan; Yue-Ming He

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of treatment for upper gastrointestinal fistula and leakage with personal stage nutrition support.METHODS: Forty-three patients with upper gastrointestinal fistula and leakage were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in group A were treated with personal stage nutrition support and patients in group B were treated with total parental nutrition (TPN) in combination with operation.Nutritional states of the candidates were evaluated by detecting albumin (Alb) and pre-Alb. The balance between nutrition and hepatic function was evaluated by measurement of aspartate aminotransferase (AST),alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin (Tbill) before and after operation. At the same time their complications and hospitalized time were surveyed.RESULTS: Personal stage nutrition support improved upper gastrointestinal fistula and leakage. The nutrition state and hepatic function were better in patients who received personal stage nutrition support than in those who did not receive TPN. There was no significant difference in the complication and hospitalized time in the two groups of patients.CONCLUSION: Upper gastrointestinal fistula and leakage can be treated with personal stage nutrition support which is more beneficial for the post-operation recovery and more economic than surgical operation.

  17. Protective action of the immunomodulator ginsan against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury via control of oxidative stress and the inflammatory response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Ji-Young; Kim, Mi-Hyoung; Kim, Hyung-Doo; Ahn, Ji-Yeon; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate immunomodulator ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver injury. BALB/c mice were injected i.p. with ginsan 24 h prior to CCl 4 administration. Serum liver enzyme levels, histology, expression of antioxidant enzymes, and several cytokines/chemokines were subsequently evaluated. Ginsan treatment markedly suppressed the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and hepatic histological necrosis increased by CCl 4 treatment. Ginsan inhibited CCl 4 induced lipid peroxidation through the cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) downregulation. The hepatoprotective effect of ginsan was attributed to induction of anti-oxidant protein contents, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as well as restoration of the hepatic glutathione (GSH) concentration. The marked increase of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IFN-γ) and chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-2β, KC) in CCl 4 treated mice was additionally attenuated by ginsan, thereby preventing leukocyte infiltration and local inflammation. Our results suggest that ginsan effectively prevent liver injury, mainly through downregulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  18. Isotopic effects in mechanistic studies of biotransformations of fluorine derivatives of L-alanine catalysed by L-alanine dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymańska-Majchrzak, Jolanta; Pałka, Katarzyna; Kańska, Marianna

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of 3-fluoro-[2- 2 H]-L-alanine (3-F-[ 2 H]-L-Ala) in reductive amination of 3-fluoropyruvic acid catalysed by L-alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) was described. Fluorine derivative was used to study oxidative deamination catalysed by AlaDH applied kinetic (for 3-F-L-Ala in H 2 O - KIE’s on V max : 1.1; on V max /K M : 1.2; for 3-F-L-Ala in 2 H 2 O – on V max : 1.4; on V max /K M : 2.1) and solvent isotope effect methods (for 3-F-L-Ala - SIE’s on V max : 1.0; on V max /K M : 0.87; for 3-F-[2- 2 H]-L-Ala – on V max : 1.4; on V max /K M : 1.5). Studies explain some details of reaction mechanism. - Highlights: • Synthesis of 3-fluoro-[2- 2 H]-L-alanine was performed. • The reactions were catalysed using the enzyme L-alanine dehydrogenase. • Performed reactions involved fluorinated analogues of L-alanine. • Solvent isotope effects of deuterium were determined. • Kinetic isotope effects were determined for obtained 3-fluoro-L-alanine. • The mechanism of reaction catalysed by L-alanine dehydrogenase was proposed.

  19. LIMITED ELEVATIONS IN ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUG-INDUCED SERUM ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (ALT) LEVELS IN A COHORT OF NIGERIANS ON TREATMENT FOR PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND HIV INFECTION IN YENAGOA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikuabe, Peter Ogie; Ebuenyi, Ikenna Desmond; Harry, Tubonye Clement

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study, undertaken in a major tertiary hospital in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was designed to examine the incidence of elevation in serum alanine aminotransference (ALT) in our patients who were on treatment for HIV/AIDS with some of them on antituberculosis drugs. METHOD:

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of d-alanine-d-alanine ligase from Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yong-Zhi; Sheng, Yu [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Li, Lan-Fen [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tang, De-Wei [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Liu, Xiang-Yu [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, Xiaojun, E-mail: zhaoxj@scu.edu.cn [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Liang, Yu-He, E-mail: zhaoxj@scu.edu.cn; Su, Xiao-Dong [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China)

    2007-09-01

    A potential target for antibiotic drug design, d-alanine-d-alanine ligase from S. mutans, was expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. d-Alanine-d-alanine ligase is encoded by the gene ddl (SMU-599) in Streptococcus mutans. This ligase plays a very important role in cell-wall biosynthesis and may be a potential target for drug design. To study the structure and function of this ligase, the gene ddl was amplified from S. mutans genomic DNA and cloned into the expression vector pET28a. The protein was expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). Homogeneous protein was obtained using a two-step procedure consisting of Ni{sup 2+}-chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Purified protein was crystallized and the cube-shaped crystal diffracted to 2.4 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P3{sub 1}21 or P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 79.50, c = 108.97 Å. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of d-alanine-d-alanine ligase from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yong-Zhi; Sheng, Yu; Li, Lan-Fen; Tang, De-Wei; Liu, Xiang-Yu; Zhao, Xiaojun; Liang, Yu-He; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2007-01-01

    A potential target for antibiotic drug design, d-alanine-d-alanine ligase from S. mutans, was expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. d-Alanine-d-alanine ligase is encoded by the gene ddl (SMU-599) in Streptococcus mutans. This ligase plays a very important role in cell-wall biosynthesis and may be a potential target for drug design. To study the structure and function of this ligase, the gene ddl was amplified from S. mutans genomic DNA and cloned into the expression vector pET28a. The protein was expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). Homogeneous protein was obtained using a two-step procedure consisting of Ni 2+ -chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Purified protein was crystallized and the cube-shaped crystal diffracted to 2.4 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P3 1 21 or P3 2 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 79.50, c = 108.97 Å. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit

  2. Frequency of worsening liver function in severe dengue hepatitis patients receiving paracetamol: A retrospective analysis of hospital data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, A.A.; Aslam, F.; Hakeem, H.; Siddiqui, F.; Nasir, N.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of worsening liver function among hospital in-patients with severe dengue hepatitis receiving paracetamol. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised records of dengue patients with severe hepatitis who received paracetamol for control of fever between June 2007 and December 2014. Alanine aminotransferase at baseline and following paracetamol administration was noted, as well as dosage and duration of paracetamol, along with participants' demographic details. Frequency of patients who developed worsening or improvement of alanine aminotransferase was also noted. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 113 subjects, 73(64.6%) were male and 40(35.4%) were female. Overall improvement was observed in subsequent alanine aminotransferase levels (491 units per litre, IQR 356.5 TO 775 vs 151 units per litre, IQR 49.5 to 299.5). Most commonly prescribed dose of paracetamol was 2g (IQR 1 to 5 grams), which was taken for a median duration of 1 day (IQR 1 to 3 days). Moreover, 100(88.5 %) patients showed improvement in alanine aminotransferase. Only 13(11.5 %) patients developed worsening of alanine aminotransferase. Of those with worsening liver function, 8(61.5 %) were discharged home with no clinical deterioration and 5(38.5 %) deaths were observed. However, causes of deaths were unrelated to liver dysfunction. Conclusion: The frequency of worsening liver function following paracetamol administration in patients with severe dengue hepatitis was relatively low. (author)

  3. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  4. Development of an Electrochemical-Based Aspartate Aminotransferase Nanoparticle Ir-C Biosensor for Screening of Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chiun Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspartate aminotransaminase (AST is a hepatocelluar enzyme released into the bloodstream when hepatic cells are damaged, resulting in elevated blood levels of AST. A single use, disposable biosensor prototype, composed of catalytic iridium nano-particles dispersed on carbon paste, was developed to detect enzymatically-produced H2O2 in AST-mediated reactions. This biosensor is capable of measuring AST levels in a phosphate buffer and undiluted human serum over the concentration range of 0 to 0.89 μg/mL AST concentration (corresponding to 0–250 UL−1 specific activity. The biosensor operates at relatively low oxidation potential (+0.3 volt (V versus the printed Ag/AgCl, minimizing any potential chemical interference in human serum. The measurements of AST in human serum using the biosensor compared well with those measured by standard hospital spectrophotometric assays. This Ir-C biosensor may be useful for AST measurements in the clinical environment.

  5. Changes of ammonia, urea contents and transaminase activity in the body during aerial exposure and ammonia loading in Chinese loach Paramisgurnus dabryanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Long; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Ling-Yu; Gu, Bei-Yi; Fan, Qi-Xue

    2017-04-01

    The Paramisgurnus dabryanus was exposed to 30 mmol L -1 NH 4 Cl solution and air to assessing the change of body ammonia and urea contents and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). After 48 h of ammonia exposure, ammonia concentration in the plasma, brain, liver and muscle were 3.3-fold, 5.6-fold, 3.5-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively, those of the control values. Plasma, brain, liver and muscle ammonia concentrations increased to 2.2-fold, 3.3-fold, 2.5-fold and 2.9-fold, respectively, those of control values in response to 48 h of aerial exposure. Within the given treatment (ammonia or aerial exposure), there was no change in plasma, brain and liver urea concentrations between exposure durations. The plasma ALT activity was significantly affected by exposure time during aerial exposure, while the liver ALT activity was not affected by ammonia or aerial exposure. Exposure to NH 4 Cl or air had no effect on either plasma or liver AST activity. Our results suggested that P. dabryanus could accumulate quite high level of internal ammonia because of the high ammonia tolerance in its cells and tissues, and NH 3 volatilization would be a possible ammonia detoxification strategy in P. dabryanus. Urea synthesis was not an effective mechanism to deal with environmental or internal ammonia problem. The significant increase of ALT activity in plasma during aerial exposure, indicating that alanine synthesis through certain amino acid catabolism may be subsistent in P. dabryanus.

  6. Sensitive non-radioactive determination of aminotransferase stereospecificity for C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomrit, Juntratip; Summpunn, Pijug; Meevootisom, Vithaya; Wiyakrutta, Suthep

    2011-02-25

    A sensitive non-radioactive method for determination of the stereospecificity of the C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzymes (pyridoxal phosphate, PLP; and pyridoxamine phosphate, PMP) of aminotransferases has been developed. Aminotransferase of unknown stereospecificity in its PLP form was incubated in (2)H(2)O with a substrate amino acid resulted in PMP labeled with deuterium at C-4' in the pro-S or pro-R configuration according to the stereospecificity of the aminotransferase tested. The [4'-(2)H]PMP was isolated from the enzyme protein and divided into two portions. The first portion was incubated in aqueous buffer with apo-aspartate aminotransferase (a reference si-face specific enzyme), and the other was incubated with apo-branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (a reference re-face specific enzyme) in the presence of a substrate 2-oxo acid. The (2)H at C-4' is retained with the PLP if the aminotransferase in question transfers C-4' hydrogen on the opposite face of the coenzyme compared with the reference aminotransferase, but the (2)H is removed if the test and reference aminotransferases catalyze hydrogen transfer on the same face. PLP formed in the final reactions was analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the presence or absence of (2)H. The method was highly sensitive that for the aminotransferase with ca. 50 kDa subunit molecular weight, only 2mg of the enzyme was sufficient for the whole test. With this method, the use of radioactive substances could be avoided without compromising the sensitivity of the assay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, Thomas J.; Stroud, Richard K.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area.

  8. Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gomes da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available In chronic hepatitis C (CHC, liver biopsy is the gold standard method for assessing liver histology, however it is invasive and can have complications. Non-invasive markers have been proposed and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI has been shown as an easy and inexpensive marker of liver fibrosis. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of APRI for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in CHC patients. This study included treatment-naive CHC patients who had undergone liver biopsy from January 2000 to August 2006. All histological slides were reviewed according to the METAVIR system. APRI was calculated based on laboratory results performed within four months from the biopsy. Twenty-eight (56% patients had significant fibrosis (F2-F4 and 13 (26% had cirrhosis (F4. The area under ROC curves of APRI for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.92 (0.83-1.00 and 0.92 (0.85-1.00, respectively. Using cut-off values recommended by prior studies, significant fibrosis could be identified, in accordance with liver biopsy, in 44% and cirrhosis in 66% of patients. APRI could identify significant fibrosis and cirrhosis at a high degree of accuracy in studied patients.

  9. Níveis iônicos e enzimáticos de cutias (Dasyprocta sp. hígidas, criadas em cativeiro, influência do sexo e da idade Ion and enzymatic levels of healthy agouti (Dasyprocta sp. raised in captivit. Influence of gender and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E.A. Ribeiro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o perfil do ionograma e enzimas hepáticas de cutias (Dasyprocta sp. saudáveis, criadas em cativeiro, como também se avaliou a influência de sexo, idade e interação sexo-idade. Foi adotado um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 (dois sexos e quatro faixas etárias, com três repetições, totalizando 24 cutias. Foram determinados os valores para o cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, cloretos (Cl, aspartato aminotransferase (AST, alanina aminotransferase (ALT, fosfatase alcalina (FA e gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT. Os valores médios obtidos foram: Ca= 7,62+2,59mg/dl; P= 3,91+1,41mg/dl; Cl= 58,63+16,45mg/dl; AST= 119,54+79,35UI/ml; ALT= 28,08+15,53UI/ml; FA= 26,95+14,01UI/ml e GGT= 25,34+19,44UI/ml. O valor de P foi maior nas fêmeas e da FA nos machos. Os níveis de FA diminuíram com o aumento da idade.This research studied the profile of the ionogram and hepatic enzymes of healthy agoutis (Dasyprocta sp. raised in captivity as well as evaluated the influence of gender, age and interaction gender-age. It was used a completely randomized design, in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4 (two genders and four age groups, with three repetitions, totaling 24 agoutis. The values were determined for calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, chlorides (Cl, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT. The mean values were: Ca= 7.62±2.59mg/dl; P= 3.91±1.41mg/dl; Cl= 58.63±16,45mg/dl; AST= 119.54±79.35UI/ml; ALT= 28.08±15.53UI/ml; ALP= 26.95±14.01UI/ml, and GGT= 25.34±19.44UI/ml. The value of P was larger in females and ALP in males. As the age increased, levels of ALP decreased.

  10. Effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on hepatic function in obstructive jaundice: an experimental study in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Erdal Birol; Yol, Sinan; Teke, Zafer; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Sakaogullari, Zisan; Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani; Bilgihan, Ayse; Akoglu, Musa

    2010-08-01

    The physiology of the patient during laparoscopy differs from that of open surgery. Both pneumoperitoneum and obstructive jaundice impair the hepatic function, but the combined insult has not been previously examined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) pneumoperitoneum on hepatic function in a rat model of obstructive jaundice. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: group 1 (n = 10), sham-operated group; group 2 (n = 12), obstructive jaundice group; group 3 (n = 10), CO(2) pneumoperitoneum group; and group 4 (n = 12), obstructive jaundice and CO(2) pneumoperitoneum group. Common bile duct was ligated and divided in the obstructive jaundice groups. After 6 days, a 12-mmHg pneumoperitoneum was induced, maintained for 60 min, and released for 120 min. Blood samples were drawn for the measurement of white blood cell and platelet counts, serum liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], total bilirubin). Tissue samples were obtained for analyses of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. We evaluated the degree of liver injury on a grading scale from 0 to 4, histopathologically. Pneumoperitoneum after biliary obstruction resulted in an increase in AST and ALT levels and a decrease in white blood cell and platelet counts. However, changes in liver tissue MDA, GSH, and SOD levels did not correlate with the changes in AST and ALT levels and white blood cell and platelet counts. After sham operation with pneumoperitoneum, the GSH levels in liver homogenate were significantly decreased in the group 3 when compared to the group 2. On the other hand, obstructive jaundice itself caused significant reduction in the SOD activity of liver homogenate in comparison to the group 3. Histopathologically, sinusoidal congestion and vacuolization were more severe in the group 3. Alterations in hepatic function occur in pneumoperitoneum applied

  11. Diagnostic value of the APRI index for liver fibrosis in a Chinese patients population with chronic hepatitis C acquired from blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Chengduo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various newly developed non-invasive fibrotic predictive models based on measurements of common biochemical indices in a group of ethnic Chinese patients with long-standing chronic hepatitis C (CHC infection acquired by transfusion. MethodsBetween July 2010 and June 2011, 120 of the monitored residents of Dingxi District of Gansu Province who had acquired hepatitis C infection via the regional practice of untested whole blood or plasma transfusion during the years of 1992-1995 were recruited for the current study. Each participant underwent liver biopsy for histological evaluation of liver fibrosis (S1-S4 progressive stages, from mild fibrosis to early cirrhosis. Each participant also provided serum samples for biochemical measurement of fibrotic indicators, including hyaluronic acid (HA, type Ⅲ procollagen protein (PCⅢ, laminin (LN, and type IV collagen (CⅣ. In addition, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, platelet count (PLT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, prothrombin time (PT, and international normalized ratio (INR were measured to calculate the various non-invasive fibrotic predictive models: AST-to-PLT ratio index (APRI, the Sheth index (AST/ALT, the FibroQ index (10×[(age×AST×PT INR/(ALT×PLT], and the FIB-4 index ([age×AST/(PLT×ALT1/2]. Using the pathologic results as the reference standards, the diagnostic efficacies of these four non-invasive fibrotic predictive models were evaluated by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Accuracies of the four were compared by constructing receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and analyzing their sensitivities, specificities and area under the curves (AUCs. ResultsThe APRI, FibroQ and FIB-4 indexes, and the levels of PCⅢ, CⅣ, and HA increased in conjunction with progressive stages of liver fibrosis. However, only the APRI showed significant correlation to liver fibrosis stage (r=0.446, P<0.001. The APRI index also had

  12. Effects of 45Ca on murine skeletal muscle. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, R.K.; Asotra, K.; Katoch, S.S.; Krishan, K.

    1983-01-01

    Swiss albino mice were injected intraperitoneally with 3.7x10 4 Bq and 7.4x10 4 Bq 45 Ca/g body weight. Mice of both dose groups were autopsied on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 and activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase bioassayed in diaphragm and gastrocnemius in 45 Ca-treated and normal mice. Alanine aminotransferase activity in the two muscles increased in response to 45 Ca administration suggesting a stepped up utilization of alanine in glucose generation. Aspartate aminotransferase levels, on the other hand, diminished in both the 45 Ca-treated muscles and are maintained at low values throughout the 28 day period of study. The results suggest an innate ability of skeletal muscle to selectively utilize either of the two glucogenic amino acids during radiation stress. The data are discussed in light of previous findings on glycogen accumulation in irradiated skeletal muscle. (author)

  13. Fast-food-based hyper-alimentation can induce rapid and profound elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechagias, S; Ernersson, A; Dahlqvist, O; Lundberg, P; Lindström, T; Nystrom, F H

    2008-05-01

    To study the effect of fast-food-based hyper-alimentation on liver enzymes and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC). Prospective interventional study with parallel control group. University Hospital of Linköping, Sweden. 12 healthy men and six healthy women with a mean (SD) age of 26 (6.6) years and a matched control group. Subjects in the intervention group aimed for a body weight increase of 5-15% by eating at least two fast-food-based meals a day with the goal to double the regular caloric intake in combination with adoption of a sedentary lifestyle for 4 weeks. Weekly changes of serum aminotransferases and HTGC measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at baseline and after the intervention. Subjects in the intervention group increased from 67.6 (9.1) kg to 74.0 (11) kg in weight (p19 U/l, men >30 U/l) during the intervention. Sugar (mono- and disaccharides) intake during week 3 correlated with the maximal ALT/baseline ALT ratio (r = 0.62, p = 0.006). HTGC increased from 1.1 (1.9)% to 2.8 (4.8)%, although this was not related to the increase in ALT levels. ALT levels were unchanged in controls. Hyper-alimentation per se can induce profound ALT elevations in less than 4 weeks. Our study clearly shows that in the evaluation of subjects with elevated ALT the medical history should include not only questions about alcohol intake but also explore whether recent excessive food intake has occurred.

  14. Structure Expression and Function of kynurenine Aminotransferases in Human and Rodent Brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Q Han; T Cai; D Tagle; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs) catalyze the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-D: -aspartate and alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Abnormal KYNA levels in human brains are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurological disorders. Four KATs have been reported in mammalian brains, KAT I/glutamine transaminase K/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1, KAT II/aminoadipate aminotransferase, KAT III/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2, and KAT IV/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2/mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. KAT II has a striking tertiary structure in N-terminal part and forms a new subgroup in fold type I aminotransferases, which has been classified as subgroup Iepsilon. Knowledge regarding KATs is vast and complex; therefore, this review is focused on recent important progress of their gene characterization, physiological and biochemical function, and structural properties. The biochemical differences of four KATs, specific enzyme activity assays, and the structural insights into the mechanism of catalysis and inhibition of these enzymes are discussed.

  15. Experiences with alanine dosimetry in afterloading brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, H.-J.; Gohs, U.

    1996-01-01

    At the present, the most commonly used dosimetry for radiotherapy applications are ionisation chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). However, there are some undesirable characteristics of these dosimetry systems, such as large detection volume (ionisation chamber) as well as fading of the radiation induced signal with time and destructive readout (TLG). The present study is an investigation into the use of the alanine/ESR dosimetry in fractionated afterloading brachytherapy during the whole radiotherapy course. There are some qualities which make alanine dosimetry attractive. These are the linear energy response, low fading under standard conditions, and the nondestructive readout. Thus the alanine dosimetry makes possible cumulative dose measurements during the radiotherapy course and an archival storage. By ionizing radiation (gamma, e, n, p, charged particles) free radicals (unpaired electrons) are produced in the amino acid alanine. The continuous wave electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is used to determine the number of free radicals, which is proportional to the absorbed dose and the alanine content of the dosimeter. The ESR measurements were made at room temperature using a Bruker EPR analyzer EMS-104. The dosimeters used in the test are alanine pellets (23.72 mg weight, 4.9 mm diameter, 1 mm height) as well as flexible alanine film dosimeters (thickness about 500 μm). The dosimeters consist of a blend of L-alpha-alanine and a binder. The alanine content of the pellets and the film dosimeters is about 88 % and 50 % by weight, respectively. The dosimeters for the calculation of the dose-effect-relationship were irradiated at the Physical-Technical Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig by a standard 60Co source. The maximum deviation from the calculated linear function is about 0.12 Gy in the dose range up to 80 Gy. The goal of medical applications was the superficial dose measurement in afterloading brachytherapy during the radiotherapy course in

  16. Alanine increases blood pressure during hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Maher, T. J.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of L-alanine administration on blood pressure (BP) during haemorrhagic shock was investigated using anesthetized rats whose left carotid arteries were cannulated for BP measurement, blood removal, and drug administration. It was found that L-alanine, in doses of 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, increased the systolic BP of hypotensive rats by 38 to 80 percent (while 100 mg/kg pyruvate increased BP by only 9.4 mmhg, not significantly different from saline). The results suggest that L-alanine might influence cardiovascular function.

  17. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Xoo0352, d-alanine-d-alanine ligase A, from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan, Thanh Thi Ngoc; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Kim, Hyesoon; Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Gu; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Kang, Lin-Woo

    2008-01-01

    Xoo0352, which encodes d-alanine-d-alanine ligase A (DdlA), from X. oryzae pv. oryzae was cloned, purified and crystallized. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of DdlA crystals was performed. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight (BB), which is one of the most devastating diseases of rice in most rice-growing countries. d-Alanine-d-alanine ligase A (DdlA), coded by the Xoo0352 gene, was expressed, purified and crystallized. DdlA is an enzyme that is involved in d-alanine metabolism and the biosynthesis of an essential bacterial peptidoglycan precursor, in which it catalyzes the formation of d-alanyl-d-alanine from two d-alanines, and is thus an attractive antibacterial drug target against Xoo. The DdlA crystals diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution and belonged to the primitive tetragonal space group P4 3 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 83.0, c = 97.6 Å. There is one molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding V M of 1.88 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 34.6%. The initial structure was determined by molecular replacement using d-alanine-d-alanine ligase from Staphylococcus aureus as a template model

  18. Racemization of alanine by the alanine racemases from Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus stearothermophilus: energetic reaction profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraci, W.S.; Walsh, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    Alanine racemases are bacterial pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes providing D-alanine as an essential building block for biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall. Two isozymic alanine racemases, encoded by the dadB gene and the alr gene, from the Gram-negative mesophilic Salmonella typhimurium and one from the Gram-positive thermophilic Bacillus stearothermophilus have been examined for the racemization mechanism. Substrate deuterium isotope effects and solvent deuterium isotope effects have been measured in both L → D and D→ L directions for all three enzymes to assess the degree to which abstraction of the α-proton or protonation of substrate PLP carbanion is limiting in catalysis. Additionally, experiments measuring internal return of α- 3 H from substrate to product and solvent exchange/substrate conversion experiments in 3 H 2 O have been used with each enzyme to examine the partitioning of substrate PLP carbanion intermediates and to obtain the relative heights of kinetically significant energy barriers in alanine racemase catalysis

  19. Imaging analysis of direct alanine uptake by rice seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Masuda, Sayaka; Rai, Hiroki; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2008-01-01

    We presented alanine, a kind of amino acids, uptake by a rice seedling to study the basic mechanism of the organic fertilizer effectiveness in organic farming. The rice grown in the culture solution containing alanine as a nitrogen source absorbed alanine approximately two times faster than that grown with NH 4 + from analysis of 14 C-alanine images by Imaging Plate method. It was suggested that the active transport ability of the rice seeding was induced in roots by existence of alanine in the rhizosphere. The alanine uptake images of the rice roots were acquired every 5 minutes successively by the real-time autoradiography system we developed. The analysis of the successive images showed that alanine uptake was not uniform throughout the root but especially active at the root tip. (author)

  20. Safety Assessment for transient event occurred during the ASTS test of Hanbit Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Changkeun; Kim, Yohan; Ha, Sangjun

    2014-01-01

    Safety Injection has been actuated during the ASTS (Automatic Seismic Trip System) test of Hanbit Unit 2 on Feb. 28, 2014. It could be bad effect on system integrity. KHNP has been performed safety assessment of system for effect of Safety Injection (SI) actuation occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. Stable state of nuclear power plant system has been confirmed according to Safety Injection and reactor trip event occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. In the result of system safety assessment, major variables of nuclear power plant are located in optimal range and not exceed safety limit. It remains nuclear fuel and the integrity of the power plant is in a safe condition were conformed. After ASTS action, thermal elimination has been processed throughout the turbine until turbine signal occurrence because ASTS is connected to M-G set in the present hanbit Unit 2. Therefore, Safety Injection signal has been actuated by rapid reduction of Steam Generator pressure. In this paper, it is concluded that consideration of equipment and setpoint is needed for that Safety Injection has been not occurred under the unnecessary situation. Stable state of nuclear power plant system has been confirmed for Safety Injection and reactor trip event occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. In the result of system safety assessment, major variables of nuclear power plant are located in optimal range and not exceed safety limit. It remains nuclear fuel and the integrity of the plant is in a safe condition were conformed. It is concluded that consideration of equipment and setpoint is needed for that Safety Injection has been not occurred under the unnecessary situation

  1. Comparative evaluation of different extracts of leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. for hepatoprotective activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Chanchal K; Das, Amit Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous) of P. guajava in acute experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol. The effects observed were compared with a known hepatoprotective agent, silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o.). In the acute liver damage induced by different hepatotoxins, P. guajava methanolic leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. P. guajava ethyl acetate leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity whereas P. guajava aqueous leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. P. guajava ethyl acetate and aqueous leaf extracts (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Histological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotection. It is concluded that the methanolic extract of leaves of Psidium guajava plant possesses better hepatoprotective activity compared to other extracts.

  2. Effect of decaffeination of green and roasted coffees on the in vivo antioxidant activity and prevention of liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriene R. Lima

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Decaffeination and roasting affects the composition of the chlorogenic acids in coffee, which have antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of coffee decaffeination on the in vivo antioxidant activity and the prevention of liver damage. The Wistar rats received intraperitoneal doses of carbon tetrachloride and daily doses of Arabica coffee brews (whole and decaffeinated, both green and roasted by gavage for fifteen days. The activity of liver marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and serum albumin were measured as well as the quantification of the thiobarbituric acid reactive species and the content of liver total lipids. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase are good indicators of liver damage: the results showed that all studied coffee brews decreased the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and liver levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species and total lipids. The compounds presents in coffee brews are able to decrease the hepatic lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride, making a significant hepatoprotective effect, in accordance with the liver function tests. The coffee brews are hepatoprotective regardless of the decaffeination process and our results suggest a better protection against liver damage for the roasted coffee brews compared with green coffee brews.

  3. Alanine metabolism in acute falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukrittayakamee, S.; Krishna, S.; ter Kuile, F.; Wilaiwan, O.; Williamson, D. H.; White, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the integrity of the gluconeogenic pathway in severe malaria using alanine metabolism as a measure. Alanine disposition and liver blood flow, assessed by indocyanine green (ICG) clearance, were measured simultaneously in 10 patients with falciparum malaria (six severe and four

  4. Curcumin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layasadat Khorsandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NZnO are increasingly used in modern life. Most metal nanoparticles have adverse effects on the liver. Aims: To explore the protective action of curcumin (Cur against hepatotoxicity induced by NZnO in rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Control group animals received normal saline, while the Cur group animals were treated with 200 mg/kg of Cur orally for 21 days. NZnO-intoxicated rats received 50 mg/kg of NZnO for 14 days by gavage method. In the NZnO+Cur group, rats were pretreated with Cur for 7 days before NZnO administration. Plasma activities of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were measured as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities were measured for detection of oxidative stress in liver tissue. Histological changes and apoptosis in liver tissue were studied by using Hematoxylin-eosin staining and the transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method. Results: NZnO induced a significant increase in plasma AST (2.8-fold, ALT (2.7-fold and ALP (1.97-fold activity in comparison to the control group (p<0.01. NZnO increased MDA content and reduced SOD and GPx activities. NZnO caused liver damage including centrilobular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis. The percentage of apoptosis in hepatocytes was increased in NZnO-treated rats (p<0.01. Pre-treatment of Cur significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (39%, increased SOD (156% and GPx (26% activities, and attenuated ALT (47%, AST (41% and ALP (30% activities. Pre-treatment with Cur also decreased the histology changes and apoptotic index of hepatocytes (p<0.05. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Cur effectively protects against NZnO-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. However, future studies are required to propose Cur as a potential protective agent against hepatotoxicity

  5. Clinical efficacy of puerarin combined with compound ammonium glycyrrhetate S in treatment of alcoholic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JI Huichun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical efficacy of puerarin combined with compound ammonium glycyrrhetate S in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis. MethodsA total of 92 patients with alcoholic hepatitis who were admitted to our hospital from February 2011 to February 2014 were recruited in this study and randomly divided into two groups. The control group (n=46 was treated with conventional therapy combined with compound ammonium glycyrrhetate S. The test group (n=46 was treated with puerarin in addition to the regimen used in the control group. After 20 days of treatment, the levels of total bilirubin (TBil, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, albumin (Alb, Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score (GAHS, and abdominal ultrasound were measured and compared with the results before the treatment in both groups. The clinical efficacy and adverse reactions in the two groups were also compared. ResultsAfter the treatment, the GAHSs and levels of TBil, ALT, AST, and GGT in the two groups were all significantly lower than those before the treatment (all P<0.05. In the test group after the treatment, the levels of TBil (20.96±6.85 μmol/L, ALT (33.72±14.18 U/L, and AST (38.69±6.38 U/L were all significantly lower than those in the control group (all P<0.05. The marked response rate, overall response rate, and rate of improvement in abdominal ultrasound in the test group were 63.04%, 93.48%, and 44.44%, respectively, all significantly higher than those in the control group (all P<0.05. There was no significant difference in adverse reactions between the two groups (P>0.05. ConclusionFor patients with alcoholic hepatitis, the combined therapy with puerarin and compound ammonium glycyrrhetate S can improve the treatment outcome and protect the liver function, and it has high safety and holds promise for clinical application.

  6. Insulin Modulates Liver Function in a Type I Diabetes Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo L. Nolasco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several studies have been performed to unravel the association between diabetes and increased susceptibility to infection. This study aimed to investigate the effect of insulin on the local environment after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in rats. Methods: Diabetic (alloxan, 42 mg/kg i.v., 10 days and non-diabetic (control male Wistar rats were subjected to a two-puncture CLP procedure and 6 h later, the following analyses were performed: (a total and differential cell counts in peritoneal lavage (PeL and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluids; (b quantification of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 and CINC-2 in the PeL and BAL fluids by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; (c total leukocyte count using a veterinary hematology analyzer and differential leukocyte counts on stained slides; (d biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP by colorimetric analyses; and (e lung, kidney, and liver morphological analyses (hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Relative to controls, non-diabetic and diabetic CLP rats exhibited an increased in the concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, CINC-1, and CINC-2 and total and neutrophil in the PeL fluid. Treatment of these animals with neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin (NPH, 1IU and 4IU, respectively, s.c., 2 hours before CLP procedure, induced an increase on these cells in the PeL fluid but it did not change cytokine levels. The levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and urea were higher in diabetic CLP rats than in non-diabetic CLP rats. ALP levels were higher in diabetic sham rats than in non-diabetic sham rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin completely restored ALT, AST, and ALP levels. Conclusion: These results together suggest that insulin attenuates liver dysfunction during early two-puncture CLP-induced peritoneal

  7. Alanine EPR dosimetry of therapeutic irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugay, O.; Bartchuk, V.; Kolesnik, S.; Mazin, M.; Gaponenko, H.

    1999-01-01

    The high-dose alanine EPR dosimetry is a very precise method in the dose range 1-100 kGy. The system is used generally as the standard high-dose transfer dosimetry in many laboratories. This is comparatively expensive technique so it is important to use it as a more universal dosimetry system also in the middle and low dose ranges. The problems of the middle-dose alanine dosimetry are discussed and the solution of several problems is proposed. The alanine EPR dosimetry has been applied to the dose measurements of medical irradiators in the Kiev City Oncology Center. (author)

  8. Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Jonas; Hindorf, Ulf; Persson, Paula; Bengtsson, Thomas; Malmqvist, Ulf; Werkström, Viktoria; Ekelund, Mats

    2008-02-01

    The occurrence of idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity is a major problem in all phases of clinical drug development and the leading cause of postmarketing warnings and withdrawals. Physical exercise can result in transient elevations of liver function tests. There is no consensus in the literature on which forms of exercise may cause changes in liver function tests and to what extent. Weightlifting results in profound increases in liver function tests in healthy men used to moderate physical activity, not including weightlifting. Liver function tests are significantly increased for at least 7 days after weightlifting. It is important to impose relevant restrictions on heavy muscular exercise prior to and during clinical studies. To investigate the effect of intensive muscular exercise (weightlifting) on clinical chemistry parameters reflecting liver function in healthy men. Fifteen healthy men, used to moderate physical activity not including weightlifting, performed an 1 h long weightlifting programme. Blood was sampled for clinical chemistry parameters [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin] at repeated intervals during 7 days postexercise and at a follow-up examination 10-12 days postexercise. Five out of eight studied clinical chemistry parameters (AST, ALT, LD, CK and myoglobin) increased significantly after exercise (P exercise. In addition, LD and, in particular, CK and myoglobin showed highly elevated levels. These findings highlight the importance of imposing restrictions on weightlifting prior to and during clinical studies. Intensive muscular exercise, e.g. weightlifting, should also be considered as a cause of asymptomatic elevations of liver function tests in daily clinical practice.

  9. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

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    Eros Antonio de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. Objective: To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5: G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16th day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg; G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg; G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg; G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg. After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Results: Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Conclusion: Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  10. Effect of Aerial Parts Extract of Echinophora Platyloba.L on Liver and Kidney Function Tests in Obese Hypercholesterolaemia Rats

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    H Aqababa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and its complications such as hypertension, fatty liver, type 2 diabetes and kidney failure, can be mentioned as the main life-threating elements. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of air parts extract of Echinophora platyloba.L (EP on changes in body weight as well as liver and kidney function tests in hypercholesterolaemia obese rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were divided in to five groups (n =8 including a control group with normal control diet, control hyperlipidemia group with fatty food diet and hypertriglyceridemia treatment groups which recieved the minimum dose (100 mg/kg, average dose (200 mg/kg maximum dose (300 mg/kg of EP extract via a gavage. At the end of this period (42 days, to measure cholesterol, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, albumin, total protein, alanine Aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate Aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, the blood samples were collected and the study data were analyzed. Results: Cholesterol, ALT, AST and ALP were reported to significantly decrease (in the minimum and maximum dose groups compared to the control group (P≤0.05. Albumin and total protein in the maximum dose extract group significantly increased compared to the control group (P≤0.05. Moreover, body weight in the group receiving the minimum dose of extract showed a significant decrease compared to the control group (P≤0.05. Conclusion: EP extract, specifically in the minimal doses, in addition to protecting liver, could be recommended as a good candidate in regard with the treatment of blood lipids, and body extra weight.

  11. Antiatherogenic, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic effects of coenzyme Q10 in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats

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    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, one of the leading metabolic syndromes, accounts for highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this study, we examined possible protective effect of coenzyme Q10 on lipid profile, atherogenic index, and liver enzyme markers in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. METHODS: A total of 30 male rats were randomly divided into three groups; group 1 as control, group 2 diabetic untreatment, and group 3 treatments with coenzyme Q10 by 15 mg/kg i.p. daily, respectively .Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, atherogenic index, atherogenic coefficient, cardiac risk ratio, and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP of all groups were analyzed. Data were analyzed using non-parametric Mann-Whitney test (using SPSS and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: Coenzyme Q10 inhibited significantly the activities of ALT (11.17%, AST (19.35% and ALP (36.67% and decreased FBG (21.19%, TG (37.24%, TC (17.15%, LDL (30.44%, VLDL (37.24%, atherogenic index (44.24%, atherogenic coefficient (49.69%, and cardiac risk ratio (37.97%, HDL level was significantly (33.38% increased when treated with coenzyme Q10. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that coenzyme Q10 exert beneficial effects on the lipid profile, atherogenic index, and liver enzymes activity in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.   Keywords: Diabetes, Lipid Profile, Atherogenic Index, Rats, Liver Enzymes, Coenzyme Q10 

  12. Antidiabetic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Sedigheh Asgary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. In this study, anti-diabetic effect of its hydroalcoholic extract was compared with that of glibenclamide. Methods: Male white Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of six each: nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius (200 mg kg -1 BW; diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg kg -1 BW. Alloxan was administered (120 mg kg -1 BW, intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. Fasting blood samples were collected three times, before injection of alloxan, two weeks and six weeks after injection of alloxan and fasting blood sugar (FBS, Hb A1C, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were measured each time. Results: FBS, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C had a meaningful decrease in diabetic rats treated with Carthamus tinctorius and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. Insulin level increased significantly in diabetic groups received treatment (glibenclamide or Carthamus tinctorius L in comparison with diabetic group with no treatment. The histological study revealed size of islets of Langerhans enlarged significantly consequentially as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. The extract appeared non toxic as evidenced by normal levels of AST, ALP and ALT. Effects of administrating glibenclamide or extract of Carthamus tinctorius L on all biochemical parameters discussed above showed no difference and both tend to bring the values to near normal. Conclusion: These results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius possesses beneficial effect on treatment of diabetes.

  13. Logistic regression analysis of prognostic factors in 106 acute-on-chronic liver failure patients with hepatic encephalopathy

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    CUI Yanping

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo analyze the prognostic factors in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE and to explore the risk factors for prognosis. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on 106 ACLF patients with HE who were hospitalized in our hospital from January 2010 to July 2013. The patients were divided into improved group and deteriorated group. The univariate indicators including age, sex, laboratory indicators [total bilirubin (TBil, albumin (Alb, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate amino-transferase (AST, and prothrombin time activity (PTA], the stage of HE, complications [persistent hyponatremia, digestive tract bleeding, hepatorenal syndrome (HRS, ascites, infection, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP], and plasma exchange were analyzed by chi-square test or t-test. Indicators with statistical significance were subsequently analyzed by binary logistic regression. ResultsUnivariate analysis showed that ALT (P=0.009, PTA (P=0.043, the stage of HE (P=0.000, and HRS (P=0.003 were significantly different between the two groups, whereas differences in age, sex, TBil, Alb, AST, persistent hyponatremia, digestive tract bleeding, ascites, infection, SBP, and plasma exchange were not statistically significant (P>0.05. Binary logistic regression demonstrated that PTA (b=-0097, P=0.025, OR=0.908, HRS (b=2.279, P=0.007, OR=9.764, and the stage of HE (b=1873, P=0.000, OR=6.510 were prognostic factors in ACLF patients with HE. ConclusionThe stage of HE, HRS, and PTA are independent influential factors for the prognosis in ACLF patients with HE. Reduced PTA, advanced HE stage, and the presence of HRS indicate worse prognosis.

  14. Establishment of a reversible model of prehepatic portal hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Dou, Jian; Gao, Qing-Jun

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve upon the traditional model of pre-hepatic portal hypertension in rats, and simulate the anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation without veno-venous bypass. A reversible model of portal hypertension was induced by portal vein ligation, with a label ring ligated along the portal vein. A total of 135 male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: i) Normal control (NC) group; ii) portal hypertensive control (PHTC) group; and iii) reperfusion (R) group. In the R group, rats with portal hypertension underwent simultaneous clamping of the portal triad and retrohepatic vena cava for 1 h, followed by removal of the clamps to enable blood reperfusion. Portal venography and portal vein pressure were recorded during the surgery. Arterial oxygen pressure (PaO 2 ), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBil) levels were determined, and pathological changes of the liver were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. The results demonstrated that, 3 weeks after portal vein ligation, the vein area and the free portal pressures in the PHTC group were significantly increased compared with those in the NC group. The serum ALT and AST levels in the R group at different time points were significantly elevated compared with those in the PHTC group, and reached their maximal levels at 24 h after reperfusion. Furthermore, the PaO 2 at 24 h after reperfusion was significantly decreased. In conclusion, the reversible model of pre-hepatic portal hypertension in rats was successfully established using the introduction of a label ring. This model may be useful for basic research focusing on the anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation without veno-venous bypass.

  15. Practice Patterns in Screening for Metabolic Disease in Women with PCOS of Diverse Race-Ethnic Backgrounds.

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    Mott, Melanie M; Kitos, Nicole R; Coviello, Andrea D

    2014-09-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at high risk for metabolic disorders, which prompted the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) to publish a 2005 position statement recommending screening for metabolic disease.The purposes of the present study were to 1) to examine changes in screening rates for obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome (MetS), hyperlipidemia (HL), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and hypertension (HTN) in women with PCOS after publication of the 2005 AACE position statement and 2) to determine if screening rates and metabolic disorders vary by race-ethnicity. PCOS cases in 2006 (n = 547) and 2011 (n = 1,159) and metabolic disorders were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD9) code. Screening rates for metabolic disorders were determined by the presence of blood tests (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], lipid profile, alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase [ALT/AST]). In 2006, ≤25% of PCOS patients underwent recommended screening tests: HbA1c 18%; lipid profile 11, only HbA1c testing had increased (18% to 21%). Obesity increased from 35% to 40%, while other metabolic disorders remained stable. Black women had the highest rates of obesity and HTN in 2011 (Obesity: Black 48%, Hispanic 44%, White 33%, Other 31%, P1; HTN: Black 18%, Hispanic 9%, White 10%, Other 7%, P1). Blacks and Hispanics were screened more often with ALT/AST testing (Black 27/27%, Hispanic 28/27%, White 23/22%, Other 17/18%, P = .02/.03). Screening rates were higher in the endocrine clinic for all metabolic disorders than in other clinics (P11.

  16. Liver dysfunction in patients with severe anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Elissa; Sabel, Allison L; Brinton, John T; Catanach, Brittany; Gaudiani, Jennifer L; Mehler, Philip S

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of liver dysfunction in patients with severe anorexia nervosa (AN) has typically been limited to small case series. We report an investigation into the admission characteristics and clinical outcomes associated with liver dysfunction in a large cohort of adults hospitalized for medical stabilization of severe AN. We retrospectively evaluated electronic medical records to quantify the cumulative incidence of elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). We compared mean (±SD), frequencies (%), and median (IQR) values of clinical covariates of interest by incidence of liver enzyme elevation. The study included 181 adults, admitted for medical stabilization of AN, from October 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013. AST and ALT were mildly elevated in 27.6% of patients and severely elevated (more than three times the upper limit of normal) in 35.4% of patients. On admission, patients with severely elevated liver enzymes had a lower body mass index (BMI) (11.9 ± 1.8 kg/m(2) vs.13.3 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)), lower percentage ideal body weight (56.5% ± 7.7% vs. 63.5% ± 8.3%), and lower prealbumin (64% vs. 37%) compared with the rest of the cohort (p < 0.001). While hospitalized, patients with severely elevated liver enzymes more often developed hypoglycemia, hypophosphatemia, and experienced longer lengths of stay (p < 0.001). Elevated liver enzymes are common in our patient population with severe AN. Liver enzymes reached near normal values by the time of discharge. Severely elevated liver enzymes were associated with a lower BMI and the development of hypoglycemia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Grape Seed oil as Anti hepatic and Anti renal Dysfunction agent in Paracetamol Administrated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.F.; Osman, N.N.; Darwish, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The protection conferred by dietary grape seed oil (GSO) against paracetamol (PCL)-induced liver and kidney dysfunction have been evaluated in adult male albino Wistar rats. The animals (180-200 g) were randomly divided into four groups of seven rats each. Group l: normal control, group II: animals received GSO (3.7 g Kg-1 body wt/day orally), group III: animals received PCL (4 g Kg-1 body wt/day orally) and group IV: animals received PCL plus GSO. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), urea (U), creatinine (Cr) and albumin (A) levels in serum and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. In addition, the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver and kidney homogenates were chosen for assessing. The PCL induced a significant elevation in the serum AST, ALT, AP and GGT. Moreover, a significant increase in serum U, Cr, A and BUN were evident. Furthermore, a significant rise in TBARS, while a significant declined activity of SOD and CAT and GSH content in liver and kidney homogenates were also observed. Oral administration of GSO resulted in a significant reduction in liver and kidney markers in serum, BUN as well hepatic and renal TBARS accompanied by a significant improvement in the tissue antioxidants and A, when compared with PCL damaged rats. It was suggested that GSO has potent hepatic and renal protective effects against the oxidative damage induced in rats due to PCL treatment, perhaps by its antioxidative effects hence eliminating the deleterious effects of PCL.

  18. High-Intensity Exercise Induced Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Muscle Damage in Postpubertal Boys and Girls: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sangita; Chaki, Biswajit; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2018-04-01

    Pal, S, Chaki, B, Chattopadhyay, S, and Bandyopadhyay, A. High-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and skeletal muscle damage in post-pubertal boys and girls: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1045-1052, 2018-The purpose of this study was to examine the sex variation in high-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and muscle damage among 44 sedentary postpubertal boys and girls through estimation of postexercise release pattern of muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and oxidative stress markers like extent of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and catalase activity. Muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, LDH, ALT, and AST were measured before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 hours after high-intensity incremental treadmill running. Oxidative stress markers like thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and catalase activity were estimated before and immediately after the exercise. Lipid peroxidation and serum catalase activity increased significantly in both groups after exercise (p exercise level at 24 and 48 hours after exercise in both the sexes, (p exercise, the pattern of postexercise release of these markers were found to be similar in both the groups. Accordingly, it has been concluded from the present investigation that high-intensity exercise induces significant oxidative stress and increases indices of skeletal muscle damage in both postpubertal girls and boys. However, postpubertal girls are relatively better protected from oxidative stress and muscle damage as compared to the boys of similar age and physical activity level. It is further evident that sex difference may not be apparent for all the biomarkers of muscle damage in this age group.

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extract from Berchemia lineate against CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Yi, Li-Tao; Geng, Di; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Weng, Lian-Jin

    2015-05-01

    The roots of Berchemia lineate (L.) DC. (Rhamnaceae) have been long used as a remedy for the treatment of some diseases in Guangxi Province, China. The present study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of Berchemia lineate ethanol extract (BELE) on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice. Effect of BELE administrated for 7 consecutive days was evaluated in mice by the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), albulin (ALB), globulin (GLB), and total protein (TP) levels, as well as liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Moreover, histopathological examinations were also taken. Compared with the model group, administration of 400 mg/kg BELE for 7 d in mice significantly decreased the serum ALT (56.25 U/L), AST (297.67 U/L), ALP (188.20 U/L), and TBIL (17.90 mol/L), along with the elevation of TP (64.67 g/L). In addition, BELE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, i.g.) treated mice recorded a dose-dependent increment of SOD (291.17, 310.32, and 325.67 U/mg prot) and reduction of MDA (7.27, 6.77, and 5.33 nmol/mg prot) levels. Histopathological examinations also confirmed that BELE can ameliorate CCl4-induced liver injuries, characterized by extensive hepatocellular degeneration/necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, congestion, and sinusoidal dilatation. The results indicated that BELE possessed remarkable protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity and oxidative injuries induced by CCl4, and that the hepatoprotective effects of BELE may be due to both the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the increase of antioxidant activity.

  20. The Effects of Legumes on Metabolic Features, Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Function Tests in Women with Central Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Gharaaghaji, Rasool; Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effect of high-legume hypocaloric diet on metabolic features in women is unclear. This study provided an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on metabolic features in women who consumed high legumes at pre-study period. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial after 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, 42 premenopausal women with central obesity were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) Hypocaloric diet enriched in legumes (HDEL) and (2) hypocaloric diet without legumes (HDWL) for 6 weeks. The following variables were assessed before intervention and 3 and 6 weeks after its beginning: Waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting serum concentrations of triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). We used multifactor model of nested multivariate analysis of variance repeated measurements and t-test for statistical analysis. Results: HDEL and HDWL significantly reduced the WC. HDEL significantly reduced the SBP and TG. Both HDEL and HDWL significantly increased fasting concentration of insulin and HOMA-IR after 3 weeks, but their significant effects on insulin disappeared after 6 weeks and HDEL returned HOMA-IR to basal levels in the subsequent 3 weeks. In HDEL group percent of decrease in AST and ALT between 3rd and 6th weeks was significant. In HDWL group percent of increase in SBP, DBP, FBS and TG between 3rd and 6th weeks was significant. Conclusions: The study indicated beneficial effects of hypocaloric legumes on metabolic features. PMID:25013690

  1. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma

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    So Yoon Jung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Hypothalamic obesity in childhood-onset (CO- craniopharyngioma patients may predispose to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This study reviewed the characteristics of NAFLD associated with CO-craniopharyngioma. Methods This study retrospectively reviewed 75 patients who underwent surgery for craniopharyngioma while younger than 15 years of age between 2000 and 2016. Results Elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST or alanine aminotransferase (ALT above 40 IU/L was observed in 51 of the 75 (68% CO-craniopharyngioma patients. Imaging studies were performed in 32 patients with elevated liver enzymes. The estimated prevalence of NAFLD in CO-craniopharyngioma was 47%. NAFLD was detected in 22 patients (male 59%, 4.3±4.0 years after first surgery. The mean age at the time of the initial operation was 9.1±2.9 years. Six patients (27.3% were diagnosed within 1 year. Among the 19 patients with initial height and weight data, the body mass index (BMI z-score (BMI_Z at the time of diagnosis with NAFLD was 1.37±1.01 (range, -0.75 to 3.18, with 4 patients (18.2% being overweight and 9 (40.9% being obese. BMI_Z increased above BMI_Z at the time of the operation in 13 patients (68.4%. The increment in BMI_Z was 1.13 (range, 0.10–2.84. Seventeen patients did not receive growth hormone. An insulin-like growth factor-I level <3rd percentile was observed in 19 patients. Conclusions NAFLD is common in survivors of CO-craniopharyngioma and may develop earlier. If the ALT or AST is above 40 IU/L, a diagnostic work-up should be started.

  2. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, So Yoon; Lee, Yun Jeong; Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Young Ah; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung; Yang, Sei Won; Shin, Choong Ho

    2017-09-01

    Hypothalamic obesity in childhood-onset (CO-) craniopharyngioma patients may predispose to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study reviewed the characteristics of NAFLD associated with CO-craniopharyngioma. This study retrospectively reviewed 75 patients who underwent surgery for craniopharyngioma while younger than 15 years of age between 2000 and 2016. Elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) above 40 IU/L was observed in 51 of the 75 (68%) CO-craniopharyngioma patients. Imaging studies were performed in 32 patients with elevated liver enzymes. The estimated prevalence of NAFLD in CO-craniopharyngioma was 47%. NAFLD was detected in 22 patients (male 59%, 4.3±4.0 years after first surgery). The mean age at the time of the initial operation was 9.1±2.9 years. Six patients (27.3%) were diagnosed within 1 year. Among the 19 patients with initial height and weight data, the body mass index (BMI) z-score (BMI_Z) at the time of diagnosis with NAFLD was 1.37±1.01 (range, -0.75 to 3.18), with 4 patients (18.2%) being overweight and 9 (40.9%) being obese. BMI_Z increased above BMI_Z at the time of the operation in 13 patients (68.4%). The increment in BMI_Z was 1.13 (range, 0.10-2.84). Seventeen patients did not receive growth hormone. An insulin-like growth factor-I level <3rd percentile was observed in 19 patients. NAFLD is common in survivors of CO-craniopharyngioma and may develop earlier. If the ALT or AST is above 40 IU/L, a diagnostic work-up should be started.

  3. Bee venom phospholipase A2 protects against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury by modulating regulatory T cells and IL-10 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunseong; Keum, Dong June; Kwak, Jung won; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Bae, Hyunsu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from bee venom against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells (Treg) in mice. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic, but an acute or cumulative overdose of acetaminophen can cause severe hepatic failure. Tregs have been reported to possess protective effects in various liver diseases and kidney toxicity. We previously found that bee venom strongly increased the Treg population in splenocytes and subsequently suppressed immune disorders. More recently, we found that the effective component of bee venom is PLA2. Thus, we hypothesized that PLA2 could protect against liver injury induced by acetaminophen. To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of PLA2, C57BL/6 mice or interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10-/-) mice were injected with PLA2 once a day for five days and sacrificed 24 h (h) after acetaminophen injection. The blood sera were collected 0, 6, and 24 h after acetaminophen injection for the analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). PLA2-injected mice showed reduced levels of serum AST, ALT, proinflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO) compared with the PBS-injected control mice. However, IL-10 was significantly increased in the PLA2-injected mice. These hepatic protective effects were abolished in Treg-depleted mice by antibody treatment and in IL-10-/- mice. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the protective effects of PLA2 against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity can be mediated by modulating the Treg and IL-10 production.

  4. Experimental infection of Balb/c nude mice with Hepatitis E virus

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    Zhu Jianguo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several animal species can reportedly act as reservoirs for Hepatitis E virus (HEV, a zoonotic pathogen. HEV and antibody to the virus have been detected in a variety of animals including rodents. Pig and rat models for HEV have been established for HEV, but a nude mouse has not yet been developed. Methods Balb/c nude mice were inoculated with swine HEV, both orally and via intravenous injection to insure infection. Negative control and experimental contact-exposed groups of mice were also included in the study. The liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon of each mouse from all three groups were collected for reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR detection, indirect immunofluorescence observation and histopathologic examination. The sera from nude mice were tested for anti-HEV IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Activities of liver enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, as well as total bilirubin (TBIL were also measured in the sera of the nude mice. Results HEV antigens and HEV RNA were detected in liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum and colon both by indirect immunofluorescence and by RT-nPCR in all of the inoculated and in one of the contact-exposed nude mice. Histopathological changes were observed in the liver and spleen of these mice. Infected mice showed increased levels of AST, ALP, and anti-HEV IgG in sera. The livers of contact-exposed mice showed obvious histopathological damage. Conclusion Nude mice could be readily infected by HEV isolated from pigs. The nude mouse may therefore be a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of HEV.

  5. Bee venom phospholipase A2 protects against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury by modulating regulatory T cells and IL-10 in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseong Kim

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 from bee venom against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells (Treg in mice. Acetaminophen (APAP is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic, but an acute or cumulative overdose of acetaminophen can cause severe hepatic failure. Tregs have been reported to possess protective effects in various liver diseases and kidney toxicity. We previously found that bee venom strongly increased the Treg population in splenocytes and subsequently suppressed immune disorders. More recently, we found that the effective component of bee venom is PLA2. Thus, we hypothesized that PLA2 could protect against liver injury induced by acetaminophen. To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of PLA2, C57BL/6 mice or interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10-/- mice were injected with PLA2 once a day for five days and sacrificed 24 h (h after acetaminophen injection. The blood sera were collected 0, 6, and 24 h after acetaminophen injection for the analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. PLA2-injected mice showed reduced levels of serum AST, ALT, proinflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO compared with the PBS-injected control mice. However, IL-10 was significantly increased in the PLA2-injected mice. These hepatic protective effects were abolished in Treg-depleted mice by antibody treatment and in IL-10-/- mice. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the protective effects of PLA2 against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity can be mediated by modulating the Treg and IL-10 production.

  6. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Che-Li; Wei, Li; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chin-Hsung

    2016-02-20

    Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public's attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  7. Serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjiang He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide (DMF. Material and Methods: Seventy-two workers and 72 healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent complete physical examinations and abdominal ultrasound examination. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and c-glutamyl transpeptidase (c-GT were determined by an auto-chemistry an