A characteristic feature of Assyro-Babylonian religion was the repeated use of conventionalized phrases to address and describe the gods. Often, religious texts such as prayers and ritual incantations consisted of little more than the heaping up of such epithets. If the gods were indeed culturall...
The chapter analyses the connection between Biblical interpretation and the making of political communities in northern Nigeria in the 20th century. Generally, it studies the use of religious scriptures in developing models of society which can both include and exclude particular religious and et...
Vestøl, Jon Magne
Drawing on sociocultural perspectives on educational design, this article presents a qualitative study investigating how religious texts emerge as educational objects and mediating artefacts in Norwegian textbooks of religious and moral education. The article describes how the distribution of text references in textbooks influences the formation…
Al-Araji, Baida Faisal; Al-Azzawi, Sarab Khalil
Religious discourse has been treated differently in various types of studies. In the present study, the English Biblical and Arabic Prophetic Hadiths will be tackled on two bases namely the micro and macro levels. In other words, the data will be analyzed at both micro and macro levels to maintain the organizational status of the religious texts.…
Murai, Hajime; Tokosumi, Akifumi
This paper introduces a method of representing in a network the thoughts of individual authors of dogmatic texts numerically and objectively by means of co-citation analysis and a method of distinguishing between the thoughts of various authors by clustering and analysis of clustered elements, generated by the clustering process. Using these methods, this paper creates and analyzes the co-citation networks for five authoritative Christian theologians through history (Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Jean Calvin, Karl Barth, John Paul II). These analyses were able to extract the core element of Christian thought (Jn 1:14, Ph 2:6, Ph 2:7, Ph 2:8, Ga 4:4), as well as distinctions between the individual theologians in terms of their sect (Catholic or Protestant) and era (thinking about the importance of God's creation and the necessity of spreading the Gospel). By supplementing conventional literary methods in areas such as philosophy and theology, with these numerical and objective methods, it should be possible to compare the characteristics of various doctrines. The ability to numerically and objectively represent the characteristics of various thoughts opens up the possibilities of utilizing new information technology, such as web ontology and the Artificial Intelligence, in order to process information about ideological thoughts in the future.
Dweik, Bader S.; Shakra, Mariam M. Abu
The present study investigated the strategies adopted by students in translating specific lexical and semantic collocations in three religious texts namely, the Holy Quran, the Hadith and the Bible. For this purpose, the researchers selected a purposive sample of 35 MA translation students enrolled in three different public and private Jordanian…
This article realized the Russian way of theological media education literacy and hermeneutic analysis of specific examples of Soviet anti-religious audiovisual media texts: a study of the process of interpretation of these media texts, cultural and historical factors influencing the views of the media agency/authors. The hermeneutic analysis…
Munson, Jessica; Amati, Viviana; Collard, Mark; Macri, Martha J
Religious rituals that are painful or highly stressful are hypothesized to be costly signs of commitment essential for the evolution of complex society. Yet few studies have investigated how such extreme ritual practices were culturally transmitted in past societies. Here, we report the first study to analyze temporal and spatial variation in bloodletting rituals recorded in Classic Maya (ca. 250-900 CE) hieroglyphic texts. We also identify the sociopolitical contexts most closely associated with these ancient recorded rituals. Sampling an extensive record of 2,480 hieroglyphic texts, this study identifies every recorded instance of the logographic sign for the word ch'ahb' that is associated with ritual bloodletting. We show that documented rituals exhibit low frequency whose occurrence cannot be predicted by spatial location. Conversely, network ties better capture the distribution of bloodletting rituals across the southern Maya region. Our results indicate that bloodletting rituals by Maya nobles were not uniformly recorded, but were typically documented in association with antagonistic statements and may have signaled royal commitments among connected polities.
Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presented to the society’s actual characteristics. This can be achieved by using appropriate marketing tools and methods; however, the particularities of religion must be taken into account in order not to alter its religious values.
Olusegun Noah Olawoyin
Full Text Available Religious Pluralism is one of many forms of pluralism in contemporary globalised world. Some others include ethnic pluralism, value pluralism, doctrinal pluralism, ethical pluralism, political pluralism. Religious pluralism is, however, one of the most important in contemporary society, considering globalization and the role of religions in many conflicts. It has its root in poltitical liberalism. Religious pluralism is a hot debate in social sciences and in Theology and Religious Studies. This paper argues that religious pluralism, which is an acceptance of plurality as normative, is not a monolithic theory. The different religious context in which it is being discussed, the different disciplinary and philosophical influences resulted in various and even contradictory types. However, this paper is a ‘mapping’ of the contour of contemporary discussions. Critically reviewing relevant literature, two major theories of religious pluralism were identified: identist and differential/complementary. Each of these also has subdivision.
M. M. Raeesi
Full Text Available In this research this question is addressed: are the physical-spatial changes in contemporary markets of Iran, as a pioneer in promoting the noble values of Islam, in accordance with Islamic principles and values? In this article, through an analysis of religious texts, using qualitative content analysis, four physical-spatial indicators are deduced for markets; these indicators include the need to mention spiritual truths in physical-spatial structure of market, avoiding the collective social spaces in the market, the alignment of physical market patterns with Islamic identity, and locating the market in meta-local situations. An interdisciplinary analysis was carried out which indicated that the decline in these indicators in contemporary markets is rooted in the contemporary intellectual foundations of the West, whose economic impacts have resulted in the liberal capitalist economic system; one of the most important features of this system is the promotion of the culture of consumerism and a decline in Islamic physical-spatial indicators in contemporary markets, which is in accordance with the requirements of this culture.
Erik D. Baldwin
Full Text Available Problem statement: New Atheists and Anti-Theists (such as Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, Sam Harris, Christopher Hutchins affirm that there is a strong connection between being a traditional theist and being a religious fundamentalist who advocates violence, terrorism, and war. They are especially critical of Islam. On the contrary, I argue that, when correctly understood, religious dogmatic belief, present in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, is progressive and open to internal and external criticism and revision. Moreover, acknowledging that human knowledge is finite and that humans are fallible and have much to learn, dogmatic religious believers accept that they ought to value and seek to acquire moral and intellectual virtues, including the virtues of temperance and reasonability. Conclusion/Recommendations: While some Muslims advocate violence, terrorism, and war, others accept the concept of dogma articulated here and even speak out against the very things that Dawkins et al abhor. The contentious claims of the New Atheists and Anti-Theists to the contrary, therefore, while popular and rhetorically forceful, are false and do not withstand careful scrutiny.
Considers that because of an assurance of religious liberty, Americans tend to restrict religious convictions within their private domains even though most consider themselves to be religious or spiritual. Discusses how newspapers and broadcasters do not take religion stories seriously and as a result, student journalists seldom see or read…
Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA); Constantin SASU; Geanina Constanța SPĂTARU (PRAVĂȚ)
The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presente...
Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately helpstrengthen the broader civic fabric.
Geertz, Armin W.
Denne artikel er en introduktion til et temanummer i religionslærernes tidsskrift i USA. Den er et udtræk af mit kapitel "Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Approaches and Definitions" udgivet i Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Image and Word in the mind of Narrative, redigeret...
Moh. Toriqul Chaer
Full Text Available This article has several objectives: first, to discover the background of religious pluralism in Javanese society, notably among the communities in Ketanggi; second, to recognize religious practice in Ketanggi; and third, to explore the religious attitudes of Ketanggi people towards religious pluralism. This article is based on field research carried out in Ketanggi sub-district of Ngawi, East Java, which is inhabited by the communities with different religious backgrounds. This paper argues that religious commitment among Ketanggi people is partly based on ‘tantularism’, a sort of ethical principle which emerges as a result of the encounters between religion and local wisdom. The reception of Ketanggi people towards religious and cultural pluralism is expressed through the concept of lilo legowo (voluntary reception towards the other which in turn becomes foundation of religious tolerance in that area.
Heather S. Gregg
Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.
P. J. Watson
Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.
Hasselhoff, Görge Karls
Full Text Available No século 13, a percepção dos cristãos com respeito ao judaísmo da época sofreu uma modificação fundamental. A razão para tanto foi uma atividade única de tradução, que se acha em estreita relação com a Disputa sobre o Talmude e as consequentes condenações do Talmude. Textos traduzidos foram, por exemplo, excertos do Talmude, da obra do Rabi Salomão (Rashi de Troyes e do Guia dos perplexos, de Moisés Maimônides. Este estudo mostra características de tais traduções e oferece exemplos de sua respectiva influência histórica
Full Text Available Considerable studies have been undertaken on Islamic sects and radicalisation. There is, however, little work on textual analysis of traditionalist book, which is regarded as traditionalist collective identity. This article is a critical analysis of the term Ahl al-Sunnah Wa al-Jama`ah, with special reference to Sirajuddin Abbas’ book. ; I`tiqad Ahl al-Sunnah Wa al-Jama`ah. His articulation of the concept Ahl al-Sunnah Wa al-Jama`ah plays great role in radicalising traditionalist ideology and providing traditionalist Islamic activists the justification to go against Wahhabism. His interpretation of the concept is, however, strongly rejected by Wahhabis, because of imposing hatred and intolerance against Wahhabism. By using Fairlough’s critical analysis, I studied critically the content of Abbas’s book. Some concepts related to the articulation of Ahl al-Sunnah Wa al-Jama`ah are chosen and analysed to find the role of the book in underlying traditionalist ideology. Then, Abbas’ interpretations of the selected concepts are verified through the method of interview to unearth ideological articulation of Abbas’.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v23i1.2405
Lenita Maria Rimoli Esteves
Full Text Available O trabalho sugere que existem pelo menos duas estratégias bastante distintas para abordar a tradução de textos religiosos: a primeira busca dar acesso ao leitor em termos de entendimento, aproximando o texto religioso da cultura para a qual ele está sendo traduzido. A segunda estratégia é nutrida por uma ênfase na iluminação, na revelação, numa clarividência que não necessariamente passa pelo raciocínio, mas que pode ser proporcionada pela transmissão de características da língua que não pertencem ao campo dos sentidos e têm a ver com a materialidade da língua: ritmo, assonâncias, aliterações. As duas estratégias, numa primeira análise, parecem não só se opor diametralmente, mas também reforçar uma dicotomia talvez tão ou mais antiga que os próprios textos em estudo: aquela que opõe espírito (ou conteúdo a letra (forma. No entanto, como já poderíamos suspeitar, as coisas não são tão simples assim... O trabalho apresentará algumas manifestações dessas duas tendências ao longo da história, problematizando a dicotomia e buscando delimitar que éticas informaram cada esforço de tradução.This paper suggests the existence of at least two very different strategies in the translation of religious texts: one is based on understanding and aims at accommodating the religious text to the culture into which it is translated. The second strategy is nourished by an emphasis on illumination, on revelation, on an insight that does not necessarily demand reasoning, but rather the transmission of certain linguistic characteristics not belonging to the realm of meaning: rhythm, assonances, alliterations. At first sight, the two strategies are radically different, stressing a dichotomy that is perhaps even older than the texts being studied " that opposing spirit to letter (or content to form. However, as one might expect, things are not so simple. The work will present some manifestations of these two tendencies along
Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate and to compare the adherence rate of religious values between the two ethnic groups of Turkish and Kurdish who live in West Azerbaijan province. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, low, medium and high, and distributes it among a sample of 200 people who live in these two regions. The result of our survey indicates that Azeri people were more religious than Kurdish people were. In addition, the study investigates the relationship between personal characteristics including age, gender and marital status and adherence rate of religious values and detects some meaningful relationships between these two items.
Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious buil
Kim, Jibum; Smith, Tom W; Kang, Jeong-han
Very few studies have examined the effects of both religious affiliation and religiosity on mortality at the same time, and studies employing multiple dimensions of religiosity other than religious attendance are rare. Using the newly created General Social Survey-National Death Index data, our report contributes to the religion and mortality literature by examining religious affiliation and religiosity at the same time. Compared to Mainline Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and other religious groups have lower risk of death, but Black Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, and even those with no religious affiliation are not different from Mainline Protestants. While our study is consistent with previous findings that religious attendance leads to a reduction in mortality, we did not find other religious measures, such as strength of religious affiliation, frequency of praying, belief in an afterlife, and belief in God to be associated with mortality. We also find interaction effects between religious affiliation and attendance. The lowest mortality of Jews and other religious groups is more apparent for those with lower religious attendance. Thus, our result may emphasize the need for other research to focus on the effects of religious group and religious attendance on mortality at the same time.
Joksimović Snežana D.
Full Text Available The paper analyses the research data on religiousness collected at different periods in Serbia and former Yugoslavia. The aim of the paper is to point to the tendencies in religious practice and the expansion of religiousness among young people in different periods, as well as individual psychological factors of religiousness. The data shows that the number of young people who declare themselves religious has increased significantly in the last 15 years, compared to the period of a quarter of century ago. In addition to the revival of tradition as an answer to social crisis and uncertainty which affects young people most, the increase in religiousness is connected to certain forms of social democratization as well as it being socially desirable. The data on social-demographic correlates of religiousness shows that the degree of religiousness varies depending on the age, gender, social background and education level. However, the more recent research data shows that these differences have become smaller which indicates a certain homogenization among young people. Religiousness is consistently and positively connected to authoritarianism, conformism and intolerance, while certain changes have occurred in regard to its connection with desirable social values. Similar to the tendency observed in other research on values the data on factors and correlates of religiousness, especially among young people, point to a specific value relativism and confused values.
Ahlin, Lars; Borup, Jørn; Fibiger, Marianne Qvortrup
Although religious pluralism is a key word for understanding contemporary religious life, it is only recently that in-depth studies of religious pluralism have appeared. This article presents major findings from the Danish Pluralism Project, a collective research project which was launched in 2002...
Full Text Available The marketing of religion has become a big business. Wortham examines the current religious scene and shows that Americans want religious plurality, rather than religious homogamy. Just like shopping for ice cream, Americans want 57 choices when shopping for religion
Full Text Available The author discusses how linguistics inﬂuenced the formation of the methodology and the theory of religious studies. Changes in religious paradigms were connected with the following new theories in linguistics: comparative methodology, structuralism, and cognitive linguistics. It was these three branches of linguistic studies which were most inﬂuential for the formation and later development of religious studies. The author asks precisely why it was that linguistics constituted the source of global changes in the methodology of religious studies. According to the author, this fundamental role was played by the understanding of language and its rapport with religion. By examining both language and religion together, one may study religious phenomena through the prism of linguistic phenomena. Models for combining religion and language include the following: 1 religion as a linguistic phenomenon; 2 religion as the product of linguistic processes; 3 religion and language are homologous phenomena; 4 religion is formed by means of linguistic instruments. All this allows us to understand the history of religious studies in rapport with the development of linguistics. The author demonstrates that the problem of the rapport linking language and thought helped constitute the tie between linguistics and religious studies. It uniﬁes in itself all the various linguistic theories of religion: nature-mythological, structuralist, and cognitive. The author then discusses the various attainments of each of these theories. Comparative-historical linguistics begets the comparative and nature-mythological theory in religious studies. Structural linguistics and semiotics explains the symbolic nature of religion and its communicative character. The appearance of extra-linguistic science will allow religious studies to deﬁ ne new subjects of study, such as the link uniting religion language and the religious group (ethno-linguistics and socio-linguistics or to
Hatib A. Kadir
Full Text Available Sociological discussion of globalisation is preoccupied with the political, economic, and military dimension of it, with little attention to its religious aspect. This paper attempts to trace the impacts of globalisation on religion and religious responses, the argument of which derives mainly from the so-called “Bridge-Building Program” organised by CRCS & ICRS-UGM in 2008. It argues that though they share a common concern, people of different faiths are at risk of deepening the problems rather than offering solutions in view of their different responses for which we categorise them into different but overlapping categories -ideological, ambivalent, integrative, exclusive, and imitative. It then leads to a more fundamental question of whether interfaith cooperation is possible given those different and sometime opposing responses. [Dalam kajian sosiologi, diskusi mengenai globalisasi kerap kali semata-mata ditinjau dari sisi politik, enonomi dan militer, sementara dimensi agama sering kali dikesampingkan. Artikel ini membahas dampak globalisasi terhadap agama dan respon komunitas agama terhadap globalisasi. Data yang muncul dalam artikel ini diambil dari sebuah workshop berjudul“Bridge- Building Program.” Melalui artikel ini, saya berpendapat bahwa, meskikomunitas agama-agama memiliki keprihatinan yang sama terhadap dampak globalisasi, namun respon mereka cenderung mempertajam persoalan yang diakibatkan globalisasi, ketimbang memberikan solusi. Respon tersebut dalam dikategorikan –meski tidak kaku- dalam: respon ideologis, ambivalen, integratif, ekslusif dan imitatif. Selanjutnya, artikel juga mengulas pada pertanyaan mendasar mengenai apakah kerjasama antar agama mungkin dilakukan menyimak ragam respon yang saling bertentangan tersebut.
Full Text Available Recently it has become fashionable to speak about embodied religion, religion as bodily processes and embodiment in general. In this article the different uses of the concept of the body are analysed and the different contexts in which the concept can be used in coherent and systematic ways are clarified, and furthermore in such a way that it enhances the methodology of religious studies. Bodies are relevant in religious studies first and foremost for the reason that some bodies support religious beliefs, desires and actions, such as priests in the Catholic Church or members of the organizations of charismatic Christianity. Secondly, bodies are ascribed religious meanings. That is, in addition to a human body x, we have one or more religious actors who ascribe religious meanings to this particular body. Even though bodily issues are important for biological creatures such as human beings, they are not relevant for religious studies if they do not involve secondary theories that attach religious contents to them.
Full Text Available The article represents the results of socio-psychological research of Orthodox youth religious identity. The research was carried out in the city of Smolensk, Russian Federation, on 261 respondents, high school pupils (9—10th grades. According to the models of G. Allport and R. Gorsuch & S. E. McPherson, the religious identity as a complex socio-psychological concept contains 4-factor structure basing on personal- social and inner-outer scales but doesn’t seem to be a simple Orthodox affiliation. Different components of the religious identity are studied through their connection with value orientations (according to S. Schwartz. To study the religious identity and value orientations we used the adapted version of 32 items questionnaire based on Individual / Social Religious Identity Measure by D. Van Camp and S. Schwartz’s Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ-R2. Almost all values connected with religious identity components seem to be socially motivated. It can be said that contemporary Orthodox youth religious identity is figured out to possess a pronounced social character. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project № 15-06-10843 «Religious identity risks and resources in present-day Russia: cross-cultural analysis».
Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding
Across 800 regions of the World, this research shows that people are more religious when living in regions that are more frequently razed by natural disasters. This is in line with psychological theory stressing that religious people tend to cope with adverse life events by seeking comfort...... in their religion or searching for a reason for the event; for instance that the event was an act of God. This is termed religious coping. Natural disasters are a source for adverse life events, and thus one way to interpret my findings is by way of religious coping. The results are robust to various measures...... religious people are less likely to move out of disaster areas as they see the disaster as an act of God), I further show that second generation immigrants whose mothers descend from natural disaster areas, are more religious than their counterparts with ancestors from calmer areas. Why should economists...
P. A. Botha
Full Text Available Two contrasting roles regarding the mental health of man have been attributed to religion in the course of history. On the one hand, the presence of religion and faith in a person has been regarded as pathogenic, with the absence the reof as remedial On the other hand religion and faith in a person have been regarded as remedial, with the absence thereof as pathogenic. The most important finding is that depression is an experience of paradoxes. If the person cannot offer any solution for the paradox, he remains trapped in the vicious spiral of depression. Expressed differently, despair is then constituted. The religious individual attempts to offer a solution fo r the paradox through his interpretation of faith on the basis of his concept of God. Through a newly-discovered concept of God an interpretation of faith becomes possible by which the pe rso n discovers sense and meaning. Expressed differently, hope is then constituted.
Full Text Available This study aims to understand the religious elite view of pluralism and religious harmony in Malang. The study was focused on the meaning of pluralism and religious harmony, efforts and things that support and hinder the realization of religious harmony. Empirical research data with qualitative-phenomenological approach was collected through interviews and documentation. The results show: first, the meaning of religious pluralism for the religious elites is very varied, which is the same as tolerance, mutual respect, the goal of all religions are the same, and recognize the fact that there are many religions in this world. Second, religiousharmony have meaning as a condition where there is no oppression and domination of one religion over other religions, awakening a deep awareness of diversity, respect for human rights, and the willingness to spread kindness and love for fellow human beings. Third, religious harmony can be achieved through internal efforts to strengthen the faith of each and build awareness to develop a positive attitude towards other religions. In external efforts to create harmony done through emancipatory dialogue and cooperation to resolve humanitarian issues. Fourth, positive attitude that supports the creation of harmony of religions is the willingness and awareness to understand each other and share experiences. Egoism, truth claims, fanaticism, and exclusivism is a negative attitude and expression recognized by the religious elite can interfere with the establishment of inter-religious harmony.
Leonna Marrien U. Asi
Full Text Available This study assessed religious tourism in Batangas, Philippines on the following aspects: historical significance, holiness and spirituality, and customs and traditions. The assessments made were also subjected to tests of differences when the respondents are grouped as to either residents or tourists and according to their age, sex, educational attainment and employment. Results show that both tourists and residents generally concurred on all religious tourism indicators presented to them for assessment, although there were also few indicators that had lower mean assessments than the others. While the differences on the assessments made by the different groups of respondents were not statistically significant, the slight differences are still noticeable. In particular, residents had somewhat more favourable assessment than the tourists, older respondents more than the younger, males more than the females, those with higher education more than those with lower education, and government employees more than those who are not in government service. These slight but still noticeable differences, together with religious tourism indicators having lower mean assessments than the others, can serve as bases for making proposals on how to further enrich the religious tourism in Batangas.
Describes the background of Froebel's religious ideas, focusing on experiences gained while a young child at home, an adolescent apprentice, and a young adult at university. Discusses briefly the reaction of the church to Froebel's thought and shows how Froebel's religious ideas influenced his ideas about educating young children. (RH)
Uecker, Jeremy E; Ellison, Christopher G
Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one's custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family-but not a stepparent family-is positively associated with religious disaffiliation and religious switching and negatively associated with regular religious attendance. Accounting for parental religious characteristics, however, explains sizable proportions of these relationships. Accounting for parental religious affiliation and attendance, growing up with a single parent does not significantly affect religious attendance. Parental religiosity also moderates the relationship between growing up with a single parent and religious attendance: being raised in a single-parent home has a negative effect on religious attendance among adults who had two religiously involved parents.
Full Text Available The article considers four spaces where media processes involve religious communities and agents: the spaces of production, of representation, of media communication, and of distribution network and institutional framework for circulation. These three spaces systematise the research question posed to the specific source. Furthermore the concept documentary media as viewed from a semio-pragmatic perspective is introduced. Discussion of the commercial series I’m a Mormon shows how different modes define documentary media according to the three spaces.
Pletnev Alexander Vladislavovich
Full Text Available In the current article the author analyzes influence of amendments in the religious sphere of postsoviet society for the increase of anomie in it. He indicates main factors that influence the anomie and charactarize specific features of religious sphere of modern Russian society. They are religious variety, caused by missionery activity and restore of traditional confessions (Orthodox, Islam, Judiasm, Buddism, Lutheranism, and also actualization of the religious identity matter, the phenomen of “out of confession herecy” and religious conflicts. According to the researcher opinion, amendments in the spiritual sphere influence the studied phenomen as well as trasnformation of political and economic system, caused by transfer from communism to democracy and from planning to market economy. The possible ways of anomie decrease via religious sphere of the society such as increase of Orthodox church belivers, adaptation of its tradition and practics, new religious cult inctitualization are indicated in this article as well.
Full Text Available Religious tourism is a form of tourism whereby people of the same faith travel individually or in groups for religious purposes. This form of tourism comprises many facets of the travel industry ranging from pilgrimages, missionary travel, leisure (fellowship, vacations, faith-based cruising, crusades, conventions and rallies, retreats, monastery visits and guest-stays, Christian and faith-based camps, to religious tourist attractions. In Sukur Kingdom, most tourists embark on religious travel for the primary purpose of sharing faith and fellowship together as they explore the various religious sites within Sukur and Adamawa State at large. Others still seek inspiration and desire to witness significant religious events while assisting others with humanitarian and spiritual needs. This paper examines the tourism potentials of religion/religious sites and belief systems in Sukur Kingdom with a view to harnessing them for sustainable tourism development. The study uses ethnographic methods to elicit information and analyze the data collected from respondents.
Roman V. Tupikin
ABSTRACT: The article is devoted to research of the texts of foreign laws, regulations, and concordats on property relations between the state and religious institutions, on property rights of religious institutions and property relations in religious institutions (regarding property objects for religious purposes, on the status of some property objects for religious purposes. The author of the research analyzed the features of legal and contractual regulation of property relations of religious institutions and the status of property objects for religious purposes. The methodological foundation of the research presented has comparative and legal research method as the basis.
Miriam Abu Salem
Full Text Available In the Italian system freedom of worship provided by the Constitution is safeguarded by unilateral and contractual norms, sanctioned for minority confessions by an agreement, named intesa, that also concerns dietary issues. Muslim communities, however, as they have no intesa with the Italian state, are always compelled to negotiate in respect of their religious norms. Religious freedom concerns- not only ritual acts, but also behaviours including dietary ones, which are based on religious beliefs. The aim of this paper is to critically reconstruct how Italy takes charge of religiously-motivated needs concerning food and beverages, both for those confessions holding an intesa (such as Hebraism and for those not (Islam, in order to trace the real degree to which freedom of worship is guaranteed in Italy. The analysis will be focused on the bargaining for religious dietary rules in schools and in constraining institutes, as they are main social spaces of confrontation between believers and the state.
Full Text Available The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS measures important psychological constructs in an underemphasized section of the overlap between religion and well-being. Are religious/spiritual struggles distinct from religiousness, distress, and each other? To test the RSS’ internal discriminant validity, we replicated the original six-factor measurement model across five large samples (N = 5705 and tested the fit of a restricted bifactor model, which supported the mutual viability of multidimensional and unidimensional scoring systems for the RSS. Additionally, we explored a bifactor model with correlated group factors that exhibited optimal fit statistics. This model maintained the correlations among the original factors while extracting a general factor from the RSS. This general factor’s strong correlations with religious participation and belief salience suggested that this factor resembles religiousness itself. Estimating this general factor seemed to improve Demonic and Moral struggles’ independence from religiousness, but did not change any factor’s correlations with neuroticism, depression, anxiety, and stress. These distress factors correlated with most of the independent group factors corresponding to the original dimensions of the RSS, especially Ultimate Meaning and Divine struggles. These analyses demonstrate the discriminant validity of religious/spiritual struggles and the complexity of their relationships with religiousness and distress.
Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel;
Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age...... scored high in the RCOPE exceeded the proportion of women in using positive and especially negative coping strategies. Also, in a secular society, women are found to be more religious than men, but in a subset of the most religious respondents, men were more inclined to use religious coping. Further...... studies on religious coping in secular societies are required....
Full Text Available Croatia has a rich sacral (tangible and intangible heritage, which undoubtedly has great cultural value, and part of the religious heritage has been included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO. The fact is, however, that, except when it comes to top attractions, churches as tourist facilities, are poorly attended and do not get almost no direct tourism income.. In this paper, after the introductory explanations of basic terms related to religious tourism and pilgrimage, we explore the basic features of religious tourism in Croatia, both on tourist attractions, as well as on the tourist demand. It also presents the results of empirical research on the socio-demographic profile of the author, the role of religion in the life of pilgrims and the satisfaction of the visitors to the Shrine of Mary of Bistrica in 2013 among 50 pilgrims in Marija Bistrica. The main objective is to determine how the pilgrims perceived the tourism offer in religious tourism.
Muhammad Sadli Mustafa
Full Text Available This globalization era brought people of East Kalimantan tend to prefer modern music and western music. This cause the local or traditional music art is marginalized. On the other hand, they have a local music art containing a lot of local wisdom. One of them is tingkilan music. Lyrics of tingkilan contain religious values. Therefore, this study intends to find and to describe the religious values in the song lyrics of the tingkilan musical arts. This study uses a qualitative research method. The research shows that in fact some tingkilan song lyrics have a deep religious value. Some of those religious values are thanksgiving favors, learning of the holly Qur’an, the way of eating and drinking in accordance with the Islamic teaching.
Full Text Available In the field of religious education, pedagogies have featured regularly as teachers strive for the most effective methodology to promote pupils’ learning but their current success rate has been called into question by two critical Subject Reports in 2010 and 2013 from the English Government’s Office for Standards in Education (OfSTED. This paper reports on a piece of action research that sets Bloom’s taxonomy within a framework of classroom dialogue skills with the intention of addressing the OfSTED-identified shortcomings. Furthermore, the paper proposes that in a world where young people often hear and see a close relationship between religion and conflict, religious education cannot remain silent and the skills for enhancing dialogue in the classroom may also have a contribution to make to issues around religion, conflict and education.
Goplen, Joanna; Plant, E Ashby
For some people, religion strongly influences their worldviews. We propose that religious outgroups threaten the foundational beliefs of people with strong religious worldviews (RWVs) by endorsing alternative belief systems and that this threat contributes to religious prejudice. To examine these ideas, we developed a measure of RWV strength and assessed the role of RWV threat in religious prejudice. Across five studies, strength of RWV was related to religious prejudice, including derogation and denial of alternative religious viewpoints, as well as support for suppressing, avoiding, and even aggressing against religious outgroups. These responses were strongest toward religious outgroups whose worldviews were the most different, and therefore most threatening. Mediational analyses revealed that strong RWV people expressed heightened prejudice because of the worldview threat posed by religious outgroup members. These findings indicate that the avoidance and subjugation of religious outgroups can serve as a worldview protection strategy for some people.
Since ancient time,literature has being a hot topic that scholars concern.Latin religious literature is the mainstream of medieval literature.This paper analyzes medieval literature from three aspects which are the religious cultural background,main characteristics and achievements.What’s more,the thesis summarizes its influence to literature afterwards,and provides suggestion to the contemporary literature in China.
Full Text Available Scholars who recently rejected secularisation theses on the grounds that they were insufficiently defined or contextualised now seem to be accepting with unseemly, uncritical haste, the new, in vogue notion of the post-secular. Scholars seem tempted to drop the term ‘post-secular’ into their papers and presentations as if it is a generally accepted and understood term. It is not and nor, as this paper will argue, is it plausible unless applied to a limited and specific range of phenomena. Far from disappearing, religion is often used publicly as a marker of group identity. This is not a return to religion, or a resurgence in spirituality, but a fluctuating form of contextualised religious identity. Christian nominalists may not believe in God or Jesus, at least if belief is understood as ‘faith’. It would be incorrect, however, to dismiss them as ‘unbelievers’, or their nominalist beliefs as not having essential or substantive reality. They believe in many things, usually related to ‘belonging’. By closely examining people’s sense of Christian ‘belonging’, we find other more subtle, interwoven ‘belongings’ related to, for example, history, nation, morality, gender, and ‘culture’.
Full Text Available Change constitutes different things for the groups, as the position of one group may improve, but that of another deteriorate. Social change is a consequence of how the different groups act, and their actions again depend on their social and economic interests. In other words, there are groups in society (social classes, professional groups, the agrarian population, industrial workers, which come more or less openly in conflict with each other when looking after their interests. Thus this way of thinking is based on a conflict model. One sees social change as a consequence of people trying to protect their social and economic interests. Viewed this way even religious organizations and movements are involved in protecting the interests of social groups. However, the interesting point in this connection is that religious movements differ from political movements and groups, as the religious movements express the social interests of a group more indirectly than the political movements. The religious movements gather people from similar living conditions, and so to speak, prepare them for political work. They defend and justify the way of living of a group, and thus give ideological material for political groupings. They may also form coalitions with political groups and parties. The author analyzes Laestadianism from this point of view. Before going into the connection between religious dynamics and social change it is necessary to present a few general features of Laestadianism as a religious movement of the peasant population.
Cláudio de Oliveira Ribeiro
Full Text Available This paper introduces the results of a research on questions raised up by religious pluralism related to the promotion of human rights, and some aspects around the deepening of democracy. Methodologically, we first focused on the balance of some important questions for ecumenical theology of religions, because they raise new theological perspectives. Then, we highlighted (i some aspects of the contemporary tendency to privatize religious experiences, all of this as impediment to a good balance between religion and human rights. (ii We analyzed the relationship between ecumenical theology and human rights, in a dialogue with Boaventura de Souza Santo’s ‘counter-hegemonic globalization’ concept. In front of religious pluralism it is necessary to give special attention to the articulation between the capability of religious groups to dialogue and the challenges around the promotion of human rights. We also indicate that an ecumenical spirituality emerging from religious pluralism will have alterity as a central dimension, and this will have a direct impact in religious and social processes giving birth to utopian and democratic meaningful perspectives.
Lawson, Ernest Thomas
While earlier approaches to religious thought and practice searched for 'magic bullet' approaches to explain religious thought and behavior, seeing it as an example of irrationality, illusion, integrative force, symbolism, or false explanations of origins, cognitive scientific approaches have suggested that we see it rather as an aggregate of the products of various cognitive mechanisms. Studies in the cognitive science of religion, informed by experimental work, have converged on a standard model of explaining religious thought and behavior by focussing on the role of minimally counter-intuitive concepts, agent and animacy detection, ritual representations, notions of contagion and contamination avoidance, theory of mind, coalitions, and moral intuitions. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1189 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Full Text Available This article discusses how Indonesian state manages its religious diversity. The state policies on religious diversity cannot be understood without analyzing the history of how the founding fathers decided to choose Indonesia as neither secular nor Islamic country, but somewhere between the two. The author discusses three topics, namely the recognized religions, Muslim fear of Christianization, and dialogue and inter-religious harmony. Based on the Decree No.1/1965, Confucianism was one of six religions recognized by the state. However, in the Soeharto era, around 1979, this religion was dropped from the list, and only after his fall Confucianism has been rehabilitated, and even the Chinese New Year has been included as one of the national holidays in Indonesia. In terms of Muslim-Christian relations, there were tensions since 1960s, particularly dealt with the issue of the high number of Muslims who converted to Christianity. It was in this situation that in 1967 a newly built Methodist Church in Meulaboh, Aceh, was closed by Muslims, arguing that the Church was a concrete example of the aggressiveness of Christian missions because it was built in a Muslim majority area. Since the Meulaboh case, the Muslims consistently insisted the government to accommodate their four demands: (1 restriction on establishing new places of worship; (2 restriction onreligious propagation, and control of foreign aid for religious institutions; (4 Islamic religion classes should be given to Muslim students studying in Christian schools; (5 inter-religious marriage should not be allowed. Apart from these contested issues, the government and religious leaders have been trying to avoid conflict and to establish cooperation and peace among religious groups in the country through inter-religious dialogues, either organized by the government or sponsored by the leaders of religious groups themselves. The author argues that specific socio-political contexts should be
Spielvogel, L.G.; Rudin, A.
The Interfaith Coalition on Energy (ICE) was organized in 1980 by the Philadelphia area religious community and, funded in 1982 by local private foundations and corporations, began an energy management program for religious buildings whose utility bills are paid by congregations. Since that time, ICE has completed on-site energy audits for 226 congregations with a total of 546 buildings. Each audit report contains a description of the facilities and their energy systems, a baseline year of energy data, a computation of energy use per square foot, and a list of recommendations to reduce energy costs in order of simple payback.
Jean M. Twenge
Full Text Available Previous research found declines in Americans’ religious affiliation but few changes in religious beliefs and practices. By 2014, however, markedly fewer Americans participated in religious activities or embraced religious beliefs, with especially striking declines between 2006 and 2014 and among 18- to 29-year-olds in data from the nationally representative General Social Survey (N = 58,893, 1972-2014. In recent years, fewer Americans prayed, believed in God, took the Bible literally, attended religious services, identified as religious, affiliated with a religion, or had confidence in religious institutions. Only slightly more identified as spiritual since 1998, and then only those above age 30. Nearly a third of Millennials were secular not merely in religious affiliation but also in belief in God, religiosity, and religious service attendance, many more than Boomers and Generation X’ers at the same age. Eight times more 18- to 29-year-olds never prayed in 2014 versus the early 1980s. However, Americans have become slightly more likely to believe in an afterlife. In hierarchical linear modeling analyses, the decline in religious commitment was primarily due to time period rather than generation/birth cohort, with the decline in public religious practice larger (d = −.50 and beginning sooner (early 1990s than the smaller (d = −.18 decline in private religious practice and belief (primarily after 2006. Differences in religious commitment due to gender, race, education, and region grew larger, suggesting a more religiously polarized nation.
Full Text Available There are two different approaches followed by moral philosophers regarding the motivational role of moral belief. Having restricted the motivating reasons to belief, the internalists consider the relationship between belief and ethical commitment necessary and believe that moral judgmentis inherentlymotivating. While theexternalists by regarding the belief and desire as reasons for action,they believe that the relationship between belief and actin is not necessary. Therefore, the weakness of will is possible, that is, the agent can acts against his best judgment. Now we put religious belief instead of moral judgment and ask about the motivational role of religious beliefs , that is , what is the relationship between religious beliefs and moral commitment? Are religious beliefs sufficient for moral action? Are they inherently motivating? Considering the impact of religious beliefs on committing ethical acts as necessary or contingent may have various and valuable consequences for the believers in different religions. The purpose of this article is to investigate such psychological relationship between religion and moralityand to seek the motivating influence of religious beliefs. The article tries to analyze the relation between the religious belief and ethical commitment and responds to this question that whether religious beliefs are the necessary and sufficientcondition for committing moral action , or they are just necessary conditions or neither necessary nor sufficient.If they are essential, what other elements can be complementary to religious beliefs? In other words, what other elements can substitute religious belief? To answer these questions, the present study will firstly investigate the stimulating influence of ethical beliefs and then will analyze the two approaches of internalism and externalism in ethics and finally will conclude that the approach of externalism is much closer to the reality. The article then will explain the
This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to…
. It argues that the conflict has completely altered the means and modes of Sunni religious communication, transforming classical genres and bypassing them with new ones. It concludes that the lack of formal authority in the messaging of the jihadist groupings, and their failed efforts to build up credible...
Brink, Dennis Meyhoff
The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy...
Full Text Available Recently, insufficiency of secular coping methods has drawn the attention of researchers towards religious coping methods. While the parts about theory and model cover an important place in the literature, experimental studies are rapidly going on. Although religious coping was initially interpreted as positive, experimental studies reveal that it also has negative forms. The purpose of this study, in which qualitative research methods were used, is to define the components of religious coping. Semi structured interview was used among 42 participants, 9 war veterans from Association of Turkish Disabled War Veterans, Martyrs, their Widows and Orphans Ankara Branch, and 9 relatives of martyrs from the Association of Martyrs’ Families Ankara Branch, totaling 60 volunteer participants between the ages 25 and 65 with snowball sampling method. It was discovered that 29 of the participants used negative religious coping and the participants who only used negative religious coping were studied in this research. Upon recording the interviews with the aid of a recorder, the researched typed the script of the interviews. The qualitative analysis of the collected data was done in MAXODA 11 computer program.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently, insufficiency of secular coping methods has drawn the attention of researchers towards religious coping methods. While the parts about theory and model cover an important place in the literature, experimental studies are rapidly going on. Although religious coping was initially interpreted as positive, experimental studies reveal that it also has negative forms. The purpose of this study, in which qualitative research methods were used, is to define the components of religious coping. Semi structured interview was used among 42 participants, 9 war veterans from Association of Turkish Disabled War Veterans, Martyrs, their Widows and Orphans Ankara Branch, and 9 relatives of martyrs from the Association of Martyrs’ Families Ankara Branch, totaling 60 volunteer participants between the ages 25 and 65 with snowball sampling method. It was discovered that 29 of the participants used negative religious coping and the participants who only used negative religious coping were studied in this research. Upon recording the interviews with the aid of a recorder, the researched typed the script of the interviews. The qualitative analysis of the collected data was done in MAXODA 11 computer program.
Full Text Available Since attaining independence, Latin pattern (Martin, 1978 disputes and conflicts have characterized the Slovenian political scene, particularly as to relations between the state and religious communities. Slovenia adopted a law on the issue only in 2006, availing itself of the law from the 1970s. The 2007 Religious Freedom Act contained many privileges for the dominant Roman Catholic Church, including those of a symbolic nature and those of an economic one. The Constitutional Court declared the Act unconstitutional and void, departing from the European Convention of Human Rights and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. Thus, it set other beliefs at the same level with religious ones, did away with many privileges and obstacles 81 in recognition and registration of new religious communities. However, this decision has legislatively been implemented only in a small portion, remaining to be fully implemented. However, the absence of substantive agreements with the Holy See and the absence of religious instruction in public schools indicate a predominance of liberalism on the public scene.
Abdi Omar Shuriye
Full Text Available This paper is an analysis on euthanasia from ethical and religious perspectives. Historically, the classical Greek thinkers including Aristotle had categorically accepted euthanasia with the main reason of minimizing pain. However, as science develops ethical and religious isuues related to the subject have increasingly created fervent debates on euthanesia. ABSTRAK: Kertas ini mengkaji euthanasia dari perspektif agama dan etika. Sejarah telah melihat para pemikir Greek termasuk Aristotle secara kategorinya menerima Euthanasia dengan sebab utama untuk mengurangkan kesakitan. Bagaimanapun, apabila sains berkembang, perbahasan mengenai isu-isu agama dan etika tentang Euthanasia telah meningkat dengan nyata.KEYWORDS: mercy killing; religion; ethics; morality; euthanasia
Full Text Available This article examines the role of religious actors in sexual politics in Argentina. Sexual politics has become a critical battlefield when it comes to the role of religion in the Argentinean liberal-democratic regime, while gender and sexuality have been the main political targets of religious institutions since the 1980s and 1990s. In this context, progressive legislation on gender, sexual, and reproductive rights was passed, including same-sex marriage and the recognition of transgender identities, despite the opposition of the Catholic Church. Paradoxically, abortion remains largely illegal, allowed only in exceptional circumstances.
Full Text Available The study of why a fundraising professional would choose to leave his or her employer is critical to the ongoing success of religiously based nonprofit organizations as they work to achieve their mission. Without continuity in the donor relationship, donors will likely leave the organization or become disenfranchised. This study focuses on development professionals at Seventh-Day Adventist institutions across North America. The results of this study are applicable to other religiously based nonprofit organizations. The present article reveals the reasons affecting employee retention and proposes approaches to mitigate the loss of valuable employees. Data were gathered using a structured online survey and analyzed for its descriptive outcomes.
Full Text Available For the contemporary Serbian sociology of religion it is evident that the process of desecularization has been present on the social scene of Serbia in the last fifteen years. Sociologists have provided arguments for this claim based on data gathered in Serbia during this period. The religious changes in question have been empirically recorded in all aspects of attachment to religion (mainly Eastern Orthodoxy and the church (Serbian Orthodox Church, that is, in aspects of religious identification, doctrinal beliefs and religious behavior. Certain political subjects and social scientists feel that social life in Serbia is getting increasingly, and that religion and church are exerting influence within social fields they are not supposed to, if Serbia is to become a secular, democratic state. The paper analyzes some major conditions of the clericalization of the Serbian society.
Martín Velasco, Juan
Full Text Available Not available.
Religión y moralidad son hechos estrechamente relacionados a lo largo de la historia. Esta relación da lugar a contenidos éticos convergentes en la mayor parte de las tradiciones religiosas. Existen sin embargo tensiones entre la moral y la religión que culminan en la ruptura operada por los movimientos «ilustrados». Operada esta ruptura, religión y moralidad aparecen como distintas formas de relación con el absoluto, llamadas a dialogar, desde la base de la ética civil de lassociedades pluralístas, para buscar soluciones a los problemas de la humanidad actual
Full Text Available The twentieth century saw incredible growth in the diversity of the American workplace as barriers, especially for women and minorities, were reduced. In this twenty-first century the effects of globalization are adding to the company’s diversity. Today, some companies reflect a microcosm of our world as the world’s workers come to America and technology connects organizations worldwide. With this diverse workplace come not only the obvious differences of gender, race, and national origin, but also differences in religion and religious practices. This research examines some trends in American workplace diversity, the historical and legal framework into which diverse religions can function in America, and corporate practices necessary to enable religious expression without significantly diminishing the organization’s efficiency. The research concludes by reporting results of a survey on religious expression difficulties and solutions in the workplace.
"Waiting for Godot" is one of the classic works of theater of the absurd. The play seems absurd but with a deep religious meaning. This text tries to explore the theme in four parts of God and man, breaking the agreement, repentance and imprecation and waiting for salvation.
Haggard, Megan C; Kang, Linda L; Rowatt, Wade C; Shen, Megan Johnson
The connection between religiousness and volunteering for the community can be explained through two distinct features of religion. First, religious organizations are social groups that encourage members to help others through planned opportunities. Second, helping others is regarded as an important value for members in religious organizations to uphold. We examined the relationship between religiousness and self-reported community volunteering in two independent national random surveys of American adults (i.e., the 2005 and 2007 waves of the Baylor Religion Survey). In both waves, frequency of religious service attendance was associated with an increase in likelihood that individuals would volunteer, whether through their religious organization or not, whereas frequency of reading sacred texts outside of religious services was associated with an increase in likelihood of volunteering only for or through their religious organization. The role of religion in community volunteering is discussed in light of these findings.
Full Text Available Lately Indonesia is facing a lot of tremendous experience about religious violence. Indonesian Islam which is previously assumed as peaceful religion is suddenly changing to be frightening religion. The destruction in some places such as Bali Bombing, JW Marriot Bombing, and Sampang riot in some places Islam is the trigger of religious violence. This paper discusses the repetition of religious violence in Indonesia especially after New Order era. The writer argues that religious violence in Indonesia is as natural disaster, historical process in human evolution and as close experience that presenting and relating to human history. It may be caused by political condition and the response to economic injustice. In doing so, it is kind of social acceleration toward the process of change and also being a factor of the emergence of new agenda. This is because every disaster, including religious violence, requires an adjustment and a new formulation of the functions that have been damaged.
J S Kr�ger
Full Text Available The article presents the outline of a comparative framework for the understanding of religious fundamentalism. The argument is developed around the interrelated aspects of macro-historical religious context, socio-religious context, and the context of religious tradition as a primary dimension of religion. In those overlapping contexts, the possibility of fundamentalism is explained with refe-rence to pre-disposing, precipitating and perpetuating conditions. In terms of the dimension of religious tradition, fundamentalism is expounded in terms of the following three aspects: education, inter-pretation and identity-definition. Fundamentalism emerges as an awkward mix (not a creative synthesis of traditional and modernist elements in the present breach - with its peculiar characteristics, crises and threats - between epochs.�
Full Text Available During 'cyclic' historical periods it would be correct to interpret religious processes in terms of interaction of two essentially different, but substantially, structurally and functionally comparative types of integrating cultural complexes that, in historical perspective, compete with each other on the effect on individuals and society in general. Such complexes represent secular and religious culture. Contemporary socio-cultural situation can be defined as an asymmetric representativeness of both secular and religious cultures. In a modern secular society, dominance of a secular culture over a religious one can be manifested in three basic dimensions: substantial, regulative and subjective ones. Secular culture is adopted during the primary socialization process. However, religious culture is still adopted through conscious, voluntary selection in younger or more mature age. It may be possible to determine two basic attitudes of the contemporary ('secularized' man towards religion. The first attitude may be called 'reversive' and the other one 'conversive'.
Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co......Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer...... to the compatibility question is not obvious and requires a systematic analysis of secularism. Based on a distinction between a general concept and specific conceptions of secularism I offer a general structure for conceptions of secularism that incorporates both a) basic values, e.g. political equality and freedom...... of secularism are therefore compatible with some forms of religious establishment. I illustrate the use of the framework for discussion of particular establishment cases and how the framework provides a structure for the normative discussion about which conception of secularism to accept....
Olga Odgers Ortiz
Full Text Available Mexicans migrating to the United Status confront a very different social space which forces them to re-elaborate multiple identity references, among which religious beliefs and practices stand out. A number of studies have shown that among those who migrate, some on occasion turn to practices of popular religiosity in order to create bridges and maintain links with their communities of origin, in other cases, the migratory experience favors the processes of religious conversion. The subject is reopened in this article in order to bring up a third expression of the impact of migration on religious conversion: the transformation of the idea of religious diversity among those who migrate and consequently, the modification of some attitudes of religious tolerance and intolerance.
Nielsen, Jytte Seested; Bech, Mickael; Christensen, Kaare
Economics offers an analytical framework to consider human behaviour including religious behaviour. Within the realm of Expected Utility Theory, religious belief and activity could be interpreted as an insurance both for current life events and for afterlife rewards. Based on that framework, we...... and religious behaviour is driven by the subgroup of individuals who believe in an afterlife. In addition, when re-analysing our results using panel data analyses which cancel out shared factors among twin pairs, we find that the correlation found between risk aversion and religious behaviour is no longer...... significant indicating that other factors might explain differences in religious behaviour. Caution is needed in the interpretation of our results as the insignificant association between risk aversion and religious behaviour in the panel data analyses potentially might be due to measurement error causing...
Maria S. Petrushkevych
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the work is to determine the features of media culture that bind it with mass culture and mass communications and have the most significant effect on the general principles of the religious mass communication. In addition, the objective is to identify the skills system and traits of mass human that are necessary for using media culture. Methodology. The methodological basis is related to structuring, analytical analysis and synthesis of media features; highlighting phenomena that illustrate modern communicative situation; characteristics of media trends influence for the specific functioning of religious communication. Scientific novelty. Main part of the work is devoted to the analysis of the progressive media culture, mass-media and their main features, design of religious communication in this culture. Media gradually form the appearance of religious communication quietly, especially the mass one, they adapt the modern religious discourse to rates of transfer and perception of information. Modern believer gets a lot of different kinds of religious information, on any subject, any explanation of the religious question, with respect to any religion. Such volume of religious information and the speed with which a person receives it, does not usually make it religious or spiritually advanced, but only informed. Spiritual perfection and religious development, religious communication is possible only when the customer is aware of media culture and way of seeing the ultimate goal of such communications using the Mass Media. So far these mechanisms are perfectly designed in traditional religious communication. Phenomena, that reflects the dramatic changes in the communicative environment are: mediatization of body and mind, the new practice of processing / reading information, the phenomenon of simultaneous perception of a large number of information channels – similar or different. Features of media culture that connect it with
Full Text Available The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyze to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of religious experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of the present paper mean by the concept of religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: The Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological type of religious experience or RIT type. Furthermore, the present paper is focused on the work of neuro-psychologist M. A. Persinger [1997, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1987, 1985, and 1984]. In his studies, Persinger indicates that mystical experience (RErl has its seat in the right hemisphere of the human brain, whereas (religious ideology (RIT is related to the left hemisphere. Consequently, the hemisphere in which the (religious experience is taking place seems to label the type of experience. Persinger, interested in the powerful effects of religious experience (of the RErf type on human beings, asserts that if we could understand the neuro-cognitive processes involved in experiencing religiously, such processes might be copied for clinical use in order to improve psychiatric therapy for curing depression. Thus, Persinger studied and compared people practicing religious meditation with people who did not, and also studied the results of PET scanning on the experiences of schizophrenic and epileptic patients. PET scanning measures the metabolic activity in the hemispheres, ranging it on a scale from under normal to over normal activity. This paper will account for the relevance of comparing these two apparently different studies and for the problem arising the experience of pain because, neurologically, pain, like religious experience,is said to be caused by processes in the human brain.
Brink, Dennis Meyhoff
The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy...... legislations are Thus primarily founded on arguments concerning moral, social or public order. The article furthermore argues that although anti-censorship satire gradually weakened the legitimacy of censorship, the notion of religion as 'the social bond of society' is still operative in contemporary blasphemy...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. METHOD: The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. DISCUSSION: The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness. Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. Results The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.
Cush, Denise; Robinson, Catherine
The early days of non-confessional, multi-faith religious education in Britain benefitted from close collaboration between academics in universities, teacher educators and teachers. This article attempts to initiate a revival of such a dialogue, by summarizing some developments in religious studies at university level and suggesting possible…
Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the influence of religious thought on imaginative, semiotic cult decision space. This describes the process of creating the iconic space. The main part that creates it is the architect, philosophy of religion, physical ability construction. To create an iconic space, the architect should pass in the structure of the essence of religion, its thinking and ideas. Religious worldview through the canonical regulations creates a model of religious space in the form of schemes. It comes out of the world of ideas in the figurative world, has an effect for the purpose of transmitting information and teaching. All this does not affect the freedom of creativity of the architect, because the inside of the canons he is free to decide the design space of worship in accordance with his skills. The model space is specified by Canon gives the possibility of building both simple and complex design of buildings. The above situation demonstrates the dominant role and influence of religious ideology on the formation of religious architecture. It provides the ideological basis for the model space of worship, fixing them in the symbolism of forms and their mutual arrangement. Such findings are important for the theory of culture and architecture, because not only the architect and its shape can determine the life and importance of architecture, but also a worldview.
Marianna M. Shakhnovich
Full Text Available The article shows, that in 1920- 1930s simultaneously with the anti-religious propaganda, the history of world religions and religious movements, anthropological and sociological studies of religion, the history of religious freethinking and atheism were carried out. The systematic work on the study of the religious beliefs and practices in everyday life has been designed and created on the basis of large scale field research in accordance with the achievements of modern theoretical works. There were two groups inside the academic community with opposite views on the nature and sense of religious studies: one group, explored the opportunity to make the research without clerical censorship, wanted to study religion as a cultural phenomenon, using different methodological approaches including Marxism, and understood the expression “critique of religion” in the philosophical sense as a historical and sociological analysis. The majority of them did not deny the Marxist idea of the gradual disappearance of religion in secularized world. Another group ‒ of left political radicals ‒ sought only to expose religion, looking for evidence of possible exposure. Among the works on the history of religion, published in the Soviet period, it is necessary to distinguish between the works done with the exclusive purpose for propaganda, from the works in which the free investigation and academic research might be found inside the ideologically and politically correct chains of that time.
Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to shed some light on the phenomenon of religious ecstasy as met within Islamic mysticism and there particularly during its classical period. In this case, the expression "classical Sufism" refers to the period of Sufi history from about 850 A.D. until circa 1100 A.D. In the Sufi vocabulary there is even a rather differentiated terminology concerning these ecstatic experiences or states; whether different descriptions of one and the same experience are involved or whether the terms actually describe different experiences is a question that we must set aside for the present. There are, however, Sufis expressing the opinion that these different states of mind are based on one single experience in spite of the difference in terms. A generic term for these experiences or states is not to be found in the Sufi terminology however, so the problem of which of these phenomena must be present in order for ecstasy to be evidenced—or which of them would be sufficient— does not therefore arise for the Sufis. So instead of speaking of religious ecstasy in general, they either refer to the single specific terms in question or else use the plural of one of the words employed to designate one of the terms we include in "religious ecstasy". They thus speak of "ecstasies", mawagid from the singular form wagd—if one should at all attempt a translation of this plural. This plural is a genuine Sufi construction and does not otherwise seem to occur in the Arabic language, except as a later borrowing. Psalmody based on the Koranic vocabulary remains the main procedure for putting oneself in ecstasy. If we add 'and listening to psalmody', we then obtain a fairly satisfactory picture of the external conditions for the Sufis' ecstasy until the eleventh century, when various innovations begin to appear. As far as the darwiš-dance is concerned, it is not until the thirteenth century with Rumi that it becomes transformed from an expression
Full Text Available Following a worldwide trend, the number of religious tourists to the province of Mardin, in Southeastern Turkey has increased continuously during the last decade. Using a combination of methods this study aimed to assess the impact of religious tourism development on the local community and economy. We found that the effect is mainly positive. The hotels have high occupancy rates throughout the year and many new hotels have been built during the last five years. Also most visitors eat in local restaurants at least once a day and patronize local shops and businesses. The development of religious tourism has also led to the creation of many new jobs.
Full Text Available This paper considers the most important factors that have played a role in the emergence and development of UFO religiosity and UFO alternative religious movements, from occult, spiritualist and theosophical teachings, to alternative ideas and debates on the origin of mankind. By analyzing the basic theological premises, the paper discusses the basic religious and culturological paradigms to be found in UFO movements. It also shows how a major part of their corpus can be recognized in existing "traditional" religious groups, and suggests that UFO religions represent just another variation on the numerous concepts that offer answers to key existential questions.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to predict ambivalent sexism (including hostile sexism and benevolent sexism with religious orientation types as intrinsic religiosity, extrinsic religiosity and quest religiosity. In addition, the effect of demographic variables (including age, gender, education on sexist attitudes was tested. 583 (N_female= 318; N_male= 265 university students who study in different universities of Ankara/Turkey (M_age= 22.10; SD = 2.33 completed Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, and Religious Orientation Scale. Findings indicated significant gender differences on study variables and significant associations between ambivalent sexism and religious orientation types within university students sample in Turkey.
C.A. Rietveld (Niels); E. van Burg (Elco)
textabstractReligious beliefs affect the economic behavior of individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence the pursuit
Gerdes, Ida Marie; Geertz, Armin W
Selvom religiøs omvendelse har været gennemanalyseret inden for psykologien og sociologien er det vor opfattelse at den seneste neurovidenskabelige forskning kan kaste nyt lys på emnet. Det er vor påstand at omvendelse drejer sig om religiøse identitetsdannelsesprocesser, hvor der er tale om gru...
Vaughn A. Booker
Full Text Available The archives of African American jazz musicians demonstrate rich sites for studying expressions of religious belief and daily religious practice in public and private arenas, in professional and personal capacities. Highlighting print material from the archives of Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (1899–1974 and Mary Lou Williams (1910–1981, this article examines the ways that these musicians worked to articulate their beliefs in print and to make meaning of their routine practices. Ellington and Williams produced written records of their aspirations for non-clerical religious authority and leadership, novel notions of religious community, and conceptions of quotidian writing tasks as practices with devotional value in the middle decades of the twentieth century. In preparation for his Sacred Concert tours of American and Western European religious congregations, Ellington theologized about the nature of God and the proper language to address God through private hotel stationery. Following her conversion to Roman Catholicism, Williams managed a Harlem thrift shop and worked to create the Bel Canto Foundation for musicians struggling with substance abuse and unemployment. This study of the religious subjectivity of African Americans with status as race representatives employs archival historical methods in the effort to vividly approximate complex religious interiority.
Lisete S. Mendes Mónico
Full Text Available This article aims to contribute with a reflection about religious pluralism and religious freedom into Lusophony. Reviving pieces of history since the 15th century to the current post-colonial Portuguese society, Lusophony is analyzed in two complementary perspectives: That of the colonizing people and that of the colonized nations. Evangelization, colonization and Lusophony are, and always will be, inseparable. In addition to linguistic uniformity, Lusophony gave its distinctiveness in acculturation, miscegenation, plasticity, and Christianization policy. Using the census data in the 90’s, 2000’s, and 2010’s, with a documentary approach, it is established a general overview of religious affiliation in Lusophony. Moving from a faith of obligation to a faith of conviction, Lusophony is nowadays characterized by a pluralist position in religious matters. The current situation of religious freedom is analyzed from the AIS report and the GRI (Government restriction index and SHI (social hostilities involving religion indexes. From multiculturalism to acculturation, the plasticity, eclecticism, and religious syncretism acted as moderators towards the imposition of a new belief. The article ends by appealing to the inclusion of religious freedom in the political agenda, in order to defend human rights and peace in the world.
Charles C. Haynes
Full Text Available From the colonial era to the present, religions and religious beliefs have played a significant role in the political life of the United States. Religion has been at the heart of some of the best and some of the worst movements in American history. The guiding principles that the framers intended to govern the relationship between religion and politics are set forth in Article VI of the Constitution and in the opening sixteen words of the First Amendment.
Full Text Available Trata-se de revisitar o complexo fenômeno da religião, à luz das articulações e diferenciações entre teologia, filosofia da religião e ciência da religião, particularmente no contexto sociocultural da modernidade e suas categorias iluministas de racionalidade, liberdade e ciência, em grandes pensadores tais como Max Weber e Ernst Troeltsch
Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the material scope of religious preaching and sermon; and describing the multicultural aspects conveyed in the religious preaching and sermon. As the subject of analysis, it focuses on religious sermons delivered by preachers in Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. Using content and discourse analysis, this study finds that: the diversity of the society gains little attention by different religious preachers; instead of multicultural values, the religious preaches and sermons contain some anti-multicultural values, such as self-righteousness, prejudices and stereotypes of other groups; the subject of religious preaches and sermons implied the intensity of the purification movement; and the development of Islam implies the tendency of religious radicalism as reflected in the hostility towards the local culture, foreign people, and non-Muslims.
Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P J; Tahbaz, Sahar; Chen, Zhuo Job
This study examined the religious and psychological implications of religious coping in Iran. University students (N = 224) responded to the Brief Positive and Negative Religious Coping Scales along with measures of Religious Orientation, Integrative Self-Knowledge, Self-Control, Mindfulness, Self-Compassion, Self-Esteem, Guilt, Shame, and Self-Criticism. As in previous research elsewhere, Positive Religious Coping was stronger on average than Negative Religious Coping, and Positive and Negative Religious Coping predicted adjustment and maladjustment, respectively, In addition, this study demonstrated that direct relationships between Positive and Negative Religious Coping appeared to be reliable in Iran; that Positive Religious Copings was broadly compatible with, and Negative Religious Coping was largely irrelevant to, Iranian religious motivations; and that Negative Religious Coping obscured linkages of Positive Religious Coping with religious and psychological adjustment.
of human behaviour. During the last two decades, cognitivist theories have made their entrance into humanistic studies, including the study of religion. Thus, in discarding one of the basic premises of the cognitive paradigm, as I argue in this article, could lead to a radical rethinking of the science...... of religion. I will argue that the body and its sensory-motor modalities are not only the mind's representational base, but also encompass the intentionality behind human behaviour in general and religious behaviour in particular. I will call this intentionality homeostatic intentionality, as it has to do...... with the self-regulation and optimization of the organism. Ignoring physiological activities, including homeostatic ones, in the mind's complex cognitive processes is unfortunately a characteristic of classic cognitivist theories, and this negligence, it seems to me, rules out a satisfying and realistic account...
Buchardt, Mette; Osbeck, Christina
to the conference subtheme: Borders between research methods General subject didactics in the Nordic countries has developed in relation to teacher education and the need to bring questions about teaching and learning closer to specific subject-content areas. The discussions started at slightly different times...... in the different countries, for instance in the 1970s in Norway and in the 1980s in Sweden (Kroksmark 1989, Ongstad 2006). However, at that time religious education was already an academic field in the faculties of theology in many of the Nordic countries, namely as religionspedagogik[k] (e.g. Osbeck & Lied 2012......). Since then the development of RE and its current position have been rather different in the separate countries, but also the conditions within the same country have varied largely. This symposium explore and discuss the conditions for scholarly based knowledge production about and in relation...
Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make
Full Text Available Background: People who are religiously unaffiliated (including self-identifying atheists and agnostics, as well as those who say their religion is "nothing in particular" made up 16.4Š of the world's population in 2010. Unaffiliated populations have been growing in North America and Europe, leading some to expect that this group will grow as a share of the world's population. However, such forecasts overlook the impact of demographic factors, such as fertility and the large, aging unaffiliated population in Asia. Objective: We project the future size of religiously affiliated and unaffiliated populations around the world. Methods: We use multistate cohort-component methods to project the size of religiously affiliated and unaffiliated populations. Projection inputs such as religious composition, differential fertility, and age structure data, as well as religious switching patterns, are based on the best available census and survey data for each country. This research is based on an analysis of more than 2,500 data sources. Results: Taking demographic factors into account, we project that the unaffiliated will make up 13.2Š of the world's population in 2050. The median age of religiously affiliated women is six years younger than unaffiliated women. The 2010-15 Total Fertility Rate for those with a religious affiliation is 2.59 children per woman, nearly a full child higher than the rate for the unaffiliated (1.65 children per woman. Conclusions: The religiously unaffiliated are projected to decline as a share of the world's population in the decades ahead because their net growth through religious switching will be more than offset by higher childbearing among the younger affiliated population.
Blagojević Mirko 1
Full Text Available In this article I have dealt with empirical proofs for the Russian religious renaissance which came after the fall of the Soviet socialistic empire and carried on all through the nineties as a pro-religious (pro-orthodox consensus and a religious belief. Likewise, I have dealt with proofs suggesting certain limitations of the renaissance in question which manifested mainly in irregular fulfillment of religious duties.
Full Text Available After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks sought to establish a new atheistic order which would eradicate from the public consciousness all vestiges of "religious prejudices", which were regarded as a residue from the imperial era and an instrument used to exploit the masses. Even though it was generally held that religion would automatically disappear from socialist society when its material precondition, the class society, was abolished, the regime made concentrated efforts to speed up the process by means of virulent anti-religious propaganda. The ultimate goal was to wipe out the persistent remains of the bourgeois system of values. No force was to be used since it was feared this would merely offend the religious sentiments of the people and strengthen their adherence to religion. Theoretically, the ultimate goal was to be achieved through education and information, but in practice, anti-religious activities were at times quite brutal. These attacks were successful in curtailing the activities of religious institutions in Karelia, but did not bring to an end the religious practices of lay people, which were continued, in one form or another, throughout the entire Soviet period. One fundamental reason for the survival of religious rituals, both Christian and indigenous, was the fact that they were so deeply embedded in people's consciousness and intimately integrated with their everyday lives. Every important phase and turn in human life was sanctified by rituals. The goal of the present paper is to examine what forms anti-religious attacks took in Soviet Karelia and how people reacted to them. The focus is on the attacks against the very fundaments of the ritual complex of the church and, by extension, on the effects of these attacks on the indigenous ritual complex, which co-existed in parallel with that of the "official" religious institutions.
Full Text Available Introduction Religious identity is a prominent element of social cohesion. Religious identity involves a level of social identity that corresponds with "we" or religious community, and represents a sense of belonging and commitment to the religion and religious community. Religion essentially provides cognitive, ideological, sociological and spiritual resource for identity (Furrow et al 2004. Accordingly, religion locates mainly on the center of individual and group identity (Seul 1999. Religious communities and systems of meaning, are the resources for sense of interest (belonging to another and approval (as a basis of self-esteem, and in fact, encourage individual excellence and actuality. Religious groups are also considered an important factor in social relations and are responsible for vitality, happiness and general enthusiasm of their followers (Hajiani 2000. Certainly, religious identity is a certain kind of identity formation. It is defined by a sense of group membership to religion and its importance regard to the self-concept. Religious identity is not necessarily equated with religiousness and religiosity . Although these concepts have some overlaps, religiousness and religiosity point to the significance and value of belonging to religious groups and participating in religious events, but religious identity particularly indicates membership in a religious group without participation in religious activities (Arweck and Nesbitt 2010. Also, although religion is faith-based institution and religiosity is practice to its rituals, but religious identity refers to how people understand themselves as religious persons, who accept spiritual and religious values and beliefs within faith community. Therefore, religious identity is a collective identity, which includes membership in religious groups, acceptance of belief system, commitment to religious groups and values, and practices ally with religion. Although there is substantial
Full Text Available Quest, or a journey-oriented approach to religion, is one dimension of religiosity that has been consistently related to positive outgroup attitudes. The present research assessed the extent to which individual differences in quest religiosity moderated the effects of a religiosity prime on attitudes toward an outgroup religion. Christian identifying participants (N = 55 completed a scale measure of quest religiosity. They then read a vignette that primed quest religiosity or religious fundamentalism. Attitudes toward Muslims and Jews were assessed with evaluation thermometers. Quest religiosity interacted with the prime such that those high in quest appeared to react against the fundamentalism prime by expressing particularly positive outgroup attitudes. Trait quest religiosity appears to buffer against situational factors that are typically associated with negative outgroup attitudes. In addition, implications for research on intergroup relations of religious groups are discussed.
Trybula, Walter J.
Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…
Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge......Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge...
Shaw, David M; Busch, Jacob
MacDougall has argued that Rawls's liberal social theory suggests that parents who hold certain religious convictions can legitimately refuse blood transfusion on their children's behalf. This paper argues that this is wrong for at least five reasons. First, MacDougall neglects the possibility that true freedom of conscience entails the right to choose one's own religion rather than have it dictated by one's parents. Second, he conveniently ignores the fact that children in such situations are much more likely to die than to survive without blood. Third, he relies on an ambiguous understanding of what is "rational" and treats children as mere extensions of their parents. Fourth, he neglects the fact that those in the original position would seek to protect themselves from persecution and enslavement and thus would not allow groups of children to be killed because of their parents' beliefs. Finally, Rawls makes it clear that we should choose for children as we would choose for ourselves in the original position, with no particular conception of the good (such as that held by Jehovah's Witnesses).
Full Text Available In this study whether the robust finding regarding the superiority of women on men in terms of religiosity reported in studies done in Christian tradition is valid for Muslim society or not was researched. The data obtained from 11 different studies conducted mostly with university samples were studied. Religiosity was tracked in three main variables: Absolute Religiosity (or faith/worldview, Religious Tension (or tension in faith/worldview, and Religious Openness (or openness in faith/worldview. In terms of Absolute Faith, whilst nearly half of the studies were found statistically non significant, the other half confirmed that women are more religious than man as it was reported in Christian tradition. In addition, women were found to be experiencing more tension and uncertainty on their religion (but not on faith/worldview and are more tolerant and open to the faith or religion of those who do not belong to their own. However, men tend to be experiencing more transformation, tension and uncertainty concerning their faith/or wordview. The results indicate, with less certainty, that men are interested in cognitive and wholistic aspect of their religion or faith whilst women are more interested in emotional and relational dimensions of their faith.
Full Text Available The ideology of the Extreme Right in Western Europe is rooted in Catholic fundamentalism and Counter-Revolutionary ideas. However, the Extreme Right, like all other political families, has had to adjust to an increasingly secular society. The old link between religion and the Extreme Right has thus been broken and in fact already was when Fascism overtook Europe: Fascism was secular, sometimes even anti-religious, in its essence. Although Catholic fundamentalists still retain strong positions within the apparatus of several Extreme Right parties (Front National, the vote for the Extreme Right is generally weak among regular churchgoers and strong among non-believers. In several countries, the vote for the Extreme Right is stronger among Protestant voters than among Catholics, since while Catholics may support Christian-Democratic parties, there are very few political parties linked to Protestant churches. Presently, it also seems that Paganism is becoming the dominant religious creed within the Extreme Right. In a multicultural Europe, non-Christian forms of religious fundamentalism such as Islamism also exist with ideological similarities to the Extreme Right, but this is not sufficient to categorize Islamism as a form of Fascism. Some Islamist groups seek alliances with the Extreme Right on the basis of their common dislike for Israel and the West, globalization and individual freedom of thought.
Full Text Available Since the beginning of the Reform Era in 1979, there has been a rapid growth and development of religious belief and practice in China. A substantial new scholarly literature has been generated in the attempt to document and understand this. This essay identifies the most important contributions to that literature and discusses areas of agreement and controversy across the literature. Along with new data, new paradigms have developed to frame research on Chinese religions. The paradigm derived from C. K. Yang’s classic work in the 1960s came from structural functionalism, which served to unite research in the humanities and social sciences. However, structural functionalism has been abandoned by the new generation of scholars. In the humanities, the most popular paradigm derives from Michel Foucault, but there are also scholars who use neo-Durkheimian and neo-Weberian paradigms. In the social sciences, the dominant paradigms tend to focus on state-society relations. None of these paradigms fully captures the complexity of the transformations happening in China. We recommend greater dialogue between the humanities and social sciences in search of more adequate theoretical frameworks for understanding Chinese religions today.
Line Nybro Petersen
Full Text Available Supernatural is saturated with a wide range of religious representations. These elements often serve to instigate the storyline for one or more episodes, but do so in a way that is removed from their original setting in, for example, traditional religious contexts. In Supernatural, religion is subsumed to media logic, and thus transformed religious representations are an example of a continuous process of mediatization of religion. This essay applies a three-sided theoretical approach, considering mediatization, cognitive anthropology, and social theory. The concept of mediatization applied here implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming these representations, the show challenges our imaginations. These transformations of banal religious representations in Supernatural come about in three ways: (1 as a mainstreaming of occulture, (2 through connecting banal religious elements to existential themes, and (3 through playful intertextuality. The series applies these narrative devices, which heighten plausibility and familiarity, while simultaneously offering viewers a change in perspective, thus creating opportunities for viewers to renegotiate existing religious imaginations.
Full Text Available This article throws the study of multireligious sociality in Western contexts into sharp relief by examining the case of India. Much of the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism and multiculturalism tends to assume that religious beliefs, practices and spaces make the respective religious communities close entirely in upon themselves. While this assumption may hold true for most of the Western settings we study, it does not necessarily give an accurate description of the conditions for multireligious sociality in other parts of the world. In India, for instance, religious boundaries still display signs of malleability despite the religious politicization and occasional interreligious violence of the past decades. Drawing on recent anthropological research, this article shows that people of different religious denominations still visit Sufi shrines, that Hindus still incorporate ritual elements and divine beings from the religious traditions of their Others and that they exercise a wide personal choice in terms of spiritual activities, thus enabling spiritual paths that cross in and out of Hinduism. In a Hindu context rituals do not necessarily have an insulating effect; they may also provide points of intersection that open up toward the Other, thus fostering familiarity and recognition. Similar arguments have been made for Buddhist settings. The question is thus whether the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism may entail a certain monotheistic bias that needs to accounted for, something that is of particular importance when theorizing in ways that make universal claims.
Full Text Available Human religiousness is a complex and multidimensional reality embedded in basic human needs and connected with people’s desires, anxieties, and hopes. The aim of the paper is to assess religiousness, considered in terms of meaning and cognitive emotion regulation strategies, in adolescents. The religious meaning system is a multidimensional construct encompassing convictions, beliefs, emotional connotations, and the rules of worship. In situations of negative events or unpleasant experiences, young people resort to various coping strategies. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies concern relatively stable conscious ways of regulating emotions, which consist in mentally handling the incoming information that evoke emotions. The study concerned young people aged 13 to 16 years (N = 130. Religiousness was assessed using D. Krok’s Religious Meaning System Questionnaire (RMSQ and cognitive coping strategies were measured using the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ by N. Garnefski and V. Kraaij. The results show that there are relations between religiousness, understood in terms of the young participants’ meaning system, and adaptive as well as maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. The results of the study are discussed in the light of theory and research.
Full Text Available The paper describes results of a social psychological study on religious identity in Buddhist schoolchil- dren. The study involved 184 students of 9—10 classes of a school in the Aginskoye settlement (Aginsky Buryatsky Okrug, Zabaykalsky Krai. According to G. Allport’s concept and R. Gorsuch & S. McPherson measurements, religious identity is considered not only as practicing Buddhism, but as a complex social psychological formation with a four-factor structure base on the following scales: personal/social and in- trinsic/extrinsic. Different components of religious identity are explored in the context of their relation- ship with value orientations (as described by S. Schwartz and G. Hofstede. The following techniques were employed: the adapted version of D. Van Camp’s Individual/Social Religious Identity Measure, Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-R2, and Hofstede’s Values Survey Module. As it was revealed, al- most all values related to various components of religious identity of the Buddhist adolescents refer to the social focus. The paper concludes that religious identity in modern Buddhist young people has a distinctive social character.
Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T
Women's autonomy has frequently been linked with women's opportunities and investments, such as education, employment, and reproductive control. The association between women's autonomy and religion in the developing world, however, has received less attention, and the few existing studies make comparisons across major religious traditions. In this study, we focus on variations in levels of female decision-making autonomy within a single religious tradition-Christianity. Using unique survey data from a predominantly Christian area in Mozambique, we devise an autonomy scale and apply it to compare women affiliated to different Christian denominations as well as unaffiliated women. In addition to affiliation, we examine the relationship between autonomy and women's religious agency both within and outside their churches. Multivariate analyses show that women belonging to more liberal religious traditions (such as Catholicism and mainline Protestantism) and tend to have higher autonomy levels, regardless of other factors. These results are situated within the cross-national scholarship on religion and women's empowerment and are interpreted in the context of gendered religious dynamics in Mozambique and similar developing settings.
Full Text Available To advance understandings of how religion manifests in subtle, nuanced ways in secular institutions, we examine student religiosity and spirituality at an elite liberal arts school marked by a strong intellectual collective identity. Using mixed research methods, we examine how the college’s structures and dominant culture influence students’ religiosity and spirituality. Despite an institutional commitment to promoting students’ self-exploration and inclusion of social “diversity,” we found both campus structures and mainstream culture deterred open spiritual and religious exploration and identification. The structure of the college and its dominant secular, intellectual culture reinforced: (1 a widespread stigma against religious and spiritual expression, (2 a lack of dialogue about the sacred, (3 discreetness in exploring and adhering to sacred beliefs and practices, and (4 a large degree of religious and spiritual pluralism. Our findings additionally illustrate that early exposure to the campus culture’s critical regard for religion had a long-lasting impact on students’ religiosity. A majority of students kept their religious and spiritual expressions hidden and private; only a marginalized minority of students embraced their expressions publically. To increase students’ comfort with religious and spiritual exploration, we propose that colleges foster intentional peer dialogues early in the college experience. Furthermore, we recommend that campus communities prioritize religious and spiritual literacy and respect.
Jobannes A.P van der Ven
Full Text Available This article investigates belief in God among 538 students from standard 9 who attend Anglican and Catholic schools in the Johannesburg/Pretoria region, and relates this belief to the students' religious socialization and praxis. The students' belief in God appears to correlate strongly with their religious praxis in the present and less so with their religious socialization. However, some elements within this religious socialization play a rather important role, namely the parents' religious modeling, communication, and transfer. Two elements do not appear to have any influence at all, namely the parents' church participation and the parents' religious steering of students in the past and present.
Full Text Available This analysis of Chinese and Japanese American young adults, based on the Pew Research Center 2012 Asian American Survey, examines the religious nones of these ethnic groups. Rather than focusing on their beliefs and belonging to religious denominations, it highlights their spiritual practices and ethical relations using an Asian-centric liyi (ritual and righteousness discourse. Despite being religious nones, these groups have high rates of ancestor veneration and participation in ethnic religious festivals, as well as strong familial and reciprocal obligations. These findings indicate that, similar to other American Millennials, these groups may be better understood by how they do religion than in what they believe.
While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.
Artiklen argumenterer for at mange opfattelser af religiøsitet reducerer fænomenet til en slags moralitet. Med Wittgensteins filosofi som modeksempel, og i lyset af en modstilling mellem Hegel og Kierkegaards opfattelse af religiøsitet, betones religiøsitetens radikale karakter.......Artiklen argumenterer for at mange opfattelser af religiøsitet reducerer fænomenet til en slags moralitet. Med Wittgensteins filosofi som modeksempel, og i lyset af en modstilling mellem Hegel og Kierkegaards opfattelse af religiøsitet, betones religiøsitetens radikale karakter....
Saad, Marcelo; de Medeiros, Roberta
A contemporary orientation of the hospital experience model must encompass the clients' religious-spiritual dimension. The objective of this paper is to share a previous experience, highlighting at least five reasons hospitals should invest in this direction, and an equal number of steps required to achieve it. In the first part, the text discourses about five reasons to invest in religious-spiritual support programs: 1. Religious-spiritual wellbeing is related to better health; 2. Religious-spiritual appreciation is a standard for hospital accreditation; 3. To undo religious-spiritual misunderstandings that can affect treatment; 4. Patients demand a religious-spiritual outlook from the institution; and 5. Costs may be reduced with religious-spiritual support. In the second part, the text suggests five steps to implement religious-spiritual support programs: 1. Deep institutional involvement; 2. Formal staff training; 3. Infrastructure and resources; 4. Adjustment of institutional politics; and 5. Agreement with religious-spiritual leaders. The authors hope the information compiled here can inspire hospitals to adopt actions toward optimization of the healing experience.
Candi K. Cann
Full Text Available Mothers and Spirits examines the intersection of women, alcohol, and death through a comparative analysis. Offering a brief history of the study of drinking, followed by a short analysis of drinking in European and Chinese cultures, Cann examines two religious texts central to the roles of women and alcohol in Chinese religious thought and Christianity. Finally, Cann utilizes the historical and textual background to contextualize her ethnographic study of women, alcohol, and death in Mexican Catholicism, Chinese religions, and American Southern Baptist Christianity. Cann argues that both alcohol and temperance are used as a way to forge, cement, and create gender identity, constructing alternate discourses of power and inclusivity.
Full Text Available The present article will provide insight on music as a vector of religious belonging: a female choir at a mosque in the Lake Geneva Metropolitan Region has reinterpreted Beethoven’s Ode to Joy with new text about the glory of the Messenger, and a regional political and religious event which has united music from Syria, Kosovo and Tunisia in order to put on stage the cosmopolitan characteristics of Swiss Muslims. Religious and national belonging as well as cultural references can be expressed in different ways through ritual practices (prayer, celebrations, food or clothing. These practices, influenced by gender and age, are highly diverse. Celebrations that are performed in public also depend on the local and global political context, the specific social situation and the specific place (location, public, legal framework etc.. As part of a broader research project on “(Invisible Islam in the city,” a research team directed by Monika Salzbrunn has observed various forms of celebration – both religious and secular festive events – in which Muslim citizens are involved. At what audience are these musical performances directed? Can we really separate an analysis of religious belongings from an analysis of political and/or cultural performances?
Full Text Available Development of religious art, namely – religious painting, its specifics, in Russia of the end XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries, caused by system changes in the Russian society, on the example of painters – V. M. Vasnetsov, M. V. Nesterov, M. A. Vrubel is analyzed in article.
Full Text Available Inter-religious action has played a key role in ensuring that social cohesion and inter-religious mediation remain on the international agenda in relation to response in the Central African Republic, where people’s faith is an integral part of their identity but where it has been manipulated in a horrific way.
Adriene dos Anjos Noronha
Full Text Available Resenha do livroWEBER, Max. Ética econômica das religiões mundiais: ensaios comparados de sociologia da religião. V. 1: Confucionismo e Taoísmo. Petrópolis: Vozes, 2016. 410p.
Full Text Available Introduction. Religious needs of patients are consistently being neglected in the clinical medicine. Pastoral care is a religious support which a religious patient receives from priests, chaplains, imams, rabbis or other religious authorities. Religious support, in terms of clinical medicine, is a spiritual support which religious patients obtain from religious and trained medical workers. The aim of this report was to present the effects of pastoral care and religious support in hospital treatment of a 73-year-old patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis. Case report. The 73- year-old, highly religious patient with severe form of osteoarthritis was admitted at the Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Military Medical Academy in Belgrade, due to heterogeneous problems in the activities of daily living. The patient walked with difficulty using a stick, suffered pain, and was anxious and depressive. In order to objectively demonstrate effects of both pastoral care and religious support in this patient we performed multiple treatment with reversal design, in which the basic treatment consisting of hospital care, pharmacotherapy and physical therapy (the treatment A was alternatively changed with the treatment that included combination of the basic treatment and religious support provided by religious physiatrist and physiotherapist (the treatment B or combination of the basic treatment and pastoral care provided by military priest (the treatment C. The treatment A was applied three times and lasted two weeks, every time. Treatments B and C were applied once and lasted three weeks, each. The order of the treatments was: A→B→A→C→A. During the whole treatment period the patient’s condition was assessed by several measuring scale: the level of depression by The Hamilton Rang Scale for Depression and The Zung Self Rating Depression Scale; the level of anxiety by The Zung Self Rating Anxiety Scale; the functional capability of
Al Sadi, Fatma H.; Basit, Tehmina N.
This paper examines the impact of a school-based intervention entitled "Our Brothers and Sisters in Humanity" on 10th grade female Omani students' religious tolerance. A questionnaire was administered before and after an intervention to a sample of 241 girls, of whom 116 were in the experimental group and 125 in the control group. A…
Full Text Available The intellectual landscape of Europe bears the marks of a long history of cultural perceptions of, and scientific approaches to, religions. The sciences of religions had to establish their autonomy from churches and theologies. However, the cultural context and the institutional set-up of ‘laïcité’ did not foster the development of comparative religion, much less comparative theology. However, this situation may have an advantage: it should discourage the exercise of comparative theology as a sectarian endeavour apart from broader anthropological perspectives and concerns. Comparative theology should not become the last refuge for religious nostalgia. In Europe, interreligious relationships (and hence comparative theologies should not be isolated from simple or more sophisticated forms of indifference, agnosticism, or atheism. The active presence of a non-religious environment as well as the growing interest in Buddhism, are challenges to comparative theology: its contents, its approach, its intended audience.
..., on the basis of religion or religious belief. (f) If a State or local government voluntarily..., practice and expression of its religious beliefs, provided that it does not use direct financial...
Freda van der Walt
Full Text Available Although perceived religious discrimination has been studied in the past, much remains unknown about the topic. The focus of this study was the Rastafari religion, because this religious group has up to now been excluded from research studies. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with a sample of 80 employees belonging to the Rastafari religion, chosen from organisations in two provinces in South Africa. The findings emanating from the quantitative research study indicated that, on average, the respondents perceived to be discriminated against. Furthermore, a positive relationship was established between perceived religious discrimination and work engagement. These findings advanced the understanding of perceived religious discrimination, and the impact that it may have on work engagement, particularly with reference to the Rastafari religion.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article contributes to the interdisciplinary discourse regarding perceived religious discrimination, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion which is a minority religious group in South Africa. Perceived religious discrimination is discussed and investigated in the context of the workplace, and the aim was to establish whether perceived religious discrimination influences work-related attitudes, such as work engagement. Because previous studies have associated perceived discrimination with less job involvement and career satisfaction, fewer career prospects, greater work conflict, lower feelings of power, decreased job prestige, and less organisational citizenship behaviour (Thomas 2008:80, it was expected that perceived religious discrimination would have a negative influence on work engagement. The findings show that religion possibly provides individuals with the necessary personal resources to persevere when faced with religious discrimination, and sustain performance as well as attain success within the context of the
Daniel H. Olsen
Full Text Available Academic studies on tourism market segmentation have decreased in scale over time, with the focus on tourist segmentation changing from segmenting the market as a whole to segmenting specific tourism niche markets. This change in scale can also be seen in how academics have attempted to segment the religious tourism market moving from discussions related to the pilgrim-tourist dichotomy to segmenting visitors based on religious affiliation to world regions and countries to specific religious activities such as religious festivals and infrastructural amenities such as hotels. In this paper the author, following Wall’s (1997 discussion of the spatial characteristics of tourist attractions (i.e., points, lines, and areas, raises the question as to whether there is a scalar difference in the motivations and the ‘expectation of experience’ of: people who travel to specific religious sites (points; those who travel along religiously - themed routes (lines and; those who travel to the Holy Land (area. To answer this question the author looks at and compares three case studies - Cathedrals in the United Kingdom (point, the Camino de Santiago de Compostela (line, and the Holy Land (area - and summarizes the academic literature pertaining to the characteristics, motivations and expectations of experience of visitors to these locations. Cursory findings show that there are differences regarding the motivations and the ‘expectation of experience’ of people who travel to religious points versus religious lines and religious areas.
Merve Halıcı Kurtulan
Full Text Available In this study, the associations among death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, existential anxiety, and religious tendencies were examined. In addition, this study investigated whether these variables changed with respect to demographic characteristics. The study group was composed of 404 university students. Data was collected by administering the personal demographic form, Death Anxiety Scale, Existential Scale, Religious Tendency Scale, and Spirituality Scale. In line with the purpose of the study, the relational screening model and descriptive methods have been used and participants are identified as study groups. Male participants scored significantly higher than female participants. Gender was not found to have an effect on the other variables. Existential anxiety did not differ within groups with respect to having a religious education. Participants who had received a religious education had higher death anxiety and less spiritual tendencies. Motivation for religious tendencies was found to be external. According to the results, death anxiety and existential anxiety are negatively correlated; existential anxiety and spiritual tendencies are positively correlated; and religious tendencies, which have externally motivations, and spiritual tendencies are negatively correlated. Death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, and religious tendencies predict existential anxiety. As suggestions, the number of studies that examine the associations among existential anxiety, religious tendencies, and spiritual tendencies should be increased, and the quality of religious education should be discussed in detail.
de Kock, A.
This article questions the implications of tribal forms of religious socialization for (religious) schools' and communities' contributions to the religious formation of Christian youth. It clarifies that the religious education of a new generation of young Christians requires authorities and communities to connect in a worldwide pedagogical space…
As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…
A dialogic approach to religious education is advanced in which subject matter emerges or transforms in the educational event. An example of religious dialogue is considered, through which it is demonstrated that religious education, in order to be considered educational, must take seriously the possibility of the transformation of its subject…
Rietveld, C.A.; Burg, van J.C.
Religious beliefs are known to correlate with a wide range of socio-economic behaviors. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence
Nietzsche accused Socrates of being degenerate. The question is posed whether practitioners of contemporary religious education may be suffering from this condition, in particular through the modern practice of associating religion with secular philosophies or "beliefs". Through the examination of tolerance and "respect for all" in the…
Barash, David P.
In this article, the author discusses the tensions between science and religion. According to recent books--many of them by prominent biologists--the era of deference to religious belief--belief without evidence--is ending as faith is subjected to gimlet-eyed scrutiny. Like Mark Twain's celebrated comment about stopping smoking, scholars have…
Nietzsche accused Socrates of being degenerate. The question is posed whether practitioners of contemporary religious education may be suffering from this condition, in particular through the modern practice of associating religion with secular philosophies or "beliefs". Through the examination of tolerance and "respect for…
Schenker, Joscph G
It is important to those who practise reproductive techniques to learn about different religious perspectives related to reproductive health problems. Religious groups are active in influencing the public regarding bioethical positions, and this is particularly evident with issues concerning procreation, abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. The attitude toward reproductive practice varies among Christian groups. While assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, it may be practised by Protestant, Anglican and other denominations. According to traditional Christian views, beginning at conception, the embryo has moral status as a human being, and thus most assisted reproductive technologies are forbidden. According to Islam, the procedures of IVF and embryo transfer are acceptable, although they can be performed only for husband and wife. Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. This paper presents the attitude of monotheistic religions to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.
Cohen-Malayev, Maya; Schachter, Elli P; Rich, Yisrael
This study investigated the effects of religious education on student religious identity over and above parent religiosity by examining student perceptions of two aspects of teacher functioning: teacher caring and teacher as role-model. We posited that effects of these variables on students' religious identity are mediated by student perceptions that the school provides a non-alienating religious atmosphere and meaningful religious studies. Participants were 2691 male and female students (grades 9-12) in 152 classes of 25 schools from the Jewish public-religious sector in Israel. Results indicate that in addition to their parents' religiosity, adolescents' perceptions of their teachers as role models and their religious studies as meaningful are important variables affecting their religious identity. Moreover, this research suggests that religious identity formation processes flourish in an educational environment which students perceive as accommodating religious exploration.
Seol, Kyoung Ok; Lee, Richard M
This study examined religious identity as a mediator and moderator between religious socialization by parents, peers, and religious mentors and psychosocial functioning (i.e., social competence, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems) among 155 Korean American adolescents. Religious socialization by parents and peers were positively associated with adolescents' religious identity and social competence. Religious identity fully mediated the relationship between religious socialization by parents and social competence, and partially mediated the relationship between religious socialization by peers and social competence. A competing model with religious identity as a moderator found adolescents with low religious identity showed significantly more externalizing behavior problems when they received more religious socialization from parents.
Full Text Available The Protestant church in Morocco is struggling with tensions as it navigates between being a church organisation and being – in its work with refugees and migrants – something more like a non-governmental organisation.
Ali Reza Rajaei
Full Text Available "nFrom the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role ,and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health ; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies . Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific ,comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested . Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis , depression , and anxiety ; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well . Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area.
Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious
Full Text Available The significance of religious rituals often reaches beyond their strict religious intentions. Specifically a procession, performed in front of the public, is a most effective instrument of disseminating a message to the crowds. Consequently, this ritual, as is well known, has often been used not only in religious but also in secular contexts; a procession under the cloak of religion can even become a politically useful medium to avoid popular disturbances on peaceful terms. This was the case in ancient Ephesus, where Roman power conflicted with Greek culture from the middle of the first century B.C. onwards. In the beginning of the second century A.D. the public religious life in the city of Ephesus was to a great extent characterized by processions relating to the cult of Artemis Ephesia. The one traditionally performed on the birthday of the goddess called to mind the Greek origin of the city; it was strictly associated with the religious sphere bringing about a close relationship between the goddess and her adherents. The other, artificially created by a Roman, was entirely secular, and spread its message every fortnight in the streets of Ephesus. It referred to the political field of action and intended to strengthen the Roman rule over the city. The Greek origin of Ephesian culture was later included in the message of the procession, reminding the Greeks not to rebel against Roman rule.
Full Text Available Means of harmonization of religious discourse are considered by studying communicational behaviour (verbal and nonverbal between the religion institution and believers. The following factors defining specificity of realization of harmonization in Orthodox and other religious texts are taken into account: the communication channel between the author and the reader, a defining speech genre, the command of language (communication code, and extra-linguistic factors. It is shown that sharing the general social, historical and national experience, as well as a lexical overlapping of actors on both sides of the communication channel are the deciding elements of the harmonization process. The analysis also shows that usage of rational argumentation is more likely to lead to harmonisation in comparison to other rhetoric tools (i. e. affective ones or story-telling. Rational and unemotional sermonic discourse is perceived as a sign of respect (namely, for the listener's intelligence. Another successful and much-applied way seems to be evoking a feeling of equality, unity and/or identity between clerics and their flocks.
Full Text Available The following article analyzes the 3 chief threats facing religious liberty today in Europe, namely: (1 hate speech legislation; (2 anti-discrimination laws; (3 attacks on parental rights. Concrete examples are given of offenses to religious freedom. Additionally, the black letter law is set out in each section with suggested action points for national governments. The Article also discusses the Lautsi v. Italy judgment of the European Court of Human Rights, explaining its importance and using it as evidence to establish the political nature of the Strasbourg based court.
Full Text Available Rapid changes in the ways of survival in human societies, passing quickly from pre-industrial to industrial societies or industrial societies to knowledge societies, characterized by innovation and constant change, require a kind of a non religious spirituality not tied to beliefs. No need to go to Eastern spiritual traditions, Buddhism, Yoga or Advaita Vedanta to show and experience the possibility of a non-religious spirituality; also within the Christian tradition, we find authors that allow non-religious spirituality. We can count on an important notion of Nicholas of Cusa: The "No-Other" as the absolute dimension of all reality. The Cusano considers that this term is more appropriate to describe that absolute of all reality then the term God. It is also very convenient to live a spirituality that does not divide reality into two poles: the mundane and the divine, the relative and absolute in this world and the next.
Juan Illicachi Guzñay
Full Text Available El trabajo examina el papel de la religión en la educación y en la sociedad, y la relación entre religión, educación y la producción de subjetividades en los grupos subalternos, particularmente en los indígenas y la población estudiantil, pero antes justifica la vigencia del presente tema en el escenario geopolítico de Riobamba. Para abordar lo planteado, las preguntas que guían el desarrollo del presente artículo son: ¿cuál es el rol de la religión en la sociedad y, específicamente, en la educación? ¿Existen incidencias del “campo” religioso en el “campo” educativo? ¿Qué tipo de subjetividad construye tanto el campo educativo como el religioso?
Full Text Available This paper tackles the issue of women and religion through a particular looking glass: religious utterances such as curses, supplication, and prayer, as reflected in some passages from ancient Greek epic and tragedy—pivotal literary genres in the ideological discourse of the Greek polis.
Full Text Available In the late 1940s there was a Religious Society (Bratstvo in Belogradchik. This is a narrative for the social activity of that society. A trip to the Rila Monastery in 1946 is described. This communal activity was not favoured by the local government of the town.
Zverev V. P.
Full Text Available The article examines the lyrical beginning of P. P. Yershov's poetry and his religious feelings. The whole of his world outlook and creativity gives particular harmony to poetical works and allows the author to embrace the world in all its diverse divine beauty.
Full Text Available In Aranguren’s work the religious dimension is crucial, when he deals with it from the point of view of the “religious studies” and also when he deals with it from the ethical perspective. In the second case Aranguren speaks about an “ethics open to religion”. The article tries to show that in the second case there is an evolution in Aranguren’s thought with two stages. In the first one, religion appears as the satisfaction of human aspirations, rooted in an ethics which is grounded in metaphysics. In the second one God appears as a possible answer to questions open from the perspective of a hermeneutic- narrative ethics.En la obra de Aranguren la dimensión religiosa es crucial, cuando la trata desde la perspectiva de los “estudios religiosos” y cuando se ocupa de ella desde la perspectiva ética. En este segundo caso, Aranguren habla de una “ética abierta a la religión”. El artículo trata de mostrar que en este segundo caso se produce una evolución en el pensamiento de Aranguren, en la que cabe distinguir dos etapas. En la primera de ellas la religión se presenta como la culminación de todas las aspiraciones del hombre desde una ética fundamentada en la metafísica. En la segunda etapa Dios aparece como posible respuesta a preguntas abiertas desde una ética hermenéutico-narrativa.
Full Text Available What does a sacred text look like? Are religious books materially different from other books? Does materiality matter? This article deals with three different aspects of material variance attested amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls, Ancient Jewish religious text fragments, of which were found in the Judean Desert. I suggest that the substitution of the ancient Hebrew script by the everyday Aramaic script, also for Torah and other religious texts, was intentional and programmatic: it enabled the broader diffusion of scriptures in Hellenistic and Roman Judea. The preponderant use of parchment for religious texts rather than papyrus may be a marker of identity. The many small scrolls which contained only small parts of specific religious books (Genesis, Psalms may have been produced as religious artefacts which express identity in the period when Judaism developed into a religion of the book. Keywords: Dead Sea Scrolls; Judaism; Manuscripts
Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas
of these activities (heart rate variability, blood pressure, cortisol and oxytocin levels). Questionnaires and short interviews will give us a further assessment of the pain experience of the participants, their religious beliefs and practices as well as their previous experience with religious coping strategies. We......Does religion provide placebo analgesia? The purpose of our project is to understand religious coping and specifically how it might be understood a coping strategy for religious people who experience pain. The project is an interdisciplinary study joining different faculties and academic...... resonance imaging) experiments and use experimental pain stimuli to assess how a target group of religious participants react to and experience pain during religious activities/stimuli, prayer and religious symbols. In addition, different biomarkers will be measured to register the somatic response...
of the possibilities and problems pertaining to attempts to bring religious – or semi-religious – allegiances and perspectives to bear in responses to the mass atrocities of our time: When and how can religious language or religious beliefs and practices be either necessary or helpful? And what are the problems......A peculiar and fascinating aspect of many responses to mass atrocities is the creative and eclectic use of religious language and frameworks. Some crimes are so extreme that they “cry out to heaven,” drawing people to employ religious vocabulary to make meaning of and to judge what happened......, to deal with questions of guilt and responsibility, and to re-establish hope and trust in their lives. Moreover, in recent years, religious actors have become increasingly influential in worldwide contexts of conflict-resolution and transitional justice. This collection offers a critical assessment...
Helton Christopher Jason
Full Text Available This paper will discuss the challenges posed by modern conceptions of Hinduism - in particular Heinrich von Stietencron’s conception of a “collection of religions” and Romila Thapar’s application of Benedict Anderson’s theory of “imagined communities” to Hinduism-to the European style of religious studies, particularly at the undergraduate level.
Jalal Uddin Khan
Full Text Available Diversity is the essence and spirit of America or the West both as a place and a people. Islam also allows for diversity within its concept of unity and oneness of God. Muslims, therefore, have no problem co-existing in peace with the Jews, Christians and the followers of other religions. Problems arise (a when secular values or principles disturb the working balance of the otherwise mutually exclusive religious diversity and harmony in America; (b when one follows opportunist policies, practices double standards, and is moved by mere worldly or political interests; and (c when war against the Zionist-and-neoconservative-manufactured terrorism turns into war against Islam. Such misleading and mischievous tendencies or policies prevent peace from prevailing, which ultimately tarnish the image of religions in the eyes of their followers and those of the rest making a mockery of the idea of religious diversity even in the so-called most democratic country called the United States of America!
Full Text Available Umi Supraptingsih (Penulis, dosen STAIN Pamekasan, Jl. Raya Panglegur Km. 04 Pamekasan Abstract The act of begging of beggar appears tradition for generations and it becomes inheritant profession. Social and economic characteristics of beggar are influenced by several factors---natural and human resources. Places of beggar to do begging, Api Tak Kunjung Padam (eternal flame and Batu Ampar, are distinctive. The former is the common tourism spot, but the later is the religous tourism place. The factors cause the begging are the natural setting condition that does not support the beggar to earn sufficient income, the low level of education, inedequate parenting pattern, less religious teaching comprehension, the extinct of abahsment, and instant needs. Establishing an actual cultural communication and asking the participation of stake holders---philantropist, academician, public figure, religious scholar, and government, will hopefully decrease the number of beggar. Kata-kata kunci tradisi, mengemis, dan kebutuhan hidup
Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidt, Niels Christian
Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age. Information about demographics, religiousness and religious coping was obtained through a web-based questionnaire. We organized religiousness in the three dimensions: Cognition, Practice and Importance, and we assessed religious coping using the brief RCOPE questionnaire. We found substantial gender differences in both religiousness and religious coping. Nearly, 60 % of the women believed in some sort of spirit or in God compared to 40 % of the men. Generally, both men and women scored low on the RCOPE scale. However, for respondents reporting high levels of religiousness, the proportion of men who scored high in the RCOPE exceeded the proportion of women in using positive and especially negative coping strategies. Also, in a secular society, women are found to be more religious than men, but in a subset of the most religious respondents, men were more inclined to use religious coping. Further studies on religious coping in secular societies are required.
@@ It would be impossible to understand India without any knowledge about the religions of this country. India is a developing country with many religions, nationalities and languages. This nation has long been noted for its democratic politics and multiculture. India was founded on the principle of secularism, but at the same time it has suffered from religions. Therefore, to have a clear idea about the basic conditions of India's multiple religious beliefs is the foundation for studies of its religions of the country, and is also one key to grasping Indian social politics. In early September 2004, the Indian government published religious data from the 2001 census. Accordingly, we can make some basic judgments about the religions in today's India.
Full Text Available It has almost passed one century from the emergence of the idea of the inter-religious dialog. The idea, being based on the assumption that no religion has the absolute truth, believes that there is the possibility of the dialog between all the existent religions in the social world. The dialog could make the coexistence and peace between the religions possible. The importance of this issue is increasingly growing and different ideas have been presented in the different religion departments worldwide. After the Iranian Islamic Revolution, a new image of Islam was offered to the world. An image whose true exposure made the use of the inter-religious dialog unavoidable. This also caused appearance of different views between the Muslim scholars. This article seeks to provide a presentation of three different approaches to the inter-religious dialog by exploring the works of three eminent scholars in the field; Mohaghegh Damad, Abolhassan Navab and Mohammad Masjed Jamei. These three approaches are: · Inter-religious dialog as an interaction-oriented action · Inter-religious dialog as a necessity-oriented action · Inter-religious dialog as a backgroubd-oriented action The necessity-oriented action is the approach taken by Mohaghegh Damad. He emphasizes on the acceptance of other religions. The active action referring to this acceptance is the foundation of this approach. This approach, accepting the developmental discourse in the meaning of inter-religious dialog, believes that this kind of dialog has been evolved from defensive and opposing to a new meaning. Hence, the inter-religious dialog in its new meaning possesses three conditions; the existence of common rights, emphasis on mutual respect and the effort for the two sides for religious exchange. This approach assumes that we must first establish a pattern from the current experiences of inter-religious dialogs in order to have an ideal cooperation and to fortify it
Full Text Available This article has three parts: in the first part the authors discusses two theoretical ways of interpreting revival and revitalization of religion in Serbia. The first way takes religion as a public institution and implies mutual support of religious and non-religious factors, while the other way describes independent, internal religious revival emerging from the very core of religion and church as a divine institution and individual spiritual needs of believers for religiousness (terminal faith. In the second part, the author points to two different interpretations of empirical data on attachment to religion and church in Serbia accumulated in the last thirty years. The third part compares socio-demographic characteristics of religious people from twenty-five years ago and characteristics of contemporary believers.
Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H
Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.
Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH
Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349
Ronald Mayora Synnes
Full Text Available Denne artikkelen sammenligner unge muslimer og kristnes forståelseav sin religiøsitet. Artikkelen bygger på kvalitative intervjuer av åtte unge muslimer og kristne i Oslo. Individualisering er ofte sett som et nøkkelbegrep i forståelsen av ungdoms mentalitet og religiøsitet. Hovedspørsmålet i denne artikkelen er hvordan ungdommene begrunner sine religiøse valg. Analysen viser at det er mange likheter mellom de muslimske og kristne informantene. Både unge muslimer og kristne ønsker å markere et skille i ungdomstiden, der deres religiøsitet går fra åvære en del av foreldrenes religiøsitet til å bli deres egenvalgtetro og overbevisning. Dette skjer på tross av at alle informanteneender opp med en religiøsitet som ligger nært opp til detde forteller om foreldrenes religiøsitet. Forskjellen mellom demuslimske og kristne informantene er at mens muslimer fortellerom et spenningsfylt møte med storsamfunnet, og at deresetniske og kulturelle opprinnelse står sentralt i deres religiøsediskurs, er dette ikke tema for de kristne informantene.
Full Text Available Social identity threats, depending on the content of the identity targeted, may evoke varying socio-political responses. In this regard, religious discrimination may be especially threatening, challenging both the social group and its belief system, thereby promoting more active collective responses. This research examined how religious and ethnic identification differentially evoked engagement with support resources (ingroup and spiritual, civic involvement (including individual and collective action-taking, and political participation (voting or political consciousness following group-based threats. Study 1 drew from the Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey (N = 1806. Participants who reported religious discrimination demonstrated greater religious identification, ingroup social engagement, and civic involvement—comparable associations were absent for ethnic discrimination. Study 2 (N = 287 experimentally primed participants to make salient a specific incident of religious or ethnic discrimination. Although ethnic discrimination elicited greater ingroup support-seeking and political consciousness, religious discrimination was perceived as especially harmful and evoked more individual and collective action-taking. Further to this, religious high-identifiers’ responses were mediated by engagement with ingroup or spiritual support in both studies, whereas no mediated relations were evident for ethnic identification. Findings are discussed in terms of distinct socio-political responses to threats targeting identities that are grounded in religious belief systems.
John M. Clements
Full Text Available Recent droughts in 2012 and 2013 have increased attention to water use issues in the United States. Cities, government agencies, and environmental nonprofit organizations use scientifically-framed messages to advocate for water conservation. In addition, some religious organizations use messages based on religious teachings to promote water conservation. Because approximately 70% of the U.S. public reports some religious affiliation, it is important to investigate the influence of religious and scientific messages for promoting water conservation. I report the results of an experiment that examines how scientifically- and religiously-framed messages influence attitudes about water use restrictions. I found that Christians were no more or less likely to agree with a policy calling for water use restrictions than non-Christians and non-religious people. However, a Christian religious message negatively influenced agreement with water use restrictions in the entire sample—and in a Christian subsample. Results suggest that religiously framed messages may not increase environmental concern.
Kay, William K.
British researcher Ronald Goldman's attempts to apply Piagetian theory to children's interpretation of biblical narratives illustrates that the theory is ill suited to text interpretation. However, there are ways that child psychology can contribute to religious education. (SK)
Đurović Aleksandar; Sovilj Saša; Đokić Ivana; Brdareski Zorica; Vukomanović Aleksandra; Ilić Nataša; Milavić-Vujković Merica
Introduction. Religious needs of patients are consistently being neglected in the clinical medicine. Pastoral care is a religious support which a religious patient receives from priests, chaplains, imams, rabbis or other religious authorities. Religious support, in terms of clinical medicine, is a spiritual support which religious patients obtain from religious and trained medical workers. The aim of this report was to present the effects of pastoral care a...
Hustwit J. R.
Full Text Available The reaction to multiple religious belonging has been fraught with anxiety in the monotheistic traditions. Nevertheless, increasing numbers of people report belonging to multiple religions. I propose that it is most useful to think of multiple religious belonging not so much as an expression of choice, but just the opposite. Multiple religious belonging is best explained as the ontological condition of two or more religious traditions constituting the self, so that the self’s possibilities are constrained by those religions. Furthermore, I argue that multiple religious belonging per se does not threaten traditional religious communities. Threats are by definition future possibilities, and ontologically speaking, we always already belong to multiple religions. We belong to multiple religions because every religious tradition is an amalgam of earlier distinct traditions. There is nothing new about multiple religious belonging. It is nearly unremarkable. Two philosophers in particular-one a twentieth-century German phenomenologist, the other a second-century Indian Buddhist-have given particularly careful examination of the phenomenon of belonging. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s concept of Wirkungsgeschichte [history of effects] and Nāgārjuna’s teaching of śūnyatā [emptiness] both imply that multiple religious belonging is the ontological condition of all human beings, and that producing any monolithic religious identity requires significant mental gymnastics.
Luiz Henrique Lemos
Full Text Available LEMOS, Luiz Henrique. A Psicologia da religião Ocidental e Oriental: a influência do círculo de Eranos no atendimento da religião na perspectiva de Carl Gustav Jung. 2013. 127f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências da Religião – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte.
Ah. Fawaid Ah. Fawaid
Full Text Available Ah. Fawaid (Penulis, dosen STAIN Pamekasan, Jl. Pahlawan Km. 04 Pamekasan, Kontak, email@example.com Abstract The journey to the sacred place is a fairly old tradition. In the history of ancient civilization, the sacred place became a magnet for religious believers to do the pilgrimage and magical rituals. The sacred place has become a tourist object from generation to generation. To visit the sacred place is not always identical with rural communities, communities that often are identified as followers of khurafat. Visiting the sacred place is also a city-educated public interest. Like the form of tourism in general, visiting the sacred place may be just pure entertainment, education, or indeed release a spiritual thirst for community. Kata-kata kunci tourism, wisata religius, migrasi, travel
Full Text Available The present study aimed at identifying the procedures for current methods of religious slaughter. It consisted of spot visits in abattoirs carried out from October 2008 to March 2009 in Italy. The species covered were cattle, sheep and poultry. During this period, five abattoirs in three different Italian regions were assessed. All the animals were slaughtered without stunning. A reliable protocol was developed to record each animal during slaughter, to get 329 minutes and 28 seconds of video. 313 animals were observed by video image analysis for both halal slaughter and shechita. Observed parameters are discussed in the light of animal welfare. Remarks on restraining methods as well as post-cut clinical indicators of consciousness are considered.
Full Text Available Religiöse Jugendsprache und verschiedene methodische Zugänge, diese zu erheben, stehen im Zentrum dieses Beitrags. Dabei zeigt sich zum einen, dass die methodischen Herangehensweisen durchwegs stark von traditionell religiösen Begrifflichkeiten ausgehen, zum anderen, dass Jugendliche keine religiöse Sondersprache verwenden, aber auf kreative Art auf traditionelle Sprachelemente zurückgreifen. In religionspädagogischen Weiterüberlegungen werden Möglichkeiten der religiösen Sprachförderung Jugendlicher durch das Weiterdenken und Einbringen von Grundanliegen der ‚religiösen Sprachlehre’ von Halbfas in das Grundkonzept des ‚jugendtheologischen Denkens‘ bedacht. Between speechlessness, everyday language and language, that leads beyond everything. Discovering und reinforcing of religious youth-language This article focuses on religious youth-language and different methodical approaches to determine it. On the one hand it illustrates, that the different methodical approaches are consistently based on traditional religious terms. And on the other hand it shows that adolescents don’t use a specific religious language, but rather resort to traditional language elements in a creative way. Further considerations in regard to religious education investigate the possibilities to reinforce the religious language skills of adolescents – especially by rethinking and applying basic principles of the ‚religious language teaching’ by Halbfas to the main concept of the ‚youth theological thinking’.
Full Text Available Texto originalmente apresentado como aula inaugural do Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião da PUC Minas. Trata da epistemologia e dos desafios da investigação em Ciências da Religião. Partindo do problema de base da religiosidade na Educação, do fenômeno religioso e sua dimensão profunda, o artigo segue uma densa investigação sobre os limites e horizontes das Ciências da Religião.Palavras-chave: Ciências da Religião; Religião; Religiosidade; Educação; Ensino religioso.ABSTRACTThis text was originally presented as the opening class of the Postgraduate Programme in Sciences of Religion of PUC Minas. It concerns the epistemology and challenges of investigation in Sciences of Religion. Starting from the fundamental question of religiosity in Education, of the religious phenomenon and its deep dimension, the article embarks on a close investigation into the limits and horizons of the Sciences of Religion.Key words: Sciences of religions; Religion; Religiosity; Education; Religious teaching.
Full Text Available In victimology, fear of crime is understood as an emotional response to the perceived threat of crime. Fear of crime has been found to be affected by several variables besides local crime rates and personal experiences with victimization. This study examines the relationship between religion and fear of crime, an underexplored topic in the criminological literature. This gap is rather surprising given the central role religion has been found to play in shaping the attitudes and perceptions of congregants. In particular, religion has been found to foster generalized trust, which should engender lower levels of distrust or misanthropy, including that which is directed towards a general fear of crime. OLS regression was performed using data from the West Georgia Area Survey (n = 380. Controlling for demographic, community involvement, and political ideology variables, frequency of religious attendance was significantly and negatively associated with fear of property crime. This relationship remained even after a perceived neighborhood safety variable was introduced to the model. However, religious attendance was not significantly related to fear of violent crime, and religious orientation was unrelated to fear of property and violent crime. These results suggest that religious involvement conditionally reduces fear of crime, and the authors recommend that future research explore relationships between religion and fear of crime.
Full Text Available O presente artigo procura sintetizar o debate entre três autores sobre o Cristianismo e Religiões. Sendo o Cristianismo o tema central, a sua atitude em relação a outras religiões é apresentada numa forma mais ampla por Frei Félix Neefjes. Depois discute-se o Judaísmo (Reynaldo Luiz Calvo e o Islamismo (Daniel José Fernandes Rocha e as atitudes recíprocas entre essas três religiões.
Full Text Available In 2000, the South African Constitutional Court ruled that religious freedom, including the exercise of religious rituals, may not contradict the laws of the country. This ruling came as a result of the Western Cape Law Society�s refusal to admit a Rastafarian as lawyer because of his habit of smoking marijuana. He appealed to the Constitutional Court and claimed that the ruling infringed upon his right to religious freedom. The Constitutional Court upheld the decision that no exception may be made for one religion.�
Kramp, Joseph M
Panikkar's (The intra-religious dialogue, 1978) classic, re-issued by Paulist Press in 1999, grapples with the theological challenges in the disciplines of comparative theology and the theology of religions through what he terms, "intra-religious dialogue." In this psychology of religious plurality, I use works from a variety of disciplines to highlight the achievements of Panikkar's intra-religious dialogue, as well as to critique his work in the hope of finding categories of understanding that can be profitably used to face the inter-personal crises of the contemporary world, namely religious terrorism.
Presents activities in which students are asked to (1) identify sources of duties affecting individual behavior; (2) define and give examples of legal, as well as social, religious and moral duties; (3) and compare social, religious, moral, and legal duties and discuss their relationships. (DB)
Nielsen, Marie Vejrup
The article examines references to a specific religious heritage (Lutheran Christianity) within the debate sections of two national Danish newspapers. The aim of the analysis is to provide empirical data as a background for a discussion of conflicts concerning the connection between religious her...
Religious beliefs and traditions shape cultural and personal understandings of life issues, and, in turn, are shaped by new understanding in other arenas of life, such as medicine, science, and politics. Religious and faith traditions have sometimes enshrined prevailing attitudes about disability and differences but have also challenged them.…
This document is an outline for a three-week unit of study focusing on religious syncretism in Mexico as part of a community college course in comparative religions or philosophy of religion. While this outline is intended to give information and direction to the instructor wishing to use Mexico as an example of religious syncretism, unit goals…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Religious rights. 638.536 Section 638.536 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.536 Religious rights. The...
Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario
Addresses the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education, challenges the popular view that science and religion are compatible or complementary. Discusses differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological, and attitudinal levels. Argues that religious education should be kept…
... call America home and seek to follow their consciences in peace. Our long history of religious... United States of America A Proclamation For nearly four centuries, men and women have immigrated to America's shores in pursuit of religious freedom. Hailing from diverse backgrounds and faiths,...
Higgins, Gregory C.
Argues that there is a relationship between theology and religious education. Outlines the metaphysical, experiential-expressivism, and cultural linguistic approaches to religious study. Discusses the teaching methodologies of catechism and experiential learning which dominate the various approaches. Examines the impact of postliberalism on…
Duyndam, J.; Poorthuis, M.; Wit, Th. de
* Recensie door Peter Henk Steenhuis ('Theologen zoeken met filosofen naar een menselijke God') in Trouw, De Verdieping, Religie en Filosofie, 28-09-2005, zie: http://www.trouw.nl/deverdieping/religie_filosofie/article21697.ece/Theologen+zoeken+met+filosofen+naar+een+menselijke+God#readmore * Bespr
"Twenty million Americans are involved in fringe religious cults such as spiritualism, Hare Krishna, Scientology, and Black Gospel groups," according to anthropologist Irving Zaretsky of the University of Chicago. He recently completed a 10-year period as a participant-observer of fringe religious groups in the San Francisco Bay area and the…
The religious thought of Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy is a well documented but often overlooked example of unorthodox Christianity. This paper uses the example of Tolstoy's religious thinking to question the integrity of the current representation of Christianity in UK schools. It also uses Tolstoy's criticism of orthodox Christianity to suggest a…
E de Waal,
Full Text Available This article investigates and compares the different approaches towards the dress code of learners1 in South Africa and the United States of America (US, as the US mainly base litigation concerning school dress code on their freedom of speech/expression clause, while similar South African court cases focus more on religious and cultural freedom. In South Africa, school principals and School Governing Bodies are in dire need of clear guidelines on how to respect and honour the constitutionally entrenched right to all of the different religions and cultures. The crisis of values in education arises from the disparity between the value system espoused by the school and the community, and that expressed in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, which guarantees learners' fundamental rights, including those of freedom of religion, culture, expression and human dignity. On the one hand, the South African Schools Act requires of School Governing Bodies to develop and implement a Code of Conduct for learners, and on the other, that they strictly adhere to the Constitution of the country when drawing up their dress codes. The right of a religious group to practise its religion or of a cultural group to respect and sustain its culture must be consistent with the provisions of the Bill of Rights (which is entrenched in the Constitution and this implies that other rights may not infringe on the right to freedom of religion and culture. In the US, although there is no legislation that protects learners' freedom of religion and culture at schools, their First Amendment guides the way. Their Supreme Court respects the religious values of all citizens provided that they are manifested off public school premises. While we acknowledge the existence of religious and cultural diversity at South African schools, this paper focuses on the tension among and on the existence of different approaches towards the human rights of learners from different
Jiménez Bautista, Francisco
Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo pretende diagnosticar cómo los jóvenes construyen su identidad religiosa en relación a la asistencia de los oficios religiosos y la religión que profesan. Para ello, presentamos el estudio de los jóvenes de Granada, España (desde los 14 a los 25 años en la construcción de su identidad religiosa a lo largo de los años 2000, 2004 y 2008, destacando su relación de cómo los jóvenes viven, sienten y perciben su religión. La conclusión a la que llegamos en dicho artículo que es la crisis de valores que están emergiendo en la sociedad occidental conduce a transformar el fenómeno religioso de los no inmigrantes en algo con un fuerte componente de fe, relaciones sociales y símbolos, mientras que los inmigrantes si suelen expresar su religiosidad con bastante frecuencia. Abstract: In this paper we to diagnose how young people construct their religious identity in relation to the attendance of religious services and religion that they profess. The results obtained are based in a study of the youth of Granada (Andalusia, Spain whose age is between 14 and 25 years during 2000, 2004 and 2008 to obtain the features about the youth in Granada how y live, feel and perceive their religion. The main conclusion was that the crisis of values emerging in Western societies leads to transform the religious phenomenon of non-migrants into something with a strong element of faith, social relations and symbols, while immigrants tend to express quite often their religiosity.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the structural preconditions of articulation of religious identities in Bosnia-Herzegovina from the historical perspective. These have been produced by the processes of Christianization and Islamization at the intersection of heterogeneous origin of Bosnian-Herzegovinian population, the influence of paganism and folk beliefs, and the geopolitical situation on the border line between the great empires. Due to the influence of these factors, these processes have never been successful in encompassing the entire population, which has always been divided among several simultaneously co-existing religious institutions: Catholicism, Christian Orthodoxy, the Bosnian Church and Islam. Through the institution of Millet, allowing its subjects relative cultural and social freedoms within their religious communities, the Ottoman Empire provides the communities with preconditions for ethnic modelling, but also for “political” articulation. The interplay of these agents has provided a base for interaction among the religious groups, which can be seen at two complementary levels: the vertical one, “the political”, ruled by hierarchical and discriminative relations; and the lateral one, “the social”, which is a sphere of egalitarian trans- and inter-ethnic social practices. Both levels have their religious aspects: at the first, it is about institutionalized religions; at the second, about “folk” religion, a syncretism of pre-Christian tradition and Christian and Islamic elements. Hence, religion has been acting in a totalizing way in Bosnian-Herzegovinian society, appearing both as a primary repertoire of symbolic elements and as a basic mechanism of further group identifications – ethnic and national.
Shilo, Guy; Yossef, Ifat; Savaya, Riki
The present study examined the effects of positive and negative religious coping strategies on the mental health of 113 Israeli gay and bisexual Jewish males with high levels of religiosity, and how sexual identity formation (internalized homophobia and coming out) and societal variables (family and friends' acceptance of sexual orientation and social connections within the LGBT community) mitigated the effects of religious coping strategies on mental health. Findings showed that when dealing with the stress arising from the conflict between religious and sexual identities, individuals used both positive and negative religious coping strategies, but only negative religious coping was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, only in the presence of social resources (social connections with the LGBT community and the acceptance of sexual orientation by friends), did the use of positive religious coping result in better mental health outcomes. These findings underlined the importance of these resilience social factors in the lives of religious Jewish gay and bisexual men.
Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels
WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...... other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications...
Full Text Available The aim of this study: The study is to investigate predictive values of the religious meaning system, the centrality of religiosity and social support for mental health outcomes. Although there is some evidence about associations of religiousness and social support with mental health, insufficient data exists to explain which dimensions of religiousness and social support are related to mental health outcomes. Material and methods: Participants were 206 people (108 women and 98 men randomly recruited in southern parts of Poland. Their ages ranged from 18 to 78 years, with a mean age of 38.6 years (SD =16.44. All participants filled in the four questionnaires: The Religious Meaning System Questionnaire, The Centrality of Religiosity Scale, The Berlin Social Support Scales, and The General Health Questionnaire-28. Results: Both religiousness and social support are associated with mental health outcomes, but the character of these associations depends on particular dimensions. The religious meaning system and the centrality of religiosity showed negative links with the dimension of mental health called somatic symptoms. Actually received support was associated with better mental health, whereas need for support and protective buffering support were predictors of negative mental health outcomes. Discussion and conclusions: The findings support the hypotheses that religiousness and social support are predictive factors for mental health outcomes, though their effects are rather moderate or weak. Both religion and social support can influence mental health by imbuing life with a sense of meaning and significance, and offering fellowship in times of stress and suffering.
Seyyed Hassan Adeli
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible contraction of airways. Coping strategies can reduce the negative impact of the disease in individuals or cause incompatible behaviors by negative effect. This study aimed to evaluate the religious coping strategies in asthma patients and the relationship of religious coping and general health. Methods: The study included 102 asthmatic patients referred to the pulmonary clinic of Shahid Beheshti hospital of Qom. Brief religious coping strategy questionnaire and the general health questionnaire were used in this study. Results: The mean positive religious coping strategy was 26.24±9.89 and 60% of the patients had higher than average scores. The mean negative religious coping strategy was 10.56±3.99 and 35% of patients had a mean score higher than average scores. The mean total general health score was 23.91±11.9. Conclusion: The study results showed that asthmatic patients are at greater risk of depression and a negative correlation exists between positive religious coping and general health scores. It can be concluded that in asthmatic patients, depression should be suspected sooner. Also, during the course of treatment and in cases of resistant to treatment, this issue should be considered. It can be concluded that the patients who use more positive coping strategies and have a strong spiritual beliefs may have higher mental health that leads to higher physical health and a better response to treatment. Religious coping strategies; general health; depression.
Harold G. Koenig
Full Text Available We describe here a new measure of religious commitment, the Belief into Action (BIAC scale. This measure was designed to be a comprehensive and sensitive measure of religious involvement that could discriminate individuals across the religious spectrum, and avoid the problem of ceiling effects that have haunted the study of highly-religious populations. Many scales assess religious beliefs, where assent to belief is often widespread, subjective, and a superficial assessment of religious commitment. While people may say they believe, what does that mean in terms of action? This 10-item scale seeks to convert simple belief into action, where action is assessed in terms of what individuals say is most important in their lives, how they spend their time, and where they put their financial resources. We summarize here the psychometric characteristics of the BIAC in two very different populations: stressed female caregivers in Southern California and North Carolina, and college students attending three universities in Mainland China. We conclude that the BIAC is a sensitive, reliable, and valid measure of religious commitment in these two samples, and encourage research in other population groups using this scale to determine its psychometric properties more generally.
Full Text Available After gaining independence from the USSR in 1991, the Islamic heritage of the Central Asian Republics became an alternative ideology to fill the political and social vacuum. Islam gradually started to take its place on the social scene following Gorbachev's Glasnost, as it partially eased the communist oppression towards religious belief and expression. Religious education institutions, mosques, and other religiously affiliated organizations began to emerge. Some of these organizations steadily led their way to political parties with Islamic agendas, and politicization of Islam became a prominent reality. While religious revivalism took sway in Central Asian societies, their governments had an instrumentalist view of religion. Religious expressions were encouraged where they contribute to the goal of nation-building and legitimization of the dominant power coalitions as defined by the power holders. Yet, Central Asian governments proceeded in the opposite direction implementing oppressive policies against extra-governmental religious groups and institutions perceived as a threat. It was anticipated for the Central Asian societies to revive their Islamic heritage that has been suppressed under the Soviet regime and combine religion with nationalist sentiments as a catalyst in the nation-building process and political transition. However, the suppressive state response to this religious revivalism was unpredicted and led to prolonged conflict between state and society. This article seeks to identify the factors that explain the competing courses of the governments' push for secularization through historical institutionalism and cultural and national values approaches.
Full Text Available After gaining independence from the USSR in 1991, the Islamic heritage of the Central Asian Republics became an alternative ideology to fill the political and social vacuum. Islam gradually started to take its place on the social scene following Gorbachev’s Glasnost, as it partially eased the communist oppression towards religious belief and expression. Religious education institutions, mosques, and other religiously affiliated organizations began to emerge. Some of these organizations steadily led their way to political parties with Islamic agendas, and politicization of Islam became a prominent reality. While religious revivalism took sway in Central Asian societies, their governments had an instrumentalist view of religion. Religious expressions were encouraged where they contribute to the goal of nation-building and legitimization of the dominant power coalitions as defined by the power holders. Yet, Central Asian governments proceeded in the opposite direction implementing oppressive policies against extra-governmental religious groups and institutions perceived as a threat. It was anticipated for the Central Asian societies to revive their Islamic heritage that has been suppressed under the Soviet regime and combine religion with nationalist sentiments as a catalyst in the nation-building process and political transition. However, the suppressive state response to this religious revivalism was unpredicted and led to prolonged conflict between state and society. This article seeks to identify the factors that explain the competing courses of the governments’ push for secularization through historical institutionalism and cultural and national values approaches.
... retain its independence and may continue to carry out its mission, including the definition, practice... and programs without removing religious art, icons, scriptures, or other religious symbols, (2)...
Abernethy, Alexis D; Houston, Tina R; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard L; Arnold, Harold L
This study was designed to examine the relationship between religiousness (organized, nonorganized, and intrinsic) and religious problem solving (collaborative, deferring, and self-directing) in prostate cancer screening (PCS) attitudes and behavior. Men (N = 481) of African descent between the ages of 40 and 70 participated. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that religiousness and self-directed problem solving were associated with PCS attitudes. Intrinsic religiousness was associated with PCS attitudes after controlling for health and organized religiousness. Religiousness was not associated with PCS behavior. Intrinsic religiousness may be an important dimension of religiousness to be considered in tailoring cancer interventions for individuals from faith-based communities.
Full Text Available This article discusses the challenges of adaptation for Indonesian religion. It describes the ways that the major Indonesian religions have changed to fit the requirements of being recognized religions, and focuses as an example on the ways that Balinese Hinduism has changed to become Agama Hindu Dharma Indonesia. It also examines the traditional theological problem of “faith and works” in the Indonesian context, and the concerns used to balance modernization and religious freedom.
Sánchez Quirós, María Ángela
The patriarchal tradition inherited by the Roman Catholic religion is evidented in the contemporary literature in Latin America mainly in texts written by women, in which speeches influenced by a strong religious you can determiny the way of acting and thinking of female and male. Toward the middle of XX century latinamerican literature started to evidence social discomfort about the way gender was “lived” and transmited in their speeches which was full of inherited prejudice of occidental re...
Full Text Available Religious and archaeological understandings of topography are usually understood in terms of different spheres of knowledge; where they intersect, it is when one becomes the object of analysis for another. But each is a way of making meaning in the landscape, of relating past and present through identify events with features of this landscape. Each is therefore a cultural activity and product. This is no more clear than when religion and archaeology build upon the work of each other.
Lane, Justin E
Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors.
Full Text Available Laurence Iannaccone’s notion of religious capital highlights the capability of individuals to draw on resources from religious- or faith-based practices, and then convert religious capital into human, social and financial capital. The processes of capital accumulation and conversion have significant implications for poverty reduction. However, in its examination of the cross-border experiences of poor female Chinese migrants in South China, this chapter finds that religious capital is severely inequitably distributed within migrant communities. Religious involvement is both time- and resource- demanding, and the very poor face considerable constraints in negotiating access to religious capital. Empirical evidence indicates that while some migrants are successful in improving their material conditions and experience upward social mobility, the failure to address broader, deep-rooted causes of poverty, such as social discrimination, has stymied more systemic change. Worse still, members of the ruling class use religious symbols and rituals to reinforce their domination. This chapter calls for placing greater emphasis on the distributional effect of religious capital, with the aim of offering poor people better support for their religious participation.
Full Text Available Este artigo examina problemas, conceitos e idéias em autores recentes, que tentam uma filosofia da religião. Conceituando Deus e religião, apresenta a crítica radical de Kant, Nietzsche e Freud, passando para o problema na sociedade pluralista. Analisa interpretações do cristianismo como a de F. Schleiermacher, R. Bultmann e P. Tillich. Finalmente, aborda a perspectiva fenomenológica e analítica da linguagem
Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo propõe uma releitura crítica da contribuição de Pierre Bourdieu para o campo de estudo das religiões. Demonstraremos inicialmente como o conceito de campo alargou a noção clássica de religião. Em seguida, evidenciaremos por que a dimensão estrutural subjacente ao conceito não consegue dar conta de muitas das dimensões do secularismo contemporâneo, em particular o modo como a esfera pública vem sendo modelada pela presença pública das religiões. Finalmente, partindo da contribuição de autores pós-bourdiesianos para uma definição pragmatista da arena pública, tais como Daniel Cefaï e outros, sugerimos deslocar o olhar sobre as religiões em suas relações com o poder, perguntando-nos não tanto o que as religiões fazem na esfera pública, mas, sobretudo, o que a publicidade faz da religião.
Political interventions, media coverage and research often refer to the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities, particularly girls and women, participating in physical activity and organised sports. In both public and academic debates, reference is made to the religious culture as a particular...... barrier to participation in sports among Muslim girls and women. This article aims to provide a counter-narrative by focusing on young Muslim girls who simultaneously practice their religion and sports. The main research question was: How do young Danish Muslim girls align participation in sports...... religion as hegemonic, embodied and dynamic cultural phenomena, the analysis points to the diversity through which Muslim girls and women participate and engage in sports. Finally, the article discusses the extent to which counter-narratives may contribute to changing perspectives on so-called hard...
Wiist, W H; Sullivan, B M; St George, D M; Wayment, H A
A web survey of Buddhists' religious practices and beliefs, and health history and practices was conducted with 886 Buddhist respondents. Eighty-two percent were residents of the USA. Ninety-nine percent practiced Buddhist meditation and 70% had attended a formal retreat for intensive meditation practice. Eighty-six percent were converts to Buddhism and had been a Buddhist for a median of 9 years. Sixty-eight percent of respondents rated their health as very good or excellent. A one-point increase on a Buddhist Devoutness Index was associated with a 15% increase in the odds of being a non-smoker and an 11% increase in the odds of being in good to excellent health.
Full Text Available In this text the author first tries to provide an answer on the number of religious people today in two post-communist and Orthodox countries, and then on the number of Orthodox believers in them. Therefore he analyzes numerous data from empirical evidence using a large number of indicators discussed in the text. The author first analyzes them as indicators of representative dimension of religiousness, then as indicators of beliefs in dogmatic core of Christianity, indicators of current church ritual practice and finally, as indicators of a traditional attitude towards religion and church. With these analyses the author tries to find the criterion or criteria which best express the religiousness of people in a particular area. The analysis identifies three approaches in Russian sociological and religious literature. The first one is defined as a classic, positivistic approach, the second one as post-classic or phenomenological, and the third one as synthetic. Then the author discusses the term attachment to religion and church and its indicators, as well as the indices which are sociologically more suitable for the research of the religious and church complex. In the end the author gives a few methodological instructions for a sociological and empirical research of religiousness.
Jean M Twenge
Full Text Available In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million, American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976-2013, 8th and 10th graders (1991-2013, and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966-2014. Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%-40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s-70s give their religious affiliation as "none," as do 40%-50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age.
Full Text Available We analyzed the impact of religious affiliation on the ethical and environmental values of Spanish environmental activists, based on an internet survey and a working seminar held with representatives of major environmental non-government organizations (ENGO of Spain. Respondents’ religious affiliations were significantly different compared with those of Spanish society in general, with a much higher proportion of Buddhists, agnostics and atheists and a lower proportion of Catholics. Strict environmental values of ENGOs activists did not show significant differences between the religious groups, which imply that religious beliefs did not impact actual environmental values. However, they did have a significant influence on the activists’ opinions on other bioethical issues. We found that Catholics and believers of other religions were more in favor than agnostics and atheists of introducing ethical limits on abortion, euthanasia or human embryo manipulation.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between religious orientation and perfectionism, boys and girls, high school in Naeen, Isfahan Province, in the academic year 2015-2016. A sample of 275 people, including 141 students, and 134 students was extracted using stratified random sampling method via software to determine sample size. Instruments used in this research, including orientation scale All port (1950, and positive and negative perfectionism scale Terry Short et al (1995. Pearson's correlation coefficient and multivariate regression was used to analyze the data using statistical software spss 22. Results of the analysis showed that there is a significant correlation between the two variables is positive perfectionism and religious orientation internal, and can say that, the effects of internal religious orientation, the positive perfectionism variable, is significant, but variable internal religious orientation cannot predict negative perfectionism variable and the effect of these variables on students is negative perfectionism not significant.
Cristián Parker G.
Full Text Available Este artículo describe las formas peculiares que adquiere el cambio religioso, tanto a nivel de las adhesiones a nuevos movimientos religiosos como en las creencias religiosas en Chile. Este trabajo analiza la manera en que el factor educacional interviene en las tendencias hacia la pluralización religiosa. También se exploran las posibles consecuencias que puedan tener las manifestaciones concretas del cambio religioso en la cultura política de Chile.This article describes the peculiar forms taken by religious change in Chile. It considers the adhesion to new religious movements and beliefs as well as education and its interference on the multiplication of religious institutions. It also pictures the concrete manifestations of religious change and their consequences for political culture.
Benjamin E. Zeller
Full Text Available This article focuses on food proscriptions such as veganism and gluten-free eating, and prescriptions such as the Paleolithic diet, focusing on the North American context. These quasi-religious foodways serve as means for individuals to engage in discourses of community, personal and group identity, and boundary-marking. Through the daily practice of eating, those who follow quasi-religious foodways mark their identities, literally consuming who they are. These quasi-religious foodways therefore function to allow contemporary consumer-oriented individualistic Americans to engage in discourses of community, identity, and meaning in a highly vernacular manner, that of the marketplace. They also point to the manner in which identity and community have expanded well outside of religious categories.
Full Text Available As societies have become religiously diverse in ways and extents not familiar in the recent histories of most, the issues of how to include this diversity and how to manage it, that is, questions about how to be a religiously diverse society have come to the fore. As a result religion has become part of the social policy conversation in new ways. It has also occasioned new thinking about religions, their forms and the complexity of ways they are negotiated by adherents and the ways they are related to society, the state and each other. This issue of Social Inclusion explores these issues of social inclusion in both particular settings and in cross-national comparative studies by presenting research and critical thought on this critical issue facing every society today.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, including gender, marital status, level of education and age on adherence to religious values among young people in city of Shahin Dezh and Takab, located in province of West Azerbaijan, Iran in 2014. The study has accomplished between two groups of Turk and Kurd with the population of 85,000 and 89,000, respectively. The study uses a sample of 20 and 30 people from Turkish and Kurdish tribes, respectively, and uses t-student test as well as regression analysis to examine different hypotheses of the survey. The results show that there was a meaningful difference among various variables of gender, marital status, education level and age in adherence to religious values among the youth who live in this city.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.
The purpose of this study was to explore religious coping methods employed by Taiwanese folk religious believers. This study applied qualitative research methods in data collection and data analysis by conducting semi-structured interviews with participants and analyzing the interview contents. We have identified fourteen coping methods that can be categorized into five different religious dimensions: belief, ritual, ethical, emotional and material. The findings not only expanded our knowledge about how believers of Taiwanese folk religion employ the religion to cope with difficulties but also discovered that some coping methods employed by them are also reported in Western countries, only in different forms.
Dadang S. Anshori
Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing gender cognition phenomenon in religious discourse in thematic interpretation (tafsir of the Holy Koran published by the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. Each interpretation book as a written discourse is different from each other due to author’s cognition frame. This study employs a constructive qualitative approach with technical framing analysis. The data are language data (religious text that are obtainable from thematic interpretation of the Koran of the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. Data analysis was performed on the following topics: the origins of the creation of men and women, women's leadership, women and inheritance rights, women and ownership, and women's testimony. The research findings show: (1 The lingual and religious discourse containing gender cognition are present in the forms of words, phrases, and sentences. The lingual form of religious discourse is related to the meaning of technical vocabulary that contains appropriate understanding of the discourse topic. (2 Discourse representing gender cognition is found on three topics: women leadership (nation leadership, waris (inheritance, and women’s testimony. In terms of inheritance and women’s testimony, this interpretation refers to conditions that are explicitly stated in the Holy Koran. Meanwhile, this interpretation views leadership of the nation as more worthy to be given to men than women. book looks is more worthy of leadership in the countries was given to men than women.
van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle
The aim of this article is to consider the psychological mechanisms that may prevent individuals from achieving religious tolerance and religious pluralism. After defining these concepts and explaining why they are desirable outcomes, four psychological obstacles to the achievement of religious tolerance and religious pluralism will be explored by…
Kneipp, Lee B.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Dubois, Cheryl
This study examined the influence of college environment and classification on religious orientation. The current study compared private, religious versus public, nonreligious college students to determine if there was a difference over time and environment in religious orientation, as measured by the Religious Orientation Scale. The results…
Since the year of 1979, the Central Government has invested more than 400 million Yuan on the maintenance and construction of monasteries and religious sites in Tibet.At present, there have been 1780 monasteries and religious sites in Tibet, including 130 nunneries. So many religious sites are owned by the 2 million religious
Hathaway, William; Tan, Erica
The interface of religiously accommodative and oriented treatments and the cognitive-behavioral tradition is explored. In terms of Hayes' characterization of the evolution of the cognitive-behavioral tradition through three waves, considerable theoretical, clinical, and empirical work emerged to support a religiously accommodative cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) during the second-generation CBTs. Rather than including religion and spirituality, the third-wave CBT traditions have engaged in spiritual themes inspired heavily from Eastern religious traditions. The authors discuss the application of a religiously congruent third-wave cognitive therapy with a depressed conservatively Christian client. Some conceptual challenges and rationales for adopting such treatments with Christian or other theist clients are described.
... matters of religion.'' The fundamental principle of religious freedom--guarded by our Founders and... religion as they choose, including the right to believe in no religion at all. However, these liberties...
Review: Angela Kaupp (2005. Junge Frauen erzählen ihre Glaubensgeschichte. Eine qualitativ-empirische Studie zur Rekonstruktion der narrativen religiösen Identität katholischer junger Frauen [Young Women Tell Their Story of Faith
Full Text Available In her dissertation on religious pedagogy, Angela KAUPP examines the part played by religiousness in the life stories of young women brought up as Catholics in Germany. The categories of gender and religiousness are still neglected fields in youth studies and KAUPP's readable study closes a gap in research on religious and social-scientific research on pedagogy. The interviewees consider gender and religiousness to be independent and to have few implications for their life stories. They attribute high importance to religious communication, relations and spaces as part of formal and informal religious settings such as the liturgy and prayer groups. KAUPP's work indicates that biographical research is a promising method for the exploration of the development of young adults' identities in the context of religiousness and gender. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701183
Weidenfeld, Adi; Ron, Amos
Similar to other tourism subgroups, e.g. elderly, gay, and disabled tourists, the special desires of religious tourists need not be marginalized. Given that religion and tourism can be competitive by nature, it is plausible to question whether tourists who practise their religion at home do so in a similar way while away from home. It is suggested that the relationship between tourism and religion constitutes a valid and important area of research and that satisfying religious needs in the to...
Researchers have been demonstrating interest in doubts regarding religious faith for thirty years. The current study goal was examining differences between three groups of religious male adolescents in Israel, regarding faith identity, doubts in religious faith (past and present), religious behavior, and the connection between them. Three…
Jenna Griebel Rogers
Full Text Available Past work shows religion’s effect on women’s career decisions, particularly when these decisions involve work-family conflict. This study argues that the religious context of a geographic area also influences women’s solutions to work-family conflict through more or less pervasive normative expectations within the community regarding women’s roles and responsibilities to the family. We use the American Community Survey linked with community-level religious proportions to test the relationship between religious contexts and women’s participation in the labor force in the contiguous United States–2054 census geographic areas. Using spatial analysis, we find that community religious concentration is related to the proportion of women who choose not to work. Communities with a higher proportion of the population belonging to conservative religious traditions also have a greater proportion of married women choosing not to work outside the home.
McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst
Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.
Dolors Vidal Casellas
Full Text Available This article aims to provide an overview of the products Catalonia has to offer in terms of religious tourism. The growing interest in this kind of tourism worldwide, and in Catalonia itself, along with the region’s wealth of religious heritage (particularly connected to the Christian Church contrast with the lack of religion-based tourism products available, which results in its absence from the region’s image as a tourism destination. In view of this, the Faculty of Tourism (University of Girona, the Vic Bishopric’s Albergueria-Centre for Cultural Dissemination and the Tarraconense Episcopal Conference’s Interdiocese Secretariat for the Custody and Promotion of Holy Art (SICPAS decided to address the situation with the help of funding from the Autonomous Government of Catalonia. In order to re-position Christian religious heritage in the image of Catalonia as a tourist destination, the aforementioned parties embarked upon a project to set up a series of routes throughout the region, branded under the name Catalonia Sacra.
Alexander Vladislavovich Pletnev
Full Text Available In the article features of influence of religion on the individual in the modern society are considered. In the XXI century the religion shows weak ability to execute functions of social control. At the same time the religion remains the major psychological factor which in many respects defines the maintenance of the vital world of individuals. Strengthening of influence of religion as psychological factor allows to study social consequences of this influence. If the classical sociological theory considers religion as a factor certainly constraining an anomy, in modern conditions the religion has rather opposite effect. The Christian religion shows the highest, unrealizable requirements to the individual.As a result of it the individuals strongly subject to influence of Christian values feel ina-bility to correspond to Christian model of ideal human behavior. The variety of religions in the modern society of the western type and conducting interreligious dialogue is other reason of development of religious anomy. The mutual erosion of the valuable and standard bases of each religion turns out to be consequence of this dialogue. In addition, modern society is characterized by essential distinction in understanding individuals of norms and principles of that religion which supporters they are.As for change of functioning of religion as social institute, in this aspect the increasing reorientation of religious institutes of the western society to the market purposes and values is observed. The specified processes in general will lead to increase of deviant behavior due to development of religious anomy.
Carlos A. Reyes Ortiz
Full Text Available Esta es una revisión sobre el impacto de la religión en los ancianos. Casi 95% de los ancianos oran regularmente y usan la religión como recurso. En contraste, sólo 2% de las publicaciones médicas incluyen la religión. La religiosidad tiene dos orientaciones intrínseca (individual y extrínseca (grupal. Ambas orientaciones se asocian con la salud en los ancianos; disminuyen la mortalidad cardíaca, el estrés y la depresión; aumentan la satisfacción de vida y el bienestar. También hay disminución de ansiedad y depresión ante la muerte. Para explicar sus beneficios, se describen mecanismos como el promover un estilo de vida saludable; proveer fe, esperanza y sentido de trascendencia; dar apoyo socioemocional; proporcionar comunicación (el escuchar, relajación y catarsis. Los profesionales deben explorar las creencias religiosas para usarlas como recurso complementario en el tratamiento de los pacientes ancianos.
Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to clarify what Rudolf Steiner’s followers thought of him at the time of his demise. How can we explain the rapid spread of the Anthroposophical Society in Europe and the United States during the inter-war period? Can it be explained by referring to Rudolf Steiner’s own authority? What kind of authority did he possess? Did the members of the Anthroposophical Society regard him as a divine being, a prophet, or an ordinary religious teacher? The material for this article consists of a selection of the obituaries published in the anthroposophical press after Rudolf Steiner’s death on 30 March 1925. Needless to say, obituaries are usually tendentious, and therefore controversial as source material. For the purpose of the present article, however, this kind of material is suitable, since the aim here is to study the tendency itself. The restraint that followers might be assumed to practice in publishing their opinion on Steiner in commonly available writings is minimised in the type of material chosen here. The primary interest is to find out whether his followers portray Steiner as a human being, or as a divine, or semi-divine being.
Full Text Available The author takes a retrospective look at his book Religious Education: An Interpretive Approach, first published in 1997, and now available to readers, open access, via the European Wergeland Centre website (http://www.theewc.org/Content/Library/Research-Development/Literature/Introducing-Religious-Education-an-Interpretive-Approach. He tells a personal story of teaching, broadcasting and research, moving from the design of a methodology for studying the religions of minority groups in Britain to identifying the main concepts used for teaching about religions to children and young people in an engaging way, which relates to their own personal and social experience. The article, explains the key concept of representation – looking, for example, at how religions are often represented in ways that play down their internal diversity. Next the concept of interpretation is considered, emphasising the activity through which learners can compare and contrast the use of language by religious believers with their own nearest equivalent language uses, in trying, with sensitivity, to get as close as possible to their meanings. Finally, the process of reflexivity is explained; this gives learners an opportunity for three activities – to re-assess their understanding of their own world view (called edification in the interpretive approach, to make a distanced critique of beliefs and ideas they have studied, and to evaluate the methods that they have been using to learn about the religious meanings of others. Finally the author illustrates how the key concepts from the interpretive approach have been adapted for use in field research studies on teaching and learning about religions.
Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuyten, Maykel
Religious group identification is an important but understudied social identity. The present study investigates religious group identification among adolescents of different faiths (Hindu, Muslim, Christian) living in multicultural Mauritius. It further explores how religious and national group identities come together among religious majority and minority adolescents. For three age groups (11 to 19 years, N = 2152) we examined the strength of adolescents' religious and national group identification, the associations between these two identities, and the relationships to global self-esteem. Across age and religious group, participants reported stronger identification with their religious group than with the nation. Identification with both categories declined with age, with the exception of Muslims, whose strong religious identification was found across adolescence. The association between religious and national identification was positive, albeit stronger for the majority group of Hindus and for early adolescents. We examined the manner in which religious and national identities come together using a direct self-identification measure and by combining the separate continuous measures of identification. Four distinct clusters of identification (predominant religious identifiers, dual identifiers, neutrals, and separate individuals) that were differently associated with global self-esteem were found. Dual identifiers reported the highest level of global self-esteem. The clusters of identification did not fully correspond to the findings for the direct self-identification measure. The results are discussed in terms of the meaning of dual identity and the positive manner in which adolescents can manage their multiple identities while taking into account the ideological framework in which those identities are played out.
Full Text Available We live in a world of contemporary kitsch, a world that merges authentic and false, good taste and meets often with bad taste. This phenomenon is găseseşte everywhere: in art, in literature cheap in media productions, shows, dialogues streets, in homes, in politics, in other words, in everyday life. Ksch site came directly in tourism, being identified in all forms of tourism worldwide, but especially religious tourism, pilgrimage with unexpected success in recent years. This paper makes an analysis of progressive evolution tourist traffic religion on the ability of the destination of religious tourism to remain competitive against all the problems, to attract visitors for their loyalty, to remain unique in terms of cultural and be a permanent balance with the environment, taking into account the environment religious phenomenon invaded Kisch, it disgraceful mixing dangerously with authentic spirituality. How trade, and rather Kisch's commercial components affect the environment, reflected in terms of religious tourism offer representatives highlighted based on a survey of major monastic ensembles in North Oltenia. Research objectives achieved in work followed, on the one hand the contributions and effects of the high number of visitors on the regions that hold religious sites, and on the other hand weighting and effects of commercial activity carried out in or near monastic establishments, be it genuine or kisck the respective regions. The study conducted took into account the northern region of Oltenia, and where demand for tourism is predominantly oriented exclusively practicing religious tourism
Patricia Snell Herzog
Full Text Available This paper investigates the research question: How do religious youth learn to give? While it is likely that youth learn religious financial giving from a variety of different sources, this investigation focuses primarily on how parents teach giving to their children. Supplementary data are also analyzed on the frequency in which youth hear extra-familial calls to give within their religious congregations. In focusing on parental transmission, the analysis identifies a number of approaches that parents report using to teach their children religious financial giving. It also investigates thoughts and feelings about religious financial giving by the children of these parents as a means of assessing the potential impacts of parental methods. Additionally, congregation member reflections on how they learned to give provide insights on giving as a process that develops across the life course, often instilled in childhood, but not appearing behaviorally until adulthood. As such, this paper contributes to a life course understanding of religious giving and has implications for giving across generations.
Full Text Available Background: Disaffiliation from religion is an important factor behind the rapid rise in persons claiming no religious affiliation in many advanced industrial countries. Scholars typically think of disaffiliation as a life course process that is confined to young adults, with little change occurring among older adults, yet few studies have examined this assumption outside the United States and Great Britain. Objective: We evaluate whether the young-adult model of disaffiliation from religion applies in Ireland and Austria, two historically Catholic-majority countries with different levels of non-affiliation growth. Methods: We use census data on religious affiliation in Ireland (1971-2011 and Austria (1971-2001 to track aggregate changes in the percentage reporting no religious affiliation over the life course for successive birth cohorts. Results: We find support for the young-adult model in Ireland. However, recent cohorts in Austria exhibit a distinct pattern of disaffiliation that continues into middle adulthood. Our analysis suggests that mid-life disaffiliation in Austria is connected to a religious tax, which we argue spurs nominally affiliated adults to disaffiliate themselves, as their income rises and the costs of religious affiliation increase. Conclusions: Our findings offer insight into some of the social factors behind recent religious change across Europe and highlight the need for more cross-national research on the age and cohort dimensions of this change.
Full Text Available Latin America is experiencing today the greatest religious diversity in its entire history. However, it must also be noted that a large number of the growing religious minorities may be classified into types of Christianity with conservative overtones. In this paper we will suggest that the literature streams on multiple secularities in contemporary (Western societies and religious diversity in Latin America do offer insightful perspectives yet fail to adequately convey the challenges raised by the religious across contemporary Latin America. Addressing Latin America’s historical background, we will distinguish conceptually and empirically among different degrees of secularities, diversities and pluralities and will construct with these distinctions a descriptive-normative model that can guide future analyses of secular and religious phenomena in Latin America. It is only through a comprehensive understanding of diversities, pluralities and secularities that the debates on those human rights crucial for social inclusion—from sexual and reproductive rights to gender and religious equality—can be fruitfully conducted in and beyond Latin America.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438 attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Results Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p Conclusion The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.
Full Text Available Peter van Dam, James Kennedy, Friso Wielenga (eds., Achter de zuilen. Op zoek naar religie in naoorlogs Nederland (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2014, 456 pp., isbn 978 90 8964 680 4.
SUMMARY: 1. Introduction – 2. The Relationship State-Confessions and Religious Ministers – 2.1. The “Common” Legislation of intese and the 1929 Act – 2.2. State’s Law and Religious Ministers – 3. Imam in Italy. Is that a Religious Minister? – 3.1. The Connection State-Islamic Organizations – 3.2. Islamic Groups as Religious Denominations – 3.3. The Bilateral Legislation – 3.4. A Possible Collaboration – 4. Conclusion. Abstract: In Italy imams are more than 800 members. As imams, they are almost all self-taught people. As citizens, most of the times they have a precarious job. During the week, they normally take care of things other than religion. They perform religious functions in their spare time. Moreover, to see them working as imams, you have to go down in some underground parking or in apartments converted into mosques, where sometimes you see minaret and other Islamic symbols, but only in either the picture or in the paintings hanging on the wall. In the end of the day, we know little or almost nothing about imams. Besides, the Italian law normally do not recognise them as religious authorities. Nevertheless, as imams they play a very important role in local Muslim communities that, under the pressing process of immigration, hold nowadays more than two millions persons. The paper will analyse the status of Islamic imams in Italy, comparing them with the status of other religious authorities (priests, rabbis, pastors ecc.. In particular, this comparative perspective will be focused on both angles: on the one hand, the research will compare the role of imams with those of religious authorities within their respective community; on the other, we will compare imams with considered the different way through which Italian law treats both imams and other religious authority. This perspective will give us a possibility to underline how both the social context and the Italian legal framework (regulating the State
Full Text Available While a large body of research has established that there is substantial prejudice against atheists and nonreligious individuals, both in the US and in other countries where nonreligious people are minorities, to date very little research has looked beyond attitudes toward solitary identities (e.g., “atheists” vs. “gay atheists”. Given the growing recognition of the importance of intersectionality in understanding the experiences of minorities, in this article we examined attitudes toward intersected identities, combining five (nonreligious identities (i.e., Christian, Jewish, Muslim, atheist, and nonreligious with four sexual/gender identities (i.e., heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, and transgender using a 100-point thermometer scale (N = 618. We found that sexual/gender identities were more influential in ordering the results than were religious identities, with heterosexual individuals being rated most positively, followed for the most part by: homosexual, bisexual, and then transgender individuals. However, within the sexual/gender identities, (nonreligion ordered the results; Christians and Jewish individuals rated most highly among heterosexuals while nonreligious and atheist individuals rated most highly among transgender individuals. We suggest these results indicate that people believe minority sexual/gender identities “taint” or “pollute” religious identities, unless those religious identities are already perceived as tainted, as is the case for atheists and the nonreligious.
No religion formally forbid donation or receipt of organs or is against transplantation from living or deceased donors. Only some orthodox jews may have religious objections to "opting in." However, transplantation from deceased donors may be discouraged by Native Americans, Roma Gypsies, Confucians, Shintoists, and some Orthodox rabbis. Some South Asia Muslim ulemas (scholars) and muftis (jurists) oppose donation from human living and deceased donors because the human body is an "amanat" (trusteeship) from God and must not be desecrated following death, but they encourage xenotransplantation research. No religion formally obliges one to donate or refuse organs. No religion formally obliges one to consider cadaveric organs "a societal resource" or considers organ donation "a religious duty" (except some rabbis and isolated Muslim and Christian scholars) No religion has a formal position on "bonus points," which is priority on the waiting list. Living organ donation is strongly encouraged only between jesus christians (15 of 28 jesus christians worldwide have donated a kidney). No religion forbid this practice. Directed organ donation to people of the same religion has been proposed only by some Orthodox Jews and some Islamic Ulemas/Muftis. Only some Muslim Ulemas/Muftis and some Asian religions may prefer living donation over cadaveric donation. No religion prefers cadaveric over living donation. No religion formally forbid non-heart-beating donors (nhbd) cadaveric donation or cross-over donation. Due to the sacrad of human life, the Catholic Church is against donation from anencephalic donors or after active euthanasia. No religion formally forbid xenotransplantation. Addressing the participants of the First International Congress of the Society for Organ Sharing in 1991, Pope John Paul II said "There are many questions of an ethical, legal and social nature which need to be more deeply investigated. There are even shameful abuses which call for determined action
Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V
Humans have tried to control fertility for centuries. Primitive, preliterate societies practiced infanticide and abortion. When primitive women understood the advantages of conception control, they tried, when possible, to use contraception. In the 4th century B.C., Plato and Aristotle advocated a one-child family. Greek medical literature reported a hollow tube inserted through the cervix into the uterus and a potion as contraceptives. Islamic physicians had much knowledge about conception control. The attitudes toward contraception. In the 5th century B.C., Saint Augustine condemned contraception, even among married couples. The condom emerged in the early modern period. Yet, they were usually worn to protect against disease, e.g., bilharzia in Egypt and syphilis in Europe. The cervical cap and the diaphragm are examples of occlusive pessaries. By 1880, contraceptives and spermicides were advertised. In 1928, the IUD joined the existing contraceptives. Today we have combined oral contraceptives. Judaic law requires husbands to fulfill their wives sexual needs, separate from their duty to procreate. It also calls men, not women, to procreate and forbids men from masturbating, thus Judaic law does not forbid women from practicing contraception. The Roman Catholic church forbids contraceptive use because it is a sin against nature. Some Protestant denominations have allowed contraceptive use. Islamic law states that children are gifts from Allah. Some Moslems believe that they must have many children, but Allah and the Prophet state that children have rights to education and future security. These rights allow couples to prevent pregnancy. Neither Hinduism nor Buddhism prohibit contraceptive use. Differences in husband-wife communication, sex roles, access to contraceptives, and traditional family values will have more of an effect on contraceptive use and fertility than theological barriers or the social class of religious groups.
Freathy, Rob; Parker, Stephen G.
With particular reference to religious education, this article provides an account of the campaigns of Secularists and Humanists in England in the 1960s and 1970s and locates them within their broader religious context. These campaigns, which have been both underplayed and overstated in the existing historiography, failed to garner the levels of…
Kezdy, Aniko; Martos, Tamas; Boland, Vivian; Horvath-Szabo, Katalin
Religious doubts seem to be a part of identity and faith development in adolescence and young adulthood. Such doubts, however, are often linked with psychological distress, though the results in the field are not consistent. It seems important therefore to explore further the relationship between religious doubts and mental health. This study…
Balkin, Richard S.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Levitt, Dana Heller
In this article, the authors present the results from a national study investigating the relationships between religious identity, sexism, homophobia, and multicultural competence. Participants were 111 randomly sampled counseling professionals and graduate students. The results indicated a relationship between religious identity and various…
Iván Garzón Vallejo
Full Text Available Este artículo explora el problema de la política y la religión en Jean-Jacques Rousseau desde una perspectiva filosófica. Para ello expone la forma como Rousseau concibe la religión en sus principales obras, destacando su carácter equívoco y polémico. Luego analiza el concepto de la religión civil desde la óptica del papel público que debía desempeñar en la comunidad política. Finalmente, sugiere los argumentos que fundamentan la propuesta rousseauniana como el diseño de una religión civil o política, o si, por el contrario, es una suerte de instrumentalización política de la religión, elemento que lo emparentaría con otros autores modernos. Este texto no pretende resolver el dilema, sino sugerir que hay razones para sostener cualquiera de estas dos lecturas de la obra del ginebrino.
Full Text Available Text mining deals with complex and unstructured texts. Usually a particular collection of texts that is specified to one or more domains is necessary. We have developed a customizable text classifier for users to mine the collection automatically. It derives from the sentence category of the HNC theory and corresponding techniques. It can start with a few texts, and it can adjust automatically or be adjusted by user. The user can also control the number of domains chosen and decide the standard with which to choose the texts based on demand and abundance of materials. The performance of the classifier varies with the user's choice.
Rathier, Lucille A; Davis, Jennifer Duncan; Papandonatos, George D; Grover, Christine; Tremont, Geoffrey
The degree of depression experienced by caregivers of individuals with dementia was examined in relation to religious coping strategies, religious practice, and spirituality in the framework of the stress and coping model. Caregivers of 191 persons with dementia completed the Religious Coping Scale, self-report measures of religious practices and spirituality, burden, and depression. There was no evidence that any religious coping strategy or religious practice moderated the relationship between caregiving stress and depression. Certain types of religious coping strategies had a direct effect on depression. Higher levels of religious coping working with God were associated with decreased depression, whereas higher levels of religious coping working through God were associated with increased depression. Higher burden, lower overall caregiver health rating, and worse reactions to memory and behavior problems were associated with higher levels of depression. Frequency of prayer and the importance of spirituality were weakly associated with lower levels of depression.
Leslie J. Francis
Full Text Available This study explores the properties of the New Indices of Religious Orientation Revised (NIROR among a sample of 521 Canadian adolescents attending a Baptist youth mission and service event, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. This revision simplified the language of the original instrument to increase its accessibility among young people. The data support the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the three revised nine-item scales designed to operationalise extrinsic religious orientation, intrinsic religious orientation, and quest religious orientation.
Oda Ignatius Besar Hariyanto
ABSTRACT Ministry of Tourism currently focused on the development of tourism, especially tourist destinations, because the tourism sectors expected to become the responsibility of the economies on non-oil sector. The wealth of Indonesia tourist destinations is a culture tourism, natural tourism, and man-made tourism. Indonesia has a cultural diversity that spread to 34 provinces. Each tribe and region has a diversity of different cultures, influenced by geography, region of origin and historical background and religion are different. It is the uniqueness and attractiveness of cultural and religious tourism in Indonesia. Cirebon is one area in West Java has many unique and appeal to be develops into a cultural and religious tourist destination. Previously Cirebon had been a “Jalur Sutra Perdagangan” of various nationalities who came from China, India, Turkey, Persia, and the Middle East, who transit through the port of Cirebon. Thus, eventually occur of acculturation to the natives Cirebon. It is increased the repertoire of cultural diversity which is owned by the people of Cirebon. The palace of Kasepuhan, Kanoman and Kacirebon, Hindu-Buddhist relics, the history entry and the development of Islam in Cirebon, then Cirebon has the potential to be develops into a cultural and religious tourism. This research used qualitative descriptive method with multi-disciplinary approach for reasons of tourism is part of a culture that is very complex. The aim of research got description of tourist destinations and religious possessed by Cirebon. Keywords: Tourist Destination, Culture, Religious
Full Text Available This paper examines intergenerational transmission of ‘religious capital’ from parents to their offspring within an economic framework. The analytical tool is a ‘production function of religiosity’ where parental religious inputs serve as factors of production. The database used is based on a large-scale survey that was conducted in 1998 in Spain. In addition to information on the religious affiliation of the respondent and his parents, it has detailed data on two dimensions of the individual’s religious performance: church attendance and prayer. it also includes information on the mother’s and father’s church attendance when the respondent was a child, as well as the respondent’s participation in mass services at the age of 12. Socioeconomic background data are also available. The core findings are: (i parental religious inputs significantly affect individuals’ religiosity; (ii interestingly, the route of intergenerational transmission is from mother to daughter and from father to son; and (iii current mass participation of respondents is more affected by parental- than by own childhood mass attendance.
En este estudio se examina la transmisión inter-generacional de capital religioso de padres a hijos, bajo un esquema de producción de ‘religiosidad’ donde los inputs parentales sirven como factores de producción. la base de datos utilizada está basada en una encuesta realizada en España en 1998. Se dispone de información sobre la afiliación religiosa del individuo y sus padres, la asistencia a misa y la oración del individuo (actualmente y la asistencia a la iglesia de la madre y el padre y del propio individuo cuando este era niño (a los 12 años. Encontramos que los inputs religiosos parentales afectan de manera significativa a la religiosidad individual, pero la vía de transmisión inter-generacional es de madre a hija y de padre a hijo. Sorprendentemente, la participación actual en actividades
Carlos Magno Teixeira
Full Text Available TEIXEIRA, C. M. Comunidade ética e religião: A estruturação da fé kantiana. Dissertação (Mestrado. 2013. 113f - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte Palavras-chave Liberdade. Comunidade ética. Igreja. Religião moral. Fé racional.
Full Text Available Discussions about the justification of having religious beliefs have been continued since the beginning of the history of philosophy. The roles of evidence and the will in belief have been discussed under the title of “The Ethics of Belief”. John Locke also addressed to evidentialism in his works. Considering to construct his epistemology and belief on the strictest basis, Locke argued that believing something on insufficient evidence or failing to proportion our degree of belief according to the strength of the evidence is a transgression against our endowed light.
The Fantastic in Religious Narrative from Exodus to Elisha examines the astonishing array of marvels, monsters, and magic depicted in the Hebrew Bible. These stories –with the Exodus narrative at their centre – do not read as foundational stories, affirming triumphantly and unambiguously the bond...... between the deity, his people, and their territory. Rather, they are texts which offer ambiguity and uncertainty. As such, they encourage reflection and doubt as much as belief and meaningfulness. The fantasy narratives in Exodus, Numbers, Judges and Kings are the focus. Aiming to discover their fantastic...
Full Text Available The article describes key aspects of Samuel Huntington's "Clash of Civilizations" thesis. It acknowledges the way in which that thesis has picked up on some key changes in relation to the role of religion in public life and, especially, in international relations. But it also critiques the thesis for its "essentializing" and "bloc" approach to cultures and societies, arguing that such an approach does not take sufficient account of the differences and sometimes fault-lines and conflicts within societies and cultural groups. For what might characterise appropriate religiously informed responses to Huntington's thesis, the article proposes an approach based on four "keynotes" of "modesty", "integrity", "realism" and "distinctiveness".
Full Text Available The educational policies of the Singapore government are driven by the needs of a modern knowledge-based society and economic development, with the state advocating modernity while the Muslim minority, arguably, appeared to be caught in tradition and holding on to “old fashioned” education. However, whether the new attempts at modernizing madrasah education driven by the state will succeed remains to be seen, as earlier attempts of reformation driven by the Muslim community, or parts thereof, have been rather unsuccessful. This paper analyses the discourse between tradition and modernity of Islamic religious education in Singapore.
Full Text Available This article shows the procedings to make an aplication of a poll about the reception of the figure of Pope Johanes Paulus II in atention to his second visit to Mexico, this work was done in the medium stratti of Mexico city. The objective of this proyect is to let know which relation has and has had the mexican society with the Pope; wich sort of capacities they ascribe to him, wich conception peope have him and of his behavior in religious actions. This work present the methodologici frame used in the research proyect.
Full Text Available The École pratique des Hautes Études, department of Historical and Philological Sciences, the French Biblical and Archeological School of Jerusalem and the French Research Center of Jerusalem inaugurated in 1997 a closer collaboration by organizing a one-week seminar on the theme of the “History of the Religious Book”. The sessions took place at the French Biblical and Archeological School, located a few hundred meters from the Damascus Gate and from the Old City. Following the opening of the...
of the relations between church and state. Situated between history of education and curriculum, church history and transnational welfare state history, the article focuses on three transnationally acting theologians, early historians and psychologists of religion and public debaters who involved themselves...... to a model of religious education which in complex ways combines secularization in the meaning of division of the church-state relation with sacralization of the state and its so-called culture.......Is there a Nordic model for Religious Education? The article explores how Cultural Protestantism and Liberal Theology influenced the ways in which Religious Education developed in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century as part of the transformation...
Miller, Monica K; Hayward, R David
Using one mock trial scenario, this study investigated whether religious and demographic factors were related to death penalty attitudes and sentencing verdicts. Those who favored the death penalty differed from those who had doubts about the penalty in gender, affiliation, fundamentalism, evangelism, literal Biblical interpretism, beliefs about God's attitudes toward murders, and perceptions of how their religious groups felt about the death penalty. These relationships generally held after mock jurors were death qualified. Gender, fundamentalism, literal interpretism, beliefs about God's death penalty position, and perceptions of how one's religious group felt about the death penalty predicted death penalty sentencing verdicts. Future research could determine whether using peremptory challenges to exclude potential jurors based on religion can help lawyers choose a more favorable jury.
Carlos A. Sanz Mingo
Full Text Available This paper analyses the religious situation in Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries as reflected in Arthurian literature. This reflection usually depicts religious strife which brought a political division between the British kingdoms. This, in turn, provoked the final defeat against the Anglo-Saxons. Four religious creeds will be dealt with: the native Celtic religion and the cults that the Romans brought with them from the Eastern Mediterranean, including Christianity and the mysteries of Isis and Mithras. All of them are represented in Bernard Cornwell’s trilogy The WarlordChronicles. We will concentrate on how these creeds influenced the lives of Britons in the agerepresented and exemplified in the first book of Conrnwell’s trilogy, The Winter King. Despite thefact that religion has always been one of the most common topics in Arthuriana, modern literaturedeals with it in a different way to previous texts, linking it with history and politics.
Full Text Available The author has envisaged to publish three articles in three issues of "Philosophy and Society" magazine in which, relying on the empirical scientific evidence, plans to reveal the scope and level of religiousness in some European countries, then to study the case of Russia in a separate text and finally to analyze religiousness of people in Serbia and their attachment to the church and religion. This sequence of publication has its own logics looking forward to the empirical research called "European Values Study" - a longitudinal and international comparative survey of human values - in almost all European countries including, for the first time, Serbia in 2008, the author first aims to present results of previous sociological research which are representative for the area of Europe, and then for the Orthodox area in the country with the highest number of Orthodox believers in the world. Therefore, in the last article the author will be able to compare the religious situation in Serbia not only with the (non-religious Europe but the (non-religious Orthodox Russia as well.
Religious confession provides a forum for the expression of individual identity and relational needs. As a ritual that gives public sanction to personal transformation and redemption, confession also connects the faithful to the larger community. Greek Orthodox, Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish ways of confession are surveyed to examine their historical and contemporary significance. Religious confession not only reflects meaning; it also creates meaning filtered through our psychological understanding of what constitutes sin. Clinical examples illustrate the need for therapists to become more aware of the relationship of their own values and countertransference in spiritual disclosure.
Om politiske kontroverser, der angår religiøse symboler i det offentlige rum i Danmark, og den måde, hvorpå idéer, der undfanges på den nationalistiske højrefløj......Om politiske kontroverser, der angår religiøse symboler i det offentlige rum i Danmark, og den måde, hvorpå idéer, der undfanges på den nationalistiske højrefløj...
Is there a Nordic model for Religious Education? The article explores how Cultural Protestantism and Liberal Theology influenced the ways in which Religious Education developed in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century as part of the transformation...... in the question of education, namely Nathan Söderblom (1866-1931), Edvard Lehmann (1862-1930) and Eivind Berggrav (1884-1959), who serve as prisms for the transnational historical analysis of what takes place between states and social fields. The article suggests that Nordic Cultural Protestantism contributed...
D. V. Pivovarov
Full Text Available The research paper deals with the concept of creativity and is aimed at demonstrating the paradoxical nature of the creative action. Generally, in modern world, creativity is defined as the «newness creating». However, this is not the only viewpoint, as in different cultures there traditionally compete three generalized definitions of creativity: 1 newness is a recurrence of the old; 2 newness is a unique synthesis of old forms; 3 newness arises from nothing. It has been demonstrated that the above formulas of creativity originate from the three equally strong religious traditions – pantheism, panentheism and monotheism. According to the author, the pantheistic scheme, being applied to human creativity, explains the specificity of scientific theoretical activity. In scientific sphere, as it is well-known, the highest creative achievement is related to discovery (not invention of fundamental laws of nature dissimilated in a variety of natural phenomena, and predeter- mining them. From the panentheistic model, on the other hand, the secular philosophy deduces the special theory of human creativity, viewed as a free construction and invention, rather then simple discovery of something that already exists. Evidently, the given model appeals to the engineering sphere providing the basis for a number of theories related to inventions and rationalizations. Therefore, the mechanism of inventions is quite simple, and the mass creativity training is possible. Whereas, according to monotheism, creativity is necessarily related to mystery, and therefore, this sort of training is impossible, and the pedagogic technology of creativity is regarded as non- sense. However, such opposing views are quite lawful being proved by the numerous facts of innovations in human history. Using the method of philosophic dialectics, the author achieves a paradoxical synthesis of the above mentioned alternative positions. In author’s opinion, the paradox of creativity
N. V. Kozlovskaia
Full Text Available The article addresses the problem of lexicographic presentation of philosophical terms that constitute the core of the lexical structure of Russian religious and philosophical text. This terminology has not been described in modern linguistic literature, which results in the interest in compiling a composite differential diachronic dictionary. The textual basis of the dictionary includes works of thinkers closely linked to the religious world: N. Fedorov, K. Leontiev, Vl. Soloviev, S. Bulgakov, P. Florensky, L. Shestov, N. Berdyaev, S. Frank.Complexity of the description of philosophical terms is largely due to the uncertainty of their meaning; a philosophical term often correlates not only with a certain idea, but the idea in general. Semantic volume (extensional of philosophical term is much higher than a semantic scope of terms which belong to other specialized areas of knowledge. The article analyzes the philosophical terms «vsemstvo» (L. Shestov and “vizantizm” (K. Leont’ev.The dictionary of Russian philosophers should include commentaries, which explain the relation of terms to ancient and western philosophy, the Bible, theological texts, Russian and foreign literature. Besides, lexicographic representation of individual philosophical terms must take into account ssemantic relation of the particular word in the whole philosophical term system.
Full Text Available The Brief RCOPE is a 14-item measure of religious coping with major life stressors. As the most commonly used measure of religious coping in the literature, it has helped contribute to the growth of knowledge about the roles religion serves in the process of dealing with crisis, trauma, and transition. This paper reports on the development of the Brief RCOPE and its psychometric status. The scale developed out of Pargament’s (1997 program of theory and research on religious coping. The items themselves were generated through interviews with people experiencing major life stressors. Two overarching forms of religious coping, positive and negative, were articulated through factor analysis of the full RCOPE. Positive religious coping methods reflect a secure relationship with a transcendent force, a sense of spiritual connectedness with others, and a benevolent world view. Negative religious coping methods reflect underlying spiritual tensions and struggles within oneself, with others, and with the divine. Empirical studies document the internal consistency of the positive and negative subscales of the Brief RCOPE. Moreover, empirical studies provide support for the construct validity, predictive validity, and incremental validity of the subscales. The Negative Religious Coping subscale, in particular, has emerged as a robust predictor of health-related outcomes. Initial evidence suggests that the Brief RCOPE may be useful as an evaluative tool that is sensitive to the effects of psychological interventions. In short, the Brief RCOPE has demonstrated its utility as an instrument for research and practice in the psychology of religion and spirituality.
Full Text Available Although religious organizations are essentially conservative, they are not immune to the changes brought on by the information and communication technology. Thus, one can conclude that all religious organizations, be they more liberal or conservative in their position towards change, use information and communication technology, i.e. the communication channel that it creates, more or less successfully. In fact, a religious organization, as any other organization, can choose between a range of communication channels created by the global network system, i.e. the Internet. The web is probably the most widely used and most popular communication channel available to Internet users. However, the web is not only a communication channel; it has developed into a virtual space, which evolved from being a means of presentation into a global social network. Web environment building is often left to the professionals such as web designers and developers of web sites that focus their attention on the appearance and functionality of web sites, but do not address the mission and goals of the religious organization for which the web system has been developed. In particular, the importance of marketing approach is disregarded, i.e. the necessity to meet the needs of the faithful, who are users of religious organization ‘services’. To create a web environment for religious organizations with optimal form and content, especially in the Republic of Croatia, one must address the task using a systematic or a model approach. For this reason, a study was conducted and a model of optimal web environment for e-marketing of religious organizations in the Republic of Croatia was developed
Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine
The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyse to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of religious...... experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of the present paper mean by the concept of religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: the Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological or RIT type of religious experience. In his studies...... and for the problem arising when drawing inadequately reasoned conclusions. Key Words Religious experiences, religious Erlebnis, religious Erfahrung, (religious) ideology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, pain, PET, reductionism, partial reductionism, Transcendental Meditation, epilepsy, schizophrenia....
Harold G. Koenig
Full Text Available This paper (1 reviews the physical and religious barriers to CBT that disabled medically ill-depressed patients face, (2 discusses research on the relationship between religion and depression-induced physiological changes, (3 describes an ongoing randomized clinical trial of religious versus secular CBT in chronically ill patients with mild-to-moderate major depression designed to (a overcome physical and religious barriers to CBT and (b compare the efficacy of religious versus secular CBT in relieving depression and improving immune and endocrine functions, and (4 presents preliminary results that illustrate the technical difficulties that have been encountered in implementing this trial. CBT is being delivered remotely via instant messaging, telephone, or Skype, and Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Hindu versions of religious CBT are being developed. The preliminary results described here are particular to the technologies employed in this study and are not results from the CBT clinical trial whose findings will be published in the future after the study ends and data are analyzed. The ultimate goal is to determine if a psychotherapy delivered remotely that integrates patients’ religious resources improves depression more quickly than a therapy that ignores them, and whether religious CBT is more effective than conventional CBT in reversing depression-induced physiological changes.
Full Text Available This study aims to examine various aspects of religiosity in members of the Neocatechumenal Way and the Catholic Charismatic Renewal. First, we assigned intergroup differences in Emotions toward God, Religious Comfort and Strain and Religious Attributions. Next, we estimated the net effects of Emotions toward God, Religious Comfort and Strain and Religious Attributions on religiosity. One hundred fifty–five people participated in the research, 81 members of the Catholic Charismatic Renewal and 74 members of the Neocatechumenal Way. We applied the Religious Comfort and Strain Scale by Yali, Exline, Wood, and Worthington, the Emotions toward God Scale by Huber and the Religious Attributions Scale by Exline, Park, Smyth and Carey. The results suggest that members of the Neocatechumenal Way do not differ from the Catholic Charismatic Renewal’s members in Religious Comfort and Positive Emotions toward God. However, the members of the Neocatechumenal Way scored higher in Religious Strain. A moderating effect of the religious movement on the relation between Fear of God and religiosity was observed.
Stloukal, Merit E.; Wickman, Scott A.
The authors present a model for creating spiritual and religious safe zones in school counseling programs that implements the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling's (ASERVIC; 2009) "Competencies for Addressing Spiritual and Religious Issues in Counseling" in a school setting. The authors frame the model within the…
Special Religious Education is faith-based single tradition religious education taught in many Australian public schools by volunteer teachers who are adherents of the faith they are teaching. This paper derives from a qualitative study of the pedagogy of Christian Special Religious Education teachers that took place between 2010 and 2014. Love is…
Mayrl, Damon; Uecker, Jeremy E.
Going to college has long been assumed to liberalize students' religious beliefs. Using longitudinal data from the National Study of Youth and Religion, we compare change in the content of religious beliefs of those who do and do not attend college. We find that, in general, college students are no more likely to develop liberal religious beliefs…
Galen, Luke W.
Numerous authors have suggested that religious belief has a positive association, possibly causal, with prosocial behavior. This article critiques evidence regarding this "religious prosociality" hypothesis from several areas of the literature. The extant literature on religious prosociality is reviewed including domains of charity,…
St. Augustine of Hippos' writing on education offers a fresh lens through which the conceptual framework of religious education in the Catholic school can be understood. Recent teaching of the Magisterium of the Catholic Church on the distinctive nature of religious education and catechesis has challenged religious educators to find an alternative…
Bakker, Cok; ter Avest, Ina
In the post-pillarized society of the Netherlands, formal religious education still is structured according to religious dividing lines. "Religion" in confessional schools is a compulsory subject; in public schools, taking a so-called neutral position with regard to religious traditions, "Religion"
Cardinal, Monique C.
This article discusses the almost identical syllabuses of the Christian and Muslim religious education programmes of the Syrian Arab Republic. Content analysis of the students' textbooks and teachers' guides (in Arabic) reveals common themes of citizenship education and national unity. Classroom observations in Damascus also highlight how…
Petersen, Marie Juul
Religious organizations are increasingly visible in development and humanitarian aid, something which has been reflected in the emergence of a new strand of research, focusing on these organizations and their involvement in the provision of development and humanitarian aid. However, most of this ...
Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.
What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).
Seabury, Marcia Bundy
Argues that a true general education should encourage the exploration of religious questions. Describes the author's use of works showing dystopian societies based on existing values, such as Huxley's "Brave New World," to encourage students to rethink their assumptions and develop openness toward the questions that religions address. (22…
Levi, Daniel; Kocher, Sara
Tourism at historic religious sites requires balancing the needs of historic preservation, the tourist experience, and community use of the site. The sacredness of these places is defined by the behaviors that occur there, the experience of users and visitors, and the meanings associated with the place by various groups. This research examines the…
Dosen, Anthony J.; Gibbs, Michael G.; Guerrero, Rosalie; McDevitt, Patrick J.
In this article, the authors report the results of a survey on technology access and use in both religious and nonsectarian schools in the state of Illinois. Four hundred surveys were sent to a cross section of private schools, with a response rate of 45%. The study demonstrates there were only minimal differences between sectarian and…
Schilderman, J.B.A.M.; Felling, A.J.A.
In this contribution, we clarify the pastoral commitment of Dutch Roman-Catholic pastors by describing it as the interplay of religious and professional commitment, which we analyze both analytically and empirically. Our main research question regards an empirical and theological inquiry into the re
countries: The Danish High Court decision (in 2005) gave private employers the right to ban headscarves for employees under specific conditions, if it concerns all religious symbols and refers to a general dress-code. This contrasts with the Norwegian Equality Ombud's decision stating that a ban...... in the public schools, in some Germany länder for public school teachers. ...
@@ Ⅰ. The World Peace Requires Religious Dialogues Peace, development and cooperation are the mainstay of the times in the present world, but there are unseen tricky and atrocious flows. The increasing opposition and conflicts are raging between different countries, nations and religions, which are challenging the wisdom and civilization of mankind.
A central task of religious education is to show how the puzzlements to human intelligence and the experiences that are associated with spirituality, are compelling in relation to our development as human beings. There are always more theories than objects or events to be explained, and while the spiritual "data" that gives rise to our puzzlements…
This paper compares the ways in which revealed theology, natural theology and philosophical theology justify religious belief. Revealed theology does so with an appeal to revelation and natural theology with an appeal to reason and perception. It is argued that both are inadequate. Philosophical the
Full Text Available Religions and the research about them were significantly affected by the feminist practices and studies in the twentieth century. In the religious context that has been presented in this third millennium, marked by the autonomy of women and their role in society, further studies are necessary to understand the religious phenomenon that occurs in the silent protagonism of women. One has to ask how to research and to think religion from a feminist perspective at this time; what religion is for women, how women experience religion and appropriate of it in the third millennium. The new religious practices, the connection of women to religion or the ruptures with religions, spearheaded by them, the resistances, their active subjectivity, as alternatives to the traditional spaces circumscribed by religious patriarchy, as well as the issue of autonomy and responsibility of the women in the construction of spiritual and religious alternatives in the contemporary society deserve attention. This text aims to present signs of these protagonist movements of women, especially in the Christian context in the current Brazil, stating hypotheses and presenting reflections on this reality. The text dialogues with the de-colonial feminism and has implications for the ways of conceptualizing and studying religion from the institutionalized religious forms.
Full Text Available In the Declaration of the Committee of Ministers on the role of community media in promoting social cohesion and intercultural dialogue passed on 11 February 2009 by the Council of Europe, stations run by religious institutions were explicitly excluded from the community media definition, as being too dependent on the Church. But the reality seems to be far from this definition. In practice, in many countries the religious radio stations officially belong to—or even dominate—this sector. In 2011 a new period began for community broadcasting in Hungary. While most of the former community media broadcasters could not find resources with which to operate, the community media landscape was dramatically overwhelmed by religious broadcasters both on regional and local levels. The legally-recognised third tier of broadcasting in Poland called ‘social broadcasting’ is actively and exclusively used by religious radio—seven stations broadcast locally and one is a powerful nationwide radio station called Radio Maryja. The authors gathered information and points of views from radio experts, organizations and activists living and working in different EU and non-EU states about the place of religious broadcasting in the community media sector. Two case-studies (Hungary and Poland may be of interest for countries considering the introduction or reorganisation of regulations regarding community broadcasting.
Full Text Available This paper explores the approach to religious education that has been instituted in Russia since 2012. The new policy’s manifestly proclaimed goals seem convergent with the values of religious freedom, self-determination, tolerance, and inter-faith peace that are espoused by Western liberal democracies. Yet Russia’s hidden religious education curriculum is far more consistent with a neo-imperial model of ethno-religious (Russian Orthodox hegemony and limited toleration of selected, other faiths whose reach is restricted to politically peripheral ethno-territorial entities. This model embodies and revitalizes Russia’s imperial legacies. Yet the revitalization is, in itself, an outcome of strategic choices made by the country’s religious and secular elites in the course of its desecularization. Building on discourse analysis of five Russian textbooks and a teacher’s manual, this article shows how the neo-imperial model manifests itself in the suppression of exogenous and endogenous pluralism, cultivation of the ideology of “ethnodoxy”, and in essentially imperialist mythology. The paper concludes by predicting the new model’s potential instability.
Full Text Available Background: The Supreme Court of Canada (SCC has ruled that the federal government is required to remove the provisions of the Criminal Code of Canada that prohibit medical assistance in dying (MAID. The SCC has stipulated that individual physicians will not be required to provide MAID should they have a religious or conscientious objection. Therefore, the pending legislative response will have to balance the rights of the patients with the rights of physicians, other health care professionals, and objecting institutions. Objective: The objective of this paper is to critically assess, within the Canadian context, the moral probity of individual or institutional objections to MAID that are for either religious or conscientious reasons. Methods: Deontological ethics and the Doctrine of Double Effect. Results: The religious or conscientious objector has conflicting duties, i.e., a duty to respect the “right to life” (section 7 of the Charter and a duty to respect the tenets of his or her religious or conscientious beliefs (protected by section 2 of the Charter. Conclusion: The discussion of religious or conscientious objections to MAID has not explicitly considered the competing duties of the conscientious objector. It has focussed on the fact that a conscientious objection exists and has ignored the normative question of whether the duty to respect one’s conscience or religion supersedes the duty to respect the patient’s right to life.
Ana Paula de Andrade Verona
Full Text Available Religion is becoming an important and highly present factor in the lives of many adolescents and young adults in Brazil. In addition to creating more space for them to maintain close relationships and participate actively in a religious environment, some religions have promoted the dissemination of clearer standards and objectives, as well as punitive sanctions, with respect to many aspects of their younger followers' lives, including their sexual behavior. This article examines how religion can affect, direct and indirectly, the sexual behavior of Brazilian adolescents. The main objective of this study is to look for a connection between Christian Smith's theoretical framework, which suggests several mechanisms through which religion can influence the lives of American adolescents, and ethnographic studies conducted in Brazil, as well as quantitative works that have brought attention to social and demographic consequences of recent religious transformations. Even though there is limited empirical evidence as to how the mechanisms of religious involvement work in Brazil, this study concludes that each of Smith's pathways can also be used to explain potential effects of religion on sexual behavior of Brazilian adolescents. This research should encourage empirical studies on such effects in Brazil. Besides the importance of examining the impact of the recent transformations in Brazil religious landscape on demographic phenomena, this topic deserves further consideration from Brazilian demographers because religion is a primary socialization agent of adolescents, and sexual activity is a sphere of human behavior of high importance in its religious applicability.
Full Text Available This paper presents an example of how rituals may play an important role in the birth of a new religion, and how this religious innovation can be interpreted through the rituals. This example concerns a religious group — Shan the Rising Light — that has managed to introduce a comprehensive body of rituals into a belief system otherwise characteristed by its general lack of rituals and ceremonies (namely the theosophy of Madame Blavatsky, thereby setting the standards for a virtually new religion. Jeanne Morashti was excommunicated from the organization she felt obliged to save, and started her own religious group. During her religious career, she had encountered numerous groups within the broader limits of the theosophical milieu, and when establishing her own group, she formed a synthesis of the various elements. The old process of syncretism and eclecticism, in the case of Shan the Rising Light, have managed to include the rituals too. The systematized mixing of strongly ritualized traditions with a non-ritualized belief system has led to a religious innovation.
Martinovic, Borja; Verkuyten, Maykel
This paper examines inter-religious attitudes from the perspective of Muslim minorities living in Western Europe. We examine both Sunni and Alevi Muslims of Turkish origin living in Germany and the Netherlands, and focus on their global feelings towards multiple religious out-groups (Christians, Jews, Muslim out-group, and non-believers). We hypothesize that Sunnis would dislike religious out-groups more than Alevis, and that these group differences in religious out-group feelings can be expl...
MUHAMMAD JAWAD IQBAL
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to apply DBBE model to discover the constructs to measure the religious event as a business brand on the bases of devotees’ perception. SEM technique was applied to measure the hypothesized model of which CFA put to analyze the model and a theoretical model was made to measure the model fit. Sample size was of 500. The base of brand loyalty was affected directly by image and quality. This information might be beneficial to event management and sponsors in making brand and operating visitors’ destinations. More importantly, the brand of these religious events in Pakistan can be built as a strong tourism product.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to create awareness of the dangers of religious cults. The process utilised by these cults to recruit members and to control their lives is so subtle that members are led to believe that they joined out of their own free will. A brief discussion of what religious cults are as well as how they function is followed by an explanation of mind control and how it is utilised by cults. This article maintains that mind control is the secret weapon with which leaders of cults lure their followers under false pretences to mislead, control and make them dependent on the cult.
Full Text Available We review Timothy Vang’s dissertation on the growth and decline of the Hmong Christian church. We argue that Vang’s arguments are methodologically and theoretically flawed. Furthermore, we try to show that his dissertation is not so much an objective analysis of Hmong religious adaptation, but rather an attempt to define and subjugate certain Hmong cultural and religious beliefs and practices as backward and inferior to Christianity. We suggest that it is these kinds of problematic arguments, often couched in academic language, that further perpetuate misinterpretations and misrepresentations about “culture” and “religion” in Hmong American communities.
Mihai Florin BĂCILĂ
Full Text Available For thousands of years, people have been travelling to places considered sacred to meet or to worship Divinity. Religion-motivated tourism is extremely important in many parts of the world. The aim of this paper is to investigate the issue of the religious tourism experience for a religion considered to be conservative and traditionalist in relation to other denominations. In order to achieve this end we distinguish the behavioural characteristics and motivations of the religious sites’ visitors through the abbots’ gaze. The research method of this study is a questionnaire based survey among more than one hundred monasteries’ superiors from different regions of Romania, places known as “holy or sacred” destinations for the Romanian religious people.
H. J.C. Pieterse
Full Text Available The concept of religious beliefs is distilled from the perspective of one’s belief in God. With regard to this belief in God we propose to distinguish between two dimensions: The personal versus the a-personal characte r of God and his transcendent versus his immanent nature. This leaves us with a plurality of beliefs in God. Does this plurality of beliefs exist in the minds of people in the Netherlands and in South Africa? Together with this we explore the relationship between church involvement and plural religious beliefs in both countries. We have found a sharp contrast between the Dutch and a sample of church-going white South Africans regarding secularization and church involvement. Nevertheless, we have found a highly similar structure of religious beliefs among both people.
Gabriela Cristina Maceda Rubert
Full Text Available This research seeks to comprehend the intrinsic relations of multiple memories present in the disposition of religious images of faith healer ladies in the city of Cambé. Through the dialogue with the oral source and the image source, we seek to relate the historic aspects to the particularities present in the studied cases. We reflected in this research on the concepts of identity, memory and healing present in these relations of exchange between the supernatural and the terrestrial, paying attention to the meaning of the plurality of images present in this space through the image analysis and the narratives and histories of ex-votes described in the faith healers testimony. The research discussed the religious reminiscences based on memories, identities and family heritages of the devotees, relating their particular and private lives with the processes of the Brazilian cultural and religious formation.
Full Text Available This article looks to analyze the process through which eastern cosmological elements and religious practices acquire new meanings as they take on fresh uses in western festive contexts, as well as examine the symbolic and performative dimensions of the phenomenon in question. Electronic music festivals suggest a reading of eastern religious factors that serve as a reference to their 'origin myth.' The ethnographic data reveals a new form of obtaining ecstasy via music, performances, 'natural' ambients and altered states of consciousness. The appeal to transcendence is the direct result of western re-workings of Indian religious practices - especially those proposed by the spiritual leader Osho, who formed a cosmology based on fragments taken out of their 'original' context and given meaning in the life of those who adopt the Sannyasalifestyle.
Marta Magdalena Boczkowska
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine narratives of the personal religious, spiritual and mystical experiences of adult Poles (N = 74 and their impact on narrative identity. The method for collecting qualitative data about individual understandings and spiritual, religious and mystical experiences was the narrative interview, developed on the basis of the Life Story Interview. During the analysis, the following key topics were identified: awareness of the presence/protection of God, a peak experience, the awareness of oneness with nature and the world, and a sense of closeness/contact with a person who has died. This study provides specific information on the spiritual, religious and mystical experiences of the investigated group of Poles.
Alex Villas Boas
Full Text Available This article proposes to examine some theories of non-religious spirituality in light of the growing phenomenon of those individuals who declared themselves as having "no religion" by Brazilian religious census conducted in 2010 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The intention here is to identify how the poetic question presents itself as the fundamental element of these proposals about spirituality for authors, since beauty is part of the spiritual quest, as in: Viktor Frankl and existential religiosity grounded in the search for meaning in life; Marià Corbí and his non-religious or secular spirituality; Robert Solomon and his spirituality for skeptics, and André Comte-Sponville and his atheistic spirituality, or spirituality without God. From there, we then present the perception of spirituality in the poetry of the thought of Jean Paul Sartre, primarily in his work “what is Literature?”
Cosmin Tudor Ciocan
Full Text Available I have started this research as a response to a pejorative question that religious rituals are merely theatrical, and the personnel involved nothing else but actors; beyond this there is nothing any religion suggests, e.g. healing, divine touch, blessings et.al. This paper is about rituals and their meanings and roles played as in social drama and theatre play. Considering the relationship between ritual and theatre to be reciprocal I will use their functions to evaluate the process of religious ceremonies and the role they play for adherents/participants, as if they would be attending a play. Religious Studies and Drama joint study offers the opportunity to combine two complementary humanities subjects, as both drama and religion are mainstays of cultural practice.
Full Text Available A relação entre religião e política por muitas vezes é encarada como antagônicas ou como termos sem relação. O apelo ao racionalismo e secularização do Estado esteve presente no mundo ocidental. No entanto, o que percebemos é que a religião ainda possui grande impacto na política. Descrevemos sobre a relação política e religião presente nos Estados Unidos, desde a era Reagan até a famosa doutrina Bush. Demonstraremos como na história o conservadorismo cristão protestante defendeu a politica externa dos Estados Unidos e apontaremos quais são os desafios propostos por essa linha de pensamento chamada neoconservadorismo.
Alberto Pereira dos Santos
Full Text Available This article represents a synthesis of our doctoral thesis in human geography, defended at the University of São Paulo. What are the relationships between geopolitics and religion? Our hypothesis held that churches make use of geopolitics to maintain and expand the "religious capital". On the other hand, the geographical analysis of the Brazilian reality identifies a slow and fruitful process of metamorphosis of beliefs and spiritual emancipation through the growth of the religious population without religion. This process occurs without the government of the churches. Based on the ideas of geoethic and mutual support, it is argued that the existence of the population without religion represents religious anarchy in Brazil.
Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.; Brockett, Adrian
A sample of 3783 11- to 16-year-old secondary school pupils completed the Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Theistic Faith and the abbreviated form of the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised together with information on personal religious practice (prayer), public religious practice (attendance) and religious identity (secular,…
Bertram-Troost, Gerdien D.; de Roos, Simone A.; Miedema, Siebren
This study examines religious identity development of pupils at Dutch schools for secondary education (mean age 16.4). With the help of a theoretical conceptualization of "religious identity development" empirical research is carried out. Main question is whether differences in terms of religious commitment and exploration between pupils…
Franken, Leni; Loobuyck, Patrick
After an elaboration of the paradigm shift concerning religious education in Europe, we will give a critical presentation of the Belgian and Flemish system of religious education. The article continues with a discussion of diverse proposals to change the religious education system in Flanders, and concludes that the introduction of an independent,…
Ego identity and intimacy are two sequential stages, according to Erikson's theory. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between ego identity and intimacy, as two continuous multidimensional variables among religious and non-religious individuals. Eight sample groups (age x gender x religious observance) comprising 308…
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.
Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents' religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents' religiousness and adolescent adjustment outcomes--either directly or indirectly via adolescents' own religiousness--varies depending on relationship context…
Hill, Terrence D; Ellison, Christopher G; Burdette, Amy M; Taylor, John; Friedman, Katherine L
Although numerous studies suggest that religious involvement is associated with a wide range of favorable health outcomes, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to cellular aging. In this paper, we tested whether leukocyte telomere length varies according to several dimensions of religious involvement. We used cross-sectional data from the Nashville Stress and Health Study (2011-2014), a large probability sample of 1252 black and white adults aged 22 to 69 living in Davidson County, TN, USA. Leukocyte telomere length was measured using the monochrome multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction method with albumin as the single-copy reference sequence. Dimensions of religious involvement included religiosity, religious support, and religious coping. Our multivariate analyses showed that religiosity (an index of religious attendance, prayer frequency, and religious identity) was positively associated with leukocyte telomere length, even with adjustments for religious support, religious coping, age, gender, race, education, employment status, income, financial strain, stressful life events, marital status, family support, friend support, depressive symptoms, smoking, heavy drinking, and allostatic load. Unlike religiosity, religious support and religious coping were unrelated to leukocyte telomere length across models. Depressive symptoms, smoking, heavy drinking, and allostatic load failed to explain any of the association between religiosity and telomere length. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to link religious involvement and cellular aging. Although our data suggest that adults who frequently attend religious services, pray with regularity, and consider themselves to be religious tend to exhibit longer telomeres than those who attend and pray less frequently and do not consider themselves to be religious, additional research is needed to establish the mechanisms underlying this association.
Full Text Available The author analyses discussion that took place between S. Frank and S. Lurje concerning “Vekhi” (“Landmarks”. In this context, the author’s objective is to show the evolution of S. Frank’s outlook on culture and religion, which developed in three stages: the humanistic individualism, the religious humanism, and the Christian realism.
Mihai A. GÎRŢU
Full Text Available Starting from the recent public debate over global warming we discuss the scientific consensus and public perception on climate issues. We then turn to the ongoing debate on diets and nutrition, comparing scientific perspectives, public views and religious standpoints.
Gelb, Richard G.
Santeria is a religion which originated in West Africa and evolved from the syncretism of the culture of the Yoruba people with Catholicism in Cuba. Juanita, who was born in Puerto Rico and taught herself how to read and write, owns a "botanica," a retail shop specializing in Santeria paraphernalia. Juanita is a santera (priestess) in…
Full Text Available El presente artículo se ocupa de la tematización que Heidegger hace de la religión en su época de docente en Friburgo. Heidegger se encuentra en búsqueda de la fenomenología como ciencia originaria, y en ese contexto destaca tres dimensiones humanas de peculiar importancia: autobiografía, arte y religión. En ese contexto se muestra que lo que aquí interesa es la manera en que la vida táctica se expresa a sí misma. En el caso concreto de la religión, la vida religiosa y su expresión no operan como contenido y continente ajenos el uno del otro. A su vez, la ocupación heideggeriana con la filosofía de la religión tiene, ante todo, que ver con una descripción de las tendencias filosóficas imperantes en su tiempo. El artículo concluye con una somera referencia biográfica a la crisis personal del filósofo que lo lleva a abandonar el catolicismo.The present article is concerned with the themes that Heidegger addresses regarding religión during his time as a teacher in Freiburg. Here Heidegger is found searching for phenomenology as an original science, and in this context he highlights three human dimensions of singular importance: autobiography, art and religión. In this setting, it is shown that what is of interest is the way in which real life expresses itself. As for the concrete case of religión, religious life and its expression do not opérate as contained and container, distant from each other. At the same time, the heideggerian concern with philosophy of religión has to do with a description of the philosophical tendencies dominating in his day, before all else. The article concludes with a brief biographical reference to the personal crisis of the philosopher which leads him to abandon catholicism.onar el catolicismo.
Ruijs Wilhelmina LM
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years healthcare professionals have faced increasing concerns about the value of childhood vaccination and many find it difficult to deal with parents who object to vaccination. In general, healthcare professionals are advised to listen respectfully to the objections of parents, provide honest information, and attempt to correct any misperceptions regarding vaccination. Religious objections are one of the possible reasons for refusing vaccination. Although religious objections have a long history, little is known about the way healthcare professionals deal with these specific objections. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the responding of healthcare professionals to parents with religious objections to the vaccination of their children. Methods A qualitative interview study was conducted with health care professionals (HCPs in the Netherlands who had ample experience with religious objections to vaccination. Purposeful sampling was applied in order to include HCPs with different professional and religious backgrounds. Data saturation was reached after 22 interviews, with 7 child health clinic doctors, 5 child health clinic nurses and 10 general practitioners. The interviews were thematically analyzed. Two analysts coded, reviewed, discussed, and refined the coding of the transcripts until consensus was reached. Emerging concepts were assessed using the constant comparative method from grounded theory. Results Three manners of responding to religious objections to vaccination were identified: providing medical information, discussion of the decision-making process, and adoption of an authoritarian stance. All of the HCPs provided the parents with medical information. In addition, some HCPs discussed the decision-making process. They verified how the decision was made and if possible consequences were realized. Sometimes they also discussed religious considerations. Whether the decision-making process was
Full Text Available Javanese manuscript is a noble heritage that should be preserved. This study was conducted to determine the values of harmony contained in the Serat Purwocampur. The method used in this study on a content analysis and philology. Serat Purwocampur consists of four kinds of macapat song: Asmaradhana, Girisa, Pangkur, and Dhandhanggula. Briefly, this manuscript contains ancient stories and supernatural, such as gods associated with the prophets or otherwise. Value of harmony contained in this manuscript is the acculturation between Hinduism and Islam (Islamic Javanization. Islam spread peacefully in Java, in additions Islam also taught its followers (the Javanese to perform religion both syari’at and hakikat.
Genrich Gillian L
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T, where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA. Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. Methods Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 2002–2003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support
Carlos Alvarado de Piérola
Full Text Available Desde que hiciera su aparición El origen de las especies y empezara adifundirse la teoría darwinista de la evolución, ésta suscitó las más encendidaspolémicas. Desde diversos sectores, partieron en mayor o en menorgrado ataques muy duros, algunos de los cuales no carecían de un sólidofundamento. Pero los golpes más violentos llegaron desde el terreno dela religión, que se sintió particularmente afectada. Aún hoy, cuando celebramosel bicentenario del nacimiento de Darwin, las aguas no parecenhaberse aquietado alrededor suyo. Todavía, algunos influyentes sectoresfundamentalistas siguen considerándola, inclusive en su versión actual,la teoría sintética de la evolución, como un peligro para la fe religiosa.Los ataques se producen bajo la forma de un amplio abanico de modalidades:desde un rechazo rotundo en defensa de los textos bíblicos hastauna descalificación supuestamente científica que, aparentando situarseen una perspectiva no religiosa, cuestiona los fundamentos de la teoría ypropone la doctrina del llamado diseño inteligente.A pesar de todo, debemos reconocer que, actualmente, a 150 añosde la publicación de El origen, la situación ha variado. Ya no existe la unanimidaden la condena. Hasta ha habido quien, como Teilhard de Chardin,sacerdote católico, intentó construir con ayuda del darwinismo unametafísica cristiana, aunque haciéndose merecedor de la condena de lajerarquía eclesiástica de su tiempo. Incluso el papa Juan Pablo II declaróen su momento: “Hoy en día, (... nuevos conocimientos llevan a reconoceren la teoría de la evolución más que una hipótesis”1,
Elaine P. Miller
Full Text Available In her keynote address to the Kristeva Circle 2014, Julia Kristeva argued that European Humanism dating from the French Revolution paradoxically paved the way for “those who use God for political ends” by promoting a completely and solely secular path to the political. As an unintended result of this movement this path has led, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, to the development of a new form of nihilism that masks itself as revolutionary but in fact is the opposite, in Kristeva’s view. Kristeva analyzed the culture of religious fundamentalism as “adolescent” in the sense that the adolescent, in contrast to the child, is a believer rather than a questioner. Although the psychoanalytic consideration of religious fundamentalism added a new dimension to attempts to explain the increase of this phenomenon in the late 20th and 21st centuries, Kristeva’s subsequent linkage of fundamentalism to the revolts in French suburbs in 2005 and beyond fell short of an insightful critique by neglecting the historical context of France’s colonial history.
Dolors Vidal Casellas
Full Text Available This article aims to provide an overview of the products Catalonia has to offer in terms of reli- gious tourism. The growing interest in this kind of tourism worldwide, and in Catalonia itself, along with the region’s wealth of religious heritage (particularly connected to the Christian Church contrast with the lack of religion-based tourism products available, which results in its absence from the region’s image as a tourism destination. In view of this, the Faculty of Tourism (University of Girona, the Vic Bishopric’s Albergueria-Centre for Cultural Dissemination and the Tarraconense Episcopal Conference’s Interdiocese Secretariat for the Custody and Promotion of Holy Art (SICPAS decided to address the situation with the help of funding from the Autonomous Government of Catalonia. In order to re-position Christian religious heritage in the image of Catalonia as a tourist destination, the aforementioned parties embarked upon a project to set up a series of routes throughout the region, branded under the name Catalonia Sacra.
Full Text Available O recente centenário de Murilo Mendes nos forneceu a ocasião para avaliar de que modo se vinculam, em sua obra, poesia, religião e modernidade 2. Creio, em poucas palavras, antecipando o argumento que pretendo desenvolver, que em Murilo Mendes podemos encontrar uma posição eqüidistante entre, de um lado, o cristianismo escriturário, e sua crença de uma verdade única, ainda que essa singularidade esteja igualmente aberta à indeterminação dos sistemas significantes e, de outro, o relativismo hermenêutico, que rechaça a idéia de que possa haver uma verdade final e definitiva. Porém, para poder demonstrar esta minha hipótese, torna-se necessário uma análise do ambiente cultural em que Murilo elabora seus conceitos a respeito de religião e literatura, reconstruindo, notadamente, o debate que, mesmo na Europa de entre-guerras, suscitavam estas questões.
R. Drew Smith
Full Text Available While many persons within westernised or westernising nations such as the United States of America and South Africa continue to place importance on matters of faith, a growing number of those persons approach matters of faith informally rather than formally and individually rather than institutionally. The implications of this are that among 21st century populations informal religious formation may be as important as or more important than the formation taking place via formal religious channels. A central emphasis of this article is that this is especially true among more socially marginalised populations, not simply because they may not enjoy the same level of access to formal institutions, but also because they may regard those institutions as spiritually and culturally restrictive and exclusionary. The contributions of the article are, firstly, its use of original and unique survey data generated from neighbourhood studies the author directed in low-income contexts within several U.S. cities and within Pretoria, South Africa, and, secondly, its analysis of informal ways the urban poor engage Christian ideas and practices − an aspect of urban religion that has not received adequate scholarly attention.
Full Text Available Based on the religions represented in the children's group, Norwegian kindergartens are required to have activities related to religious festivals. The requirement is aiming both on mutual interest, respect and tolerance between the children and on the recognition of the life world of the children affiliated with the religion in point. The study demonstrates that recognition of the Muslim festival Id al-fitr takes place in a very limited part of the kindergartens, and that the cooperation with parents is qualitatively different between majority and minority religions. We have also found that the kindergartens that recognized religious festivals aims their activities to affirm the Muslim children, rather than aiming at the children as a group. Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i hvordan et utvalg barnehager arbeider med prosessmålet om at barn skal utvikle interesse, toleranse og respekt for hverandre i barnehagen, samt bruk av høytidsmarkering og foreldresamarbeid i den forbindelse. Basert på en empirisk undersøkelse finner vi at barnehager som har barn med minoritetsreligiøs tilknytning i liten grad driver høytidsmarkering slik rammeplanen krever. I den grad den muslimske høytiden id al-fitr markeres, sikter personalet mot identitetsbekreftelse for muslimske barn. Aktivitetene tar i liten grad sikte på å utvikle interesse, toleranser og respekt i barnegruppa som helhet.
Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the problematic issue of religious communication via the television media. As the positions of media theorists and the church to the use of media in religious communication differ, the paper seeks to compare those two perceptual perspectives. Thus the first part of the paper discusses the nature, impact and communicational role of media, the second analyses television as media from a philosophical perspective and the third part focuses on the analysis of the church documents concerning the practices of existing “tele-evangelization”. The paper examines the insights of the key media theorists and philosophers – Marshall McLuhan, Vilém Flusser, Jean Baudrillard, Neil Postman. McLuhan said that the qualitative changes in human history are associated with the emergence of new communication tools, so it is important to gain the proper knowledge of them for every human being. Since we are inevitably linked to the digital environment in which we live, an essential condition to enable a conscious existence in this environment is reached thorough knowledge of the defective media nature. Church openness to media is a result of different approach to media reality rather than poor absorption of the media nature.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine American and Japanese clergy’s perception of their role in the prevention of suicide. The research questions are as follows: (a How do clergy in the United States and Japan perceive suicide? (b Do they see suicide differently? and (c How do they envision the role of suicide prevention? The hypotheses are as follows: (a Christian clergy think that suicide is an unacceptable “sin”; (b Buddhist clergy are more accepting of suicide than Christian clergy; (c there are role differences related to suicide prevention in the Japanese and American religious communities; and (d American and Japanese religious leaders have a different view of their obligations related to suicide prevention. The investigator sent 400 anonymous mail surveys, respectively, to New York and Tokyo. The surveys asked about the clergy’s personal beliefs and the Church’s role in suicide prevention. The investigator analyzed the responses using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The major findings are that many American Christian clergy consider suicide to be a sin, but that “God’s love is available for people who committed suicide.” Many Japanese Buddhist clergy think how one dies is not the most important issue.
Full Text Available Nowadays we can observe complex interactions between the religious and secular spheres. Several different processes take place simultaneously: the traditionally religious elements function in the secular sphere as if they were part of secular culture; elements of the secular sphere build a specific kind of post-secular religiosity; finally, this post-secular religiosity influences traditional religions. This article focuses on the last stage of these changes. The author's purpose is to describe and interpret the practices we can observe. Because of the complexity of this issue, the analyses are limited to examples taken from the Catholic Church in Germany, where this process seems to be as popular as it is paradoxical. Catholicism realises that the post-secular forms of religiosity are very popular and that many people choose them instead of the traditional Church. It could offer them spirituality based on ages of experience. But instead of making its own spiritual tradition competitive on the spiritual market, Catholicism seems to offer Christianised post-secular goods, or its own traditional elements represented in a secularised form. It seems difficult to predict how it will all end. However, we observe an interesting encounter and interaction between an ‘old’ religion and a new religiosity, which will certainly have impact on further presence of the Church in the society.
Full Text Available In the course of human communities priority was preservation of identity, sovereignty,independence and territorial integrity. States as the main framework of political organization, hadintended to build national security policy to protect and promote their interests. An increasing numberof conflicts have been caused or inflamed by cultural differences exacerbate, ethnic or religious.Therefore, religions and their associated phenomena have been given new relevant in the context ofsecurity, imposing civilization lately approach to security. This requires thorough research of cultural,religious phenomena and linguistic aspects, as Samuel Huntington did, who is the initiator of thismodel civilizational approach to security analysis. By applying this model the following conclusions:reality forces of integration in the world is exactly what generates forces of cultural claims,civilizational knowledge, in a sense the world is bipolar, but the main distinction is between the Westand as far dominant civilization and all others, however, share more than anything. In short, the worldis a world divided between Western and non-Western world more, nation states are and will remainthe most important actors in international affairs, but their interests, associations and conflictsbetween them are becoming more limited by factors culture and civilization, the world is indeedanarchic, punctuated by tribal and nationality conflicts, but conflicts that make the biggest threats tostability are those between states or groups from different civilizations.
Full Text Available This article deals with the ecology of pilgrimage at the Calvaries – Ways of the Cross – in Lithuania. Personal obligations to nature and respect of sacred place intermingle with devotional practices and certain rituals. Large scale arrivals at the Calvaries only occurs at certain times of year, mostly during the Indulgence Feasts. Devotional practices such as meditation on the suffering of Christ, prayers and hymns, playing musical instruments, washing one’s face at the Cedron spring are quite common during the Way. Research shows that walking the Way of the Cross doesn’t cause negative environmental, cultural and social impacts. Moreover, pilgrimage could be beneficial to local communities - providing opportunities to sell handcraft products, to meet relatives and friends. Visiting Calvaries is a religious act restrained by time: usually it takes about 3-4 hours to undertake the Stations of the Cross, about one hour to celebrate Holy Mass, and up to one hour at the market place buying religious memorabilia and other souvenirs.
Donny Gahral Adian
Full Text Available History of philosophy is built upon rigid discrimination between various human experiences. Human experiences are divided mainly into two major experiences: Perceptual and intelectual. Perceptual experience is deined by empiricism as an aposteriori experience of empirical sensations. Meanwhile, rationalism claims that the only acceptable experience is apriori experience of intelectual object (natural laws, mathematical equations and logical operations. There is no other experience outside those two philosophical account of experiences. All other experiences must be subsumed either within perceptual or intelectual experience.
Stewart, William C; Adams, Michelle P; Stewart, Jeanette A; Nelson, Lindsay A
The purpose was to evaluate faith-based studies within the medical literature to determine whether there are ways to help physicians understand how religion affects patients’ lives and diseases. We reviewed articles that assessed the influence of religious practices on medicine as a primary or secondary variable in clinical practice. This review evaluated 49 articles and found that religious faith is important to many patients, particularly those with serious disease, and patients depend on it as a positive coping mechanism. The findings of this review can suggest that patients frequently practice religion and interact with God about their disease state. This spiritual interaction may benefit the patient by providing comfort, increasing knowledge about their disease, greater treatment adherence, and quality of life. The results of prayer on specific disease states appear inconsistent with cardiovascular disease but stronger in other disease states.
Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that T
With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…
Koenig, Laura B
The author investigated the change and stability of different aspects of religiousness and spirituality, as well as whether personality traits may help explain why individuals increase or decrease in religiousness and spirituality during emerging adulthood. Self-report measures of childhood and current religiousness were completed by 224 college-aged participants. A subset of participants also completed a measure of personality and measures of religious and spiritual belief trajectories by rating the importance of each belief at successive age brackets across their lifespan. Analyses of mean-level, rank-order, and individual-level stability and change in religiousness indicated that while average religiousness scores decreased, there was still moderate to high rank-order stability in scores. Additionally, service attendance was less stable and decreased more than importance of religion in daily life. Examination of the trajectories of religiousness and spirituality over time showed similar differences: religiousness decreased, on average, whereas spirituality increased slightly, but significantly, across successive age brackets. Personality traits did not significantly predict change in religiousness over time, although openness predicted change in spirituality. Conclusions include the idea that religiousness in emerging adulthood is comprised on different components that change at different rates.
Full Text Available Text editing is more than the knowledge of word processing techniques. Originally typographers, printers, text editors were the ones qualified to edit texts, which were well structured, legible, easily understandable, clear, and were able to emphasize the coreof the text. Time has changed, and nowadays everyone has access to computers as well as to text editing software and most users believe that having these tools is enough to edit texts. However, text editing requires more skills. Texts appearing either in printed or inelectronic form reveal that most of the users do not realize that they are not qualified to edit and publish their works. Analyzing the ‘text-products’ of the last decade a tendency can clearly be drawn. More and more documents appear, which instead of emphasizingthe subject matter, are lost in the maze of unstructured text slices. Without further thoughts different font types, colors, sizes, strange arrangements of objects, etc. are applied. We present examples with the most common typographic and text editing errors. Our aim is to call the attention to these mistakes and persuadeusers to spend time to educate themselves in text editing. They have to realize that a well-structured text is able to strengthen the effect on the reader, thus the original message will reach the target group.
Schenker, J G
It is important to those who practice reproduction techniques to learn about the different religious attitudes related to reproductive health problems. Religion exerts an influence on civil authorities in the field of reproduction such as prevention or procreation and in issues such as abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards reproduction can be learned from the fact that the first commandment of God to Adam was be fruitful and multiply. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and sperm originate from the wife and husband, respectively. All Rabbinical rulings permit the use of contraception for medical indications. Economic difficulties and inconveniences of raising children are not indications for birth control practice. According to Judaism abortion on demand is forbidden but it may be performed if the mother's life is in danger. The attitude toward reproductive practice is different among the different divisions of Christianity. The practice of assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, however, it may be practiced by Protestant, Anglican and other Denomination's. According to the Roman Catholic doctrine the primary purpose of marriage is procreation. The contraceptive act destroys the potential of producing new life by sexual intercourse and violates the purpose of marriage and, therefore, is a sin against nature. The Christian tradition views the embryo as a human being since conception and, therefore, abortion is strictly forbidden. According to Islam, the procedure of IVF and ET is acceptable, however, it can be preformed only if it involves the husband and the wife. It allows contraception practice only under some circumstances and only in some special cases abortion can be preformed. Religion, being concerned with affairs that are regarded as extraordinary and as having unique importance in life, is an intrinsic aspect of the culture of all societies, religious groups, however
Elena Gennadevna Kozlova
Full Text Available In this article refers to the self-identity of the person through his work, profession. We can say that religion the first gave answer to the question about the identity of the person and the meaning of his life. Man is a creature of God and his purpose becomes the glorification of the Creator in the creative work. Man can find his salvation in work and pray. Religious Ethics establish its own rules regarding acceptable and prohibited professions regulated the labor relations. Time-wasting is considered a sin, religious texts called for work. Exploring religious traditions M. Weber found that the «spirit» of entrepreneurship, capitalism, professional discipline, austerity can be found primarily in the religious minorities. He finds that in some languages the word «profession» is also set to divine predestination – «calling», which leads to a new type of asceticism – through work and service of his calling, for example, in the Protestant ethic.
Full Text Available This article presents a specific issue of the semantic analysis of texts in natural language – text indexing and describes one field of its application (web browsing.The main part of this article describes the computer system assigning a set of semantic indexes (similar to keywords to a particular text. The indexing algorithm employs a semantic dictionary to find specific words in a text, that represent a text content. Furthermore it compares two given sets of semantic indexes to determine texts’ similarity (assigning numerical value. The article describes the semantic dictionary – a tool essentialto accomplish this task and its usefulness, main concepts of the algorithm and test results.
Roberto Andrés González
Full Text Available Se hace referencia a una doble coincidencia temática entre Hegel y Cassirer, a saber, en primer lugar, en ambos resulta eminente la preocupación por el espíritu, y en segundo lugar, esta preocupación envuelve la tematización de la religión. El pretexto del presente trabajo se finca justo en el contraste de la acepción en torno a la religión entre uno y otro. La tematización de la realidad religiosa del espíritu en Hegel se va a desarrollar en tres momentos: religión natural, religión ética, religión revelada. Mientras que en Cassirer dicha tematización habrá de precisar la exposición de la forma simbólica del mito como antesala necesaria de la religión.
Full Text Available This study is entitled THE USES OF RELIGIOUS SYMBOL TO REPRESENT ISLAM (A Study on Religious Soap Opera Bukan Islam KTP. The background of the research is based on the facts of the arbitrary use of symbols to represent Islam shown on Indonesian televisions. The pattern of the use of religious symbols, either verbal or non-verbal symbols are generally explicit, but when examined using appropriate methods, they are actually contained some implicit meanings. The purpose of this study was to discover about how Islam is represented on television religious soap opera using religious symbols and to find out the dominant ideology behind the representation techniques. To analyze the soap operas consist of twenty episodes, the researcher used a semiotic approach by John Fiske on television codes. The results of this study are: (1 the use of verbal symbols to represent Islam potentially creates multiple interpretations when they are spoken by different characters. (2 Some religious terminologies are often used by antagonist player to express anger and disappointment. (3 The soap opera is dominated by verbal violence used by both protagonist and antagonist players, while antagonist player use violence both in verbal and non-verbal forms. The findings about ideology embedded in the soap opera are: (1 capitalist-materialistic ideology, (2 ideology of patriarchy, and (3 violence domination.
Full Text Available The development of the Acehnese sitting song-dances and frame-drum genres as part of religious conversion and continuing piety This article aims to connect two important genres of Aceh
Full Text Available There has been much discussion about the most suitable model of religious education (RE hereafter in public schools all around Europe. The Finnish model of RE has attracted great interest, because in Finland RE is given according to one’s own religion. The Finnish model of RE is very unique and it emphasises the right of religious minorities to participate in RE according to their own religion in state-owned schools. In this article we examine headmasters’ conceptions of the current Finnish RE solution from the perspective of human rights. The study is based on qualitative interviews.Headmasters presented both advantages and disadvantages of the current RE solution. These advantages are briefly: freedom of religion, an opportunity to get RE according to one´s own religion, knowing one´s own roots, an opportunity to understand people from different religious backgrounds and an opportunity to study other religions for those students who are not members of religious communities. The limits of the solution are that it puts students into their own religious groups and this limits possibilities for religious dialogue, which should be one of the key elements of modern RE. RE has a strong potential to promote human rights. It is important to discuss different models of arranging education from the viewpoint of human rights. The human rights viewpoint should be central when dealing with the aims, contents and organization structure of RE. Different interpretations of religious freedom and the right to religious education are important considerations especially for RE.
Full Text Available This article traces the origins and development of about 140 new religious male and female congregations, established in Italy during the Nineteenth century. Starting from the Restoration period, the article frames the actions and choices of the new religious congregations with reference to the new scenarios produced by the revolutionary experience and by the changes introduced in ecclesiastical legislation and in the relations between State and Church during the Napoleonic era. At the same time, it deals with the unusual challenges the Church had to face due to both the secularization of mentality and customs and the increased educational needs and welfare of the post-revolutionary period. The author analyses some characteristics of these new religious institutions, most of which chose as privileged —and sometimes exclusive— activity of their apostolate the assistance (of poor and sick people, and of abandoned children and youth, the catechesis and animation of religious life in the parishes and, above all, the education of youth of both sexes and of different social classes. Firstly, the author describes the aspect related to the general adoption of the structure of religious congregations, which provides unequivocal evidence of the prevalence, also on the female side, of the traditional monastic model, of a vocation to religious life understood essentially as an active life devoted to charity, a synthesis between action and prayer, a commitment in the world through the assistance of others. The author’s reconstruction also shows how the idea of charity promoted by the new religious congregations was understood not simply as a commitment to provide assistance, but also, and above all, as an educational responsibility. Indeed, the new religious congregations considered education, school and parish catechesis as the most effective tools for Christians’ education. At the same time, school and education were also seen as the most direct
Full Text Available In this paper we tried to correlate text sequences those provides common topics for semantic clues. We propose a two step method for asynchronous text mining. Step one check for the common topics in the sequences and isolates these with their timestamps. Step two takes the topic and tries to give the timestamp of the text document. After multiple repetitions of step two, we could give optimum result.
Full Text Available Introduction Many social studies confirm that religion has an influential role in forming attitudes, trends and the meaning of social behaviors. However, so far little attention has been paid to examining the relationship between religious integrity and architectural space. Regarding to the fact that in many parts of the world cultural heritage places such as mosques, shrines, squares, temples and streets are alive and the public can use them actively, the present study intends to examine the relationship between religious identity and cultural heritage conservation. Based on the importance of youth's values, socialization and demographic characteristics of the Iranian population, youth were selected as this research's subjects. Material s and Methods According to research goals, to assess the role of religion in social life and focusing on active preservation of cultural heritage, three indicators of belief, emotion and outcome were selected to measure religious identity. In this study, religious identity is reflected in the role of a person in reproducing religious institutions and the importance of religious behaviors in lifestyle and interactions. There are two approaches to preserve cultural heritage: passive and active. While the first one aims at preventing any damage to cultural heritage, in the active approach, cultural heritage is more than buildings and structures. It includes values and history of a society; thus preservation requires social engagement and development of social bonds between people and places. If people do not understand the hidden values of buildings, their protection loses its importance. For active preservation, three indicators of emotion, cognition and function were distinguished. Data were gathered by survey, using multistage cluster sampling. A total of 343 people were questioned in 6 Isfahan urban districts as sample size. To test the assumptions, structural equation modeling was used in AMOS
Mir, Tariq Ahmad
An important aspect of religious association is that adherents, as part of their religious duty, carry out various activities. One religious group known for keeping the elaborate records of day-to-day activities of its members is the Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs)-a worldwide Christian religious group. We analyze the historical records of the country-wide data associated with twelve different religious activities of JWs to see if there are any patterns in the distribution of the first digits as predicted by Benford's law. This law states that the first digits of numbers in data sets are not uniformly distributed but often, not always, follow a logarithmic distribution such that the numbers beginning with smaller digits appear more frequently than those with larger ones. We find that the data on religious activities like peak publishers, pioneer publishers, baptizations, public meetings, congregations, bible studies, time spent in door-to-door contacts, attendances at the memorial services, total literature and ind...
Uecker, Jeremy E.
I analyze the effects of Catholic schooling, Protestant schooling, and homeschooling on adolescents’ religious lives and test three mechanisms through which these schooling strategies might influence religiosity: friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors. Data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Youth and Religion suggest that Catholic schoolers attend religious services more frequently and value their faith more highly than public schoolers, but attend religious education cla...
Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Petersen, Inge; Hjelmborg, Jacob
generally considered more religious than the very secular northern European countries. Comparisons of the results are complicated by diverse definitions of religiousness, but several studies indicate that the influence of the family environment is most predominant in early life, whereas genetic influences......It is well known that human behavior and individual psychological traits are moderately to substantially heritable. Over the past decade, an increasing number of studies have explored the genetic and environmental influence on religiousness. These studies originate predominantly from countries...
length of head hair for both men and women , making certain allowances for women to wear longer hairstyles. The regulation prohibits the wear of beards...exceptions in order to further religious sensitivity. 10 Review of Canada, United Kingdom, and Netherlands Policy on Head and Facial Hair Some...militaries have religious accommodations for males who maintain facial and head hair for religious purposes. In addition, one nation allows soldiers to
Saskia Louise Shafer
Full Text Available This article summarises the results of a media analysis conducted by the example of one of the country’s biggest daily newspapers, the New Straits Times. With regard to the controversial religious freedom debate, it summarises what actors are involved in the discussion and how their positions are presented in the mainstream media. Several examples from articles show what strategies are employed in the discourse, such as the rhetoric of fear and crisis and the constant emphasis of racial and other supposedly separating categories. The close linkage of the categories ‘ethnicity’ and ‘religion’, which is manifested legally as well as politically, is perpetuated linguistically. Especially important in this context is the construction of a Muslim-Malay identity.
Full Text Available Thinking of Muslim women, the first image that usually comes to mind is a veiled woman or, especially after 11 September 2001, the burqa (Afghan name and form of veiling in Afghanistan. This image of prescriptive veiling is immediately viewed as oppressive and as an indication of the inferior status of women in Islam. In this article an attempt is made to present the different ways in which hijab (Islamic practice of veiling is interpreted and applied, followed by an analysis of Islamic identity as reflected in Islamic scripts. Personal identity is discussed according to Jensen’s distinction that sheds some light on the different spheres of human reality within Islam, that is: the social person, the legal person and the religious person. This article aims to present orthodox and feminist views on personal identity that should be informative of the orientation of Muslims within society at large.
Full Text Available This paper explores continuity and change in the American Catholic hierarchy’s promotion of and later reliance on religious freedom. With an analysis spanning more than 50 years, it first traces the pressures for reform that created the Declaration more than 50 years ago, demonstrating that American bishops were crucial actors in the Declaration’s existence and passage, and that this was the case because of the strong legitimacy pressures they were under as Roman Catholic leaders in a predominantly Protestant country. The paper then turns to a summary of how the Birth Control Mandate of the Affordable Care Act once again created pressures for legitimacy for the American Catholic hierarchy, pressures which were again articulated in terms of critiques of hypocrisy. It demonstrates that although the specific critique changed, accusations of hypocrisy remain central in discussions of the Catholic Church’s stance on the Birth Control Mandate in the Affordable Care Act.
Full Text Available The article describes key aspects of Samuel Huntington’s “Clash of Civilizations” thesis. It acknowledges the way in which that thesis has picked up on some key changes in relation to the role of religion in public life and, especially, in international relations. But it also critiques the thesis for its “essentializing” and “bloc” approach to cultures and societies, arguing that such an approach does not take sufficient account of the differences and sometimes fault-lines and conflicts within societies and cultural groups. For what might characterise appropriate religiously informed responses to Huntington’s thesis, the article proposes an approach based on four “keynotes” of “modesty”, “integrity”, “realism” and “distinctiveness”.
Full Text Available Ethical decisions are made regarding day-to-day workplace behaviours. We surveyed 315 college students from 9 different religious categories: Catholic, Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, Agnostic, Atheist, and Other. Individuals were asked whether “in the workplace, it is acceptable to do so” for 27 different behaviours. Those who were Hindu or Catholic consistently had scores indicating beliefs in performing more ethical behaviour. Those who were Buddhist or Atheist consistently had scores indicating beliefs in performing less ethical behaviour. In the analysis relating to 5 items regarding computer and Internet behaviours, those who were Jewish had scores indicating beliefs in performing less ethical behaviour. Managers who supervise young adults who recently graduated from college can be aware of possible ethical concerns facing those of different religions. They can mentor these individuals beginning their careers to adapt appropriate ethical behaviours for their job.
Full Text Available Two are the main results of the online survey, which was conducted with the purpose to examine the purchase behavior of a group of consumers and their views on animal welfare and religious slaughter. First result is the respondents’ great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens about this issue. Second is the demand for a more transparent labeling of animal products, which would be also concerning animal welfare and slaughter method used. These results are in conflict with marketing analysis, which find that consumers want to receive only positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers the higher risk to alarm them.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the religious dimension of Republican legislators’ participation in one-minute speeches during the 104th Congress (1995–1996. Many have characterized the House Republican Conference that emerged after the 1994 elections as a highly cohesive majority party. Even in that context, however, legislators represent varied personal agendas, and in part these are informed by religion. We topically coded a subset of floor speeches to measure the extent to which variation is observed in the issues addressed by Members of Congress. The findings demonstrate that on key policy domains, such as the role of government, culture, and social welfare, speech participation varies systematically on the basis of member religion. This suggests that legislative participation is influenced by genuine personal preferences in additional to strategic political factors.
Luis Ignacio Sierra Gutiérrez
Full Text Available La investigación focaliza y analiza el fenómeno contemporáneo de la religión mediatizada en la televisión católica brasilera, a partir de la perspectiva teórica de la sociosemiosis de la mediatización, mediante estrategias discursivas de reconocimiento y prácticas sociosimbólicas de sentidos religiosos, desarrolladas por telefieles de programas de carácter devocional y de predicación del canal Rede Vida de Televisión, en Porto Alegre, R. S. (Brasil. Este texto presenta sucintamente la investigación en cinco partes secuenciales: contexto y problemática; cuestiones centrales y objetivos; enfoque y discusión teórica; opciones y desarrollo metodológico, y, finalmente, resultados y conclusiones prospectivas.
Full Text Available This paper draws upon research with mothers of diverse Muslim backgroundsin London to explore how these women use ‘conservative’ interpretations ofIslamic beliefs and practices to underpin their parenting strategies. In particularthe paper looks at how mothers use religion as a frame to make sense of andgive meaning to their experiences and encounters in Britain. We suggest thatthe women use Islam in four key ways: (i as a framework for teaching theirchildren right and wrong, (ii as a means of protecting children from the ‘moral’dangers of British society, (iii as an authoritative voice that reinforces parentingand (iv as a means of critiquing specific aspects of both the traditional andBritish culture in which they live and daily negotiate their different cultural andreligious belonging. In attempting to instil religious values in their London-basedchildren, these mothers have to negotiate the hostility that Islam increasinglyprovokes in British society’s public arenas.
Hull, John M.
Religious education in England and Germany is similar in many respects and different in others. In both countries the subject must embrace religious plurality, and in both there are questions about the role of the religious communities in their relation to religious education. In recent his book, "Religious Education in a Plural, Western…
Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine
We cannot disregard that the neuroscientific research on religious phenomena such as religious experiences and rituals for example, has increased significantly the last years. Neuroscientists claim that neuroscience contributes considerably in the process of understanding religious experiences, b...... neuroscientific issues, also cultural-religious assumptions that underlie this conclusion. Key Words Culture, Neuroscience, Religious Experience, Meditation. Udgivelsesdato: January...
Ellison, Christopher G; Trinitapoli, Jenny A; Anderson, Kristin L; Johnson, Byron R
The authors explored the relationship between religious involvement and intimate partner violence by analyzing data from the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households. They found that: (a) religious involvement is correlated with reduced levels of domestic violence; (b) levels of domestic violence vary by race/ethnicity; (c) the effects of religious involvement on domestic violence vary by race/ethnicity; and (d) religious involvement, specifically church attendance, protects against domestic violence, and this protective effect is stronger for African American men and women and for Hispanic men, groups that, for a variety of reasons, experience elevated risk for this type of violence.
Schreiber, Jill C; Culbertson, Michael J
Increased religiosity is associated with a variety of improved outcomes, especially for youth in disadvantaged contexts. Although youth involved in child welfare may experience protective effects of religious participation or values, little is known about the impact of maltreatment on religious development. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative study of child welfare involved families, correlates of religious attendance and importance of religion for youth were investigated using weighted logistic regression at two waves 18 months apart. Youth self-reports of religious attendance and their ratings of its importance were associated with religious attendance of their caregivers, whether birth-parents or foster parents. Foster parents were more likely to attend religious services than birth parents. Increases in youth attendance from Wave 1 to Wave 2 were associated with high youth religious importance at Wave 1, whereas decreases in attendance were associated with moving between home and foster placements. Increases in religious importance from Wave 1 to Wave 2 were associated with religious attendance at Wave 1 and with the youth being Black.
This paper presents \\proverb\\, a text planner for argumentative texts. \\proverb\\'s main feature is that it combines global hierarchical planning and unplanned organization of text with respect to local derivation relations in a complementary way. The former splits the task of presenting a particular proof into subtasks of presenting subproofs. The latter simulates how the next intermediate conclusion to be presented is chosen under the guidance of the local focus.
Aggarwal, Charu C
Text mining applications have experienced tremendous advances because of web 2.0 and social networking applications. Recent advances in hardware and software technology have lead to a number of unique scenarios where text mining algorithms are learned. ""Mining Text Data"" introduces an important niche in the text analytics field, and is an edited volume contributed by leading international researchers and practitioners focused on social networks & data mining. This book contains a wide swath in topics across social networks & data mining. Each chapter contains a comprehensive survey including
A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of
Research indicates that nurses do not consistently provide spiritual care, feel ill equipped to do so, and there is a lack of information as to the type of spiritual care practices nurses use. This exploratory descriptive study surveyed nurses (N = 123) about their spiritual care practices and perceptions of effectiveness, followed by qualitative interviews with volunteers (n = 5) from the surveyed group. The nurses favored spiritual interventions that are not overtly religious, but conveyed concern and support, such as listening and providing comforting touch.
Full Text Available Abstract This research study and examination of relationship between religious identity and social capital in kashan people in 1387 year.the population of kashan city is 162136 in 1385 year. The sample size based on Cockran formula is 384. The significant are: survey research.data and information for the census community has been collected based on the questioner.and the questionnaire by suitable structures Reliability (based on kronbaghs coefficient of Alfa After examining the theory for the mentioned topic and collecting data and information , The results of statistical methods are:the religion identity that is composition 0f attachment ,warranty and religious dimensions has much results in the kashan society for example :to guide way people life,to procreate position approach to aftertime and corroborate sprite and expectation moral to better aftertime ,to answered for deep and fundamental questions for human in the life ,to procreate, integeration and empathetic sense in society (that are social capital evidence. So in this research, the mount of collective appearance and social capital will increase by increasing religious identity in religious and warrant dimension.
Full Text Available Dialogue of life is a form of inter-religious dialogue which commonly takes place at any place and any time. It is a dialogical relation to promote amicable relation with people from different religions. It begins when one encounters, lives and interacts with the others and participates in daily life activities together. It is a social interaction which shows the involvement of non-elite participants in the inter-religious dialogue at the grass roots level. The non-elite participation in the inter-religious dialogue is necessary to accommodate the challenge of pluralistic society. This kind of process which involves the social interaction in everyday activity is known as a dialogue of life. Those activities can be seen in the life experience of living together with mix-faith family, celebrating festivities and wedding ceremony as well as doing (running business with the other religious communities. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the concept of dialogue of life and how this dialogue has a significant impact on encouraging positive interaction among people of different religions in Malaysia.
Full Text Available People struggle with religion and spirituality in several ways, including challenges in trusting God, confronting supernatural evil, tolerating other perspectives on religion, maintaining moral propriety, finding existential meaning, and managing religious doubt. These religious and spiritual (R/S struggles relate to both physical and mental health independently of other religious and distress factors. Causality in this connection needs further study, but evidence supports many potential causes and moderators of the link between R/S struggle and health. These include personality, social, and environmental influences, including traumatic experiences and subcultural differences. Many theoretical questions remain unresolved, including how change in R/S struggle can predict or be predicted by change in health and other connected constructs, and how one might intervene to aid those who struggle with religious or spiritual challenges. Nonetheless, research momentum has grown, having already produced a wealth of information that underscores the need for greater attention to this domain. R/S struggle poses an important exception to generally positive overall associations between religion and well-being, though even R/S struggle may promote growth. This review offers a brief introduction to emerging psychological theory and research on R/S struggle with an emphasis on its relevance to wellness and illness.
Full Text Available In an attempt to determine if selection bias could be a reason that religious attendance and depression are related, the predictive value of elevated depressive symptoms for a decrease in future attendance at religious services was examined in a longitudinal panel of 1,673 Dutch adults. Religious attendance was assessed yearly over five years using the single question, “how often do you attend religious gatherings nowadays?” Depressive symptoms were assessed four times within the first year using the Depression subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Logistic regression models of change in attendance were created, stratifying by baseline attendance status. Attenders who developed elevated symptoms were less likely to subsequently decrease their attendance (relative risk ratio: 0.55, 95% CI [0.38–0.79] relative to baseline as compared to those without elevated symptoms. This inverse association remained significant after controlling for health and demographic covariates, and when using multiply imputed data to account for attrition. Non-attenders were unlikely to start attending after elevated depressive symptoms. This study provides counter evidence against previous findings that church attenders are a self-selected healthier group.
Full Text Available This article argues that depictions of penance and confession in late medieval "Sisterbooks," which were written by women religious for communal use, show that medieval women understood religious authority to be enhanced through submission and service to community members. These collections of the lives and reminiscences of deceased sisters and father confessors construct idealized piety and religious authority through public acts of obedience and submission which built a reputation for sanctity, not just for the individual penitent, but for her entire community. Thus in the Sisterbooks, obedience to a confessor or spiritual director for both male and female penitents shifts the locus of spiritual authority from the confessor to the penitent and her community through communal observation and evaluation. These medieval Christian women understood the relationships between confessors and confessants as one which conferred power and authority to the penitent, complicating Foucault's influential claim that the sacrament of confession granted all power to the confessor who heard sins in secret. In the Sisterbooks, interactions between women religious and their confessors are depicted as relational, complex, and constantly in flux.
Хубяр Фейзи оглы Агаев
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the penetration of the Jihad religious ideology into the Northern Caucasus and the factors that have caused radicalization of Chechen/Caucasus militants. The review of mutual penetration of the global Jihad movement of religious extremism and terrorism in the Northern Caucasus is presented; the major religious extremism and terrorism masterminds and figures in theNorthern Caucasusare characterized. The main attention is paid to the activity of Islamic organization “Caucasus Emirate” in the Russian NorthernCaucasusand its serious effects on the region.Since the overwhelming majority of foreign researchers try to avoid mentioning the role of the global jihadist movement in the region, as well as the appeal of Jihadism for a significant number of young people or the effect of these factors on the ideology, objectives, strategy, and tactics of the “Caucasus Emirate, this paper focuses on the religious ideology, objectives, strategy, tactics, and the potential of the “Caucasus Emirate” in using violence on the territory of Russia.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-48
Roberto García Jurado
Full Text Available Maquiavelo y Rousseau son dos autores que tienen mucho en común, aunque también diferencias fundamentales. Por ejemplo, los emparenta íntimamente su profundo republicanismo, pero lo que parece llevarlos a los extremos de las antípodas es su concepción de la naturaleza humana. Sin embargo, en el tema de la religión y su relación con el Estado comparten una opinión similar: que la religión es un ingrediente fundamental e indispensable para la estabilidad de un Estado. Más aún, coinciden en que la religión debe ser civil, es decir, una religión cuya misión principal sea fortalecer los lazos de unión cívica entre los individuos con el fin de brindar un mejor sustento al Estado. En este artículo se analizan esencialmente las coincidencias en este tema entre estos dos autores.
Full Text Available Contemporary philosophy of religion is often focused, at a theoretical level, on the epistemic value of religious doctrines, and at a practical level, on the possible impact of organized religion on secular society and politics. However, the cultic dimension of religion, such as prayer, religious service, ascetic practices, and other rituals, is considered as completely “irrational” and incomprehensible from a secular perspective and therefore often neglected by postmodern philosophy. The paper intends to call into question this rather simplistic interpretation by retracing the historical origins of the devaluation of religious symbolism in occidental thought, which culminates in Kant’s philosophy of religion. We then shall analyze to what extent certain paradoxical aspects of Habermas’ view on religion can be interpreted as consequences of the dilemma brought about by the Kantian dichotomy between man as moral subject and man as natural, sensible being. In a third step, we shall develop an alternative, phenomenological interpretation, which does not consider religious practice as a primitive, irrational phenomenon but as a proto-ethical schematism that aims at integrating the sphere of pure practical reason into the rhythmic structure of living, embodied consciousness.
Full Text Available This paper considers two of the cultural values of g eoheritage: the mythological and the religious value, while introducing Omu peak and Ial omi ţ a cave, two natural destinations located within the Bucegi Mountains of Romania’s Southern Ca rpathians. Although mythology and religion share common aspects, it is necessary to d istinguish them. Mythology emerged in ancient times as a way of explaining the physical world, wher eas religion characterizes an upper stage in the evolution of mankind. Mythology is reduced to s piritual beliefs, while religion is based upon sacred practices to recall and strengthen these bel iefs. The religious value of geoheritage is conditioned by the existence of sacred relics or pl aces of worship close to geological formations. According to the age of these items, the religious value can be either pre-historical or historical. Omu peak has only acquired a mythological value sin ce hypotheses related to its religious value are not confirmed. Ialomi ţ a cave has acquired both a mythological and a relig ious value. In addition to their exploration as close components o f geoheritage, a brief model for their assessment is also introduced. Both steps aim to en courage landform exploitation not only by means of scientific interpretation but also by reve aling and explaining their cultural attributes.
Full Text Available Die Krise religiöser Bildung ist ein Symptom der allgemeinen Krise der Religion in der späten Moderne, die seit dem 18. Jahrhundert sowohl von innen als auch von außen diagnostiziert wird. Ohne die Bedeutung anthropologischer, systemtheoretischer und bildungstheoretischer Religionstheorien zu negieren bedarf es letztlich eines geschichtsphilosophischen Horizonts abseits der klassischen Fortschrittstheorien, in dem Religionen in der Vielfalt ihrer unterschiedlichen Selbstauslegungen begriffen werden können. In dieser Perspektive wird in diesem Artikel eine modifizierte Version von Jaspers‘ Theorie der Achsenzeit vorgeschlagen. Why religious education today? A historical and philosophical approach The crisis of religious education is a symptom of the general crisis of religion in late modernity which has been diagnosed since the 18th century, both from inside and from outside. Without neglecting the importance of anthropological approaches, systems theories of religion and educational reflections on religion, adequate understanding of the plurality of religious traditions including their dynamic of self-interpretations requires a historical and philosophical horizon beside the old theories of progress. In this perspective this article offers a modified version of Jaspers‘ theory of the Axial Age.
José Luiz Ames
Full Text Available Para Maquiavel, o que confere valor a uma religião não é a importância de seu fundador, o conteúdo dos ensinamentos, a verdade dos dogmas ou a significação dos mistérios e ritos. Importa não a essência da religião e sim sua função e importância para a vida coletiva. A religião ensina a reconhecer e a respeitar as regras políticas a partir do mandamento religioso. Essa norma coletiva pode assumir tanto o aspecto coercivo exterior da disciplina militar ou da autoridade política quanto o caráter persuasivo interior da educação moral e cívica para a produção do consenso coletivo.For Machiavelli, religion is valued not by the importance of its founder, the content of its teachings, the truth of its dogmas or the significance of its rites. It is not the essence of what really matters but its function and importance for collective life. Religion teaches to recognize and respect political rules through the religious commandments. This collective norm could assume the outer coercive aspect of the military discipline as well as the inner persuasive character of civic and moral education for the production of collective consensus.
Zaidan Ali Jassem
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to extend the application of the lexical root theory to the investigation of select religious terms in English and Arabic to prove their genetic relationship. It criticizes and rejects the claims of the Comparative Historical Method that Indo-European languages have no genetic relationship to Arabic whatsoever. It provides further definitive counter evidence that such languages are not only related to Arabic but are also descended from it directly. The evidence concerns Arabic and English words in the area of faith and religion, which have been deliberately excluded from Swadesh’s 100- and 200-word lists used in language family classifications. The paper argues that religious terms are as central as core vocabulary because man’s life is meaningless without faith that opens up windows of future hope and achieves internal and external peace and security. More precisely, it shows how certain extremely common Arabic religious words and expressions exist in today’s English, noting minor phonetic and semantic changes. Keywords: comparative historical method, lexical root theory, English, Arabic, religious terms, genetic relationships
Page, Sarah-Jane; Yip, Andrew Kam-Tuck
Schooling can be a pivotal time in young people's formative experience when identities are negotiated and forged. However, contradictory dominant cultures can operate within the school context, making it very challenging for individuals to negotiate their religious and sexual identities within a sexualised and heteronormative space. This essay…
Vermeer, P.; Scheepers, P.
Abstract Despite the fact that churches are still important sources of social capital in the Netherlands, the ongoing secularization of Dutch society has as yet not resulted in a drop of non-religious volunteering. In order to account for this apparent paradox, panel data are used to test the hypo
Maussen, Marcel; Vermeulen, Floris
Liberal democratic states face new challenges in balancing between principles of religious freedom and non-discrimination and in balancing these constitutional principles with other concerns, including social cohesion, good education, and immigrant-integration. In a context of increased prominence of secular and anti-Islamic voices in political…
Webb, Amy Pieper; Ellison, Christopher G.; McFarland, Michael J.; Lee, Jerry W.; Morton, Kelly; Walters, James
A long tradition of research demonstrates that divorce is a risk factor for depressive symptoms. Although a growing literature examines links between religious factors and marital quality and stability, researchers have neglected the role of religion in successful or problematic coping following divorce. Building on Pargament's seminal work on…
Maussen, M.; Vermeulen, F.
Liberal democratic states face new challenges in balancing between principles of religious freedom and non-discrimination and in balancing these constitutional principles with other concerns, including social cohesion, good education, and immigrant-integration. In a context of increased prominence o
Yu-Bao Liu; Jia-Rong Cai; Jian Yin; Ada Wai-Chee Fu
Clustering text data streams is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as news group filtering, text crawling, document organization and topic detection and tracing etc. However, most methods are similarity-based approaches and only use the TF*IDF scheme to represent the semantics of text data and often lead to poor clustering quality. Recently, researchers argue that semantic smoothing model is more efficient than the existing TF.IDF scheme for improving text clustering quality. However, the existing semantic smoothing model is not suitable for dynamic text data context. In this paper, we extend the semantic smoothing model into text data streams context firstly. Based on the extended model, we then present two online clustering algorithms OCTS and OCTSM for the clustering of massive text data streams. In both algorithms, we also present a new cluster statistics structure named cluster profile which can capture the semantics of text data streams dynamically and at the same time speed up the clustering process. Some efficient implementations for our algorithms are also given. Finally, we present a series of experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of our technique.
Harper, Rebecca G.
This article addresses the triadic nature regarding meaning construction of texts. Grounded in Rosenblatt's (1995; 1998; 2004) Transactional Theory, research conducted in an undergraduate Language Arts curriculum course revealed that when presented with unfamiliar texts, students used prior experiences, social interactions, and literary strategies…
To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....
A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....
Full Text Available At the margins of modern medical practice, pushing the very limits of science, and indefatigably rendering the precincts of public discourse, still functional remnants of Christian civilization continue to provide care for the hopeless, perform healing sacraments for the incurable, and curate objects of votive devotion for the suffering and needy. These public services go largely unaccounted for, though they secure an ordered world, structure perception, and serve as ontological anchors. Lost in the vague, scientifically unrarified notions of spirituality that brace a general, undifferentiated worldwide metaphysical experience and disregard immense cultural, functional, geographic and performative distinctness, Catholic sacramental practices aimed at alleviating suffering and promoting healthy lifestyles are receiving only marginal mention in scientific literature(1, despite the fact that they make up daily reality in large parts of contemporary Europe and Latin America. Writing this editorial from the Northeast of Brazil, where traditional religious practice has sustained generations through the calamities of severe droughts, slavery, extreme poverty, high child mortality, failed political orders, and a harsh global economic reality, it is difficult to underestimate the power of sacramental experience to sustain a cultural identity. It was defined the concept of care of the sick in the context of the religious experience of the Northeast of Brazil which is historically relevant to health promotion. Until the emergence of national health care in the late nineteenth century, it was largely the order of the Franciscan friars that was charged with promoting healthy lives in the region. The Catholic concept of care that guided their efforts structures three procedural reality principles: the psychological reality of the transference to the person in one’s charge (care/caritas, the performative practice of religious sacrament such as the anointment
McMullin, Steve; Nason-Clark, Nancy; Fisher-Townsend, Barbara; Holtmann, Cathy
The focus of this article by our research team looks specifically at the teaching of domestic violence classes in a seminary or religious context, as well as the ongoing professional education of religious leaders, such as pastors. It also considers ways to introduce therapeutic staff to the unique vulnerabilities of highly religious clients who have been abused or who act abusively. Based on data that we have collected at North American theological seminaries and in congregations, we explain some of the challenges of including instruction about domestic violence in a religious context.
Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.
Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.
Full Text Available This article analyses various connections between Daniel Ortega’s surprising victory in the presidential elections of 5 November 2006, his control of the Frente Sandinista de la Liberación Nacional (FSLN party, and the changing religious context in Nicaragua, where Pentecostal churches now claim almost one quarter of the population. To achieve this, I draw from my fieldwork in Nicaragua in 2005 and 2006, which analysed competition for members between various religious groups in Managua: charismatic Catholics, the Assemblies of God, the neo-Pentecostal mega-church Hosanna, and the Mormon Church. How did Ortega manage to win the votes from so many religious people (evangelical Protestants and Roman Catholics alike? And how does this case compare to similar cases of populist leaders in Latin America courting evangelicals, like Chávez in Venezuela and earlier Fujimori in Peru? Resumen: Ortega, presidente: el renacimiento religioso del sandinismo en NicaraguaEste artículo analiza varias conexiones entre la sorprendente victoria de Daniel Ortega en las elecciones presidenciales del 5 de noviembre de 2006, su control del partido Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN y el contexto religioso de Nicaragua, donde los pentecostales dicen representar a casi una cuarta parte de la población. Para el análisis me baso en mi trabajo de campo en Nicaragua en 2005 y 2006, en el que estudié a varios grupos religiosos que compiten en el reclutamiento de miembros en Managua: los católicos carismáticos, las Asambleas de Dios, la ‘mega-iglesia’ neopentecostal Hosanna y la iglesia mormona. ¿Cómo logró Ortega atraer los votos de tanta gente religiosa (evangélicos y católicos? Y ¿cómo se compara este caso con otros similares en que líderes populistas conquistan el voto religioso, como Chávez en Venezuela y, antes, Fujimori en Perú?
Full Text Available Abstract Taman Pendidikan Al Qur’an (TPA, Pesantren and Madrasah Diniyah are important parts in the development of Islamic national education. Although the future of those Islamic education is quite difficult to be predicted, they have already become vital components of the national education system. In addition, the quality of this various Islamic institution is also leaded to the International standard education. This article is a qualitative research study which compare and contrast several literatures about Islamic religious education in Indonesia. ASEAN State of Education Report revealed that one of the 2013’s agenda is to develop the quality of education in ASEAN countries. Based on this agenda, Islamic education, which is an important part of the educational system in Indonesia, is also hoped to increase its quality and be ready to compete in International level to face the AFTA. Several efforts have been devoted in order to increase the quality of Islamic religious education. This research is qualitative research study. Abstrak Taman Pendidikan Al Qur’an (TPA, Pesantren dan Madrasah Diniyah merupakan bagian yang penting dalam perkembangan pendidikan Islam nasional. Meskipun cukup sulit untuk diprediksi. masa depan pendidikan Islam tersebut sudah menjadi komponen yang sangat penting bagi sistem pendidikan nasional. Lebih lagi, kualitas institusi Islam yang beragam ini juga mengarah kepada standar pendidikan internasional. Tulisan ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif yang membandingkan dan membedakan beberapa literatur tentang pendidikan Agama Islam di Indonesia. Laporan Bagian Pendidikan ASEAN menunjukkan bahwa salah satu agenda 2013 adalah untuk mengembangkan kualitas pendidikan di negara-negara ASEAN. berdasarkan agenda tersebut, pendidikan Islam, yang merupakan bagian penting darui sistem pendidikan di Indonesia, juga diharapkan dapat meningkatkan kualitasnya dan siap untuk bersaing di tingkat internasional untuk menghadapi AFTA
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International( CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health,our Internet Resources and Abstract Journals. There are currently over 60,000 full text articles available to access. These documents,made possible by agreement with third
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly
Shivhare, Shiv Naresh
Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.
Holbrook, Colin; Izuma, Keise; Deblieck, Choi; Fessler, Daniel M T; Iacoboni, Marco
People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for further research characterizing the cognitive and affective mechanisms at play.
Abstract: The wide evolution of private international law is currently recalling attention to the general aspects of the discipline. Europeanization and globalisation of sources of private international law do not preclude the chance that conflict of laws should also deal with individual identities. To the extent that the European systems have hitherto offered to the application of foreign laws, we are faced with the problem of survival in Europe of an idea of the personality of laws. In fact it’s generally accepted that conflict of laws faces the individual identities of people involved in international relations. Cultural identity may be considered collective and individual at the same time, because each member of the group has an identity of its own. Religious values ontribute to defining the cultural identity of individuals: be it in Europe or other countries, cultures, values, civilization, religion, are never absent from the solutions of personal status. Stepping back from the analysis of some cases where religious values are relevant, this Article aims at a theoretical analysis of the subject, involving the contrast between value pluralism, conflict of laws and fundamental rights.
Henry VIII is famous for his bold and thorough religious revolution. Henry took in the idea of religious reformation from the English version of the Bible. This thesis explores the influence of the Bible on religious reformation under the Tudors.
Full Text Available The social dynamics in post-conflict Ambon, Maluku, 1999-2004, indicated that even though people were segregated in the Islamic-Christian areas, gradually social integration began to occur naturally. The process of integration that occurred also gave birth to new values and inclusive views that give hope to future peace building. Using the theory of social integration of dynamic adaptation of the Parsonian structural-functional classic paradigm and combined with a qualitative research model, this study successfully formulated several important findings. First, social integration occurred in the city of Ambon could run naturally through economic interactions, consensus on political balance and inclusive religious spirit. In addition, the presence of public spaces such as offices, schools, malls and coffee shops served as a natural integration medium that is increasingly important in the dynamics of the society. Second, the new social integration has created an increasingly important meaning that leads to a model of active harmony characterized by a process of the increasingly active social interaction between different religions, as well as strengthening pluralism and multiculturalism insight due to campaign by educational institutions and civil society groups. Third, this study also reminds us that although there has been a process of the increasingly positive social integration in Ambon city, people still need to be aware of the growth of radical religious ideologies at a certain level, and also of strengthening identity politics in the long run that will potentially give birth to primordial and ethnocentric attitudes that are harmful to the development of peace.
Mukthipudi Jaya Kumar Jacob
Full Text Available There are three fundamental aspects in every Indian Society, constantly quarrelling, contradicting and compromising one another every time and contributing pollution at alarming rate. They are cultural, secular and religious aspects. Understanding the Interplay of these three aspects can give us valuable information regarding the country’s spiritual forwardness and its social backwardness; ultimately relieve us from the mystery of Indian system. In every aspect, poverty is constant and pollution is dynamic. All Indians are struggling for existence in everyday life. Economy and Ecology are another two aspects, which exploiting the natural resources. Traditionally and technologically, people of India follow religious as well as scientific sentiments. Gap in between poor and rich are widening, inspiring controversy and increasing crime rate. Women are more vulnerable facing insecurity of life problem. Political system is always dominating aspect and acting as opportunistic, parasitic in nature. Knowledge and intelligence of Indians in mother land are vain; where as in foreign lands it is gainful. Brain drain is one more additional problem in recent years in India. Here Education system is in dilemma position and failed to empower the 60% youth in progressive direction, which is a largest in the world. Now India is suffering with falsehood and false prestige. The seventy years of independence and self-rule are fruitless more over throwing into debt nation with uncontrolled over population, poverty and pollution pang. Religion without superstitions and Science without side effects are impossible in Indian Society. In this paper researcher investigates the real life problems in India for further rectification. With a view to overcome this pathetic situation in India a new nationalistic and socialistic dimension of life-saver concept was identified namely Yogic Environmentalism [YE] which is an unique journey of humans through their interior
Nicholas O Rule
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of social categorization has largely been confined to examining groups distinguished by perceptually obvious cues. Yet many ecologically important group distinctions are less clear, permitting insights into the general processes involved in person perception. Although religious group membership is thought to be perceptually ambiguous, folk beliefs suggest that Mormons and non-Mormons can be categorized from their appearance. We tested whether Mormons could be distinguished from non-Mormons and investigated the basis for this effect to gain insight to how subtle perceptual cues can support complex social categorizations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants categorized Mormons' and non-Mormons' faces or facial features according to their group membership. Individuals could distinguish between the two groups significantly better than chance guessing from their full faces and faces without hair, with eyes and mouth covered, without outer face shape, and inverted 180°; but not from isolated features (i.e., eyes, nose, or mouth. Perceivers' estimations of their accuracy did not match their actual accuracy. Exploration of the remaining features showed that Mormons and non-Mormons significantly differed in perceived health and that these perceptions were related to perceptions of skin quality, as demonstrated in a structural equation model representing the contributions of skin color and skin texture. Other judgments related to health (facial attractiveness, facial symmetry, and structural aspects related to body weight did not differ between the two groups. Perceptions of health were also responsible for differences in perceived spirituality, explaining folk hypotheses that Mormons are distinct because they appear more spiritual than non-Mormons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Subtle markers of group membership can influence how others are perceived and categorized. Perceptions of health from non-obvious and minimal cues
Smith, Erin I; Crosby, Robert G
In developmental research, religiousness is typically measured with omnibus affiliation or attendance variables that underspecify how the religious cultural contexts and experiences that affiliation represents influence developmental outcomes. This study explores associations between five aspects of a religious cultural context (family religiosity, religious schooling, church-based relationships with peers and adults, and view of God) in 844 seven- to 12-year-old Christian children to examine how they differentially predict self-esteem. Results of a structural equation model (SEM) analysis indicated that God image and peer church relationships directly predicted self-esteem, whereas God image mediated the influence of adult church relationships and family religious practices on self-esteem. A multiple group SEM analysis met the criterion for weak, but not strong, evidence that self-esteem is more related to younger children's adult church relationships but older children's peer church relationships. God image tended to be more related to younger children's family religious practices but older children's adult church relationships. Implications for developmental researchers and practitioners are discussed. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Religious affiliation is an omnibus variable representing multiple contexts of development. Self-esteem is an important outcome variable with different influences across development. Religious affiliation is associated with increased self-esteem. What does this study add? Children's experience in the contexts of religious affiliation influences development differently. It is not just affiliation, but specific religious contexts that influence children's self-esteem. The role of religious contexts in shaping children's self-esteem shifts across development.
Asynchronous online instruction has become increasingly popular in the field of religious studies. However, despite voluminous research on online learning in general and numerous articles on online theological instruction, there has been little discussion of how to effectively design and deliver online undergraduate courses in religious studies.…
Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel
This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…
Hartley, Harold V., III
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence a deepening of students' religious engagement in the first year of college. Recent studies have challenged the findings of more than three decades of research that found attending college leads to a decline in students' religious beliefs and practices. This study extends those recent…
Baumfield, Vivienne M.; Conroy, James C.; Davis, Robert A.; Lundie, David C.
The "Does Religious Education work?" project is part of the Religion and Society programme funded by two major research councils in the UK. It sets out to track the trajectory of Religious Education (RE) in secondary schools in the UK from the aims and intentions represented in policy through its enactment in classroom practice to the…
This article sets up a dialogue between "auto"-referential (looking to self) and "allo"-referential (looking to the other) approaches to religious difference and applies these to education for inter religious understanding in Jewish schools. It begins by arguing that the multiculturalism of the 1980s and 1990s set up a duality…
Discussions of the relations between religions, society, politics, and the state in recent political philosophy are characterized, firstly, by a strong US American bias focusing on limitations of religious arguments in public debate. Even if the restriction or radical exclusion of religious reasons
Grine, Fadila; Bensaid, Benaouda; Nor, Mohd Roslan Mohd; Ladjal, Tarek
The question of sustainability in multi-religious societies underscores interrelating theological, moral and cultural issues affecting the very process of social co-existence, cohesion and development. This article discusses Islam's understanding of the question of sustainability in multi-religious contexts while highlighting the contribution of…
This article examines the importance of memory in the Hebrew bible and how memory lay at the center of Ancient Israel's religious faith and cultural identity. It argues for a similar, albeit nuanced, memory-based approach to contemporary Christian religious education. It analyzes memory through the lens of Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic of…
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Religious beliefs or opinions. 18.610 Section 18.610 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.610 Religious beliefs or opinions. Evidence of the beliefs or opinions of a witness on matters of religion is not admissible for the...
Friso, Valeria; Caldin, Roberta
In this short article, the authors focus on religious and spiritual education's potential to offer social and spiritual inclusion for students with a disability. They take the view that the religious and spiritual education teacher in such situations is positioned better when seeing such teaching as a special vocation. They use Italy as the case…
Moaddel, Mansoor; Karabenick, Stuart A.
Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18-25, reveal that…
Scholtz, Christopher P.
Computer games as an important part of youth culture can, from a certain perspective, be highly relevant for religious education. I will review the role of computer games, and then give a brief overview, suggesting a specific phenomenological approach for research on computer games and religious education. After presenting one example of such…
The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries.Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.
The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries. Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.
The Latino community has strong religious and spiritual traditions, and there is a need for spiritual leadership. To address these needs, the Latino Leadership Project of the Latino Commission on AIDS offers prevention and education activities. The Commission refers religious leaders to the Latino community. Churches offer food and clothing banks, and counseling services to persons living with HIV/AIDS.
In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…
Modernism in religion area is of double significance in our society, especially in Yazd. If religious bases are reconciled by principles such as rationalism and scientism, an ideal situation may appear and we may not experience social disorders anymore, because Islam wants people to accept religious principles thoughtfully and their acceptance is not in conflict with some principles of modernism.
This article examines "currere" (a method for autobiographical reflection proposed by William Pinar) as a helpful framework for reflecting on religious educational experiences from a subjective and narrative perspective. The author suggests that this process is important for contemporary religious education as it provokes reflection on the…
Marshall, Joanne M.; Marsh, Tyson E. J.
This case tells the story of a new principal who wants to lead inclusively by including people of all religious and non-religious beliefs. When she questions some of the existing practices in her school, she faces resistance from school members and from the community, who question her identity, her intentions, and her authority. The case is…
Baring, Rito V.
This article reviews the challenges provided by a plural condition toward doing religious education in the Philippines. The problem of Philippine religious education hinges on the fact that the growing plural condition in the educational system remains until now "un-discussed"; or integrated in many schools. Not much is heard about proposing a…
Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Pearce, Lisa D.; Denton, Melinda Lundquist
This study examines changes in religious service attendance over time for a contemporary cohort of adolescents moving from middle to late adolescence. We use two waves of a nationally representative panel survey of youth from the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR) to examine the dynamics of religious involvement during adolescence. We…
Petersen, Line Nybro
of religion is strengthened by three dominating factors: the absence of a homogenous religious worldview in Danish culture, the importance of high production values and visual credibility to supernatural concepts in these shows, and the appeal of transformed religious content in open-structured serial...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...
Vaaler, Margaret L.; Ellison, Christopher G.; Powers, Daniel A.
This study examined multiple dimensions of religious involvement and the risk of divorce among a nationwide sample of 2,979 first-time married couples. Multivariate proportional hazards modeling was used to analyze two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households. Results indicated that although each partner's religious attendance bore…
Lewis, Mary Miller; Hardin, Susan I.
Empirical research and vocational theory indicate that values are important in career counseling and vocational choice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of career values to Christian religious values as they might be assessed in career counseling. Results indicate that there was some overlap between religious and…
Park, Hae Seong; Bonner, Patricia
This project investigated the impacts of family religious involvement and family religious affiliations on parenting practices and academic performance. This study utilized data from the base-year and first follow-up of the Education Longitudinal Study: 2002/2004 (ELS). A series of statistical techniques were incorporated to examine the nature of…
Bunnell, Peter Wayne
The issue of parental involvement in religious education is an important one for the family, the church, the Christian school, and society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe parents' concepts and practices of involvement in their children's religious education as evangelical Christian parents in Midwestern communities.…
James, Anthony G.; Lester, Ashlie M.; Brooks, Greg
The transmission model of religious socialization was tested using a sample of American Jewish parents and adolescents. The authors expected that measures of religiousness among parents would be associated with those among their children. Interaction effects of denominational membership were also tested. Data were collected from a sample of 233…
Discusses difficulties of providing religious instruction for Muslim school children in the Federal Republic of Germany. Notes the lack of a united Islamic religious community that could assist in the development and implementation of such an instruction. Explains and analyzes the Bavarian Ministry of Education's guidelines concerning such…
Ayres, Jennifer R.
When people of faith participate in movements for social change, how are their religious and moral identities formed, challenged, and transformed? Although they have explicit and tangible goals as they participate in advocacy, protest, and boycotts, religious social activists also, James Jasper argues, craft "lives worth living" (1997).…
Wilcox, John, Ed.; King, Irene, Ed.
This collection contains essays on enhancing religious identity at Catholic institutions of higher education. The essays are: (1) "Preface. Religious Identity: A Critical Issue in Catholic Higher Education" (John R. Wilcox); (2) "Introduction" (to the section "Overview: Defining a Catholic University") (Irene King); (3) "What Is a Great Catholic…
Fremstilling af den tidlige og den sene Wittgensteins forhold til det religiøse med særligt henblik på tabet af umiddelbarhed.......Fremstilling af den tidlige og den sene Wittgensteins forhold til det religiøse med særligt henblik på tabet af umiddelbarhed....
Studied abortion rates among teenagers in 1,024 counties in 18 states that report abortion numbers. Results show that counties with high levels of religious membership were more likely to be in a state with a parental involvement law for teenage abortions. Both religious membership level and a parental involvement law were negatively related to…
Daily, Eileen M.
This article reviews the history of public religious education in the United States with an eye to its learning outcomes, contexts, and approaches. That history suggests that public religious education is still needed today but that informal learning contexts may be more appropriate than public schools. Recent trends in learning habits are then…
Petts, Richard J.
Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…
de Ruyter, D.J.; Merry, M.S.
This article aims to open a new line of debate about religion in public schools by focusing on religious ideals. The article begins with an elucidation of the concept ‘religious ideals’ and an explanation of the notion of reasonable pluralism, in order to be able to explore the dangers and positive
Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary
Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.
Leandro da Costa Santos
Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the relation between religiousness and the moral reasoning of Accounting undergraduate students. To achieve that, the religiousness and moral reasoning of the subjects were first described and, subsequently, correlated. In order to measure religiousness, the Faith Maturity Scale developed by Benson, Donahue, Erickson (1993 was used. The measuring of moral reasoning, on the other hand, was carried out using the Defining Issues Test -2 created by Rest and Narvaez (1988. The sample was drawn from 67 Accounting undergraduate students, in their last semester of College, from two universities in Paraíba, and the internal consistency reliability test of the research instruments was carried out using the model defined by Cronbach (1951. To verify whether there is a relation between religiousness and moral reasoning, the Spearman (rs non-parametric correlation coefficient was used. The main results revealed that the majority of the subjects have their faith classified as integrated. As for moral reasoning, most of the subjects were classified in the level of maintaining the norms, which indicates that, for the bulk of subjects, the conformity to the laws and norms is the most important thing. Still on moral reasoning, it has been shown that, when analysed by type, most individuals fall into type 2 (personal interest, but in transition, with the important observation that individuals of this type, when involved in moral dilemmas, tend to prioritise their own interests. With regards to the analysis of the relation between religiousness and moral reasoning, it’s been demonstrated that there is no relevant evidence that confirms it, since the relation between both variables was not significant.
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Schizophrenia is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders which require immediate interventions. Magico-Religious beliefs may affect the expression of psychopathology as beliefs are entrenched into human psyche. Local and community beliefs in such phenomena appeared to be a factor in influencing the decision to seek magico-religious treatment. This study aimed (1 to determine attitude of patients and relatives with respect to magico-religious beliefs and its influence on psychopathology, and (2 to examine the relationship between psychopathology and major sociodemographic variables.Materials & Methods: All 50 consecutive cases of schizophrenia attending psychiatric services during study period were thoroughly evaluated. All the cases were diagnosed as per ICD 10 DCR criteria. The supernatural attitude questionnaire was applied.Results: Fifty cases were studied. Among them, 48% belonged to the age-group of 25 to 34 years, the majority of them were male (62%, 82% were Hindus, and 64% married. Majority of the patients had undergone magico-religious treatment (n = 35. Among the sample, 68% consulted faith healer and 42% performed religious treatment during the illness period; 60% acknowledged personal belief in sorcery, 58% in ghosts, and 52% in spirit intrusion. Among them, 20% believed there was a link between sorcery and mental illness, and 20% believe spirit could cause mental illness. Among the samples, 38% found the link between sorcery and abnormal behaviour, 38% with evil spirit, and 22% due to planetary influences. Statistically significant association was noted in the belief that rituals can improve patient behaviour and local belief in supernatural influences.Conclusion: There is a common belief in the relationship between supernatural influences and mental illness among the relatives of the patients. Such beliefs and magicoreligious treatment do occur during the course of the illness.
Anthony Ian Jack
Full Text Available Prior work has established that analytic thinking is associated with disbelief in God, whereas religious and spiritual beliefs have been positively linked to social and emotional cognition. However, social and emotional cognition can be subdivided into a number of distinct dimensions, and some work suggests that analytic thinking is in tension with some aspects of social-emotional cognition. This leaves open two questions. First, is belief linked to social and emotional cognition in general, or a specific dimension in particular? Second, does the negative relationship between belief and analytic thinking still hold after relationships with social and emotional cognition are taken into account? We report eight hypothesis-driven studies which examine these questions. These studies are guided by a theoretical model which focuses on the distinct social and emotional processing deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (mentalizing and psychopathy (moral concern. To our knowledge no other study has investigated both of these dimensions of social and emotion cognition alongside analytic thinking. We find that religious belief is robustly positively associated with moral concern (4 measures, and that at least part of the negative association between belief and analytic thinking (2 measures can be explained by a negative correlation between moral concern and analytic thinking. Using nine different measures of mentalizing, we found no evidence of a relationship between mentalizing and religious or spiritual belief. These findings challenge the theoretical view that religious and spiritual beliefs are linked to the perception of agency, and suggest that gender differences in religious belief can be explained by differences in moral concern. These findings are consistent with the opposing domains hypothesis, according to which brain areas associated with moral concern and analytic thinking are in tension.
Full Text Available Aims: To Study the religious and ideological views and practice of Palliative Care physician towards Euthanasia. Materials and Methods: An anonymous self administered questionnaire approved by Flemish Palliative Care Federation and its ethics steering group was sent to all physicians(n-147 working in Flemish Palliative Care. Questionnaire consisted of three parts. In first part responded were requested to provide demographic information. In second part the respondents were asked to provide information concerning their religion or world view through several questions enquiring after religious or ideological affiliation,religious or ideological self-definition, view on life after death, image of God, spirituality, importance of rituals in their life, religious practice, and importance of religion in life. The third part consisted of a list of attitudinal statements regarding different treatment decisions in advanced disease on which the respondents had to give their opinion using a five-point Likert scale.99 physician responded. Results: We were able to distinguish four clusters: Church-going physicians, infrequently church-going physicians, atheists and doubters. We found that like the Belgian general public, many Flemish palliative care physicians concoct their own religious or ideological identity and feel free to drift away from traditional religious and ideological authorities. Conclusions: In our research we noted that physicians who have a strong belief in God and express their faith through participation in prayer and rituals, tend to be more critical toward euthanasia. Physicians who deny the existence of a transcendent power and hardly attend religious services are more likely to approve of euthanasia even in the case of minors or demented patients. In this way this study confirms the influence of religion and world view on attitudes toward euthanasia.
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health,our Internet Resources and Jour-
Saleam, James; Moustafa, Ahmed A.
A common finding across many cultures has been that religious people behave more prosocially than less (or non-) religious people. Numerous priming studies have demonstrated that the activation of religious concepts via implicit and explicit cues (e.g., ‘God,’ ‘salvation,’ among many others) increases prosociality in religious people. However, the factors underlying such findings are less clear. In this review we discuss hypotheses (e.g., the supernatural punishment hypothesis) that explain the religion-prosociality link, and also how recent findings in the empirical literature converge to suggest that the divine rewards (e.g., heaven) and punishments (e.g., hell) promised by various religious traditions may play a significant role. In addition, we further discuss inconsistencies in the religion-prosociality literature, as well as existing and future psychological studies which could improve our understanding of whether, and how, concepts of divine rewards and punishments may influence prosociality. PMID:27536262
Todd, Nathan R
The current study provides an innovative examination of how and why religious networking organizations work for social justice in their local community. Similar to a coalition or community coordinating council, religious networking organizations are formal organizations comprised of individuals from multiple religious congregations who consistently meet to organize around a common goal. Based on over a year and a half of ethnographic participation in two separate religious networking organizations focused on community betterment and social justice, this study reports on the purpose and structure of these organizations, how each used networking to create social capital, and how religion was integrated into the organizations' social justice work. Findings contribute to the growing literature on social capital, empowering community settings, and the unique role of religious settings in promoting social justice. Implications for future research and practice also are discussed.
Bernstein, Elizabeth; Jakobsen, Janet R
Through an analysis of alliances between secular and religious actors in US politics and a specific case study on anti-trafficking policy, we show that the intertwining of religion and politics in the US comes from two sources: 1) the secular political and cultural institutions of American public life that have developed historically out of Protestantism, and which predominantly operate by presuming Protestant norms and values; and 2) the direct influence on US politics of religious groups and organisations, particularly in the past quarter-century of lobby groups and political action committees identified with conservative evangelical Christianity. The sources of policies that promote gender and sexual inequality in the US are both secular and religious and we conclude that it is inaccurate to assume that religious influence in politics is necessarily conservative or that more secular politics will necessarily be more progressive than the religious varieties.
Kiran A. Shinde
Full Text Available This paper explains peculiarities, significance, and universality of weekend-trips as significant form of religious tourism using a comparative analysis of this phenomenon in two pilgrimage sites from two different cultures (and countries, namely, Vrindavan in India and the Shrine of Santimissi Medici in Italy. The findings derived from a case-study approach and visitors’ survey method confirm that religious tourism falls under the more general category of leisure and that visitors who flock to these places on weekends do not coincide either with general models proposed in the extant literature, nor can they be assimilated to the conventional categories of pilgrims and/or tourists. While highlighting the similarities and differences in the two cases, the paper proposes that weekend visitors are best described as religious tourists: visitors who use tourism as a means to fulfill a predominant religious motive in visiting a destination they consider religious or sacred. The analysis based on the concept of weekend-trips helps to explore nuances of religious tourism which can be used for better planning and management in religious tourism destinations.
Balling, Laura Winther
Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly...
Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International( CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.
Westby, Carol; Culatta, Barbara; Lawrence, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra
Purpose: This article reviews the literature on students' developing skills in summarizing expository texts and describes strategies for evaluating students' expository summaries. Evaluation outcomes are presented for a professional development project aimed at helping teachers develop new techniques for teaching summarization. Methods: Strategies…
Content: Erhard Mergenthaler: Computer-assisted content analysis (3-32); Udo Kelle: Computer-aided qualitative data analysis: an overview (33-63); Christian Mair: Machine-readable text corpora and the linguistic description of danguages (64-75); Jürgen Krause: Principles of content analysis for information retrieval systems (76-99); Conference Abstracts (100-131).
This monograph presents in great detail a large number of both unpublished and previously published Babylonian mathematical texts in the cuneiform script. It is a continuation of the work A Remarkable Collection of Babylonian Mathematical Texts (Springer 2007) written by Jöran Friberg, the leading expert on Babylonian mathematics. Focussing on the big picture, Friberg explores in this book several Late Babylonian arithmetical and metro-mathematical table texts from the sites of Babylon, Uruk and Sippar, collections of mathematical exercises from four Old Babylonian sites, as well as a new text from Early Dynastic/Early Sargonic Umma, which is the oldest known collection of mathematical exercises. A table of reciprocals from the end of the third millennium BC, differing radically from well-documented but younger tables of reciprocals from the Neo-Sumerian and Old-Babylonian periods, as well as a fragment of a Neo-Sumerian clay tablet showing a new type of a labyrinth are also discussed. The material is presen...
Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?
Woal, Michael; Corn, Marcia Lynn
As electronically mediated communication becomes more prevalent, print is regaining the original pictorial qualities which graphemes (written signs) lost when primitive pictographs (or picture writing) and ideographs (simplified graphemes used to communicate ideas as well as to represent objects) evolved into first written, then printed, texts of…
This four-part work provides a philological analysis and a theoretical interpretation of the cuneiform lexical texts found in the Late Bronze Age city of Emar, in present-day Syria. These word and sign lists, commonly dated to around 1100 BC, were almost all found in the archive of a single school.
Kolikhalova N. G.
Full Text Available The article analyses Andrey Bely's novel "The Silver Dove" in the context of his religious, spiritual and artistic search during 1905–1907. Analysis of the novel's architectonics reveals both Christian and occult motifs and images. The main character's denial of sectarian utopia based on the "spiritualization of flesh" concept, as well as his inner self-crucifixion (confession of guilt brings positive outlook to the ending of the novel.
Full Text Available The local community has played an important and central role in the development and determination of palliative care services in Northern Kerala. This article looks at the history of the collaboration and how palliative care services have evolved over the past 4 years from 2001 to 2005. The contribution of groups such as nongovernmental organizations, charities and religious groups is outlined and benefits gained by each side discussed.
Sandson Almeida Rotterdan
Full Text Available DissertaçãoROTTERDAN, Sandson Almeida. Senso religioso dos sem religião: estudo a partir da noção de cristianismo não religioso de Gianni Vattimo. 2014. Dissertação (Mestrado – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte
Full Text Available Based on the case of Montreal, the author reviews the set of experiences of public intervention in the area of management of ethnic-religious diversity, which has led to the formulation of new debates with regard to the fit of this plurality in the urban space. The challenges posed by the incorporation of these new religious references in the configuring of the urban fabric also opens up questions on the meaning of cohabitation in increasingly plural neighbourhoods.
Umar Habila Dadem Danfulani
Full Text Available Chadic-speakers perform annual festivals of the ancestors, kok nji; cropping kop; harvesting, dyip and hunting kwat, which are usually accompanied by dancing, singing and other numerous rites and rituals. These ritual dramas symbolically and overtly express the religious experience, feelings and emotions that are deeply buried in the religious consciousness of the people. This article intends to provide a vivid description of some of these festivals, particularly those of the Ngas, Mupun and Mwaghavul.
Full Text Available Este artigo desenvolve três modelos de relacionamento com o sobrenatural. Primeiramente, o ritual de aposta, pelo qual o indivíduo se assegura de ter feito o que era possível fazer para evitar um perigo. A natureza detalhada da preparação do ritual é essencial, assim como a rede social que se tece ao redor do rito. Segundo, focaliza a relação de troca com o sobrenatural, mediada pelo shaman, que é aquele que detém os segredos do procedimento e a confiança dos "clientes". Terceiro, trata das relações de troca representadas pela religião popular católica e explica que todas as religiões "mundiais" (judaísmo, cristianismo, islamismo se edificam sobre uma dialética do erudito com a religião popular. Tudo isso como introdução à análise do pentecostalismo e do neopentecostalismo, que representam formas inusitadas de religiosidade, nas quais o sobrenatural está presente. Mas a troca é com a Igreja, não com entidades sobrenaturais. A Igreja funciona mais como um "Pronto-Socorro Espiritual" do que como um lugar de construção de uma ordem moral ou como lugar em que os humanos fazem as pazes com Deus. O pentecostalismo faz parte de uma tendência ocidental que deixa as religiões includentes (católica, anglicana em estagnação, enquanto as mais excludentes, aquelas que requerem muito sacrifício dos seguidores, ganham terreno.This article develops three models of humans' relationship with the supernatural. First that of ritual as a kind of protection through which the individual ensures that whatever had to be done to avoid a danger was done. The detailed nature of the ritual procedures are essential to it as is the social network which is woven around the rite. Secondly, the article focuses on the exchange relationship with the supernatural, mediated by a shaman who holds the secrets of the procedure and also the trust of his "clients". Thirdly, it deals with the exchange relationships represented by Catholic popular religion
Iain T. Benson
Full Text Available Constitutional protections for religious freedom (and related freedoms of conscience, belief and association and equality, once interpreted by courts and tribunals, apply in a precedential manner to future cases. They have an influence well beyond the particular community to which they first applied. For this reason, religious communities have increasingly banded together and sought to intervene or even, on occasion, to initiate legal actions asserting or defending their rights. This article reviews some of the principles around the freedom of religion as understood in South Africa and Canada to show how courts have understood the freedom of religion in its social context. In addition, interfaith cooperation is discussed with particular reference to the recent process which led to the formation of a Charter of Religious Rights and Freedoms pursuant to Section 234 of the South African Constitution (which is attached to the article. This section, a unique provision in any constitution, allows for the creation of additional Charters to give greater specificity to the general language of the Constitution itself. As such, it is an encouragement to civil society to determine what it thinks are the important provisions that should be spelled out to give guidance to politicians and the judiciary. Awide variety of religious groups participated in the creation of the Charter. The Charter does not claim to be, nor could it be, exhaustive of such concerns but demonstrates that religions can cooperate across a host of issues in education, health care, employment and other issues. The next stage – passage into law, is still in the future but the first important hurdle has been crossed with the signing of the Charter in October of 2010. The Charter might be a template for other countries though changes would be necessary to deal with local issues.
Martinovic, Borja; Verkuyten, Maykel
This paper examines inter-religious attitudes from the perspective of Muslim minorities living in Western Europe. We examine both Sunni and Alevi Muslims of Turkish origin living in Germany and the Netherlands, and focus on their global feelings towards multiple religious out-groups (Christians, Jew
The question this study addresses is whether, on a conceptual level, religious propositions can have truth-value. It reflects on this question from a philosophy of religion perspective that stands in philosophy of language and mind. It analyzes paradigmatic religious realist and antirealist perspect
Sebby, Rickard A; Schaefer, Lisa
Men (n = 55) and women (n = 99) college students (M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 6.1, range 18 to 58 years), from a moderate-sized midwestern university reported attitudes toward the goals and purposes of higher education, perceptions of parental pressure and support, and change in religious beliefs. The Religious Fundamentalist Scale, the Quest Scale, Faith-keeping, and Obedience to Parents Scales were also administered. Students classified as religious fundamentalists had more negative attitudes toward the goals and purposes of higher education goals and toward faculty. An interaction of Sex x Fundamentalist Classification indicated that nonfundamentalist college men reported greater change in their religious beliefs, relative to other groups. Perceptions of parental pressure or support were unrelated to scores on fundamentalism. The implications of students' religious backgrounds in relation to academic success were discussed.
The financial characteristics of sects are challenging topics. The present paper concerns the Antoinist Cult community (ACC), which has appeared at the end of the 19-th century in Belgium, have had quite an expansion, and is now decaying. The historical perspective is described in an Appendix. Although surely of marginal importance in religious history, the numerical and analytic description of the ACC growth AND decay evolution per se should hopefully permit generalizations toward behaviors of other sects, with either longer life time, i.e. so called religions or churches, or to others with shorter life time. Due to the specific aims and rules of the community, in particular the lack of proselytism, and strict acceptance of only anonymous financial gifts, an indirect measure of their member number evolution can only be studied. This is done here first through the time dependence of new temple inaugurations, between 1910 and 1940. Besides, the community yearly financial reports can be analyzed. They are legal...
Lívio Luiz Soares de Oliveira
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é expor, com base na literatura de Economia da Religião, a premissa de racionalidade humana relacionada ao comportamento religioso. Serão abordados conceitos e definições da Economia da Religião, o objeto de interesse dessa disciplina, isto é, as questões com as quais se preocupa, além de discutir-se, sucintamente, a origem e a evolução da Economia da Religião. Discutem-se dois dos fundamentos teóricos da Economia da Religião: a Escolha Racional e a Teoria do Consumidor aplicada à religião. Como contribuição empírica, realizou-se um teste de um modelo de escolha religiosa empregando a técnica de Análise de Discriminante. Por último, serão discutidas as vantagens, objeções e críticas relativas à Teoria da Escolha Racional Religiosa.
Full Text Available This article attempts to discuss the various societal responses to religious diversity and pluralism in Malaysia and Indonesia. Its focus is on the Muslim–majority nations of Indonesia and Malaysia, where the idea of religious pluralism among Muslims has taken various shapes. While the state’s management of pluralism is so far characterized by politics of expediency and accommodation to ensure stability, law and order, and harmony, it is the societal or community responses that matter most. Advancing and nurturing the ideas of religious pluralism in social and religious discourse requires commitment in persistency and planning. This, in turn, calls for the need to know how the ideas of pluralism and religious diversity have been understood in society. The challenge of nurturing a substantive pluralism in society warrants recognition and support. This can be made in the realms of theological discourse, political will, educative approach, as well as institutional supportCopyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v19i3.355
Paiva Geraldo José de
Full Text Available Terão os docentes-pesquisadores universitários uma representação social (RS da religião e das relações entre religião e ciência? Foram entrevistados cientistas avançados das áreas de ciências exatas, biológicas e humanas, da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil, acerca das relações que estabelecem, ou não, entre ciência e religião. Os resultados mostraram inexistência de conflito consciente entre ciência e religião; pouca ou nenhuma intersecção entre ambas; rejeição tanto do caráter dogmático do cristianismo como das pretensões ilimitadas da ciência; respeito pelas religiões históricas e abertura para novas formas de religiosidade. Os resultados são discutidos com o conceito de RS, de Moscovici.
Garrett-Walker, Ja'Nina J; Torres, Vanessa M
Given the intersection of racial, religious, and sexual identities for Black queer populations, the current study examines sexuality related religious rhetoric. Twenty Black cisgender queer men were recruited to participate in a qualitative interview. Using thematic analysis, the research team identified four themes: negative religious rhetoric, personal consequences of negative religious rhetoric, social consequences of negative religious rhetoric, and growth from negative religious rhetoric. Participants explained the pervasiveness of negative religious rhetoric within their churches and family structures. Men also conveyed how negative religious rhetoric frames societal ideologies around same-sex behavior often condoning violence toward queer populations. Although men had negative experiences, participants articulated the importance of using oppression as a platform for growth. Black cisgender queer men are present within religious institutions, however, such negative religious rhetoric may negatively affect their mental and physical health. Researchers, clinicians, and clergy should consider the ways negative religious rhetoric marginalizes queer populations.
This paper explores how a school principal by means of practical authorship creates reservoirs of language that provide a possible context for collective sensemaking. The paper draws upon a field study in which a school principal, and his managerial team, was shadowed in a period of intensive...... changes. The paper explores how the manager weaves with text, extracted from stakeholders, administration, politicians, employees, public discourse etc., as a means of creating a new fabric, a texture, of diverse perspectives that aims for collective sensemaking....
Japcy Margarita Quiceno
Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar una descripción del impacto que ha tenido en la salud "la psicología de la religión y la espiritualidad". Se muestra la evolución histórica de este constructo a lo largo del siglo XX, hasta llegar a las investigaciones basadas en la evidencia de las relaciones de la religión y la espiritualidad con la salud mental y física, y de investigaciones sobre los procesos de intervención en salud, enfocadas desde la espiritualidad. En conclusión, son muchas las investigaciones que plantean que la religión y la espiritualidad son variables moderadoras y amortiguadoras ante eventos traumáticos de la vida como lo es una enfermedad
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the Russian practice of expertise of pacifist beliefs in recruits by a public organization – the Joint Council of the religious communities and groups in the Soviet state in 1918-1920 years. We analyze the expertise procedure, the methods and criteria used, their priority, and the circumstances that adversely affect the Joint Council expertise objectivity. Among these circumstances, we highlighted the unsolved problem of the criteria to judge the validity of the pacifist religious beliefs, the limited methods used in examinations (survey, interview, document analysis. The consequence of this unresolved problem is possible bias of experts – members of the Joint Council, as well as conflict with the People's Commissariat of Justice, which led to the termination of the Joint Expert Council of religious communities and groups.
Full Text Available O IBGE publicou no dia 29 de junho 2012 os dados do Censo demográfico 2010 sobre religiões (dados da amostra. A sua Comunicação Social comentando os resultados, mostrou, entre outros aspectos a nítida evolução que ocorreu desde o último censo, em 2000, a principal sendo o declínio da Igreja Católica e o crescimento das religiões evangélicas e do número de pessoas que se declaram sem religião. Alguns mapas fora apresentados mas os dados são tão ricos que a sua dimensão territorial – a distrib...
Maki, R H; Berry, S L
Subjects' abilities to predict future multiple-choice test performance after reading sections of text were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, subjects who scored above median test performance showed some accuracy in their predictions of that test performance. They gave higher mean ratings to material related to correct than to incorrect test answers. Subjects who scored below median test performance did not show this prediction accuracy. The retention interval between reading and the test was manipulated in Experiment 2. Subjects who were tested after at least a 24-hr delay showed results identical to those of Experiment 1. However, when subjects were tested immediately after reading, subjects above and below median test performance gave accurate predictions for the first immediate test. In contrast, both types of subjects gave inaccurate predictions for the second immediate test. Structural variables, such as length, serial position, and hierarchical level of the sections of text were related to subjects' predictions. These variables, in general, were not related to test performance, although the predictions were related to test performance in the conditions described above.
Pedro Assis Ribeiro de Oliveira
Full Text Available Resenha a partir de: VIEIRA, José Álvaro Campos. Aurora de uma espiritualidade sem religião: análise dos sem religião a partir da concepção de espiritualidade não religiosa de Marià Corbi. 2014. Dissertação (Mestrado, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte
María Teresa Lona Delgado
Full Text Available En esta obra Yong Chen hace referencia a la polémica si es el confucianismo religión o filosofía; lectura conformada por cuatro capítulos, dando cuenta del origen y desarrollo, enfocándose principalmente en la trascendencia de este debate.
Felipe E. García
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the impact of religious coping, social support and subjective severity on Posttraumatic Growth (PTG in people who lost their homes after the earthquake in Chile in 2010 and who now live in transitional shelters. One hundred sixteen adult men and women were evaluated using a subjective severity scale, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS scale of social support and the Brief RCOPE scale of religious coping. The multiple linear regression analysis shows that social support and positive religious coping have an impact on PTG. On using a bootstrap estimate, it was found that positive religious coping fully mediates the relationship between subjective severity and PTG.