A characteristic feature of Assyro-Babylonian religion was the repeated use of conventionalized phrases to address and describe the gods. Often, religious texts such as prayers and ritual incantations consisted of little more than the heaping up of such epithets. If the gods were indeed culturall...
Ferreira, Erica Couto
In Mesopotamia, the human body was understood as an object for divination, that is, a system of signs, which carried messages about the individual, and whose meaning had to be decoded by means of observation and interpretation. Taking the physiognomic series "Summa sinnistu qaqqada rabât" ("If a woman has a big head") as the main source of my article, I analyse, on the one hand, the processes that take part in the promotion of a particular perception of women based on a specific reading of the female body. On the other hand, I deal with the elements that characterize this female perception, basically, the image of the ideal woman centred on motherhood, and, in close relation to this, the dangers that threaten women's life during pregnancy. PMID:19847966
The chapter analyses the connection between Biblical interpretation and the making of political communities in northern Nigeria in the 20th century. Generally, it studies the use of religious scriptures in developing models of society which can both include and exclude particular religious and et...
Черхава, О. О.
The article gives religious-popular discourse more precise definition in the field of variety differentiation of religious discourse; its working definition is provided; kernel criteria of religious-popular discourse identification are suggested; religious-popular texts according to their invariant religious-propaganda and religious-informative variant parameters are classified. The aim of the research is to establish the characteristics of English, German and Ukrainian texts which belong to ...
Vestøl, Jon Magne
Drawing on sociocultural perspectives on educational design, this article presents a qualitative study investigating how religious texts emerge as educational objects and mediating artefacts in Norwegian textbooks of religious and moral education. The article describes how the distribution of text references in textbooks influences the formation…
King, Seth J.
The aim of this study was to quantitatively measure refutation text's power for conceptual change while qualitatively discovering students' preference of refutation or expository text structures. This study also sought to examine if religious interest levels predict conceptual change. Participants for this study were 9th, 10th-, 11th-, and 12th-grade seminary students from the private religious educational system of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). The study was conducte...
This article realized the Russian way of theological media education literacy and hermeneutic analysis of specific examples of Soviet anti-religious audiovisual media texts: a study of the process of interpretation of these media texts, cultural and historical factors influencing the views of the media agency/authors. The hermeneutic analysis…
Munson, Jessica; Amati, Viviana; Collard, Mark; Macri, Martha J
Religious rituals that are painful or highly stressful are hypothesized to be costly signs of commitment essential for the evolution of complex society. Yet few studies have investigated how such extreme ritual practices were culturally transmitted in past societies. Here, we report the first study to analyze temporal and spatial variation in bloodletting rituals recorded in Classic Maya (ca. 250-900 CE) hieroglyphic texts. We also identify the sociopolitical contexts most closely associated with these ancient recorded rituals. Sampling an extensive record of 2,480 hieroglyphic texts, this study identifies every recorded instance of the logographic sign for the word ch'ahb' that is associated with ritual bloodletting. We show that documented rituals exhibit low frequency whose occurrence cannot be predicted by spatial location. Conversely, network ties better capture the distribution of bloodletting rituals across the southern Maya region. Our results indicate that bloodletting rituals by Maya nobles were not uniformly recorded, but were typically documented in association with antagonistic statements and may have signaled royal commitments among connected polities.
Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presented to the society’s actual characteristics. This can be achieved by using appropriate marketing tools and methods; however, the particularities of religion must be taken into account in order not to alter its religious values.
Full Text Available This article realized the Russian way of theological media education literacy andhermeneutic analysis of specific examples of Soviet anti-religiousaudiovisual media texts: a study of the process of interpretation of these media texts, cultural and historical factors influencing the views of the media agency / authors. The hermeneutic analysis suggests media text comprehension through comparison with historical, cultural tradition and reality; penetration of its logic; through comparison of media images in historical and cultural context by combining analysis of the structural, plot, ethical, ideological, iconographic / visual, media stereotypes and analysis of media text characters. An analysis of such audiovisual media texts, in our opinion, is particularly important for media literacy education in the training of future historians, culture, art historians, sociologists, linguists, theologians, psychologists and educators.
This article realized the Russian way of theological media education literacy andhermeneutic analysis of specific examples of Soviet anti-religiousaudiovisual media texts: a study of the process of interpretation of these media texts, cultural and historical factors influencing the views of the media agency / authors. The hermeneutic analysis suggests media text comprehension through comparison with historical, cultural tradition and reality; penetration of its logic; through comparison of me...
Olusegun Noah Olawoyin
Full Text Available Religious Pluralism is one of many forms of pluralism in contemporary globalised world. Some others include ethnic pluralism, value pluralism, doctrinal pluralism, ethical pluralism, political pluralism. Religious pluralism is, however, one of the most important in contemporary society, considering globalization and the role of religions in many conflicts. It has its root in poltitical liberalism. Religious pluralism is a hot debate in social sciences and in Theology and Religious Studies. This paper argues that religious pluralism, which is an acceptance of plurality as normative, is not a monolithic theory. The different religious context in which it is being discussed, the different disciplinary and philosophical influences resulted in various and even contradictory types. However, this paper is a ‘mapping’ of the contour of contemporary discussions. Critically reviewing relevant literature, two major theories of religious pluralism were identified: identist and differential/complementary. Each of these also has subdivision.
M. M. Raeesi
Full Text Available In this research this question is addressed: are the physical-spatial changes in contemporary markets of Iran, as a pioneer in promoting the noble values of Islam, in accordance with Islamic principles and values? In this article, through an analysis of religious texts, using qualitative content analysis, four physical-spatial indicators are deduced for markets; these indicators include the need to mention spiritual truths in physical-spatial structure of market, avoiding the collective social spaces in the market, the alignment of physical market patterns with Islamic identity, and locating the market in meta-local situations. An interdisciplinary analysis was carried out which indicated that the decline in these indicators in contemporary markets is rooted in the contemporary intellectual foundations of the West, whose economic impacts have resulted in the liberal capitalist economic system; one of the most important features of this system is the promotion of the culture of consumerism and a decline in Islamic physical-spatial indicators in contemporary markets, which is in accordance with the requirements of this culture.
Erik D. Baldwin
Full Text Available Problem statement: New Atheists and Anti-Theists (such as Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, Sam Harris, Christopher Hutchins affirm that there is a strong connection between being a traditional theist and being a religious fundamentalist who advocates violence, terrorism, and war. They are especially critical of Islam. On the contrary, I argue that, when correctly understood, religious dogmatic belief, present in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, is progressive and open to internal and external criticism and revision. Moreover, acknowledging that human knowledge is finite and that humans are fallible and have much to learn, dogmatic religious believers accept that they ought to value and seek to acquire moral and intellectual virtues, including the virtues of temperance and reasonability. Conclusion/Recommendations: While some Muslims advocate violence, terrorism, and war, others accept the concept of dogma articulated here and even speak out against the very things that Dawkins et al abhor. The contentious claims of the New Atheists and Anti-Theists to the contrary, therefore, while popular and rhetorically forceful, are false and do not withstand careful scrutiny.
Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately helpstrengthen the broader civic fabric.
Alina Badulescu; Olimpia Ban
The first part of the paper presents the past and present of the religious tourism in the world and in Romania and its implications on traveling. The second part describes the regions with religious tourism potential in Romania and the activities that could enhance and help the development of this kind of tourism in our country.
Geertz, Armin W.
Denne artikel er en introduktion til et temanummer i religionslærernes tidsskrift i USA. Den er et udtræk af mit kapitel "Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Approaches and Definitions" udgivet i Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Image and Word in the mind of Narrative, redigeret...
Full Text Available This article is centered on presenting Florensky’s thought regarding the close relationship between dogma and religious experience. The author begins by brieﬂ y examining the idea of religion as a particular sense of consciousness (Schleiermacher in the realm of knowledge and thought (John Newman. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s theory of religious feeling and religious experience is also discussed. Western authors who wrote about the rapport between religious experience and religious tradition include William James and Rudolf Otto; Russians include Bulgakov, Berdyaev, Frank, Il’in, and Tareev. Florensky’s ideas on the subject are presented on the basis of his early works and of his Pillar and Foundation of Truth. The author remarks that Florensky understands religious dogma primarily as a means given to man which makes it possible for him to overcome rational reality and rise to higher levels of perception. The possibility of surmounting mundane reality is realized through religious experience in which dogma assumes the role of an anchor or point of orientation as well as a point of resistance. The objectivity of religious experience, according to Florensky is guaranteed by its participation in that same truth which reveals itself to man, which gives man the means to recognize itself as the objective and absolute truth, and which establishes man’s religious experience in a formulated dogmatic doctrine.
Ahlin, Lars; Borup, Jørn; Fibiger, Marianne Qvortrup;
. Religious diversity has grown in Denmark with the arrival of new immigrant groups and with new forms and interpretations of traditional religious and spiritual traditions. More importantly, the relations and interactions between religious groups -- the hallmarks of religious pluralism -- are still incipient....... Both religious diversity and religious pluralism build on assumptions of stable relationships between religion and religious adherents and clear-cut boundaries between religious groups, assumptions which may be difficult to sustain in late modern societies. This article gives an overview of the Project......'s findings and discusses theoretical challenges related to religious diversity and religious pluralism....
Hasselhoff, Görge Karls
Full Text Available No século 13, a percepção dos cristãos com respeito ao judaísmo da época sofreu uma modificação fundamental. A razão para tanto foi uma atividade única de tradução, que se acha em estreita relação com a Disputa sobre o Talmude e as consequentes condenações do Talmude. Textos traduzidos foram, por exemplo, excertos do Talmude, da obra do Rabi Salomão (Rashi de Troyes e do Guia dos perplexos, de Moisés Maimônides. Este estudo mostra características de tais traduções e oferece exemplos de sua respectiva influência histórica
P. J. Watson
Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.
Elias, John L.
Most religious organizations exert their greatest effort in the religious education of children. This makes sense in terms of handing on the faith to the next generation. Historically, however, religious education of adults is the first endeavor of religious groups. Conducting education of children requires the previous religious education of…
Lenita Maria Rimoli Esteves
Full Text Available O trabalho sugere que existem pelo menos duas estratégias bastante distintas para abordar a tradução de textos religiosos: a primeira busca dar acesso ao leitor em termos de entendimento, aproximando o texto religioso da cultura para a qual ele está sendo traduzido. A segunda estratégia é nutrida por uma ênfase na iluminação, na revelação, numa clarividência que não necessariamente passa pelo raciocínio, mas que pode ser proporcionada pela transmissão de características da língua que não pertencem ao campo dos sentidos e têm a ver com a materialidade da língua: ritmo, assonâncias, aliterações. As duas estratégias, numa primeira análise, parecem não só se opor diametralmente, mas também reforçar uma dicotomia talvez tão ou mais antiga que os próprios textos em estudo: aquela que opõe espírito (ou conteúdo a letra (forma. No entanto, como já poderíamos suspeitar, as coisas não são tão simples assim... O trabalho apresentará algumas manifestações dessas duas tendências ao longo da história, problematizando a dicotomia e buscando delimitar que éticas informaram cada esforço de tradução.This paper suggests the existence of at least two very different strategies in the translation of religious texts: one is based on understanding and aims at accommodating the religious text to the culture into which it is translated. The second strategy is nourished by an emphasis on illumination, on revelation, on an insight that does not necessarily demand reasoning, but rather the transmission of certain linguistic characteristics not belonging to the realm of meaning: rhythm, assonances, alliterations. At first sight, the two strategies are radically different, stressing a dichotomy that is perhaps even older than the texts being studied " that opposing spirit to letter (or content to form. However, as one might expect, things are not so simple. The work will present some manifestations of these two tendencies along
Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate and to compare the adherence rate of religious values between the two ethnic groups of Turkish and Kurdish who live in West Azerbaijan province. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, low, medium and high, and distributes it among a sample of 200 people who live in these two regions. The result of our survey indicates that Azeri people were more religious than Kurdish people were. In addition, the study investigates the relationship between personal characteristics including age, gender and marital status and adherence rate of religious values and detects some meaningful relationships between these two items.
Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious buil
Kim, Jibum; Smith, Tom W; Kang, Jeong-han
Very few studies have examined the effects of both religious affiliation and religiosity on mortality at the same time, and studies employing multiple dimensions of religiosity other than religious attendance are rare. Using the newly created General Social Survey-National Death Index data, our report contributes to the religion and mortality literature by examining religious affiliation and religiosity at the same time. Compared to Mainline Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and other religious groups have lower risk of death, but Black Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, and even those with no religious affiliation are not different from Mainline Protestants. While our study is consistent with previous findings that religious attendance leads to a reduction in mortality, we did not find other religious measures, such as strength of religious affiliation, frequency of praying, belief in an afterlife, and belief in God to be associated with mortality. We also find interaction effects between religious affiliation and attendance. The lowest mortality of Jews and other religious groups is more apparent for those with lower religious attendance. Thus, our result may emphasize the need for other research to focus on the effects of religious group and religious attendance on mortality at the same time.
Pedersen, René Dybdal
. Both religious diversity and religious pluralism build on assumptions of stable relationships between religion and religious adherents and clear-cut boundaries between religious groups, assumptions which may be difficult to sustain in late modern societies. This article gives an overview of the Project...
Religious coercive control refers to the use of religious beliefs and doctrine as means to coercively control intimate partners. Scholars have shown that some abusive partners use the Christian doctrine of submission as a means of religious coercive control. I explore how victims who experience the doctrine of submission qua religious coercive control actively resist it. I argue that victims' successful resistance of the doctrine is contingent on their religious capital-that is, the knowledge and mastery that people have of a particular religious culture-and interpretive confidence-that is, people's subjective confidence in their interpretations of religious culture-related to the doctrine. PMID:25398370
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to review the literature about religiousness within hospitals. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, in the "pubmed data base" which referred to the religiousness within hospitals. Results : According to the literature research an administrative institution, such as hospital does not include only one culture but on the contrary many different cultures that interact since health professionals have their own background. Hospital as a place of special care, that has its' own culture, is expected to fulfill patients' needs (family, social, occupational, health and disease. Faith is encouraged in hospitals where the icons and Christian churches are prevalent, while faith individuals express their deeper need for pray. The tendency of religious individuals to ask for an upper support mainly in difficult circumstances such as for recovery in the clinical environment is deeply rooted in its' soul and consists an element of its' nature. Conclusions: In contemporary Greek reality, medical science has always had at the practice a great charity: religion.
Full Text Available How can one enter the mindset of religious activists whose worldview and values are different from one’s own? This is the challenge for analyzing contemporary violent religious movements and individuals around the world. This essay suggests guidelines, based on the author’s interview experience, for entering religious minds through informative encounters, relational knowledge, bracketing assumptions, and constructing a view of the whole.
Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel;
. Information about demographics, religiousness and religious coping was obtained through a web-based questionnaire. We organized religiousness in the three dimensions: Cognition, Practice and Importance, and we assessed religious coping using the brief RCOPE questionnaire. We found substantial gender...
Full Text Available The point is that in the Roman Catholic tradition, faith life moves around Sacraments. Any religious experience will be evaluated whether it enhances the devotion to the Sacraments, or it derails the person from the Sacraments. The authenticity will be judged based on the inner direction that lows out as a result of the religious experience.
This thesis deals with religious tourism. The objectives of this study are firstly to understand what religious tourism is, who the tourists attracted to religious tourism are, what the destinations and motives for religious holidays are and what the future of religious tourism looks like. This study is limited to dealing with Christian religious tourism. There is a survey made to find out firstly how religious tourism is understood and what the important destinations for religious touri...
Full Text Available The marketing of religion has become a big business. Wortham examines the current religious scene and shows that Americans want religious plurality, rather than religious homogamy. Just like shopping for ice cream, Americans want 57 choices when shopping for religion
Full Text Available This research aims to measure the effect of implementation of religious education at the high school under the religious foundations toward religious behavior student in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Province. There are five aspect of behaviour that measured include religiosity, honesty, tolerance, love peace and social concerns. Formulation of the problems in this study are (1 are there any effect of the implementation of religious education for student of religious behavior (2 How is the implementation of religious education as ap- plied to schools under the Religious foundations. (3 how the implementation of the ideal model of religious education at the high school under thereligious foundations. By using the mixed methods analysis this research found three findings: (1 there is influence of religion on the behavior of the implementation of religious education for learners. (2 religious education at high school under the Religious foundations in Kupang East Nusa Tenggara have implemented five aspects measured in the subjects of religious education. (3 there are three models of a good education: an evaluation of the cognitive, affective and psychomotor, strengthening the practice, and establising communication with inte- gral outsiders .
Full Text Available This study aims to understand the religious elite view of pluralism and religious harmony in Malang. The study was focused on the meaning of pluralism and religious harmony, efforts and things that support and hinder the realization of religious harmony. Empirical research data with qualitative-phenomenological approach was collected through interviews and documentation. The results show: first, the meaning of religious pluralism for the religious elites is very varied, which is the same as tolerance, mutual respect, the goal of all religions are the same, and recognize the fact that there are many religions in this world. Second, religiousharmony have meaning as a condition where there is no oppression and domination of one religion over other religions, awakening a deep awareness of diversity, respect for human rights, and the willingness to spread kindness and love for fellow human beings. Third, religious harmony can be achieved through internal efforts to strengthen the faith of each and build awareness to develop a positive attitude towards other religions. In external efforts to create harmony done through emancipatory dialogue and cooperation to resolve humanitarian issues. Fourth, positive attitude that supports the creation of harmony of religions is the willingness and awareness to understand each other and share experiences. Egoism, truth claims, fanaticism, and exclusivism is a negative attitude and expression recognized by the religious elite can interfere with the establishment of inter-religious harmony.
Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding
Across 800 regions of the World, this research shows that people are more religious when living in regions that are more frequently razed by natural disasters. This is in line with psychological theory stressing that religious people tend to cope with adverse life events by seeking comfort...... in their religion or searching for a reason for the event; for instance that the event was an act of God. This is termed religious coping. Natural disasters are a source for adverse life events, and thus one way to interpret my findings is by way of religious coping. The results are robust to various measures...
Gallagher, Eugene V.
Stephen Prothero's "Religious Literacy" makes a strong case that minimal religious literacy is an essential requirement for contemporary U. S. citizens. He argues further that high schools and colleges should offer required courses in the study of religion in order to help students reach that baseline literacy. Beyond the general recommendation…
Full Text Available The article considers four spaces where media processes involve religious communities and agents: the spaces of production, of representation, of media communication, and of distribution network and institutional framework for circulation. These three spaces systematise the research question posed to the specific source. Furthermore the concept documentary media as viewed from a semio-pragmatic perspective is introduced. Discussion of the commercial series I’m a Mormon shows how different modes define documentary media according to the three spaces.
Islam Michailovich (Machrailovich Goov
Full Text Available The author explored in the present paper the factors giving rise to religious extremism in society and its spreading round the community. The study revealed the intention of the concept of religious extremism. The paper has given special attention to the issues of countering religious extremism on the part of law enforcement bodies.Multiple factors have concurred with the main reasons and circumstances that gave birth to religious extremism in our country, as follows: social and economic crises, high rate of unemployment, a relaxed functioning of State authorities and law enforcement bodies urged to prevent social extremism in educational institutions, a drastic decline in the living standards for the majority of the population, cultural decline and decrease of the attainment’ standards of learning in youngsters. The law enforcement bodies have recently established multiple units in their framework, in order to counter religious extremism and prevent spreading of religious extremist ideas. In addition to, active advocacy for spiritual and moral values and traditions of our ethnic cultural communities may be one of the efficient practices in countering the spreading of religious extremism.
Roberto Mangabeira Unger
Full Text Available A segunda palestra, A Religião do Futuro, examina o conteúdo da religião transformada, em seu registro secular. O tema central é a necessidade e o potencial para uma revolução na nossa crença religiosa. Dois obstáculos dificultam pensar sobre a religião. O primeiro deles é o tabu contra a crítica religiosa da religião. As origens deste tabu encontram-se na privatização da religião e no fim das guerras religiosas do início do período moderno. O segundo obstáculo a ser superado é a atitude sentimental em relação à religião. Na prática, a atitude sentimental em relação à religião é útil para uma democracia social institucionalmente conservadora. Ela serve para manter as aparências: trata-se de um aprimoramento metafísico dos mesmos preconceitos morais frequentemente apoiados pelo humanismo secular predominante.
Full Text Available Religious tourism is a form of tourism whereby people of the same faith travel individually or in groups for religious purposes. This form of tourism comprises many facets of the travel industry ranging from pilgrimages, missionary travel, leisure (fellowship, vacations, faith-based cruising, crusades, conventions and rallies, retreats, monastery visits and guest-stays, Christian and faith-based camps, to religious tourist attractions. In Sukur Kingdom, most tourists embark on religious travel for the primary purpose of sharing faith and fellowship together as they explore the various religious sites within Sukur and Adamawa State at large. Others still seek inspiration and desire to witness significant religious events while assisting others with humanitarian and spiritual needs. This paper examines the tourism potentials of religion/religious sites and belief systems in Sukur Kingdom with a view to harnessing them for sustainable tourism development. The study uses ethnographic methods to elicit information and analyze the data collected from respondents.
Pletnev Alexander Vladislavovich
Full Text Available In the current article the author analyzes influence of amendments in the religious sphere of postsoviet society for the increase of anomie in it. He indicates main factors that influence the anomie and charactarize specific features of religious sphere of modern Russian society. They are religious variety, caused by missionery activity and restore of traditional confessions (Orthodox, Islam, Judiasm, Buddism, Lutheranism, and also actualization of the religious identity matter, the phenomen of “out of confession herecy” and religious conflicts. According to the researcher opinion, amendments in the spiritual sphere influence the studied phenomen as well as trasnformation of political and economic system, caused by transfer from communism to democracy and from planning to market economy. The possible ways of anomie decrease via religious sphere of the society such as increase of Orthodox church belivers, adaptation of its tradition and practics, new religious cult inctitualization are indicated in this article as well.
Miriam Abu Salem
Full Text Available In the Italian system freedom of worship provided by the Constitution is safeguarded by unilateral and contractual norms, sanctioned for minority confessions by an agreement, named intesa, that also concerns dietary issues. Muslim communities, however, as they have no intesa with the Italian state, are always compelled to negotiate in respect of their religious norms. Religious freedom concerns- not only ritual acts, but also behaviours including dietary ones, which are based on religious beliefs. The aim of this paper is to critically reconstruct how Italy takes charge of religiously-motivated needs concerning food and beverages, both for those confessions holding an intesa (such as Hebraism and for those not (Islam, in order to trace the real degree to which freedom of worship is guaranteed in Italy. The analysis will be focused on the bargaining for religious dietary rules in schools and in constraining institutes, as they are main social spaces of confrontation between believers and the state.
Full Text Available The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS measures important psychological constructs in an underemphasized section of the overlap between religion and well-being. Are religious/spiritual struggles distinct from religiousness, distress, and each other? To test the RSS’ internal discriminant validity, we replicated the original six-factor measurement model across five large samples (N = 5705 and tested the fit of a restricted bifactor model, which supported the mutual viability of multidimensional and unidimensional scoring systems for the RSS. Additionally, we explored a bifactor model with correlated group factors that exhibited optimal fit statistics. This model maintained the correlations among the original factors while extracting a general factor from the RSS. This general factor’s strong correlations with religious participation and belief salience suggested that this factor resembles religiousness itself. Estimating this general factor seemed to improve Demonic and Moral struggles’ independence from religiousness, but did not change any factor’s correlations with neuroticism, depression, anxiety, and stress. These distress factors correlated with most of the independent group factors corresponding to the original dimensions of the RSS, especially Ultimate Meaning and Divine struggles. These analyses demonstrate the discriminant validity of religious/spiritual struggles and the complexity of their relationships with religiousness and distress.
Muhammad Sadli Mustafa
Full Text Available This globalization era brought people of East Kalimantan tend to prefer modern music and western music. This cause the local or traditional music art is marginalized. On the other hand, they have a local music art containing a lot of local wisdom. One of them is tingkilan music. Lyrics of tingkilan contain religious values. Therefore, this study intends to find and to describe the religious values in the song lyrics of the tingkilan musical arts. This study uses a qualitative research method. The research shows that in fact some tingkilan song lyrics have a deep religious value. Some of those religious values are thanksgiving favors, learning of the holly Qur’an, the way of eating and drinking in accordance with the Islamic teaching.
Full Text Available Croatia has a rich sacral (tangible and intangible heritage, which undoubtedly has great cultural value, and part of the religious heritage has been included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO. The fact is, however, that, except when it comes to top attractions, churches as tourist facilities, are poorly attended and do not get almost no direct tourism income.. In this paper, after the introductory explanations of basic terms related to religious tourism and pilgrimage, we explore the basic features of religious tourism in Croatia, both on tourist attractions, as well as on the tourist demand. It also presents the results of empirical research on the socio-demographic profile of the author, the role of religion in the life of pilgrims and the satisfaction of the visitors to the Shrine of Mary of Bistrica in 2013 among 50 pilgrims in Marija Bistrica. The main objective is to determine how the pilgrims perceived the tourism offer in religious tourism.
José Luis Meza Rueda
Full Text Available Religious education in Colombia, according to Law 115 of 1994, is an area of fundamental training. However, its purpose of promoting the religious dimension of human beings and understanding the role of religion in culture is far from being achieved, because, in practice, it is considered as an area of second order, is disjointed from the curriculum and is still working as the “religion lesson” of the past. What to do against this? Could it be another way of thinking about religious education? We estimate that, as presuppositions and motivations of both liberation theology and liberating pedagogy are still valid today, they may provide clues in this respect. Consequently, this paper not only makes a detailed reading of this reality in some official educational institutions in Colombia, but also sheds light for the school religious education (ERE to be liberating.
Goplen, Joanna; Plant, E Ashby
For some people, religion strongly influences their worldviews. We propose that religious outgroups threaten the foundational beliefs of people with strong religious worldviews (RWVs) by endorsing alternative belief systems and that this threat contributes to religious prejudice. To examine these ideas, we developed a measure of RWV strength and assessed the role of RWV threat in religious prejudice. Across five studies, strength of RWV was related to religious prejudice, including derogation and denial of alternative religious viewpoints, as well as support for suppressing, avoiding, and even aggressing against religious outgroups. These responses were strongest toward religious outgroups whose worldviews were the most different, and therefore most threatening. Mediational analyses revealed that strong RWV people expressed heightened prejudice because of the worldview threat posed by religious outgroup members. These findings indicate that the avoidance and subjugation of religious outgroups can serve as a worldview protection strategy for some people.
Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag basiert – mit dem Hinweis auf die zunehmende Präsenz der herkunftsorientierten religiösen Einrichtungen in Europa – auf dem Argument, dass die islamisch-religiöse Bildung in den Schulen Europas überdacht werden muss und ihr eine entscheidende Rolle zukommt. Neben den herkunftsorientierten religiösen Einrichtungen in Europa wird in diesem Beitrag die Bedeutung des islamischen Religionsunterrichts aus dem Blickwinkel des kontextualisierten Islams beleuchtet. Mittels Fallbeispielen zur religiösen Bildung am religiösen Markt (= religiöse Institutionen außerhalb des Schulraums wird in diesem Beitrag aufgezeigt, dass der islamische Religionsunterricht im Gegensatz zu den religiösen Institutionen keine Monopolkirche sein darf, in der vorwiegend eine Art Volksfrömmigkeit vermittelt wird. Opportunities and Challenges of Religious Education in Schools – A Muslim Perspective This contribution is based on the argument that the role of Islamic religious education at schools should be reconceived in relation to the growing presence of origin-oriented religious institutions in Europe. In addition to the origin-oriented religious institutions in Europe, this paper aims to present the importance of Islamic religious education from the perspective of contextualized Islam. Based on case studies for religious education in the religious market (outside the education area this paper shows that the Islamic religious education cannot offer Church`s monopoly and act like origin-oriented religious institutions to mediate popular piety.
This article is centered on presenting Florensky’s thought regarding the close relationship between dogma and religious experience. The author begins by brieﬂ y examining the idea of religion as a particular sense of consciousness (Schleiermacher) in the realm of knowledge and thought (John Newman). Hans-Georg Gadamer’s theory of religious feeling and religious experience is also discussed. Western authors who wrote about the rapport between religious experience and religious tradition includ...
Brinsfield, Gregory S.; Ashby, Christopher B.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Religious terrorism, as most recently highlighted by the horrendous 9/11 attacks, is not a new phenomenon. It is not restricted to any one particular religion or belief system, nor is it reserved as a weapon against foreign lands. Domestic religious terrorism is just as prevalent throughout history and is brought about by certain converging factors at particularly susceptible times within the society, such as economic difficulties, ne...
ASADIYAN, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Mehdi
Abstract. Tourism is an identifier industry for varied areas and it has a particular and precise definition. Tourism is one of the most economical revenue activities in the world. Religion is an important and impressive element in man's moral .The most important purpose for the religious tourism in traditional way is doing cultural pilgrimage. Religious tourism is noteworthy because of it’s out of soul searching against souls searching. The holy Quran in different chapters refers to tourism c...
Full Text Available Scholars who recently rejected secularisation theses on the grounds that they were insufficiently defined or contextualised now seem to be accepting with unseemly, uncritical haste, the new, in vogue notion of the post-secular. Scholars seem tempted to drop the term ‘post-secular’ into their papers and presentations as if it is a generally accepted and understood term. It is not and nor, as this paper will argue, is it plausible unless applied to a limited and specific range of phenomena. Far from disappearing, religion is often used publicly as a marker of group identity. This is not a return to religion, or a resurgence in spirituality, but a fluctuating form of contextualised religious identity. Christian nominalists may not believe in God or Jesus, at least if belief is understood as ‘faith’. It would be incorrect, however, to dismiss them as ‘unbelievers’, or their nominalist beliefs as not having essential or substantive reality. They believe in many things, usually related to ‘belonging’. By closely examining people’s sense of Christian ‘belonging’, we find other more subtle, interwoven ‘belongings’ related to, for example, history, nation, morality, gender, and ‘culture’.
Full Text Available Change constitutes different things for the groups, as the position of one group may improve, but that of another deteriorate. Social change is a consequence of how the different groups act, and their actions again depend on their social and economic interests. In other words, there are groups in society (social classes, professional groups, the agrarian population, industrial workers, which come more or less openly in conflict with each other when looking after their interests. Thus this way of thinking is based on a conflict model. One sees social change as a consequence of people trying to protect their social and economic interests. Viewed this way even religious organizations and movements are involved in protecting the interests of social groups. However, the interesting point in this connection is that religious movements differ from political movements and groups, as the religious movements express the social interests of a group more indirectly than the political movements. The religious movements gather people from similar living conditions, and so to speak, prepare them for political work. They defend and justify the way of living of a group, and thus give ideological material for political groupings. They may also form coalitions with political groups and parties. The author analyzes Laestadianism from this point of view. Before going into the connection between religious dynamics and social change it is necessary to present a few general features of Laestadianism as a religious movement of the peasant population.
Cláudio de Oliveira Ribeiro
Full Text Available This paper introduces the results of a research on questions raised up by religious pluralism related to the promotion of human rights, and some aspects around the deepening of democracy. Methodologically, we first focused on the balance of some important questions for ecumenical theology of religions, because they raise new theological perspectives. Then, we highlighted (i some aspects of the contemporary tendency to privatize religious experiences, all of this as impediment to a good balance between religion and human rights. (ii We analyzed the relationship between ecumenical theology and human rights, in a dialogue with Boaventura de Souza Santo’s ‘counter-hegemonic globalization’ concept. In front of religious pluralism it is necessary to give special attention to the articulation between the capability of religious groups to dialogue and the challenges around the promotion of human rights. We also indicate that an ecumenical spirituality emerging from religious pluralism will have alterity as a central dimension, and this will have a direct impact in religious and social processes giving birth to utopian and democratic meaningful perspectives.
Full Text Available Whilst significant research has been conducted on religious affiliation and on general levels of religiosity in the South African context, few studies specifically investigated the religious lives of South African university students in a comprehensive way. This is unfortunate as such research could significantly inform and support the effectiveness of youth and student ministries. As such, this article explored the religious lives of students at a university in the Gauteng province of South Africa, focusing specifically on students’ self-assessed religiosity, the maturity of their religious attitudes, their spiritual well-being, the religious practices in which they engage and the relationship between such practices and their spiritual well-being. Gender, racial and religious differences concerning these variables were also investigated. Data were collected from 356 undergraduate students by means of a structured survey consisting of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire, the Religious Fundamentalism Scale and two other scales aimed at assessing religiosity and religious practices. Results indicated that 98.9% of participants were religious with the majority (86.9% being Christian. Generally, students espoused highly fundamentalist religious attitudes but had high levels of spiritual well-being. Prayer and virtual or in-person attendance of religious gatherings such as church services were the most prevalent religious practices whereas fasting and meditation were practiced least. All practices were positively correlated with students’ spiritual well-being. Based on these findings, the article concludes with several specific, practical recommendations relevant to student ministries and those working with university students in religious contexts.
Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss what Cognitive Science of Religion is and what its implications are for theism and the veracity of religious belief. Findings in CSR, and its counterpart Evolutionary Psychology, aim to explain the origin of religious belief. Some critics of religion, however, brandish the findings of CSR in support of their agenda. Their arguments attempt to either argue against the truth of religion or the justification for religious belief. I will argue that neither of these two kinds of arguments accomplishes its goal. Using CSR to falsify religious belief commits the genetic fallacy. The evolutionary debunking argument for undermining justification for religious belief is a more sophisticated approach, but it fails on account of making too many unjustified assumptions. I outline three brief responses to the challenge of unjustified religious belief
Full Text Available Traditional religious knowledge widely incorporates traditional religious expressions and other forms of traditional knowledge, such as ecological knowledge, medicinal knowledge, elements of languages, and so on. Traditional religious knowledge is a subset of cultural heritage, of which the inheritance and spread have attracted considerable attention from the global society. A series of international conventions have been reached to provide an international forum to negotiate the issues concerning the safeguard of traditional cultural knowledge. China has joined several important international conventions. Nowadays, the domestic laws that can be applied in safeguarding traditional religious knowledge include the intellectual property laws, the Law on Intangible Cultural Heritage, and other sui generis rules. Despite considerable achievements, the shortcomings of the existing rules make them insufficient to protect the interests and rights of traditional religious knowledge and prevent its misappropriation. Therefore, China should make further efforts to solve these challenges to optimize the environment for preserving and spreading traditional religious knowledge.
Lawson, Ernest Thomas
While earlier approaches to religious thought and practice searched for 'magic bullet' approaches to explain religious thought and behavior, seeing it as an example of irrationality, illusion, integrative force, symbolism, or false explanations of origins, cognitive scientific approaches have suggested that we see it rather as an aggregate of the products of various cognitive mechanisms. Studies in the cognitive science of religion, informed by experimental work, have converged on a standard model of explaining religious thought and behavior by focussing on the role of minimally counter-intuitive concepts, agent and animacy detection, ritual representations, notions of contagion and contamination avoidance, theory of mind, coalitions, and moral intuitions. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1189 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Full Text Available This article discusses how Indonesian state manages its religious diversity. The state policies on religious diversity cannot be understood without analyzing the history of how the founding fathers decided to choose Indonesia as neither secular nor Islamic country, but somewhere between the two. The author discusses three topics, namely the recognized religions, Muslim fear of Christianization, and dialogue and inter-religious harmony. Based on the Decree No.1/1965, Confucianism was one of six religions recognized by the state. However, in the Soeharto era, around 1979, this religion was dropped from the list, and only after his fall Confucianism has been rehabilitated, and even the Chinese New Year has been included as one of the national holidays in Indonesia. In terms of Muslim-Christian relations, there were tensions since 1960s, particularly dealt with the issue of the high number of Muslims who converted to Christianity. It was in this situation that in 1967 a newly built Methodist Church in Meulaboh, Aceh, was closed by Muslims, arguing that the Church was a concrete example of the aggressiveness of Christian missions because it was built in a Muslim majority area. Since the Meulaboh case, the Muslims consistently insisted the government to accommodate their four demands: (1 restriction on establishing new places of worship; (2 restriction onreligious propagation, and control of foreign aid for religious institutions; (4 Islamic religion classes should be given to Muslim students studying in Christian schools; (5 inter-religious marriage should not be allowed. Apart from these contested issues, the government and religious leaders have been trying to avoid conflict and to establish cooperation and peace among religious groups in the country through inter-religious dialogues, either organized by the government or sponsored by the leaders of religious groups themselves. The author argues that specific socio-political contexts should be
Jean M. Twenge
Full Text Available Previous research found declines in Americans’ religious affiliation but few changes in religious beliefs and practices. By 2014, however, markedly fewer Americans participated in religious activities or embraced religious beliefs, with especially striking declines between 2006 and 2014 and among 18- to 29-year-olds in data from the nationally representative General Social Survey (N = 58,893, 1972-2014. In recent years, fewer Americans prayed, believed in God, took the Bible literally, attended religious services, identified as religious, affiliated with a religion, or had confidence in religious institutions. Only slightly more identified as spiritual since 1998, and then only those above age 30. Nearly a third of Millennials were secular not merely in religious affiliation but also in belief in God, religiosity, and religious service attendance, many more than Boomers and Generation X’ers at the same age. Eight times more 18- to 29-year-olds never prayed in 2014 versus the early 1980s. However, Americans have become slightly more likely to believe in an afterlife. In hierarchical linear modeling analyses, the decline in religious commitment was primarily due to time period rather than generation/birth cohort, with the decline in public religious practice larger (d = −.50 and beginning sooner (early 1990s than the smaller (d = −.18 decline in private religious practice and belief (primarily after 2006. Differences in religious commitment due to gender, race, education, and region grew larger, suggesting a more religiously polarized nation.
Palmer, David A.
This article is a study of the continuities and changes in the state-led institutionalisation of religion in the PRC from 1979 to 2009 and their effects on the structuring of China’s religious field. A normative discourse on religion is constituted by a network of Party leaders, officials, academics, and religious leaders. Official religious institutions have become hybrids of religious culture with the institutional habitus of work units ( danwei) in the socialist market economy. A wide rang...
Full Text Available There are two different approaches followed by moral philosophers regarding the motivational role of moral belief. Having restricted the motivating reasons to belief, the internalists consider the relationship between belief and ethical commitment necessary and believe that moral judgmentis inherentlymotivating. While theexternalists by regarding the belief and desire as reasons for action,they believe that the relationship between belief and actin is not necessary. Therefore, the weakness of will is possible, that is, the agent can acts against his best judgment. Now we put religious belief instead of moral judgment and ask about the motivational role of religious beliefs , that is , what is the relationship between religious beliefs and moral commitment? Are religious beliefs sufficient for moral action? Are they inherently motivating? Considering the impact of religious beliefs on committing ethical acts as necessary or contingent may have various and valuable consequences for the believers in different religions. The purpose of this article is to investigate such psychological relationship between religion and moralityand to seek the motivating influence of religious beliefs. The article tries to analyze the relation between the religious belief and ethical commitment and responds to this question that whether religious beliefs are the necessary and sufficientcondition for committing moral action , or they are just necessary conditions or neither necessary nor sufficient.If they are essential, what other elements can be complementary to religious beliefs? In other words, what other elements can substitute religious belief? To answer these questions, the present study will firstly investigate the stimulating influence of ethical beliefs and then will analyze the two approaches of internalism and externalism in ethics and finally will conclude that the approach of externalism is much closer to the reality. The article then will explain the
This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to…
This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith...
Brink, Dennis Meyhoff
The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy l...
This article considers Religious Education (RE) from the perspective of socialization theory. After clarifying the concept of socialization, an understanding of socialization processes, requiring the simultaneous development of both a personal and a social identity, is linked with RE. The development of both a personal and a social identity calls…
Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co...
Theological studies as a discipline committed to religious practice has come increasingly under fire from both adherents of dispassionate "religious studies" and partisans of ecclesial communities. A false solution is on offer that also emphasizes religious practices; this move, however, reinscribes the problem it seeks to solve because of its…
Full Text Available Recently, insufficiency of secular coping methods has drawn the attention of researchers towards religious coping methods. While the parts about theory and model cover an important place in the literature, experimental studies are rapidly going on. Although religious coping was initially interpreted as positive, experimental studies reveal that it also has negative forms. The purpose of this study, in which qualitative research methods were used, is to define the components of religious coping. Semi structured interview was used among 42 participants, 9 war veterans from Association of Turkish Disabled War Veterans, Martyrs, their Widows and Orphans Ankara Branch, and 9 relatives of martyrs from the Association of Martyrs’ Families Ankara Branch, totaling 60 volunteer participants between the ages 25 and 65 with snowball sampling method. It was discovered that 29 of the participants used negative religious coping and the participants who only used negative religious coping were studied in this research. Upon recording the interviews with the aid of a recorder, the researched typed the script of the interviews. The qualitative analysis of the collected data was done in MAXODA 11 computer program.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently, insufficiency of secular coping methods has drawn the attention of researchers towards religious coping methods. While the parts about theory and model cover an important place in the literature, experimental studies are rapidly going on. Although religious coping was initially interpreted as positive, experimental studies reveal that it also has negative forms. The purpose of this study, in which qualitative research methods were used, is to define the components of religious coping. Semi structured interview was used among 42 participants, 9 war veterans from Association of Turkish Disabled War Veterans, Martyrs, their Widows and Orphans Ankara Branch, and 9 relatives of martyrs from the Association of Martyrs’ Families Ankara Branch, totaling 60 volunteer participants between the ages 25 and 65 with snowball sampling method. It was discovered that 29 of the participants used negative religious coping and the participants who only used negative religious coping were studied in this research. Upon recording the interviews with the aid of a recorder, the researched typed the script of the interviews. The qualitative analysis of the collected data was done in MAXODA 11 computer program.
Full Text Available Since attaining independence, Latin pattern (Martin, 1978 disputes and conflicts have characterized the Slovenian political scene, particularly as to relations between the state and religious communities. Slovenia adopted a law on the issue only in 2006, availing itself of the law from the 1970s. The 2007 Religious Freedom Act contained many privileges for the dominant Roman Catholic Church, including those of a symbolic nature and those of an economic one. The Constitutional Court declared the Act unconstitutional and void, departing from the European Convention of Human Rights and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. Thus, it set other beliefs at the same level with religious ones, did away with many privileges and obstacles 81 in recognition and registration of new religious communities. However, this decision has legislatively been implemented only in a small portion, remaining to be fully implemented. However, the absence of substantive agreements with the Holy See and the absence of religious instruction in public schools indicate a predominance of liberalism on the public scene.
Full Text Available The study of why a fundraising professional would choose to leave his or her employer is critical to the ongoing success of religiously based nonprofit organizations as they work to achieve their mission. Without continuity in the donor relationship, donors will likely leave the organization or become disenfranchised. This study focuses on development professionals at Seventh-Day Adventist institutions across North America. The results of this study are applicable to other religiously based nonprofit organizations. The present article reveals the reasons affecting employee retention and proposes approaches to mitigate the loss of valuable employees. Data were gathered using a structured online survey and analyzed for its descriptive outcomes.
"Waiting for Godot" is one of the classic works of theater of the absurd. The play seems absurd but with a deep religious meaning. This text tries to explore the theme in four parts of God and man, breaking the agreement, repentance and imprecation and waiting for salvation.
Full Text Available The twentieth century saw incredible growth in the diversity of the American workplace as barriers, especially for women and minorities, were reduced. In this twenty-first century the effects of globalization are adding to the company’s diversity. Today, some companies reflect a microcosm of our world as the world’s workers come to America and technology connects organizations worldwide. With this diverse workplace come not only the obvious differences of gender, race, and national origin, but also differences in religion and religious practices. This research examines some trends in American workplace diversity, the historical and legal framework into which diverse religions can function in America, and corporate practices necessary to enable religious expression without significantly diminishing the organization’s efficiency. The research concludes by reporting results of a survey on religious expression difficulties and solutions in the workplace.
Martín Velasco, Juan
Full Text Available Not available.
Religión y moralidad son hechos estrechamente relacionados a lo largo de la historia. Esta relación da lugar a contenidos éticos convergentes en la mayor parte de las tradiciones religiosas. Existen sin embargo tensiones entre la moral y la religión que culminan en la ruptura operada por los movimientos «ilustrados». Operada esta ruptura, religión y moralidad aparecen como distintas formas de relación con el absoluto, llamadas a dialogar, desde la base de la ética civil de lassociedades pluralístas, para buscar soluciones a los problemas de la humanidad actual
Vera Lúcia Maia Marques
Full Text Available This text is a narrative that shows the fluid border between religion and culture, from my own observation at the Islamic community in Portugal. Despite the differences and complexities found in the group of Muslims in Portugal, due to its origins, to Islamic movements and strands, the Guinean Muslims will be the protagonists in this article, especially because it is a case of continuing migration in that country, which results in increase of that population in Portugal. In a way, this finding helps illustrate the fluidity of relationships religion / culture, by the very practices from their particular cultures. In addition, as a Muslim majority, which comes from the same geographical region, reproducing ethnic traits, undergo a process of segregation, not only by the wider host society but also by the Islamic religious group based in Portugal, which is generating a conflict situation.
Full Text Available This review hopes to present an alternative model to confessional religious education and the kind of role religion can have in teaching and education. It is framed by the conceptualization of education as simultaneously being and becoming (van Manen 1991, 67. This dichotomous description underlines the challenging tension of balancing present realities with future anticipations, a tension which is perhaps the defining feature of education. In theoretical terms this review draws on sociocultural and dialogic educational research, particularly Rupert Wegerif’s notion of “dialogic space” (Wegerif 2007, 4, and a “Global Education: World Religions” -course recently run as part of the Summer School for Human Sciences at the University of Jyväskylä. The review opens by introducing the pedagogic orientation for the course and a simple cultural model developed within the course. Following this, the guidelines for the development of “dialogic space” are introduced with possible implications for Religious Education concluding the paper.
Full Text Available Religious verse is a kind of committed verse which has religious color with regard to semantic aspect and originates from religious teachings and Islamic history. Religious rituals, praising religious figures, paying attention to celestial issues and catharsis of man are in the center of it. Emergence of new religious verse in 40’s and 50’s should be considered as a major event in Persian literature. Undoubtedly, extensive entrance of religious forces to the scene of political and cultural fight was the origin of emergence of this branch of social verse. Because of some reasons, in most sources about the new Persian verse (free, blank, New Wave new religious verse has been neglected which, consequently, made a work like this one inevitable.
Full Text Available Lately Indonesia is facing a lot of tremendous experience about religious violence. Indonesian Islam which is previously assumed as peaceful religion is suddenly changing to be frightening religion. The destruction in some places such as Bali Bombing, JW Marriot Bombing, and Sampang riot in some places Islam is the trigger of religious violence. This paper discusses the repetition of religious violence in Indonesia especially after New Order era. The writer argues that religious violence in Indonesia is as natural disaster, historical process in human evolution and as close experience that presenting and relating to human history. It may be caused by political condition and the response to economic injustice. In doing so, it is kind of social acceleration toward the process of change and also being a factor of the emergence of new agenda. This is because every disaster, including religious violence, requires an adjustment and a new formulation of the functions that have been damaged.
Full Text Available During 'cyclic' historical periods it would be correct to interpret religious processes in terms of interaction of two essentially different, but substantially, structurally and functionally comparative types of integrating cultural complexes that, in historical perspective, compete with each other on the effect on individuals and society in general. Such complexes represent secular and religious culture. Contemporary socio-cultural situation can be defined as an asymmetric representativeness of both secular and religious cultures. In a modern secular society, dominance of a secular culture over a religious one can be manifested in three basic dimensions: substantial, regulative and subjective ones. Secular culture is adopted during the primary socialization process. However, religious culture is still adopted through conscious, voluntary selection in younger or more mature age. It may be possible to determine two basic attitudes of the contemporary ('secularized' man towards religion. The first attitude may be called 'reversive' and the other one 'conversive'.
Pedro de Assis Ribeiro de Oliveira
Full Text Available Religion continues to attract people's attention in the current Brazilian society. Pluralism and religious transit seem to be present in today's market for symbolic values. Here live affection and disaffection to religious institutions. And specifically in the university environment, how religions are present? Mean something in their lives? This article analyzes the answers of 1446 undergraduate students of PUC-Minas to a questionnaire about their personal and academic life, with focus on the religious dimension of their life. The results are presented in two stages: an overview of religion among university students, and a comparative study of catholic and evangelical youth. Featured topics are: religious affiliation; cycle of religion in biography; education and religious participation; acquisition of knowledge; evaluation of beliefs, prescriptions and leaders; religious diversity and influence on personal and professional life. The analysis emphasyses the appreciation of religion even in secular environment of academia and points the trust in religious leaders as the main link between the students and the religious institution referred to their faith.
Blagojević Mirko V.
Full Text Available In the last decade and a half the process of desecularization has been undoubtedly verified in Serbia. Not only that the changes have been verified in the religious complex in general, but in traditional religious groups in particular as well. The revival of religiousness and people’s attachment to religion and church have been clearly proved in all aspects of religious life: in the areas of religious identification, doctrinaire religious beliefs and ritual religious practices. It should also be noted that in times of extremely turbulent political and social changes in the Balkans, all traditional religious complexes, orthodox, catholic and Muslim, began forming close ties with political and state, public and binding domains, which was absolutely unthinkable of a decade and a half ago. Which leads us to the crucial question: can religion make a contribution to the process of integration coming form the surrounding countries as the imperative of foreign powers on one hand, and as the striving of the majority of population in all the post socialist countries in the Balkans on the other hand, or will it only cause damage and interfere with the process of integration of those societies into the European commonwealth of nations? This article discusses different opinions that view the traditional complexes of religion, language and nation as disruptive factors of modernization of the Balkan countries, as well as completely opposite opinions based on the experiences of traditional Islamic societies in which religion is not a factor that hinders their rapid modernization.
Amy D Owen
Full Text Available Despite a growing interest in the ways spiritual beliefs and practices are reflected in brain activity, there have been relatively few studies using neuroimaging data to assess potential relationships between religious factors and structural neuroanatomy. This study examined prospective relationships between religious factors and hippocampal volume change using high-resolution MRI data of a sample of 268 older adults. Religious factors assessed included life-changing religious experiences, spiritual practices, and religious group membership. Hippocampal volumes were analyzed using the GRID program, which is based on a manual point-counting method and allows for semi-automated determination of region of interest volumes. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was observed for participants reporting a life-changing religious experience. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was also observed from baseline to final assessment among born-again Protestants, Catholics, and those with no religious affiliation, compared with Protestants not identifying as born-again. These associations were not explained by psychosocial or demographic factors, or baseline cerebral volume. Hippocampal volume has been linked to clinical outcomes, such as depression, dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease. The findings of this study indicate that hippocampal atrophy in late life may be uniquely influenced by certain types of religious factors.
Deeley, Peter Q
This paper is a critical review of anthropology and cognitive science that proposes social, cognitive, and neural mechanisms that convert culturally transmitted ideas into beliefs, discussed in relation to Geertz's classic definition of religion ('Religion as a cultural system', 1966). Literal and analogical uses of language, and a capacity for mentalizing thought, allow the creation of systems of symbols that vary between groups, contributing to the systematic group-level differences that we refer to as 'culture'. A combination of social referencing, mentalizing, and emotion perception enables enculturation to occur by attention to stable, repetitive conjunctions of meanings and emotions in the social environment, promoting the formation of cognitive-affective schemata. In addition to informal enculturation in routine social interaction, cultural systems such as religions organize and protect transmission of valued knowledge. Religious rituals are culturally invented symbolic displays that transmit conceptions of the world and imbue them with emotional and motivational significance. Two kinds of ritual are distinguished: high frequency, low arousal rituals belonging to a 'doctrinal' religious mode, and low frequency, high arousal rituals belonging to an 'imagistic' religious mode ( Whitehouse 2000 ). 'Doctrinal' rituals allow the extraction of semantic memories and associated emotions through repeated participation and exposure. 'Imagistic' rituals are particularly associated with intense emotion, episodic memory formation, and the formation of social ties. Religious rituals, especially imagistic rituals, employ two major strategies to convey conceptions of the world and invest them with a heightened sense of reality and emotion: (1) a 'sensory' route evokes salient thought and experience by orchestrating multiple reinforcing social-emotional signals and other stimuli, engaging attention, emotion, and arousal; (2) a 'semantic' route uses enigmatic verbal and non
Olga Odgers Ortiz
Full Text Available Mexicans migrating to the United Status confront a very different social space which forces them to re-elaborate multiple identity references, among which religious beliefs and practices stand out. A number of studies have shown that among those who migrate, some on occasion turn to practices of popular religiosity in order to create bridges and maintain links with their communities of origin, in other cases, the migratory experience favors the processes of religious conversion. The subject is reopened in this article in order to bring up a third expression of the impact of migration on religious conversion: the transformation of the idea of religious diversity among those who migrate and consequently, the modification of some attitudes of religious tolerance and intolerance.
Full Text Available The paper stresses how important it is to adapt subject content in formal school (primary school, primarily to meet the needs of social and cultural development. Effective primary school teaching contributes to cultural development by spreading and accepting a cultural model and by strengthening the national and cultural identity. Following the logic of new political reality and new landmarks of social development, the Serbian society is trying to find the answers to the following questions: first, how to use tradition in transition process and change the quality of relationship to tradition; second, how to bridge the gap between national culture, on the one hand, and universal cultural patterns, on the other? Religious education can greatly contribute to strengthening the national and cultural identity, owing to particular values it carries. The paper stresses the possibility of creating identity (national and cultural in the conditions characterized by the crisis of identity in the globalzing society.
Maria S. Petrushkevych
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the work is to determine the features of media culture that bind it with mass culture and mass communications and have the most significant effect on the general principles of the religious mass communication. In addition, the objective is to identify the skills system and traits of mass human that are necessary for using media culture. Methodology. The methodological basis is related to structuring, analytical analysis and synthesis of media features; highlighting phenomena that illustrate modern communicative situation; characteristics of media trends influence for the specific functioning of religious communication. Scientific novelty. Main part of the work is devoted to the analysis of the progressive media culture, mass-media and their main features, design of religious communication in this culture. Media gradually form the appearance of religious communication quietly, especially the mass one, they adapt the modern religious discourse to rates of transfer and perception of information. Modern believer gets a lot of different kinds of religious information, on any subject, any explanation of the religious question, with respect to any religion. Such volume of religious information and the speed with which a person receives it, does not usually make it religious or spiritually advanced, but only informed. Spiritual perfection and religious development, religious communication is possible only when the customer is aware of media culture and way of seeing the ultimate goal of such communications using the Mass Media. So far these mechanisms are perfectly designed in traditional religious communication. Phenomena, that reflects the dramatic changes in the communicative environment are: mediatization of body and mind, the new practice of processing / reading information, the phenomenon of simultaneous perception of a large number of information channels – similar or different. Features of media culture that connect it with
Full Text Available Objective: The connection between lower alcohol use and religiousness has been extensively examined. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed how religion and religiousness influence public policies. The present study seeks to understand the influence of religious beliefs on attitudes toward alcohol use. Methods: A door-to-door, nationwide, multistage population-based survey was carried out. Self-reported religiousness, religious attendance, and attitudes toward use of alcohol policies (such as approval of public health interventions, attitudes about drinking and driving, and attitudes toward other alcohol problems and their harmful effects were examined. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for confounders and to assess explanatory variables. Results: The sample was composed of 3,007 participants; 57.3% were female and mean age was 35.7 years. Religiousness was generally associated with more negative attitudes toward alcohol, such as limiting hours of sale (p < 0.01, not having alcohol available in corner shops (p < 0.01, prohibiting alcohol advertisements on TV (p < 0.01, raising the legal drinking age (p < 0.01, and raising taxes on alcohol (p < 0.05. Higher religious attendance was associated with less alcohol problems (OR: 0.61, 95%CI 0.40-0.91, p = 0.017, and self-reported religiousness was associated with less harmful effects of drinking (OR: 0.61, 95%CI 0.43-0.88, p = 0.009. Conclusions: Those with high levels of religiousness support more restrictive alcohol policies. These findings corroborate previous studies showing that religious people consume less alcohol and have fewer alcohol-related problems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. Results The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. METHOD: The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. DISCUSSION: The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness. Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.
Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the influence of religious thought on imaginative, semiotic cult decision space. This describes the process of creating the iconic space. The main part that creates it is the architect, philosophy of religion, physical ability construction. To create an iconic space, the architect should pass in the structure of the essence of religion, its thinking and ideas. Religious worldview through the canonical regulations creates a model of religious space in the form of schemes. It comes out of the world of ideas in the figurative world, has an effect for the purpose of transmitting information and teaching. All this does not affect the freedom of creativity of the architect, because the inside of the canons he is free to decide the design space of worship in accordance with his skills. The model space is specified by Canon gives the possibility of building both simple and complex design of buildings. The above situation demonstrates the dominant role and influence of religious ideology on the formation of religious architecture. It provides the ideological basis for the model space of worship, fixing them in the symbolism of forms and their mutual arrangement. Such findings are important for the theory of culture and architecture, because not only the architect and its shape can determine the life and importance of architecture, but also a worldview.
Full Text Available This paper considers the most important factors that have played a role in the emergence and development of UFO religiosity and UFO alternative religious movements, from occult, spiritualist and theosophical teachings, to alternative ideas and debates on the origin of mankind. By analyzing the basic theological premises, the paper discusses the basic religious and culturological paradigms to be found in UFO movements. It also shows how a major part of their corpus can be recognized in existing "traditional" religious groups, and suggests that UFO religions represent just another variation on the numerous concepts that offer answers to key existential questions.
Full Text Available Following a worldwide trend, the number of religious tourists to the province of Mardin, in Southeastern Turkey has increased continuously during the last decade. Using a combination of methods this study aimed to assess the impact of religious tourism development on the local community and economy. We found that the effect is mainly positive. The hotels have high occupancy rates throughout the year and many new hotels have been built during the last five years. Also most visitors eat in local restaurants at least once a day and patronize local shops and businesses. The development of religious tourism has also led to the creation of many new jobs.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to predict ambivalent sexism (including hostile sexism and benevolent sexism with religious orientation types as intrinsic religiosity, extrinsic religiosity and quest religiosity. In addition, the effect of demographic variables (including age, gender, education on sexist attitudes was tested. 583 (N_female= 318; N_male= 265 university students who study in different universities of Ankara/Turkey (M_age= 22.10; SD = 2.33 completed Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, and Religious Orientation Scale. Findings indicated significant gender differences on study variables and significant associations between ambivalent sexism and religious orientation types within university students sample in Turkey.
Beit-Hallahmi, B; Argyle, M
The evidence presented above points to the need for considering factors other than purely religious ones in determining the role of religious ideas in psychiatric disorders. The occurrence of religious ideas as part of the content of individual delusional systems in psychiatric patients can be explained on the basis of exposure to religious ideas through the social environment. It may be also related to the prominence of religion, vis-a-vis other belief systems, in the social envirnment. When considering psychopathological explanations for intense religious experiences, one has to be conscious again of the social factors involved. When an unusual experience having religious content becomes normative in a certain group (for whatever reasons), trying to explain its appearance on the basis of individual psychodynamics or psychopathology becomes very difficult. There seems to be an inverse relationship between the social nature of a religious experience and its psychopathological nature, i.e., there is more psychopathology in individuals reporting solitary religious experiences, or individual religious ideas. Thus the solitary experience seems to be more influenced by disturbed individual dynamics, but in other cases social factors seem to be crucial. Our overall conclusion is that a psychiatric analysis of the role of religious factors in psychopathology has to be first a social-psychiatric analysis. An individual presenting psychiatric symptoms and religious ideas has to be evaluated in light of his social background, since the specific content of psychiatric symptoms seems to be determined by social background factors. Individual psychodynamics determine the appearance of symptoms, but their particular form will be the result of these background factors, one of which is religion. PMID:863602
C.A. Rietveld (Niels); E. van Burg (Elco)
textabstractReligious beliefs affect the economic behavior of individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence the pursuit
Gerdes, Ida Marie; Geertz, Armin W
Selvom religiøs omvendelse har været gennemanalyseret inden for psykologien og sociologien er det vor opfattelse at den seneste neurovidenskabelige forskning kan kaste nyt lys på emnet. Det er vor påstand at omvendelse drejer sig om religiøse identitetsdannelsesprocesser, hvor der er tale om gru...
de Bruin, Boudewijn
Swinburne’s The Existence of God purports to provide evidence that God very probably exists. While most of the evidence considered is publicly available, Swinburne’s Argument from Religious Experience considers private evidence gained from private religious experiences. Philipse, in God in the Age o
Frye, Steven B.
Looking back on the use of distance education tools by religious groups, one word that stands out is change. The old adage "We've never done it that way before" will become less valid as religious bodies find themselves in the midst of a world inundated with online possibilities that call them to question how they interact with members and…
Barnes, L. Philip; Felderhof, Marius
In 2012 a Review of RE in England was initiated by the Religious Education Council of England and Wales, in response to a perceived sense of crisis among the religious education (RE) community. Its recommendations, which include a new National Curriculum Framework for RE, were published in October, 2013. The fact that the proposed National…
Charles C. Haynes
Full Text Available From the colonial era to the present, religions and religious beliefs have played a significant role in the political life of the United States. Religion has been at the heart of some of the best and some of the worst movements in American history. The guiding principles that the framers intended to govern the relationship between religion and politics are set forth in Article VI of the Constitution and in the opening sixteen words of the First Amendment.
Lisete S. Mendes Mónico
Full Text Available This article aims to contribute with a reflection about religious pluralism and religious freedom into Lusophony. Reviving pieces of history since the 15th century to the current post-colonial Portuguese society, Lusophony is analyzed in two complementary perspectives: That of the colonizing people and that of the colonized nations. Evangelization, colonization and Lusophony are, and always will be, inseparable. In addition to linguistic uniformity, Lusophony gave its distinctiveness in acculturation, miscegenation, plasticity, and Christianization policy. Using the census data in the 90’s, 2000’s, and 2010’s, with a documentary approach, it is established a general overview of religious affiliation in Lusophony. Moving from a faith of obligation to a faith of conviction, Lusophony is nowadays characterized by a pluralist position in religious matters. The current situation of religious freedom is analyzed from the AIS report and the GRI (Government restriction index and SHI (social hostilities involving religion indexes. From multiculturalism to acculturation, the plasticity, eclecticism, and religious syncretism acted as moderators towards the imposition of a new belief. The article ends by appealing to the inclusion of religious freedom in the political agenda, in order to defend human rights and peace in the world.
Vaughn A. Booker
Full Text Available The archives of African American jazz musicians demonstrate rich sites for studying expressions of religious belief and daily religious practice in public and private arenas, in professional and personal capacities. Highlighting print material from the archives of Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (1899–1974 and Mary Lou Williams (1910–1981, this article examines the ways that these musicians worked to articulate their beliefs in print and to make meaning of their routine practices. Ellington and Williams produced written records of their aspirations for non-clerical religious authority and leadership, novel notions of religious community, and conceptions of quotidian writing tasks as practices with devotional value in the middle decades of the twentieth century. In preparation for his Sacred Concert tours of American and Western European religious congregations, Ellington theologized about the nature of God and the proper language to address God through private hotel stationery. Following her conversion to Roman Catholicism, Williams managed a Harlem thrift shop and worked to create the Bel Canto Foundation for musicians struggling with substance abuse and unemployment. This study of the religious subjectivity of African Americans with status as race representatives employs archival historical methods in the effort to vividly approximate complex religious interiority.
Full Text Available Trata-se de revisitar o complexo fenômeno da religião, à luz das articulações e diferenciações entre teologia, filosofia da religião e ciência da religião, particularmente no contexto sociocultural da modernidade e suas categorias iluministas de racionalidade, liberdade e ciência, em grandes pensadores tais como Max Weber e Ernst Troeltsch
Buchardt, Mette; Osbeck, Christina
to the conference subtheme: Borders between research methods General subject didactics in the Nordic countries has developed in relation to teacher education and the need to bring questions about teaching and learning closer to specific subject-content areas. The discussions started at slightly different times...... to the subject didactics of RE in different national contexts in the Nordic sphere.Aim and main questions:The aim of this symposium is to examine different conditions for knowledge re/production concerning Religious Education in the Nordic countries and discuss how disciplines work as frames for ongoing...... or philosophy of education? What does it mean for the discussion of quality in the field and the direction of the development that the research area is that varied? And how does that affect the applied didactics of religion? Osbeck, C., & Lied, S. 2012. RE research in Hamar and Karlstad in a subject didactical...
Full Text Available Background: People who are religiously unaffiliated (including self-identifying atheists and agnostics, as well as those who say their religion is "nothing in particular" made up 16.4Š of the world's population in 2010. Unaffiliated populations have been growing in North America and Europe, leading some to expect that this group will grow as a share of the world's population. However, such forecasts overlook the impact of demographic factors, such as fertility and the large, aging unaffiliated population in Asia. Objective: We project the future size of religiously affiliated and unaffiliated populations around the world. Methods: We use multistate cohort-component methods to project the size of religiously affiliated and unaffiliated populations. Projection inputs such as religious composition, differential fertility, and age structure data, as well as religious switching patterns, are based on the best available census and survey data for each country. This research is based on an analysis of more than 2,500 data sources. Results: Taking demographic factors into account, we project that the unaffiliated will make up 13.2Š of the world's population in 2050. The median age of religiously affiliated women is six years younger than unaffiliated women. The 2010-15 Total Fertility Rate for those with a religious affiliation is 2.59 children per woman, nearly a full child higher than the rate for the unaffiliated (1.65 children per woman. Conclusions: The religiously unaffiliated are projected to decline as a share of the world's population in the decades ahead because their net growth through religious switching will be more than offset by higher childbearing among the younger affiliated population.
Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make
Blagojević Mirko 1
Full Text Available In this article I have dealt with empirical proofs for the Russian religious renaissance which came after the fall of the Soviet socialistic empire and carried on all through the nineties as a pro-religious (pro-orthodox consensus and a religious belief. Likewise, I have dealt with proofs suggesting certain limitations of the renaissance in question which manifested mainly in irregular fulfillment of religious duties.
Full Text Available Quest, or a journey-oriented approach to religion, is one dimension of religiosity that has been consistently related to positive outgroup attitudes. The present research assessed the extent to which individual differences in quest religiosity moderated the effects of a religiosity prime on attitudes toward an outgroup religion. Christian identifying participants (N = 55 completed a scale measure of quest religiosity. They then read a vignette that primed quest religiosity or religious fundamentalism. Attitudes toward Muslims and Jews were assessed with evaluation thermometers. Quest religiosity interacted with the prime such that those high in quest appeared to react against the fundamentalism prime by expressing particularly positive outgroup attitudes. Trait quest religiosity appears to buffer against situational factors that are typically associated with negative outgroup attitudes. In addition, implications for research on intergroup relations of religious groups are discussed.
Full Text Available After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks sought to establish a new atheistic order which would eradicate from the public consciousness all vestiges of "religious prejudices", which were regarded as a residue from the imperial era and an instrument used to exploit the masses. Even though it was generally held that religion would automatically disappear from socialist society when its material precondition, the class society, was abolished, the regime made concentrated efforts to speed up the process by means of virulent anti-religious propaganda. The ultimate goal was to wipe out the persistent remains of the bourgeois system of values. No force was to be used since it was feared this would merely offend the religious sentiments of the people and strengthen their adherence to religion. Theoretically, the ultimate goal was to be achieved through education and information, but in practice, anti-religious activities were at times quite brutal. These attacks were successful in curtailing the activities of religious institutions in Karelia, but did not bring to an end the religious practices of lay people, which were continued, in one form or another, throughout the entire Soviet period. One fundamental reason for the survival of religious rituals, both Christian and indigenous, was the fact that they were so deeply embedded in people's consciousness and intimately integrated with their everyday lives. Every important phase and turn in human life was sanctified by rituals. The goal of the present paper is to examine what forms anti-religious attacks took in Soviet Karelia and how people reacted to them. The focus is on the attacks against the very fundaments of the ritual complex of the church and, by extension, on the effects of these attacks on the indigenous ritual complex, which co-existed in parallel with that of the "official" religious institutions.
Trybula, Walter J.
Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…
Full Text Available Introduction Religious identity is a prominent element of social cohesion. Religious identity involves a level of social identity that corresponds with "we" or religious community, and represents a sense of belonging and commitment to the religion and religious community. Religion essentially provides cognitive, ideological, sociological and spiritual resource for identity (Furrow et al 2004. Accordingly, religion locates mainly on the center of individual and group identity (Seul 1999. Religious communities and systems of meaning, are the resources for sense of interest (belonging to another and approval (as a basis of self-esteem, and in fact, encourage individual excellence and actuality. Religious groups are also considered an important factor in social relations and are responsible for vitality, happiness and general enthusiasm of their followers (Hajiani 2000. Certainly, religious identity is a certain kind of identity formation. It is defined by a sense of group membership to religion and its importance regard to the self-concept. Religious identity is not necessarily equated with religiousness and religiosity . Although these concepts have some overlaps, religiousness and religiosity point to the significance and value of belonging to religious groups and participating in religious events, but religious identity particularly indicates membership in a religious group without participation in religious activities (Arweck and Nesbitt 2010. Also, although religion is faith-based institution and religiosity is practice to its rituals, but religious identity refers to how people understand themselves as religious persons, who accept spiritual and religious values and beliefs within faith community. Therefore, religious identity is a collective identity, which includes membership in religious groups, acceptance of belief system, commitment to religious groups and values, and practices ally with religion. Although there is substantial
Uecker, Jeremy E.; Ellison, Christopher G.
Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one’s custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family—but not a stepparent family—is positively associa...
Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.
This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…
Laura, Ronald S.
This article argues against the sharp distinction between objective science and subjective religion; denies the epistemic differences between religion and science; and demonstrates that the differences are not as great as the opponents of religious education sometimes suppose. (JMF)
Márcio Antônio de Paiva
Full Text Available Este artigo visa abordar a passagem da veritas para a caritas, como possibilidade privilegiada da espiritualidade após a religião. No horizonte da filosofia da religião, o artigo discute os problemas de tal perspectiva e aponta sua contribuição para ler o fenômeno da espiritualidade dos sem religião. Tal objetivo será direcionado para o retorno da religião segundo o senso cultural comum, de um lado; e de outro, para a queda das razões filosóficas do ateísmo. Percorrendo as obras consideradas fundamentais, o texto se desenvolve a partir do horizonte maior do pensiero debole, mostrando a perspectiva hermenêutica da verdade – a verdade como abertura – até desembocar na concepção de caritas, como viés possível da experiência religiosa, após a morte de Deus e o fim da metafísica. Vattimo vê na passagem da veritas à caritas o itinerário do pensamento contemporâneo, definindo o cristianismo como ato de amor antes que revelação de verdades.
Johan Fourie; Jaume Roselló; Maria Santana-gallego
Religious beliefs influence many aspects of peoples’ daily lives, so it is plausible to argue that religion affects some of humanity’s most central endeavors, such as trade, migration, foreign investment and tourism. This paper investigates the role a country’s religious affiliation plays in destination choice for international tourism. To that end, a gravity model for international tourist arrivals is estimated by using a dataset of 164 countries for the period 1995-2010. Results provide evi...
Leonna Marrien U. Asi; Cassandra Joy B. Moneda; Mechelle D. Lumbera; Precious M. Lacorte; Romer C. Castillo; Chideth Liah S. Blanco
This study assessed religious tourism in Batangas, Philippines on the following aspects: historical significance, holiness and spirituality, and customs and traditions. The assessments made were also subjected to tests of differences when the respondents are grouped as to either residents or tourists and according to their age, sex, educational attainment and employment. Results show that both tourists and residents generally concurred on all religious tourism indicators presented to them for...
Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge......Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge...
Full Text Available Since the beginning of the Reform Era in 1979, there has been a rapid growth and development of religious belief and practice in China. A substantial new scholarly literature has been generated in the attempt to document and understand this. This essay identifies the most important contributions to that literature and discusses areas of agreement and controversy across the literature. Along with new data, new paradigms have developed to frame research on Chinese religions. The paradigm derived from C. K. Yang’s classic work in the 1960s came from structural functionalism, which served to unite research in the humanities and social sciences. However, structural functionalism has been abandoned by the new generation of scholars. In the humanities, the most popular paradigm derives from Michel Foucault, but there are also scholars who use neo-Durkheimian and neo-Weberian paradigms. In the social sciences, the dominant paradigms tend to focus on state-society relations. None of these paradigms fully captures the complexity of the transformations happening in China. We recommend greater dialogue between the humanities and social sciences in search of more adequate theoretical frameworks for understanding Chinese religions today.
Full Text Available In this study whether the robust finding regarding the superiority of women on men in terms of religiosity reported in studies done in Christian tradition is valid for Muslim society or not was researched. The data obtained from 11 different studies conducted mostly with university samples were studied. Religiosity was tracked in three main variables: Absolute Religiosity (or faith/worldview, Religious Tension (or tension in faith/worldview, and Religious Openness (or openness in faith/worldview. In terms of Absolute Faith, whilst nearly half of the studies were found statistically non significant, the other half confirmed that women are more religious than man as it was reported in Christian tradition. In addition, women were found to be experiencing more tension and uncertainty on their religion (but not on faith/worldview and are more tolerant and open to the faith or religion of those who do not belong to their own. However, men tend to be experiencing more transformation, tension and uncertainty concerning their faith/or wordview. The results indicate, with less certainty, that men are interested in cognitive and wholistic aspect of their religion or faith whilst women are more interested in emotional and relational dimensions of their faith.
Full Text Available The paper describes results of a social psychological study on religious identity in Buddhist schoolchil- dren. The study involved 184 students of 9—10 classes of a school in the Aginskoye settlement (Aginsky Buryatsky Okrug, Zabaykalsky Krai. According to G. Allport’s concept and R. Gorsuch & S. McPherson measurements, religious identity is considered not only as practicing Buddhism, but as a complex social psychological formation with a four-factor structure base on the following scales: personal/social and in- trinsic/extrinsic. Different components of religious identity are explored in the context of their relation- ship with value orientations (as described by S. Schwartz and G. Hofstede. The following techniques were employed: the adapted version of D. Van Camp’s Individual/Social Religious Identity Measure, Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-R2, and Hofstede’s Values Survey Module. As it was revealed, al- most all values related to various components of religious identity of the Buddhist adolescents refer to the social focus. The paper concludes that religious identity in modern Buddhist young people has a distinctive social character.
Full Text Available This article throws the study of multireligious sociality in Western contexts into sharp relief by examining the case of India. Much of the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism and multiculturalism tends to assume that religious beliefs, practices and spaces make the respective religious communities close entirely in upon themselves. While this assumption may hold true for most of the Western settings we study, it does not necessarily give an accurate description of the conditions for multireligious sociality in other parts of the world. In India, for instance, religious boundaries still display signs of malleability despite the religious politicization and occasional interreligious violence of the past decades. Drawing on recent anthropological research, this article shows that people of different religious denominations still visit Sufi shrines, that Hindus still incorporate ritual elements and divine beings from the religious traditions of their Others and that they exercise a wide personal choice in terms of spiritual activities, thus enabling spiritual paths that cross in and out of Hinduism. In a Hindu context rituals do not necessarily have an insulating effect; they may also provide points of intersection that open up toward the Other, thus fostering familiarity and recognition. Similar arguments have been made for Buddhist settings. The question is thus whether the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism may entail a certain monotheistic bias that needs to accounted for, something that is of particular importance when theorizing in ways that make universal claims.
Dorte Toudal Viftrup
Full Text Available We systematically reviewed the research literature on spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy to answer the following three questions: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessment tools were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. In total, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between religiousness and mental health within the mediational perspective of religious coping. The existing empirical evidence indicates that specific aspects of religiousness are associated with mental health indices. Yet, less is known about the nature of these associations and mediating mechanisms between both factors. The theory of religious coping as a mediator was employed so as to explain how religiousness is linked with mental health and what mechanisms shape the associations. The results demonstrated that religious coping can be regarded as a me - diator between religiousness and mental health dimensions. Religious coping is expressed in two main forms: positive and negative that are linked to positive and negative mental health outcomes, respectively. People draw on these two religious coping methods in times of major life crises in order to make sense of trauma and loss, and to alleviate stress. The theoretical analyses showed that when religiousness contains structures of orientation and meaning, it enables individuals to attain positive functioning and wellbeing that reflects mental health.
Full Text Available To advance understandings of how religion manifests in subtle, nuanced ways in secular institutions, we examine student religiosity and spirituality at an elite liberal arts school marked by a strong intellectual collective identity. Using mixed research methods, we examine how the college’s structures and dominant culture influence students’ religiosity and spirituality. Despite an institutional commitment to promoting students’ self-exploration and inclusion of social “diversity,” we found both campus structures and mainstream culture deterred open spiritual and religious exploration and identification. The structure of the college and its dominant secular, intellectual culture reinforced: (1 a widespread stigma against religious and spiritual expression, (2 a lack of dialogue about the sacred, (3 discreetness in exploring and adhering to sacred beliefs and practices, and (4 a large degree of religious and spiritual pluralism. Our findings additionally illustrate that early exposure to the campus culture’s critical regard for religion had a long-lasting impact on students’ religiosity. A majority of students kept their religious and spiritual expressions hidden and private; only a marginalized minority of students embraced their expressions publically. To increase students’ comfort with religious and spiritual exploration, we propose that colleges foster intentional peer dialogues early in the college experience. Furthermore, we recommend that campus communities prioritize religious and spiritual literacy and respect.
Full Text Available This comparative case study links together the scholarly discourses on religiously-motivated world-rejecting and religious activism. It provides empirical evidence for differentiation between four ideal-typed patterns of religious activism as they relate to different trajectories and spheres of religious world-denying in strongly religious movements: Pattern I (world conquerors targets inner-worldly sphere of activism in the particular state, using the full scope of political tools to promote its religiously-fueled political agenda. Pattern II (world transformers creatively combines inner-worldly and other-worldly spheres of activism, applying political strategies in the most advantageous political situations and primarily focusing on strategic missionary activism in “the world.” Pattern III (world creators utilizes different forms of civic engagement to re-create “the righteous world” on the congregational level, but also participates in missionary activities. Finally, pattern IV (world renouncers renounces any inner-worldly forms of political or civic engagement as “sinful activity.”
Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Krueger, Frank; Thornburg, Matthew P; Grafman, Jordan Henry
We previously demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that religious belief depends upon three cognitive dimensions, which can be mapped to specific brain regions. In the present study, we considered these co-activated regions as nodes of three networks each one corresponding to a particular dimension, corresponding to each dimension and examined the causal flow within and between these networks to address two important hypotheses that remained untested in our previous work. First, we hypothesized that regions involved in theory of mind (ToM) are located upstream the causal flow and drive non-ToM regions, in line with theories attributing religion to the evolution of ToM. Second, we hypothesized that differences in directional connectivity are associated with differences in religiosity. To test these hypotheses, we performed a multivariate Granger causality-based directional connectivity analysis of fMRI data to demonstrate the causal flow within religious belief-related networks. Our results supported both hypotheses. Religious subjects preferentially activated a pathway from inferolateral to dorsomedial frontal cortex to monitor the intent and involvement of supernatural agents (SAs; intent-related ToM). Perception of SAs engaged pathways involved in fear regulation and affective ToM. Religious beliefs are founded both on propositional statements for doctrine, but also on episodic memory and imagery. Beliefs based on doctrine engaged a pathway from Broca's to Wernicke's language areas. Beliefs related to everyday life experiences engaged pathways involved in imagery. Beliefs implying less involved SAs and evoking imagery activated a pathway from right lateral temporal to occipital regions. This pathway was more active in non-religious compared to religious subjects, suggesting greater difficulty and procedural demands for imagining and processing the intent of SAs. Insights gained by Granger connectivity analysis inform us about the causal
This study aims to understand the religious elite view of pluralism and religious harmony in Malang. The study was focused on the meaning of pluralism and religious harmony, efforts and things that support and hinder the realization of religious harmony. Empirical research data with qualitative-phenomenological approach was collected through interviews and documentation. The results show: first, the meaning of religious pluralism for the religious elites is very varied, which is the same a...
Candi K. Cann
Full Text Available Mothers and Spirits examines the intersection of women, alcohol, and death through a comparative analysis. Offering a brief history of the study of drinking, followed by a short analysis of drinking in European and Chinese cultures, Cann examines two religious texts central to the roles of women and alcohol in Chinese religious thought and Christianity. Finally, Cann utilizes the historical and textual background to contextualize her ethnographic study of women, alcohol, and death in Mexican Catholicism, Chinese religions, and American Southern Baptist Christianity. Cann argues that both alcohol and temperance are used as a way to forge, cement, and create gender identity, constructing alternate discourses of power and inclusivity.
Full Text Available This analysis of Chinese and Japanese American young adults, based on the Pew Research Center 2012 Asian American Survey, examines the religious nones of these ethnic groups. Rather than focusing on their beliefs and belonging to religious denominations, it highlights their spiritual practices and ethical relations using an Asian-centric liyi (ritual and righteousness discourse. Despite being religious nones, these groups have high rates of ancestor veneration and participation in ethnic religious festivals, as well as strong familial and reciprocal obligations. These findings indicate that, similar to other American Millennials, these groups may be better understood by how they do religion than in what they believe.
While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.
Saad, Marcelo; de Medeiros, Roberta
A contemporary orientation of the hospital experience model must encompass the clients' religious-spiritual dimension. The objective of this paper is to share a previous experience, highlighting at least five reasons hospitals should invest in this direction, and an equal number of steps required to achieve it. In the first part, the text discourses about five reasons to invest in religious-spiritual support programs: 1. Religious-spiritual wellbeing is related to better health; 2. Religious-spiritual appreciation is a standard for hospital accreditation; 3. To undo religious-spiritual misunderstandings that can affect treatment; 4. Patients demand a religious-spiritual outlook from the institution; and 5. Costs may be reduced with religious-spiritual support. In the second part, the text suggests five steps to implement religious-spiritual support programs: 1. Deep institutional involvement; 2. Formal staff training; 3. Infrastructure and resources; 4. Adjustment of institutional politics; and 5. Agreement with religious-spiritual leaders. The authors hope the information compiled here can inspire hospitals to adopt actions toward optimization of the healing experience. PMID:27550215
Artiklen argumenterer for at mange opfattelser af religiøsitet reducerer fænomenet til en slags moralitet. Med Wittgensteins filosofi som modeksempel, og i lyset af en modstilling mellem Hegel og Kierkegaards opfattelse af religiøsitet, betones religiøsitetens radikale karakter.......Artiklen argumenterer for at mange opfattelser af religiøsitet reducerer fænomenet til en slags moralitet. Med Wittgensteins filosofi som modeksempel, og i lyset af en modstilling mellem Hegel og Kierkegaards opfattelse af religiøsitet, betones religiøsitetens radikale karakter....
Full Text Available The present article will provide insight on music as a vector of religious belonging: a female choir at a mosque in the Lake Geneva Metropolitan Region has reinterpreted Beethoven’s Ode to Joy with new text about the glory of the Messenger, and a regional political and religious event which has united music from Syria, Kosovo and Tunisia in order to put on stage the cosmopolitan characteristics of Swiss Muslims. Religious and national belonging as well as cultural references can be expressed in different ways through ritual practices (prayer, celebrations, food or clothing. These practices, influenced by gender and age, are highly diverse. Celebrations that are performed in public also depend on the local and global political context, the specific social situation and the specific place (location, public, legal framework etc.. As part of a broader research project on “(Invisible Islam in the city,” a research team directed by Monika Salzbrunn has observed various forms of celebration – both religious and secular festive events – in which Muslim citizens are involved. At what audience are these musical performances directed? Can we really separate an analysis of religious belongings from an analysis of political and/or cultural performances?
Full Text Available Development of religious art, namely – religious painting, its specifics, in Russia of the end XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries, caused by system changes in the Russian society, on the example of painters – V. M. Vasnetsov, M. V. Nesterov, M. A. Vrubel is analyzed in article.
Adriene dos Anjos Noronha
Full Text Available Resenha do livroWEBER, Max. Ética econômica das religiões mundiais: ensaios comparados de sociologia da religião. V. 1: Confucionismo e Taoísmo. Petrópolis: Vozes, 2016. 410p.
Full Text Available Inter-religious action has played a key role in ensuring that social cohesion and inter-religious mediation remain on the international agenda in relation to response in the Central African Republic, where people’s faith is an integral part of their identity but where it has been manipulated in a horrific way.
Full Text Available The author continues his study of the functions of religion. The ﬁrst section is devoted to a description of the various approaches to a functional analysis of religion suggested by members of the Bielefeld School of Sociology (Franz-Xaver Kaufmann, Hans Küng, Niklas Luhmann, by Thomas O’Dea, as well as by Russian experts: Yablokov, Tokarev, and Kagarov. In this context, the author studies the question regarding the functionality speciﬁc to religion, particularly in relation to magic. The author suggests that the post-modern paradigm allows him to deﬁne and describe a new and speciﬁc function of religion: that of culpabilisation. In order to explain and better deﬁne this function (that of sensing or placing guilt, the author turns to a study of the origins of the feelings of guilt and the way guilt is deﬁned by semantics and metaphysics. Guilt feelings are described in the works of some of the foremost experts in the ﬁ eld of twentieth century philosophy and theology: René Girard (anthropologist, Gilles Deleuse and Paul Ricoeur (philosophers, Karl Rahner (theologian and Julia Kristeva (semiotician, together with concepts drawn from Freud (psycho-analytics and Pitirim Sorokin (sociology. All these are representative of the post-modern paradigm and worked in the ﬁelds of classical or non-classical paradigms. The author concludes that religious culpabilisation precedes the institution of organized religion and the setting apart of a priesthood or professional clergy. Its development is set along the following logical chain of the development of phenomena: Soteriology — Eschatology — Hamartology — Theodicy — Culpabilisation.
Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)
Full Text Available The intellectual landscape of Europe bears the marks of a long history of cultural perceptions of, and scientific approaches to, religions. The sciences of religions had to establish their autonomy from churches and theologies. However, the cultural context and the institutional set-up of ‘laïcité’ did not foster the development of comparative religion, much less comparative theology. However, this situation may have an advantage: it should discourage the exercise of comparative theology as a sectarian endeavour apart from broader anthropological perspectives and concerns. Comparative theology should not become the last refuge for religious nostalgia. In Europe, interreligious relationships (and hence comparative theologies should not be isolated from simple or more sophisticated forms of indifference, agnosticism, or atheism. The active presence of a non-religious environment as well as the growing interest in Buddhism, are challenges to comparative theology: its contents, its approach, its intended audience.
Full Text Available This research focused on the congregation of the Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah in Piji, Dawe, Kudus, particularly on how they make any effort to make their potentials of religious observance can maximally grow. In order to find out their efforts, the writer applied participatory observation and was involved in their daily lives. The data were then organized in certain way according to the theme previously deter- mined. In order to achieve the maximum of religious observance which they call as wuṣūl dan wilāyah, the congregation of Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah use a series of rituals namely baiat (allegiance, zikir (remembrance, khataman ratib (complet- ing ratib, muraqabah, khalwat (seclusion, fida’, manaqib, and performing pilgrim- age to the grave of wali (muslim saints.
In Religious Vocational High School Which is one of the most controversial institutions of our recent history music education and the course teachers importance and value are not required. Students who can not take adequate education on religious music for various reasons. Students immediately often after leaving scholar appointed the imam, müezzin and teacher of the Kuran and they are often forced in religious assistant on performance of religious music. There are some important reasons for ...
..., on the basis of religion or religious belief. (f) If a State or local government voluntarily..., practice and expression of its religious beliefs, provided that it does not use direct financial...
Freda van der Walt
Full Text Available Although perceived religious discrimination has been studied in the past, much remains unknown about the topic. The focus of this study was the Rastafari religion, because this religious group has up to now been excluded from research studies. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with a sample of 80 employees belonging to the Rastafari religion, chosen from organisations in two provinces in South Africa. The findings emanating from the quantitative research study indicated that, on average, the respondents perceived to be discriminated against. Furthermore, a positive relationship was established between perceived religious discrimination and work engagement. These findings advanced the understanding of perceived religious discrimination, and the impact that it may have on work engagement, particularly with reference to the Rastafari religion.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article contributes to the interdisciplinary discourse regarding perceived religious discrimination, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion which is a minority religious group in South Africa. Perceived religious discrimination is discussed and investigated in the context of the workplace, and the aim was to establish whether perceived religious discrimination influences work-related attitudes, such as work engagement. Because previous studies have associated perceived discrimination with less job involvement and career satisfaction, fewer career prospects, greater work conflict, lower feelings of power, decreased job prestige, and less organisational citizenship behaviour (Thomas 2008:80, it was expected that perceived religious discrimination would have a negative influence on work engagement. The findings show that religion possibly provides individuals with the necessary personal resources to persevere when faced with religious discrimination, and sustain performance as well as attain success within the context of the
Daniel H. Olsen
Full Text Available Academic studies on tourism market segmentation have decreased in scale over time, with the focus on tourist segmentation changing from segmenting the market as a whole to segmenting specific tourism niche markets. This change in scale can also be seen in how academics have attempted to segment the religious tourism market moving from discussions related to the pilgrim-tourist dichotomy to segmenting visitors based on religious affiliation to world regions and countries to specific religious activities such as religious festivals and infrastructural amenities such as hotels. In this paper the author, following Wall’s (1997 discussion of the spatial characteristics of tourist attractions (i.e., points, lines, and areas, raises the question as to whether there is a scalar difference in the motivations and the ‘expectation of experience’ of: people who travel to specific religious sites (points; those who travel along religiously - themed routes (lines and; those who travel to the Holy Land (area. To answer this question the author looks at and compares three case studies - Cathedrals in the United Kingdom (point, the Camino de Santiago de Compostela (line, and the Holy Land (area - and summarizes the academic literature pertaining to the characteristics, motivations and expectations of experience of visitors to these locations. Cursory findings show that there are differences regarding the motivations and the ‘expectation of experience’ of people who travel to religious points versus religious lines and religious areas.
Gregg, Heather S.
Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motiv...
de Kock, A.
This article questions the implications of tribal forms of religious socialization for (religious) schools' and communities' contributions to the religious formation of Christian youth. It clarifies that the religious education of a new generation of young Christians requires authorities and communities to connect in a worldwide pedagogical space…
Nietzsche accused Socrates of being degenerate. The question is posed whether practitioners of contemporary religious education may be suffering from this condition, in particular through the modern practice of associating religion with secular philosophies or "beliefs". Through the examination of tolerance and "respect for all" in the…
Barash, David P.
In this article, the author discusses the tensions between science and religion. According to recent books--many of them by prominent biologists--the era of deference to religious belief--belief without evidence--is ending as faith is subjected to gimlet-eyed scrutiny. Like Mark Twain's celebrated comment about stopping smoking, scholars have…
Rayburn, Carole A.; And Others
This study examined stress, strain, and coping mechanisms in women religious leaders. Subjects were nuns (N=51), Reform women rabbis (N=45), Episcopal women priests (N=32), United Methodist clergywomen (N=45) and Presbyterian clergywomen (N=45), matched for age and years on the job and pulpit assignments. All subjects were given the Osipow and…
Rietveld, C.A.; Burg, van J.C.
Religious beliefs are known to correlate with a wide range of socio-economic behaviors. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence
Grimm, Donald W.
Examines nature of therapist spiritual and religious values and impact of these values on psychotherapy practice. Suggests that integration of therapist spiritual and religious values with therapist epistemic values to accommodate spiritual and religious needs of both client and counselor should be goal of effective treatment. Includes 28…
As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…
Jorgensen, Estelle R.
This essay examines Alfred North Whitehead's claim that education should be construed as religious, and by extension, that music education should be religious. The analysis of questions relating to Whitehead's understanding of the notion of "religious," the defensibility of his claim, and its implications for notions of spirituality and music…
Full Text Available The significance of religious rituals often reaches beyond their strict religious intentions. Specifically a procession, performed in front of the public, is a most effective instrument of disseminating a message to the crowds. Consequently, this ritual, as is well known, has often been used not only in religious but also in secular contexts; a procession under the cloak of religion can even become a politically useful medium to avoid popular disturbances on peaceful terms. This was the case in ancient Ephesus, where Roman power conflicted with Greek culture from the middle of the first century B.C. onwards. In the beginning of the second century A.D. the public religious life in the city of Ephesus was to a great extent characterized by processions relating to the cult of Artemis Ephesia. The one traditionally performed on the birthday of the goddess called to mind the Greek origin of the city; it was strictly associated with the religious sphere bringing about a close relationship between the goddess and her adherents. The other, artificially created by a Roman, was entirely secular, and spread its message every fortnight in the streets of Ephesus. It referred to the political field of action and intended to strengthen the Roman rule over the city. The Greek origin of Ephesian culture was later included in the message of the procession, reminding the Greeks not to rebel against Roman rule.
Maxim Nikolaevich Artyuhov
Full Text Available Religious studies specialists do not have consensus on the terminology of new religious movements (NRM, because this term covers a wide range of movements - from those based on new approaches to religion to community organizations. Some researchers have an idea of NRM as sects that use illegal methods to attract new members. Besides, objective study of the term "sect" is impeded by its negative perception on everyday level and in a number of publications. In this article the author, analyzing the features of "sects", shows partiality of the use of the term with regard to all the NRMs, as it does not reflect their quality characteristics. The lack of the terminological apparatus has caused the situation when all people interpret these concepts at their own discretion, based on their own ideological positions. However, what is considered as a sect from religious point of view does not always lead to destabilization of secular public life, as many nontraditional religious groups make a significant contribution to the moral condition of modern society. Therefore, studying the non-traditional faiths, the author suggests to use neutral terms: "non-traditional religions" or "new religious organizations".
Ali Reza Rajaei
Full Text Available "nFrom the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role ,and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health ; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies . Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific ,comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested . Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis , depression , and anxiety ; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well . Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area.
Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious
Full Text Available The following article analyzes the 3 chief threats facing religious liberty today in Europe, namely: (1 hate speech legislation; (2 anti-discrimination laws; (3 attacks on parental rights. Concrete examples are given of offenses to religious freedom. Additionally, the black letter law is set out in each section with suggested action points for national governments. The Article also discusses the Lautsi v. Italy judgment of the European Court of Human Rights, explaining its importance and using it as evidence to establish the political nature of the Strasbourg based court.
Cohen-Malayev, Maya; Schachter, Elli P; Rich, Yisrael
This study investigated the effects of religious education on student religious identity over and above parent religiosity by examining student perceptions of two aspects of teacher functioning: teacher caring and teacher as role-model. We posited that effects of these variables on students' religious identity are mediated by student perceptions that the school provides a non-alienating religious atmosphere and meaningful religious studies. Participants were 2691 male and female students (grades 9-12) in 152 classes of 25 schools from the Jewish public-religious sector in Israel. Results indicate that in addition to their parents' religiosity, adolescents' perceptions of their teachers as role models and their religious studies as meaningful are important variables affecting their religious identity. Moreover, this research suggests that religious identity formation processes flourish in an educational environment which students perceive as accommodating religious exploration.
Full Text Available This paper tackles the issue of women and religion through a particular looking glass: religious utterances such as curses, supplication, and prayer, as reflected in some passages from ancient Greek epic and tragedy—pivotal literary genres in the ideological discourse of the Greek polis.
Zverev V. P.
Full Text Available The article examines the lyrical beginning of P. P. Yershov's poetry and his religious feelings. The whole of his world outlook and creativity gives particular harmony to poetical works and allows the author to embrace the world in all its diverse divine beauty.
Stephen E. Lile
Full Text Available This paper examines the changing market shares of major Texas religious groups during this century. Market shares are computed by dividing membership by Texas population. Results show that certain religious groups (firms have performed much better in terms of market share than others. The better performers are the more conservative Protestant denominations along with the Roman Catholic Church. Groups losing market share tendto be the more liberal Protestant denominations. This finding would appear to be consistent with Niebuhr’s church-sect theory which, among other things, predicts that religious groups (sects characterized by a high degree of tension with society grow whereas groups (churches characterized by alow degree of tension with society tend to decline.
Juan Illicachi Guzñay
Full Text Available El trabajo examina el papel de la religión en la educación y en la sociedad, y la relación entre religión, educación y la producción de subjetividades en los grupos subalternos, particularmente en los indígenas y la población estudiantil, pero antes justifica la vigencia del presente tema en el escenario geopolítico de Riobamba. Para abordar lo planteado, las preguntas que guían el desarrollo del presente artículo son: ¿cuál es el rol de la religión en la sociedad y, específicamente, en la educación? ¿Existen incidencias del “campo” religioso en el “campo” educativo? ¿Qué tipo de subjetividad construye tanto el campo educativo como el religioso?
Full Text Available What does a sacred text look like? Are religious books materially different from other books? Does materiality matter? This article deals with three different aspects of material variance attested amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls, Ancient Jewish religious text fragments, of which were found in the Judean Desert. I suggest that the substitution of the ancient Hebrew script by the everyday Aramaic script, also for Torah and other religious texts, was intentional and programmatic: it enabled the broader diffusion of scriptures in Hellenistic and Roman Judea. The preponderant use of parchment for religious texts rather than papyrus may be a marker of identity. The many small scrolls which contained only small parts of specific religious books (Genesis, Psalms may have been produced as religious artefacts which express identity in the period when Judaism developed into a religion of the book. Keywords: Dead Sea Scrolls; Judaism; Manuscripts
Full Text Available A cognitive study of religion shares some of its concerns with traditional approaches in cultural anthropology or the history of religion: It aims to explain why and how humans in most cultural groups develop religious ideas and practices, and why these have recurrentand enduring features. By contrast with other approaches, however, a cognitive approach centres on one particular set of factors that influence the emergence and development of religion. The human mind is a complex set of functional capacities that were shaped by natural selection and evolved, not necessarily to build a coherent or true picture of the world and certainly not to answer metaphysical questions, but to solve a series of specific problems to do with survival and reproduction. A crucial aspect of this natural mental make-up is that humans, more than any other species, can acquire vast amounts of information through communication with other members of the species. A cognitive study takes religion as a set of cultural representations, which are acquired by individual minds, stored and communicated to others. In this paper the author presents some general features of the cognitive study of religious concepts, and then presents in detail a framework that emphasizes the role of universal cognitive constraints on the acquisition and representation of religious ontologies, and presents anthropological and cognitive data that supports the model.
Helton Christopher Jason
Full Text Available This paper will discuss the challenges posed by modern conceptions of Hinduism - in particular Heinrich von Stietencron’s conception of a “collection of religions” and Romila Thapar’s application of Benedict Anderson’s theory of “imagined communities” to Hinduism-to the European style of religious studies, particularly at the undergraduate level.
Jalal Uddin Khan
Full Text Available Diversity is the essence and spirit of America or the West both as a place and a people. Islam also allows for diversity within its concept of unity and oneness of God. Muslims, therefore, have no problem co-existing in peace with the Jews, Christians and the followers of other religions. Problems arise (a when secular values or principles disturb the working balance of the otherwise mutually exclusive religious diversity and harmony in America; (b when one follows opportunist policies, practices double standards, and is moved by mere worldly or political interests; and (c when war against the Zionist-and-neoconservative-manufactured terrorism turns into war against Islam. Such misleading and mischievous tendencies or policies prevent peace from prevailing, which ultimately tarnish the image of religions in the eyes of their followers and those of the rest making a mockery of the idea of religious diversity even in the so-called most democratic country called the United States of America!
@@ It would be impossible to understand India without any knowledge about the religions of this country. India is a developing country with many religions, nationalities and languages. This nation has long been noted for its democratic politics and multiculture. India was founded on the principle of secularism, but at the same time it has suffered from religions. Therefore, to have a clear idea about the basic conditions of India's multiple religious beliefs is the foundation for studies of its religions of the country, and is also one key to grasping Indian social politics. In early September 2004, the Indian government published religious data from the 2001 census. Accordingly, we can make some basic judgments about the religions in today's India.
Political interventions, media coverage and research often refer to the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities, particularly girls and women, participating in physical activity and organised sports. In both public and academic debates, reference is made to the religious culture as a particular...... with their religious and cultural frames of reference? The study uses a case study approach with interviews of ten 13–17-year-old Danish Muslim girls, as well as explorative observations in two football clubs and interviews with five coaches and club leaders. In further developing an analytical model for interpreting...... religion as hegemonic, embodied and dynamic cultural phenomena, the analysis points to the diversity through which Muslim girls and women participate and engage in sports. Finally, the article discusses the extent to which counter-narratives may contribute to changing perspectives on so-called hard...
This paper reviews the history of the religious debate on nuclear energy over the last thirty years. In the 1950s, religious statements recognized the peaceful uses of atomic energy as a blessing from God and called upon world leaders to promote its use. Nuclear energy programmes were launched in this decade. In the 1960s, there was still religious approval of nuclear energy, but questions about ethics arose. It was not until the 1970s, after the oil crisis, that serious questioning and criticism of nuclear energy emerged. This was particularly true in the United States, where the majority of statements originated - especially in 1979, the year of the Three Mile Island accident. Around this time, the World Council of Churches developed the concept of the just, participatory and sustainable society. The meaning and use of these terms in the nuclear energy debate is examined. This paper also compares the balanced debate of the World Council with the case against the plutonium economy prepared by the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA. Three religious statements from the 1980s are examined. A United Church of Canada resolution, critical of nuclear energy, is compared with a favourable report from the Methodist Church in England. Both use similar values: in one case, justice, participation and sustainability; in the other case, concern for others, participation and stewardship. There are not many Catholic statements on nuclear energy. One which is cautious and favourable is examined in detail. It is concluded that the use of concepts of justice, participation and sustainability (or their equivalents) has not clarified the nuclear debate
In the field of religious education, pedagogies have featured regularly as teachers strive for the most effective methodology to promote pupils’ learning but their current success rate has been called into question by two critical Subject Reports in 2010 and 2013 from the English Government’s Office for Standards in Education (OfSTED). This paper reports on a piece of action research that sets Bloom’s taxonomy within a framework of classroom dialogue skills with the intention of addressing th...
Since the beginning of the Reform Era in 1979, there has been a rapid growth and development of religious belief and practice in China. A substantial new scholarly literature has been generated in the attempt to document and understand this. This essay identifies the most important contributions to that literature and discusses areas of agreement and controversy across the literature. Along with new data, new paradigms have developed to frame research on Chinese religions. The paradigm derive...
Desecration of religious places has drawn the attention of the world media, academics and policymakers on a number of occasions. The desecration of the Church of the Nativity, the cross-desecration by both Orthodox and Muslims of the Balkans, the desecration of the Sikh Golden Temple, the destruction of the Bamiyan Buddha Monolith by the Taliban in Afghanistan and many others have attracted world condemnation. However, there has been little or no cross-sectional research or academic enquir...
Carlee Beth Hawkins
Full Text Available Motivated thinking leads people to perceive similarity between the self and ingroups, but under some conditions, people may recognize that personal beliefs are misaligned with the beliefs of ingroups. In two focal experiments and two replications, we find evidence that perceived belief similarity moderates ingroup favoritism. As part of a charity donation task, participants donated money to a community charity or a religious charity. Compared to non-religious people, Christians favored religious charities, but within Christians, conservative Christians favored religious charities more than liberal Christians did. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the perceived political beliefs of the charity accounted for the differences in ingroup favoritism between liberal and conservative Christians. While reporting little awareness of the influence of ideology, Christian conservatives favored religious charities because they perceived them as conservative and liberal Christians favored the community charity because they perceived it as liberal.
Sri W Rahmawati
Full Text Available Experts agree that resilience involves internal factors and external factors. In addition to those two factors, religious beliefs, spirituality and the capacity to give a meaning to the traumatic event, it is also discussed as a factor involved in the development of resilience. A number of researchers explore their findings to see the relationships between religiousness/ spirituality and resilience. People experiencing emptiness of spiritual, increasingly awareness of the importance of the involvement of religion/spiritual in solving problems, but it’s increasingly depletion due to exposure to materialistic life. This research is conducted to see the influence of religiousness/spirituality on resilience occuring among college students. The results showed that the following dimensions are related to the increasing resilience of a person: daily experience of human spiritual, beliefs/values, willingness to forgive, and the worship of religious activities as well as evaluating a person's level of religiousness. Discussion and implication of the research results are included.
Wan Sabri Wan Yusof
Full Text Available Inter-religious dialogue in Malaysia has taken place more than a century ago either in the form of ‘dialogue of life’ or in the form of intellectual discourse. ‘Dialogue of life’ normally occurs in a superficial ways of interaction such as ‘open house’ during festive seasons and daily interaction in market places, offices or schools while dialogue in the form of intellectual discourse occurs in official events such as forum, seminar and public lecture. Earliest endeavours of inter-religious dialogue were championed by non-Muslim organizations with the aim to protect their rights that was allegedly threatened with the execution of Islamization policy in 1980s. The involvement of Muslim’s organizations could only be seen until 1990s with a pioneering attempt by Center for Civilizational Dialogue (University of Malaya in 1995 that aimed to generate greater inter-religious understanding. The implementation of inter-religious dialogue in the form of intellectual discourse however is still limited due to its nature which is apparently more appealing to the intellectuals’ community. On top of that, inter-religious dialogue also facing constant objections by some critics due to misunderstanding of the actual goals of inter-religious dialogue. Therefore, correct understanding about the concept of inter-religious dialogue must be nurtured among the masses prior to commencing any inter-religious dialogue program.
In the fledgling but rapidly growing academic discipline of religion, media and culture, much attention has been paid to the use of new media to create and develop individual religious identities, build connections and foster group identities. Yet to date most research has focussed on exchanges of literal text between users, and little has considered the importance of visual text (either still images or videos) in the communication of meaning in online environments. In this presentation, I wo...
Luiz Henrique Lemos
Full Text Available LEMOS, Luiz Henrique. A Psicologia da religião Ocidental e Oriental: a influência do círculo de Eranos no atendimento da religião na perspectiva de Carl Gustav Jung. 2013. 127f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências da Religião – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte.
Religious tourism can be understood as an activity in which people travel either for worshipping purposes or to participate in events of religious significance. It can be seen as an alternative to mass tourism activities, aiming for specific targets. Portugal has a significant and rich religious heritage which can help to revitalize traditionally neglected rural areas. The active participation of the Church is of utmost importance as far as the visitors are concerned. On one hand it sh...
The author discusses how linguistics inﬂuenced the formation of the methodology and the theory of religious studies. Changes in religious paradigms were connected with the following new theories in linguistics: comparative methodology, structuralism, and cognitive linguistics. It was these three branches of linguistic studies which were most inﬂuential for the formation and later development of religious studies. The author asks precisely why it was that linguistics constituted the source of ...
This paper compares the ways in which revealed theology, natural theology and philosophical theology justify religious belief. Revealed theology does so with an appeal to revelation and natural theology with an appeal to reason and perception. It is argued that both are inadequate. Philosophical theology analyses the meaning rather than proving the truth of religious belief. In doing so it does show how truth claims are entailed by a religious tradition and how the whole heritage of a traditi...
This survey gathers the current state of research activity on the emerging economic sub-area Economics of Religion. The religious beliefs and activities are analyzed from the viewpoint of economic theory and behavior. The advanced statistical tools and theoretical formulations of economic science can be applied to various problems of religious activity, dogma and social context. Analysis of interrelationship between economic and religious behavior increases our understanding of the nature and...
Full Text Available This paper deals with cartographic depictions of religious facilities and cemeteries in Bosnia and Herzegovina on cadastral maps created during the Austro-Hungarian administration. It shows how cartographic depictions of these plans changed over time, based on collections of topographic symbols published in the late 19th and the early 20th century. Relevant cartographic sources depicting religious buildings were identified and collected through analysis of genuine archival documents, i.e. relevant cartographical sources of different scales and types. The research of the materials resulted in a scientific description of the most important aspects of religious facilities belonging to different religious communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels
WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...... for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded....
Full Text Available Texto originalmente apresentado como aula inaugural do Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião da PUC Minas. Trata da epistemologia e dos desafios da investigação em Ciências da Religião. Partindo do problema de base da religiosidade na Educação, do fenômeno religioso e sua dimensão profunda, o artigo segue uma densa investigação sobre os limites e horizontes das Ciências da Religião.Palavras-chave: Ciências da Religião; Religião; Religiosidade; Educação; Ensino religioso.ABSTRACTThis text was originally presented as the opening class of the Postgraduate Programme in Sciences of Religion of PUC Minas. It concerns the epistemology and challenges of investigation in Sciences of Religion. Starting from the fundamental question of religiosity in Education, of the religious phenomenon and its deep dimension, the article embarks on a close investigation into the limits and horizons of the Sciences of Religion.Key words: Sciences of religions; Religion; Religiosity; Education; Religious teaching.
Full Text Available In victimology, fear of crime is understood as an emotional response to the perceived threat of crime. Fear of crime has been found to be affected by several variables besides local crime rates and personal experiences with victimization. This study examines the relationship between religion and fear of crime, an underexplored topic in the criminological literature. This gap is rather surprising given the central role religion has been found to play in shaping the attitudes and perceptions of congregants. In particular, religion has been found to foster generalized trust, which should engender lower levels of distrust or misanthropy, including that which is directed towards a general fear of crime. OLS regression was performed using data from the West Georgia Area Survey (n = 380. Controlling for demographic, community involvement, and political ideology variables, frequency of religious attendance was significantly and negatively associated with fear of property crime. This relationship remained even after a perceived neighborhood safety variable was introduced to the model. However, religious attendance was not significantly related to fear of violent crime, and religious orientation was unrelated to fear of property and violent crime. These results suggest that religious involvement conditionally reduces fear of crime, and the authors recommend that future research explore relationships between religion and fear of crime.
Full Text Available This article considers changes in the subject Religious Education (RE within the context of Scottish secondary schools, charting a development towards the increasing use of philosophical skills and content. Before considering the nature, extent and timing of this development this article provides a broader context within which to understand educational change in Scotland. The emergent hypothesis is that Religious Education has become more philosophical as a result of changes in society (particularly secularisation, changes in education (particularly the move to reflective pedagogy, and also as a result of the close epistemological relationship between philosophy and religious education. This article adopts an interpretative research paradigm and considers quantitative and qualitative data drawn from a survey of 126 secondary schools and seventeen key informant interviews. Taken alongside existing reviews of policy and research literature this data demonstrate that three interlinked hypothetical strands have been at the heart of the move towards more philosophical Religious Education, although other possibilities are also raised and considered. This study also suggests areas for further research based on the above findings.
Full Text Available Religiöse Jugendsprache und verschiedene methodische Zugänge, diese zu erheben, stehen im Zentrum dieses Beitrags. Dabei zeigt sich zum einen, dass die methodischen Herangehensweisen durchwegs stark von traditionell religiösen Begrifflichkeiten ausgehen, zum anderen, dass Jugendliche keine religiöse Sondersprache verwenden, aber auf kreative Art auf traditionelle Sprachelemente zurückgreifen. In religionspädagogischen Weiterüberlegungen werden Möglichkeiten der religiösen Sprachförderung Jugendlicher durch das Weiterdenken und Einbringen von Grundanliegen der ‚religiösen Sprachlehre’ von Halbfas in das Grundkonzept des ‚jugendtheologischen Denkens‘ bedacht. Between speechlessness, everyday language and language, that leads beyond everything. Discovering und reinforcing of religious youth-language This article focuses on religious youth-language and different methodical approaches to determine it. On the one hand it illustrates, that the different methodical approaches are consistently based on traditional religious terms. And on the other hand it shows that adolescents don’t use a specific religious language, but rather resort to traditional language elements in a creative way. Further considerations in regard to religious education investigate the possibilities to reinforce the religious language skills of adolescents – especially by rethinking and applying basic principles of the ‚religious language teaching’ by Halbfas to the main concept of the ‚youth theological thinking’.
Full Text Available In 2000, the South African Constitutional Court ruled that religious freedom, including the exercise of religious rituals, may not contradict the laws of the country. This ruling came as a result of the Western Cape Law Society�s refusal to admit a Rastafarian as lawyer because of his habit of smoking marijuana. He appealed to the Constitutional Court and claimed that the ruling infringed upon his right to religious freedom. The Constitutional Court upheld the decision that no exception may be made for one religion.�
Full Text Available A review of the literature on religion and advertisement led to the identification of three lines of studies examining the influence of religion on advertising. These three lines of studies focused on attitude toward advertising of controversial products, presence of religious values in advertisements executions, and the consumers’ reactions to advertisement containing religious cues or symbols. The latter line has been followed modestly in Christian context but not in Islamic context of advertising. Hijab as a significant religious cue might peripherally generates a favorable attitude toward advertisement among Muslims. It is suggested that information processing theories like Elaboration Likelihood Model provides a pertinent theoretical framework to examine this effect empirically.
Full Text Available In der Figur der Genoveva kann das Verhältnis von Geschlecht, Religion oder auch Nation verhandelt werden. Die vorliegende Arbeit zieht am Beispiel von sechs Genoveva-Texten aus der Sattelzeit nach, wie der Geschlechterdiskurs durch religiöse und nationale Motivationen beeinflusst wird. Offen bleibt, wie sich christliche Religion oder der Nationendiskurs mittels Geschlechterkonfigurationen einschreibt.The figure of Genoveva is an appropriate site for examining the negotiation of the relationship between gender and religion or nation. The work at hand illuminates the manner in which gender discourse is influenced by religious and national motives on the basis of six Genoveva texts from the so-called „Sattelzeit” or saddle period, a term used for German literature of the period before and after the French Revolution. It remains to see how gender configurations inscribe Christian religion or national discourse.
Kramp, Joseph M
Panikkar's (The intra-religious dialogue, 1978) classic, re-issued by Paulist Press in 1999, grapples with the theological challenges in the disciplines of comparative theology and the theology of religions through what he terms, "intra-religious dialogue." In this psychology of religious plurality, I use works from a variety of disciplines to highlight the achievements of Panikkar's intra-religious dialogue, as well as to critique his work in the hope of finding categories of understanding that can be profitably used to face the inter-personal crises of the contemporary world, namely religious terrorism. PMID:20607410
Jiménez Bautista, Francisco
Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo pretende diagnosticar cómo los jóvenes construyen su identidad religiosa en relación a la asistencia de los oficios religiosos y la religión que profesan. Para ello, presentamos el estudio de los jóvenes de Granada, España (desde los 14 a los 25 años en la construcción de su identidad religiosa a lo largo de los años 2000, 2004 y 2008, destacando su relación de cómo los jóvenes viven, sienten y perciben su religión. La conclusión a la que llegamos en dicho artículo que es la crisis de valores que están emergiendo en la sociedad occidental conduce a transformar el fenómeno religioso de los no inmigrantes en algo con un fuerte componente de fe, relaciones sociales y símbolos, mientras que los inmigrantes si suelen expresar su religiosidad con bastante frecuencia. Abstract: In this paper we to diagnose how young people construct their religious identity in relation to the attendance of religious services and religion that they profess. The results obtained are based in a study of the youth of Granada (Andalusia, Spain whose age is between 14 and 25 years during 2000, 2004 and 2008 to obtain the features about the youth in Granada how y live, feel and perceive their religion. The main conclusion was that the crisis of values emerging in Western societies leads to transform the religious phenomenon of non-migrants into something with a strong element of faith, social relations and symbols, while immigrants tend to express quite often their religiosity.
E de Waal,
Full Text Available This article investigates and compares the different approaches towards the dress code of learners1 in South Africa and the United States of America (US, as the US mainly base litigation concerning school dress code on their freedom of speech/expression clause, while similar South African court cases focus more on religious and cultural freedom. In South Africa, school principals and School Governing Bodies are in dire need of clear guidelines on how to respect and honour the constitutionally entrenched right to all of the different religions and cultures. The crisis of values in education arises from the disparity between the value system espoused by the school and the community, and that expressed in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, which guarantees learners' fundamental rights, including those of freedom of religion, culture, expression and human dignity. On the one hand, the South African Schools Act requires of School Governing Bodies to develop and implement a Code of Conduct for learners, and on the other, that they strictly adhere to the Constitution of the country when drawing up their dress codes. The right of a religious group to practise its religion or of a cultural group to respect and sustain its culture must be consistent with the provisions of the Bill of Rights (which is entrenched in the Constitution and this implies that other rights may not infringe on the right to freedom of religion and culture. In the US, although there is no legislation that protects learners' freedom of religion and culture at schools, their First Amendment guides the way. Their Supreme Court respects the religious values of all citizens provided that they are manifested off public school premises. While we acknowledge the existence of religious and cultural diversity at South African schools, this paper focuses on the tension among and on the existence of different approaches towards the human rights of learners from different
Religious beliefs and traditions shape cultural and personal understandings of life issues, and, in turn, are shaped by new understanding in other arenas of life, such as medicine, science, and politics. Religious and faith traditions have sometimes enshrined prevailing attitudes about disability and differences but have also challenged them.…
... restrict religious expression. Faith can bring us closer to one another, and our freedom to practice our... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8474 of January 15, 2010 Religious Freedom Day, 2010 By the President of the... toil, it was the genius of America's forefathers to protect our freedom of religion, including...
This document is an outline for a three-week unit of study focusing on religious syncretism in Mexico as part of a community college course in comparative religions or philosophy of religion. While this outline is intended to give information and direction to the instructor wishing to use Mexico as an example of religious syncretism, unit goals…
Noonan, John T., Jr.
It is proposed that the values and environment of a church-related law school differ from those of secular institutions because of the religious orientation of faculty and students, and fostering such an institution is religious freedom, now threatened by accreditation rules and current First Amendment jurisprudence. (Author/MSE)
Focuses on exploring and understanding the epistemological significance of eros and the place of the erotic in contemporary religious education. Shows, through concrete examples, how a fully human epistemology makes possible an authentic religious education that promotes both personal and communal transformation. (CAJ)
The religious thought of Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy is a well documented but often overlooked example of unorthodox Christianity. This paper uses the example of Tolstoy's religious thinking to question the integrity of the current representation of Christianity in UK schools. It also uses Tolstoy's criticism of orthodox Christianity to suggest a…
Vivienne Wee argues that patriarchy is alive and well in secular as well as religious hierarchies. She suggests instead of talking about religious fundamentalisms we need to talk about equality versus hierarchy. Development (2006) 49, 89–91. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100211
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Religious rights. 638.536 Section 638.536 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.536 Religious rights. The...
Full Text Available This article discusses the challenges of adaptation for Indonesian religion. It describes the ways that the major Indonesian religions have changed to fit the requirements of being recognized religions, and focuses as an example on the ways that Balinese Hinduism has changed to become Agama Hindu Dharma Indonesia. It also examines the traditional theological problem of “faith and works” in the Indonesian context, and the concerns used to balance modernization and religious freedom.
Alejandra Verónica Giménez
Full Text Available The article analyzes “religious” aspects from the perspective of cultural and territorial diversity. These aspects can be identified in the daily life of individuals living in low-income neighborhoods of the city of Buenos Aires. The reflection on the concept of the “religious” aims at identifying the role of religiousness in the social interventions carried out by Social Work
Harold G. Koenig
Full Text Available We describe here a new measure of religious commitment, the Belief into Action (BIAC scale. This measure was designed to be a comprehensive and sensitive measure of religious involvement that could discriminate individuals across the religious spectrum, and avoid the problem of ceiling effects that have haunted the study of highly-religious populations. Many scales assess religious beliefs, where assent to belief is often widespread, subjective, and a superficial assessment of religious commitment. While people may say they believe, what does that mean in terms of action? This 10-item scale seeks to convert simple belief into action, where action is assessed in terms of what individuals say is most important in their lives, how they spend their time, and where they put their financial resources. We summarize here the psychometric characteristics of the BIAC in two very different populations: stressed female caregivers in Southern California and North Carolina, and college students attending three universities in Mainland China. We conclude that the BIAC is a sensitive, reliable, and valid measure of religious commitment in these two samples, and encourage research in other population groups using this scale to determine its psychometric properties more generally.
Full Text Available After gaining independence from the USSR in 1991, the Islamic heritage of the Central Asian Republics became an alternative ideology to fill the political and social vacuum. Islam gradually started to take its place on the social scene following Gorbachev's Glasnost, as it partially eased the communist oppression towards religious belief and expression. Religious education institutions, mosques, and other religiously affiliated organizations began to emerge. Some of these organizations steadily led their way to political parties with Islamic agendas, and politicization of Islam became a prominent reality. While religious revivalism took sway in Central Asian societies, their governments had an instrumentalist view of religion. Religious expressions were encouraged where they contribute to the goal of nation-building and legitimization of the dominant power coalitions as defined by the power holders. Yet, Central Asian governments proceeded in the opposite direction implementing oppressive policies against extra-governmental religious groups and institutions perceived as a threat. It was anticipated for the Central Asian societies to revive their Islamic heritage that has been suppressed under the Soviet regime and combine religion with nationalist sentiments as a catalyst in the nation-building process and political transition. However, the suppressive state response to this religious revivalism was unpredicted and led to prolonged conflict between state and society. This article seeks to identify the factors that explain the competing courses of the governments' push for secularization through historical institutionalism and cultural and national values approaches.
Full Text Available After gaining independence from the USSR in 1991, the Islamic heritage of the Central Asian Republics became an alternative ideology to fill the political and social vacuum. Islam gradually started to take its place on the social scene following Gorbachev’s Glasnost, as it partially eased the communist oppression towards religious belief and expression. Religious education institutions, mosques, and other religiously affiliated organizations began to emerge. Some of these organizations steadily led their way to political parties with Islamic agendas, and politicization of Islam became a prominent reality. While religious revivalism took sway in Central Asian societies, their governments had an instrumentalist view of religion. Religious expressions were encouraged where they contribute to the goal of nation-building and legitimization of the dominant power coalitions as defined by the power holders. Yet, Central Asian governments proceeded in the opposite direction implementing oppressive policies against extra-governmental religious groups and institutions perceived as a threat. It was anticipated for the Central Asian societies to revive their Islamic heritage that has been suppressed under the Soviet regime and combine religion with nationalist sentiments as a catalyst in the nation-building process and political transition. However, the suppressive state response to this religious revivalism was unpredicted and led to prolonged conflict between state and society. This article seeks to identify the factors that explain the competing courses of the governments’ push for secularization through historical institutionalism and cultural and national values approaches.
Seyyed Hassan Adeli
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible contraction of airways. Coping strategies can reduce the negative impact of the disease in individuals or cause incompatible behaviors by negative effect. This study aimed to evaluate the religious coping strategies in asthma patients and the relationship of religious coping and general health. Methods: The study included 102 asthmatic patients referred to the pulmonary clinic of Shahid Beheshti hospital of Qom. Brief religious coping strategy questionnaire and the general health questionnaire were used in this study. Results: The mean positive religious coping strategy was 26.24±9.89 and 60% of the patients had higher than average scores. The mean negative religious coping strategy was 10.56±3.99 and 35% of patients had a mean score higher than average scores. The mean total general health score was 23.91±11.9. Conclusion: The study results showed that asthmatic patients are at greater risk of depression and a negative correlation exists between positive religious coping and general health scores. It can be concluded that in asthmatic patients, depression should be suspected sooner. Also, during the course of treatment and in cases of resistant to treatment, this issue should be considered. It can be concluded that the patients who use more positive coping strategies and have a strong spiritual beliefs may have higher mental health that leads to higher physical health and a better response to treatment. Religious coping strategies; general health; depression.
Full Text Available The present article deals with the question of emergence of new religious movements in contemporary Russia. Although sociological approach to the study of new religious movements proceeds usually from the theories of secularization, the author claims that the appearance of these movements should be viewed also in various contexts of national and historical peculiarities of different cultures. He stresses the importance of new urban mythology and semi-Orthodox mysticism as a basis for autochthonous Russian new religious movements emerged in the 1990s. The collapse of the Soviet ideology evidently resulted in the symbolic vacuum, which was to be filled with diverse social, political, religious and ideological patterns. Proceeding from the study of religious practices and personal narratives by the followers of “The Last Testament Church” (also known as “the sect of Vissarionovtsy”, the author argues that indigenous Russian new religious movements appear to be typical “crisis cults” comparable to so-called “cargo-cults” and other messianic and prophetic movements of this kind. This particular case demonstrates that the rise and functioning of new religious movements are often more complicated and probably depend not only on the secularization.
Full Text Available The aim of this study: The study is to investigate predictive values of the religious meaning system, the centrality of religiosity and social support for mental health outcomes. Although there is some evidence about associations of religiousness and social support with mental health, insufficient data exists to explain which dimensions of religiousness and social support are related to mental health outcomes. Material and methods: Participants were 206 people (108 women and 98 men randomly recruited in southern parts of Poland. Their ages ranged from 18 to 78 years, with a mean age of 38.6 years (SD =16.44. All participants filled in the four questionnaires: The Religious Meaning System Questionnaire, The Centrality of Religiosity Scale, The Berlin Social Support Scales, and The General Health Questionnaire-28. Results: Both religiousness and social support are associated with mental health outcomes, but the character of these associations depends on particular dimensions. The religious meaning system and the centrality of religiosity showed negative links with the dimension of mental health called somatic symptoms. Actually received support was associated with better mental health, whereas need for support and protective buffering support were predictors of negative mental health outcomes. Discussion and conclusions: The findings support the hypotheses that religiousness and social support are predictive factors for mental health outcomes, though their effects are rather moderate or weak. Both religion and social support can influence mental health by imbuing life with a sense of meaning and significance, and offering fellowship in times of stress and suffering.
Shilo, Guy; Yossef, Ifat; Savaya, Riki
The present study examined the effects of positive and negative religious coping strategies on the mental health of 113 Israeli gay and bisexual Jewish males with high levels of religiosity, and how sexual identity formation (internalized homophobia and coming out) and societal variables (family and friends' acceptance of sexual orientation and social connections within the LGBT community) mitigated the effects of religious coping strategies on mental health. Findings showed that when dealing with the stress arising from the conflict between religious and sexual identities, individuals used both positive and negative religious coping strategies, but only negative religious coping was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, only in the presence of social resources (social connections with the LGBT community and the acceptance of sexual orientation by friends), did the use of positive religious coping result in better mental health outcomes. These findings underlined the importance of these resilience social factors in the lives of religious Jewish gay and bisexual men.
Shilo, Guy; Yossef, Ifat; Savaya, Riki
The present study examined the effects of positive and negative religious coping strategies on the mental health of 113 Israeli gay and bisexual Jewish males with high levels of religiosity, and how sexual identity formation (internalized homophobia and coming out) and societal variables (family and friends' acceptance of sexual orientation and social connections within the LGBT community) mitigated the effects of religious coping strategies on mental health. Findings showed that when dealing with the stress arising from the conflict between religious and sexual identities, individuals used both positive and negative religious coping strategies, but only negative religious coping was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, only in the presence of social resources (social connections with the LGBT community and the acceptance of sexual orientation by friends), did the use of positive religious coping result in better mental health outcomes. These findings underlined the importance of these resilience social factors in the lives of religious Jewish gay and bisexual men. PMID:26324183
Jorge Claudio Ribeiro
Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisa a ocorrência cotidiana, nas redações de jornal, de inúmeras manifestações “laicas” da religiosidade (na concepção simmeliana, é uma capacidade humana que engloba a totalidade da existência e lhe confere sentido. O autor trabalhou, durante cinco anos, nas redações dos jornais Folha de S. Paulo e O Estado de S. Paulo. das observações, anotadas num diário de campo, entrevistas e levantamento de dados, resultou uma “repor-tese” – uma reportagem que virou doutorado. Não há no jornalismo um componente religioso formal. Mas, por predisposição pessoal, ethos da profissão ou tradição, a religiosidade do jornalista secreta um sentido de promoção da verdade e da justiça. A empresa jornalística exerce uma peculiar onipotência ao selecionar acontecimentos que considera dignos de ser publicados. A ancoragem da imprensa no tempo lhe confere certa eternidade, pois a sucessão ininterrupta de edições configura um retorno ao eterno presente. Conclui-se que a característica “religiosa” do jornalismo se manifesta sob forma de rituais de lugar e tempo, de pessoas e falas e também como mística da vocação, da missão e do sofrimento. Essas condições também podem ser usadas como um disfarce “heróico” na exploração do trabalhador. Palavras-chave: Jornalismo; Fenômeno religioso; Ritual; Mística. Abstract This article analyses the daily occurrence of multiple secular manifestations of religiousness in newspapers editorial rooms (according to Georg Simmel, it is a human capacity that involves the whole existence and endows it with sense. The author worked for newspapers Folha de S. Paulo and O Estado de S. Paulo for five years. From his observations, written down in a diary, interviews and collected data, he wrote a “reporthesis” – a newspaper report that turned into a doctorate thesis. There is not a formal religious component in journalism. But, due to a personal disposition
Lane, Justin E
Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors.
Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo propõe uma releitura crítica da contribuição de Pierre Bourdieu para o campo de estudo das religiões. Demonstraremos inicialmente como o conceito de campo alargou a noção clássica de religião. Em seguida, evidenciaremos por que a dimensão estrutural subjacente ao conceito não consegue dar conta de muitas das dimensões do secularismo contemporâneo, em particular o modo como a esfera pública vem sendo modelada pela presença pública das religiões. Finalmente, partindo da contribuição de autores pós-bourdiesianos para uma definição pragmatista da arena pública, tais como Daniel Cefaï e outros, sugerimos deslocar o olhar sobre as religiões em suas relações com o poder, perguntando-nos não tanto o que as religiões fazem na esfera pública, mas, sobretudo, o que a publicidade faz da religião.
This research aims to measure the effect of implementation of religious education at the high school under the religious foundations toward religious behavior student in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Province. There are five aspect of behaviour that measured include religiosity, honesty, tolerance, love peace and social concerns. Formulation of the problems in this study are (1) are there any effect of the implementation of religious education for student of religious behavior (2) How is the im...
Full Text Available The paper examines the conceptualization of salvation and eternal life within the Raëlian movement. After a brief overview of this alternative religious movement, we will give an analysis of certain aspects of the movement’s religious teachings relevant for our paper. Based on a specific biblical exegesis and latter developments of the basic teachings, the founder of the movement and his disciples bring a wholly new interpretation of these, perhaps most important religious themes. By positioning intelligence and science into the focus of their eschatology, Raelians introduce the idea of cloning as a path to eternal life. However, even with the attempts made by the founder to represent the Raelian belief system as a total break from the “primitive” understanding and practices of religion, the holy texts of this movement do contain old religious ideas as well as other familiar mechanisms of engaging the religious commitment of its members.
Jean M Twenge
Full Text Available In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million, American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976-2013, 8th and 10th graders (1991-2013, and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966-2014. Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%-40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s-70s give their religious affiliation as "none," as do 40%-50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age.
Genrich Gillian L
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T, where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA. Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. Methods Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 2002–2003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, including gender, marital status, level of education and age on adherence to religious values among young people in city of Shahin Dezh and Takab, located in province of West Azerbaijan, Iran in 2014. The study has accomplished between two groups of Turk and Kurd with the population of 85,000 and 89,000, respectively. The study uses a sample of 20 and 30 people from Turkish and Kurdish tribes, respectively, and uses t-student test as well as regression analysis to examine different hypotheses of the survey. The results show that there was a meaningful difference among various variables of gender, marital status, education level and age in adherence to religious values among the youth who live in this city.
Ferdinand J. Potgieter
Full Text Available Using experiential interpretivism as underpinning methodology, this article investigates whether religious fundamentalism is the default spirituality of human beings. Our research is based on a hermeneutic reconstructive interpretation of religion, fundamentalism, radicalism, extremism, spirituality, life- and worldview, and the role of education in bringing about peaceful coexistence amongst people. We concluded that the natural religious-fundamentalist inclination of the human being tends to be (and needs to be counterbalanced by the education – that is, socialisation – that he or she receives from the moment of birth, the important first six or seven years of life, and throughout his or her life. Based on this conclusion, the article ends with the articulation of ten implications for teacher education.
Full Text Available The transatlantic African slave trade spanned over four centuries, and stands as arguably the most horrific event in recorded human history. Not as often discussed in the slavery conversation, however, are the realities of religious oppression Africans faced during this era. This article discusses the religious oppression Africans faced as slavery was imposed upon them pre-1776, the freedoms – or lack thereof – afforded to them under the Bill of Rights, and the effects of that religious oppression on successive generations leading up to and beyond the Civil War. The article describes how a deprivation of religious freedom, and not slavery alone, has stifled Black Americans from achieving their full potential.
C.W. du Toit
Full Text Available This article introduces ideas originating from different sciences of mind and the challenge they present to religion. In spite of overcoming the mind-body dualism, it seems that the mind-brain dualism still prevails. The mind-brain relation is discussed in the light of some models. Special attention is given to supervenient theories of mind. In light of this information the article investigates how the impact of these theories on religious experience. D’Aquili and Newberg’s explanation of extraordinary religious experience is discussed. It is concluded that the phenomenon of religion and religious experience are more than mere brain functions. The place of religion and the continued importance of religion and religious experience are confirmed.
Cristián Parker G.
Full Text Available Este artículo describe las formas peculiares que adquiere el cambio religioso, tanto a nivel de las adhesiones a nuevos movimientos religiosos como en las creencias religiosas en Chile. Este trabajo analiza la manera en que el factor educacional interviene en las tendencias hacia la pluralización religiosa. También se exploran las posibles consecuencias que puedan tener las manifestaciones concretas del cambio religioso en la cultura política de Chile.This article describes the peculiar forms taken by religious change in Chile. It considers the adhesion to new religious movements and beliefs as well as education and its interference on the multiplication of religious institutions. It also pictures the concrete manifestations of religious change and their consequences for political culture.
Full Text Available Ideas in psychology are often criticized as being dominated by the spirit and the model of secular and liberal Western thinking. They are frequently deemed to bring bias when applied to analyze the psychological problems of human beings in the context of other cultures, especially in the context of Islamic culture. This paper investigates Indonesian Muslim scientists’ offer of an alternative of grand theory in psychology formulated from a more balanced paradigm called religious anthropocentric psychology. Indonesian Muslim scientists develop this paradigm as an attempt to construct spiritual-religious psychology or Islamic psychology. The paper describes an increasing awareness among those Muslim scientists to develop theories of humanistic psychology with spiritual and religious values. This kind of psychological theory seems to be the basis for so-called Islamic psychology. Furthermore, in addition to its reference toward the anthropocentric paradigm, this kind of psychology also refers to the religious-Islamic values, theo-centric or God-centric.
Full Text Available Numerous authors agree on the existence of a positive correlation between spiritual experiences and religious beliefs. The strength of this relationship, however, is amplified by the method of construction of scales measuring spirituality. Items in these scales typically consist of both descriptions of spiritual experiences, and accounts of those experiences as originating by way of the supernatural. In this article, we have created instruments measuring spirituality without including interpretations of spiritual experiences, as well as modifying two most commonly used scales, Piedmont’s Spiritual Transcendence Scale and Cloninger’s Self-Transcendence Scale, so that they also consisted exclusively of descriptions of spiritual experiences with no interpretations added. None of such conceived measures correlate with the two different measures of religiousness in our study - neither with religious beliefs, nor with religious practice.
Benjamin E. Zeller
Full Text Available This article focuses on food proscriptions such as veganism and gluten-free eating, and prescriptions such as the Paleolithic diet, focusing on the North American context. These quasi-religious foodways serve as means for individuals to engage in discourses of community, personal and group identity, and boundary-marking. Through the daily practice of eating, those who follow quasi-religious foodways mark their identities, literally consuming who they are. These quasi-religious foodways therefore function to allow contemporary consumer-oriented individualistic Americans to engage in discourses of community, identity, and meaning in a highly vernacular manner, that of the marketplace. They also point to the manner in which identity and community have expanded well outside of religious categories.
Dadang S. Anshori
Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing gender cognition phenomenon in religious discourse in thematic interpretation (tafsir of the Holy Koran published by the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. Each interpretation book as a written discourse is different from each other due to author’s cognition frame. This study employs a constructive qualitative approach with technical framing analysis. The data are language data (religious text that are obtainable from thematic interpretation of the Koran of the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. Data analysis was performed on the following topics: the origins of the creation of men and women, women's leadership, women and inheritance rights, women and ownership, and women's testimony. The research findings show: (1 The lingual and religious discourse containing gender cognition are present in the forms of words, phrases, and sentences. The lingual form of religious discourse is related to the meaning of technical vocabulary that contains appropriate understanding of the discourse topic. (2 Discourse representing gender cognition is found on three topics: women leadership (nation leadership, waris (inheritance, and women’s testimony. In terms of inheritance and women’s testimony, this interpretation refers to conditions that are explicitly stated in the Holy Koran. Meanwhile, this interpretation views leadership of the nation as more worthy to be given to men than women. book looks is more worthy of leadership in the countries was given to men than women.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observance of religious holy days. 548.18 Section 548.18 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.18 Observance of religious holy days. Consistent...
Kneipp, Lee B.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Dubois, Cheryl
This study examined the influence of college environment and classification on religious orientation. The current study compared private, religious versus public, nonreligious college students to determine if there was a difference over time and environment in religious orientation, as measured by the Religious Orientation Scale. The results…
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Religious character and independence. 54.5 Section... independence. A religious organization that participates in an applicable program will retain its independence... organization's name, select its board members on a religious basis, and include religious references in...
This paper proposes that the acquisition of meta-concepts and thinking skills in order to facilitate scholarly religious thought should be the principal aim of religious education in schools. As a result, the aim of religious education is primarily stated in cognitive terms and religious education i
Federal courts have permitted tax credits for tuition at religious schools. Does a religious mission inhibit a school's ability or willingness to teach civic values, such as tolerance for political and religious differences? This essay examines relevant empirical research to find that religious schools, overall, do no worse than public…
This paper proposes that the acquisition of meta-concepts and thinking skills in order to facilitate scholarly religious thought should be the principal aim of religious education in schools. As a result, the aim of religious education is primarily stated in cognitive terms and religious education is understood as closely related to education…
Discussions about religious aspects of diversity are often absent from research. Similarly, topics such as religious forms of prejudice and religious dimensions of identities have not been fully explored in the context of teacher education. Too often, in the schooling context, what religion is and what constitutes an authentic religious identity…
Jaelani, Aan; SETYAWAN, Edy; HASYIM, Nursyamsudin
Abstract. Cirebon has an element of completeness in tourism management. Religious, heritage and tourism is a combination of three industry from the perspective of economics that play a role in the development of tourism and has the potential to encourage people's creativity in the economic sector. With a qualitative approach, this study confirms the religious heritage and the creative economy tourism the icon for Cirebon in developing the tourism industry, including travel and religious cultu...
Fieder, Martin; Huber, Susanne
Individuals more strongly affiliated to religion have on average more children than less religious ones. Here, based on census data of 3 658 650 women aged 46-60 years from 32 countries provided by IPUMS International and data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 2400 women, aged 53-57 years), we show that religious homogamy is also associated with higher reproduction in terms of a higher number of children and a lower chance of remaining childless. We argue that, together with the relationship between general religious intensity and number of children, religious homogamy has reproductive consequences. These may impact future demographic developments and could have also played a role in the biological evolution of humans. PMID:27412283
Hathaway, William; Tan, Erica
The interface of religiously accommodative and oriented treatments and the cognitive-behavioral tradition is explored. In terms of Hayes' characterization of the evolution of the cognitive-behavioral tradition through three waves, considerable theoretical, clinical, and empirical work emerged to support a religiously accommodative cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) during the second-generation CBTs. Rather than including religion and spirituality, the third-wave CBT traditions have engaged in spiritual themes inspired heavily from Eastern religious traditions. The authors discuss the application of a religiously congruent third-wave cognitive therapy with a depressed conservatively Christian client. Some conceptual challenges and rationales for adopting such treatments with Christian or other theist clients are described.
Collison, Elizabeth A; Gramling, Sandra E; Lord, Benjamin D
Though research on bereavement has grown, few studies have focused on emerging adults. To add to the literature, the authors administered the RCOPE to a sample of bereaved college students (analyzed sample N = 748) and explored the relationship between self-reported religious affiliation and religious coping strategies used and endorsed as "most helpful." Results highlight the rich topography of bereavement previously unexamined in understudied populations (i.e., emerging adults, religiously unaffiliated). Specifically, the Christians/affiliated used "negative" religious coping strategies most often, yet identified "positive" strategies as "most helpful," whereas the unaffiliated instead used "positive" strategies most often and identified "negative" strategies as "most helpful." PMID:26313501
Jenna Griebel Rogers
Full Text Available Past work shows religion’s effect on women’s career decisions, particularly when these decisions involve work-family conflict. This study argues that the religious context of a geographic area also influences women’s solutions to work-family conflict through more or less pervasive normative expectations within the community regarding women’s roles and responsibilities to the family. We use the American Community Survey linked with community-level religious proportions to test the relationship between religious contexts and women’s participation in the labor force in the contiguous United States–2054 census geographic areas. Using spatial analysis, we find that community religious concentration is related to the proportion of women who choose not to work. Communities with a higher proportion of the population belonging to conservative religious traditions also have a greater proportion of married women choosing not to work outside the home.
Weidenfeld, Adi; Ron, Amos
Similar to other tourism subgroups, e.g. elderly, gay, and disabled tourists, the special desires of religious tourists need not be marginalized. Given that religion and tourism can be competitive by nature, it is plausible to question whether tourists who practise their religion at home do so in a similar way while away from home. It is suggested that the relationship between tourism and religion constitutes a valid and important area of research and that satisfying religious needs in the to...
Eddy Rot; Kresimir Mikinac; Sinisa Bogdan
Croatia has a rich sacral (tangible and intangible) heritage, which undoubtedly has great cultural value, and part of the religious heritage has been included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO. The fact is, however, that, except when it comes to top attractions, churches as tourist facilities, are poorly attended and do not get almost no direct tourism income.. In this paper, after the introductory explanations of basic terms related to religious tourism and pilgrimage, we explore the basi...
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to clarify what Rudolf Steiner’s followers thought of him at the time of his demise. How can we explain the rapid spread of the Anthroposophical Society in Europe and the United States during the inter-war period? Can it be explained by referring to Rudolf Steiner’s own authority? What kind of authority did he possess? Did the members of the Anthroposophical Society regard him as a divine being, a prophet, or an ordinary religious teacher? The material for this article consists of a selection of the obituaries published in the anthroposophical press after Rudolf Steiner’s death on 30 March 1925. Needless to say, obituaries are usually tendentious, and therefore controversial as source material. For the purpose of the present article, however, this kind of material is suitable, since the aim here is to study the tendency itself. The restraint that followers might be assumed to practice in publishing their opinion on Steiner in commonly available writings is minimised in the type of material chosen here. The primary interest is to find out whether his followers portray Steiner as a human being, or as a divine, or semi-divine being.
Full Text Available The word ‘Islam’ manifests its meaning to the word peace which provides security and serenity to individuals and the community. The article focuses on this dimension of Islam and aims to present evidence from religious sources which assert that Islam is not a religion that supports terrorism but a religion which emphasizes peace and salvation. As a noun, the word ‘Islam’ is a system of beliefs revealed by Allah to Muhammad (pbuh. In retrospect, in its verb form Islam is derived from the infinitive of transitive four category verbs namely if’al, Islam is “ef’ale-yüf’ilus” infinitive form. The root of this word is also derived from the infinitive Arabic trilateral root of silm or salamet (peace and security. For this reason Islam is not only encyclopaedic definition referring to submitting or resigning oneself or one’s person to God or the will of God, surrendering to the will of Allah (God, but also has the transitive meaning (ta’diyat, becoming (sayrurat, becoming of anything over an adjective and criterion (ta’ridh. Islam is not only the believer’s submission to Allah, but it also has peace and safety that spreads right throughout to others. It is therefore, benefitting every individual as well as the society.
Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.
Sztokman, Elana Maryles
The religious school, where young people are brought into religious life and practice, the development of a religious belief system is often neglected. Religiousness is often instilled as a linear end product, a monolithic corpus of ideas to be singularly transmitted and subsequently owned by youth. However, educational research by Gareth…
Researchers have been demonstrating interest in doubts regarding religious faith for thirty years. The current study goal was examining differences between three groups of religious male adolescents in Israel, regarding faith identity, doubts in religious faith (past and present), religious behavior, and the connection between them. Three…
Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas;
Does religion provide placebo analgesia? The purpose of our project is to understand religious coping and specifically how it might be understood a coping strategy for religious people who experience pain. The project is an interdisciplinary study joining different faculties and academic institut......Does religion provide placebo analgesia? The purpose of our project is to understand religious coping and specifically how it might be understood a coping strategy for religious people who experience pain. The project is an interdisciplinary study joining different faculties and academic...... institutions, i.e. the Religion, Cognition and Culture (RCC) research area at The Faculty of Theology, Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN) and The Danish Pain Research Centre (DPRC) at the University of Aarhus and Aarhus University Hospital. The team will design fMRI (functional magnetic...... of these activities (heart rate variability, blood pressure, cortisol and oxytocin levels). Questionnaires and short interviews will give us a further assessment of the pain experience of the participants, their religious beliefs and practices as well as their previous experience with religious coping strategies. We...
McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst
Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.
Full Text Available Focusing on celebrities is often compared to a religious behavior, be it by the actors when describing their own practices or by scholars when using analogies with “cult”, “sacralization” or “sanctification”. Such comparisons appear to be both obvious and hardly convincing, since they merely evoke, without analyzing or explaining. Moreover, they ignore the normative effects—be they positive or negative—produced by any kind of religious analogy. This paper proposes several paths toward a reasoned use of comparison with religion: extending comparison to differences and not only to resemblances; passing from “religion” in general to the plurality of religions; deconstructing the said “religious” phenomenon into several functions depending on contexts; replacing discontinuous categories by continuous typologies and, finally, “religion” conceived as an original matrix by “religion” conceived as a contextual configuration. “Religion” thus appears as a common sense notion rather than as a conceptual instrument, and analysis may then fully develop without being restricted by religious analogies, while comparison may be used as a real tool.
Full Text Available Contemporary growth in non-religious populations has given rise to novel communities with unique perspectives on social issues. We describe a study of diversity within speakers at conferences organised by and attended by the atheist community. We analyse trends in diversity of 630 speakers, corresponding to 1223 speaking slots at 48 conferences conducted for the purpose of discussing or espousing non-religious views over the period 2003–2014. Diversity among speakers (defined using multivariate statistics in terms of the representation of women and non-white people increased significantly over time during the period studied. This broadening participation may have arisen from interventions to address issues of representation or may simply reflect a generational shift in the demographics of the community. However, on-going problems with data collection and the imbalance in the social cost of identifying as non-religious between different social groups continue to impede efforts to reduce barriers to equality within this growing movement.
Alexander Vladislavovich Pletnev
Full Text Available In the article features of influence of religion on the individual in the modern society are considered. In the XXI century the religion shows weak ability to execute functions of social control. At the same time the religion remains the major psychological factor which in many respects defines the maintenance of the vital world of individuals. Strengthening of influence of religion as psychological factor allows to study social consequences of this influence. If the classical sociological theory considers religion as a factor certainly constraining an anomy, in modern conditions the religion has rather opposite effect. The Christian religion shows the highest, unrealizable requirements to the individual.As a result of it the individuals strongly subject to influence of Christian values feel ina-bility to correspond to Christian model of ideal human behavior. The variety of religions in the modern society of the western type and conducting interreligious dialogue is other reason of development of religious anomy. The mutual erosion of the valuable and standard bases of each religion turns out to be consequence of this dialogue. In addition, modern society is characterized by essential distinction in understanding individuals of norms and principles of that religion which supporters they are.As for change of functioning of religion as social institute, in this aspect the increasing reorientation of religious institutes of the western society to the market purposes and values is observed. The specified processes in general will lead to increase of deviant behavior due to development of religious anomy.
Dolors Vidal Casellas
Full Text Available This article aims to provide an overview of the products Catalonia has to offer in terms of religious tourism. The growing interest in this kind of tourism worldwide, and in Catalonia itself, along with the region’s wealth of religious heritage (particularly connected to the Christian Church contrast with the lack of religion-based tourism products available, which results in its absence from the region’s image as a tourism destination. In view of this, the Faculty of Tourism (University of Girona, the Vic Bishopric’s Albergueria-Centre for Cultural Dissemination and the Tarraconense Episcopal Conference’s Interdiocese Secretariat for the Custody and Promotion of Holy Art (SICPAS decided to address the situation with the help of funding from the Autonomous Government of Catalonia. In order to re-position Christian religious heritage in the image of Catalonia as a tourist destination, the aforementioned parties embarked upon a project to set up a series of routes throughout the region, branded under the name Catalonia Sacra.
Uygur, S; Aydin, E; Özbilgin, M
This paper examines discrimination against religious minorities in the context of Turkey. First, we demonstrated a conceptual understanding of the religious diversity, and agency of religious minorities in social and political settings. Second, in order to reveal the perceptions of religious minorities on discrimination, we conducted 21 interviews with religious minority group members. Qualitative content analysis applied to all interview transcriptions, and we found two dimensions for this r...
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between critical thinking and religious schema as represented by religious orientation. Past research has included religious belief within the larger construct of paranormal belief, and demonstrated a correlation between high levels of paranormal belief and poor critical thinking skills. Studies in the psychology of religion suggested that a more complex religious measure based on religious orientation was necessary to understand these...
Giancarlo Lucchetti; Harold G. Koenig; Ilana Pinsky; Ronaldo Laranjeira; Homero Vallada
Objective: The connection between lower alcohol use and religiousness has been extensively examined. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed how religion and religiousness influence public policies. The present study seeks to understand the influence of religious beliefs on attitudes toward alcohol use. Methods: A door-to-door, nationwide, multistage population-based survey was carried out. Self-reported religiousness, religious attendance, and attitudes toward use of alcohol policies (such a...
Full Text Available The author takes a retrospective look at his book Religious Education: An Interpretive Approach, first published in 1997, and now available to readers, open access, via the European Wergeland Centre website (http://www.theewc.org/Content/Library/Research-Development/Literature/Introducing-Religious-Education-an-Interpretive-Approach. He tells a personal story of teaching, broadcasting and research, moving from the design of a methodology for studying the religions of minority groups in Britain to identifying the main concepts used for teaching about religions to children and young people in an engaging way, which relates to their own personal and social experience. The article, explains the key concept of representation – looking, for example, at how religions are often represented in ways that play down their internal diversity. Next the concept of interpretation is considered, emphasising the activity through which learners can compare and contrast the use of language by religious believers with their own nearest equivalent language uses, in trying, with sensitivity, to get as close as possible to their meanings. Finally, the process of reflexivity is explained; this gives learners an opportunity for three activities – to re-assess their understanding of their own world view (called edification in the interpretive approach, to make a distanced critique of beliefs and ideas they have studied, and to evaluate the methods that they have been using to learn about the religious meanings of others. Finally the author illustrates how the key concepts from the interpretive approach have been adapted for use in field research studies on teaching and learning about religions.
Мария Юрьевна Красильникова
Full Text Available This article aims to uncover the basic principles and key issues of the religious revival of the Silver Age – cultural- philosophical phenomenon associated primarily with the philosophy of Vladimir Solovyov and his followers. In our case, compared the religious- philosophical concept of the Solovyov and Merezhkovsky .Based on the method of hermeneutic analysis, the authors identify krizisological dominant of the two most important for a new religious consciousness concepts - Soloviev's «All-unity» concept and the concept of determining the direction of the religious quest Merezhkovsky - Third Testament religion .Revealed that despite the differences of these neo-Christian models , they can find many similarities . First, the principle of rethinking - a kind of " humanization" of Christianity. Second - its goal is to find a synthetic religious forms . As well as a number of more specific semantic parallels to ensure the uniqueness of each of the analyzed concepts. That is, the question of religious revival in these concepts are interfaced with the fixation , actualization and deep reflection on the crisis of philosophy and culture. Both authors argue the need to rethink the role of Christianity and its transformation, which should give a second life to the culture , philosophy and art.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-24
Patricia Snell Herzog
Full Text Available This paper investigates the research question: How do religious youth learn to give? While it is likely that youth learn religious financial giving from a variety of different sources, this investigation focuses primarily on how parents teach giving to their children. Supplementary data are also analyzed on the frequency in which youth hear extra-familial calls to give within their religious congregations. In focusing on parental transmission, the analysis identifies a number of approaches that parents report using to teach their children religious financial giving. It also investigates thoughts and feelings about religious financial giving by the children of these parents as a means of assessing the potential impacts of parental methods. Additionally, congregation member reflections on how they learned to give provide insights on giving as a process that develops across the life course, often instilled in childhood, but not appearing behaviorally until adulthood. As such, this paper contributes to a life course understanding of religious giving and has implications for giving across generations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438 attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Results Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p Conclusion The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.
Full Text Available We live in a world of contemporary kitsch, a world that merges authentic and false, good taste and meets often with bad taste. This phenomenon is găseseşte everywhere: in art, in literature cheap in media productions, shows, dialogues streets, in homes, in politics, in other words, in everyday life. Ksch site came directly in tourism, being identified in all forms of tourism worldwide, but especially religious tourism, pilgrimage with unexpected success in recent years. This paper makes an analysis of progressive evolution tourist traffic religion on the ability of the destination of religious tourism to remain competitive against all the problems, to attract visitors for their loyalty, to remain unique in terms of cultural and be a permanent balance with the environment, taking into account the environment religious phenomenon invaded Kisch, it disgraceful mixing dangerously with authentic spirituality. How trade, and rather Kisch's commercial components affect the environment, reflected in terms of religious tourism offer representatives highlighted based on a survey of major monastic ensembles in North Oltenia. Research objectives achieved in work followed, on the one hand the contributions and effects of the high number of visitors on the regions that hold religious sites, and on the other hand weighting and effects of commercial activity carried out in or near monastic establishments, be it genuine or kisck the respective regions. The study conducted took into account the northern region of Oltenia, and where demand for tourism is predominantly oriented exclusively practicing religious tourism
Full Text Available Introduction: Although many homebound older adults cope well using various resources, including religious coping strategies, some experience prolonged and unresolved psychosocial distress resulting in biological disruptions, such as hypercortisolism and increased inflammation, which are suggested mechanisms of decreased executive function. Purpose: To examine relationships of religious coping, psychosocial factors (stress, depression, loneliness, salivary biomarkers (cortisol, C-reactive protein (CRP, Interleukin-1β, and executive function. Methods: Data were collected cross-sectionally from 88 older adults (mean age 75.3. Religious coping, stress, depression, loneliness, and cognitive function were measured with standardized instruments, and saliva samples were collected for salivary cortisol, CRP, and IL-1β. Results: Negative religious coping significantly and positively correlated with stress, depression, and loneliness (r = 0.46, r = 0.21, r = 0.47, all p < 0.05; positive religious coping significantly and negatively correlated with depression and loneliness (r = −0.29, r = −0.23, both p < 0.05; and greater loneliness significantly predicted greater CRP (p < 0.05. For executive function, IL-1β showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.23, p = < 0.05. Discussion: Our findings fill gaps related to biobehavioral interactions of religious coping and cognitive health in the aging population. Future research should include additional psychosocial and biobehavioral variables in larger samples of diverse and vulnerable populations. Collective findings may be able to identify particularly vulnerable subgroups of population, ultimately with tailored interventions to prevent cognitive decline.
Full Text Available Latin America is experiencing today the greatest religious diversity in its entire history. However, it must also be noted that a large number of the growing religious minorities may be classified into types of Christianity with conservative overtones. In this paper we will suggest that the literature streams on multiple secularities in contemporary (Western societies and religious diversity in Latin America do offer insightful perspectives yet fail to adequately convey the challenges raised by the religious across contemporary Latin America. Addressing Latin America’s historical background, we will distinguish conceptually and empirically among different degrees of secularities, diversities and pluralities and will construct with these distinctions a descriptive-normative model that can guide future analyses of secular and religious phenomena in Latin America. It is only through a comprehensive understanding of diversities, pluralities and secularities that the debates on those human rights crucial for social inclusion—from sexual and reproductive rights to gender and religious equality—can be fruitfully conducted in and beyond Latin America.
Balkin, Richard S.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Levitt, Dana Heller
In this article, the authors present the results from a national study investigating the relationships between religious identity, sexism, homophobia, and multicultural competence. Participants were 111 randomly sampled counseling professionals and graduate students. The results indicated a relationship between religious identity and various…
Hall, Daniel E; Meador, Keith G; Koenig, Harold G
Although existing measures of religiousness are sophisticated, no single approach has yet emerged as a standard. We review the measures of religiousness most commonly used in the religion and health literature with particular attention to their limitations, suggesting that vigilance is required to avoid over-generalization. After placing the development of these scales in historical context, we discuss measures of religious attendance, private religious practice, and intrinsic/extrinsic religious motivation. We also discuss measures of religious coping, wellbeing, belief, affiliation, maturity, history, and experience. We also address the current trend in favor of multi-dimensional and functional measures of religiousness. We conclude with a critique of the standard, "context-free" approach aimed at measuring "religiousness-in-general", suggesting that future work might more fruitfully focus on developing ways to measure religiousness in specific, theologically relevant contexts. PMID:19105008
Leslie J. Francis
Full Text Available This study explores the properties of the New Indices of Religious Orientation Revised (NIROR among a sample of 521 Canadian adolescents attending a Baptist youth mission and service event, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. This revision simplified the language of the original instrument to increase its accessibility among young people. The data support the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the three revised nine-item scales designed to operationalise extrinsic religious orientation, intrinsic religious orientation, and quest religious orientation.
Full Text Available This paper examines intergenerational transmission of ‘religious capital’ from parents to their offspring within an economic framework. The analytical tool is a ‘production function of religiosity’ where parental religious inputs serve as factors of production. The database used is based on a large-scale survey that was conducted in 1998 in Spain. In addition to information on the religious affiliation of the respondent and his parents, it has detailed data on two dimensions of the individual’s religious performance: church attendance and prayer. it also includes information on the mother’s and father’s church attendance when the respondent was a child, as well as the respondent’s participation in mass services at the age of 12. Socioeconomic background data are also available. The core findings are: (i parental religious inputs significantly affect individuals’ religiosity; (ii interestingly, the route of intergenerational transmission is from mother to daughter and from father to son; and (iii current mass participation of respondents is more affected by parental- than by own childhood mass attendance.
En este estudio se examina la transmisión inter-generacional de capital religioso de padres a hijos, bajo un esquema de producción de ‘religiosidad’ donde los inputs parentales sirven como factores de producción. la base de datos utilizada está basada en una encuesta realizada en España en 1998. Se dispone de información sobre la afiliación religiosa del individuo y sus padres, la asistencia a misa y la oración del individuo (actualmente y la asistencia a la iglesia de la madre y el padre y del propio individuo cuando este era niño (a los 12 años. Encontramos que los inputs religiosos parentales afectan de manera significativa a la religiosidad individual, pero la vía de transmisión inter-generacional es de madre a hija y de padre a hijo. Sorprendentemente, la participación actual en actividades
Full Text Available Discussions about the justification of having religious beliefs have been continued since the beginning of the history of philosophy. The roles of evidence and the will in belief have been discussed under the title of “The Ethics of Belief”. John Locke also addressed to evidentialism in his works. Considering to construct his epistemology and belief on the strictest basis, Locke argued that believing something on insufficient evidence or failing to proportion our degree of belief according to the strength of the evidence is a transgression against our endowed light.
Full Text Available The educational policies of the Singapore government are driven by the needs of a modern knowledge-based society and economic development, with the state advocating modernity while the Muslim minority, arguably, appeared to be caught in tradition and holding on to “old fashioned” education. However, whether the new attempts at modernizing madrasah education driven by the state will succeed remains to be seen, as earlier attempts of reformation driven by the Muslim community, or parts thereof, have been rather unsuccessful. This paper analyses the discourse between tradition and modernity of Islamic religious education in Singapore.
Full Text Available The article describes key aspects of Samuel Huntington's "Clash of Civilizations" thesis. It acknowledges the way in which that thesis has picked up on some key changes in relation to the role of religion in public life and, especially, in international relations. But it also critiques the thesis for its "essentializing" and "bloc" approach to cultures and societies, arguing that such an approach does not take sufficient account of the differences and sometimes fault-lines and conflicts within societies and cultural groups. For what might characterise appropriate religiously informed responses to Huntington's thesis, the article proposes an approach based on four "keynotes" of "modesty", "integrity", "realism" and "distinctiveness".
Full Text Available The paper intends to debate on several media representations of some current social and cultural identities in the USA starting from the controversy that the Indiana Religious Freedom Restoration Act has recently generated. It is to establish the grounding of public opinion regarding the way in which American legislation understands to solve competing constitutional rights while attracting several important actors in the network of disputes over values like equality, freedom, pluralism, justice, democracy. It also comments on individual and community identity construction seen as an ongoing process of ne-gotiation and mobilization of dichotomist beliefs and practices.
Full Text Available The École pratique des Hautes Études, department of Historical and Philological Sciences, the French Biblical and Archeological School of Jerusalem and the French Research Center of Jerusalem inaugurated in 1997 a closer collaboration by organizing a one-week seminar on the theme of the “History of the Religious Book”. The sessions took place at the French Biblical and Archeological School, located a few hundred meters from the Damascus Gate and from the Old City. Following the opening of the...
Full Text Available This article shows the procedings to make an aplication of a poll about the reception of the figure of Pope Johanes Paulus II in atention to his second visit to Mexico, this work was done in the medium stratti of Mexico city. The objective of this proyect is to let know which relation has and has had the mexican society with the Pope; wich sort of capacities they ascribe to him, wich conception peope have him and of his behavior in religious actions. This work present the methodologici frame used in the research proyect.
Carlos Magno Teixeira
Full Text Available TEIXEIRA, C. M. Comunidade ética e religião: A estruturação da fé kantiana. Dissertação (Mestrado. 2013. 113f - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte Palavras-chave Liberdade. Comunidade ética. Igreja. Religião moral. Fé racional.
Carlos A. Sanz Mingo
Full Text Available This paper analyses the religious situation in Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries as reflected in Arthurian literature. This reflection usually depicts religious strife which brought a political division between the British kingdoms. This, in turn, provoked the final defeat against the Anglo-Saxons. Four religious creeds will be dealt with: the native Celtic religion and the cults that the Romans brought with them from the Eastern Mediterranean, including Christianity and the mysteries of Isis and Mithras. All of them are represented in Bernard Cornwell’s trilogy The WarlordChronicles. We will concentrate on how these creeds influenced the lives of Britons in the agerepresented and exemplified in the first book of Conrnwell’s trilogy, The Winter King. Despite thefact that religion has always been one of the most common topics in Arthuriana, modern literaturedeals with it in a different way to previous texts, linking it with history and politics.
Alberto da Silva Moreira
Full Text Available Since its beginnings, in the late 60´s in Latin America, liberation theology, both as a social-political-religious movement as a theoretical reflection, influenced churches, religious communities, political engaged groups, faith, ethnic, nationalist and gender-based social movements in many parts of the world. This theology, in order to face the many institutionalized forms of violence (hunger, social exclusion, gender, class and ethnic prejudices took politics seriously as mediation to religious faith. During a long process of internal differentiation and opening to new themes and methods, in which there were many crises and conflicts, the various liberation theologies interacted with other theologies, religions and cultures. Today, due to the cultural globalization processes, a social and religious global imaginary is on the rise. Theologies of liberation (in the form of reports, biographies, symbols, images, motifs, hermeneutics of sacred texts and methods of popular organization are globalized and are contributing to form a social imaginary around religion. In this imaginary one aspect of liberation theology that emerges is precisely that of a religious faith which assumes political responsibility before structural forms of violence. Such imaginary, even if seemingly intangible, it has influenced the practices and the actual horizon of reality perception in religion and in politics.
Is there a Nordic model for Religious Education? The article explores how Cultural Protestantism and Liberal Theology influenced the ways in which Religious Education developed in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century as part of the transformation...... in the question of education, namely Nathan Söderblom (1866-1931), Edvard Lehmann (1862-1930) and Eivind Berggrav (1884-1959), who serve as prisms for the transnational historical analysis of what takes place between states and social fields. The article suggests that Nordic Cultural Protestantism contributed...... to a model of religious education which in complex ways combines secularization in the meaning of division of the church-state relation with sacralization of the state and its so-called culture....
Jordens, Christopher F C; O'Connor, Michelle A C; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron; Cameron, Andrew; Keown, Damien; Lawrence, Rabbi Jeremy; McGarrity, Andrew; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Tobin, Bernadette
Umbilical cord blood is a valuable source of haematopoietic stem cells. There is little information about whether religious affiliations have any bearing on attitudes to and decisions about its collection, donation and storage. The authors provided information about umbilical cord blood banking to expert commentators from six major world religions (Catholicism, Anglicanism, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism) and asked them to address a specific set of questions in a commentary. The commentaries suggest there is considerable support for umbilical cord blood banking in these religions. Four commentaries provide moral grounds for favouring public donation over private storage. None attach any particular religious significance to the umbilical cord or to the blood within it, nor place restrictions on the ethnicity or religion of donors and recipients. Views on ownership of umbilical cord blood vary. The authors offer a series of general points for those who seek a better understanding of religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking. PMID:22558902
The paper chapter examines the labour market, both private and public, and where different countries draw the lines between the right of the employers and the religious freedom of employees. Starting from an analysis of the debates about the Islamic headscarves, she asks why the labour market...... countries: The Danish High Court decision (in 2005) gave private employers the right to ban headscarves for employees under specific conditions, if it concerns all religious symbols and refers to a general dress-code. This contrasts with the Norwegian Equality Ombud's decision stating that a ban...... on headscarves would be direct religious discrimination and indirect gender discrimination of employees. The paper raises general questions about the meanings of and shifts in the framings of gender with religion on different sites on the basis of the European VEIL-project ( http://www.univie.ac.at/veil/Home3...
According to existing theory, religion thrives when groups overcome the free-rider problem in the production of religious goods. This paper explains, however, that allowing some free-riding is necessary in a dynamic setting. If an individual only contributes when she has high religious capital, and if capital only forms after exposure to the religious good, then a church must allow her to temporarily free-ride in order to turn her into a future contributor. Free-riders comprise a risky but ne...
Full Text Available The implementation of the freedom of religion or belief in educational environment, in particular the use of religious symbols and obligatory religious education, has been, and continues to be, a matter of controversy and discussion in a number of countries. A number of cases brought before the ECtHR concerning the application of Article 9 of the Convention and Article 2 of Protocol 1 of the ECHR show that parties to the ECHR still face difficulties in guaranteeing religious freedom in the educational environment consistently with the requirements of the ECHR, the analysis of which is the core of the Article. The majority of European states seek to avoid indoctrination in state education and teaching by offering exemption mechanisms or lessons in substitute subjects, or by giving pupils the choice of whether or not to sign up to a religious studies class. However, as it is clear from the jurisprudence of the ECtHR, the exemption or choice itself does not guarantee that in practice the Member States ensure an education consistent with religious convictions in line with the requirements set forth explicitly and implicitly in Article 2 of Protocol No. 1 and Article 9 of the ECHR. Furthermore, in the majority of cases regarding the display of religious symbols, the ECtHR justified the interference as ‘necessary in a democratic society’ in pursuance of the legitimate aim of protecting the rights and freedoms of others and of public order. However, the Court’s findings in the cases concerning Islamic symbols, on the one hand, and Christian religious symbols, on the other hand, raise a discussion about ‘double standards’ applicable to the different religions.
Full Text Available The Brief RCOPE is a 14-item measure of religious coping with major life stressors. As the most commonly used measure of religious coping in the literature, it has helped contribute to the growth of knowledge about the roles religion serves in the process of dealing with crisis, trauma, and transition. This paper reports on the development of the Brief RCOPE and its psychometric status. The scale developed out of Pargament’s (1997 program of theory and research on religious coping. The items themselves were generated through interviews with people experiencing major life stressors. Two overarching forms of religious coping, positive and negative, were articulated through factor analysis of the full RCOPE. Positive religious coping methods reflect a secure relationship with a transcendent force, a sense of spiritual connectedness with others, and a benevolent world view. Negative religious coping methods reflect underlying spiritual tensions and struggles within oneself, with others, and with the divine. Empirical studies document the internal consistency of the positive and negative subscales of the Brief RCOPE. Moreover, empirical studies provide support for the construct validity, predictive validity, and incremental validity of the subscales. The Negative Religious Coping subscale, in particular, has emerged as a robust predictor of health-related outcomes. Initial evidence suggests that the Brief RCOPE may be useful as an evaluative tool that is sensitive to the effects of psychological interventions. In short, the Brief RCOPE has demonstrated its utility as an instrument for research and practice in the psychology of religion and spirituality.
Harold G. Koenig
Full Text Available This paper (1 reviews the physical and religious barriers to CBT that disabled medically ill-depressed patients face, (2 discusses research on the relationship between religion and depression-induced physiological changes, (3 describes an ongoing randomized clinical trial of religious versus secular CBT in chronically ill patients with mild-to-moderate major depression designed to (a overcome physical and religious barriers to CBT and (b compare the efficacy of religious versus secular CBT in relieving depression and improving immune and endocrine functions, and (4 presents preliminary results that illustrate the technical difficulties that have been encountered in implementing this trial. CBT is being delivered remotely via instant messaging, telephone, or Skype, and Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Hindu versions of religious CBT are being developed. The preliminary results described here are particular to the technologies employed in this study and are not results from the CBT clinical trial whose findings will be published in the future after the study ends and data are analyzed. The ultimate goal is to determine if a psychotherapy delivered remotely that integrates patients’ religious resources improves depression more quickly than a therapy that ignores them, and whether religious CBT is more effective than conventional CBT in reversing depression-induced physiological changes.
Matthijs de Blois
Full Text Available The tension between religious law and secular law in modern democracies is illustrated in this article by a discussion of the different approaches to the get (a bill of divorce refusal (based on Jewish law under Dutch, English and Israeli law. These legal orders share many characteristics, but also display important differences as to the role of religion and religious law in the public realm. The Dutch system is the most secular of the three; it does not recognize a role for religious law within the secular system as such. The English legislation provides for means that to a certain extent facilitate the effectuation of a religious divorce. In Israel, finally, the law of marriage and divorce is as such governed by the religious law of the parties concerned; for the majority of the population that is Jewish law. An evaluation of the different approaches in the framework of human rights law reveals the complexities of the collision of the underlying values in terms of equality, religious freedom and minority rights, also having regard to the diversity of opinions within religious communities.
Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine
The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyse to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of religious...... experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of the present paper mean by the concept of religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: the Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological or RIT type of religious experience. In his studies...... and for the problem arising when drawing inadequately reasoned conclusions. Key Words Religious experiences, religious Erlebnis, religious Erfahrung, (religious) ideology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, pain, PET, reductionism, partial reductionism, Transcendental Meditation, epilepsy, schizophrenia....
Religious tourism is a form of tourism whereby people of the same faith travel individually or in groups for religious purposes. This form of tourism comprises many facets of the travel industry ranging from pilgrimages, missionary travel, leisure (fellowship), vacations, faith-based cruising, crusades, conventions and rallies, retreats, monastery visits and guest-stays, Christian and faith-based camps, to religious tourist attractions. In Sukur Kingdom, most tourists embark on religious trav...
Minow, Martha Louise
Should a private religious university lose its tax exempt status if it bans interracial dating? Should a religious school be able fire a pregnant married teacher because her continued work would violate the church's view that mothers of young children should not work outside the home? Should a religious social service agency, such as Catholic Charities, be exempt from a state regulation banning discrimination in the delivery of social services on the basis of sexual orientation? Should religi...
Minow, Martha Louise
Should a private, religious university lose its tax-exempt status because it bans interracial dating? Should a religious school fire a pregnant married teacher on religious grounds despite the ban against gender discrimination in employment? Should a religious social service agency be exempt from a state regulation banning discrimination in the delivery of social services on the basis of sexual orientation? This Article argues that courts and legislatures have granted and refused exemptions f...
Burdette, Amy M.; Pilkauskas, Natasha V.
Although religious involvement is associated with a number of beneficial health outcomes, few studies have investigated whether religious involvement is associated with breastfeeding behaviors. Our analyses of two waves of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 4,166) indicate that mothers who frequently attend religious services are more likely to initiate breastfeeding than mothers who never attend services. Understanding religious variations in breastfeeding may allo...
Wiseman, Wendy A.; Kesgin, Burak
This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…
Levi, Daniel; Kocher, Sara
Tourism at historic religious sites requires balancing the needs of historic preservation, the tourist experience, and community use of the site. The sacredness of these places is defined by the behaviors that occur there, the experience of users and visitors, and the meanings associated with the place by various groups. This research examines the…
Photiadis, John; Simoni, Joseph J.
The contributions to societal integration of the flexible and diversified religious institution of rural Appalachia in the United States were compared and contrasted with the contributions of the more or less monolithic and state-controlled rural church in Greece. It was found that the process of integration of rural society into the larger social…
This article offers a reading of a story from the Babylonian Talmud ("Bava Batra" 8a). Through this reading several key themes emerge, including: the power and politics of knowledge acquisition, the connection between spiritual and physical nourishment, the relationship between religious educators and students, and the meaning and value of…
Oumar Ba-Konaré, Dougoukolo Alpha
The adolescent process is the theatre for the confrontation of oneself with the formation of identity, the learning of limits and psychological compromises as attempts at psychological regulation. Religious radicalisation appears on stage, offering ways of responding to anxieties fuelled by the global socio-political context. Adolescent vulnerability is studied through the prism of all these different conflicting tensions. PMID:26790596
Outlines the response of a religious community to the needs of nuns who are increasingly being asked to decide their own work roles. Presents a theological premise along with an overview of the System for Identifying Motivated Abilities. Feedback on the workshops has been positive. (Author/JAC)
Artiklen undersøger hvordan religiøse billeder, narrative strategier og andre elementer er en del af musicalgenren. Der foretages en mere indgående analyse af Richard Rodgers' og Oscar Hammersteins forestilling Carousel samt af Andrew LLoyd Webber og Tim Rices forestilling Evita....
Cardinal, Monique C.
This article discusses the almost identical syllabuses of the Christian and Muslim religious education programmes of the Syrian Arab Republic. Content analysis of the students' textbooks and teachers' guides (in Arabic) reveals common themes of citizenship education and national unity. Classroom observations in Damascus also highlight how…
Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario
This paper tackles a highly controversial issue: the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education respectively. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible or even complementary. In order to do so, we give a brief characterization of our conceptions of science and religion. Conspicuous differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological and attitudinal level are noted. Regarding these aspects, closer examination reveals that science and religion are not only different but in fact incompatible. Some consequences of our analysis for education as well as for education policy are explored. We submit that a religious education, particularly at an early age, is an obstacle to the development of a scientific mentality. For this and other reasons, religious education should be kept away from public schools and universities. Instead of promoting a religious world view, we should teach our children what science knows about religion, i.e., how science explains the existence of religion in historical, biological, psychological and sociological terms.
Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.
Purpose of the Study: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social…
Petersen, Marie Juul
Religious organizations are increasingly visible in development and humanitarian aid, something which has been reflected in the emergence of a new strand of research, focusing on these organizations and their involvement in the provision of development and humanitarian aid. However, most of this ...
A central task of religious education is to show how the puzzlements to human intelligence and the experiences that are associated with spirituality, are compelling in relation to our development as human beings. There are always more theories than objects or events to be explained, and while the spiritual "data" that gives rise to our puzzlements…
Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.
What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).
@@ Ⅰ. The World Peace Requires Religious Dialogues Peace, development and cooperation are the mainstay of the times in the present world, but there are unseen tricky and atrocious flows. The increasing opposition and conflicts are raging between different countries, nations and religions, which are challenging the wisdom and civilization of mankind.
.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-1304 Filed 1-19-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... matters of religion.'' The fundamental principle of religious freedom--guarded by our Founders and... religion as they choose, including the right to believe in no religion at all. However, these liberties...
Galiatsatos, Panagis; Lehmijoki-Gardner, Maiju; Daniel Hale, W
Improving health care in the twenty-first century will require new and creative approaches, with special attention given to health literacy and patient engagement since these two variables play a significant role in chronic health issues and their management. In order to better improve these key variables, strong partnerships between patients, their communities, and medical institutions must be developed. One way of facilitating these relationships is through medical-religious partnerships. Religious leaders are in regular contact with people who need education about and support with health issues. However, identifying the most effective way to approach specific congregations can pose a challenge to healthcare providers and institutions. In this paper, we provide a brief historical review of certain religious traditions and how their history plays a role in current medical-religious partnerships. PMID:26345681
Special Religious Education is faith-based single tradition religious education taught in many Australian public schools by volunteer teachers who are adherents of the faith they are teaching. This paper derives from a qualitative study of the pedagogy of Christian Special Religious Education teachers that took place between 2010 and 2014. Love is…
Bakker, Cok; ter Avest, Ina
In the post-pillarized society of the Netherlands, formal religious education still is structured according to religious dividing lines. "Religion" in confessional schools is a compulsory subject; in public schools, taking a so-called neutral position with regard to religious traditions, "Religion"
Mayrl, Damon; Uecker, Jeremy E.
Going to college has long been assumed to liberalize students' religious beliefs. Using longitudinal data from the National Study of Youth and Religion, we compare change in the content of religious beliefs of those who do and do not attend college. We find that, in general, college students are no more likely to develop liberal religious beliefs…
I raise the problem that religious effects on the education practices of Australian religious schooling have not been measured, despite many claims and the critical size of the sector. The paper seeks to suggest factors to be considered in shaping methodologies for researching this area. Identifying four ways that religious schooling has been…
Vandecreek, Larry; Mottram, Kenneth
This exploratory study gathered narratives from 10 female suicide survivors, exploring 3 dimensions of their religious life during bereavement: (a) the function of the survivor's personal religion, (b) the function of religious support from family and friends, and (c) the function of established religious communities. Ten themes emerged from the…
Sasson, Uzi; Sasson, Ayelet
Religious Education is one way to increase and maintain community involvement among teenagers. In many Jewish communities across the United States, participation in religious activities and religious youth movements have decreased. As research in this area is limited, this study sets out to identify the curricula that are more effective in…
St. Augustine of Hippos' writing on education offers a fresh lens through which the conceptual framework of religious education in the Catholic school can be understood. Recent teaching of the Magisterium of the Catholic Church on the distinctive nature of religious education and catechesis has challenged religious educators to find an alternative…
Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Pargament, Kenneth I.
This study assessed the role of religion in the coping of 45 parents of children with autism. All parents completed a questionnaire and 21 parents were interviewed. Positive religious coping was associated with better religious outcome and greater stress-related growth, whereas negative religious coping was associated with greater depressive…
Hardy, Sam A.; Steelman, Michael A.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Ridge, Robert D.
This study examined mediators of relations between adolescent religiousness and pornography use. The sample consisted of 419 adolescents (ages 15-18 years; M age = 15.68, SD = 0.98; 56% male). It was hypothesized that religiousness (religious internalization and involvement) would protect adolescents from pornography use (accidental and…
Barnes, L. Philip
The aim of this paper is to provide a positive case for increasing the role and importance of religious morality within the subject of religious education in British schools. The argument is structured in the following way. First, attention is given to the diminished role accorded to moral education within religious education that followed the…
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Religious character and independence. 54a.5 Section... ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.5 Religious character and independence. A religious organization that participates in an applicable program will retain its independence from Federal, State,...
Full Text Available This paper presents an example of how rituals may play an important role in the birth of a new religion, and how this religious innovation can be interpreted through the rituals. This example concerns a religious group — Shan the Rising Light — that has managed to introduce a comprehensive body of rituals into a belief system otherwise characteristed by its general lack of rituals and ceremonies (namely the theosophy of Madame Blavatsky, thereby setting the standards for a virtually new religion. Jeanne Morashti was excommunicated from the organization she felt obliged to save, and started her own religious group. During her religious career, she had encountered numerous groups within the broader limits of the theosophical milieu, and when establishing her own group, she formed a synthesis of the various elements. The old process of syncretism and eclecticism, in the case of Shan the Rising Light, have managed to include the rituals too. The systematized mixing of strongly ritualized traditions with a non-ritualized belief system has led to a religious innovation.
Ana Paula de Andrade Verona
Full Text Available Religion is becoming an important and highly present factor in the lives of many adolescents and young adults in Brazil. In addition to creating more space for them to maintain close relationships and participate actively in a religious environment, some religions have promoted the dissemination of clearer standards and objectives, as well as punitive sanctions, with respect to many aspects of their younger followers' lives, including their sexual behavior. This article examines how religion can affect, direct and indirectly, the sexual behavior of Brazilian adolescents. The main objective of this study is to look for a connection between Christian Smith's theoretical framework, which suggests several mechanisms through which religion can influence the lives of American adolescents, and ethnographic studies conducted in Brazil, as well as quantitative works that have brought attention to social and demographic consequences of recent religious transformations. Even though there is limited empirical evidence as to how the mechanisms of religious involvement work in Brazil, this study concludes that each of Smith's pathways can also be used to explain potential effects of religion on sexual behavior of Brazilian adolescents. This research should encourage empirical studies on such effects in Brazil. Besides the importance of examining the impact of the recent transformations in Brazil religious landscape on demographic phenomena, this topic deserves further consideration from Brazilian demographers because religion is a primary socialization agent of adolescents, and sexual activity is a sphere of human behavior of high importance in its religious applicability.
Full Text Available Background: The Supreme Court of Canada (SCC has ruled that the federal government is required to remove the provisions of the Criminal Code of Canada that prohibit medical assistance in dying (MAID. The SCC has stipulated that individual physicians will not be required to provide MAID should they have a religious or conscientious objection. Therefore, the pending legislative response will have to balance the rights of the patients with the rights of physicians, other health care professionals, and objecting institutions. Objective: The objective of this paper is to critically assess, within the Canadian context, the moral probity of individual or institutional objections to MAID that are for either religious or conscientious reasons. Methods: Deontological ethics and the Doctrine of Double Effect. Results: The religious or conscientious objector has conflicting duties, i.e., a duty to respect the “right to life” (section 7 of the Charter and a duty to respect the tenets of his or her religious or conscientious beliefs (protected by section 2 of the Charter. Conclusion: The discussion of religious or conscientious objections to MAID has not explicitly considered the competing duties of the conscientious objector. It has focussed on the fact that a conscientious objection exists and has ignored the normative question of whether the duty to respect one’s conscience or religion supersedes the duty to respect the patient’s right to life.
Mark E Aveyard
Full Text Available Two experiments with Middle Eastern participants explored the generalizability of prior research on religious priming and moral behavior to a novel cultural and religious context. Participants in Experiment 1 completed a sentence unscrambling task with religious or non-religious content (in Arabic before taking an unsupervised math test on which cheating was possible and incentivized. No difference in honesty rates emerged between the two groups, failing to extend findings from previous research with similar stimuli. Experiment 2 tested the effects of the athan, the Islamic call to prayer, using the same design. This naturalistic religious prime produced higher rates of honesty (68% compared to controls who did not hear the call to prayer (53%.These results raise the possibility that the psychological mechanisms used by religion to influence moral behavior might differ between religions and cultures, highlighting an avenue of exploration for future research. The experiments here also address two growing concerns in psychological science: that the absence of replications casts doubt on the reliability of original research findings, and that the Westernized state of psychological science casts doubt on the generalizability of such work.
Full Text Available We review Timothy Vang’s dissertation on the growth and decline of the Hmong Christian church. We argue that Vang’s arguments are methodologically and theoretically flawed. Furthermore, we try to show that his dissertation is not so much an objective analysis of Hmong religious adaptation, but rather an attempt to define and subjugate certain Hmong cultural and religious beliefs and practices as backward and inferior to Christianity. We suggest that it is these kinds of problematic arguments, often couched in academic language, that further perpetuate misinterpretations and misrepresentations about “culture” and “religion” in Hmong American communities.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to create awareness of the dangers of religious cults. The process utilised by these cults to recruit members and to control their lives is so subtle that members are led to believe that they joined out of their own free will. A brief discussion of what religious cults are as well as how they function is followed by an explanation of mind control and how it is utilised by cults. This article maintains that mind control is the secret weapon with which leaders of cults lure their followers under false pretences to mislead, control and make them dependent on the cult.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the structural validity and reliability of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSRFQ instrument in the Greek population. One hundred and three individuals (men n = 45, and women n = 58 participated in this study. Their age ranged from 17 to 86 years. More specifically, the study investigated the fit of both versions of SCSRFQ (10-item and 5-item. The results of the present study revealed that both versions have adequate fit and can be used by Greek researchers as a measure of strength of religious faith in the Greek population.
MUHAMMAD JAWAD IQBAL
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to apply DBBE model to discover the constructs to measure the religious event as a business brand on the bases of devotees’ perception. SEM technique was applied to measure the hypothesized model of which CFA put to analyze the model and a theoretical model was made to measure the model fit. Sample size was of 500. The base of brand loyalty was affected directly by image and quality. This information might be beneficial to event management and sponsors in making brand and operating visitors’ destinations. More importantly, the brand of these religious events in Pakistan can be built as a strong tourism product.
In Central Asia, religion is gradually coming to the fore in everyday life as a fairly integrated phenomenon with a wide range of functions: consolidation of ethnic self-awareness, shaping spiritual and moral culture together with the awareness of being part of a religious and the world community; fulfilling social functions through religious prescriptions; formulating the ideals of social justice, as well as man's duty to the state and the state's to man, etc. Some of the functions, however,...
Mihai A. GÎRŢU
Full Text Available Starting from the recent public debate over global warming we discuss the scientific consensus and public perception on climate issues. We then turn to the ongoing debate on diets and nutrition, comparing scientific perspectives, public views and religious standpoints.
... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 31 and 301 RIN 1545-BJ06 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA... Advocacy of the Small Business Administration for comment on its impact on small business. Comments and... and addition read as follows: Sec. 31.3121(b)(3)-1 Family Employment. * * * * * (c) [The text of...
Full Text Available The author analyses discussion that took place between S. Frank and S. Lurje concerning “Vekhi” (“Landmarks”. In this context, the author’s objective is to show the evolution of S. Frank’s outlook on culture and religion, which developed in three stages: the humanistic individualism, the religious humanism, and the Christian realism.
Full Text Available The success of technical and communicational system of television, for more than fifty years, is probably due to the fact that it succeeded in replacing the religious. We will show that it renews liturgies, rites of possession, shamanism, and even black magic. These analogies are able to make us understand human comportment facing television, so often banalized.
Cristian Rojas González
Full Text Available From different perspectives there has been an attempt to put limits on the use of religious language in public discourse, with arguments like the defense of secularism or pluralism. The German philosopher Jürgen Habermas has argued that the religious discourse can share in the social debate after a translation of its principles into universally acceptable secular terms. However, the persistence of religious language in politics is still able to communicate successfully, and remains a valuable resource even in a socialist-style left like that of President Hugo Chavez. The purpose of this article is to analyze the discourse relationship between politics andreligion from the example of the Venezuelan government.
H. J.C. Pieterse
Full Text Available The concept of religious beliefs is distilled from the perspective of one’s belief in God. With regard to this belief in God we propose to distinguish between two dimensions: The personal versus the a-personal characte r of God and his transcendent versus his immanent nature. This leaves us with a plurality of beliefs in God. Does this plurality of beliefs exist in the minds of people in the Netherlands and in South Africa? Together with this we explore the relationship between church involvement and plural religious beliefs in both countries. We have found a sharp contrast between the Dutch and a sample of church-going white South Africans regarding secularization and church involvement. Nevertheless, we have found a highly similar structure of religious beliefs among both people.
Gabriela Cristina Maceda Rubert
Full Text Available This research seeks to comprehend the intrinsic relations of multiple memories present in the disposition of religious images of faith healer ladies in the city of Cambé. Through the dialogue with the oral source and the image source, we seek to relate the historic aspects to the particularities present in the studied cases. We reflected in this research on the concepts of identity, memory and healing present in these relations of exchange between the supernatural and the terrestrial, paying attention to the meaning of the plurality of images present in this space through the image analysis and the narratives and histories of ex-votes described in the faith healers testimony. The research discussed the religious reminiscences based on memories, identities and family heritages of the devotees, relating their particular and private lives with the processes of the Brazilian cultural and religious formation.
Marta Magdalena Boczkowska
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine narratives of the personal religious, spiritual and mystical experiences of adult Poles (N = 74 and their impact on narrative identity. The method for collecting qualitative data about individual understandings and spiritual, religious and mystical experiences was the narrative interview, developed on the basis of the Life Story Interview. During the analysis, the following key topics were identified: awareness of the presence/protection of God, a peak experience, the awareness of oneness with nature and the world, and a sense of closeness/contact with a person who has died. This study provides specific information on the spiritual, religious and mystical experiences of the investigated group of Poles.
Full Text Available This article looks to analyze the process through which eastern cosmological elements and religious practices acquire new meanings as they take on fresh uses in western festive contexts, as well as examine the symbolic and performative dimensions of the phenomenon in question. Electronic music festivals suggest a reading of eastern religious factors that serve as a reference to their 'origin myth.' The ethnographic data reveals a new form of obtaining ecstasy via music, performances, 'natural' ambients and altered states of consciousness. The appeal to transcendence is the direct result of western re-workings of Indian religious practices - especially those proposed by the spiritual leader Osho, who formed a cosmology based on fragments taken out of their 'original' context and given meaning in the life of those who adopt the Sannyasalifestyle.
Alberto Pereira dos Santos
Full Text Available This article represents a synthesis of our doctoral thesis in human geography, defended at the University of São Paulo. What are the relationships between geopolitics and religion? Our hypothesis held that churches make use of geopolitics to maintain and expand the "religious capital". On the other hand, the geographical analysis of the Brazilian reality identifies a slow and fruitful process of metamorphosis of beliefs and spiritual emancipation through the growth of the religious population without religion. This process occurs without the government of the churches. Based on the ideas of geoethic and mutual support, it is argued that the existence of the population without religion represents religious anarchy in Brazil.
Edson Zangiacomi Martinez
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between religiousness and blood donation among postgraduate students.METHODS: The Portuguese-language version of the Duke University Religion Index was administered to a sample of 226 Brazilian students with ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. All study participants had completed undergraduate courses in health-related areas.RESULTS: In the present study, 23.5% of the students were regular donors. Organizational religiousness was found to be associated with attitudes related to blood donation. This study also shows evidence that regular blood donors have a higher intrinsic religiousness than subjects who donate only once and do not return.CONCLUSION: This study shows that the attitudes concerning blood donation may have some association with religiosity.
Alex Villas Boas
Full Text Available This article proposes to examine some theories of non-religious spirituality in light of the growing phenomenon of those individuals who declared themselves as having "no religion" by Brazilian religious census conducted in 2010 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The intention here is to identify how the poetic question presents itself as the fundamental element of these proposals about spirituality for authors, since beauty is part of the spiritual quest, as in: Viktor Frankl and existential religiosity grounded in the search for meaning in life; Marià Corbí and his non-religious or secular spirituality; Robert Solomon and his spirituality for skeptics, and André Comte-Sponville and his atheistic spirituality, or spirituality without God. From there, we then present the perception of spirituality in the poetry of the thought of Jean Paul Sartre, primarily in his work “what is Literature?”
Full Text Available A relação entre religião e política por muitas vezes é encarada como antagônicas ou como termos sem relação. O apelo ao racionalismo e secularização do Estado esteve presente no mundo ocidental. No entanto, o que percebemos é que a religião ainda possui grande impacto na política. Descrevemos sobre a relação política e religião presente nos Estados Unidos, desde a era Reagan até a famosa doutrina Bush. Demonstraremos como na história o conservadorismo cristão protestante defendeu a politica externa dos Estados Unidos e apontaremos quais são os desafios propostos por essa linha de pensamento chamada neoconservadorismo.
Cosmin Tudor Ciocan
Full Text Available I have started this research as a response to a pejorative question that religious rituals are merely theatrical, and the personnel involved nothing else but actors; beyond this there is nothing any religion suggests, e.g. healing, divine touch, blessings et.al. This paper is about rituals and their meanings and roles played as in social drama and theatre play. Considering the relationship between ritual and theatre to be reciprocal I will use their functions to evaluate the process of religious ceremonies and the role they play for adherents/participants, as if they would be attending a play. Religious Studies and Drama joint study offers the opportunity to combine two complementary humanities subjects, as both drama and religion are mainstays of cultural practice.
Mihai Florin BĂCILĂ
Full Text Available For thousands of years, people have been travelling to places considered sacred to meet or to worship Divinity. Religion-motivated tourism is extremely important in many parts of the world. The aim of this paper is to investigate the issue of the religious tourism experience for a religion considered to be conservative and traditionalist in relation to other denominations. In order to achieve this end we distinguish the behavioural characteristics and motivations of the religious sites’ visitors through the abbots’ gaze. The research method of this study is a questionnaire based survey among more than one hundred monasteries’ superiors from different regions of Romania, places known as “holy or sacred” destinations for the Romanian religious people.
Liberty Lee Kohn
Full Text Available Cognitive poetics has often investigated only literary reading practices. This article examines how one particular method of cognitive poetics, text world theory, can be used to understand the cognitive reading practices based upon Christian hermeneutic systems of temporality. To differentiate religious rhetoric from persuasive public rhetoric, the article examines text and discourse worlds in 1980s British Labour Party rhetoric, in the rhetoric of the Sermon on the Mount, and in Catholic social activist rhetoric.
Full Text Available Javanese manuscript is a noble heritage that should be preserved. This study was conducted to determine the values of harmony contained in the Serat Purwocampur. The method used in this study on a content analysis and philology. Serat Purwocampur consists of four kinds of macapat song: Asmaradhana, Girisa, Pangkur, and Dhandhanggula. Briefly, this manuscript contains ancient stories and supernatural, such as gods associated with the prophets or otherwise. Value of harmony contained in this manuscript is the acculturation between Hinduism and Islam (Islamic Javanization. Islam spread peacefully in Java, in additions Islam also taught its followers (the Javanese to perform religion both syari’at and hakikat.
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.
Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents' religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents' religiousness and adolescent adjustment outcomes--either directly or indirectly via adolescents' own religiousness--varies depending on relationship context…
Motalová, Katarína; Rihácek, Tomáš
Most studies exploring the religiosity gap are concerned with non-religious counsellors and religious clients. Approaching this phenomenon from a reversed perspective, this study explores how counsellors' religiosity presents when working with clients in a predominantly non-religious environment. Semi-structured interviews with 11 Czech…
Hill, Terrence D; Ellison, Christopher G; Burdette, Amy M; Taylor, John; Friedman, Katherine L
Although numerous studies suggest that religious involvement is associated with a wide range of favorable health outcomes, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to cellular aging. In this paper, we tested whether leukocyte telomere length varies according to several dimensions of religious involvement. We used cross-sectional data from the Nashville Stress and Health Study (2011-2014), a large probability sample of 1252 black and white adults aged 22 to 69 living in Davidson County, TN, USA. Leukocyte telomere length was measured using the monochrome multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction method with albumin as the single-copy reference sequence. Dimensions of religious involvement included religiosity, religious support, and religious coping. Our multivariate analyses showed that religiosity (an index of religious attendance, prayer frequency, and religious identity) was positively associated with leukocyte telomere length, even with adjustments for religious support, religious coping, age, gender, race, education, employment status, income, financial strain, stressful life events, marital status, family support, friend support, depressive symptoms, smoking, heavy drinking, and allostatic load. Unlike religiosity, religious support and religious coping were unrelated to leukocyte telomere length across models. Depressive symptoms, smoking, heavy drinking, and allostatic load failed to explain any of the association between religiosity and telomere length. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to link religious involvement and cellular aging. Although our data suggest that adults who frequently attend religious services, pray with regularity, and consider themselves to be religious tend to exhibit longer telomeres than those who attend and pray less frequently and do not consider themselves to be religious, additional research is needed to establish the mechanisms underlying this association.
Hill, Terrence D; Ellison, Christopher G; Burdette, Amy M; Taylor, John; Friedman, Katherine L
Although numerous studies suggest that religious involvement is associated with a wide range of favorable health outcomes, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to cellular aging. In this paper, we tested whether leukocyte telomere length varies according to several dimensions of religious involvement. We used cross-sectional data from the Nashville Stress and Health Study (2011-2014), a large probability sample of 1252 black and white adults aged 22 to 69 living in Davidson County, TN, USA. Leukocyte telomere length was measured using the monochrome multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction method with albumin as the single-copy reference sequence. Dimensions of religious involvement included religiosity, religious support, and religious coping. Our multivariate analyses showed that religiosity (an index of religious attendance, prayer frequency, and religious identity) was positively associated with leukocyte telomere length, even with adjustments for religious support, religious coping, age, gender, race, education, employment status, income, financial strain, stressful life events, marital status, family support, friend support, depressive symptoms, smoking, heavy drinking, and allostatic load. Unlike religiosity, religious support and religious coping were unrelated to leukocyte telomere length across models. Depressive symptoms, smoking, heavy drinking, and allostatic load failed to explain any of the association between religiosity and telomere length. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to link religious involvement and cellular aging. Although our data suggest that adults who frequently attend religious services, pray with regularity, and consider themselves to be religious tend to exhibit longer telomeres than those who attend and pray less frequently and do not consider themselves to be religious, additional research is needed to establish the mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:27174242
Gelb, Richard G.
Santeria is a religion which originated in West Africa and evolved from the syncretism of the culture of the Yoruba people with Catholicism in Cuba. Juanita, who was born in Puerto Rico and taught herself how to read and write, owns a "botanica," a retail shop specializing in Santeria paraphernalia. Juanita is a santera (priestess) in her…
Carlos Alvarado de Piérola
Full Text Available Desde que hiciera su aparición El origen de las especies y empezara adifundirse la teoría darwinista de la evolución, ésta suscitó las más encendidaspolémicas. Desde diversos sectores, partieron en mayor o en menorgrado ataques muy duros, algunos de los cuales no carecían de un sólidofundamento. Pero los golpes más violentos llegaron desde el terreno dela religión, que se sintió particularmente afectada. Aún hoy, cuando celebramosel bicentenario del nacimiento de Darwin, las aguas no parecenhaberse aquietado alrededor suyo. Todavía, algunos influyentes sectoresfundamentalistas siguen considerándola, inclusive en su versión actual,la teoría sintética de la evolución, como un peligro para la fe religiosa.Los ataques se producen bajo la forma de un amplio abanico de modalidades:desde un rechazo rotundo en defensa de los textos bíblicos hastauna descalificación supuestamente científica que, aparentando situarseen una perspectiva no religiosa, cuestiona los fundamentos de la teoría ypropone la doctrina del llamado diseño inteligente.A pesar de todo, debemos reconocer que, actualmente, a 150 añosde la publicación de El origen, la situación ha variado. Ya no existe la unanimidaden la condena. Hasta ha habido quien, como Teilhard de Chardin,sacerdote católico, intentó construir con ayuda del darwinismo unametafísica cristiana, aunque haciéndose merecedor de la condena de lajerarquía eclesiástica de su tiempo. Incluso el papa Juan Pablo II declaróen su momento: “Hoy en día, (... nuevos conocimientos llevan a reconoceren la teoría de la evolución más que una hipótesis”1,
Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the problematic issue of religious communication via the television media. As the positions of media theorists and the church to the use of media in religious communication differ, the paper seeks to compare those two perceptual perspectives. Thus the first part of the paper discusses the nature, impact and communicational role of media, the second analyses television as media from a philosophical perspective and the third part focuses on the analysis of the church documents concerning the practices of existing “tele-evangelization”. The paper examines the insights of the key media theorists and philosophers – Marshall McLuhan, Vilém Flusser, Jean Baudrillard, Neil Postman. McLuhan said that the qualitative changes in human history are associated with the emergence of new communication tools, so it is important to gain the proper knowledge of them for every human being. Since we are inevitably linked to the digital environment in which we live, an essential condition to enable a conscious existence in this environment is reached thorough knowledge of the defective media nature. Church openness to media is a result of different approach to media reality rather than poor absorption of the media nature.
Elaine P. Miller
Full Text Available In her keynote address to the Kristeva Circle 2014, Julia Kristeva argued that European Humanism dating from the French Revolution paradoxically paved the way for “those who use God for political ends” by promoting a completely and solely secular path to the political. As an unintended result of this movement this path has led, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, to the development of a new form of nihilism that masks itself as revolutionary but in fact is the opposite, in Kristeva’s view. Kristeva analyzed the culture of religious fundamentalism as “adolescent” in the sense that the adolescent, in contrast to the child, is a believer rather than a questioner. Although the psychoanalytic consideration of religious fundamentalism added a new dimension to attempts to explain the increase of this phenomenon in the late 20th and 21st centuries, Kristeva’s subsequent linkage of fundamentalism to the revolts in French suburbs in 2005 and beyond fell short of an insightful critique by neglecting the historical context of France’s colonial history.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine American and Japanese clergy’s perception of their role in the prevention of suicide. The research questions are as follows: (a How do clergy in the United States and Japan perceive suicide? (b Do they see suicide differently? and (c How do they envision the role of suicide prevention? The hypotheses are as follows: (a Christian clergy think that suicide is an unacceptable “sin”; (b Buddhist clergy are more accepting of suicide than Christian clergy; (c there are role differences related to suicide prevention in the Japanese and American religious communities; and (d American and Japanese religious leaders have a different view of their obligations related to suicide prevention. The investigator sent 400 anonymous mail surveys, respectively, to New York and Tokyo. The surveys asked about the clergy’s personal beliefs and the Church’s role in suicide prevention. The investigator analyzed the responses using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The major findings are that many American Christian clergy consider suicide to be a sin, but that “God’s love is available for people who committed suicide.” Many Japanese Buddhist clergy think how one dies is not the most important issue.
Full Text Available In this article we explore the perceptions of religious education of Finnish class teacher students. The research questions are: (1 What makes RE an important, positive or negative subject?(2 How the students perceive RE? (3 How do students differ in their attitudes towards RE: (a in different institutions, (b based on the personal level of significance of religion, and(c depending on gender? The data was gathered with a survey that included qualitative open-ended questions and a quantitative section. The data was collected from students (N= 538 in eight teacher education institutions in Finland. According to the study most of the students view religious education as an important subject. They emphasize elements such as education in ethics and values, acquirement of cultural skills and the pupils’ growth as factors that make the subject important. In addition, the student teachers view the subject mostly in positive or neither positive nor negative terms. Pedagogical practice was considered both the solution and problem among the students when they evaluated the aspects that make RE positive and negative. There were some results connected to the personal significance and the location of the teacher education institution. However, gender and age did not make much of a difference to these perceptions.
Full Text Available Nowadays we can observe complex interactions between the religious and secular spheres. Several different processes take place simultaneously: the traditionally religious elements function in the secular sphere as if they were part of secular culture; elements of the secular sphere build a specific kind of post-secular religiosity; finally, this post-secular religiosity influences traditional religions. This article focuses on the last stage of these changes. The author's purpose is to describe and interpret the practices we can observe. Because of the complexity of this issue, the analyses are limited to examples taken from the Catholic Church in Germany, where this process seems to be as popular as it is paradoxical. Catholicism realises that the post-secular forms of religiosity are very popular and that many people choose them instead of the traditional Church. It could offer them spirituality based on ages of experience. But instead of making its own spiritual tradition competitive on the spiritual market, Catholicism seems to offer Christianised post-secular goods, or its own traditional elements represented in a secularised form. It seems difficult to predict how it will all end. However, we observe an interesting encounter and interaction between an ‘old’ religion and a new religiosity, which will certainly have impact on further presence of the Church in the society.
Full Text Available This article deals with the ecology of pilgrimage at the Calvaries – Ways of the Cross – in Lithuania. Personal obligations to nature and respect of sacred place intermingle with devotional practices and certain rituals. Large scale arrivals at the Calvaries only occurs at certain times of year, mostly during the Indulgence Feasts. Devotional practices such as meditation on the suffering of Christ, prayers and hymns, playing musical instruments, washing one’s face at the Cedron spring are quite common during the Way. Research shows that walking the Way of the Cross doesn’t cause negative environmental, cultural and social impacts. Moreover, pilgrimage could be beneficial to local communities - providing opportunities to sell handcraft products, to meet relatives and friends. Visiting Calvaries is a religious act restrained by time: usually it takes about 3-4 hours to undertake the Stations of the Cross, about one hour to celebrate Holy Mass, and up to one hour at the market place buying religious memorabilia and other souvenirs.
With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…
Natário, Maria Celeste
Donde vimos?, qual a origem do mundo? E por detrás da questão da origem do mundo: porquê o mundo? E por detrás da questão do «porquê o mundo», o porquê do sentido da vida, da «minha vida», da vida de cada um de nós. A resposta a estas questões últimas tem sido tentada por várias vias: mitologia, ciência, filosofia, religião… Reflectiremos aqui sobre essas tentativas, procurando, em particular, articular a filosofia e a religião.
of the relations between church and state. Situated between history of education and curriculum, church history and transnational welfare state history, the article focuses on three transnationally acting theologians, early historians and psychologists of religion and public debaters who involved themselves......Is there a Nordic model for Religious Education? The article explores how Cultural Protestantism and Liberal Theology influenced the ways in which Religious Education developed in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century as part of the transformation...... in the question of education, namely Nathan Söderblom (1866-1931), Edvard Lehmann (1862-1930) and Eivind Berggrav (1884-1959), who serve as prisms for the transnational historical analysis of what takes place between states and social fields. The article suggests that Nordic Cultural Protestantism contributed...
Carlos Eduardo Brandão Calvani
The article presupposes that the term “spirituality”, originally proper to the theological literature, no longer belongs only to this field, and is now widely used in different areas of knowledge. The essay also says that, even within the theological and religious studies, there has never been clarity as to the meaning of “spirituality”, which eventually became a vague and imprecise term, invoked in different situations and in need of a deeper theoretical reflection able to point its history,...
Current laws on the treatment of animals in all liberal countries demand that animals be stunned before being slaughtered in order to prevent their suffering. This is derived from a widely-shared concern for animal welfare. However, in many Western countries, exemptions from this legal requirement have been granted to Jewish and Muslim communities so that they can continue to perform ritual slaughter. Hence, there seems to be a clash between the right to religious freedom and the duty to mini...
Friedman, Benjamin Morton
In contrast to the standard interpretation of the origins of economics out of the secular European Enlightenment of the 18th century, the transition in thinking that we rightly identify with Adam Smith and his contemporaries and followers, which gave us economics as we now know it, was powerfully influenced by then-controversial changes in religious belief in the English-speaking Protestant world in which they lived: in particular, key aspects of the movement away from orthodox Calvinism. Fu...
AbdAleati, Naziha S; Mohd Zaharim, Norzarina; Mydin, Yasmin Othman
Many people use religious beliefs and practices to cope with stressful life events and derive peace of mind and purpose in life. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the recent psychological literature to assess the role of religion in mental health outcomes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases on the relationship between religiosity and mental health. Seventy-four articles in the English and Arabic languages published between January 2000 and March 2012 were chosen. Despite the controversial relationship between religion and psychiatry, psychology, and medical care, there has been an increasing interest in the role which spirituality and religion play in mental health. The findings of past research showed that religion could play an important role in many situations, as religious convictions and rules influence the believer's life and health care. Most of the past literature in this area reported that there is a significant connection between religious beliefs and practices and mental health. PMID:27654836
Full Text Available Text editing is more than the knowledge of word processing techniques. Originally typographers, printers, text editors were the ones qualified to edit texts, which were well structured, legible, easily understandable, clear, and were able to emphasize the coreof the text. Time has changed, and nowadays everyone has access to computers as well as to text editing software and most users believe that having these tools is enough to edit texts. However, text editing requires more skills. Texts appearing either in printed or inelectronic form reveal that most of the users do not realize that they are not qualified to edit and publish their works. Analyzing the ‘text-products’ of the last decade a tendency can clearly be drawn. More and more documents appear, which instead of emphasizingthe subject matter, are lost in the maze of unstructured text slices. Without further thoughts different font types, colors, sizes, strange arrangements of objects, etc. are applied. We present examples with the most common typographic and text editing errors. Our aim is to call the attention to these mistakes and persuadeusers to spend time to educate themselves in text editing. They have to realize that a well-structured text is able to strengthen the effect on the reader, thus the original message will reach the target group.
Elena Gennadevna Kozlova
Full Text Available In this article refers to the self-identity of the person through his work, profession. We can say that religion the first gave answer to the question about the identity of the person and the meaning of his life. Man is a creature of God and his purpose becomes the glorification of the Creator in the creative work. Man can find his salvation in work and pray. Religious Ethics establish its own rules regarding acceptable and prohibited professions regulated the labor relations. Time-wasting is considered a sin, religious texts called for work. Exploring religious traditions M. Weber found that the «spirit» of entrepreneurship, capitalism, professional discipline, austerity can be found primarily in the religious minorities. He finds that in some languages the word «profession» is also set to divine predestination – «calling», which leads to a new type of asceticism – through work and service of his calling, for example, in the Protestant ethic.
Jon Magne Vestøl
Full Text Available Drawing on recently developed perspectives on educational design, this article investigates the integration of digital tools in texts and tasks from 13 Norwegian textbooks of religious and moral education. Displaying how textbooks differ in the degree and ways in which they include digital tools, the empirical analysis also indicates tensions between competing educational designs: one based on textbook authority, the other promoting student autonomy and use of digital resources.
Full Text Available This study is entitled THE USES OF RELIGIOUS SYMBOL TO REPRESENT ISLAM (A Study on Religious Soap Opera Bukan Islam KTP. The background of the research is based on the facts of the arbitrary use of symbols to represent Islam shown on Indonesian televisions. The pattern of the use of religious symbols, either verbal or non-verbal symbols are generally explicit, but when examined using appropriate methods, they are actually contained some implicit meanings. The purpose of this study was to discover about how Islam is represented on television religious soap opera using religious symbols and to find out the dominant ideology behind the representation techniques. To analyze the soap operas consist of twenty episodes, the researcher used a semiotic approach by John Fiske on television codes. The results of this study are: (1 the use of verbal symbols to represent Islam potentially creates multiple interpretations when they are spoken by different characters. (2 Some religious terminologies are often used by antagonist player to express anger and disappointment. (3 The soap opera is dominated by verbal violence used by both protagonist and antagonist players, while antagonist player use violence both in verbal and non-verbal forms. The findings about ideology embedded in the soap opera are: (1 capitalist-materialistic ideology, (2 ideology of patriarchy, and (3 violence domination.
Full Text Available In this paper we tried to correlate text sequences those provides common topics for semantic clues. We propose a two step method for asynchronous text mining. Step one check for the common topics in the sequences and isolates these with their timestamps. Step two takes the topic and tries to give the timestamp of the text document. After multiple repetitions of step two, we could give optimum result.
Full Text Available There has been much discussion about the most suitable model of religious education (RE hereafter in public schools all around Europe. The Finnish model of RE has attracted great interest, because in Finland RE is given according to one’s own religion. The Finnish model of RE is very unique and it emphasises the right of religious minorities to participate in RE according to their own religion in state-owned schools. In this article we examine headmasters’ conceptions of the current Finnish RE solution from the perspective of human rights. The study is based on qualitative interviews.Headmasters presented both advantages and disadvantages of the current RE solution. These advantages are briefly: freedom of religion, an opportunity to get RE according to one´s own religion, knowing one´s own roots, an opportunity to understand people from different religious backgrounds and an opportunity to study other religions for those students who are not members of religious communities. The limits of the solution are that it puts students into their own religious groups and this limits possibilities for religious dialogue, which should be one of the key elements of modern RE. RE has a strong potential to promote human rights. It is important to discuss different models of arranging education from the viewpoint of human rights. The human rights viewpoint should be central when dealing with the aims, contents and organization structure of RE. Different interpretations of religious freedom and the right to religious education are important considerations especially for RE.
In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…
Full Text Available Introduction Many social studies confirm that religion has an influential role in forming attitudes, trends and the meaning of social behaviors. However, so far little attention has been paid to examining the relationship between religious integrity and architectural space. Regarding to the fact that in many parts of the world cultural heritage places such as mosques, shrines, squares, temples and streets are alive and the public can use them actively, the present study intends to examine the relationship between religious identity and cultural heritage conservation. Based on the importance of youth's values, socialization and demographic characteristics of the Iranian population, youth were selected as this research's subjects. Material s and Methods According to research goals, to assess the role of religion in social life and focusing on active preservation of cultural heritage, three indicators of belief, emotion and outcome were selected to measure religious identity. In this study, religious identity is reflected in the role of a person in reproducing religious institutions and the importance of religious behaviors in lifestyle and interactions. There are two approaches to preserve cultural heritage: passive and active. While the first one aims at preventing any damage to cultural heritage, in the active approach, cultural heritage is more than buildings and structures. It includes values and history of a society; thus preservation requires social engagement and development of social bonds between people and places. If people do not understand the hidden values of buildings, their protection loses its importance. For active preservation, three indicators of emotion, cognition and function were distinguished. Data were gathered by survey, using multistage cluster sampling. A total of 343 people were questioned in 6 Isfahan urban districts as sample size. To test the assumptions, structural equation modeling was used in AMOS
Full Text Available The article describes key aspects of Samuel Huntington’s “Clash of Civilizations” thesis. It acknowledges the way in which that thesis has picked up on some key changes in relation to the role of religion in public life and, especially, in international relations. But it also critiques the thesis for its “essentializing” and “bloc” approach to cultures and societies, arguing that such an approach does not take sufficient account of the differences and sometimes fault-lines and conflicts within societies and cultural groups. For what might characterise appropriate religiously informed responses to Huntington’s thesis, the article proposes an approach based on four “keynotes” of “modesty”, “integrity”, “realism” and “distinctiveness”.
Full Text Available Two are the main results of the online survey, which was conducted with the purpose to examine the purchase behavior of a group of consumers and their views on animal welfare and religious slaughter. First result is the respondents’ great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens about this issue. Second is the demand for a more transparent labeling of animal products, which would be also concerning animal welfare and slaughter method used. These results are in conflict with marketing analysis, which find that consumers want to receive only positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers the higher risk to alarm them.
Full Text Available People have preserved and respected space since ancient times. The reasons were manifold: socio- economic, legal, religious and moral. Serbian medieval rulers tended to largely provide with riches, but also to protect estates of monasteries, as evidenced by surviving charters or their parts called appeal and anathema. When resolving property disputes (including the boundaries of a certain area, in addition to the representatives of state authorities, the witnesses who took the most frightful oaths went out in the field in order to determine the accurate boundaries. In order not to disturb the economic life, throughout the Middle Ages Serbian rulers used to issue charters to people of Dubrovnik (and to the other foreign merchants that ensured undisturbed transit across Serbian territory. Serbian medieval rulers usually invoked: God, Virgin Mary, a patron saint of a monastery, Last Judgment, the Cross, First Council of Nicaea and Judah. They inspired awe in people and contributed to the protection of the space.
Full Text Available Ethical decisions are made regarding day-to-day workplace behaviours. We surveyed 315 college students from 9 different religious categories: Catholic, Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, Agnostic, Atheist, and Other. Individuals were asked whether “in the workplace, it is acceptable to do so” for 27 different behaviours. Those who were Hindu or Catholic consistently had scores indicating beliefs in performing more ethical behaviour. Those who were Buddhist or Atheist consistently had scores indicating beliefs in performing less ethical behaviour. In the analysis relating to 5 items regarding computer and Internet behaviours, those who were Jewish had scores indicating beliefs in performing less ethical behaviour. Managers who supervise young adults who recently graduated from college can be aware of possible ethical concerns facing those of different religions. They can mentor these individuals beginning their careers to adapt appropriate ethical behaviours for their job.
Full Text Available This paper draws upon research with mothers of diverse Muslim backgroundsin London to explore how these women use ‘conservative’ interpretations ofIslamic beliefs and practices to underpin their parenting strategies. In particularthe paper looks at how mothers use religion as a frame to make sense of andgive meaning to their experiences and encounters in Britain. We suggest thatthe women use Islam in four key ways: (i as a framework for teaching theirchildren right and wrong, (ii as a means of protecting children from the ‘moral’dangers of British society, (iii as an authoritative voice that reinforces parentingand (iv as a means of critiquing specific aspects of both the traditional andBritish culture in which they live and daily negotiate their different cultural andreligious belonging. In attempting to instil religious values in their London-basedchildren, these mothers have to negotiate the hostility that Islam increasinglyprovokes in British society’s public arenas.
Saskia Louise Shafer
Full Text Available This article summarises the results of a media analysis conducted by the example of one of the country’s biggest daily newspapers, the New Straits Times. With regard to the controversial religious freedom debate, it summarises what actors are involved in the discussion and how their positions are presented in the mainstream media. Several examples from articles show what strategies are employed in the discourse, such as the rhetoric of fear and crisis and the constant emphasis of racial and other supposedly separating categories. The close linkage of the categories ‘ethnicity’ and ‘religion’, which is manifested legally as well as politically, is perpetuated linguistically. Especially important in this context is the construction of a Muslim-Malay identity.
Full Text Available Thinking of Muslim women, the first image that usually comes to mind is a veiled woman or, especially after 11 September 2001, the burqa (Afghan name and form of veiling in Afghanistan. This image of prescriptive veiling is immediately viewed as oppressive and as an indication of the inferior status of women in Islam. In this article an attempt is made to present the different ways in which hijab (Islamic practice of veiling is interpreted and applied, followed by an analysis of Islamic identity as reflected in Islamic scripts. Personal identity is discussed according to Jensen’s distinction that sheds some light on the different spheres of human reality within Islam, that is: the social person, the legal person and the religious person. This article aims to present orthodox and feminist views on personal identity that should be informative of the orientation of Muslims within society at large.
Full Text Available Aging Coefficient (AC, or aged–child ratio, is the number of individuals aged 65 years and over, divided by the number of individuals aged 0-14, multiplied by 100. In this point–descriptive study, the aging coefficient has been calculated for the followers of four different religions, for the past four respective decades, according to sex and locality. Overall age composition in different religious groups, in a decreasing order is: Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians showed a slight decrease in the 80’s and a higher increase afterward. Moslems show a more consistent mode, but with a slight increase in the last decade; but in all cases AC has been lower than 15, presenting a higher proportion of a young population or lower aged group. The increase of AC in each group can be caused by the old age survival, i.e. increasing life expectancy, or decreasing birth rate
Luis Ignacio Sierra Gutiérrez
Full Text Available La investigación focaliza y analiza el fenómeno contemporáneo de la religión mediatizada en la televisión católica brasilera, a partir de la perspectiva teórica de la sociosemiosis de la mediatización, mediante estrategias discursivas de reconocimiento y prácticas sociosimbólicas de sentidos religiosos, desarrolladas por telefieles de programas de carácter devocional y de predicación del canal Rede Vida de Televisión, en Porto Alegre, R. S. (Brasil. Este texto presenta sucintamente la investigación en cinco partes secuenciales: contexto y problemática; cuestiones centrales y objetivos; enfoque y discusión teórica; opciones y desarrollo metodológico, y, finalmente, resultados y conclusiones prospectivas.
Full Text Available This policy research aims to describe about the actualization and habitualization of ideology on interreligious harmony. This ideology is constructed whether through top-down state policies or local value basis which is proactively advocated by elites of religions. This research uses a survey method to gain actual and evaluative responses from the respondents which is limited for Moslem and Christian groups in East Kalimantan. The research findings depicts that perceptions of the public related to inter-religious harmony tend to be very positive, the response rate represented the average index of 0.79. Although it could not be denied that there are other facts found in this study by interviewing people at the grass roots. These people gave different response; their responses tend to be negative which may lead to a conflict of identity between local people and migrants.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Text compression permits representing a document by using less space. This is useful not only to save disk space, but more importantly, to save disk transfer and network transmission time. With the continues increase in the number of Arabic short text messages sent by mobile phones, the use of a suitable compression scheme would allow users to use more characters than the default value specified by the provider. The development of an efficient compression scheme to compress short Arabic texts is not a straight forward task. Approach: This study combined the benefits of pre-processing, entropy reduction through splitting files and hybrid dynamic coding: A new technique proposed in this study that uses the fact that Arabic texts have single case letters. Experimental tests had been performed on short Arabic texts and a comparison with the well known plain Huffman compression was made to measure the performance of the proposed schema for Arabic short text. Results: The proposed schema can achieve a compression ratio around 4.6 bits byte-1 for very short Arabic text sequences of 15 bytes and around 4 bits byte-1 for 50 bytes text sequences, using only 8 Kbytes overhead of memory. Conclusion: Furthermore, a reasonable compression ratio can be achieved using less than 0.4 KB of memory overhead. We recommended the use of proposed schema to compress small Arabic text with recourses limited.
Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.Â It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.
Mir, Tariq Ahmad
An important aspect of religious association is that adherents, as part of their religious duty, carry out various activities. One religious group known for keeping the elaborate records of day-to-day activities of its members is the Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs)-a worldwide Christian religious group. We analyze the historical records of the country-wide data associated with twelve different religious activities of JWs to see if there are any patterns in the distribution of the first digits as predicted by Benford's law. This law states that the first digits of numbers in data sets are not uniformly distributed but often, not always, follow a logarithmic distribution such that the numbers beginning with smaller digits appear more frequently than those with larger ones. We find that the data on religious activities like peak publishers, pioneer publishers, baptizations, public meetings, congregations, bible studies, time spent in door-to-door contacts, attendances at the memorial services, total literature and ind...
Shiv Naresh Shivhare
Full Text Available Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content – based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.
Al Fahoum, Reema
This paper investigates whether India’s diverse religious composition is related with mistrust between its two main religious communities namely; Hindus and Muslims. A field experiment has been undertaken which plays a trust game between urban Muslims and Hindus in Mumbai, India. This study confirms in-group biases which can be identified through lower offers between people from different religious groups. There is a difference in the trust and trustworthiness of proposers and responders base...
Uecker, Jeremy E.
I analyze the effects of Catholic schooling, Protestant schooling, and homeschooling on adolescents’ religious lives and test three mechanisms through which these schooling strategies might influence religiosity: friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors. Data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Youth and Religion suggest that Catholic schoolers attend religious services more frequently and value their faith more highly than public schoolers, but attend religious education cla...
In this paper, I discuss what Cognitive Science of Religion is and what its implications are for theism and the veracity of religious belief. Findings in CSR, and its counterpart Evolutionary Psychology, aim to explain the origin of religious belief. Some critics of religion, however, brandish the findings of CSR in support of their agenda. Their arguments attempt to either argue against the truth of religion or the justification for religious belief. I will argue that neither of these two ki...
Aggarwal, Charu C
Text mining applications have experienced tremendous advances because of web 2.0 and social networking applications. Recent advances in hardware and software technology have lead to a number of unique scenarios where text mining algorithms are learned. ""Mining Text Data"" introduces an important niche in the text analytics field, and is an edited volume contributed by leading international researchers and practitioners focused on social networks & data mining. This book contains a wide swath in topics across social networks & data mining. Each chapter contains a comprehensive survey including
A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of
Andersen, Peter Birkelund; Laudrup, Carin
Over the past 30 years or so scholars in the social sciences and politicians alike have increasingly focused their attention on the effect of migration in European societies. This has resulted in theories of multiculturalism and more recently theories of cultural, ethnic, and religious diversity....... This paper raises the question of how such theories are reflected in religious education in the Danish school system. Based on analyses of a survey among pupils in their final year in upper secondary schools, it is argued that non-confessional religious education is one way of enhancing religious tolerance....
A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....
To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....
Yu-Bao Liu; Jia-Rong Cai; Jian Yin; Ada Wai-Chee Fu
Clustering text data streams is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as news group filtering, text crawling, document organization and topic detection and tracing etc. However, most methods are similarity-based approaches and only use the TF*IDF scheme to represent the semantics of text data and often lead to poor clustering quality. Recently, researchers argue that semantic smoothing model is more efficient than the existing TF.IDF scheme for improving text clustering quality. However, the existing semantic smoothing model is not suitable for dynamic text data context. In this paper, we extend the semantic smoothing model into text data streams context firstly. Based on the extended model, we then present two online clustering algorithms OCTS and OCTSM for the clustering of massive text data streams. In both algorithms, we also present a new cluster statistics structure named cluster profile which can capture the semantics of text data streams dynamically and at the same time speed up the clustering process. Some efficient implementations for our algorithms are also given. Finally, we present a series of experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of our technique.
Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of technology, job complexity and religious orientation on the performance of managers in the financial services industries. Data were collected from bank managers representing Islamic and conventional banks in Bangladesh. Path models were used to analyse the data. The results provide supportfor the hypothesis that a management accounting systems (MAS adequacy gap exists in the financial sector in a developing country such as Bangladesh. These Islamic and conventional banks also experienced varied outcomes regarding the impact of the MAS adequacy gap on managerial effectiveness. Significant results emerged concerning the direct influence of technology and job complexity on managerial effectiveness, although these findings again differed across religious and conventional banks. Significant intervening effects of both MAS adequacy gap and job complexity on the relationships between contingency factors and managers' effectiveness were also found. Overall the findings showed that the type of religious orientation in Islamic banks wielded an important influence on the sensitivity of the MAS adequacy gap. Religious orientation served as a control device for the relationships between job-related contingency factors andmanagerial effectiveness.
Full Text Available In a recently published book, the present author argues that Asia is “the great laboratory of religious pluralism.” The jostling together of mosques, viharas, churches and all kinds of temples has long been a feature of the vibrant cities of Southeast Asia, while anthropologists have celebrated the diversity of its rural people. Yet there is a paradox. At the level of formal religious adherence, Southeast Asia looks to be one of the world’s least diverse regions. This article addresses both the deeper sources of religious tolerance and the modern factors tending, notably in Indonesia, to replace that pattern with one of greater religious conformity. The Indonesian state motto is the epitome of this paradox –Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, ‘They are many, yet they are one.’ The article concludes that while the older tolerance of diversity is indeed under threat today, Southeast Asia’s own traditions should prove a valuable supplement to modern human rights concepts in maintaining the balance.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v22i3.2352
Full Text Available Dialogue of life is a form of inter-religious dialogue which commonly takes place at any place and any time. It is a dialogical relation to promote amicable relation with people from different religions. It begins when one encounters, lives and interacts with the others and participates in daily life activities together. It is a social interaction which shows the involvement of non-elite participants in the inter-religious dialogue at the grass roots level. The non-elite participation in the inter-religious dialogue is necessary to accommodate the challenge of pluralistic society. This kind of process which involves the social interaction in everyday activity is known as a dialogue of life. Those activities can be seen in the life experience of living together with mix-faith family, celebrating festivities and wedding ceremony as well as doing (running business with the other religious communities. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the concept of dialogue of life and how this dialogue has a significant impact on encouraging positive interaction among people of different religions in Malaysia.
Morakeng E.K. Lebaka
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to discover whether the integration of traditional African religious music into Evangelical Lutheran liturgical church services, could effect a change in member attendance and/or participation. To achieve this, the study employed direct observation, video recordings and informal interviews. In addition, church records of attendance during Holy Communion once a month between 2008 and 2013 were accessed. The study was done at the Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Lobethal Congregation (Arkona Parish, Northern Diocese, Sekhukhune District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. It was demonstrated that church attendance increased dramatically after traditional African religious music was introduced into the Evangelical Lutheran liturgical services in 2011. Observations and video recordings showed that drums, rattles, horns and whistles were used. Handclapping was seen to act almost as a metronome, which steadily maintained the tempo. It was concluded that introducing traditional African religious music into Evangelical Lutheran liturgical church services has increased attendance and participation of church members. Therefore, the introduction of African religious music could be considered for other Evangelical Lutheran congregations in Africa.
Full Text Available In an attempt to determine if selection bias could be a reason that religious attendance and depression are related, the predictive value of elevated depressive symptoms for a decrease in future attendance at religious services was examined in a longitudinal panel of 1,673 Dutch adults. Religious attendance was assessed yearly over five years using the single question, “how often do you attend religious gatherings nowadays?” Depressive symptoms were assessed four times within the first year using the Depression subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Logistic regression models of change in attendance were created, stratifying by baseline attendance status. Attenders who developed elevated symptoms were less likely to subsequently decrease their attendance (relative risk ratio: 0.55, 95% CI [0.38–0.79] relative to baseline as compared to those without elevated symptoms. This inverse association remained significant after controlling for health and demographic covariates, and when using multiply imputed data to account for attrition. Non-attenders were unlikely to start attending after elevated depressive symptoms. This study provides counter evidence against previous findings that church attenders are a self-selected healthier group.
Full Text Available In this paper the authors examine two of Italy’s lesser religious tourism destinations: Sotto il Monte and Concesio, small towns in northern Italy which have the distinction of being the birthplaces of Pope John XXIII and Pope Paul VI. In 2002 and 2008 respectively, two of the country’s national television networks broadcast during prime time short television serials dedicated to the two popes. Despite being very successful with the viewing public, the serials proved to have little impact in terms of tourism, as demonstrated by comprehensive tourist surveys and in-depth conversations with the parties concerned. The aim of the present research is to ascertain, using a visual geographical research approach, whether the reasons for this can be identified, taking account of the pull factors of place, personality and performance referred to by Macionis in 2004. In the first part of the study the authors put forward a definition of film-induced religious tourism based on the commonly agreed definitions of film-induced tourism and religious tourism, and outline the unique characteristics ofItaly’s religious-themed television productions. In the second part the two case studies are analysed, with an outline of the geographical features of the locations and biographical aspects of the two men, and an assessment of the degree of success in terms of tourism achieved by their home towns, with particular reference to the years following the screening of the TV serials.
Full Text Available Contemporary philosophy of religion is often focused, at a theoretical level, on the epistemic value of religious doctrines, and at a practical level, on the possible impact of organized religion on secular society and politics. However, the cultic dimension of religion, such as prayer, religious service, ascetic practices, and other rituals, is considered as completely “irrational” and incomprehensible from a secular perspective and therefore often neglected by postmodern philosophy. The paper intends to call into question this rather simplistic interpretation by retracing the historical origins of the devaluation of religious symbolism in occidental thought, which culminates in Kant’s philosophy of religion. We then shall analyze to what extent certain paradoxical aspects of Habermas’ view on religion can be interpreted as consequences of the dilemma brought about by the Kantian dichotomy between man as moral subject and man as natural, sensible being. In a third step, we shall develop an alternative, phenomenological interpretation, which does not consider religious practice as a primitive, irrational phenomenon but as a proto-ethical schematism that aims at integrating the sphere of pure practical reason into the rhythmic structure of living, embodied consciousness.
Full Text Available This article argues that depictions of penance and confession in late medieval "Sisterbooks," which were written by women religious for communal use, show that medieval women understood religious authority to be enhanced through submission and service to community members. These collections of the lives and reminiscences of deceased sisters and father confessors construct idealized piety and religious authority through public acts of obedience and submission which built a reputation for sanctity, not just for the individual penitent, but for her entire community. Thus in the Sisterbooks, obedience to a confessor or spiritual director for both male and female penitents shifts the locus of spiritual authority from the confessor to the penitent and her community through communal observation and evaluation. These medieval Christian women understood the relationships between confessors and confessants as one which conferred power and authority to the penitent, complicating Foucault's influential claim that the sacrament of confession granted all power to the confessor who heard sins in secret. In the Sisterbooks, interactions between women religious and their confessors are depicted as relational, complex, and constantly in flux.
Zaidan Ali Jassem
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to extend the application of the lexical root theory to the investigation of select religious terms in English and Arabic to prove their genetic relationship. It criticizes and rejects the claims of the Comparative Historical Method that Indo-European languages have no genetic relationship to Arabic whatsoever. It provides further definitive counter evidence that such languages are not only related to Arabic but are also descended from it directly. The evidence concerns Arabic and English words in the area of faith and religion, which have been deliberately excluded from Swadesh’s 100- and 200-word lists used in language family classifications. The paper argues that religious terms are as central as core vocabulary because man’s life is meaningless without faith that opens up windows of future hope and achieves internal and external peace and security. More precisely, it shows how certain extremely common Arabic religious words and expressions exist in today’s English, noting minor phonetic and semantic changes. Keywords: comparative historical method, lexical root theory, English, Arabic, religious terms, genetic relationships
Full Text Available Die Krise religiöser Bildung ist ein Symptom der allgemeinen Krise der Religion in der späten Moderne, die seit dem 18. Jahrhundert sowohl von innen als auch von außen diagnostiziert wird. Ohne die Bedeutung anthropologischer, systemtheoretischer und bildungstheoretischer Religionstheorien zu negieren bedarf es letztlich eines geschichtsphilosophischen Horizonts abseits der klassischen Fortschrittstheorien, in dem Religionen in der Vielfalt ihrer unterschiedlichen Selbstauslegungen begriffen werden können. In dieser Perspektive wird in diesem Artikel eine modifizierte Version von Jaspers‘ Theorie der Achsenzeit vorgeschlagen. Why religious education today? A historical and philosophical approach The crisis of religious education is a symptom of the general crisis of religion in late modernity which has been diagnosed since the 18th century, both from inside and from outside. Without neglecting the importance of anthropological approaches, systems theories of religion and educational reflections on religion, adequate understanding of the plurality of religious traditions including their dynamic of self-interpretations requires a historical and philosophical horizon beside the old theories of progress. In this perspective this article offers a modified version of Jaspers‘ theory of the Axial Age.
The word ‘Islam’ manifests its meaning to the word peace which provides security and serenity to individuals and the community. The article focuses on this dimension of Islam and aims to present evidence from religious sources which assert that Islam is not a religion that supports terrorism but a religion which emphasizes peace and salvation. As a noun, the word ‘Islam’ is a system of beliefs revealed by Allah to Muhammad (pbuh). In retrospect, in its verb form Islam is derived from the infi...
Research indicates that nurses do not consistently provide spiritual care, feel ill equipped to do so, and there is a lack of information as to the type of spiritual care practices nurses use. This exploratory descriptive study surveyed nurses (N = 123) about their spiritual care practices and perceptions of effectiveness, followed by qualitative interviews with volunteers (n = 5) from the surveyed group. The nurses favored spiritual interventions that are not overtly religious, but conveyed concern and support, such as listening and providing comforting touch.
Maussen, Marcel; Vermeulen, Floris
Liberal democratic states face new challenges in balancing between principles of religious freedom and non-discrimination and in balancing these constitutional principles with other concerns, including social cohesion, good education, and immigrant-integration. In a context of increased prominence of secular and anti-Islamic voices in political…
Webb, Amy Pieper; Ellison, Christopher G.; McFarland, Michael J.; Lee, Jerry W.; Morton, Kelly; Walters, James
A long tradition of research demonstrates that divorce is a risk factor for depressive symptoms. Although a growing literature examines links between religious factors and marital quality and stability, researchers have neglected the role of religion in successful or problematic coping following divorce. Building on Pargament's seminal work on…
Griffin, Leslie C.
More than two decades after the Clinton administration passed the federal Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA), religious freedom bills are once again in the news. Leslie C. Griffin writes that the new RFRA legislation coming from Arkansas and Indiana has originated from fears over same-sex marriage rather than any real desire to protect religious freedoms. She argues that through RFRAs, those against LGBT rights are seeking a legal method of discrimination and that these l...
Full Text Available Web mining is a burgeoning new field that attempts to glean meaningful information from natural language text. Web mining refers generally to the process of extracting interesting information and knowledge from unstructured text. Text clustering is one of the important Web mining functionalities. Text clustering is the task in which texts are classified into groups of similar objects based on their contents. Current research in the area of Web mining is tacklesproblems of text data representation, classification, clustering, information extraction or the search for and modeling of hidden patterns. In this paper we propose for mining large document collections it is necessary to pre-process the web documents and store the information in a data structure, which is more appropriate for further processing than a plain web file. In this paper we developed a php-mySql based utility to convert unstructured web documents into structured tabular representation by preprocessing, indexing .We apply centroid based web clustering method on preprocessed data. We apply three methods for clustering. Finally we proposed a method that can increase accuracy based on clustering ofdocuments.
Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.
Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.
Cássia Costa Oliveira
Full Text Available Dissertação de Mestrado.OLIVEIRA, Cássia Cristina Costa de. Se Deus não existe tudo é permitido? Niilismo e religião. Estudo a partir de Dostoievski e Nietzsche. 2012. 144 folhas. Dissertação (Mestrado – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte.Palavras-chave: Niilismo. Religião. Nietzsche. Dostoiévski.Key words: Nihilism. Religion. Nietzsche. Dostoiévski
Roberto Donizeti da Silva
Full Text Available SILVA, Roberto Donizeti da. (Pós Modernidade, Razão e Religião Cristã: o Pensamento de Zygmunt Bauman e José Maria Mardones. 2013. 98p. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências da Religião - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte.
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International( CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health,our Internet Resources and Abstract Journals. There are currently over 60,000 full text articles available to access. These documents,made possible by agreement with third
Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M
This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p < .001) and with increased religious social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p < .001), emotional support provided (p < .001), negative interaction (p < .001), and anticipated support (p < .001). Religious beliefs did not predict change in any type of support, and neither beliefs nor behaviors predicted change in general social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives. PMID:26493343
Freedman, Lori R; Stulberg, Debra B
Catholic hospitals and other religious institutions are a large and growing part of the US health care system. They have specific policies restricting reproductive health care. Despite increased public attention in the media to women denied necessary pregnancy-related care at Catholic hospitals, research on the effects of religious restrictions remains limited. This article summarizes research priorities as generated by 80 attendees at the inaugural meeting of the Research Consortium on Religious Healthcare Institutions. Such research is need to understand the impact of religious health system ownership on women's health. PMID:27036301
Short advertisement films occupy a large part (especially around the peak viewing hours) of everyday programmes of the Polish stale television. Even though it is possible to imagine an advertisement film employing only extralinguistic means of communication, the advertisements in generał, have so far been using written and spoken texts. The basic function of such a text and of the whole film is to encourage the viewers to buy the advertised product. However, independently of th...
Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John
Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.
Shivhare, Shiv Naresh
Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.
De Belder, Jan; Moens, Marie-Francine
The goal in this paper is to automatically transform text into a simpler text, so that it is easier to understand by children. We perform syntactic simplification, i.e. the splitting of sentences, and lexical simplification, i.e. replacing difficult words with easier synonyms. We test the performance of this approach for each component separately on a per sentence basis, and globally with the automatic construction of simplified news articles and encyclopedia articles. By including informatio...
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly
Holbrook, Colin; Izuma, Keise; Deblieck, Choi; Fessler, Daniel M T; Iacoboni, Marco
People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for further research characterizing the cognitive and affective mechanisms at play.
Nicholas O Rule
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of social categorization has largely been confined to examining groups distinguished by perceptually obvious cues. Yet many ecologically important group distinctions are less clear, permitting insights into the general processes involved in person perception. Although religious group membership is thought to be perceptually ambiguous, folk beliefs suggest that Mormons and non-Mormons can be categorized from their appearance. We tested whether Mormons could be distinguished from non-Mormons and investigated the basis for this effect to gain insight to how subtle perceptual cues can support complex social categorizations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants categorized Mormons' and non-Mormons' faces or facial features according to their group membership. Individuals could distinguish between the two groups significantly better than chance guessing from their full faces and faces without hair, with eyes and mouth covered, without outer face shape, and inverted 180°; but not from isolated features (i.e., eyes, nose, or mouth. Perceivers' estimations of their accuracy did not match their actual accuracy. Exploration of the remaining features showed that Mormons and non-Mormons significantly differed in perceived health and that these perceptions were related to perceptions of skin quality, as demonstrated in a structural equation model representing the contributions of skin color and skin texture. Other judgments related to health (facial attractiveness, facial symmetry, and structural aspects related to body weight did not differ between the two groups. Perceptions of health were also responsible for differences in perceived spirituality, explaining folk hypotheses that Mormons are distinct because they appear more spiritual than non-Mormons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Subtle markers of group membership can influence how others are perceived and categorized. Perceptions of health from non-obvious and minimal cues
J.S. du Toit
Full Text Available This article considers children’s Bibles and Bible storybooks as vehicles for the transfer of God concepts from one generation to the next – as God is considered central to the portrayal of the confessional attributes of the religious collective. It identifies both the commercial and religious imperatives controlling the prevailing attributes assigned as characteristic of the divine. The presentation of the nature of God is found to align with the commercial target audience for children’s Bibles: mothers and female caregivers who purchase the books on behalf of their charges and read and interpret the Bibles to the child. But it also coincides with the preferred attributes associated with a supernatural being by young children. Ultimately, God is found to be consistently portrayed by means of maternal attributes of love, protection and care in contrast to the more ambivalent portrayal of God in the adult biblical text.
Brewbaker, James M.
Assesses the religious content of 34 young adult novels. Reports that nearly half of the titles evidenced no religious content, 13 provided a moderate and unobtrusive religious element, and 5 presented religion as an important element. (MM)
Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; la Cour, Peter; Buus, Niels;
was applied for generating and analyzing the data-material. The findings suggested that all participants encountered a secondary religious transformation following the personal crisis or religiously integrated group psychotherapy. From a religious development perspective, however, the transformations...
Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary
Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.
Anthony Ian Jack
Full Text Available Prior work has established that analytic thinking is associated with disbelief in God, whereas religious and spiritual beliefs have been positively linked to social and emotional cognition. However, social and emotional cognition can be subdivided into a number of distinct dimensions, and some work suggests that analytic thinking is in tension with some aspects of social-emotional cognition. This leaves open two questions. First, is belief linked to social and emotional cognition in general, or a specific dimension in particular? Second, does the negative relationship between belief and analytic thinking still hold after relationships with social and emotional cognition are taken into account? We report eight hypothesis-driven studies which examine these questions. These studies are guided by a theoretical model which focuses on the distinct social and emotional processing deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (mentalizing and psychopathy (moral concern. To our knowledge no other study has investigated both of these dimensions of social and emotion cognition alongside analytic thinking. We find that religious belief is robustly positively associated with moral concern (4 measures, and that at least part of the negative association between belief and analytic thinking (2 measures can be explained by a negative correlation between moral concern and analytic thinking. Using nine different measures of mentalizing, we found no evidence of a relationship between mentalizing and religious or spiritual belief. These findings challenge the theoretical view that religious and spiritual beliefs are linked to the perception of agency, and suggest that gender differences in religious belief can be explained by differences in moral concern. These findings are consistent with the opposing domains hypothesis, according to which brain areas associated with moral concern and analytic thinking are in tension.
Full Text Available The main aim of this article is theoretical and empirical explanation of an analytical model in which religiousness is specified as an exogenous variable and social capital is defined as endogenous variable. Definition of each specified parameters in the model has a theoretical foundation. Theoretical frame is prepared on the basis of some key theorists including Durkheim, Weber, Berger, Malinovski, Asliner, Fokoyama, Coleman and Putnam. Weight composition of observed variables, in order to definition of latent constructs, was conducted by second-order factor analysis. Research method has been survey and the technique of data gathering was questionnaire which its validity and reliability have been acceptable theoretically and statistically. The population was all citizens who have been 15 years old and over and dwelling in the city of Isfahan. Sample size was 384 cases who were selected based on a quota sampling design by age-group, gender and the city region of residency. The results shown that levels of religiousness and social capital, for the majority in the population, has been around average and high on the defined scales and just a few proportion of the studied population are located on the low level of the scale. Hypothesis testing showed that there is a significant effect of religiousness on social capital. (R-Squared = 0.14, Sig < 0.05. Among different dimensions of religiousness, religious beliefs or ideological dimension had has the strongest effect on social capital (R-Squared=0.09, while other aspects consist of ritualistic (R-Squared=0.08, consequential (R-Squared=0.06 and experimental (R-Squared=0.05 had have weaker effects respectively. The effects were statistically significance with at least 95% confidence level.
The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries.Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.
The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries. Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has...
D.J. de Ruyter; M.S. Merry
This article aims to open a new line of debate about religion in public schools by focusing on religious ideals. The article begins with an elucidation of the concept ‘religious ideals’ and an explanation of the notion of reasonable pluralism, in order to be able to explore the dangers and positive
Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Pearce, Lisa D.; Denton, Melinda Lundquist
This study examines changes in religious service attendance over time for a contemporary cohort of adolescents moving from middle to late adolescence. We use two waves of a nationally representative panel survey of youth from the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR) to examine the dynamics of religious involvement during adolescence. We…
This article examines "currere" (a method for autobiographical reflection proposed by William Pinar) as a helpful framework for reflecting on religious educational experiences from a subjective and narrative perspective. The author suggests that this process is important for contemporary religious education as it provokes reflection on the…
... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.610 Religious beliefs or opinions. Evidence of the beliefs or opinions of a witness on matters of religion is not admissible for the purpose... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Religious beliefs or opinions. 18.610 Section 18.610...
Marshall, Joanne M.; Marsh, Tyson E. J.
This case tells the story of a new principal who wants to lead inclusively by including people of all religious and non-religious beliefs. When she questions some of the existing practices in her school, she faces resistance from school members and from the community, who question her identity, her intentions, and her authority. The case is…
Fremstilling af den tidlige og den sene Wittgensteins forhold til det religiøse med særligt henblik på tabet af umiddelbarhed.......Fremstilling af den tidlige og den sene Wittgensteins forhold til det religiøse med særligt henblik på tabet af umiddelbarhed....
Baring, Rito V.
This article reviews the challenges provided by a plural condition toward doing religious education in the Philippines. The problem of Philippine religious education hinges on the fact that the growing plural condition in the educational system remains until now "un-discussed"; or integrated in many schools. Not much is heard about proposing a…
Petersen, Line Nybro
of religion is strengthened by three dominating factors: the absence of a homogenous religious worldview in Danish culture, the importance of high production values and visual credibility to supernatural concepts in these shows, and the appeal of transformed religious content in open-structured serial...
Discusses difficulties of providing religious instruction for Muslim school children in the Federal Republic of Germany. Notes the lack of a united Islamic religious community that could assist in the development and implementation of such an instruction. Explains and analyzes the Bavarian Ministry of Education's guidelines concerning such…
Dilip A. Gade; J. P. Jagtap
Religion is historically associated with tourism. Some of our most popular tourist places are found on ancient places of worship. Religious tourism has a big future in the district. Kolhapur district is richly endowed with ancient temples and religious festivals. The purpose of this study is to examine facilities available for tourist. Th
This article ethnographically analyzes the everyday negotiations of a language policy at a private religious educational institution whose explicit educative mission is the transmission of religious beliefs, values, and practices. Specifically, it explores a Hebrew-only language policy at a Jewish day school located in New York City, and focuses…
Reviews court cases and constitutional issues related to religious freedom, teachers' religious beliefs, and school board employment practices regarding teachers. Discusses such issues as leaves of absence, school curriculum, physical appearance, and clothing, and suggests implications for board employment practices and avenues for further…
Scholtz, Christopher P.
Computer games as an important part of youth culture can, from a certain perspective, be highly relevant for religious education. I will review the role of computer games, and then give a brief overview, suggesting a specific phenomenological approach for research on computer games and religious education. After presenting one example of such…
Baumfield, Vivienne M.; Conroy, James C.; Davis, Robert A.; Lundie, David C.
The "Does Religious Education work?" project is part of the Religion and Society programme funded by two major research councils in the UK. It sets out to track the trajectory of Religious Education (RE) in secondary schools in the UK from the aims and intentions represented in policy through its enactment in classroom practice to the estimations…
This article examines the importance of memory in the Hebrew bible and how memory lay at the center of Ancient Israel's religious faith and cultural identity. It argues for a similar, albeit nuanced, memory-based approach to contemporary Christian religious education. It analyzes memory through the lens of Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic of…
Moaddel, Mansoor; Karabenick, Stuart A.
Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18-25, reveal that…
Wilcox, John, Ed.; King, Irene, Ed.
This collection contains essays on enhancing religious identity at Catholic institutions of higher education. The essays are: (1) "Preface. Religious Identity: A Critical Issue in Catholic Higher Education" (John R. Wilcox); (2) "Introduction" (to the section "Overview: Defining a Catholic University") (Irene King); (3) "What Is a Great Catholic…
The Latino community has strong religious and spiritual traditions, and there is a need for spiritual leadership. To address these needs, the Latino Leadership Project of the Latino Commission on AIDS offers prevention and education activities. The Commission refers religious leaders to the Latino community. Churches offer food and clothing banks, and counseling services to persons living with HIV/AIDS.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section 41.58 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious...
van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle
The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this…
... participation by religious organizations in USAID programs (69 FR 61716, codified at 22 CFR parts 202, 205, 211..., Grant programs, Nonprofit organizations. For the reasons stated in the preamble, USAID proposes to amend... DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 205 RIN 0412 AA-69 Participation by Religious Organizations in USAID Programs...
Grine, Fadila; Bensaid, Benaouda; Nor, Mohd Roslan Mohd; Ladjal, Tarek
The question of sustainability in multi-religious societies underscores interrelating theological, moral and cultural issues affecting the very process of social co-existence, cohesion and development. This article discusses Islam's understanding of the question of sustainability in multi-religious contexts while highlighting the contribution of…
Petts, Richard J.
Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…
Ayres, Jennifer R.
When people of faith participate in movements for social change, how are their religious and moral identities formed, challenged, and transformed? Although they have explicit and tangible goals as they participate in advocacy, protest, and boycotts, religious social activists also, James Jasper argues, craft "lives worth living" (1997).…
Full Text Available This article represents an analysis of the religious and political thought of Slavophiles and concentrates on the way in which Slavophile ecclesiology and epistemology lead to a form of Christian populism and to a messianic vision of history in which the key role is played by the Russian people. The article emphasises the paradoxes of the Slavophile theological and political thought, as well as its political implications at the level of the 19th century Russian society.
Jon Magne Vestøl
Drawing on recently developed perspectives on educational design, this article investigates the integration of digital tools in texts and tasks from 13 Norwegian textbooks of religious and moral education. Displaying how textbooks differ in the degree and ways in which they include digital tools, the empirical analysis also indicates tensions between competing educational designs: one based on textbook authority, the other promoting student autonomy and use of digital resources.
Full Text Available The local community has played an important and central role in the development and determination of palliative care services in Northern Kerala. This article looks at the history of the collaboration and how palliative care services have evolved over the past 4 years from 2001 to 2005. The contribution of groups such as nongovernmental organizations, charities and religious groups is outlined and benefits gained by each side discussed.
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health,our Internet Resources and Jour-
Full Text Available Aims: To Study the religious and ideological views and practice of Palliative Care physician towards Euthanasia. Materials and Methods: An anonymous self administered questionnaire approved by Flemish Palliative Care Federation and its ethics steering group was sent to all physicians(n-147 working in Flemish Palliative Care. Questionnaire consisted of three parts. In first part responded were requested to provide demographic information. In second part the respondents were asked to provide information concerning their religion or world view through several questions enquiring after religious or ideological affiliation,religious or ideological self-definition, view on life after death, image of God, spirituality, importance of rituals in their life, religious practice, and importance of religion in life. The third part consisted of a list of attitudinal statements regarding different treatment decisions in advanced disease on which the respondents had to give their opinion using a five-point Likert scale.99 physician responded. Results: We were able to distinguish four clusters: Church-going physicians, infrequently church-going physicians, atheists and doubters. We found that like the Belgian general public, many Flemish palliative care physicians concoct their own religious or ideological identity and feel free to drift away from traditional religious and ideological authorities. Conclusions: In our research we noted that physicians who have a strong belief in God and express their faith through participation in prayer and rituals, tend to be more critical toward euthanasia. Physicians who deny the existence of a transcendent power and hardly attend religious services are more likely to approve of euthanasia even in the case of minors or demented patients. In this way this study confirms the influence of religion and world view on attitudes toward euthanasia.
Full Text Available Based on the case of Montreal, the author reviews the set of experiences of public intervention in the area of management of ethnic-religious diversity, which has led to the formulation of new debates with regard to the fit of this plurality in the urban space. The challenges posed by the incorporation of these new religious references in the configuring of the urban fabric also opens up questions on the meaning of cohabitation in increasingly plural neighbourhoods.
Umar Habila Dadem Danfulani
Full Text Available Chadic-speakers perform annual festivals of the ancestors, kok nji; cropping kop; harvesting, dyip and hunting kwat, which are usually accompanied by dancing, singing and other numerous rites and rituals. These ritual dramas symbolically and overtly express the religious experience, feelings and emotions that are deeply buried in the religious consciousness of the people. This article intends to provide a vivid description of some of these festivals, particularly those of the Ngas, Mupun and Mwaghavul.
Kiran A. Shinde
Full Text Available This paper explains peculiarities, significance, and universality of weekend-trips as significant form of religious tourism using a comparative analysis of this phenomenon in two pilgrimage sites from two different cultures (and countries, namely, Vrindavan in India and the Shrine of Santimissi Medici in Italy. The findings derived from a case-study approach and visitors’ survey method confirm that religious tourism falls under the more general category of leisure and that visitors who flock to these places on weekends do not coincide either with general models proposed in the extant literature, nor can they be assimilated to the conventional categories of pilgrims and/or tourists. While highlighting the similarities and differences in the two cases, the paper proposes that weekend visitors are best described as religious tourists: visitors who use tourism as a means to fulfill a predominant religious motive in visiting a destination they consider religious or sacred. The analysis based on the concept of weekend-trips helps to explore nuances of religious tourism which can be used for better planning and management in religious tourism destinations.
Provides eight concepts, with illustrative questions for interpreting the authorship of texts, that are borrowed from cultural studies literature: (1) representation; (2) the gaze; (3) voice; (4) intertextuality; (5) absence; (6) authority; (7) mediation; and (8) reflexivity. States that examples were taken from British Columbia's (Canada) social…
Balling, Laura Winther
Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly...
Full Text Available The Institute's members of UCL's "Celtic Inscribed Stones" project describe, in collaboration with Wendy Davies, Mark Handley and Paul Kershaw (Department of History, a major interdisciplinary study of inscriptions of the early middle ages from the Celtic areas of northwest Europe.
Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?
We present TISC, a language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from a very large corpus of raw text, without supervision, and contains word unigram
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International( CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.
<正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.
Woal, Michael; Corn, Marcia Lynn
As electronically mediated communication becomes more prevalent, print is regaining the original pictorial qualities which graphemes (written signs) lost when primitive pictographs (or picture writing) and ideographs (simplified graphemes used to communicate ideas as well as to represent objects) evolved into first written, then printed, texts of…
Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis
Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in
Saleam, James; Moustafa, Ahmed A
A common finding across many cultures has been that religious people behave more prosocially than less (or non-) religious people. Numerous priming studies have demonstrated that the activation of religious concepts via implicit and explicit cues (e.g., 'God,' 'salvation,' among many others) increases prosociality in religious people. However, the factors underlying such findings are less clear. In this review we discuss hypotheses (e.g., the supernatural punishment hypothesis) that explain the religion-prosociality link, and also how recent findings in the empirical literature converge to suggest that the divine rewards (e.g., heaven) and punishments (e.g., hell) promised by various religious traditions may play a significant role. In addition, we further discuss inconsistencies in the religion-prosociality literature, as well as existing and future psychological studies which could improve our understanding of whether, and how, concepts of divine rewards and punishments may influence prosociality. PMID:27536262
Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David
Listening to religious music is often an important part of religious life. Yet there has been little empirical research on it. The purpose of this study is to test a conceptual model that specifies one way in which religious music may be associated with change in health over time. This model contains the following core relationships: (1) people who attend worship services more often will have stronger emotional reactions to religious music; (2) individuals who are more emotionally involved in religious music will be more likely to feel a close sense of connectedness with other people; (3) people who feel more closely connected with others will be more hopeful about the future; and (4) individuals who feel more hopeful will be more likely to rate their health in a favorably over time. The data provide support for each of these relationships. Significant variations by race were also observed in the findings. PMID:24363543
Saleam, James; Moustafa, Ahmed A.
A common finding across many cultures has been that religious people behave more prosocially than less (or non-) religious people. Numerous priming studies have demonstrated that the activation of religious concepts via implicit and explicit cues (e.g., ‘God,’ ‘salvation,’ among many others) increases prosociality in religious people. However, the factors underlying such findings are less clear. In this review we discuss hypotheses (e.g., the supernatural punishment hypothesis) that explain the religion-prosociality link, and also how recent findings in the empirical literature converge to suggest that the divine rewards (e.g., heaven) and punishments (e.g., hell) promised by various religious traditions may play a significant role. In addition, we further discuss inconsistencies in the religion-prosociality literature, as well as existing and future psychological studies which could improve our understanding of whether, and how, concepts of divine rewards and punishments may influence prosociality. PMID:27536262
Todd, Nathan R
The current study provides an innovative examination of how and why religious networking organizations work for social justice in their local community. Similar to a coalition or community coordinating council, religious networking organizations are formal organizations comprised of individuals from multiple religious congregations who consistently meet to organize around a common goal. Based on over a year and a half of ethnographic participation in two separate religious networking organizations focused on community betterment and social justice, this study reports on the purpose and structure of these organizations, how each used networking to create social capital, and how religion was integrated into the organizations' social justice work. Findings contribute to the growing literature on social capital, empowering community settings, and the unique role of religious settings in promoting social justice. Implications for future research and practice also are discussed.
Full Text Available At the margins of modern medical practice, pushing the very limits of science, and indefatigably rendering the precincts of public discourse, still functional remnants of Christian civilization continue to provide care for the hopeless, perform healing sacraments for the incurable, and curate objects of votive devotion for the suffering and needy. These public services go largely unaccounted for, though they secure an ordered world, structure perception, and serve as ontological anchors. Lost in the vague, scientifically unrarified notions of spirituality that brace a general, undifferentiated worldwide metaphysical experience and disregard immense cultural, functional, geographic and performative distinctness, Catholic sacramental practices aimed at alleviating suffering and promoting healthy lifestyles are receiving only marginal mention in scientific literature(1, despite the fact that they make up daily reality in large parts of contemporary Europe and Latin America. Writing this editorial from the Northeast of Brazil, where traditional religious practice has sustained generations through the calamities of severe droughts, slavery, extreme poverty, high child mortality, failed political orders, and a harsh global economic reality, it is difficult to underestimate the power of sacramental experience to sustain a cultural identity. It was defined the concept of care of the sick in the context of the religious experience of the Northeast of Brazil which is historically relevant to health promotion. Until the emergence of national health care in the late nineteenth century, it was largely the order of the Franciscan friars that was charged with promoting healthy lives in the region. The Catholic concept of care that guided their efforts structures three procedural reality principles: the psychological reality of the transference to the person in one’s charge (care/caritas, the performative practice of religious sacrament such as the anointment
Full Text Available Este artigo desenvolve três modelos de relacionamento com o sobrenatural. Primeiramente, o ritual de aposta, pelo qual o indivíduo se assegura de ter feito o que era possível fazer para evitar um perigo. A natureza detalhada da preparação do ritual é essencial, assim como a rede social que se tece ao redor do rito. Segundo, focaliza a relação de troca com o sobrenatural, mediada pelo shaman, que é aquele que detém os segredos do procedimento e a confiança dos "clientes". Terceiro, trata das relações de troca representadas pela religião popular católica e explica que todas as religiões "mundiais" (judaísmo, cristianismo, islamismo se edificam sobre uma dialética do erudito com a religião popular. Tudo isso como introdução à análise do pentecostalismo e do neopentecostalismo, que representam formas inusitadas de religiosidade, nas quais o sobrenatural está presente. Mas a troca é com a Igreja, não com entidades sobrenaturais. A Igreja funciona mais como um "Pronto-Socorro Espiritual" do que como um lugar de construção de uma ordem moral ou como lugar em que os humanos fazem as pazes com Deus. O pentecostalismo faz parte de uma tendência ocidental que deixa as religiões includentes (católica, anglicana em estagnação, enquanto as mais excludentes, aquelas que requerem muito sacrifício dos seguidores, ganham terreno.This article develops three models of humans' relationship with the supernatural. First that of ritual as a kind of protection through which the individual ensures that whatever had to be done to avoid a danger was done. The detailed nature of the ritual procedures are essential to it as is the social network which is woven around the rite. Secondly, the article focuses on the exchange relationship with the supernatural, mediated by a shaman who holds the secrets of the procedure and also the trust of his "clients". Thirdly, it deals with the exchange relationships represented by Catholic popular religion
Iain T. Benson
Full Text Available Constitutional protections for religious freedom (and related freedoms of conscience, belief and association and equality, once interpreted by courts and tribunals, apply in a precedential manner to future cases. They have an influence well beyond the particular community to which they first applied. For this reason, religious communities have increasingly banded together and sought to intervene or even, on occasion, to initiate legal actions asserting or defending their rights. This article reviews some of the principles around the freedom of religion as understood in South Africa and Canada to show how courts have understood the freedom of religion in its social context. In addition, interfaith cooperation is discussed with particular reference to the recent process which led to the formation of a Charter of Religious Rights and Freedoms pursuant to Section 234 of the South African Constitution (which is attached to the article. This section, a unique provision in any constitution, allows for the creation of additional Charters to give greater specificity to the general language of the Constitution itself. As such, it is an encouragement to civil society to determine what it thinks are the important provisions that should be spelled out to give guidance to politicians and the judiciary. Awide variety of religious groups participated in the creation of the Charter. The Charter does not claim to be, nor could it be, exhaustive of such concerns but demonstrates that religions can cooperate across a host of issues in education, health care, employment and other issues. The next stage – passage into law, is still in the future but the first important hurdle has been crossed with the signing of the Charter in October of 2010. The Charter might be a template for other countries though changes would be necessary to deal with local issues.
Exploring Australian school text censorship has a long pedigree in "English in Australia." This article aims to contribute by observing attempts by parents to censor English texts in religious schools. A brief summary of "EIA"'s previous approaches is followed by an explanation of the method of my research with NSW…
Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena
This longitudinal study tested the "influence of involvement" and "selection" hypotheses for the association between religious versus non-religious activity involvement and two salient indicators of adolescent psychosocial adjustment (substance use and academic achievement). Participants included 3,993 Canadian adolescents (49.4% girls) who were…
The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the distinction between justified and unjustified religious diversity, a problem that Dirk-Martin Grube only hinted at in his article on Justified Religious Difference. This article’s focus is not so much on the epistemological question of justifying re
Leidner, Jochen Lothar
Background. In the area of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), a shared discipline between informatics and geography, the term geo-parsing is used to describe the process of identifying names in text, which in computational linguistics is known as named entity recognition and classification (NERC). The term geo-coding is used for the task of mapping from implicitly geo-referenced datasets (such as structured address records) to explicitly geo-referenced representations (e.g.,...
Liang, Yulan; Horrey, William J.; Hoffman, Joshua D.
Objective In this study, we investigated how drivers adapt secondary-task initiation and time-sharing behavior when faced with fluctuating driving demands. Background Reading text while driving is particularly detrimental; however, in real-world driving, drivers actively decide when to perform the task. Method In a test track experiment, participants were free to decide when to read messages while driving along a straight road consisting of an area with increased driving demands (demand zone)...
The financial characteristics of sects are challenging topics. The present paper concerns the Antoinist Cult community (ACC), which has appeared at the end of the 19-th century in Belgium, have had quite an expansion, and is now decaying. The historical perspective is described in an Appendix. Although surely of marginal importance in religious history, the numerical and analytic description of the ACC growth AND decay evolution per se should hopefully permit generalizations toward behaviors of other sects, with either longer life time, i.e. so called religions or churches, or to others with shorter life time. Due to the specific aims and rules of the community, in particular the lack of proselytism, and strict acceptance of only anonymous financial gifts, an indirect measure of their member number evolution can only be studied. This is done here first through the time dependence of new temple inaugurations, between 1910 and 1940. Besides, the community yearly financial reports can be analyzed. They are legal...
Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M
This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p network and the role that it plays in people's lives.
Full Text Available This article attempts to discuss the various societal responses to religious diversity and pluralism in Malaysia and Indonesia. Its focus is on the Muslim–majority nations of Indonesia and Malaysia, where the idea of religious pluralism among Muslims has taken various shapes. While the state’s management of pluralism is so far characterized by politics of expediency and accommodation to ensure stability, law and order, and harmony, it is the societal or community responses that matter most. Advancing and nurturing the ideas of religious pluralism in social and religious discourse requires commitment in persistency and planning. This, in turn, calls for the need to know how the ideas of pluralism and religious diversity have been understood in society. The challenge of nurturing a substantive pluralism in society warrants recognition and support. This can be made in the realms of theological discourse, political will, educative approach, as well as institutional supportCopyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v19i3.355
Paiva Geraldo José de
Full Text Available Terão os docentes-pesquisadores universitários uma representação social (RS da religião e das relações entre religião e ciência? Foram entrevistados cientistas avançados das áreas de ciências exatas, biológicas e humanas, da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil, acerca das relações que estabelecem, ou não, entre ciência e religião. Os resultados mostraram inexistência de conflito consciente entre ciência e religião; pouca ou nenhuma intersecção entre ambas; rejeição tanto do caráter dogmático do cristianismo como das pretensões ilimitadas da ciência; respeito pelas religiões históricas e abertura para novas formas de religiosidade. Os resultados são discutidos com o conceito de RS, de Moscovici.
Full Text Available This essay attempts to look at the nature or character of Islamic militancy as reflected in the reemergence of a number of Islamic parties as well as socio-religious organizations of Islamic origins. Circumstance following the downfall of the Soeharto government and the aftermath it has created will be used to put the issue in perspective. Based on the actual strength of both Islamic parties and the newly established socio-religious organizations, this essay also examines the sustainability of such perceived Islamic militancy.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v11i3.594
Ali Rabbani Khorasgani
Full Text Available This paper intends to investigate generational value gap between mothers and daughter of Mashhad, with an emphasis on religious values. In doing so, a group of 30 female respondents (18-29 years old daughters and their mothers were included in the study by means of purposive sampling. Research tool was in-depth interviewing . The theoretical framework of this study is based on macro theories in the field of generational gap. Four viewpoints about the existence and/or absence of generational gap are considered in this study. The results of the study indicate that mothers have a great influence on the religious values of their daughters, and any conflict between values of the two groups would not affect their relationship. So it is possible to say that there are generational differences between young daughters and their mothers in religious values.
Full Text Available The Finnish education system offers faith-specific religious education throughout the comprehensive school. Today separate minority religious classes are offered parallel to the majority Lutheran and secular ethics education. The purpose of this study is to investigate how minority RE teachers and teacher coordinators view the inclusion of minority religious education in the school culture. Teacher and coordinator perspectives are investigated through an interview study with 23 religion teachers and 3 teacher coordinators in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The results show that teachers and coordinators experienced education as gaining stronger acceptance and equality in the school culture. However, issues of exclusion and discrimination emerged which raise questions on the viability of the current system of RE. The study argues for a need to improve structural issues in education as well as increased teacher participation and dialogue in the school culture.
Are words and music two separate symbolic modes, or rather variants of the same human symbolic practice? Are they parallel, opposing or overlapping? What do they have in common and how does each of them exceed the other? Is music perhaps incomparably different from words, or even their anti-verbal Other? Distinctions between text (in the verbal sense of units of words rather than in the wide sense of symbolic webs in general) and music are regularly made – but also problematized – withi...
Stocker, Erich Franz
NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.
Full Text Available The present article offers the edition of three cuneiform texts belonging to the Akkadian handbook of omens drawn from the physical appearance as well as the morals and behaviour of man. The book comprising up to 27 chapters with more than 100 omens each was entitled in antiquity Alamdimmû. The edition of the three cuneiform tablets completes, thus, the author's monographic study on the ancient Mesopotamian divinatory discipline of physiognomy (Die babylonisch-assyrische Morphoskopie (Wien 2000 [=AfO Beih. 27].
En este artículo se presenta la editio princeps de tres textos cuneiformes conservados en el British Museum (Londres y el Vorderasiatisches Museum (Berlín, que pertenecen al libro asirio-babilonio de presagios fisiognómicos. Este libro, titulado originalmente Alamdimmû ('forma, figura', consta de 27 capítulos, cada uno con más de cien presagios escritos en lengua acadia. Los tres textos completan así el estudio monográfico de la autora sobre la disciplina adivinatoria de la fisiognomía en el antiguo Oriente (Die babylonisch-assyrische Morphoskopie (Wien 2000 [=AfO Beih. 27].