WorldWideScience

Sample records for assuring consumer safety

  1. Assuring safety without animal testing: Unilever's ongoing research programme to deliver novel ways to assure consumer safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Carl; Carmichael, Paul; Dent, Matt; Fentem, Julia; MacKay, Cameron; Maxwell, Gavin; Pease, Camilla; Reynolds, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Assuring consumer safety without the generation of new animal data is currently a considerable challenge. However, through the application of new technologies and the further development of risk-based approaches for safety assessment, we remain confident it is ultimately achievable. For many complex, multi-organ consumer safety endpoints, the development, evaluation and application of new, non-animal approaches is hampered by a lack of biological understanding of the underlying mechanistic processes involved. The enormity of this scientific challenge should not be underestimated. To tackle this challenge a substantial research programme was initiated by Unilever in 2004 to critically evaluate the feasibility of a new conceptual approach based upon the following key components: 1.Developing new, exposure-driven risk assessment approaches. 2.Developing new biological (in vitro) and computer-based (in silico) predictive models. 3.Evaluating the applicability of new technologies for generating data (e.g. "omics", informatics) and for integrating new types of data (e.g. systems approaches) for risk-based safety assessment. Our research efforts are focussed in the priority areas of skin allergy, cancer and general toxicity (including inhaled toxicity). In all of these areas, a long-term investment is essential to increase the scientific understanding of the underlying biology and molecular mechanisms that we believe will ultimately form a sound basis for novel risk assessment approaches. Our research programme in these priority areas consists of in-house research as well as Unilever-sponsored academic research, involvement in EU-funded projects (e.g. Sens-it-iv, Carcinogenomics), participation in cross-industry collaborative research (e.g. Colipa, EPAA) and ongoing involvement with other scientific initiatives on non-animal approaches to risk assessment (e.g. UK NC3Rs, US "Human Toxicology Project" consortium).

  2. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study. 2008 FRAME.

  3. Reactor system safety assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The philosophy of reactor safety is that design should follow established and conservative engineering practices, there should be safety margins in all modes of plant operation, special systems should be provided for accidents, and safety systems should have redundant components. This philosophy provides ''defense in depth.'' Additionally, the safety of nuclear power plants relies on ''safety systems'' to assure acceptable response to design basis events. Operating experience has shown the need to study plant response to more frequent upset conditions and to account for the influence of operators and non-safety systems on overall performance. Defense in depth is being supplemented by risk and reliability assessment

  4. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...... an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by the consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain......, and that these implications are different for fresh meat and processed meat. The paper closes with a call for more collaboration between chain researchers and consumer researchers....

  5. Quality assurance, information tracking, and consumer labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caswell, Julie A. . E-mail caswell@resecon.umass.edu

    2006-01-01

    Reducing marine-based public health risk requires strict control of several attributes of seafood products, often including location and conditions of catch or aquaculture, processing, and handling throughout the supply chain. Buyers likely will also be interested in other attributes of these products such as eco-friendliness or taste. Development of markets for improved safety, as well as for other quality attributes, requires an effective certification and tracking of these attributes as well as their communication to buyers. Several challenges must be met if labeling, particularly consumer labeling, is to support the development of markets for improved seafood safety

  6. GSFC Safety and Mission Assurance Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's approach to safety and mission assurance. The contents include: 1) NASA GSFC Background; 2) Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate; 3) The Role of SMA-D and the Technical Authority; 4) GSFC Mission assurance Requirements; 5) GSFC Systems Review Office (SRO); 6) GSFC Supply Chain Management Program; and 7) GSFC ISO9001/AS9100 Status Brief.

  7. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  8. Assuring bridge safety and serviceability in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    U.S. engineers need advanced tools and protocols to better assess and assure safety and serviceability of bridges. The Federal Highway Administration, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and National Cooperative Highwa...

  9. Improving patient safety through quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Stephen S

    2006-05-01

    Anatomic pathology laboratories use several quality assurance tools to detect errors and to improve patient safety. To review some of the anatomic pathology laboratory patient safety quality assurance practices. Different standards and measures in anatomic pathology quality assurance and patient safety were reviewed. Frequency of anatomic pathology laboratory error, variability in the use of specific quality assurance practices, and use of data for error reduction initiatives. Anatomic pathology error frequencies vary according to the detection method used. Based on secondary review, a College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study showed that the mean laboratory error frequency was 6.7%. A College of American Pathologists Q-Tracks study measuring frozen section discrepancy found that laboratories improved the longer they monitored and shared data. There is a lack of standardization across laboratories even for governmentally mandated quality assurance practices, such as cytologic-histologic correlation. The National Institutes of Health funded a consortium of laboratories to benchmark laboratory error frequencies, perform root cause analysis, and design error reduction initiatives, using quality assurance data. Based on the cytologic-histologic correlation process, these laboratories found an aggregate nongynecologic error frequency of 10.8%. Based on gynecologic error data, the laboratory at my institution used Toyota production system processes to lower gynecologic error frequencies and to improve Papanicolaou test metrics. Laboratory quality assurance practices have been used to track error rates, and laboratories are starting to use these data for error reduction initiatives.

  10. Older Consumers Safety Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase Font Contact CPSC Consumers: Businesses: Report an Unsafe Product ... can become entrapped and suffocate in older, latch-type freezers, refrigerators, dryers and coolers. GFCI Fact Sheet ...

  11. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand......, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...

  12. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    , consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking......Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...

  13. Comprehensive Lifecycle for Assuring System Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John C.; Rowanhill, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    CLASS is a novel approach to the enhancement of system safety in which the system safety case becomes the focus of safety engineering throughout the system lifecycle. CLASS also expands the role of the safety case across all phases of the system's lifetime, from concept formation to decommissioning. As CLASS has been developed, the concept has been generalized to a more comprehensive notion of assurance becoming the driving goal, where safety is an important special case. This report summarizes major aspects of CLASS and contains a bibliography of papers that provide additional details.

  14. Dynamic Safety Cases for Through-Life Safety Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Habli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    We describe dynamic safety cases, a novel operationalization of the concept of through-life safety assurance, whose goal is to enable proactive safety management. Using an example from the aviation systems domain, we motivate our approach, its underlying principles, and a lifecycle. We then identify the key elements required to move towards a formalization of the associated framework.

  15. Consumers Valuations and choice Processes of Food Safety Enhancement Attributes: An International Study of Beef Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. Here we examine consumer preferences for various beef food safety assurances. In particular, we evaluate the extent to which such preferences are heterogeneous within and across

  16. FURNAS activities in safety and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezordi, W.L.; Correa Filho, S.M.; Sacco, W.; Morais, L.H.G. de

    1980-01-01

    The aspects involved in the quality assurance performed by FURNAS for Nuclear Power Plant - Angra Unit I, are shown. Furnas' responsabilities in the licensing regarding reactor safety are also discussed. A summary of the computer codes used in the licensing process is given. (e.G.) [pt

  17. Safety Assurance Process for FRMS : EJcase Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, S.; Koornneef, F.; Akselsson, R.; Barton, P.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 6: Safety Assurance Process for FRMS - eJcase Implementation The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and

  18. Role of quality assurance in reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A quality assurance program based on common sense, designed to accomplish what is reasonable and necessary, giving proper consideration to safety and economics can be an effective and essential management tool for the design, construction and operation of safe and economical nuclear power plants

  19. Software Quality Assurance for Nuclear Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparkman, D R; Lagdon, R

    2004-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has undertaken an initiative to improve the quality of software used to design and operate their nuclear facilities across the United States. One aspect of this initiative is to revise or create new directives and guides associated with quality practices for the safety software in its nuclear facilities. Safety software includes the safety structures, systems, and components software and firmware, support software and design and analysis software used to ensure the safety of the facility. DOE nuclear facilities are unique when compared to commercial nuclear or other industrial activities in terms of the types and quantities of hazards that must be controlled to protect workers, public and the environment. Because of these differences, DOE must develop an approach to software quality assurance that ensures appropriate risk mitigation by developing a framework of requirements that accomplishes the following goals: (sm b ullet) Ensures the software processes developed to address nuclear safety in design, operation, construction and maintenance of its facilities are safe (sm b ullet) Considers the larger system that uses the software and its impacts (sm b ullet) Ensures that the software failures do not create unsafe conditions Software designers for nuclear systems and processes must reduce risks in software applications by incorporating processes that recognize, detect, and mitigate software failure in safety related systems. It must also ensure that fail safe modes and component testing are incorporated into software design. For nuclear facilities, the consideration of risk is not necessarily sufficient to ensure safety. Systematic evaluation, independent verification and system safety analysis must be considered for software design, implementation, and operation. The software industry primarily uses risk analysis to determine the appropriate level of rigor applied to software practices. This risk-based approach distinguishes safety

  20. Safety and Mission Assurance Knowledge Management Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa A.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the issues surrounding the management of knowledge in regards to safety and mission assurance. The JSC workers who were hired in the 1960's are slated to retire in the next two to three years. The experiences and knowledge of these NASA workers must be identified, and disseminated. This paper reviews some of the strategies that the S&MA is developing to capture that valuable institutional knowledge.

  1. International organisations assure nuclear safety competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.

    2000-01-01

    Irrespective of current views on the future of nuclear power programmes, concerns are arising with respect to the long-term ability to preserve safety competence because student enrollments in nuclear engineering are decreasing rapidly and experienced staff are reaching retirement age. 'Assuring Nuclear Safety Competence into the 21. Century' was discussed in depth by workshop participants. The need for a long-term strategic view was emphasised, and policy recommendations were made. These proceedings will be of particular interest to those playing a policy role in the nuclear industry, regulatory bodies and the education sector

  2. Quality assurance for software important to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Software applications play an increasingly relevant role in nuclear power plant systems. This is particularly true of software important to safety used in both: calculations for the design, testing and analysis of nuclear reactor systems (design, engineering and analysis software); and monitoring, control and safety functions as an integral part of the reactor systems (monitoring, control and safety system software). Computer technology is advancing at a fast pace, offering new possibilities in nuclear reactor design, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning. These advances also present new issues which must be considered both by the utility and by the regulatory organization. Refurbishment of ageing instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants and new safety related application areas have emerged, with direct (e.g. interfaces with safety systems) and indirect (e.g. operator intervention) implications for safety. Currently, there exist several international standards and guides on quality assurance for software important to safety. However, none of the existing documents provides comprehensive guidance to the developer, manager and regulator during all phases of the software life-cycle. The present publication was developed taking into account the large amount of available documentation, the rapid development of software systems and the need for updated guidance on h ow to do it . It provides information and guidance for defining and implementing quality assurance programmes covering the entire life-cycle of software important to safety. Expected users are managers, performers and assessors from nuclear utilities, regulatory bodies, suppliers and technical support organizations involved with the development and use of software applied in nuclear power plants

  3. Management services, quality assurance, and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Broad technical and administrative support for the programmatic research and development activities of the Fusion Energy Division is provided by the Management Services Section and by the division's quality assurance (QA) and safety programs. Support is provided through effective communication with division programmatic staff and through the coordination of resources from disciplines outside the division. The QA activity in the division emphasizes the development and documentation of a QA program that conforms to national standards, the review and approval of engineering documents, supplier surveillance, identification and documentation of nonconforming items, audits, and QA assessments/plans. The division's safety activities include a formal safety program, emergency planning activities, and environmental protection services. Efforts devoted to the removal of hazardous wastes from division facilities were expanded during 1986

  4. Food safety and the reversed political consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Denver, Sigrid; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    We address the question of whether people act as political consumers in relation to food safety. By linking evidence from economic valuation studies on consumers' willingness to pay with sociological studies on consumer behaviour and market studies, we find that food safety does not call...

  5. IAEA code and safety guides on quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisic, N.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of its programme in safety standards development, the IAEA has recently published a Code of Practice on Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants. The Code establishes minimum requirements for quality assurance which Member States should use in the context of their own nuclear safety requirements. A series of 10 Safety Guides which describe acceptable methods of implementing the requirements of specific sections of the Code are in preparation. (orig.)

  6. A complex tool and three simple approaches to improving quality assurance and safety in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, F; Sansogne, R; Arbiser, S; Suarez, V; Franco, M; Escobar, J

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and safety controls in radiation therapy delivery processes that involve the Physics Department of an institution are commonly time consuming tasks. Carrying out daily controls in very busy clinics without compromising patient schedule is challenging. This work describes the usage of Electronic Portal Imaging Devices in combination with some in-house software to simplify and systematize three different tasks of the Physics Department Quality Assurance Program, improving the easiness, reliability and velocity of daily tests (author)

  7. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ababouch, Lahsen . E-mail lahsen.ababouch@fao.org

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US$ 58.2 billion in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US$ 17.4 billion in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building

  8. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ababouch, Lahsen [United Nations, Food and Agricultural Organization, Chief, Fish Utilization and Marketing Services, FAO Headquarters, F-607 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail lahsen.ababouch@fao.org

    2006-07-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US$ 58.2 billion in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US$ 17.4 billion in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building.

  9. Evaluation of reliability assurance approaches to operational nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Bezella, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the results of research to evaluate existing and/or recommended safety/reliability assurance activities among nuclear and other high technology industries for potential nuclear industry implementation. Since the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, there has been increased interest in the use of reliability programs (RP) to assure the performance of nuclear safety systems throughout the plant's lifetime. Recently, several Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) task forces or safety issue review groups have recommended RPs for assuring the continuing safety of nuclear reactor plants. 18 references

  10. Assuring consumer information and protection in the solar market: need, status, strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    In this report the Consumer Energy Council has examined a number of basic issues affecting consumer assurance in the solar market. A general framework has been established to specify the role of consumer assurance as it relates both to government activity and a new consumer product industry. The available empirical evidence has been reviewed to identify the actual needs for consumer assurance in the solar market. By synthesizing the work of the SOLCAN Planning Project participants we have identified both the general thrust of existing consumer assurance mechanisms in the states and the direction that efforts to improve and expand those mechanisms are likely to take. Finally, several brief recommendations for combining the pieces of consumer assurance into an effective overall framework have been put forward.

  11. Technology and Tool Development to Support Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    The Assurance Case approach is being adopted in a number of safety-mission-critical application domains in the U.S., e.g., medical devices, defense aviation, automotive systems, and, lately, civil aviation. This paradigm refocuses traditional, process-based approaches to assurance on demonstrating explicitly stated assurance goals, emphasizing the use of structured rationale, and concrete product-based evidence as the means for providing justified confidence that systems and software are fit for purpose in safely achieving mission objectives. NASA has also been embracing assurance cases through the concepts of Risk Informed Safety Cases (RISCs), as documented in the NASA System Safety Handbook, and Objective Hierarchies (OHs) as put forth by the Agency's Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA). This talk will give an overview of the work being performed by the SGT team located at NASA Ames Research Center, in developing technologies and tools to engineer and apply assurance cases in customer projects pertaining to aviation safety. We elaborate how our Assurance Case Automation Toolset (AdvoCATE) has not only extended the state-of-the-art in assurance case research, but also demonstrated its practical utility. We have successfully developed safety assurance cases for a number of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) operations, which underwent, and passed, scrutiny both by the aviation regulator, i.e., the FAA, as well as the applicable NASA boards for airworthiness and flight safety, flight readiness, and mission readiness. We discuss our efforts in expanding AdvoCATE capabilities to support RISCs and OHs under a project recently funded by OSMA under its Software Assurance Research Program. Finally, we speculate on the applicability of our innovations beyond aviation safety to such endeavors as robotic, and human spaceflight.

  12. Quality assurance and nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Quality assurance in the nuclear industry was born in the late 1960s. Atomic Energy Control Board staff began its regulatory practice on quality assurance during that period. In this presentation the author traces the circumstances that first led to the establishment of Canadian nuclear power plant quality assurance programmes, summarizes progress over the last decade and a half, and outlines the current regulatory approach and what has been learned so far

  13. Food safety and quality assurance : foods of animal origin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Keith L; Hinton, Michael H; Hubbert, William T; Hagstad, Harry V; Spangler, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    The second edition of Food Safety and Quality Assurance is a basic reference for veterinarians, extension specialists, and others who help food-animal producers throughout the food chain to provide...

  14. Summary report on the Solar Consumer Assurance Network (SOLCAN) Program Planning Task in the southern region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, M. B. [comp.

    1981-03-15

    The goal of the SOLCAN Program Planning Task is to assist in the development, at the state and local levels, of consumer assurance approaches that will support the accelerated adoption and effective use of new products promoted by government incentives to consumers to meet our nation's energy needs. The task includes state-conducted evaluations and state SOLCAN meetings to identify consumer assurance mechanisms, assess their effectiveness, and identify and describe alternative means for strengthening consumer and industry assurance in each state. Results of the SOLCAN process are presented, including: a Solar Consumer Protection State Assessment Guide; State Solar Consumer Assurance Resources for Selected States; State Solar Consumer Protection Assessment Interviews for Florida; and state SOLCAN meeting summaries and participants. (LEW)

  15. Safety for Older Consumers: Home Safety Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and switches have cover plates installed so no wiring is exposed. U nused receptacles have safety covers ... pour gasoline into a kerosene heater. Review the installation and operating instructions. Call the manufacturer or your ...

  16. Consumer Valuations of Beef Steak Food Safety Enhancement in Canada, Japan, Mexico, and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2009-01-01

    Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. We examine consumer preferences for beef steak food safety assurances. We evaluate the extent to which preferences are heterogeneous within and across country-of-residence defined groups and examine the

  17. Consumer perception of meat quality and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of meat quality and safety is not an easy task for consumers. In this article, the Total Food Quality Model will be introduced as a framework for understanding how consumers perceive meat quality, and results from a Danish study dealing with consumer perception and experience of beef...... will be presented. Consumers form expectations about the eating quality of meat at the point of purchase, based on prior experience and information available in the shopping environment, while the eating quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. Results show that consumers have...... difficulty in evaluating meat quality, resulting in uncertainty and dissatisfaction, and reveal a need for educating consumers about evaluating eating quality during shopping....

  18. Positioning Food Safety in Halal Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Demirci, M, N; Soon, Jan Mei; Wallace, Carol Anne

    2016-01-01

    Muslims follow the religion of Islam and the food they eat should be Halal, meaning lawful or permissible. Muslims are allowed to eat halal and wholesome food that has been provided for them. However, some of the main prohibitions are swine flesh, blood, carrion, animals not slaughtered according to Islamic laws and alcoholic drinks. At present Halal assurance is in a complicated state, with various Halal standards differing from each other without gaining mutual acceptance. The world is star...

  19. Probabilistic studies for a safety assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, S.S.; Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The adequate supply of energy is always a matter of concern for any country. Nuclear power has played, and will continue to play an important role in supplying this energy. However, safety in nuclear power production is a fundamental prerequisite in fulfilling this role. This paper outlines a program to ensure safe operation of a nuclear power plant utilizing the Probabilistic Safety Studies

  20. Factors Affecting Consumer Purchase Decision on Insurance Product in PT. Prudential Life Assurance Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Esau, Eko Yiswa Rasti

    2015-01-01

    Marketing Mix is the main factor that could affect the whole marketing system. The absence of marketing mix analysis will affecting negatively on a marketing performance. The research aims to analyze the influence of Product, Price, Promotion, People and Process of the Prudential Life Assurance Manado Area on the Consumer Purchase Decision. Data collected through distribution of questionnaires to 100 consumer of Prudential Life Assurance Manado Area. The research used Classic Assumption test ...

  1. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes.

  2. Changing the Safety and Mission Assurance (S and MA) Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Roy W.; Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the change in the work and impact of the Safety and Mission Assurance directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center. It reviews the background and the reasons given for a strong Safety & Mission Assurance presence in all planning for space flight. This was pointed out by the Rogers Commission Report after the Space Challenger accident, by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) and by a 2006 NASA Exploration Safety Study (NESS) Team. The overall objective of the work in this area was to improve and maintain S&MA expertise and skills. Training for this work was improved and the S&MA organization was reorganized. This has resulted in a paradigm shift for NASA's safety efforts, which is described. The presentation then reviews the impact of the new S&MA work in the Ares I design and development.

  3. Quality assurance requirements for the computer software and safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husarecek, J.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements are given as placed on the development, procurement, maintenance, and application of software for the creation or processing of data during the design, construction, operation, repair, maintenance and safety-related upgrading of nuclear power plants. The verification and validation processes are highlighted, and the requirements put on the software documentation are outlined. The general quality assurance principles applied to safety analyses are characterized. (J.B.). 1 ref

  4. Nuclear and radiation safety assurance federal target programme management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, O.V.; Vasil'ev, V.A.; Nikishin, D.A.; Linge, I.I.; Obodinskij, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Program Nuclear and Radiation Safety Assurance for 2008-2015 is presented. Specifics of Federal target program management as well as changes to program management are discussed. Data on evaluation of management effectiveness is given. Further efforts to resolve the nuclear legacy problem in Russia are also presented [ru

  5. Safety and Mission Assurance: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Manned spaceflight is an incredibly complex and inherently risky human endeavor. As the result of the lessons learned through years of triumph and tragedy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has embraced a comprehensive and integrated approach to the challenge of ensuring safety and mission success. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the techniques employed in this effort, with a focus on the processing operations performed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  6. Safety Assurance for Irradiating Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Tomberlin; S. B. Grover

    2004-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), was specifically designed to provide a high neutron flux test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. This paper addresses the safety assurance process for two general types of experiments conducted in the ATR facility and how the safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore, this type of experiment is addressed in more detail in the ATR safety basis. This allows the individual safety analysis for this type of experiment to be more standardized. The second type of experiment is defined in more general terms in the ATR safety basis and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, the individual safety analysis for the second type of experiment tends to be more unique and is tailored to each experiment.

  7. Safety Assurance for Irradiating Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. A. Tomberlin; S. B. Grover

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), was specifically designed to provide a high neutron flux test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. This paper addresses the safety assurance process for two general types of experiments conducted in the ATR facility and how the safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore, this type of experiment is addressed in more detail in the ATR safety basis. This allows the individual safety analysis for this type of experiment to be more standardized. The second type of experiment is defined in more general terms in the ATR safety basis and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, the individual safety analysis for the second type of experiment tends to be more unique and is tailored to each experiment

  8. One complex tool and three simple approaches to the improvement of quality assurance and safety in external beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, F.; Sansogne, R.; Arbiser, S.; Suarez, V., E-mail: flavio.salinas@rtp.com.ar [Vidt Centro Medico (Argentina); Franco, M., E-mail: mauricio.franco@rtp.com.ar [Centro de Radioterapia San Juan (Argentina); Escobar, J., E-mail: jorge.escobar@iprc.com.ar [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia Cuyo, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-10-01

    Quality assurance and safety controls in radiation therapy delivery processes that involve the Physics Department of an institution are commonly time consuming tasks. Carrying out daily controls in very busy clinics without compromising patient schedule is challenging. This work describes the usage of Electronic Portal Imaging Devices in combination with some in-house software to simplify and systematize three different tasks of the Physics Department Quality Assurance Program, improving the easiness, reliability and velocity of daily tests. (author)

  9. One complex tool and three simple approaches to the improvement of quality assurance and safety in external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, F.; Sansogne, R.; Arbiser, S.; Suarez, V.; Franco, M.; Escobar, J.

    2013-01-01

    Quality assurance and safety controls in radiation therapy delivery processes that involve the Physics Department of an institution are commonly time consuming tasks. Carrying out daily controls in very busy clinics without compromising patient schedule is challenging. This work describes the usage of Electronic Portal Imaging Devices in combination with some in-house software to simplify and systematize three different tasks of the Physics Department Quality Assurance Program, improving the easiness, reliability and velocity of daily tests. (author)

  10. Safer electronic health records safety assurance factors for EHR resilience

    CERN Document Server

    Sittig, Dean F

    2015-01-01

    This important volume provide a one-stop resource on the SAFER Guides along with the guides themselves and information on their use, development, and evaluation. The Safety Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience (SAFER) guides, developed by the editors of this book, identify recommended practices to optimize the safety and safe use of electronic health records (EHRs). These guides are designed to help organizations self-assess the safety and effectiveness of their EHR implementations, identify specific areas of vulnerability, and change their cultures and practices to mitigate risks.This book pr

  11. Quality and Safety Assurance of Iron Casts and Manufacturing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kukla S.

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this work focuses on the aspects of quality and safety assurance of the iron cast manufacturing processes. Special attention was given to the processes of quality control and after-machining of iron casts manufactured on automatic foundry lines. Due to low level of automation and huge work intensity at this stage of the process, a model area was established which underwent reorganization in accordance with the assumptions of the World Class Manufacturing (WCM). An analysis of wor...

  12. Assuring nuclear safety competence into the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Irrespective of current views on the future of nuclear power programmes, concerns are arising with respect to the long-term ability to preserve safety competence because student enrollments in nuclear engineering are decreasing rapidly and experienced staff are reaching retirement age. 'Assuring Nuclear Safety Competence into the 21. Century' was discussed in depth by workshop participants. The need for a long-term strategic view was emphasised, and policy recommendations were made. These proceedings will be of particular interest to those playing a policy role in the nuclear industry, regulatory bodies and the education sector. (author)

  13. Organizing safety: conditions for successful information assurance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmann, Jeff; Coleman, Johnathan; Sostrom, Kristen; Wright, Willie

    2004-01-01

    Organizations must continuously seek safety. When considering computerized health information systems, "safety" includes protecting the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of information assets such as patient information, key components of the technical information system, and critical personnel. "High Reliability Theory" (HRT) argues that organizations with strong leadership support, continuous training, redundant safety mechanisms, and "cultures of high reliability" can deploy and safely manage complex, risky technologies such as nuclear weapons systems or computerized health information systems. In preparation for the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996, the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), the Offices of the Surgeons General of the United States Army, Navy and Air Force, and the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command sponsored organizational, doctrinal, and technical projects that individually and collectively promote conditions for a "culture of information assurance." These efforts include sponsoring the "P3 Working Group" (P3WG), an interdisciplinary, tri-service taskforce that reviewed all relevant Department of Defense (DoD), Miliary Health System (MHS), Army, Navy and Air Force policies for compliance with the HIPAA medical privacy and data security regulations; supporting development, training, and deployment of OCTAVE(sm), a self-directed information security risk assessment process; and sponsoring development of the Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR), a Web-enabled enterprise portal about health information assurance.

  14. Changing the S and MA [Safety and Mission Assurance] Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Roy W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: 1) Optimize S&MA organization to best facilitate Shuttle transition in 2010, successfully support Ares developmental responsibilities, and minimize the impacts of the gap between last Shuttle flight and start of Ares V Project. 2) Improve leveraging of critical skills and experience between Shuttle and Ares. 3) Split technical and supervisory functions to facilitate technical penetration. 4) Create Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer (CSO) stand-alone position for successfully implementation of S&MA Technical Authority. 5) Minimize disruption to customers. 6) Provide early involvement of S&MA leadership team and frequent/open communications with S&MA team members and steak-holders.

  15. Guidance for implementing an environmental, safety, and health-assurance program. Volume 15. A model plan for line organization environmental, safety, and health-assurance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, A.C.; Trauth, C.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This is 1 of 15 documents designed to illustrate how an Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) Assurance Program may be implemented. The generic definition of ES and H Assurance Programs is given in a companion document entitled An Environmental, Safety and Health Assurance Program Standard. This particular document presents a model operational-level ES and H Assurance Program that may be used as a guide by an operational-level organization in developing its own plan. The model presented here reflects the guidance given in the total series of 15 documents.

  16. Work Done For the Safety and Assurance Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struhar, Paul T., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The Safety and Assurance Directorate (SAAD) has a vision. The vision is to be an essential part of NASA Glenn's journey to excellence. SAAD is in charge of leading safety, security, and quality and is important to our customers. When it comes to programmatic and technical decision making and implementation, SAAD provides clear safety, reliability, maintainable, quality assurance and security. I worked on a couple different things during my internship with Sandra Hardy. I did a lot of logistics for meeting and trips. I helped run the budget for the SAAD directorate. I also worked with Rich Miller for one week and we took water samples and ran tests. We also calibrated the different equipment. There is a lot more to meetings than people see. I did one for a retirement party. I had to get work orders and set up the facilities where the event is going to take place. I also set up a trip to Plum Brook Station. I had to order vans and talk with the people up there to see when a good time was. I also had to make invitations and coordinate everything. I also help Sandy run the numbers in the budget. We use excel to do this, which makes it a lot easier. things. He is in the environmental safety office. I learned how to collaborate the equipment using alpha and beta sources. I went out with him and we took water samples and tested them for conductivity and chlorine. I have learned a lot in the short time I've been here. It has been a great experience and I have has the pleasure of meeting and working with great people.

  17. Integrating Safety and Mission Assurance into Systems Engineering Modeling Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Sean; Darpel, Scott

    2015-01-01

    During the early development of products, flight, or experimental hardware, emphasis is often given to the identification of technical requirements, utilizing such tools as use case and activity diagrams. Designers and project teams focus on understanding physical and performance demands and challenges. It is typically only later, during the evaluation of preliminary designs that a first pass, if performed, is made to determine the process, safety, and mission quality assurance requirements. Evaluation early in the life cycle, though, can yield requirements that force a fundamental change in design. This paper discusses an alternate paradigm for using the concepts of use case or activity diagrams to identify safety hazard and mission quality assurance risks and concerns using the same systems engineering modeling tools being used to identify technical requirements. It contains two examples of how this process might be used in the development of a space flight experiment, and the design of a Human Powered Pizza Delivery Vehicle, along with the potential benefits to decrease development time, and provide stronger budget estimates.

  18. [Legal development of consumer protection from the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety standpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püster, M

    2010-06-01

    Ten years after publication of the White Paper on Food Safety, health consumer protection has made significant progress and, today, is a key field in politics at both the European and German levels. In addition to the protection of health and security of consumers, consumer information has become a core element of consumer protection for the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz and Lebensmittelsicherheit, BVL). State authorities are provided with new means of communication and interaction with consumers.

  19. Consumer perception of safety in the agri-food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2006-01-01

    , former real or perceived food safety problems extended into food scares after extensive mass media coverage. A wide diversity of studies consistently report declining consumer confidence, deteriorating perception and decreasing consumption rates after exposure to adverse food-health communication. After......Introduction: The aim of this section is to describe the scope and objectives of this chapter on consumer perception of safety in the agri-food chain. Furthermore, the rationale for taking consumer behavioural issues into account in agri-food safety debates is provided. In order to shed some light...... on consumer behaviour with respect to food safety issues, this chapter both provides some basic principles of consumer behaviour and a selection of topical case studies. First, this chapter envisages introducing basic principles of consumer behaviour and consumer decision-making that are applicable in food...

  20. Software quality assurance plans for safety-critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddle, P.

    2006-01-01

    Application software is defined as safety-critical if a fault in the software could prevent the system components from performing their nuclear-safety functions. Therefore, for nuclear-safety systems, the AREVA TELEPERM R XS (TXS) system is classified 1E, as defined in the Inst. of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Std 603-1998. The application software is classified as Software Integrity Level (SIL)-4, as defined in IEEE Std 7-4.3.2-2003. The AREVA NP Inc. Software Program Manual (SPM) describes the measures taken to ensure that the TELEPERM XS application software attains a level of quality commensurate with its importance to safety. The manual also describes how TELEPERM XS correctly performs the required safety functions and conforms to established technical and documentation requirements, conventions, rules, and standards. The program manual covers the requirements definition, detailed design, integration, and test phases for the TELEPERM XS application software, and supporting software created by AREVA NP Inc. The SPM is required for all safety-related TELEPERM XS system applications. The program comprises several basic plans and practices: 1. A Software Quality-Assurance Plan (SQAP) that describes the processes necessary to ensure that the software attains a level of quality commensurate with its importance to safety function. 2. A Software Safety Plan (SSP) that identifies the process to reasonably ensure that safety-critical software performs as intended during all abnormal conditions and events, and does not introduce any new hazards that could jeopardize the health and safety of the public. 3. A Software Verification and Validation (V and V) Plan that describes the method of ensuring the software is in accordance with the requirements. 4. A Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) that describes the method of maintaining the software in an identifiable state at all times. 5. A Software Operations and Maintenance Plan (SO and MP) that

  1. A monitor for consumer confidence in the safety of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that in the developed countries food safety standards are higher than ever, food safety incidents continue to occur frequently. The accumulation of food safety incidents might affect general consumer confidence in the safety of food. Therefore, in this thesis, the concept of general

  2. A scale for consumer confidence in the safety of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Renes, R.J.; Frewer, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure general consumer confidence in the safety of food. Results from exploratory and confirmatory analyses indicate that general consumer confidence in the safety of food consists of two distinct dimensions, optimism and pessimism,

  3. Chinese consumers concerns about food safety: Case of Tianjin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to gain an insight to Chinese consumers' knowledge and concerns over food safety from a case study in Tianjin city. The results indicate that Chinese consumers are very much concerned about food safety, particularly with regard to vegetables and dairy products. Chinese

  4. Is embedding entailed in consumer valuation of food safety characteristics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Christensen, Tove; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Consumers' preferences for food safety characteristics are investigated with a particular focus on the existence of an embedding effect. Embedding exists if consumer valuation of food safety is insensitive to scope. We conduct between-attribute external tests for embedding in two choice experiments...

  5. Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Okon, Shira

    2015-01-01

    Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible".1 To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) chose a development approach that explicitly incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 preliminary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigation strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

  6. Assuring future competence in nuclear safety in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Background: Within last few years we have been faced the fact that ageing of experts in nuclear safety field cannot be ignored in Finland. A great number of all experts/specialists with special competence on nuclear safety studied in the early 70's and had their first permanent jobs in the 'golden era' of nuclear power. These experts are going to retire within next ten years. Therefore both the regulatory body and licensees in Finland have the situation where the age distribution of staff member has become distorted. Also the amount of students in universities which have nuclear technology as their major subject has diminished remarkably until the decision of the new nuclear power plant unit in Finland was made in May 2001. After that the amount of students has risen. Assuring competences within the regulatory body STUK adopted the systematic approach to training in early 90's, this method is widely presented in IAEA TECDOC 1254 (2001). However, the very low turnover of staff led to decrease of training needs and therefore also the systematic training efforts decreased. In 2001 a need to restart the systematic approach to assuring competences was identified. To improve competence management at the regulatory body a competence analysis was carried out and a human resource plan for nuclear safety area for the near future was made. Competence analysis is a method which is quite commonly used on public sector and governmental organisations in Finland. STUK studied carefully the models used in other public sector organisations and adjusted the method to its own purposes. The model used has four competence categories: substance related, management skills, common working skills and STUK related working skills. Substance related competences were defined and described at working unit level. Descriptions for the rest three categories were made at STUK level and those were common for all departments. Substance related competencies common to all working at the

  7. Consumer anxieties about food grain safety in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, P.A.; Zhu, H.; Wang, W.

    2016-01-01

    China has a long history of eating staple plant foods which are mainly derived from food grains, especially rice and wheat. Food grain safety has been a worrying challenge on health and nutrition grounds in China, although evidence clearly suggests that expanding agricultural production is linked to reducing undernourishment. The focus of this study is to investigate consumers' anxieties about food grain safety in China. The nature and extent of consumer anxieties about grain safety, the caus...

  8. Safety assurance for nuclear chemical plants - regulatory practice in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.; Charlesworth, F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the legislation and licensing requirements for nuclear installations as well as the related safety assurance procedures in the UK. Developments in safety assurance practice are identified and discussed in relation to the role of the regulator and of the operator. (NEA) [fr

  9. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR FOOD SAFETY ATTRIBUTES IN FRESH APPLES: MARKET SEGMENTS, CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS, AND MARKETING OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    Past research has yielded conflicting results on consumer valuation of food safety characteristics. In this study, conjoint analysis is used to evaluate consumer responses to hypothetical apple products in a nationwide survey. Product characteristics include price, quality, pesticide use levels and the corresponding cancer risk, and type of government inspection. Consumers expressed a broad preference for reduced pesticide usage. Four market segments were identified corresponding to consumers...

  10. Quality assurance and radiation safety in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmetyuk, Ya.V.; Radosh, H.V.; Bezshyyko, O.A.; Golinka-Bezshyyko, L.O.; Kadenko, I.M.; Kazinova, O.A.; Nagai, A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific studies, clinical experience and economic analysis have shown that the positron emission tomography (PET) is clinically and cost effective cancer diagnostics method. Combined PET and computed tomography (PET/CT) has proven clinical utility, particularly in the diagnosis, staging or restaging malignant disease and metastases, surgical planning, radiation therapy planning and evaluation of treatment response. The use of PET/CT has grown substantially in the past few years, with an increasing number of hospitals and installations of PET/CT imaging centers each year. In the same time combination of 2 procedures, each of which impart a radiation dose and, as a result, increases the deleterious influence for health, creates additional radiation safety issues. In these conditions the role of quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) programs is getting more and more important. We considered main QA and radiation safety requirements for whole PET technology chain from radio-pharmacy facilities to PET/CT scanning and patient release criteria. All these issues were considered and assessed having the example of PET facilities and technology chain of All-Ukrainian Center for Radiosurgery of the Clinical Hospital 'Feofania'

  11. Final Report of the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance Agile Benchmarking Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherholt, Martha

    2016-01-01

    To ensure that the NASA Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) community remains in a position to perform reliable Software Assurance (SA) on NASAs critical software (SW) systems with the software industry rapidly transitioning from waterfall to Agile processes, Terry Wilcutt, Chief, Safety and Mission Assurance, Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) established the Agile Benchmarking Team (ABT). The Team's tasks were: 1. Research background literature on current Agile processes, 2. Perform benchmark activities with other organizations that are involved in software Agile processes to determine best practices, 3. Collect information on Agile-developed systems to enable improvements to the current NASA standards and processes to enhance their ability to perform reliable software assurance on NASA Agile-developed systems, 4. Suggest additional guidance and recommendations for updates to those standards and processes, as needed. The ABT's findings and recommendations for software management, engineering and software assurance are addressed herein.

  12. Food quality and safety: Consumer perception and demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    choice and consumer demand, addressing questions of price perception and the validity of willingness-to-pay measurements. It is concluded that food quality and safety are central issues in today's food economics, though many research questions remain to be addressed. Udgivelsesdato: SEP 1......Research on consumer quality perception is reviewed using the Total Food Quality Model as a structuring device. The relationship between food safety and quality is addressed, and is discussed in the context of research on consumer risk perception. Quality and safety perception is linked to food...

  13. Food quality and safety: Consumer perception and demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    Research on consumer quality perception is reviewed using the Total Food Quality Model as a structuring device. The relationship between food safety and quality is addressed, and is discussed in the context of research on consumer risk perception. Quality and safety perception is linked to food...... choice and consumer demand, addressing questions of price perception and the validity of willingness-to-pay measurements. It is concluded that food quality and safety are central issues in today's food economics, though many research questions remain to be addressed. Udgivelsesdato: SEP 1...

  14. Global Food Safety-International Consumers' Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2013-10-11

    Your submissions to this Special Issue "Food Microbiology and Safety" of Foods -a new open access journal-are welcome. We understand there are no foodborne illness-free zones in the world. Therefore, a proper understanding of foodborne pathogens and the factors that impact their growth, survival and pathogenesis would equip us with tools to ensure global food safety. This Special Issue publishes articles on different aspects of food microbiology and safety. [...].

  15. 30 CFR 250.806 - Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and pollution prevention equipment... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.806 Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance... install only certified safety and pollution prevention equipment (SPPE) in wells located on the OCS. SPPE...

  16. Quality and Safety Assurance of Iron Casts and Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukla S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this work focuses on the aspects of quality and safety assurance of the iron cast manufacturing processes. Special attention was given to the processes of quality control and after-machining of iron casts manufactured on automatic foundry lines. Due to low level of automation and huge work intensity at this stage of the process, a model area was established which underwent reorganization in accordance with the assumptions of the World Class Manufacturing (WCM. An analysis of work intensity was carried out and the costs were divided in order to identify operations with no value added, particularly at individual manufacturing departments. Also an analysis of ergonomics at work stations was carried out to eliminate activities that are uncomfortable and dangerous to the workers' health. Several solutions were proposed in terms of rationalization of work organization at iron cast after-machining work stations. The proposed solutions were assessed with the use of multi-criteria assessment tools and then the best variant was selected based on the assumed optimization criteria. The summary of the obtained results reflects benefits from implementation of the proposed solutions.

  17. Can traceability improve consumers' confidence in food quality and safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Frewer, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates whether the implementation of traceability systems in line with the European General Food Law as well as food labelling laws related to allergens can impact on consumer confidence in food quality and safety. It aims to give insight into consumer demands regarding

  18. Global Food Safety?International Consumers? Rights?

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2013-01-01

    Your submissions to this Special Issue “Food Microbiology and Safety” of Foods—a new open access journal—are welcome. We understand there are no foodborne illness-free zones in the world. Therefore, a proper understanding of foodborne pathogens and the factors that impact their growth, survival and pathogenesis would equip us with tools to ensure global food safety. This Special Issue publishes articles on different aspects of food microbiology and safety.

  19. Relevant Results of Fish Consumer Benefits and Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused upon the assessment of current consumer behavior as empirical arguments for designing and implementation of fish feeding and processing innovative biotechnologies which highly meet the exigencies of food safety and security. Recent studies on food consumer behavior are observing the rising awareness of food safety and the reinforcement of the preoccupation about the consequences of healthy diet in terms of prevention and cure as characteristics of life quality. The implications of these changes urge the reconsideration of communication strategy upon food chain in terms of completeness, correctness and continuity of consumer information.

  20. New Paradigm in Nuclear Safety from Quality Assurance to Safety Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Nam-Jin; Park, Chan-Gook; Nam, Ji-Hee; Kim, Kwan-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-il; Lee, Young-Gun Lee

    2006-01-01

    The initial concept of Quality Control (QC) controlling the quality of products is now evolving toward the Management System (MS) achieving safety, through Quality Assurance (QA) ensuring the quality of products and Quality Management (QM) managing the quality by a systematic approach. Nuclear safety can be achieved through an integrated MS that ensures the health, environmental, security, quality and economic requirements being considered together with nuclear safety requirements. MS approach is developed through realizing that most of nuclear accidents had occurred not by the malfunction of hardware or equipment, but by the human error. The MS is a set of inter-related or interacting elements (system) that establishes policies and objectives and which enables those objectives to be achieved in an efficient and effective way

  1. Consumer attitudes and the governance of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, Oliver; Muñoz, Emilio; González, Marta; Ponce, Gloria; Estévez, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of a recent study of public perception of food safety governance in Spain, using genetically modified (GM) foods as an indicator. The data make clear that Spanish food consumers are aware of their rights and role in the marketplace. They are critical of current regulatory decision making, which they perceive to be unduly influenced by certain social actors, such as industry. In contrast, consumers demand decisions to be based primarily on scientific opinion, as well as consumer preferences. They want authorities to facilitate informed purchasing decisions, and favor labeling of GM foods mostly on the grounds of their right to know. However, consumers' actual level of knowledge with respect to food technology and food safety remains low. There are several ambivalences as to the real impact of these attitudes on actual consumer behavior (specifically when it comes to organizing themselves or searching out background information).

  2. Food Labeling and Consumer Associations with Health, Safety, and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K; Doran, Neal

    2016-12-01

    The food supply is complicated and consumers are increasingly calling for labeling on food to be more informative. In particular, consumers are asking for the labeling of food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMO) based on health, safety, and environmental concerns. At issue is whether the labels that are sought would accurately provide the information desired. The present study examined consumer (n = 181) perceptions of health, safety and the environment for foods labeled organic, natural, fat free or low fat, GMO, or non-GMO. Findings indicated that respondents consistently believed that foods labeled GMO are less healthy, safe and environmentally-friendly compared to all other labels (ps labels mean something to consumers, but that a disconnect may exist between the meaning associated with the label and the scientific consensus for GMO food. These findings may provide insight for the development of labels that provide information that consumers seek.

  3. The Role Of Quality Assurance Program For Safety Operation Of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjanto, N.T.; Purwadi, K.P.; Boru, D.S.; Farida; Suharni

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear installations expose potential hazard of radiation, therefore in their construction, operation and maintenance, it is necessary to consider safety aspect, in which the safety requirements which has been determined must be met. One of the requirements that is absolutely needed is quality assurance, which covers arrangement of quality assurance program, organization and administration of the implementation of quality assurance, and supervision. Quality Assurance program is a guideline containing quality policies and basic determination on the realization of activities that effect the quality of equipment's and items used in the operation of nuclear installations in order that the operation of nuclear installation can run safety and in accordance with their design aims and operation limits. Quality Assurance Program includes document control, design control, supply control, control of equipment s and items, operation/process control, inspection and control of equipment test, and control of nonconformance and corrections. General system of nuclear installation operation is equipped with safety and supporting systems. These systems must apply the quality assurance program that cover control of activities in the systems. In the implementation of the quality assurance program, it is necessary to establish procedures, work guidelines/instructions, and quality recording that constitutes documents of quality system 2 nd , 3 th , and 4 th level after the quality assurance program. To ensure the effectivity and to prove whether the realization of the program has been pursuant to the determined requirements, an internal audit must be conducted accordingly

  4. Quality assurance for safety in the radioactive waste management: a quality assurance system in Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, A.; Kolev, I.

    2000-01-01

    Novi Han Radioactive Waste Repository (RWR) is still the only place in Bulgaria for storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. It is necessary to establish and maintain a Quality Assurance (QA) system to ensure that the RWR can be operated safely with regard to the health and safety of the general public and site personnel. A QA system has to establish the basic requirements for quality assurance in order to enhance nuclear safety by continuously improving the methods employed to achieve quality. It is envisaged that the QA system for the Novi Han RWR will cover the operation and maintenance of the radioactive waste disposal facilities, the radiation protection and monitoring of the site, as well as the scientific and technology development aspects. The functions of the Novi Han RWR presume the availability of an environmental management system. It is appropriate to establish a QA system based on the requirements of the ISO Standards 9001 and 14000, using the recommendations of the IAEA (Quality assurance for safety in NPPs and other nuclear installations, code and safety guides Q1-Q14). (authors)

  5. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A qualitative study of Southern U.S. consumers' top of the mind beliefs about the safety of local beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telligman, Amy L; Worosz, Michelle R; Bratcher, Christy L

    2017-02-01

    Following the Reasoned Action Approach, the aim of this study was to explore consumers' top-of-mind food safety beliefs about local beef. Beef consumers recruited from farmers' markets (N = 101) and grocery stores (N = 174) across the state of Alabama participated in face-to-face intercept surveys. The survey included closed- and open-ended questions designed to elicit consumers' food safety beliefs about local beef. Results indicate that beef safety was not a top-of-mind concern for a majority of participants, however of the total number of participants familiar with the term "local beef" (n = 168, 61%), a majority (n = 105, 63%) associated local beef with improved food safety. Content analysis of verbatim text revealed that consumers believed local beef was safer because they possess greater knowledge about the product and less shipping was involved. Respondents also believe that locally processed meat is derived from small-scale operations which provided the assurance that local beef is more likely to meet U.S. regulatory standards and therefore be safer. Consumers believe they have more oversight of local beef due to both their relationships with supply chain actors and proximity which also provided food safety assurances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of Informatics in Patient Safety and Quality Assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Raouf E

    2015-06-01

    Quality assurance encompasses monitoring daily processes for accurate, timely, and complete reports in surgical pathology. Quality assurance also includes implementation of policies and procedures that prevent or detect errors in a timely manner. This article presents uses of informatics in quality assurance. Three main foci are critical to the general improvement of diagnostic surgical pathology. First is the application of informatics to specimen identification with lean methods for real-time statistical control of specimen receipt and processing. Second is the development of case reviews before sign-out. Third is the development of information technology in communication of results to assure treatment in a timely manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DAAS: Data Analytics for Assurance of Safety, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Assuring safe operations in the National Airspace (NAS) encompasses monitoring a variety of systems simultaneously and in real time. It is helpful to imagine NAS as...

  9. Philosophy of safety assurance after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. From views of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisada, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge incorporating meetings were held to exchange views of experts in order to learn respective safety concept and philosophy of safety assurance except nuclear area, how should be prepared for beyond expectation and what was needed to build social credibility, and how to upgrade safety measures of nuclear power station after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Meeting had been held twice a year since FY2012 and two lecturers were invited at each meeting to give a lecture on the specified theme such as safety assurance in aviation area and chemical plants, and 'safety target of engineering system'. Common or different views on safety assurance between nuclear and other areas were identified, and risk concept and sincere attitude of explaining engineer were mentioned quite important for preparation for beyond expectation and building social credibility. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Code of practice on quality assurance for safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The code sets forth the management principles and objectives to be met during the implementation of activities in different phases of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) for assuring safety. It is intended for use by organisations and individuals responsible for safety related functions in design, manufacturing, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of NPPs. It covers the functions of management, performance, verification and corrective action. It also deals with the quality assurance records. (M.G.B.)

  11. Software quality assurance for safety analysis and risk management at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Toffer, H.; Crowe, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    As part of its Reactor Operations Improvement Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), in cooperation with the Westinghouse Hanford Company, has developed and implemented quality assurance for safety-related software for technical programs essential to the safety and reliability of reactor operations. More specifically, the quality assurance process involved the development and implementation of quality standards and attendant procedures based on industry software quality standards. These procedures were then applied to computer codes in reactor safety and probabilistic risk assessment analyses. This paper provides a review of the major aspects of the WSRC safety-related software quality assurance. In particular, quality assurance procedures are described for the different life cycle phases of the software that include the Requirements, Software Design and Implementation, Testing and Installation, Operation and Maintenance, and Retirement Phases. For each phase, specific provisions are made to categorize the range of activities, the level of responsibilities, and the documentation needed to assure the control of the software. The software quality assurance procedures developed and implemented are evolutionary in nature, and thus, prone to further refinements. These procedures, nevertheless, represent an effective controlling tool for the development, production, and operation of safety-related software applicable to reactor safety and probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  12. Code on the safety of nuclear power plants: Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This revised Code provides the principles and objectives for the establishment and implementation of quality assurance programmes applied to both the overall and each of the constituent activities associated with a nuclear power plant project. The quality assurance principles enumerated in the present Code can be usefully applied to nuclear facilities other than nuclear power plants. The quality assurance programme encompasses: (1) the activities that are necessary to achieve the appropriate quality of the respective item or service; and (2) the activities that are necessary for verifying that the required quality is achieved and that objective evidence is produced to that effect. Quality assurance is an essential aspect of good management and the quality assurance programme is the main management tool for a disciplined approach to all activities affecting quality, including, where appropriate, verification that each task has been satisfactorily performed and that necessary corrective actions have been implemented. The principles and objectives provided by the Code are applicable by all those responsible for the nuclear power plant, by plant designers, suppliers, architect-engineers, plant constructors, plant operators and other organizations participating in activities affecting quality. The Code is a revision of the previous Code of Practice (1978) on the same subject of interest to regulatory bodies and experts in quality assurance for design, siting and operation of nuclear power plants. Contents: Definitions; 1. Introduction; 2. Quality assurance programmes; 3. Organization; 4. Document control; 5. Design control; 6. Procurement control; 7. Control of items; 8. Process control; 9. Inspection and test control; 10. Non-conformance control; 11. Corrective actions; 12, Records; 13. Audits

  13. Application of quality assurance program to safety related aging equipment or components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaiya, N.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses how quality assurance programs and their criteria are applied to safety related and aging equipment or components used in commercial nuclear plant applications. The QA Programs referred to are 10CFR50 Appendix B and EPRI NP-5652. The QA programs as applicable are applied to equipment/component aging qualification, preventive maintenance, surveillance testing and procurement engineering. The intent of this paper is not the technical issues, methods and research of aging. The paper addresses QA program's application to age-related equipment or components in safety related applications. Quality Assurance Program 10CFR50 Appendix B applies to all safety related aging components or equipment related to the qualification program and associated preventive maintenance and surveillance testing programs. Quality Assurance involvement with procurement engineering for age-related commercial grade items supports EPRI NP-5652 and assures that the dedicated OGI is equal to the item purchased as a basic component to 10CFR50 Appendix B requirements

  14. Manual on quality assurance for computer software related to the safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Manual is to provide guidance in the assurance of quality of specification, design, maintenance and use of computer software related to items and activities important to safety (hereinafter referred to as safety related) in nuclear power plants. This guidance is consistent with, and supplements, the requirements and recommendations of Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants: A Code of Practice, 50-C-QA, and related Safety Guides on quality assurance for nuclear power plants. Annex A identifies the IAEA documents referenced in the Manual. The Manual is intended to be of use to all those who, in any way, are involved with software for safety related applications for nuclear power plants, including auditors who may be called upon to audit management systems and product software. Figs

  15. Development of a quality assurance safety assessment database for near surface radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. W.; Kim, C. L.; Park, J. B.; Lee, E. Y.; Lee, Y. M.; Kang, C. H.; Zhou, W.; Kozak, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    A quality assurance safety assessment database, called QUARK (QUality Assurance program for Radioactive waste management in Korea), has been developed to manage both analysis information and parameter database for safety assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level radioactive Waste (LILW) disposal facility in Korea. QUARK is such a tool that serves QA purposes for managing safety assessment information properly and securely. In QUARK, the information is organized and linked to maximize the integrity of information and traceability. QUARK provides guidance to conduct safety assessment analysis, from scenario generation to result analysis, and provides a window to inspect and trace previous safety assessment analysis and parameter values. QUARK also provides default database for safety assessment staff who construct input data files using SAGE(Safety Assessment Groundwater Evaluation), a safety assessment computer code

  16. Development of the Consumer Refrigerator Safety Questionnaire: A Measure of Consumer Perceptions and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairnduff, Victoria; Dean, Moira; Koidis, Anastasios

    2016-09-01

    Food preparation and storage behaviors in the home deviating from the "best practice" food safety recommendations may result in foodborne illnesses. Currently, there are limited tools available to fully evaluate the consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behavior in the area of refrigerator safety. The current study aimed to develop a valid and reliable tool in the form of a questionnaire, the Consumer Refrigerator Safety Questionnaire (CRSQ), for assessing systematically all these aspects. Items relating to refrigerator safety knowledge (n =17), perceptions (n =46), and reported behavior (n =30) were developed and pilot tested by an expert reference group and various consumer groups to assess face and content validity (n =20), item difficulty and consistency (n =55), and construct validity (n =23). The findings showed that the CRSQ has acceptable face and content validity with acceptable levels of item difficulty. Item consistency was observed for 12 of 15 in refrigerator safety knowledge. Further, all 5 of the subscales of consumer perceptions of refrigerator safety practices relating to risk of developing foodborne disease showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α value > 0.8). Construct validity of the CRSQ was shown to be very good (P = 0.022). The CRSQ exhibited acceptable test-retest reliability at 14 days with the majority of knowledge items (93.3%) and reported behavior items (96.4%) having correlation coefficients of greater than 0.70. Overall, the CRSQ was deemed valid and reliable in assessing refrigerator safety knowledge and behavior; therefore, it has the potential for future use in identifying groups of individuals at increased risk of deviating from recommended refrigerator safety practices, as well as the assessment of refrigerator safety knowledge and behavior for use before and after an intervention.

  17. Canadian Consumer Food Safety Practices and Knowledge: Foodbook Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Regan; Glass-Kaastra, Shiona; Gardhouse, Christine; Marshall, Barbara; Ciampa, Nadia; Franklin, Kristyn; Hurst, Matt; Thomas, M Kate; Nesbitt, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Understanding consumers' food safety practices and knowledge supports food safety education for the prevention of foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to describe Canadian consumer food safety practices and knowledge. This study identifies demographic groups for targeted food safety education messaging and establishes a baseline measurement to assess the effectiveness of food safety interventions over time. Questions regarding consumer food safety practices and knowledge were included in a population-based telephone survey, Foodbook, conducted from November 2014 to March 2015. The results were analyzed nationally by age group and by gender. The results showed that approximately 90% of Canadians reported taking the recommended cleaning and separating precautions when handling raw meat to prevent foodborne illness. Only 29% of respondents reported using a food thermometer when cooking any meat, and even fewer (12%) reported using a food thermometer for small cuts of meat such as chicken pieces. The majority (>80%) of Canadians were aware of the foodborne illness risks related to chicken and hamburger, but fewer (poultry.

  18. Call for NDT leadership role in assuring safety of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, W.A.; Simpson, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    Nondestructive Testing and its potential role in assuring the safety of nuclear power were given emphasis at a conference on Nondestructive Testing in the Nuclear Industry sponsored by the American Society for Metals Dec. 1--3 in Denver, Colo. Excerpts from two major addresses challenging the NDT community to assume leadership in solving nuclear safety problems are presented

  19. Monitoring consumer confidence in food safety: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Frewer, L.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Renes, R.J.; Wit, de W.; Timmers, J.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: In response to the potential for negative economic and societal effects resulting from a low level of consumer confidence in food safety, it is important to know how confidence is potentially influenced by external events. The aim of this article is to describe the development of a monitor

  20. Consumer Control Points: Creating a Visual Food Safety Education Model for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Carole B.

    Consumer education has always been a primary consideration in the prevention of food-borne illness. Using nutrition education and the new food guide as a model, this paper develops suggestions for a framework of microbiological food safety principles and a compatible visual model for communicating key concepts. Historically, visual food guides in…

  1. Safety assurance logic techniques for evaluation of accident prevention and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWethy, L.M.; Hagan, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    Safety assurance methods have been developed and applied in reactor safety assessments of FFTF. These methods promote visibility of the total safety provided by the plant, both in prevention of off-normal or accident conditions as well as provision of various features which terminate conditions within acceptable bounds if such conditions should occur. One of the primary techniques applied in safety assurance is the development of safety assurance diagrams. These diagrams explicitly identify the multiple lines of defense which prevent accident progression. The diagrams graphically demonstrate the defense-in-depth provided by the plant for each postulated occurrence. Lines of defense are shown against ever having an occurrence in the first place; thus giving appropriate emphasis on accident prevention, and visibility to the designer's role in promoting this level of safety. These diagrams, or accident process trees, also show graphically the various paths of postulated accident progression to their logical termination. Evaluation of the importance and strength of each line-of-defense assures fulfillment of the safety objectives of the overall plant system

  2. Roles of the operator and the safety services in nuclear power plant quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmer, M.; Perrot, J.

    1985-01-01

    With regard to the operation of nuclear power plants, Electricite de France formally recognized in 1973 that it was necessary for safety reasons and economically acceptable to adopt organizational principles of quality assurance that would be applicable both to its own activities and to those of its suppliers. Generally speaking, the form and spirit of the quality assurance programme chosen is based largely on the Code of Practice No. 50-C-QA. In particular, the programme focuses on the flexible character of quality assurance requirements and stresses that in the final analysis product quality depends above all on those to whom the project has been assigned, because it is they who are responsible for meeting the quality objectives set. Ten years of experience with the suppliers of Electricite de France has shown that these suppliers, after some initial difficulty, have been able to adapt the application of quality assurance so as to achieve satisfactory quality as regards both safety and availability. In the case of the French standard nuclear power plants, quality assurance is particularly important thanks to the traceability which it affords and to the allowance for corrective measures which it demands. The safety services normally take action related to quality assurance in three ways: through regulation, the analysis of measures to assure plant safety, and plant supervision. As regards regulation, an order has just been published relating to design, construction and operational quality in base-load nuclear power plants. The requirements laid down in this document incorporate the recommendations of the IAEA Code on quality assurance. (author)

  3. Report on probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) quality assurance in utilization of risk information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Recently in Japan, introduction of nuclear safety regulations using risk information such as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been considered and utilization of risk information in the rational and practical measures on safety assurance has made a progress to start with the operation or inspection area. The report compiled results of investigation and studies of PSA quality assurance in risk-informed activities in the USA. Relevant regulatory guide and standard review plan as well as issues and recommendations were reviewed for technical adequacy and advancement of probabilistic risk assessment technology in risk-informed decision making. Useful and important information to be referred as issues in PSA quality assurance was identified. (T. Tanaka)

  4. 78 FR 54510 - New Entrant Safety Assurance Program Operational Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... safety management controls; (2) consider their effects on small businesses; and (3) consider establishing alternate locations where such reviews may be conducted for the convenience of small businesses. In response... safety review within 18 months of starting interstate operations. [49 U.S.C. 31144(g)]. In issuing these...

  5. Quality assurance and human error effects on the structural safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertero, R.; Lopez, R.; Sarrate, M.

    1991-01-01

    Statistical surveys show that the frequency of failure of structures is much larger than that expected by the codes. Evidence exists that human errors (especially during the design process) is the main cause for the difference between the failure probability admitted by codes and the reality. In this paper, the attenuation of human error effects using tools of quality assurance is analyzed. In particular, the importance of the independent design review is highlighted, and different approaches are discussed. The experience from the Atucha II project, as well as the USA and German practice on independent design review, are summarized. (Author)

  6. Communicating food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Field experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syntesa, Heiner Lehr

    2013-04-01

    The paper reviews patented and non-patented technologies, methods and solutions in the area of food traceability. It pays special attention to the communication of food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Twenty eight recent patents are reviewed in the areas of (secure) identification, product freshness indicators, meat traceability, (secure) transport of information along the supply chain, country/region/place of origin, automated authentication, supply chain management systems, consumer interaction systems. In addition, solutions and pilot projects are described in the areas of Halal traceability, traceability of bird's nests, cold chain management, general food traceability and other areas.

  7. A proposed approach for enhancing design safety assurance of future plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyu Myeng; Ahn, Sang Kyu; Lee, Chang Ju; Kim, Inn Seock

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides various insights from a detailed review of deterministic approaches typically applied to ensure design safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and risk-informed approaches proposed to evaluate safety of advanced reactors such as Generation IV reactors. Also considered herein are the risk-informed safety analysis (RISA) methodology suggested by Westinghouse as a means to improve the conventional accident analysis, together with the Technology Neutral Framework recently suggested by the U.S. NRC for safety evaluation of future plants. These insights from the comparative review of deterministic and risk-informed approaches could be used in further enhancing the methodology for design safety assurance of future plants

  8. Reactor safety through quality assurance and in-service inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.H.

    The quality assurance is discussed of nuclear power plant equipment with respect to the following regulations: section 50 10 CFR - supplement B, section NA-400, ASME - section III and ANSI N-54.2. Quality assurance and reliability are assessed with regard to two aspects: all preoperational functions and all operating stages of the power plant. During the production of nuclear power plant components, increased attention should be devoted to the choice of material, materials testing, production programme and to the production process. During power plant operation, care should be given to periodical in-service inspections which guarantee the plant reliability; defects should immediately be remedied or the power plant shut down. Emphasis is put on the tests of reactor welded joints in compliance with the ASME code. The results of operating tests are used as feedback in the design and testing of the components during production. The probabilities were calculated of the occurrence and elimination of defects during the manufacture and operation of a nuclear reactor. (J.B.)

  9. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  10. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, T.J. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  11. Guide for reviewing safety analysis reports for packaging: Review of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, D.W.

    1988-10-01

    This review section describes quality assurance requirements applying to design, purchase, fabrication, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, assembly, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of components of packaging which are important to safety. The design effort, operation's plans, and quality assurance requirements should be integrated to achieve a system in which the independent QA program is not overly stringent and the application of QA requirements is commensurate with safety significance. The reviewer must verify that the applicant's QA section in the SARP contains package-specific QA information required by DOE Orders and federal regulations that demonstrate compliance. 8 refs

  12. Unilever food safety assurance system for refined vegetable oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Duijn Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unilever Food Safety Assurance system for refined oils and fats is based on risk assessments for the presence of contaminants or pesticide residues in crude oils, and refining process studies to validate the removal of these components. Crude oil risk assessments were carried out by combining supply chain visits, and analyses of the contaminant and pesticide residue levels in a large number of crude oil samples. Contaminants like poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons of mineral origin, and pesticide residues can largely be removed by refining. For many years, this Food Safety Assurance System has proven to be effective in controlling contaminant levels in refined vegetable oils and fats.

  13. Exploring relationships between hospital patient safety culture and Consumer Reports safety scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott Alan; Yount, Naomi; Sorra, Joann

    2017-02-16

    A number of private and public companies calculate and publish proprietary hospital patient safety scores based on publicly available quality measures initially reported by the U.S. federal government. This study examines whether patient safety culture perceptions of U.S. hospital staff in a large national survey are related to publicly reported patient safety ratings of hospitals. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (Hospital SOPS) assesses provider and staff perceptions of hospital patient safety culture. Consumer Reports (CR), a U.S. based non-profit organization, calculates and shares with its subscribers a Hospital Safety Score calculated annually from patient experience survey data and outcomes data gathered from federal databases. Linking data collected during similar time periods, we analyzed relationships between staff perceptions of patient safety culture composites and the CR Hospital Safety Score and its five components using multiple multivariate linear regressions. We analyzed data from 164 hospitals, with patient safety culture survey responses from 140,316 providers and staff, with an average of 856 completed surveys per hospital and an average response rate per hospital of 56%. Higher overall Hospital SOPS composite average scores were significantly associated with higher overall CR Hospital Safety Scores (β = 0.24, p Consumer Reports Hospital Safety Score, which is a composite of patient experience and outcomes data from federal databases. As hospital managers allocate resources to improve patient safety culture within their organizations, their efforts may also indirectly improve consumer-focused, publicly reported hospital rating scores like the Consumer Reports Hospital Safety Score.

  14. Metamodel comparison and model comparison for safety assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Y.; Engelen, L.J.P.; Brand, van den M.G.J.; Bondavelli, A.; Ceccarelli, A.; Ortmeier, F.

    2014-01-01

    In safety-critical domains, conceptual models are created in the form of metamodels using different concepts from possibly overlapping domains. Comparison between those conceptual models can facilitate the reuse of models from one domain to another. This paper describes the mappings detected when

  15. Technical Excellence and Communication: The Cornerstones for Successful Safety and Mission Assurance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Roy W.; Livingston, John M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the role of technical excellence and communication in the development and maintenance of safety and mission assurance programs. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) organization is used to illustrate philosophies and techniques that strengthen safety and mission assurance efforts and that contribute to healthy and effective organizational cultures. The events and conditions leading to the development of the MSFC S&MA organization are reviewed. Historic issues and concerns are identified. The adverse effects of resource limitations and risk assessment roles are discussed. The structure and functions of the core safety, reliability, and quality assurance functions are presented. The current organization s mission and vision commitments serve as the starting points for the description of the current organization. The goals and objectives are presented that address the criticisms of the predecessor organizations. Additional improvements are presented that address the development of technical excellence and the steps taken to improve communication within the Center, with program customers, and with other Agency S&MA organizations.

  16. Technical Excellence and Communication, the Cornerstones for Successful Safety and Mission Assurance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Roy W.; Livingston, John M.

    2010-09-01

    The paper describes the role of technical excellence and communication in the development and maintenance of safety and mission assurance programs. The Marshall Space Flight Center(MSFC) Safety and Mission Assurance(S&MA) organization is used to illustrate philosophies and techniques that strengthen safety and mission assurance efforts and that contribute to healthy and effective organizational cultures. The events and conditions leading to the development of the MSFC S&MA organization are reviewed. Historic issues and concerns are identified. The adverse effects of resource limitations and risk assessment roles are discussed. The structure and functions of the core safety, reliability, and quality assurance functions are presented. The current organization’s mission and vision commitments serve as the starting points for the description of the current organization. The goals and objectives are presented that address the criticisms of the predecessor organizations. Additional improvements are presented that address the development of technical excellence and the steps taken to improve communication within the Center, with program customers, and with other Agency S&MA organizations.

  17. Quality assurance program plan for 324 Building B-Cell safety cleanout project (BCCP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanke, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides information on how the Quality Assurance Program is implemented for the 324 Building B-Cell Safety Cleanout Project (BCCP). This QAPP is responsive to the Westinghouse Hanford Company Quality Assurance Program and Implementation Plan, WHC-SP-1131, for 10 CFR 830.120, Nuclear Safety Management, Quality Assurance Requirements; and DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance. This QAPP supersedes PNNL PNL-MA-70 QAP Quality Assurance Plan No. WTC-050 Rev. 2, issue date May 3, 1996. This QAPP has been developed specifically for the BCCP. It applies to those items and tasks which affect the completion of activities identified in the work breakdown structure of the Project Management Plan (PMP). These activities include all aspects of decontaminating B-Cell and project related operations within the 324 Building as it relates to the specific activities of this project. General facility activities (i.e. 324 Building Operations) are covered in the Building 324 QAPP. In addition, this QAPP supports the related quality assurance activities addressed in CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, and HSRCM-1, Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual, The 324 Building is currently transitioning from being a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) managed facility to a B and W Hanford Company (BWHC) managed facility. During this transition process existing, PNNL procedures and documents will be utilized until replaced by BWHC procedures and documents. These documents conform to the requirements found in PNL-MA-70, Quality Assurance Manual and PNL-MA-8 1, Hazardous Materials Shipping Manual. The Quality Assurance Program Index (QAPI) contained in Table 1 provides a matrix which shows how project activities relate to 10 CFR 83 0.120 and 5700.6C criteria. Quality Assurance program requirements will be addressed separate from the requirements specified in this document. Other Hanford Site organizations/companies may be

  18. The contribution of quality assurance to safety and reliability in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisic, N.

    1978-01-01

    The potential contribution of quality assurance to nuclear power plant safety and reliability is analysed. An attempt is made to establish a relationship between quality and reliability. The reliability may be expressed in quantitative terms as ''the probability that an item will perform a required function for a stated period of time''. Quality, however, cannot be expressed in simple quantitative terms but only as a set of required properties which an item should have for a specific application. The achievement of quality and additional reliability objectives is a task of project activities such as design, construction, installation, operation, etc. The elements of a quality assurance system and its functions in nuclear power projects are presented in some detail. Confidence in plant quality, which should be a basis for the regulatory body issuing the construction permit or operation licence, should be based on the capability of quality assurance activities to prevent errors and correct deficiencies in nuclear power plants. An analysis is made of those errors in plant design, manufacture, construction and operation which contribute most frequently to plant outages. It is concluded that these errors can be avoided or corrected by strict adherence to quality assurance principles and by the efficient functioning of quality assurance systems. In fact, quality assurance may be considered an effective defence against common cause failures originating in errors in the design, manufacture, installation or operation of a nuclear power plant

  19. Radioactivity in consumer products : radiation safety and regulatory appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, B.K.S.; Venkataraman, G.; Subrahmanym, P.

    1993-01-01

    Use of radioactive materials in consumer products is in vogue almost since the discovery of radioactivity. There has been a rapid growth in the use of radioactive material in various consumer products such as Ionization Chamber Smoke Detectors (ICSD), Static eliminators, etc. In addition, there are certain manufacturing processes wherein the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) get incorporated in the consumer products. Certain phosphatic fertilizers, titanium dioxide pigments, phospho gypsum plaster boards are some examples in this category. The manufacture and use of these products result in radiation dose to the public apart from radiation exposure to the personnel involved in the manufacturing process. Appropriate radiation control measures have to be taken in the design, manufacture and use of consumer products to ensure that the radiation doses to the public and the population at large do not exceed the relevant limits. While appropriate regulatory controls and surveillance are established for manufacture and use of certain products, these are still to be recognised and established in respect of certain other processes and products. The current status of radiation safety and regulatory control and the lack of these in respect of some products are discussed in this paper. (author). 5 refs

  20. Knowledge management for assuring high standards in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, L.

    2004-01-01

    The primary incentives for introducing knowledge management in organisations active in the nuclear field are the impending loss of knowledge due to an ageing workforce and the necessity to transfer knowledge to the next generation. However, knowledge management may reach much further, and it is shown that ultimately, the goals of knowledge management are congruent with establishing, maintaining and further developing high standards of safety. Knowledge-based activities to reach these goals are discussed, and examples given for producing, utilising and sharing knowledge in organisations and in national and international networks. (author)

  1. Quality assurance of the modernized Dukovany I and C safety system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpeta, C.

    2005-01-01

    The approach to quality assurance of the software that implements the instrumentation and control functions for safety category A as per IEC 61226, which has been adopted within the 'NPP Dukovany I and C Refurbishment' project, is described. A survey of the requirements for software quality assurance of the systems that initiate protection interventions in the event of anticipated operational occurrences or accident conditions is given. The software development process applied by the system designers and manufacturers, from the software requirements specification phase to the software testing phase, is outlined. Basic information on technical audits of the software development process is also provided. (orig.)

  2. Risk Classification and Risk-based Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent activities to revamp and emphasize the need to streamline processes and activities for Class D missions across the agency have led to various interpretations of Class D, including the lumping of a variety of low-cost projects into Class D. Sometimes terms such as Class D minus are used. In this presentation, mission risk classifications will be traced to official requirements and definitions as a measure to ensure that projects and programs align with the guidance and requirements that are commensurate for their defined risk posture. As part of this, the full suite of risk classifications, formal and informal will be defined, followed by an introduction to the new GPR 8705.4 that is currently under review.GPR 8705.4 lays out guidance for the mission success activities performed at the Classes A-D for NPR 7120.5 projects as well as for projects not under NPR 7120.5. Furthermore, the trends in stepping from Class A into higher risk posture classifications will be discussed. The talk will conclude with a discussion about risk-based safety and mission assuranceat GSFC.

  3. Biopesticides--towards increased consumer safety in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Katarzyna; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Łyczewska, Monika; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of new food safety regulations in the European Union has resulted in the withdrawal of many synthetic active substances used in plant protection products, in light of their potential or actual harmful effect on human and animal health, as well as on the environment. Alternatives to these compounds are being developed - naturally occurring pesticides, also referred to as biopesticides. The use of biopesticides in crop protection leads to decreased levels of pesticide residues in foods, and as a result to lower risk levels for the consumer. Biologically active agents defined as biopesticides are varied, and therefore application of the same environmental and consumer safety criteria to all of them is impossible. This presents serious complications in the approval of these pesticides as active plant protection products and in their registration. It needs to be stressed that, in the registration procedure of the European Union, biopesticides are subject to the same regulations as synthetic active substances. This situation has resulted in the need to introduce numerous new provisions in the legislation, as well as the preparation of new guidelines facilitating the registration of biopesticides. These activities aim to promote naturally originating pesticides. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Assuring future competence in nuclear safety in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, K.

    2004-01-01

    To improve competence management at the regulatory body a competence analysis was carried out and a human resource plan for nuclear safety area for the near future was made. STUK studied carefully the models used in other public sector organisations and adjusted the method to its own purposes. The model used has four competence categories: substance related, management skills, common working skills and STUK related working skills. Substance related competences were defined and described at working unit level. Descriptions for the rest three categories were made at STUK level and those were common for all departments. Results of competence analysis are encouraging. Most competence areas are covered at proper level, some will need to be improved but none was totally missing. For the future challenges extra attention should be paid to knowledge management. Two separate plans were made on the basis of these results: plan for training regulatory personnel and HR-plan (at the first stage recruiting plan for next five years). It is STUK's experience that the competence analysis is worth the trouble. It gives the organisation and employees a common conception on its competences and on future needs. It also makes it easier to motivate all staff members to use their working hours on training and capability building. On the other hand it must be admitted that it takes resources and all employees have not been very anxious to do this. The results of competence analysis should lead to some improvement projects. The progress of improvement actions should be followed-up on regularly basis. It is important not to forget to communicate the results to employees

  5. Guidance for implementing an environmental, safety and health assurance program. Volume 2. A model plan for environmental, safety and health staff audits and appraisals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, A.C.

    1980-09-01

    This is 1 of 15 documents designed to illustrate how an Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) Assurance Program may be implemented. The generic definition of ES and H Assurance Programs is given in a companion document entitled An Environmental, Safety and Health Assurance Program Standard. This document is concerned with ES and H audit and appraisal activities of an ES and H Staff Organization as they might be performed in an institution whose ES and H program is based upon the ES and H Assurance Program Standard. An annotated model plan for ES and H Staff audits and appraisals is presented and discussed

  6. Guidance for implementing an environmental, safety, and health assurance program. Volume 10. Model guidlines for line organization environmental, safety and health audits and appraisals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, A.C.

    1981-10-01

    This is 1 of 15 documents designed to illustrate how an Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) Assurance Program may be implemented. The generic definition of ES and H Assurance Programs is given in a companion document entitled An Environmental, Safety and Health Assurance Program Standard. The Standard specifies that the operational level of an institution must have an internal assurance function, and this document provides guidance for the audit/appraisal portion of the operational level's ES and H program. The appendixes include an ES and H audit checklist, a sample element rating guide, and a sample audit plan for working level line organization internal audits

  7. Role of human factor in safety assurance in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapov, A.M.; Mikhajlov, M.V.; Novikov, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors discuss the issues of human resource activities in the Rosatom Corporation that aim to achieve and maintain the required levels of safety culture and qualification of personnel involved in the operations of nuclear energy sites. These activities are supported by the appropriate resources, organisational management structure and quality control system, legislation, regulations and methodological support. It is emphasized that systematic and versatile HR-related activities in the nuclear industry represent one of the key areas of production operations that assure safety and reliability of nuclear sites at all stages of their life cycle. Especially important is the assurance of high professional level of nuclear regulators. They believe that it would appear sensible, in addition to the existing system of training, to engage the mechanisms of rotation of personnel from utility organisations to regulatory authorities [ru

  8. Radiation safety and quality control assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.

    1998-03-01

    The report is based on a seminar course of lectures 'Radiation safety and quality assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998' organized by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland. The lectures included actual information on X-ray examinations: methods of quality assurance, methods of measuring and calculating patient doses, examination frequencies, patient doses, occupational doses, and radiation risks. Paediatric X-ray examinations and interventional procedures were the most specific topics. The new Council Directive 97/43/Euratom on medical exposure, and the European Guidelines on quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images, were discussed in several lectures. Lectures on general radiation threats and preparedness, examples of radiation accidents, and emergency preparedness in hospitals were also included. (editor)

  9. Software quality assurance and software safety in the Biomed Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.P.; Chu, W.T.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Marks, K.M.; Nyman, M.A.; Renner, T.R.; Stradtner, R.

    1989-01-01

    The Biomed Control System is a hardware/software system used for the delivery, measurement and monitoring of heavy-ion beams in the patient treatment and biology experiment rooms in the Bevalac at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This paper describes some aspects of this system including historical background philosophy, configuration management, hardware features that facilitate software testing, software testing procedures, the release of new software quality assurance, safety and operator monitoring. 3 refs

  10. John F. Kennedy Space Center, Safety, Reliability, Maintainability and Quality Assurance, Survey and Audit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This document is the product of the KSC Survey and Audit Working Group composed of civil service and contractor Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) personnel. The program described herein provides standardized terminology, uniformity of survey and audit operations, and emphasizes process assessments rather than a program based solely on compliance. The program establishes minimum training requirements, adopts an auditor certification methodology, and includes survey and audit metrics for the audited organizations as well as the auditing organization.

  11. Role of computers in quality assurance in the LLL Criticality Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the aspects of computational criticality safety quality assurance that have been emphasized in recent years at LLL are summarized. In particular, computer code changes that have been made that help the criticality analyst reduce the number of errors that he makes and to locate those that he does make; and how a computerized ''benchmark'' data base aids him in the validation of his computational methods are discussed

  12. The performance regulatory approach in quality assurance: Its application to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajaroff, Pedro M.

    2000-01-01

    In early 1991, the IAEA assembled an Advisory Group on the Comprehensive Revision of the Code and the Safety on Quality Assurance of the NUSS Programme. The Group was made up by specialists from a number of countries and from ISO, FORATOM, the EC and the IAEA itself, and its objective was completed in June 1995. This paper is aimed at describing the conceptual contents of the final draft of the revision 2 of the 50-C-QA Code 'Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and other Nuclear Facilities' (hereinafter, the Code) which is essentially based on performance. Although the performance regulatory approach is not new in Argentina and in other countries, what is indeed novel is applying performance based QA. In such a way the Code will contribute to preventing both QA misinterpretations (i.e., a formalistic regulatory requirement) and the execution of non-effective work without attaining the needed quality level (what may be seen as a pathological deviation of QA). The Code contains ten basic requirements to be adopted when QA programmes are established and implemented in nuclear power plants. The goal is improving safety through an improvement in the methods applied for attaining quality. In line with the current developments in quality management techniques, priority is given to effectiveness of the QA programme. All the involved individuals (that is those in the managerial level, those performing the work and those assessing the work performed) must contribute to quality in a co-ordinated manner. The revised Safety Guides are being introduced, standing out those non existing before. Interrelation between quality assurance, safety culture and quality culture is to be noted. Besides QA for safety-related software mentioned as an issue to be considered by the IAEA. (author)

  13. Safety and Mission Assurance Knowledge Management Retention: Managing Knowledge for Successful Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa A.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge Management is a proactive pursuit for the future success of any large organization faced with the imminent possibility that their senior managers/engineers with gained experiences and lessons learned plan to retire in the near term. Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) is proactively pursuing unique mechanism to ensure knowledge learned is retained and lessons learned captured and documented. Knowledge Capture Event/Activities/Management helps to provide a gateway between future retirees and our next generation of managers/engineers. S&MA hosted two Knowledge Capture Events during 2005 featuring three of its retiring fellows (Axel Larsen, Dave Whittle and Gary Johnson). The first Knowledge Capture Event February 24, 2005 focused on two Safety and Mission Assurance Safety Panels (Space Shuttle System Safety Review Panel (SSRP); Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) and the latter event December 15, 2005 featured lessons learned during Apollo, Skylab, and Space Shuttle which could be applicable in the newly created Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)/Constellation development program. Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and the Space Shuttle promised and delivered exciting human advances in space and benefits of space in people s everyday lives on earth. Johnson Space Center's Safety & Mission Assurance team work over the last 20 years has been mostly focused on operations we are now beginning the Exploration development program. S&MA will promote an atmosphere of knowledge sharing in its formal and informal cultures and work processes, and reward the open dissemination and sharing of information; we are asking "Why embrace relearning the "lessons learned" in the past?" On the Exploration program the focus will be on Design, Development, Test, & Evaluation (DDT&E); therefore, it is critical to understand the lessons from these past programs during the DDT&E phase.

  14. Some considerations for assurance of reactor safety from experiences in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Sunao; Nishihara, Hideaki; Shibata, Toshikazu

    1981-01-01

    For the purpose of assuring reactor safety and strengthening research in the related fields, a multi-disciplinary group was formed among university researchers, including social scientists, with a special allocation of the Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture. An excerpt from the first year's report (1979 -- 1980) is edited here, which contains an interpretation of Murphy's reliability engineering law, a scope of reactor diagnostic studies to be pursued at universities, and safety measures already implemented or suggested to be implemented in university research reactors. (author)

  15. Consumer demand and quality assurance: segmentation basis and implications for chain governance in the pork sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunert, K.G.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wever, M.; Scholderer, J.; Veflen Olsen, N.

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this may have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demands for different pork products. We then present an

  16. Evidence for the safety assurance of the radiation associated equipments for stat-up check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Saito, Kyoko; Kawaharada, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Kunihiro; Murase, Kenya; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2008-01-01

    Based on the new amendment of the Medical Service Law and the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, the safety control for the medical equipments and devices was strengthened; and a radiological technologist should be stipulated as a safety control manager for the medical equipments and devices. Although it is thought that Start-up check is important for the safety assurance, the enforcement situation is not clear until now. In this report, on the occasion of the start-up of the new Law, questionnaire about the start up check (time and a check items) were investigated from 56 hospitals applying the visit interview. Modality by modality check up time was obtained from 261 institutions by the descriptive study paper type. Start-up check and arming up were applied for almost all modalities about 30 minutes before start of the clinical tests. The check up items for the medical equipments and devices depended on each hospital. Therefore, safety assurance should be established, cooperating with the medical equipment distributors, the hospital sharing the checked results for the patients' safety. (author)

  17. Consumer Protection--Who Protects You? How Can You Protect Yourself? Proceed with Caution: Consumer Safety In the Home, I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    The enormous and rapidly-increasing number of goods on the market makes it difficult to ensure that all consumer products are safe to use. Public concern about product safety has caused the enactment of a wide range of consumer protection laws. The result of this legislation has been that many agencies have been established to protect the public.…

  18. Compliance assurance for the safe transport of radioactive material. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this Safety Guide are to assist competent authorities in the development and maintenance of compliance assurance programmes in connection with the transport of radioactive material, and to assist applicants, licensees and organizations in their interactions with competent authorities. In order to increase cooperation between competent authorities and to promote the uniform application of international regulations and recommendations, it is desirable to adopt a common approach to regulatory activities. This Safety Guide is intended to assist in accomplishing such a uniform application by recommending most of the actions for which competent authorities need to provide in their programmes for ensuring compliance with the Transport Regulations. This Safety Guide addresses radiation safety aspects of the transport of radioactive material; that is, the subjects that are covered by the Transport Regulations. Radioactive material may have other dangerous properties, however, such as explosiveness, flammability, pyrophoricity, chemical toxicity and corrosiveness; these properties are required to be taken into account in the regulatory control of the design and transport of packages. Physical protection and systems for accounting for and control of nuclear material are also discussed in this Safety Guide. These subjects are not within the scope of the Transport Regulations, but information on them is included here because they must be taken into account in the overall regulatory control of transport, especially when the regulatory framework is being established. Section 1 informs about the background, the objective, the scope and the structure of this publication. Section 2 provides recommendations on the responsibilities and functions of the competent authority. Section 3 provides information on the various national and international regulations and guides for the transport of radioactive material. Section 4 provides recommendations on carrying out

  19. Food risk management quality: Consumer evaluations of past and emerging food safety incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Ueland, O.; Theodoridis, G.; Rowe, G.; Pfenning, U.; Houghton, J.R.; Dijk, van H.; Chryssochoidis, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    In European countries, there has been growing consumer distrust regarding the motives of food safety regulators and other actors in the food chain, partly as a result of recent food safety incidents. If consumer confidence in food safety is to be improved, a systematic understanding of what

  20. Early Engagement of Safety and Mission Assurance Expertise Using Systems Engineering Tools: A Risk-Based Approach to Early Identification of Safety and Assurance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darpel, Scott; Beckman, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Decades of systems engineering practice have demonstrated that the earlier the identification of requirements occurs, the lower the chance that costly redesigns will needed later in the project life cycle. A better understanding of all requirements can also improve the likelihood of a design's success. Significant effort has been put into developing tools and practices that facilitate requirements determination, including those that are part of the model-based systems engineering (MBSE) paradigm. These efforts have yielded improvements in requirements definition, but have thus far focused on a design's performance needs. The identification of safety & mission assurance (S&MA) related requirements, in comparison, can occur after preliminary designs are already established, yielding forced redesigns. Engaging S&MA expertise at an earlier stage, facilitated by the use of MBSE tools, and focused on actual project risk, can yield the same type of design life cycle improvements that have been realized in technical and performance requirements.

  1. Non-animal approaches for consumer safety risk assessments: Unilever's scientific research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Paul; Davies, Michael; Dent, Matt; Fentem, Julia; Fletcher, Samantha; Gilmour, Nicola; MacKay, Cameron; Maxwell, Gavin; Merolla, Leona; Pease, Camilla; Reynolds, Fiona; Westmoreland, Carl

    2009-12-01

    Non-animal based approaches to risk assessment are now routinely used for assuring consumer safety for some endpoints (such as skin irritation) following considerable investment in developing and applying new methods over the past 20 years. Unilever's research programme into non-animal approaches for safety assessment is currently focused on the application of new technologies to risk assessments in the areas of skin allergy, cancer and general toxicity (including inhalation toxicity). In all of these areas, a long-term investment is essential to increase the scientific understanding of the underlying biological and chemical processes that we believe will ultimately form a sound basis for novel risk assessment approaches. Our research programme in these priority areas consists of in-house research as well as Unilever-sponsored academic research, involvement with EU-funded projects (e.g. Sens-it-iv, carcinoGENOMICS), participation in cross-industry collaborative research (e.g. COLIPA, EPAA) and ongoing involvement with other scientific initiatives on non-animal approaches to risk assessment (e.g. UK NC3Rs, US 'Human Toxicology Project' consortium). 2009 FRAME.

  2. 75 FR 29155 - Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... consumer product incident reports involving a description of incidents related to the use of consumer... consumer product must include a word or phrase sufficient to distinguish a product identified in a report... consumer product; or understand the relationship between the submitter of a report of harm and the victim...

  3. Report on nuclear industry quality assurance procedures for safety analysis computer code development and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheron, B.W.; Rosztoczy, Z.R.

    1980-08-01

    As a result of a request from Commissioner V. Gilinsky to investigate in detail the causes of an error discovered in a vendor Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) computer code in March, 1978, the staff undertook an extensive investigation of the vendor quality assurance practices applied to safety analysis computer code development and use. This investigation included inspections of code development and use practices of the four major Light Water Reactor Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors and a major reload fuel supplier. The conclusion reached by the staff as a result of the investigation is that vendor practices for code development and use are basically sound. A number of areas were identified, however, where improvements to existing vendor procedures should be made. In addition, the investigation also addressed the quality assurance (QA) review and inspection process for computer codes and identified areas for improvement

  4. Quality assurance for safety in nuclear power plants. A code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Code of Practice is a part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme (Nuclear Safety Standards), for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to land-based stationary thermal neutron power plants. The documents are based on documentation and experience from various national systems and practices. The present document provides the recommended principles and objectives for the establishment and implementation of a quality assurance programme during design, manufacture, construction, commissioning and operation of structures, system and components important to safety. They are applicable by all those responsible for the power plant, by plant designers, suppliers, architect-engineers, plant constructors, plant operators and other organizations participating in activities affecting quality. The Lists of relevant definition and the Provisional List of NUSS Programme Titles are given

  5. One in a Million Given the Accident: Assuring Nuclear Weapon Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Jason [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Since the introduction of nuclear weapons, there has not been a single instance of accidental or unauthorized nuclear detonation, but there have been numerous accidents and “close calls.” As the understanding of these environments has increased, the need for a robust nuclear weapon safety philosophy has grown. This paper describes some of the methods used by the Nuclear Weapon Complex today to assure nuclear weapon safety, including testing, modeling, analysis, and design features. Lastly, it also reviews safety’s continued role in the future and examines how nuclear safety’s present maturity can play a role in strengthening security and other areas and how increased coordination can improve safety and reduce long-term cost.

  6. Quality and Safety Assurance - Priority Task at Nuclear Power Projects Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenkova, B.; Manchev, B.; Tomov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Quality and safety assurance at implementation of nuclear power engineering projects is important and difficult task for realization. Many problems arise during this process, when many companies from different countries participate, with various kinds of activities and services provided. The scope of activities necessary for quality and safety assurance is therefore quite expanded and diverse. In order to increase the safety and reliability of Kozloduy NPP Plc (KNPP) Units 5 and 6, as well as to bring the units in conformity with the newest international requirements for quality and safety in the field of nuclear energy, a program for their modernization on the basis of different technical studies and assessments was implemented. The Units 5 and 6 Modernization Program of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant was composed of 212 modifications aimed to improve the safety, operability, and reliability of the Units. The Program was realized by stages during yearly planned outages since year 2002 to 2007, without additional outages. A major Program Objective was to extend the Units Life Time in at least 15 Years, under a continuous, safe, and reliable operation. The Modernization Program of Units 5 and 6 of the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant in Kozloduy was the first and for the time being the only one in the world, program in the field of nuclear power engineering, by which the full scope of recommendations for improvement of the Kozloduy NPP units was applied. The main goal of the National Electric Company, which is the Employer for the construction of new nuclear facility in Bulgaria, is after completion of all activities regarding construction of Belene NPP the plant to meet or exceed the requirements of the respective national and international quality and safety codes and standards, as well as the IAEA guidelines, as they are established. The objective of this report is to describe different aspects of the quality assurance according to the requirements of quality and

  7. Quality factors quantification/assurance for software related to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez McLeod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Quality assurance plan is needed to guarantee the software quality. The use of such a plan involves activities that should take place all along the life cycle, and which can be evaluated using the so called quality factors. This is due to the fact that the quality itself cannot be measured, but some of its manifestations can be used for this purpose. In the present work, a methodology to quantify a set of quality factors is proposed, for software based systems to be used in safety related areas in nuclear power plants. (author) [es

  8. Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume V. Safety, quality assurance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Included in this volume are: launch and flight safety considerations; quality assurance techniques and procedures to be followed through system fabrication, assembly and inspection; and the reliability program made up of reliability prediction analysis, failure mode analysis and criticality analysis

  9. Understanding Consumer Confidence in the Safety of Food: Its Two-Dimensional Structure and Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Renes, R.J.; Frewer, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of the determinants of consumer confidence in the safety of food is important if effective risk management and communication are to be developed. In the research reported here, we attempt to understand the roles of consumer trust in actors in the food chain and regulators, consumer

  10. Risk-Informed Safety Assurance and Probabilistic Assessment of Mission-Critical Software-Intensive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, Sergio B.

    2010-01-01

    This report validates and documents the detailed features and practical application of the framework for software intensive digital systems risk assessment and risk-informed safety assurance presented in the NASA PRA Procedures Guide for Managers and Practitioner. This framework, called herein the "Context-based Software Risk Model" (CSRM), enables the assessment of the contribution of software and software-intensive digital systems to overall system risk, in a manner which is entirely compatible and integrated with the format of a "standard" Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), as currently documented and applied for NASA missions and applications. The CSRM also provides a risk-informed path and criteria for conducting organized and systematic digital system and software testing so that, within this risk-informed paradigm, the achievement of a quantitatively defined level of safety and mission success assurance may be targeted and demonstrated. The framework is based on the concept of context-dependent software risk scenarios and on the modeling of such scenarios via the use of traditional PRA techniques - i.e., event trees and fault trees - in combination with more advanced modeling devices such as the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) or other dynamic logic-modeling representations. The scenarios can be synthesized and quantified in a conditional logic and probabilistic formulation. The application of the CSRM method documented in this report refers to the MiniAERCam system designed and developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  11. Quality assurance of radiotherapy in cancer treatment. Toward improvement of patient safety and quality of care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    The process of radiotherapy (RT) is complex and involves understanding of the principles of medical physics, radiobiology, radiation safety, dosimetry, radiation treatment planning, simulation and interaction of radiation with other treatment modalities. Each step in the integrated process of RT needs quality control and quality assurance (QA) to prevent errors and to give high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. Recent advances in RT, including intensity-modulated and image-guided RT, focus on the need for a systematic RTQA program that balances patient safety and quality with available resources. It is necessary to develop more formal error mitigation and process analysis methods, such as failure mode and effect analysis, to focus available QA resources optimally on process components. External audit programs are also effective. The International Atomic Energy Agency has operated both an on-site and off-site postal dosimetry audit to improve practice and to assure the dose from RT equipment. Several countries have adopted a similar approach for national clinical auditing. In addition, clinical trial QA has a significant role in enhancing the quality of care. The Advanced Technology Consortium has pioneered the development of an infrastructure and QA method for advanced technology clinical trials, including credentialing and individual case review. These activities have an impact not only on the treatment received by patients enrolled in clinical trials, but also on the quality of treatment administered to all patients treated in each institution, and have been adopted globally; by the USA, Europe and Japan also. (author)

  12. Quality assurance of radiotherapy in cancer treatment: toward improvement of patient safety and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Satoshi

    2008-11-01

    The process of radiotherapy (RT) is complex and involves understanding of the principles of medical physics, radiobiology, radiation safety, dosimetry, radiation treatment planning, simulation and interaction of radiation with other treatment modalities. Each step in the integrated process of RT needs quality control and quality assurance (QA) to prevent errors and to give high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. Recent advances in RT, including intensity-modulated and image-guided RT, focus on the need for a systematic RTQA program that balances patient safety and quality with available resources. It is necessary to develop more formal error mitigation and process analysis methods, such as failure mode and effect analysis, to focus available QA resources optimally on process components. External audit programs are also effective. The International Atomic Energy Agency has operated both an on-site and off-site postal dosimetry audit to improve practice and to assure the dose from RT equipment. Several countries have adopted a similar approach for national clinical auditing. In addition, clinical trial QA has a significant role in enhancing the quality of care. The Advanced Technology Consortium has pioneered the development of an infrastructure and QA method for advanced technology clinical trials, including credentialing and individual case review. These activities have an impact not only on the treatment received by patients enrolled in clinical trials, but also on the quality of treatment administered to all patients treated in each institution, and have been adopted globally; by the USA, Europe and Japan also.

  13. 77 FR 10358 - Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Chapter II Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory... have accepted the revised ASTM F963-11 standard titled, Standard Consumer Safety Specifications for Toy Safety. Pursuant to section 106 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, ASTM F963-11 will...

  14. THE PROTECTION OF CONSUMER RIGHTS FOR AVIATION SAFETY AND SECURITY IN INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Yahanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia and Malaysia have a good potency for cooperation in aviation industry. It can be seen in the establishing two aviation companies namely PT. Indonesia Air Asia and Malindo which both are low-cost carrier. These aviation industries are categorized as low-cost carrier, however safety and security are absolute factors because these are rights for consumers. This article will describe further about safety and security standard; protecting the rights for consumers in connection with safety aviation in Indonesia and Malaysia from the Consumer Protection Law and the Aviation Law. As a result of the research shows that safety standard passenger for air transportation in airport covers information and safety facility in the shape of availability of the emergency safety tools (fires, accidents and natural disasters; information, area and health facility; and healthcare workers. Moreover, safety standards for passenger in an aircraft include information and safety facility in the shape of availability information and the emergency safety tools for passenger in an aircraft. The protection for consumer rights for safety flight in Indonesia as follows: aviation industry has obligation to fulfill minimum standard of safety and security; consumers must be safety from false information which raises concern; aircraft operation which endanger of the passenger; and consumer protection in operating the electronic device which endanger flight. On the other hand, the law of consumer rights in Malaysia relating to aviation are ruled under the Aviation Law as a result of the Warsaw Convention 1929. In conclusion, the verdict of consumer rights related to security aviation begins when the passenger enter to an aircraft, in the aircraft, and by the time they get off the plane.

  15. Biotechnology and food safety in China: Consumers' acceptance or resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, P.; Vermeer, E.B.; Zhao, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although China is one of the world's largest producers and consumers of genetically modified (GM) crops and derived food products, little is known about the level of Chinese consumer awareness, understanding and acceptance of GM food. Initially, China pursued relatively aggressive policies for

  16. Biotechnology and food safety in China : Consumers' acceptance or resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, P; Vermeer, EB; Zhao, JH

    Although China is one of the world's largest producers and consumers of genetically modified (GM) crops and derived food products, little is known about the level of Chinese consumer awareness, understanding and acceptance of GM food. Initially, China pursued relatively aggressive policies for

  17. Why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    rankings. The aim of this contribution is to provide a better understanding to food risk analysts of why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information. This paper presents some cases of seemingly irrational and inconsistent consumer behaviour with respect to food safety...... and risk information and provides explanations for these behaviours based on the nature of the risk and individual psychological processes. Potential solutions for rebuilding consumer confidence in food safety and bridging between lay and expert opinions towards food risks are reviewed. These include......In recent years, it seems that consumers are generally uncertain about the safety and quality of their food and their risk perception differs substantially from that of experts. Hormone and veterinary drug residues in meat persist to occupy a high position in European consumers' food concern...

  18. Safety analysis and review system: a Department of Energy safety assurance tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of the Safety Analysis and Review System is not new. It has been used within the Department and its predecessor agencies, Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), for over 20 years. To minimize the risks from nuclear reactor and power plants, the AEC developed a process to support management authorization of each operation through identification and analysis of potential hazards and the measures taken to control them. As the agency evolved from AEC through ERDA to the Department of Energy, its responsibilities were broadened to cover a diversity of technologies, including those associated with the development of fossil, solar, and geothermal energy. Because the safety analysis process had proved effective in a technology of high potential hazard, the Department investigated the applicability of the process to the other technologies. This paper describes the system and discusses how it is implemented within the Department

  19. Krsko NPP Quality Assurance Plan Application to Nuclear Safety Upgrade Projects (PCFV System and PAR System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscan, Romeo; Fifnja, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) has undertaken Nuclear Safety Upgrade Projects as a safety improvement driven by the lessons learned from the Fukushima-Daiichi Accident. Among other projects, new modification 1008-VA-L Passive Containment Filtered Vent (PCFV) System has been installed which acts as the last barrier minimizing the release of radioactive material into the environment in case of failure of all safety systems, and to insure containment integrity during beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). In addition, modification 1002-GH-L Severe Accident Hydrogen Control System (PAR) has been implemented to prevent and mitigate the consequences of explosive gas generation (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) in case of reactor core melting. To ensure containment integrity for all design basis accidents (DBA) and BDBA conditions, NEK has eliminated existing safety-related electrical recombiners, replaced them with two safety-related passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs) and added 20 new PARs designed for the BDBA conditions. Krsko NPP Quality Assurance Plan has been applied to Nuclear Safety Upgrade Projects (PCFV System and PAR System) through the following activities: · Internal audit of modification process was performed. · Supplier audits were performed to evaluate QA program efficiency of the main design organization and engineering organizations. · Evaluation and approval of Suppliers were performed. · QA engineer was involved in the review and approval of 1008-VA-L and 1002-GH-L modification documentation (Conceptual Design Package, Design Modification Package, Installation Package, Field Design Change Request, Problem/Deficiency Report, and Final Documentation Package). · Purchasing documentation for modifications 1008-VA-L and 1002-GH-L (technical specifications, purchase orders) has been verified and approved by QA. · QA and QC engineers were involved in oversight of production and testing of the new 1008-VA-L and 1002-GH-L plant components.

  20. Experience in the implementation of quality assurance program and safety culture assessment of research reactor operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarip; Suryopratomo, K.

    2001-01-01

    The implementation of quality assurance program and safety culture for research reactor operation are of importance to assure its safety status. It comprises an assessment of the quality of both technical and organizational aspects involved in safety. The method for the assessment is based on judging the quality of fulfillment of a number of essential issues for safety i.e. through audit, interview and/or discussions with personnel and management in plant. However, special consideration should be given to the data processing regarding the fuzzy nature of the data i.e. in answering the questionnaire. To accommodate this situation, the SCAP, a computer program based on fuzzy logic for assessing plant safety status, has been developed. As a case study, the experience in the assessment of Kartini research reactor safety status shows that it is strongly related to the implementation of quality assurance program in reactor operation and awareness of reactor operation staffs to safety culture practice. It is also shown that the application of the fuzzy rule in assessing reactor safety status gives a more realistic result than the traditional approach. (author)

  1. The safety of consumer goods containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    Consideration is given to the arguments used in the formulation of proposals which have been incorporated into a consultative document published by the National Radiological Protection Board (Criteria Relating to the Approval of Consumer Goods Containing Radioactive Substances: A Consultative Document, HMSO, London). The proposals are summarized. They were based on the classification of these consumer goods into different categories, and details are given of the suggested dose limits for these categories. Comments on the proposals are invited. (U.K.)

  2. Regulatory Compliance to Assure the Safety of the Operation of a Medical Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Cruz, Joselito

    2015-01-01

    Khealth Corporation, in Partnership with the National Kidney and Transplant Institute, has established a medical cyclotron facility to accommodate the up-and-coming needs of tracers for PET/CT in different centers and hospitals all over the country. This facility houses a 16.5 MeV GE PET trace 880 particle accelerator that can produce 14 Ci (518 GBq) of Fluorine-18. Its structure has adopted global standard designs in meeting the safety during its use, radiopharmaceutical production and distribution. Compliances were remarkably fulfilled from the building construction, machine acquisition, commissioning, operations up to the quality control and assurance. Furthermore, various regulatory challenges during the current standardization of radiopharmaceutical utilization were encountered however time dedication and efforts were wielded until all have been successfully justified and acquired. (author)

  3. 16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by the Commission under section 9 of the CPSA. 1115.5 Section 1115.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.5 Reporting of failures to comply...

  4. 16 CFR 1500.88 - Exemptions from lead limits under section 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for certain electronic devices. 1500.88 Section... from lead limits under section 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for certain electronic devices. (a) The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA) provides for specific lead limits...

  5. Made in China: Policy Analysis and Prescriptions to Improve China's Consumer Product Safety Regulatory Regime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMullin, III, James A

    2008-01-01

    China's central government's response to the current challenge of consumer product safety in the food and drug arena could be a determining factor in its ability to sustain robust economic growth over the next decade...

  6. Radiological safety status and quality assurance audit of medical X-ray diagnostic installations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, A U; Singh, Meghraj; Sunil Kumar, J V K; Kulkarni, Arti; Shirva, V K; Pradhan, A S

    2010-10-01

    We conducted a radiological safety and quality assurance (QA) audit of 118 medical X-ray diagnostic machines installed in 45 major hospitals in India. The main objective of the audit was to verify compliance with the regulatory requirements stipulated by the national regulatory body. The audit mainly covered accuracy check of accelerating potential (kVp), linearity of tube current (mA station) and timer, congruence of radiation and optical field, and total filtration; in addition, we also reviewed medical X-ray diagnostic installations with reference to room layout of X-ray machines and conduct of radiological protection survey. A QA kit consisting of a kVp Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model RAD/FLU-9001), dose Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model 6001), ionization chamber-based radiation survey meter model Gun Monitor and other standard accessories were used for the required measurements. The important areas where there was noncompliance with the national safety code were: inaccuracy of kVp calibration (23%), lack of congruence of radiation and optical field (23%), nonlinearity of mA station (16%) and timer (9%), improper collimator/diaphragm (19.6%), faulty adjustor knob for alignment of field size (4%), nonavailability of warning light (red light) at the entrance of the X-ray room (29%), and use of mobile protective barriers without lead glass viewing window (14%). The present study on the radiological safety status of diagnostic X-ray installations may be a reasonably good representation of the situation in the country as a whole. The study contributes significantly to the improvement of radiological safety by the way of the steps already taken and by providing a vital feed back to the national regulatory body.

  7. Radiological safety status and quality assurance audit of medical X-ray diagnostic installations in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonawane A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a radiological safety and quality assurance (QA audit of 118 medical X-ray diagnostic machines installed in 45 major hospitals in India. The main objective of the audit was to verify compliance with the regulatory requirements stipulated by the national regulatory body. The audit mainly covered accuracy check of accelerating potential (kVp, linearity of tube current (mA station and timer, congruence of radiation and optical field, and total filtration; in addition, we also reviewed medical X-ray diagnostic installations with reference to room layout of X-ray machines and conduct of radiological protection survey. A QA kit consisting of a kVp Test-O-Meter (ToM (Model RAD/FLU-9001, dose Test-O-Meter (ToM (Model 6001, ionization chamber-based radiation survey meter model Gun Monitor and other standard accessories were used for the required measurements. The important areas where there was noncompliance with the national safety code were: inaccuracy of kVp calibration (23%, lack of congruence of radiation and optical field (23%, nonlinearity of mA station (16% and timer (9%, improper collimator/diaphragm (19.6%, faulty adjustor knob for alignment of field size (4%, nonavailability of warning light (red light at the entrance of the X-ray room (29%, and use of mobile protective barriers without lead glass viewing window (14%. The present study on the radiological safety status of diagnostic X-ray installations may be a reasonably good representation of the situation in the country as a whole. The study contributes significantly to the improvement of radiological safety by the way of the steps already taken and by providing a vital feed back to the national regulatory body.

  8. Radiological safety status and quality assurance audit of medical X-ray diagnostic installations in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonawane, A.U.; Singh, Meghraj; Sunil Kumar, J.V.K.; Kulkarni, Arti; Shirva, V.K.; Pradhan, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a radiological safety and quality assurance (QA) audit of 118 medical X-ray diagnostic machines installed in 45 major hospitals in India. The main objective of the audit was to verify compliance with the regulatory requirements stipulated by the national regulatory body. The audit mainly covered accuracy check of accelerating potential (kVp), linearity of tube current (mA station) and timer, congruence of radiation and optical field, and total filtration; in addition, we also reviewed medical X-ray diagnostic installations with reference to room layout of X-ray machines and conduct of radiological protection survey. A QA kit consisting of a kVp Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model RAD/FLU-9001), dose Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model 6001), ionization chamber-based radiation survey meter model Gun Monitor and other standard accessories were used for the required measurements. The important areas where there was noncompliance with the national safety code were: inaccuracy of kVp calibration (23%), lack of congruence of radiation and optical field (23%), nonlinearity of mA station (16%) and timer (9%), improper collimator/diaphragm (19.6%), faulty adjustor knob for alignment of field size (4%), nonavailability of warning light (red light) at the entrance of the X-ray room (29%), and use of mobile protective barriers without lead glass viewing window (14%). The present study on the radiological safety status of diagnostic X-ray installations may be a reasonably good representation of the situation in the country as a whole. The study contributes significantly to the improvement of radiological safety by the way of the steps already taken and by providing a vital feed back to the national regulatory body. (author)

  9. THE PROTECTION OF CONSUMER RIGHTS FOR AVIATION SAFETY AND SECURITY IN INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Annalisa Yahanan; Febrian Febrian; Rohani Abdul Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia and Malaysia have a good potency for cooperation in aviation industry. It can be seen in the establishing two aviation companies namely PT. Indonesia Air Asia and Malindo which both are low-cost carrier. These aviation industries are categorized as low-cost carrier, however safety and security are absolute factors because these are rights for consumers. This article will describe further about safety and security standard; protecting the rights for consumers in connection with safet...

  10. The Protection of Consumer Rights for Aviation Safety and Security in Indonesia and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yahanan, Annalisa; Febrian, Febrian; Rahim, Rohani Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia and Malaysia have a good potency for cooperation in aviation industry. It can be seen in the establishing two aviation companies namely PT. Indonesia Air Asia and Malindo which both are low-cost carrier. These aviation industries are categorized as low-cost carrier, however safety and security are absolute factors because these are rights for consumers. This article will describe further about safety and security standard; protecting the rights for consumers in connection with safet...

  11. Assuring safety without animal testing concept (ASAT). Integration of human disease data with in vitro data to improve toxicology testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, Rob; Aarts, Jac; Boorsma, Andre; Bosgra, Sieto; Caiment, Florian; Ezendam, Janine; Greupink, Rick; Hendriksen, Peter; Soeteman-Hernandez, Lya G.; Jennen, Danyel; Kleinjans, Jos; Kroese, Dinant; Kuper, Frieke; van Loveren, Henk; Monshouwer, Mario; Russel, Frans; van Someren, Eugene; Tsamou, Maria; Groothuis, Geny

    2014-01-01

    According to the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become possible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., (2004). Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 617-623). The ASAT concept takes human disease mechanisms as starting point and tries to define if

  12. Consumer purchase habits and views on food safety: A Brazilian study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, J.H.; Barcellos, M.N.; Frewer, L.J.; Nunes, T.P.; Franco, B.D.G.M.; Destro, M.T.; Landgraf, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes towards food safety among consumers in the city of São Paulo, the major consumer market in Brazil. Focus group sessions were conducted with 30 adults responsible for food choices and purchases. Results indicated a preference for supermarkets over street

  13. Why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.; Frewer, L.J.; Scholderer, J.; Brabander, de H.F.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, it seems that consumers are generally uncertain about the safety and quality of their food and their risk perception differs substantially from that of experts. Hormone and veterinary drug residues in meat persist to occupy a high position in European consumers¿ food concern

  14. Consumer perceptions of food quality and safety and their relation to traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Frewer, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The research presented here aims to gain understanding of consumers¿ perceptions of the concepts of food quality and safety, two concepts that play an important role in how consumers perceive food, and that are used in decision making. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative

  15. Safety and Mission Assurance for In-House Design Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation identifies lessons learned in the course of the Ares I Upper Stage design and in-house development effort. The contents include: 1) Constellation Organization; 2) Upper Stage Organization; 3) Presentation Structure; 4) Lesson-Importance of Systems Engineering/Integration; 5) Lesson-Importance of Early S&MA Involvement; 6) Lesson-Importance of Appropriate Staffing Levels; 7) Lesson-Importance S&MA Team Deployment; 8) Lesson-Understanding of S&MA In-Line Engineering versus Assurance; 9) Lesson-Importance of Close Coordination between Supportability and Reliability/Maintainability; 10) Lesson-Importance of Engineering Data Systems; 11) Lesson-Importance of Early Development of Supporting Databases; 12) Lesson-Importance of Coordination with Safety Assessment/Review Panels; 13) Lesson-Implementation of Software Reliability; 14) Lesson-Implementation of S&MA Technical Authority/Chief S&MA Officer; 15) Lesson-Importance of S&MA Evaluation of Project Risks; 16) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List and Government Mandatory Inspections; 17) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List Mandatory Inspections; 18) Lesson-Implementation of Test Article Safety Analysis; and 19) Lesson-Importance of Procurement Quality.

  16. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies (SSAT) Project asked the AvSP Systems and Portfolio Analysis Team to identify SSAT-related trends. SSAT had four technical challenges: advance safety assurance to enable deployment of NextGen systems; automated discovery of precursors to aviation safety incidents; increasing safety of human-automation interaction by incorporating human performance, and prognostic algorithm design for safety assurance. This report reviews incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) for system-component-failure- or-malfunction- (SCFM-) related and human-factor-related incidents for commercial or cargo air carriers (Part 121), commuter airlines (Part 135), and general aviation (Part 91). The data was analyzed by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) part, phase of flight, SCFM category, human factor category, and a variety of anomalies and results. There were 38 894 SCFM-related incidents and 83 478 human-factorrelated incidents analyzed between January 1993 and April 2011.

  17. Consumer Choice between Food Safety and Food Quality: The Case of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghiri, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Since the food incidence of polychlorinated biphenyls in farm-raised Atlantic salmon, its market demand has drastically changed as a result of consumers mistrust in both the quality and safety of the product. Policymakers have been trying to find ways to ensure consumers that farm-raised Atlantic salmon is safe. One of the suggested policies is the implementation of integrated traceability methods and quality control systems. This article examines consumer choice between food safety and food quality to purchase certified farm-raised Atlantic salmon, defined as a product that has passed through various stages of traceability systems in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. PMID:28231118

  18. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Moreno, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Wiratno,; Falke, H.E.; Rietjens, I.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being

  19. Social media in health--what are the safety concerns for health consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Annie Y S; Gabarron, Elia; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Armayones, Manuel

    Recent literature has discussed the unintended consequences of clinical information technologies (IT) on patient safety, yet there has been little discussion about the safety concerns in the area of consumer health IT. This paper presents a range of safety concerns for consumers in social media, with a case study on YouTube. We conducted a scan of abstracts on 'quality criteria' related to YouTube. Five areas regarding the safety of YouTube for consumers were identified: (a) harmful health material targeted at consumers (such as inappropriate marketing of tobacco or direct-to-consumer drug advertising); (b) public display of unhealthy behaviour (such as people displaying self-injury behaviours or hurting others); (c) tainted public health messages (i.e. the rise of negative voices against public health messages); (d) psychological impact from accessing inappropriate, offensive or biased social media content; and (e) using social media to distort policy and research funding agendas. The examples presented should contribute to a better understanding about how to promote a safe consumption and production of social media for consumers, and an evidence-based approach to designing social media interventions for health. The potential harm associated with the use of unsafe social media content on the Internet is a major concern. More empirical and theoretical studies are needed to examine how social media influences consumer health decisions, behaviours and outcomes, and devise ways to deter the dissemination of harmful influences in social media.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5, Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Pennell, W.T.; Selby, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    This document summarizes the research programs now underway at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the areas of environmental safety, health, and quality assurance. Topics include internal irradiation, emergency plans, dose equivalents, risk assessment, dose equivalents, surveys, neutron dosimetry, and radiation accidents. (TEM)

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5, Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.; Pennell, W.T.; Selby, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    This document summarizes the research programs now underway at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the areas of environmental safety, health, and quality assurance. Topics include internal irradiation, emergency plans, dose equivalents, risk assessment, dose equivalents, surveys, neutron dosimetry, and radiation accidents

  2. Economic Consequences of Mandated Grading and Food Safety Assurance: Ex Ante Analysis of the Federal Marketing Order

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Richard; Sumner, Daniel A.; Alston, Julian M.; Brunke, Henrich; Acquaye, Albert K. A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. pistachio industry, located almost exclusively in California, has grown substantially over the past thirty years and now occupies an important and growing share of the world market. In recent years, a group of growers led an initiative to establish a federal marketing order, which will work to assure consistency in the quality of California pistachios and thereby increase consumer demand and confidence in the product and enhance producer returns. The marketing order, scheduled to tak...

  3. How important is vehicle safety for older consumers in the vehicle purchase process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Clark, Belinda; Hoareau, Effie; Charlton, Judith L; Newstead, Stuart V

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the importance of vehicle safety to older consumers in the vehicle purchase process. Older (n = 102), middle-aged (n = 791), and younger (n = 109) participants throughout the eastern Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland who had recently purchased a new or used vehicle completed an online questionnaire about their vehicle purchase process. When asked to list the 3 most important considerations in the vehicle purchase process (in an open-ended format), older consumers were mostly likely to list price as their most important consideration (43%). Similarly, when presented with a list of vehicle factors (such as price, design, Australasian New Car Assessment Program [ANCAP] rating), older consumers were most likely to identify price as the most important vehicle factor (36%). When presented with a list of vehicle features (such as automatic transmission, braking, air bags), older consumers in the current study were most likely to identify an antilock braking system (41%) as the most important vehicle feature, and 50 percent of older consumers identified a safety-related vehicle feature as the highest priority vehicle feature (50%). When asked to list up to 3 factors that make a vehicle safe, older consumers in the current study were most likely to list braking systems (35%), air bags (22%), and the driver's behavior or skill (11%). When asked about the influence of safety in the new vehicle purchase process, one third of older consumers reported that all new vehicles are safe (33%) and almost half of the older consumers rated their vehicle as safer than average (49%). A logistic regression model was developed to predict the profile of older consumers more likely to assign a higher priority to safety features in the vehicle purchasing process. The model predicted that the importance of safety-related features was influenced by several variables, including older consumers' beliefs that they could protect themselves

  4. Cavern disposal concepts for HLW/SF: assuring operational practicality and safety with maximum programme flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, Ian G.; Apted, Mick; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Most conventional engineered barrier system (EBS) designs for HLW/SF repositories are based on concepts developed in the 1970s and 1980s that assured feasibility with high margins of safety, in order to convince national decision makers to proceed with geological disposal despite technological uncertainties. In the interval since the advent of such 'feasibility designs', significant progress has been made in reducing technological uncertainties, which has lead to a growing awareness of other, equally important uncertainties in operational implementation and challenges regarding social acceptance in many new, emerging national repository programs. As indicated by the NUMO repository concept catalogue study (NUMO, 2004), there are advantages in reassessing how previous designs can be modified and optimised in the light of improved system understanding, allowing a robust EBS to be flexibly implemented to meet nation-specific and site-specific conditions. Full-scale emplacement demonstrations, particularly those carried out underground, have highlighted many of the practical issues to be addressed; e.g., handling of compacted bentonite in humid conditions, use of concrete for support infrastructure, remote handling of heavy radioactive packages in confined conditions, quality inspection, monitoring / ease of retrieval of emplaced packages and institutional control. The CAvern REtrievable (CARE) concept reduces or avoids such issues by emplacement of HLW or SF within multi-purpose transportation / storage / disposal casks in large ventilated caverns at a depth of several hundred metres. The facility allows the caverns to serve as inspectable stores for an extended period of time (up to a few hundred years) until a decision is made to close them. At this point the caverns are backfilled and sealed as a final repository, effectively with the same safety case components as conventional 'feasibility designs'. In terms of operational practicality an d safety, the CARE

  5. Supportive measures toward safety assurance of post-disaster Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatazawa, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    Toshiba group had taken supportive measures toward safety assurance of post-disaster Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, such as active water treatment, upgrade core cooling capability with additional water injection rout of core spray spargers, alternative cooling system of spent fuel pool with air cooler and nitrogen injection into reactor containment vessel from portable air separation system for nitrogen generation. As for a water treatment system for handling the radioactive water that had built up in the basement of the turbine building from injected water for cooling fuel debris, it was implemented at first by water treatment equipment from Areva and Kurion and now by Simplified Active Water Retrieve and Recovery System (SARRY) which Toshiba had newly developed as redundant system. Purified water could be reused for circulating injected water for reactor cooling. Strenuous efforts would be made for installation of cover building for fuel removal from spent fuel pool of unit 3 reactor and technology development for fuel debris removal using remote control robots. Portable gamma camera had been developed for decontamination works of radiation 'hot spot'. With loading SARRY on truck, mobile contaminated water treatment and contaminated soil purification system using oxalic acid solution for cesium extraction had been developed to contribute environmental remedial action in surrounding areas. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Technical assistance to Department of Energy/Office of Operational Safety Assurance Program for remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Cross, F.T.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Marks, S.; Soldat, J.K.; Stenner, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    This project was initiated in FY 1984 to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in developing and implementing its Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA), i.e., overview of the DOE remedial action programs. During this second year of the project,* the technical assistance included report and procedure reviews, and assistance with conducting the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP) Office (DOE/AL) appraisal. This included participation in preappraisal visits to UMTRAP sites in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Grand Junction, Colorado; and Salt Lake City, Utah. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) also transferred the PNL-developed document review software to the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) staff in Grand Junction, Colorado, in anticipation of future document reviews by the ORAU staff. Other accomplishments have included publication of two formal documents and three project reports, preparation and presentation of five topical reports at national and international meetings, two foreign trip reports, and comments on proposed draft standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 193). The project manager has also participated on National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) subcommittees developing decommissioning standards, as well as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) advisory groups developing environmental monitoring guidelines

  7. Margins Associated with Loss of Assured Safety for Systems with Multiple Time-Dependent Failure Modes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie. [Engineering Mechanics Corp. of Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Representations for margins associated with loss of assured safety (LOAS) for weak link (WL)/strong link (SL) systems involving multiple time-dependent failure modes are developed. The following topics are described: (i) defining properties for WLs and SLs, (ii) background on cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for link failure time, link property value at link failure, and time at which LOAS occurs, (iii) CDFs for failure time margins defined by (time at which SL system fails) – (time at which WL system fails), (iv) CDFs for SL system property values at LOAS, (v) CDFs for WL/SL property value margins defined by (property value at which SL system fails) – (property value at which WL system fails), and (vi) CDFs for SL property value margins defined by (property value of failing SL at time of SL system failure) – (property value of this SL at time of WL system failure). Included in this presentation is a demonstration of a verification strategy based on defining and approximating the indicated margin results with (i) procedures based on formal integral representations and associated quadrature approximations and (ii) procedures based on algorithms for sampling-based approximations.

  8. Safety assurance in radioactive waste management at nuclear power plants of the Northwest region of Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonov, Igor

    1999-07-01

    This presentation describes the two large operating nuclear power plants (NPP) in Northwest Russia, the Kola NPP and the Leningrad NPP. The four units at Kola are tank-type pressurised water reactors of 440 MW (electric) while the four Leningrad reactors are 1000 MW (electric) of RBMK type. Gosatomnadzor of Russia regularly conducts so-called target inspections on safety assurance for radioactive waste management at NNP. Among the many items checked during such inspections are the existence and realisation of an action plan for waste reduction, the technical state of equipment and the compliance with previous directions. The management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes is described in some detail, and so are the violations revealed at both sites. There is also some discussion of modernisation plans for waste management. It is stated that the ecological impact of the plants is negligible and there is no hazard to people or environment. The presentation concludes with some suggestions for improving the licensing requirements for waste management.

  9. Safety assurance in radioactive waste management at nuclear power plants of the Northwest region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safonov, Igor

    1999-01-01

    This presentation describes the two large operating nuclear power plants (NPP) in Northwest Russia, the Kola NPP and the Leningrad NPP. The four units at Kola are tank-type pressurised water reactors of 440 MW (electric) while the four Leningrad reactors are 1000 MW (electric) of RBMK type. Gosatomnadzor of Russia regularly conducts so-called target inspections on safety assurance for radioactive waste management at NNP. Among the many items checked during such inspections are the existence and realisation of an action plan for waste reduction, the technical state of equipment and the compliance with previous directions. The management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes is described in some detail, and so are the violations revealed at both sites. There is also some discussion of modernisation plans for waste management. It is stated that the ecological impact of the plants is negligible and there is no hazard to people or environment. The presentation concludes with some suggestions for improving the licensing requirements for waste management

  10. Assuring safety without animal testing: the case for the human testis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Robert E; Boekelheide, Kim; Cortvrindt, Rita; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Gant, Tim; Jegou, Bernard; Marczylo, Emma; van Pelt, Ans M M; Post, Janine N; Roelofs, Maarke J E; Schlatt, Stefan; Teerds, Katja J; Toppari, Jorma; Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-08-01

    From 15 to 17 June 2011, a dedicated workshop was held on the subject of in vitro models for mammalian spermatogenesis and their applications in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. The workshop was sponsored by the Dutch ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), which aims at promoting innovative approaches toward toxicological hazard and risk assessment on the basis of human and in vitro data, and replacement of animal studies. Participants addressed the state of the art regarding human and animal evidence for compound mediated testicular toxicity, reviewed existing alternative assay models, and brainstormed about future approaches, specifically considering tissue engineering. The workshop recognized the specific complexity of testicular function exemplified by dedicated cell types with distinct functionalities, as well as different cell compartments in terms of microenvironment and extracellular matrix components. This complexity hampers quick results in the realm of alternative models. Nevertheless, progress has been achieved in recent years, and innovative approaches in tissue engineering may open new avenues for mimicking testicular function in vitro. Although feasible, significant investment is deemed essential to be able to bring new ideas into practice in the laboratory. For the advancement of in vitro testicular toxicity testing, one of the most sensitive end points in regulatory reproductive toxicity testing, such an investment is highly desirable. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumer food handling in the home: a review of food safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth C; Griffith, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological data from Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand indicate that a substantial proportion of foodborne disease is attributable to improper food preparation practices in consumers' homes. International concern about consumer food safety has prompted considerable research to evaluate domestic food-handling practices. The majority of consumer food safety studies in the last decade have been conducted in the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland (48%) and in the United States (42%). Surveys (questionnaires and interviews), the most frequent means of data collection, were used in 75% of the reviewed studies. Focus groups and observational studies have also been used. One consumer food safety study examined the relationship between pathogenic microbial contamination from raw chicken and observed food-handling behaviors, and the results of this study indicated extensive Campylobacter cross-contamination during food preparation sessions. Limited information about consumers' attitudes and intentions with regard to safe food-handling behaviors has been obtained, although a substantial amount of information about consumer knowledge and self-reported practices is available. Observation studies suggest that substantial numbers of consumers frequently implement unsafe food-handling practices. Knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and self-reported practices did not correspond to observed behaviors, suggesting that observational studies provide a more realistic indication of the food hygiene actions actually used in domestic food preparation. An improvement in consumer food-handling behavior is likely to reduce the risk and incidence of foodborne disease. The need for the development and implementation of food safety education strategies to improve specific food safety behaviors is reviewed in this paper.

  12. Technical foundations for quality assurance of systems engineering activities for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oren, T.I.; Elzas, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Basic system design axioms and a framework for design and test derivation based on structural design are presented. Over thirty quality assurance issues are elaborated on. New dimensions to quality assurance issues in the artificial intelligence era are discussed. The last part of the article is a sequel of another one titled: ''Mode reliability and software quality assurance in simulation of nuclear fuel waste management systems'' which was published in the Proceedings of the 1985 Waste Management Conference

  13. Implementing a "quality by design" approach to assure the safety and integrity of botanical dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhlas A; Smillie, Troy

    2012-09-28

    Natural products have provided a basis for health care and medicine to humankind since the beginning of civilization. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 80% of the world population still relies on herbal medicines for health-related benefits. In the United States, over 42% of the population claimed to have used botanical dietary supplements to either augment their current diet or to "treat" or "prevent" a particular health-related issue. This has led to the development of a burgeoning industry in the U.S. ($4.8 billion per year in 2008) to supply dietary supplements to the consumer. However, many commercial botanical products are poorly defined scientifically, and the consumer must take it on faith that the supplement they are ingesting is an accurate representation of what is listed on the label, and that it contains the purportedly "active" constituents they seek. Many dietary supplement manufacturers, academic research groups, and governmental organizations are progressively attempting to construct a better scientific understanding of natural products, herbals, and botanical dietary supplements that have co-evolved with Western-style pharmaceutical medicines. However, a deficiency of knowledge is still evident, and this issue needs to be addressed in order to achieve a significant level of safety, efficacy, and quality for commercial natural products. The authors contend that a "quality by design" approach for botanical dietary supplements should be implemented in order to ensure the safety and integrity of these products. Initiating this approach with the authentication of the starting plant material is an essential first step, and in this review several techniques that can aid in this endeavor are outlined.

  14. Radiation safety and quality control assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998; Saeteilyturvallisuus ja laadunvarmistus roentgendiagnostiikassa 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A [ed.

    1998-03-01

    The report is based on a seminar course of lectures `Radiation safety and quality assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998` organized by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland. The lectures included actual information on X-ray examinations: methods of quality assurance, methods of measuring and calculating patient doses, examination frequencies, patient doses, occupational doses, and radiation risks. Paediatric X-ray examinations and interventional procedures were the most specific topics. The new Council Directive 97/43/Euratom on medical exposure, and the European Guidelines on quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images, were discussed in several lectures. Lectures on general radiation threats and preparedness, examples of radiation accidents, and emergency preparedness in hospitals were also included. (editor)

  15. Consumer Food Safety Risk Attitudes and Perceptions Over Time: The Case of BSE Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalogeras, Nikos; Pennings, Joost M.E.; van Ittersum, Koert

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has shown that by decoupling the risk response behaviour of consumers into the separate components of risk perception and risk attitude, a more robust conceptualization and prediction of consumers’ reactions to food safety issues is possible. Furthermore, it has been argued that the influence of risk attitudes and risk perceptions on consumer risk behaviour for contaminated food products can be used to formulate effective agricultural policies and strategies in case of a food ...

  16. Consumer trust in food safety--a multidisciplinary approach and empirical evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2008-12-01

    Food scandals that happened in recent years have increased consumers' risk perceptions of foods and decreased their trust in food safety. A better understanding of the consumer trust in food safety can improve the effectiveness of public policy and allow the development of the best practice in risk communication. This study proposes a research framework from a psychometric approach to investigate the relationships between the consumer's trust in food safety and the antecedents of risk perceptions of foods based on a reflexive modernization perspective and a cultural theory perspective in the hope of benefiting the future empirical study. The empirical results from a structural equation modeling analysis of Taiwan as a case in point reveal that this research framework based on a multidisciplinary perspective can be a valuable tool for a growing understanding of consumer trust in food safety. The antecedents in the psychometric research framework comprised reflexive modernization factors and cultural theory factors have all been supported in this study except the consumer's perception of pessimism toward food. Moreover, the empirical results of repeated measures analysis of variance give more detailed information to grasp empirical implications and to provide some suggestions to the actors and institutions involved in the food supply chain in Taiwan.

  17. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Soffers, Ans E M F; Wiratno; Falke, Hein E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being eugenol, rotenone, β-asarone and pyrethrins, respectively. Botanical pesticides from Acorus calamus are of possible concern because of the genotoxic and carcinogenic ingredient β-asarone although estimated margins of exposure (MOE) for consumers indicate a low priority for risk management. For the other three botanical pesticides the margin of safety (MOS) between established acute reference doses and/or acceptable daily intake values and intake estimates for the consumer, resulting from their use as a botanical pesticide are not of safety concern, with the exception for levels of rotenone upon use of tuba root extracts on stored berries. Used levels of clove and pyrethrum as botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop production is not of safety concern for consumers or farmers, whereas for use of tuba root and sweet flag some risk factors were defined requiring further evaluation and/or risk management. It seems prudent to look for alternatives for use of sweet flag extracts containing β-asarone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. IAEA's role in achieving and assuring safety in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The results of the radiological impact studies, the data on shipments and the feedback from compliance assurance actions will help identify any shortcomings or weaknesses in the Regulations. The Advisory Material and the Explanatory Material, by amplifying the various requirements and elaborating the purpose and reason(s) for them, will help users understand the Regulations. These documents may also help motivate users. Quality Assurance will help prevent problems in the implementation process. Compliance Assurance will detect and lead to the rectification of failures in the implementation process. The data transfer on Certificates will aid in stopping the use of unsafe packages. 17 references

  19. Implementation and evaluation of a prototype consumer reporting system for patient safety events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Saul N; Weissman, Joel S; Zimmer, Karen P; Giannini, Robert C; Quigley, Denise D; Hunter, Lauren E; Ridgely, M Susan; Schneider, Eric C

    2017-08-01

    No methodologically robust system exists for capturing consumer-generated patient safety reports. To address this challenge, we developed and pilot-tested a prototype consumer reporting system for patient safety, the Health Care Safety Hotline. Mixed methods evaluation. The Hotline was implemented in two US healthcare systems from 1 February 2014 through 30 June 2015. Patients, family members and caregivers associated with two US healthcare systems. A consumer-oriented incident reporting system for telephone or web-based administration was developed to elicit medical mistakes and care-related injuries. Key informant interviews, measurement of website traffic and analysis of completed reports. Key informants indicated that Hotline participation was motivated by senior leaders' support and alignment with existing quality and safety initiatives. During the measurement period from 1 October 2014 through 30 June 2015, the home page had 1530 visitors with a unique IP address. During its 17 months of operation, the Hotline received 37 completed reports including 20 mistakes without harm and 15 mistakes with injury. The largest category of mistake concerned problems with diagnosis or advice from a health practitioner. Hotline reports prompted quality reviews, an education intervention, and patient follow-ups. While generating fewer reports than its capacity to manage, the Health Care Safety Hotline demonstrated the feasibility of consumer-oriented patient safety reporting. Further research is needed to understand how to increase consumers' use of these systems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Quality assurance during construction of civil engineering structures important to safety of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    The present manual is developed to deal with quality assurance aspect of civil engineering structures in a greater detail. This manual gives detail to develop QA plans specific to multifarious activities of civil engineering construction

  1. Consumer Food Safety Risk Attitudes and Perceptions Over Time: The Case of BSE Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Ittersum, van K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown that by decoupling the risk response behaviour of consumers into the separate components of risk perception and risk attitude, a more robust conceptualization and prediction of consumers’ reactions to food safety issues is possible. Furthermore, it has been argued that the

  2. 75 FR 81236 - Consumer Product Safety Act: Notice of Commission Action Lifting Stay of Enforcement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... action with respect to non-children's products subject to CPSC regulations pertaining to vinyl plastic... pertaining to vinyl plastic film, carpets and rugs, and clothing textiles on January 26, 2011. FOR FURTHER... Reduction, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 4330 East West Highway, Bethesda, Maryland 20814; e-mail...

  3. Public education in safe use of artificial UV radiation sources by the consumer safety institute in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggers, J.H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Consumer Safety Institute in the Netherlands is a national institute which operates entirely in the field of home safety. Its main aim exists in reducing the possibility and severity of accidents happening in and around the home, at school and recreational areas. To attain this aim the institute is active in research, handling consumer complaints, education, and advising. To inform and educate consumers about product safety, special leaflets and brochures are published. One of these brochures deals with safety and safe use of artificial UV radiation sources, e.g. UV lamps, UV couches etc. This brochure about suntanning equipment and safety was published recently

  4. A modeling approach to support safety assurance in the automotive domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Y.; Brand, van den M.G.J.; Engelen, L.J.P.; Klabbers, M.D.; Selvaraj, H.; Zydek, D.; Chmaj, G.

    2015-01-01

    As safety standards are widely used in safety-critical domains, such as ISO 26262 in the automotive domain, the use of safety cases to demonstrate product safety is stimulated. It is crucial to ensure that a safety case is both correct and clear. To support this, we proposed to make use of modeling

  5. Smooth handling: the lack of safety-related consumer information in car advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Maher, Anthony; Thomson, George; Keall, Michael

    2007-10-01

    To examine the content and trends of safety-related consumer information in magazine vehicle advertisements, as a case study within the worldwide marketing of vehicles. Content analysis of popular current affairs magazines in New Zealand for the 5-year period 2001-2005 was undertaken (n = 514 advertisements), supplemented with vehicle data from official websites. Safety information in advertisements for light passenger vehicles was relatively uncommon with only 27% mentioning one or more of nine key safety features examined (average: 1.7 out of nine features in this 27%). Also included were potentially hazardous features of: speed imagery (in 29% of advertisements), power references (14%), and acceleration data (4%). The speed and power aspects became relatively more common over the 5-year period (p advertisements and vehicle marketing - as already occurs with many other consumer products.

  6. Consumer contribution to food contamination in Brazil: modelling the food safety risk in the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Paulo Olinto da Motta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are among the most widespread public health issues, killing about 2.2 million people annually, and costing hundreds of billions of US dollars for governments, companies, families and consumers (WHO, 2007. In Brazil, foodborne diseases acquired in the home account for 55% of notified outbreaks (BRASIL, 2012. Several studies have investigated aspects of consumer behaviour concerning food poisoning, mapping practices in the home, but it remains a challenge to obtain a full picture of the consumer contribution to food contamination (REDMOND and GRIFFITH, 2003. This study aimed to assess the risks of food contamination in the home. A questionnaire containing 140 questions concerning food safety knowledge, handling practices, personal hygiene and basic health care, covering the stages when the food is under the control of the consumer, was developed and used to gather data for analysis. Appropriate scores were attributed to the questions (consequences to food safety and answers (likelihood of food contamination. A risk estimate algorithm and an appropriate risk ranking scale were used to assess the results. From August 2011 to March 2012, survey questionnaires were collected from 2,775 consumers in Brazil across 19 out of 27 state capitals. The study found risky practices with the potential to lead to food poisoning occurrences in the domestic environment in the following handling steps: food transportation, food preparation, cooking and the handling of leftovers. The personal hygiene, age, formal education, family income and basic health care habits represented the factors most related to the risky practices of consumers, which could orientate food safety educational campaigns for the Brazilian population.

  7. Safety assurance of non-deterministic flight controllers in aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Alfonso

    show that the autopilot was able to adapt appropriately to the different aircraft and was able to perform three-dimensional navigation and an ILS approach, without any modification to the controller. The autopilot was tested in moderate atmospheric turbulence, using consumer-grade sensors and actuators currently available in General Aviation aircraft. The generic adaptive autopilot was shown to be robust to atmospheric turbulence and sensor and actuator random noise. In both aircraft simulators, the autopilot adapted successfully to changes in airspeed, altitude, and configuration. This investigation proves the feasibility of a generic autopilot using direct adaptive controller. The autopilot does not need a priori information of the specific aircraft's dynamics to maintain its safety and stability arguments. Real-time parameter estimation of the aircraft dynamics are not needed. Recommendations for future work are provided.

  8. Developing and Testing the Health Care Safety Hotline: A Prototype Consumer Reporting System for Patient Safety Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eric C; Ridgely, M Susan; Quigley, Denise D; Hunter, Lauren E; Leuschner, Kristin J; Weingart, Saul N; Weissman, Joel S; Zimmer, Karen P; Giannini, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    This article describes the design, development, and testing of the Health Care Safety Hotline, a prototype consumer reporting system for patient safety events. The prototype was designed and developed with ongoing review by a technical expert panel and feedback obtained during a public comment period. Two health care delivery organizations in one metropolitan area collaborated with the researchers to demonstrate and evaluate the system. The prototype was deployed and elicited information from patients, family members, and caregivers through a website or an 800 phone number. The reports were considered useful and had little overlap with information received by the health care organizations through their usual risk management, customer service, and patient safety monitoring systems. However, the frequency of reporting was lower than anticipated, suggesting that further refinements, including efforts to raise awareness by actively soliciting reports from subjects, might be necessary to substantially increase the volume of useful reports. It is possible that a single technology platform could be built to meet a variety of different patient safety objectives, but it may not be possible to achieve several objectives simultaneously through a single consumer reporting system while also establishing trust with patients, caregivers, and providers.

  9. Preferences for food safety and animal welare - a choice experiment study comparing organic and conventional consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Mørkbak, Morten; Denver, Sigrid

    Food quality attributes such as food safety and animal welfare are increasingly influencing consumers' choices of food products. These attributes are not readily traded in the markets. Hence, stated preference methods have proven to be valuable tools for eliciting preferences for such non......-traded attributes. A discrete choice experiment is employed, and the results indicate that consumers in general are willing to pay a premium for campylobacter-free chicken and for improved animal welfare; and they are willing to pay an additional premium for a product containing both attributes. Further, we find...

  10. E-Learning Quality Standards for Consumer Protection and Consumer Confidence: A Canadian Case Study in E-Learning Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Kathryn Chang

    2007-01-01

    Emerging concerns about quality of e-learning products and services animated a project in Canada to create quality standards that derived primarily from the needs of consumer, that could be used to guide the development and choice of e-learning at all levels of education and training, and that could be implemented in a simple manner. A set of…

  11. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-safe design concept. Intrinsically fail-safe hardware circuits or systems are those that employ... system (all its elements including hardware and software) must be designed to assure safe operation with...; human errors that could impact hardware design; unsafe conditions that could occur because of an...

  13. International Conference on Human and Organizational Aspects of Assuring Nuclear Safety. Exploring 30 years of Safety Culture. Programme and Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group concluded, in its investigation of the Chernobyl accident, that one of the key lessons to be learned from that accident was the importance of a strong safety culture to maintain safe operations. Almost five years have now passed since the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and the need to implement a systemic approach to safety that takes into account the complex and dynamic sociotechnical systems comprising nuclear infrastructure is one of the main lessons emerging from investigations. This conference will allow an international audience to take a step back and reflect upon the knowledge accumulated in the areas of human and organizational factors (HOF), safety culture and leadership for safety over the past 30 years. The objectives of the conference are to: • Review the experience gained with regard to HOF, safety culture and leadership for safety; • Share and gather experiences related to current developments, approaches, methods and research in the areas of HOF, safety culture and leadership for safety; and • Identify the future needs for building organizational resilience capabilities in order to further strengthen defence in depth for nuclear facilities and activities. The special focus of the conference will be on safety culture and the past 30 years of developments in this area.

  14. Radiation safety and quality assurance in diagnostic x-ray imaging 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servonmaa, A.

    1999-04-01

    In the European Union, the Directive 97/43/Euratom concerning the medical use of radiation brings many new tasks to radiation users. Quality assurance, patient dose measurement, staff training and clinical audit are among the most essential of these tasks. The Finnish radiation legislation has been modified to comply with the Directive. Much work is still required for practical implementation of these rules. This report deals with applications of the medical radiation Directive. Most applications are still at the planning stage, and clear guidance is lacking. However, the users have to know in time about these plans and future duties concerning them. Experience on quality assurance and clinical audit in hospitals are especially valuable in providing practical information on benefits and problems of these practices. Other radiation related topics, such as radiation risks, radioactivity in foods, and use of radiation in other European countries, are also included in the report. (orig.)

  15. Consumer Perceptions of the Safety of Ready-to-Eat Foods in Retail Food Store Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Katrina; Yavelak, Mary; Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Chapman, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    To better understand how consumers perceive food safety risks in retail food store settings, a survey was administered to 1,041 nationally representative participants who evaluated possible food safety risks depicted in selected photographs and self-reported their perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants were shown 12 photographs taken at retail stores portraying either commonly perceived or actual food safety contributing factors, such as cross-contamination, product and equipment temperatures, worker hygiene, and/or store sanitation practices. Participants were then asked to specifically identify what they saw, comment as to whether what they saw was safe or unsafe, and articulate what actions they would take in response to these situations. In addition to the survey, focus groups were employed to supplement survey findings with qualitative data. Survey respondents identified risk factors for six of nine actual contributing factor photographs >50% of the time: poor produce storage sanitation (86%, n = 899), cross-contamination during meat slicing (72%, n = 750), bare-hand contact of ready-to-eat food in the deli area (67%, n = 698), separation of raw and ready-to-eat food in the seafood case (63%, n = 660), cross-contamination from serving utensils in the deli case (62%, n = 644), and incorrect product storage temperature (51%, n = 528). On a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 was very unsafe and 5 was very safe, a significant difference was found between average risk perception scores for photographs of actual contributing factors (score of ca. 2.5) and scores for photographs of perceived contributing factors (score of ca. 2.0). Themes from the focus groups supported the results of the survey and provided additional insight into consumer food safety risk perceptions. The results of this study inform communication interventions for consumers and retail food safety professionals aimed at improving hazard identification.

  16. Improving safety of personnel exposed to disinfectants by introducing an Endoscopy Quality Assurance Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Gado; Basel Ebeid; Aida Abdelmohsen; Anthony Axon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chemical disinfection is the most commonly used method in gastrointestinal endoscopy reprocessing. The main problem with chemical disinfection is that it is potentially harmful to humans. Risk assessment of employees using toxic substances is recommended and the control of exposure to these substances is required. In 2003, an endoscopy quality-assurance program was instituted in a secondary care governmental hospital in Egypt. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the risk to...

  17. SOCTESQA - Solid Oxide Cell and Stack Testing, Safety and Quality Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Michael; Auer, Corinna; Couturier, Karine; Nielsen, Eva Ravn; Mc Phail, Stephen; Kotsionopoulos, Nikolaos; FU, Qingxi; Liu, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    For the successful market penetration of high temperature solid oxide fuel/electrolysis cell energy systems it is necessary to increase the quality assurance and the reliable assessment of the corresponding cells and stacks. Therefore in May 2014 the EU-funded project SOCTESQA was launched. Partners from different countries in Europe and one external party from Singapore are working together to develop uniform and industry wide test procedures and programs for solid oxide cell/stack (SOC) ass...

  18. Food Handling Practices and Food Safety Messaging Preferences of African American and Latino Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Patten

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research on consumer food handling has identified common practices that could negatively impact food safety. Limited research has considered if food handling practices differ among diverse groups or if unique approaches are needed to provide food safety education for different audiences. This study examined food handling practice differences between African-American and Latino consumers and differing responses to food safety messages. Four focus groups were conducted, two with African-American participants and two with Latino participants, with each focus group consisting of 10-15 participants. Focus group transcripts were reviewed, coded, and grouped into themes using an iterative process. The 50 participants self-identified as either African-American or Latino, had home meal preparation experience, and were 18 years or older. Each focus group was multigenerational and included males and females. Risky food handling practices reported by both groups included rinsing poultry before cooking and limited food thermometer use. African-American participants preferred informational food safety messages, whereas Latino participants were split in preferring informational, guilt-inducing, and fear-inducing messages.

  19. Consumer Preferences for Public and Private Sector Certifications for Beef Products in the United States and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Bryan J.; Bailey, DeeVon; Hunnicutt, Lynn; Ward, Ruby A.

    2003-01-01

    Focus groups and street surveys are used in the US and the UK to determine consumer perceptions of the ability of different agencies, associations, and groups to certify beef products for quality, food safety, animal welfare, social responsibility, and environmental responsibility. US consumers see the role of the federal government primarily as assuring food safety but desire the private sector to make other types of certifications. UK consumers prefer the private sector to assure food safet...

  20. Medical devices, electronic health records and assuring patient safety : Future challenges?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, Cor J.

    2015-01-01

    The patient safety movement was triggered by publications showing that modern health care is more unsafe than road travel and that more patients are killed annually by avoidable adverse events than by breast cancer [1]. As a result, an urgent need to improve patient safety has dominated

  1. Systematic assessment of core assurance activities in a company specific food safety management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Rovira, J.; Spiegel, van der M.; Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic environment wherein agri-food companies operate and the high requirements on food safety force companies to critically judge and improve their food safety management system (FSMS) and its performance. The objective of this study was to develop a diagnostic instrument enabling a

  2. Probability evaluation in problems of structural safety and quality assurance through oriented simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puppo, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The procedure described in this work may be considered to improve the Harbitz method by a limitation of the directions corresponding to the sampling points. By the introduction of polar coordinates n-dimensional system, these directions may be limited to those contained in an hypercone, whose axis contains the design point. Some problems with strongly convex failure domain presented in some structural systems (Igusa and Der Kiureghian, 1988; Nadim, 1990) and also in the acceptance probability of analysis and rejection of quality assurance methods may be efficiently treated. (Author) [es

  3. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence about health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Sioen, Isabelle; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the gap between consumer perception and scientific evidence related to health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption. Consumer perceptions from a cross-sectional survey in March 2003 in Belgium were compared with scientific evidence based on a literature review. A quota sampling procedure was used with age as quota control variable. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire including health benefit beliefs from fish, fish content and effect beliefs for nutrients and harmful substances. Adults (n=429), who were the main person responsible for food purchasing in the household (284 women; 145 men), aged 18-83 years, from different regional, education, family size and income groups. Fish is predominantly perceived as a healthy food that reduces risk for coronary heart disease, which corroborates scientific evidence. This perception is stronger among women than among men. In contrast with scientific evidence, 46% of the consumers believe that fish contains dietary fibre, whereas less than one-third is aware that fish contains omega-3 fatty acids and that this nutrient has a positive impact on human health. The gap between perception and evidence is larger among consumers with lower education. In general, consumers are better aware of the content and effect of harmful substances than of nutrients in fish. Despite conclusive evidence about the content and positive effect of omega-3 fatty acids in fish, related consumer awareness and beliefs are poor and often wrong. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about the health benefits of fish consumption.

  4. CONSUMERS’ KNOWLEDGE ABOUT FOOD AND FOOD SAFETY AND QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Niewczas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of survey conducted among 712 consumers in south-east Poland are presented. Respondents were asked to evaluate their level of knowledge about food. As a result it was shown that consumers usually assessed their knowledge as average or good. Women assessed their knowledge of food as better than men did. The most popular sources of knowledge about food among consumers are: the Internet (66.6% of ndications and television (58.8% of indications. Respondents were also asked about their knowledge about HACCP/ISO 22000. Most of them do not have know ledge about these systems. Most respondents declared that they don't know what HACCP or/and ISO 22000 is (28.5% and 20.5% of indications. Men more often that women declared the lack of knowledge about HACCP and ISO 22000.

  5. Situation of quality assurance for safety related buildings of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    General aspects of quality assurance are discussed first. Reference is made to the legal principles of the construction decree of the State of Northrhine-Westphalia. The presently applied procedure for quality assurance can be regarded as being sufficient. The consultation of experts during all stages of the construction of the power station offers the possibility to take into account the state of science and technology at any time. In addition to the experts according to PARAGRAPH 20 of the Atomic Energy Act the licensing authorities reasonably engage an expert specialized on the construction of buildings. The structural analyses and the design documents have to be checked by a licensed examiner. Supervision (quality control) of building materials, structural parts and types of construction is performed on two levels: - Supervision carried out by the manufacturer, who has to prove the quality of his product by an orderly performance of quality control procedures based on statistical methods. - Supervision by authorized representatives, who guarantee the correct supervision of the manufacturer. The supervision by the manufacturer himself is of eminent importance. Only if this supervision is performed intensively, the limitation of the activities of authorized representatives to the degree described above is justified. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Nuclear power plants near consumers from a safety-engineering point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.

    1986-11-01

    Special safety requirements must be met by a nuclear power station near the consumer. These requirements may not be formulated in a purely probabilistic way because of the methodological deficiencies identified. The existing protection concept is rather extended so as to include the requirement of engineered safeguards in order to limit the damage in case of a worst reactor accident. The suggested individual dose limit together with the calculation rules should ensure that the consequences of a worst accident are essentially limited to the plant and that no emergency protection measures and countermeasures need to be considered either in the short term or in the longer term to prevent health damage. The resulting features of a reactor near the consumer aim at better inherent safety characteristics, which is shown to be possible by reasonable technical means and which seems to have already been realized to a large extent in plants of small and perhaps also medium power already conceived. The way of thinking behind this suggestion is applicable to other sectors of industrial technology. Furthermore, it might serve as a basis in the discussion about general advanced safety criteria, which has been stimulated due to 'Chernobyl'. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Effectiveness of pads and enclosures as safety interventions on consumer trampolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eager, David; Scarrott, Carl; Sushinsky, George

    2010-01-01

    Background Trampolines continue to be a major source of childhood injury. Objective To examine available data on trampoline injuries in order to determine the effectiveness of padding and enclosures. Design Trampoline injuries from the NEISS database from 2002 to 2007 were reclassified into five cause-categories, to examine evidence for injury trends. Setting The ASTM trampoline standard recommendations for safety padding were upgraded in 1999 and enclosures were introduced in 1997. This is the first study to examine the impact of these changes. Patients The sampling frame comprises patients with NEISS product code ‘consumer trampolines’ (1233). A systematic sample of 360 patients each year is taken. Interventions The prominent interventions recommended by the ASTM are netting enclosures to prevent falling off and safety padding to cover frames and springs. Main outcome measures Proportion of injuries within each cause-category and trend estimates. Results There was no evidence for a decline within the injury cause-categories that should be prevented by these interventions from 2002 to 2007. Conclusions If these interventions were effective the associated injury causes would be in decline. Instead they remain close to half of all trampoline injuries with no significant change over the period of the study. Follow-up studies are proposed to determine the reasons. Given the number of injuries involved it is recommended that steps be taken to ensure these safety interventions or their equivalents are in place, work properly and remain effective for the life of consumer trampolines. PMID:20570986

  8. Exposing exposure: enhancing patient safety through automated data mining of nuclear medicine reports for quality assurance and organ dose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Ichiro; Sodickson, Aaron; Wasser, Elliot J; Warden, Graham I; Gerbaudo, Victor H; Khorasani, Ramin

    2012-08-01

    To develop and validate an open-source informatics toolkit capable of creating a radiation exposure data repository from existing nuclear medicine report archives and to demonstrate potential applications of such data for quality assurance and longitudinal patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Informed consent was waived. An open-source toolkit designed to automate the extraction of data on radiopharmaceuticals and administered activities from nuclear medicine reports was developed. After iterative code training, manual validation was performed on 2359 nuclear medicine reports randomly selected from September 17, 1985, to February 28, 2011. Recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) were calculated with 95% binomial confidence intervals. From the resultant institutional data repository, examples of usage in quality assurance efforts and patient-specific longitudinal radiation dose monitoring obtained by calculating organ doses from the administered activity and radiopharmaceutical of each examination were provided. Validation statistics yielded a combined recall of 97.6% ± 0.7 (95% confidence interval) and precision of 98.7% ± 0.5. Histograms of administered activity for fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose and iodine 131 sodium iodide were generated. An organ dose heatmap which displays a sample patient's dose accumulation from multiple nuclear medicine examinations was created. Large-scale repositories of radiation exposure data can be extracted from institutional nuclear medicine report archives with high recall and precision. Such repositories enable new approaches in radiation exposure patient safety initiatives and patient-specific radiation dose monitoring.

  9. [Organize quality assurance as in aviation; improve patient safety in Dutch hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerkens, Marck H T M; Beekmann, Roland T A; van den Elzen, Guus J P; Lansbergen, Michael D I; Berlijn, Dick L

    2009-01-01

    Failing teamwork is a major cause of adverse events in hospitals in the Netherlands. Training team-skills can improve the safety standards in clinical heath care. An adapted version of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training is proving to be a usable format in the hospital environment. We emphasize that paying attention to the subject of safety has to start early in medical education in order to incorporate non-technical skills into the hospital culture.

  10. How trust in institutions and organizations builds general consumer confidence in the safety of food: A decomposition of effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Renes, R.J.; Frewer, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between general consumer confidence in the safety of food and consumer trust in institutions and organizations. More specifically, using a decompositional regression analysis approach, the extent to which the strength of the relationship between trust and

  11. TU-A-304-03: Quality Assurance, Safety, and Other Practical Aspects of SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, S.

    2015-01-01

    Increased use of SBRT and hypo fractionation in radiation oncology practice has posted a number of challenges to medical physicist, ranging from planning, image-guided patient setup and on-treatment monitoring, to quality assurance (QA) and dose delivery. This symposium is designed to provide updated knowledge necessary for the safe and efficient implementation of SBRT in various linac platforms, including the emerging digital linacs equipped with high dose rate FFF beams. Issues related to 4D CT, PET and MRI simulations, 3D/4D CBCT guided patient setup, real-time image guidance during SBRT dose delivery using gated/un-gated VMAT or IMRT, and technical advancements in QA of SBRT (in particular, strategies dealing with high dose rate FFF beams) will be addressed. The symposium will help the attendees to gain a comprehensive understanding of the SBRT workflow and facilitate their clinical implementation of the state-of-art imaging and planning techniques. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of SBRT, describe essential requirements for safe implementation of SBRT, and discuss issues specific to SBRT treatment planning and QA. Update on the use of multi-dimensional (3D and 4D) and multi-modality (CT, beam-level X-ray imaging, pre- and on-treatment 3D/4D MRI, PET, robotic ultrasound, etc.) for reliable guidance of SBRT. Provide a comprehensive overview of emerging digital linacs and summarize the key geometric and dosimetric features of the new generation of linacs for substantially improved SBRT. Discuss treatment planning and quality assurance issues specific to SBRT. Research grant from Varian Medical Systems

  12. TU-A-304-03: Quality Assurance, Safety, and Other Practical Aspects of SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, S. [UC Davis Cancer Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Increased use of SBRT and hypo fractionation in radiation oncology practice has posted a number of challenges to medical physicist, ranging from planning, image-guided patient setup and on-treatment monitoring, to quality assurance (QA) and dose delivery. This symposium is designed to provide updated knowledge necessary for the safe and efficient implementation of SBRT in various linac platforms, including the emerging digital linacs equipped with high dose rate FFF beams. Issues related to 4D CT, PET and MRI simulations, 3D/4D CBCT guided patient setup, real-time image guidance during SBRT dose delivery using gated/un-gated VMAT or IMRT, and technical advancements in QA of SBRT (in particular, strategies dealing with high dose rate FFF beams) will be addressed. The symposium will help the attendees to gain a comprehensive understanding of the SBRT workflow and facilitate their clinical implementation of the state-of-art imaging and planning techniques. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of SBRT, describe essential requirements for safe implementation of SBRT, and discuss issues specific to SBRT treatment planning and QA. Update on the use of multi-dimensional (3D and 4D) and multi-modality (CT, beam-level X-ray imaging, pre- and on-treatment 3D/4D MRI, PET, robotic ultrasound, etc.) for reliable guidance of SBRT. Provide a comprehensive overview of emerging digital linacs and summarize the key geometric and dosimetric features of the new generation of linacs for substantially improved SBRT. Discuss treatment planning and quality assurance issues specific to SBRT. Research grant from Varian Medical Systems.

  13. Safety assurance of cosmetics in Japan: current situation and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law distinguishes cosmetics from quasi-drugs, and specifies that they must have a mild effect on the human body and must be safe to use over the long term. Therefore, the safety of cosmetics needs to be thoroughly evaluated and confirmed, taking into account the type of cosmetic, application method, conditions of use and so on. Post-marketing surveys of customers' complaints and case reports of adverse effects are important to monitor and confirm the safety of products. Although manufacturing and marketing of cosmetics are becoming more globalized, the regulations relevant to cosmetics safety still vary from country to country. Thus, compliance with different regulations in various markets is a major issue for producers. In particular, further development of alternatives to animal testing remains an urgent global issue.

  14. Food safety assurance systems: Microbiological testing, sampling plans, and microbiological criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Ross, T.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological criteria give information about the quality or safety of foods. A key component of a microbiological criterion is the sampling plan. Considering: (1) the generally low level of pathogens that are deemed tolerable in foods, (2) large batch sizes, and (3) potentially substantial

  15. Consumer confidence in the safety of food in Canada and the Netherlands: The validation of a generic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Goddard, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    A thorough understanding of consumer confidence in the safety of food and the factors by which this is influenced is necessary for the development of adequate and effective risk management and communication regarding food safety issues. As food chains become globalized, risk management and

  16. Revitalizing quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    The image of someone inspecting or auditing often comes to mind when people hear the term quality assurance. Although partially correct, this image is not the complete picture. The person doing the inspecting or auditing is probably part of a traditional quality assurance organization, but that organization is only one aspect of a properly conceived and effectively implemented quality assurance system whose goal is improved facility safety and reliability. This paper introduces the underlying philosophies and basic concepts of the International Atomic Energy Agency's new quality assurance initiative that began in 1991 as part of a broad Agency-wide program to enhance nuclear safety. The first product of that initiative was publication in 1996 of a new Quality Assurance Code 50-C/SG-Q and fourteen related Safety Guides. This new suite of documents provide the technical and philosophical foundation upon which Member States can base their quality assurance programs. (author)

  17. The collection and interpretation of domestic accident data. A discussion on some aspects of the British consumer safety system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J R

    1979-06-01

    This article discusses the workings of a Consumer Safety System and identifies the problems of collecting and using domestic accident data. In the light of proposed changes in the civil law on product liability, particular consideration is given to the difficulties of providing evidence of consumer product involvement in domestic accidents. The paper is based on one read at the CBI Conference "Product Liability in Perspective", held at the Hilton Hotel, London, 30-31 March, 1977. The views expressed are those of the Institute for Consumer Ergonomics and are not necessarily those of the Department of Prices and Consumer Protection.

  18. A proposed safety assurance method and its application to the fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, T.; Seki, Y.; Inabe, T.; Aoki, I.

    1995-01-01

    Importance categorization and hazard identification methods have been proposed for a fusion experimental reactor. A parameter, the system index, is introduced in the categorization method. The relative importance of systems with safety functions can be classified by the largeness of the system index and whether or not the system acts as a boundary for radioactive materials. This categorization can be used as the basic principle in determining structure design assessment, seismic design criteria etc. For the hazard identification the system time energy matrix is proposed, where the time and spatial distributions of hazard energies are used. This approach is formulated more systematically than an ad-hoc identification of hazard events and it is useful to select design basis events which are employed in the assessment of safety designs. (orig.)

  19. An augmented audit program for assuring radiation safety during radiographic examination operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervey, R.A. Jr.; Papin, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Auditing a gamma radiography program is required as part of the authorizing license. Checklists and cursory reviews are the typical approach to addressing program requirements. A more proactive approach is recommended. The audit program described was prepared for a specific set of operating conditions but can be applied to any given program. Improvements in the effectiveness of the radiography safety program can be made with additional examination and emphasis on direct observation of licensed activities

  20. Overview on recent results of the VTT's research programme on assuring nuclear power plant structural safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Aaltonen, P.; Kauppinen, P.; Keinaenen, H.; Talja, H.; Valo, M.; Wallin, K.; Toerroenen, K.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the Finnish national research programme on the Nuclear Power Plant Structural Safety, being carried out from 1990 to 1994, is presented. The focus of this paper is on recent results in the areas of experimental and computational fracture mechanics, material deterioration due to neutron irradiation, corrosion and water chemistry, nondestructive testing methods and procedures, and verification of structural integrity assessment methods by large scale component tests. (author). 21 refs, 21 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Development of a Reliability Program approach to assuring operational nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Bezella, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A Reliability Program (RP) model based on proven reliability techniques used in other high technology industries is being formulated for potential application in the nuclear power industry. Research findings are discussed. The reliability methods employed under NASA and military direction, commercial airline and related FAA programs were surveyed with several reliability concepts (e.g., quantitative reliability goals, reliability centered maintenance) appearing to be directly transferable. Other tasks in the RP development effort involved the benchmarking and evaluation of the existing nuclear regulations and practices relevant to safety/reliability integration. A review of current risk-dominant issues was also conducted using results from existing probabilistic risk assessment studies. The ongoing RP development tasks have concentrated on defining a RP for the operating phase of a nuclear plant's lifecycle. The RP approach incorporates safety systems risk/reliability analysis and performance monitoring activities with dedicated tasks that integrate these activities with operating, surveillance, and maintenance of the plant. The detection, root-cause evaluation and before-the-fact correction of incipient or actual systems failures as a mechanism for maintaining plant safety is a major objective of the RP

  2. Assuring nuclear safety competence into the 21. century a swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenhielm, G.; Svensson, G.; Tiren, IN

    2000-01-01

    Many initiatives have been taken and are being considered to maintain and develop competence in the nuclear field in Sweden. The number of qualified nuclear engineering staff at the plants and at the regulatory bodies appears to be rather small for all important tasks to be carried out. Nevertheless, the current programmes indicate that one can look at future recruitment and competence with some confidence-in spite of the age profile of qualified staff with many approaching retirement. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, (SKI), the academic community, and the Industry are conducting several research projects that support the optimistic view expressed above. Examples include: Safety research at SKI and universities: Since many years, SKI is sponsoring research in safety analysis within the framework of its Research Programme. In this programme the regulator supports two professors, one in Nuclear Power Safety at KTH and the other in the Interaction of Man, Technology and Organisation at the University of Stockholm. Swedish Centre of Nuclear Technology: A main activity of the Centre is to support PhD candidates (with scientific advice and economy) in topics related to nuclear technology. The Industry also makes great efforts to support recruitment by various initiatives: Design reconstitution projects: Each one of the older operating plants was subject to a design review that engaged a large number of young staff at the utilities and the vendors. 'Young Generation': It constitutes a communication network among young engineers at European nuclear plants, regulators, and other organisations. (authors)

  3. FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY ASSURANCE IN TERMS OF LOSS AND WASTE LIMITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Śmiechowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges of 21st century is satisfying the food needs of the fast growing population of the world. Food must fulfill quality and safety standards.  The access to safe and appropriate food is not the same everywhere.  Food excess and, in consequence, food waste is present in many regions of the world. This study is meant to explain the causes of food waste on the basis of the author’s own research and study results of other scientists. The lack of authenticity and falsification belong to the new factors endangering food safety and food waste related thereto. This analysis proves that the authenticity of food improves its safety through the implementation of quality management systems, the appropriate system of food labelling and food identification by means of applicable law regulations, supervision and control systems. Main aim of this study is to address why, even though there are so many quality standards and systems, a significant problem with food loss and waste constantly occurs. Waste-causing factors have been determined on the example of bread and the handling of unconsumed bread has been attempted in this study. Waste limiting actions are necessary as food production is significantly overburdening the natural environment and generating increasing amount of waste, hazardous to the clean air. 

  4. Assuring the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods: the importance of an holistic, integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Andrew

    2002-09-11

    Genes change continuously by natural mutation and recombination enabling man to select and breed crops having the most desirable traits such as yield or flavour. Genetic modification (GM) is a recent development which allows specific genes to be identified, isolated, copied and inserted into other plants with a high level of specificity. The food safety considerations for GM crops are basically the same as those arising from conventionally bred crops, very few of which have been subject to any testing yet are generally regarded as being safe to eat. In contrast a rigorous safety testing paradigm has been developed for GM crops, which utilises a systematic, stepwise and holistic approach. The resultant science based process, focuses on a classical evaluation of the toxic potential of the introduced novel trait and the wholesomeness of the transformed crop. In addition, detailed consideration is given to the history and safe use of the parent crop as well as that of the gene donor. The overall safety evaluation is conducted under the concept known as substantial equivalence which is enshrined in all international crop biotechnology guidelines. This provides the framework for a comparative approach to identify the similarities and differences between the GM product and its comparator which has a known history of safe use. By building a detailed profile on each step in the transformation process, from parent to new crop, and by thoroughly evaluating the significance from a safety perspective, of any differences that may be detected, a very comprehensive matrix of information is constructed which enables the conclusion as to whether the GM crop, derived food or feed is as safe as its traditional counterpart. Using this approach in the evaluation of more than 50 GM crops which have been approved worldwide, the conclusion has been that foods and feeds derived from genetically modified crops are as safe and nutritious as those derived from traditional crops. The lack of

  5. Consumers Are Ready to Accept the Transition to Online and Electronic Records If They Can Be Assured of the Security Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhanabhai, Prajesh; Holt, Alec

    2007-01-01

    relationships between age, location, computer use, EHR knowledge, and the concern for privacy and the security of medical records (P < .05). The survey also showed that there was a very small difference (9.8%) between health consumers who believed that paper records are more secure than EHRs and those who believed otherwise. Conclusions The findings showed that for the EHR to be fully integrating in the health sector, there are 2 main issues that need to be addressed: The security of the EHR system has to be of the highest level, and needs to be constantly monitored and updated.The involvement of the health consumer in the ownership and maintenance of their health record needs to be more proactive. The EHR aims to collect information to allow for “cradle to the grave” treatment; thus, the health consumer has to be seen as a major player in ensuring that this can happen correctly. The results from this study indicated that the consumer is ready to accept the transition, as long as one can be assured of the security of the system. PMID:17435617

  6. FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY ASSURANCE IN TERMS OF LOSS AND WASTE LIMITATION

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Śmiechowska; Filip Kłobukowski

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges of 21st century is satisfying the food needs of the fast growing population of the world. Food must fulfill quality and safety standards.  The access to safe and appropriate food is not the same everywhere.  Food excess and, in consequence, food waste is present in many regions of the world. This study is meant to explain the causes of food waste on the basis of the author’s own research and study results of other scientists. The lack of au...

  7. Nursing Student Experiences Regarding Safe Use of Electronic Health Records: A Pilot Study of the Safety and Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, Karen J; Eden, Lacey; Merrill, Katreena Collette; Hughes, Mckenna

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has linked improper electronic health record configuration and use with adverse patient events. In response to this problem, the US Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology developed the Safety and Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience guides to evaluate electronic health records for optimal use and safety features. During the course of their education, nursing students are exposed to a variety of clinical practice settings and electronic health records. This descriptive study evaluated 108 undergraduate and 51 graduate nursing students' ratings of electronic health record features and safe practices, as well as what they learned from utilizing the computerized provider order entry and clinician communication Safety and Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience guide checklists. More than 80% of the undergraduate and 70% of the graduate students reported that they experienced user problems with electronic health records in the past. More than 50% of the students felt that electronic health records contribute to adverse patient outcomes. Students reported that many of the features assessed were not fully implemented in their electronic health record. These findings highlight areas where electronic health records can be improved to optimize patient safety. The majority of students reported that utilizing the Safety and Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience guides increased their understanding of electronic health record features.

  8. Consumers are ready to accept the transition to online and electronic records if they can be assured of the security measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhanabhai, Prajesh; Holt, Alec

    2007-01-11

    , EHR knowledge, and the concern for privacy and the security of medical records (P secure than EHRs and those who believed otherwise. The findings showed that for the EHR to be fully integrating in the health sector, there are 2 main issues that need to be addressed: The security of the EHR system has to be of the highest level, and needs to be constantly monitored and updated. The involvement of the health consumer in the ownership and maintenance of their health record needs to be more proactive. The EHR aims to collect information to allow for "cradle to the grave" treatment; thus, the health consumer has to be seen as a major player in ensuring that this can happen correctly. The results from this study indicated that the consumer is ready to accept the transition, as long as one can be assured of the security of the system.

  9. Disposal of radioactive wastes. A review of IAEA efforts to assure safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-07-15

    A variety of methods for the discharge of radioactive wastes into the ground, into water and into the air were described at an international conference in Monaco in November 1959, organized by IAEA jointly with UNESCO and with the co-operation of FAO. Many of the experts at the conference were of the view that most of the proposed, or actually applied, methods of waste disposal were compatible with safety requirements. Some differences of opinion existed about disposal into the sea. It was generally agreed that much additional research was necessary for devising the most effective and economical methods of disposal and gaining a better knowledge of the effects of the various types of disposal operations.

  10. Towards assuring the continued performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Mori, Y.; Arndt, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. Pertinent concrete structures are described in terms of their importance, design considerations, and materials of construction. Degradation factors which can potentially impact the ability of these structures to meet their functional and performance requirements are identified. A review of the performance history of the concrete components in nuclear power plants is provided. Accomplishments of the SLAG Program are summarized, i.e., development of the structural materials information center, development of a structural aging assessment methodology, evaluation of models for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete, review of in-service inspection methods, and development of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessment and life prediction of concrete structures. On-going activities are also described

  11. The method for assurance to operational safety of cryogenics equipment through definite maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghel, Vasile

    2004-01-01

    The present paper reports about a method of ensuring operational safety of cryogenics equipment through specific maintenance measures which imply a definite concept of maintainability and operational reliability, methods of maintenance, necessary logistic and necessary personnel. The stages of the concept should succeed in a logical order and must be based on detailed analyses of the process of maintenance. The method starts from the operation conditions of cryogenic equipment in nuclear regime. Thus maintenance policy must be well defined within the boundaries of the nuclear plant through definition of coherent objectives and responsibility delegation for the personnel implied in maintenance activity. This method ensures performance in maintenance and an efficient feedback from equipment analysis. (author)

  12. [METHODICAL APPROACHES, EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RISK MODEL OF SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE SPHERE OF THE ASSURANCE OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELFARE OF POPULATION, POPULATION'S HEALTH RISK MANAGEMENT AND THE CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, V B; Kuz'min, S V; Dikonskaia, O V; Gileva, M A; Boiarskiĭ, A P

    2015-01-01

    Control and supervision measures--one of the main technologies of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare in the overall system of risk management for public health and damage to property consumers, aimed at the solution of the prior tasks in the field of assurance of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer rights protection. The effectiveness of this technology depends on the correct choice of priority objects of supervision, which form the main problems in the sanitary and epidemiological situation and in the consumer market. The application of is approach has led to more effective oversight activity and the improvement of a number of indices characterizing the achievement of the objectives in the common system of risk management for public health and property of consumers.

  13. A food recall case study in Australia – Towards the development of food safety applications for consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeola Bamgboje-Ayodele

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in consumer attitudes, behaviours and purchasing preferences towards different types of food highlight the increased demand for better quality information on safety, quality and provenance of food products and on sustainability of food production processes. These changes offer both new opportunities and risks for food producers who require mechanisms to better understand and respond to changing consumers’ decision-making trends on food.  In the area of food safety, investigation of consumer and producer responses during recall incidents provide an opportunity to holistically understand existing information flows and elicit user requirements necessary for the development of more effective consumer food safety applications.This paper reports on a case study conducted with an Australian premium manufacturing company that experienced a food recall in 2014. The investigation confirms that current Australian food recall response mechanisms do not guarantee a closed loop of communication with all purchasers of a recalled product. It also highlights that producers still face difficulties in understanding how best to effectively understand and respond to different types of consumers. It emerges that recovery from a food incident relies on many factors including pre-existing brand reputation, effective information management, control mechanisms and supply chain partner response. From a consumer perspective, it is evident that consumers’ responses are influenced by various factors that require sensitivity around the choice of information modality and information platform adopted to enhance communications during food recall. The paper highlights the need for further research into understanding consumer food safety behaviours post-purchase to improve the development of consumer food safety applications.

  14. Consumers' questions about antipsychotic medication : revealing safety concerns and the silent voices of young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weersink, Rianne A; Taxis, Katja; McGuire, Treasure M; van Driel, Mieke L

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Little is known about consumer information needs regarding antipsychotic medicines. Medicines call centre (MCC)-derived data are underutilised; and could provide insight into issues of importance to consumers. This study aimed to explore consumers' information needs about antipsychotic

  15. Use of decision criteria based on expected values to support decision-making in a production assurance and safety setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, T.; Flage, R.

    2009-01-01

    We consider decision problems related to production assurance and safety. The issue is to what extent we should use decision criteria based on expected values, such as the expected net present value (E[NPV]) and the expected cost per expected number of saved lives (ICAF), to guide the decision. Such criteria are recognised as practical tools for supporting decision-making under uncertainty, but is uncertainty adequately taken into account by these criteria? Based on the prevailing practice and the existing literature, we conclude that there is a need for a clarification of the rationale of these criteria. Adjustments of the standard approaches have been suggested to reflect risks and uncertainties, but can cautionary and precautionary concerns be replaced by formulae and mechanical procedures? These issues are discussed in the present paper, particularly addressing the company level. We argue that the search for such formulae and procedures should be replaced by a more balanced perspective acknowledging that there will always be a need for management review and judgment beyond the realm of the analyses. Most of the suggested adjustments of the E[NPV] and ICAF approaches should be avoided. They add more confusion than value.

  16. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M.; Borsa, J.; Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S.; Han, J.

    2009-01-01

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  17. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada)], E-mail: monique.lacroix@iaf.inrs.ca; Turgis, M. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Borsa, J. [MDS Nordion, 447 March Road, Kanata, Ontario, K2K 2P7 (Canada); Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Han, J. [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  18. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M.; Borsa, J.; Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S.; Han, J.

    2009-11-01

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  19. Usage, biological activity, and safety of selected botanical dietary supplements consumed in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Annécie Benatrehina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the continuous growth of the botanical dietary supplement industry and the increased popularity of lesser known or exotic botanicals, recent findings are described on the phytochemical composition and biological activities of five selected fruits consumed in the United States, namely, açaí, noni, mangosteen, black chokeberry, and maqui berry. A review of the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants has revealed some similarities ranging from wound-healing to the treatment of fever and infectious diseases. Laboratory studies on açaí have shown both its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and more importantly, its neuroprotective properties in animals. Anthraquinones and iridoid glucosides isolated from noni fruit induce the phase II enzyme quinone reductase (QR, and noni fruit juice exhibited antitumor and antidiabetic activities in certain animal models. Antitumorigenic effects of mangosteen in animal xenograft models of human cancers have been attributed to its xanthone content, and pure α-mangostin was shown to display antineoplastic activity in mice despite a reported low oral bioavailability. Work on the less extensively investigated black chokeberry and maqui berry has focused on recent isolation studies and has resulted in the identification of bioactive secondary metabolites with QR-inducing and hydroxyl-radical scavenging properties. On the basis of the safety studies and toxicity case reports described herein, these fruits may be generally considered as safe. However, cases of adulteration found in a commercialized açaí product and some conflicting results from mangosteen safety studies warrant further investigation on the safety of these marketed botanical dietary supplements. Keywords: Açaí, Noni, Mangosteen, Black chokeberry, Maqui berry

  20. Quality and safety of herbal medical products: regulation and the need for quality assurance along the value chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Herbal medicines and products derived from them are a diverse group of products for which different (and often limited) levels of evidence are available. As importantly, such products generally vary in their composition and are at the end of an often poorly understood value chain, which often links producers in biodiversity rich countries with the large markets in the North. This paper discusses the current regulatory framework of such herbal medical products (with a focus on the UK) and using examples from our own metabolomic research on Curcumal longa L. (turmeric, Zingiberaceae) how value chains impact on the composition and quality (and thus the safety) of such products. Overall, our recent research demonstrates the need for studying the links between producers and consumers of commodities produced in provider countries and that plant metabolomics offer a novel way of assessing the chemical variability along a value chain. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. A food recall case study in Australia – Towards the development of food safety applications for consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Adeola Bamgboje-Ayodele; Leonie Ellis; Paul Turner

    2016-01-01

    Changes in consumer attitudes, behaviours and purchasing preferences towards different types of food highlight the increased demand for better quality information on safety, quality and provenance of food products and on sustainability of food production processes. These changes offer both new opportunities and risks for food producers who require mechanisms to better understand and respond to changing consumers’ decision-making trends on food.  In the area of food safety, investigation of co...

  2. Current conceptions of industrial quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, H.

    1978-01-01

    In the electrical engineering industry quality assurance is mainly oriented in accordance with the customers', users', and consumers' requirements concerning the quality of products (including reliability). These requirements are as manifold as the range of products itself. They do not only comprise functional criteria, but also safety against malfunctions, bodily injury or property damage. Quality assurance is embedded in the overall activities of a company; the peripheral conditions, such as organization, profitability, qualification, and responsibility of staff have to be considered. Thus, quality assurance in the electrical engineering industry proceeds in efficient systems which are adapted to the individual forms of production. These systems may include planning, testing, feedback of quality data, statistical procedures, costs and profitability. Their obvious interaction is based on the system of coordinates of integrated quality control. The paper will illustrate the basic features of this interaction by reference to various examples. (orig.) [de

  3. How trust in institutions and organizations builds general consumer confidence in the safety of food: a decomposition of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, J; van Trijp, J C M; van der Lans, I A; Renes, R J; Frewer, L J

    2008-09-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between general consumer confidence in the safety of food and consumer trust in institutions and organizations. More specifically, using a decompositional regression analysis approach, the extent to which the strength of the relationship between trust and general confidence is dependent upon a particular food chain actor (for example, food manufacturers) is assessed. In addition, the impact of specific subdimensions of trust, such as openness, on consumer confidence are analyzed, as well as interaction effects of actors and subdimensions of trust. The results confirm previous findings, which indicate that a higher level of trust is associated with a higher level of confidence. However, the results from the current study extend on previous findings by disentangling the effects that determine the strength of this relationship into specific components associated with the different actors, the different trust dimensions, and specific combinations of actors and trust dimensions. The results show that trust in food manufacturers influences general confidence more than trust in other food chain actors, and that care is the most important trust dimension. However, the contribution of a particular trust dimension in enhancing general confidence is actor-specific, suggesting that different actors should focus on different trust dimensions when the purpose is to enhance consumer confidence in food safety. Implications for the development of communication strategies that are designed to regain or maintain consumer confidence in the safety of food are discussed.

  4. The use of non-animal alternatives in the safety evaluations of cosmetics ingredients by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinardell, M P

    2015-03-01

    In Europe, the safety evaluation of cosmetics is based on the safety evaluation of each individual ingredient. Article 3 of the Cosmetics Regulation specifies that a cosmetic product made available on the market is to be safe for human health when used normally or under reasonably foreseeable conditions. For substances that cause some concern with respect to human health (e.g., colourants, preservatives, UV-filters), safety is evaluated at the Commission level by a scientific committee, presently called the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). According to the Cosmetics Regulations, in the EU, the marketing of cosmetics products and their ingredients that have been tested on animals for most of their human health effects, including acute toxicity, is prohibited. Nevertheless, any study dating from before this prohibition took effect is accepted for the safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients. The in vitro methods reported in the dossiers submitted to the SCCS are here evaluated from the published reports issued by the scientific committee of the Directorate General of Health and Consumers (DG SANCO); responsible for the safety of cosmetics ingredients. The number of studies submitted to the SCCS that do not involve animals is still low and in general the safety of cosmetics ingredients is based on in vivo studies performed before the prohibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineered nanomaterials in food: implications for food safety and consumer health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Alina; Schneider, Yves-Jacques

    2014-05-28

    From the current state-of-the-art, it is clear that nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector aiming at providing better quality and conservation. In the meantime, a growing number of studies indicate that the exposure to certain engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) has a potential to lead to health complications and that there is a need for further investigations in order to unravel the biological outcomes of nanofood consumption. In the current review, we summarize the existing data on the (potential) use of ENMs in the food industry, information on the toxicity profiles of the commonly applied ENMs, such as metal (oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), address the potential food safety implications and health hazards connected with the consumption of nanofood. A number of health complications connected with the human exposure to ENMs are discussed, demonstrating that there is a real basis for the arisen concern not only connected with the gut health, but also with the potency to lead to systemic toxicity. The toxicological nature of hazard, exposure levels and risk to consumers from nanotechnology-derived food are on the earliest stage of investigation and this review also highlights the major gaps that need further research and regulation.

  6. Engineered Nanomaterials in Food: Implications for Food Safety and Consumer Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Martirosyan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available From the current state-of-the-art, it is clear that nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector aiming at providing better quality and conservation. In the meantime, a growing number of studies indicate that the exposure to certain engineered nanomaterials (ENMs has a potential to lead to health complications and that there is a need for further investigations in order to unravel the biological outcomes of nanofood consumption. In the current review, we summarize the existing data on the (potential use of ENMs in the food industry, information on the toxicity profiles of the commonly applied ENMs, such as metal (oxide nanoparticles (NPs, address the potential food safety implications and health hazards connected with the consumption of nanofood. A number of health complications connected with the human exposure to ENMs are discussed, demonstrating that there is a real basis for the arisen concern not only connected with the gut health, but also with the potency to lead to systemic toxicity. The toxicological nature of hazard, exposure levels and risk to consumers from nanotechnology-derived food are on the earliest stage of investigation and this review also highlights the major gaps that need further research and regulation.

  7. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKET SEGMENTATION FOR WORKPLACE SAFETY CONSULTANTS OF SMALL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to use marketing principles to address the proper techniques that can be usefully applied by security consultant’s work for small businesses. In turn, this research can be classified as qualitative, descriptive where were analyzed information’s contained the Work Accident Statistical Year book also can be characterized how descriptive, since it describes  the marketing activities to be used with small businesses, and is a cross-sectional study involving several cases in which data were collected in a single chronological step. The literature was developed using marketing authors and Work safety. The data were analyzed using the factors that influence consumer behavior Chisnall (1995, the model of the buying decision process described by Kotler (1967, stages of growth proposed by Churchill and Lewis (1983 business, strategic and specific definitions for small businesses described by Rodrigues (2012. It was identified that small businesses have characteristics that are centered around the owner. As a marketing strategy, personal selling can be effective.

  8. Playground Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Fall Prevention Playground Safety Poisoning Prevention Road Traffic Safety Sports Safety Get Email Updates To receive ... at the Consumer Product Safety Commission’s Playground Safety website . References U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Injuries and ...

  9. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety : an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement...

  10. Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun [Hallym University, Kangwon (Korea); Lee, Cherl Ho [Korea University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jung Hee [Seoul Women' s University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to beefs (0-5 kGy) and porks (0-30 kGy) for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity and four-week oral toxicity. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. In the study of rat hepatocarcinogenesis, the consumption of gamma irradiated beef and pork not only does not affect the formation of lipid peroxide and membrane stability but also has a possibility to inhibit hepatocarcinogenesis. Also, the consumption of {gamma} - irradiated beef and pork does not affect antioxidative defense system. In the study of the biological safety of korean red pepper, no difference was found on microbial growth between pepper extract alone or irradiated pepper extract. In the preservation study of korean traditional rice-cake(garedok), irradiation dose below 10kGy had no influence on typical sensory characteristics. The shelf-life in rice-cakes with different conditions was the longest on 10kGy treatment than 5kGy. In investigation of the consumer attitude toward irradiated foods, the main reason for the concern about irradiated foods is that compounds in the products formed by irradiation. Therefore, regulatory authorities must be encouraged to permit the sale of irradiated items when wholesomeness is established. (author). 94 refs.,31 figs., 62 tabs.

  11. Direct to consumer Internet advertising of statins: an assessment of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bethan; Brown, David

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate a sample of Internet sites advertising statins for sale to the general public. A simulated customer search and evaluation of retrieved sites using evaluation tools focussing on quality (Q) and safe medicine use (SMU). Sites retrieved on 17 November 2010 were systematically analysed from 19 November to 23 December 2010. One hundred eighty-four sites met the inclusion criteria: 40 each for atorvastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin and 24 for fluvastatin. Sites originated from 17 different countries. Most sites scored less than half the maximum Q score (26; range 5-17). Mean total SMU scores for each statin group were lower than 50% of the maximum (45; range of 0-28). There were no statistically significant differences between statins. General contraindications were absent in 92.4% of sites and contraindicated medicines in 47.3%. Key warnings on the appearance of symptoms associated with myopathy, liver disease, hypersensitivity, and pancreatitis were absent in 37, 48.4, 91.3, and 96.2% of sites, respectively. Most websites presented a chaotic and incomplete list of known side effects; just 13 (7.1%) presented a list compatible with current prescribing information. Only two-thirds (65.8%) attempted to describe any in lay language. A potential purchaser of statins is likely to encounter websites from a wide geographical base and of generally poor quality. This has potentially serious implications for the safety of purchasers who may not be aware of the problems associated with ordering medicines online or the actual medication, which they receive. Direct to consumer advertising websites need tighter controls. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Quality assurance for safety in nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations. Code and safety guides Q1-Q14. A publication within the NUSS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The code provides the basic requirements for establishing and implementing quality assurance programmes for the stages of siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. These basic requirements apply to all individuals and organizations, including designers, suppliers, constructors, manufacturers and operators. The basic quality assurance requirements presented in this Code also apply, with appropriate modifications, to nuclear installations other than nuclear power plants

  13. Towards improvement in quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This first document in the series of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) Technical Notes is a general guideline for the establishment of effective quality assurance procedures at nuclear facilities. It sets out primary requirements such as quality objectives, methods for measuring the effectiveness of the quality assurance programme, priority of activities in relation to importance of safety of items, motivation of personnel

  14. CONSUMER WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR SAFETY LABELS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF POTASSIUM BROMATE IN BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Oni

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The study analysed consumer willingness to pay for safety labels in Nigeria by a case study of potassium bromate in bread” in Benin City, Edo State. It specifi cally investigates factors that promote willingness to pay for label among consumers of bread in Benin City, Edo State. Data used for the study were obtained through a well-structured questionnaire from 200 respondents. Both descriptive analytical methods and probit regression models were used for the analysis. The study revealed that 73% of the respondents are in their active working age with 50 percent of the respondent being male and female respectively. 67 percent of the respondents are married with 55 percent having an average of 5 members per household. 99 percent of the respondents are educated i.e. they have the capability of being able to read and write. Respondents purchased bread mainly from hawkers (60% with about 60% of them being aware of the presence of bromate in bread. 40% of the consumers used labeling as a way of identifying bromate free bread. Other methods reported deal with differences in price of bread with same weight, aroma and taste. Result also revealed that 60% of the respondents got to know about the negative effect of bromate from news (both print and mass media. Econometric results show that variables like education, gender, income, prior knowledge of bromate and perception held by respondents of negative implications of bromate signifi cantly infl uence the willingness to pay for safety labels. Education, gender, income and prior knowledge of bromate positively infl uence the probability of consumers’ decision to pay for safety label, while price of bread and confi dence and perception held by respondents of negative implications of bromate on human health infl uence consumers willingness to pay more for safety labels. The study, thus, suggests a defi ned market for bread purchases, community based awareness programme and extension of National Agency

  15. Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunich, M.P.; Vieth, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a point/counterpoint view of a quality assurance director and a project manager. It presents numerous aspects of quality assurance requirements along with analyses as to the value of each

  16. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence....

  17. Quick Tips for Buying Medicines Over the Internet: A Consumer Safety Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Protecting Yourself Counterfeit Medicine Medication Health Fraud For Consumers For Health Professionals Page Last Updated: ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  18. Comparison of quality assurance for performance and safety characteristics of the facility for Boron Neutron Capture therapy in Petten/NL with medical electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, Juergen; Stecher-Rasmussen, Finn; Voorbraak, Wim; Moss, Ray; Vroegindeweij, Corine; Hideghety, Katalin; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: The European Council Directive on health protection 97/43/EURATOM requires radiotherapy quality assurance programmes for performance and safety characteristics including acceptance and repeated tests. For Boron Neutron Capture therapy (BNCT) at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten/NL such a programme has been developed on the basis of IEC publications for medical electron accelerators. Results: The fundamental differences of clinical dosimetry for medical electron accelerators and BNCT are presented and the order of magnitude of dose components and their stability and that of the main other influencing parameter 10 B concentration for BNCT patient treatments. A comparison is given for requirements for accelerators and BNCT units indicating items which are not transferable, equal or additional. Preliminary results of in vivo measurements done with a set of 55 Mn, 63 Cu and 197 Au activation foils for all single fields for the four fractions at all 15 treated patients show with <±4% up to now a worse reproducibility than the used dose monitoring systems (±1.5%) caused by influence of hair position on the foil-skull distance. Conclusions: Despite the more complex clinical dosimetry (because of four relevant dose components, partly of different linear energy transfer (LET)) BNCT can be regulated following the principles of quality assurance procedures for therapy with medical electron accelerators. The reproducibility of applied neutron fluence (proportional to absorbed doses) and the main safety aspects are equal for all teletherapy methods including BNCT

  19. Summary report of the Department of Energy, Division of Operational and Environmental Safety: Quality Assurance Programs 1 through 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welford, G.A.; Fisenne, I.M.; Sanderson, C.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical Laboratories which provide environmental monitoring data for assessment of radioactive contamination, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract, were requested to participate in a Quality Assurance Program. The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) was asked to prepare intercomparison samples for radionuclide analysis of soil, water, air filters, tissue ash, and vegetation ash for distribution to the Analytical Laboratories. Samples were collected in the environment of DOE facilities, since only water and air samples could be conveniently spiked. A set of 6 to 8 samples is distributed quarterly to about 28 laboratories. EML performed multiple analyses on the samples, however, the results are considered intercomparisons not standards. This report summarizes the program and evaluates the data for Quality Assurance Programs (QAP) from 1 through 4

  20. Radiation safety and quality assurance in diagnostic x-ray imaging 1999; Saeteilyturvallisuus ja laadunvarmistus roentgendiagnostiikassa 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servonmaa, A. [ed.

    1999-04-01

    In the European Union, the Directive 97/43/Euratom concerning the medical use of radiation brings many new tasks to radiation users. Quality assurance, patient dose measurement, staff training and clinical audit are among the most essential of these tasks. The Finnish radiation legislation has been modified to comply with the Directive. Much work is still required for practical implementation of these rules. This report deals with applications of the medical radiation Directive. Most applications are still at the planning stage, and clear guidance is lacking. However, the users have to know in time about these plans and future duties concerning them. Experience on quality assurance and clinical audit in hospitals are especially valuable in providing practical information on benefits and problems of these practices. Other radiation related topics, such as radiation risks, radioactivity in foods, and use of radiation in other European countries, are also included in the report. (orig.)

  1. Reliability and validity of a scale to measure consumer attitudes regarding the private food safety certification of restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabete

    2012-04-01

    Validated and reliable instruments for measuring consumer attitudes regarding food quality certifications are lacking, but the measurement of consumer attitude could be an important tool for understanding consumer behavior. Thus the objective of this study was to develop an instrument for measuring consumer attitudes regarding private food safety certifications for commercial restaurants. To this end, the following steps were carried out: development of the interview items; complete pilot testing; item analyses (influence of social desirability and total-item correlation); reliability test (internal consistency and test-retest); and validity assessment (content and discriminative validity and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis). The subjects, all over the age of 18 and drawn from six non-probabilistic samples (n=7-350) in the city of Campinas, Brazil, were all subjected to an interview. The final scale included 24 items and had a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.79 and a content validation coefficient of 0.99, both within acceptable limits. The confirmatory factor analysis validated a model with five factors and the final instrument discriminated reasonably well between the groups and showed satisfactory reproducibility (r=0.955). Furthermore, the scale validity and reliability were satisfactory, suggesting it could also be applied to future studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Consumer willingness to pay for food safety: the case of mycotoxins in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sckokai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins contamination in food is a serious source of health risks. This paper evaluates the Italian consumers’ perception of the mycotoxins’ risk through their willingness to pay (WTP for a hypothetical bottle of milk obtained by cows fed with, inter alia, maize certified for the “good practices” (GPs that reduce this risk. Therefore, a web-based stated choice experiment (SCE has been carried out involving a representative sample of 973 Italian consumers and the WTP has been measured using the panel data version of a Random Parameters Logit (RPL model. Results show that Italian consumers are willing to pay a 29% average price premium for “reduced-mycotoxins” milk. This premium increases for consumers between 44 and 54 years of age, who are students, have completed tertiary education, are economically well-off and shop fairly infrequently.

  3. Perfect Information vs Random Investigation: Safety Guidelines for a Consumer in the Jungle of Product Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Giarlotta, Alfio; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a graph-theoretic model of consumer choice, where final decisions are shown to be influenced by information and knowledge, in the form of individual awareness, discriminating ability, and perception of market structure. Building upon the distance-based Hotelling’s differentiation idea, we describe the behavioral experience of several prototypes of consumers, who walk a hypothetical cognitive path in an attempt to maximize their satisfaction. Our simulations show that even consumers endowed with a small amount of information and knowledge may reach a very high level of utility. On the other hand, complete ignorance negatively affects the whole consumption process. In addition, rather unexpectedly, a random walk on the graph reveals to be a winning strategy, below a minimal threshold of information and knowledge. PMID:26784700

  4. Perfect Information vs Random Investigation: Safety Guidelines for a Consumer in the Jungle of Product Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Emanuele Biondo

    Full Text Available We present a graph-theoretic model of consumer choice, where final decisions are shown to be influenced by information and knowledge, in the form of individual awareness, discriminating ability, and perception of market structure. Building upon the distance-based Hotelling's differentiation idea, we describe the behavioral experience of several prototypes of consumers, who walk a hypothetical cognitive path in an attempt to maximize their satisfaction. Our simulations show that even consumers endowed with a small amount of information and knowledge may reach a very high level of utility. On the other hand, complete ignorance negatively affects the whole consumption process. In addition, rather unexpectedly, a random walk on the graph reveals to be a winning strategy, below a minimal threshold of information and knowledge.

  5. Perfect Information vs Random Investigation: Safety Guidelines for a Consumer in the Jungle of Product Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Giarlotta, Alfio; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a graph-theoretic model of consumer choice, where final decisions are shown to be influenced by information and knowledge, in the form of individual awareness, discriminating ability, and perception of market structure. Building upon the distance-based Hotelling's differentiation idea, we describe the behavioral experience of several prototypes of consumers, who walk a hypothetical cognitive path in an attempt to maximize their satisfaction. Our simulations show that even consumers endowed with a small amount of information and knowledge may reach a very high level of utility. On the other hand, complete ignorance negatively affects the whole consumption process. In addition, rather unexpectedly, a random walk on the graph reveals to be a winning strategy, below a minimal threshold of information and knowledge.

  6. Intergrated plant safety assessment. Systematic evaluation program. Palisades plant, Consumers Power Company, Docket No. 50-255. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published its Final Integrated Plant Safety Assessment Report (IPSAR) (NUREG-0820), under the scope of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP), for Consumers Power Company's Palisades Plant located in Covert, Van Buren County, Michigan. The SEP was initiated by the NRC to review the design of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. This report documents the review completed under the SEP for the Palisades Plant. The review has provided for (1) as assessment of the significance of differences between current technical positions on selected safety issues and those that existed when the Palisades Plant was licensed, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety when all supplements to the Final IPSAR and the Safety Evaluation Report for converting the license from a provisional to a full-term license have been issued. The report also addresses the comments and recommendations made by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards in connection with its review of the Draft Report, issued in April 1982

  7. An analysis of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: protection for consumers and boon for business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Debra M

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes components of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, which was prompted by incidents of food contamination, exploring the history of its passage and explaining its significance, as well as its limitations. As the first time in 70 years that food law has been changed substantially, this new law represents only an initial but significant step in the direction of improving food safety. With bipartisan support from both Congress and the President, this legislation embodies a mandate that food safety is at this moment becoming a priority. As a result, the time is ripe for a reassessment of other areas of food laws--particularly genetically modified foods and the use of milk and meat from cloned animals and their progeny--which are allowed under current U.S. law with no labeling, preapprovals, or post-market monitoring. These areas warrant special regulation consistent with the new proactive policy towards securing the safety of the food supply.

  8. Quality assurance of metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Beger, Richard; Flynn, Thomas; Guo, Lining; Harris, Georgina; Hogberg, Helena; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Kamp, Hennicke; Kleensang, Andre; Maertens, Alexandra; Odwin-DaCosta, Shelly; Pamies, David; Robertson, Donald; Smirnova, Lena; Sun, Jinchun; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics promises a holistic phenotypic characterization of biological responses to toxicants. This technology is based on advanced chemical analytical tools with reasonable throughput, including mass-spectroscopy and NMR. Quality assurance, however - from experimental design, sample preparation, metabolite identification, to bioinformatics data-mining - is urgently needed to assure both quality of metabolomics data and reproducibility of biological models. In contrast to microarray-based transcriptomics, where consensus on quality assurance and reporting standards has been fostered over the last two decades, quality assurance of metabolomics is only now emerging. Regulatory use in safety sciences, and even proper scientific use of these technologies, demand quality assurance. In an effort to promote this discussion, an expert workshop discussed the quality assurance needs of metabolomics. The goals for this workshop were 1) to consider the challenges associated with metabolomics as an emerging science, with an emphasis on its application in toxicology and 2) to identify the key issues to be addressed in order to establish and implement quality assurance procedures in metabolomics-based toxicology. Consensus has still to be achieved regarding best practices to make sure sound, useful, and relevant information is derived from these new tools.

  9. The effect of occupational health and safety, work environment and discipline on employee performance in a consumer goods company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D. O.; Triatmanto, B.; Setiyadi, S.

    2018-04-01

    Employee performance can be the supporting factor of company performance. However, employee performance can be affected by several factors. Employees can have optimal performance if they feel safe, have good working environment and have discipline. The purposes of this research are to analyze the effect of occupational health and safety, work environment and discipline on the employee performance in PPIC Thermo section in a consumer goods company and to find the dominant variable which primarily affects employee performance. This research was conducted by taking data from 47 respondents. The data were collected using questionnaire. The techniques in data analysis is multiple linear regression with SPSS software. The result shows that occupational health and safety, work environment and discipline are simultaneously significant to the employee performance. Discipline holds the dominant factor which affects employee performance.

  10. Quality-Assurance Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettell, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) is provided to describe the Quality Assurance Program which is applied to the waste management activities conducted by AESD-Nevada Operations at the E-MAD Facility located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. The AESD-Nevada Operations QAPP provides the necessary systematic and administrative controls to assure activities that affect quality, safety, reliability, and maintainability during design, procurement, fabrication, inspection, shipments, tests, and storage are conducted in accordance with established requirements

  11. The persuasiveness of online safety cues: The impact of prevention focus compatibility of web content on consumers' risk perceptions, attitudes and intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kerkhof, P.; Fennis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Safety cues are frequently used in online stores to relieve consumers' risk perceptions concerning online purchases. This paper uses regulatory focus theory (RFT) to predict the persuasiveness of online safety cues. According to RFT (Higgins, 1997), people process information differently depending

  12. The persuasiveness of online safety cues: The impact of prevention focus compatibility of Web content on consumers' risk perceptions, attitudes, and intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kerkhof, P.; Fennis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Safety cues are frequently used in online stores to relieve consumers' risk perceptions concerning online purchases. This paper uses regulatory focus theory (RFT) to predict the persuasiveness of online safety cues. According to RFT (Higgins, 1997), people process information differently depending

  13. The persuasiveness of online safety cues: The impact of prevention focus compatibility of web content on consumer risk perceptions, attitudes and intentions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Safety cues are frequently used in online stores to relieve consumers' risk perceptions concerning online purchases. This paper uses regulatory focus theory (RFT) to predict the persuasiveness of online safety cues. According to RFT (Higgins, 1997), people process information differently depending

  14. Safety warnings and first aid instructions on consumer and pharmaceutical products in Nigeria: has there been an improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonyelum, Stanley Catherine; Nkem, Nwachukwu; Ifeyinwa, Chijoke-Nwauche; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the adequacy of safety warnings and first aid instructions on the labels of pharmaceutical and consumer products in Nigeria. A market basket method (total collection of all available samples) was used to investigate the adequacy of safety warnings and first aid instructions on the labels of 600 pharmaceutical and consumer products in Nigeria. The results showed that 69.8% of the products had adequate warnings whereas 385 (64.1%) of the products screened had legible product warnings. Only 52 (8.7%) of the total number of products had appropriate first aid instructions while only 25 (4.12%) of the products described symptoms and full treatment of poisoning by the product and 319 (53.2%) products surveyed recommended calling a health professional. A total of 31 (5.2%) products had labels that were considered too technical (non English). Of the 600 products, 386 (64.3%) had dosage instructions that were considered adequate while 538 (89.6%) had adequate storage instructions. About 68% of the products had partially correct warnings while 44 or 7.3% had partially correct first aid instructions. Some products had neither warnings nor first aid instructions. This study suggests a not too impressive improvement in the correctness and appropriateness of label information.

  15. An Application Example Analysis of Quality Assurance Program for STELLA(Sodium Integral Effect Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Gam, Dayoung; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Jeong, Ji-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    KAERI has been conducting various basic R and D activities in the field of nuclear technology. In addition, KAERI is now participating in the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), preparing for the development of key technologies for Generation IV nuclear energy system, including Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) development. All of the key technologies for SFR development need an appropriate level of QA activities to achieve the GIF safety and performance objectives. Therefore, QA activities have been conducted as an essential part of the national SFR project. As a result, QAM (Quality Assurance Manual) and QAP (Quality Assurance Procedures) have been developed for the SFR project, which are based on ASME NQA-1, KEPIC QAP and the GIF Quality Management System Guidelines. In this work, the introduction background and application examples of the QA program for the STELLA project were investigated. Application of the QA for the STELLA project has great significance because the QA has been mainly applied for the nuclear power plant area in operation, which helps ensure the reliability of the test data and completeness of the research performance. Nevertheless, developing more appropriate QA procedures remains a major task because some parts of them are not applicable to the Na-experiment.

  16. An Application Example Analysis of Quality Assurance Program for STELLA(Sodium Integral Effect Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Gam, Dayoung; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2015-01-01

    KAERI has been conducting various basic R and D activities in the field of nuclear technology. In addition, KAERI is now participating in the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), preparing for the development of key technologies for Generation IV nuclear energy system, including Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) development. All of the key technologies for SFR development need an appropriate level of QA activities to achieve the GIF safety and performance objectives. Therefore, QA activities have been conducted as an essential part of the national SFR project. As a result, QAM (Quality Assurance Manual) and QAP (Quality Assurance Procedures) have been developed for the SFR project, which are based on ASME NQA-1, KEPIC QAP and the GIF Quality Management System Guidelines. In this work, the introduction background and application examples of the QA program for the STELLA project were investigated. Application of the QA for the STELLA project has great significance because the QA has been mainly applied for the nuclear power plant area in operation, which helps ensure the reliability of the test data and completeness of the research performance. Nevertheless, developing more appropriate QA procedures remains a major task because some parts of them are not applicable to the Na-experiment

  17. A preliminary assessment of two hospital food service systems using parameters of food safety and consumer opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, H; Edwards, J S

    2001-12-01

    The goal of any hospital caterer should be to provide food that meets nutritional requirements, satisfies the patient, improves morale and is microbiologically safe. Food distribution to hospital wards plays a critical role. The aim of this study was to compare two hospital food service systems using parameters of food safety and consumer opinion. An NHS hospital was selected where food delivery was due to change from a plated system to a cafeteria trolley system. Samples (50 g) of dishes (n = 27) considered to be high-risk were collected for three consecutive days from breakfast, lunch and supper meals. The samples were taken from a pre-ordered tray (similar to that of a patient) in the plated system and from the trolley on the ward in the cafeteria system of meal delivery (approximately six months after its introduction). Consumer opinions cards (n = 180) were distributed and interviews also conducted. Microbiologically, the quality of food items delivered by both systems was satisfactory. However, concern was raised with the plated system, not for hot foods cooling down but for chilled foods warming up and being sustained in ambient conditions. Overall consumer satisfaction and experience was enhanced with the trolley system. Food was hotter and generally perceived to be of a better quality. Satisfaction with cold desserts was not dependent on the delivery system.

  18. Food Safety in the Domestic Environment: The Effect of Consumer Risk Information on Human Disease Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Asselt, van E.D.; Jong, de A.E.I.; Frewer, L.J.; Jonge, de R.

    2008-01-01

    The improvement of food safety in the domestic environment requires a transdisciplinary approach, involving interaction between both the social and natural sciences. This approach is applied in a study on risks associated with Campylobacter on broiler meat. First, some web-based information

  19. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 1213 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... at the point of purchase and make their purchase decisions with this safety information in mind. This... the Commission's decision focus on the specific facts of this rulemaking and are stated below. iii... inform the Commission's decision regarding whether a certain level of conformance with a voluntary...

  20. Guidance for the design and management of a maintenance plan to assure safety and improve the predictability of a DOE nuclear irradiation facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, R.S.; Kryter, R.C.; Shepard, R.L.; Smith, O.L.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Rowan, W.J.

    1994-10-01

    A program is recommended for planning the maintenance of DOE nuclear facilities that will help safety and enhance availability throughout a facility's life cycle. While investigating the requirements for maintenance activities, a major difference was identified between the strategy suitable for a conventional power reactor and one for a research reactor facility: the latter should provide a high degree of predicted availability (referred to hereafter as ''predictability'') to its users, whereas the former should maximize total energy production. These differing operating goals necessitate different maintenance strategies. A strategy for scheduling research reactor facility operation and shutdown for maintenance must balance safety, reliability,and predicted availability. The approach developed here is based on three major elements: (1) a probabilistic risk analysis of the balance between assured reliability and predictability (presented in Appendix C), (2) an assessment of the safety and operational impact of maintenance activities applied to various components of the facility, and (3) a data base of historical and operational information on the performance and requirements for maintenance of various components. These factors are integrated into a set of guidelines for designing a new highly maintainable facility, for preparing flexible schedules for improved maintenance of existing facilities, and for anticipating the maintenance required to extend the life of an aging facility. Although tailored to research reactor facilities, the methodology has broader applicability and may therefore be used to improved the maintenance of power reactors, particularly in anticipation of peak load demands

  1. Microbial Performance of Food Safety Control and Assurance Activities in a Fresh Produce Processing Sector Measured Using a Microbial Assessment Scheme and Statistical Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Sawe, Chemutai Tonui; Onyango, Cecilia Moraa

    2017-01-01

    assessment scheme and statistical modeling were used to systematically assess the microbial performance of core control and assurance activities in five Kenyan fresh produce processing and export companies. Generalized linear mixed models and correlated random-effects joint models for multivariate clustered...... the maximum safety level for environmental samples. Escherichia coli was detected in five of the six CSLs, including the final product. Among the processing-environment samples, the hand or glove swabs of personnel revealed a higher level of predicted contamination with E. coli, and 80% of the factories were...... of contamination with coliforms in water at the inlet than in the final rinse water. Four (80%) of the five assessed processors had poor to unacceptable counts of Enterobacteriaceae on processing surfaces. Personnel-, equipment-, and product-related hygiene measures to improve the performance of preventive...

  2. Up-to-date laboratory methods for assessing the safety of perfumery and cosmetic products in the quality assurance system of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rezaykina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the developed countries as well as Russian Federation have a dynamically developing quality assurance system for testing the quality of laboratory tests and safety of perfumery and cosmetic products entering the market comprising a regulatory and legal framework, physical infrastructure and appropriate methodical basis and staff. At the same time, it is necessary to develop alternative test methods adjusted to perfumery and cosmetic products on a regular basis. In addition, it is necessary to optimize methods for ensuring standard sample preparation conditions in response to new forms of cosmetic products when determining microbiological, physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics, and more accurate observation methods for clinical and laboratory indices to be approved by supervising authorities.

  3. Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cante; Feger; Genevray; Hennion; Moneyron; Monneyron; Normand; Rastoin; Silberstein; Vaujour.

    1976-01-01

    The general principles of quality assurance and their applications within the French industrial and commercial regulations are presented. The conditions for the practical application of quality assurance to the different stages of the life of a nuclear power station (design, development, operation) are considered and a special mention is made of nuclear fuels and liquid sodium cooled reactors [fr

  4. Workplace health and safety issues among community nurses: a study regarding the impact on providing care to rural consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Daniel; Lê, Quynh; Nguyen, Uyen; Hoang, Ha

    2015-08-12

    The objective of the study was to investigate the types of workplace health and safety issues rural community nurses encounter and the impact these issues have on providing care to rural consumers. The study undertook a narrative inquiry underpinned by a phenomenological approach. Community nursing staff who worked exclusively in rural areas and employed in a permanent capacity were contacted among 13 of the 16 consenting healthcare services. All community nurses who expressed a desire to participate were interviewed. Data were collected using semistructured interviews with 15 community nurses in rural and remote communities. Thematic analysis was used to analyse interview data. The role, function and structures of community nursing services varied greatly from site to site and were developed and centred on meeting the needs of individual communities. In addition, a number of workplace health and safety challenges were identified and were centred on the geographical, physical and organisational environment that community nurses work across. The workplace health and safety challenges within these environments included driving large distances between client's homes and their office which lead to working in isolation for long periods and without adequate communication. In addition, other issues included encountering, managing and developing strategies to deal with poor client and carer behaviour; working within and negotiating working environments such as the poor condition of patient homes and clients smoking; navigating animals in the workplace; vertical and horizontal violence; and issues around workload, burnout and work-related stress. Many nurses achieved good outcomes to meet the needs of rural community health consumers. Managers were vital to ensure that service objectives were met. Despite the positive outcomes, many processes were considered unsafe by community nurses. It was identified that greater training and capacity building are required to meet the

  5. Food Safety: Recommendations for Determining Doneness in Consumer Egg Dish Recipes and Measurement of Endpoint Temperatures When Recipes Are Followed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandria Godwin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking egg dishes, such as pies, quiches, and casseroles, potentially leading to foodborne illnesses such as Salmonellosis. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA recommends cooking egg mixtures until the center reaches 71 °C (160 °F. The objectives of this study were to determine what endpoint temperature information consumers receive from egg dish recipes, and if recipes would lead to safe temperatures when followed. Egg dish recipes (n = 226 from 65 websites, 50 cookbooks, and nine magazine titles (multiple issues of each were analyzed. Time was the most frequently used indicator, given in 92% of the recipes, with 15% using only time. Other indicators included: set (89, browned (76, clean toothpick/knife (60, puffed (27, and jiggled (13. Only two recipes indicated final endpoint temperatures. Three recipes (a pie, a quiche, and an egg casserole were chosen and prepared in triplicate to see if they would reach recommended temperatures. The pie and quiche were still liquid at 71 °C, and were well over the recommended temperature when cooked according to instructions, but the egg casserole was not consistently above 71 °C, when the recipe instructions indicated it was done and the center was light brown and “jiggled” This research indicates that consumers are not receiving information on endpoint temperatures in egg recipes, but the likelihood of foodborne illness is low since most dishes probably be cooked past the recommended temperature before the consumer considers them done unless there are many inclusions that may absorb liquid and reduce the appearance of liquid in the dish.

  6. Food Safety: Recommendations for Determining Doneness in Consumer Egg Dish Recipes and Measurement of Endpoint Temperatures When Recipes Are Followed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Sandria; Maughan, Curtis; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking egg dishes, such as pies, quiches, and casseroles, potentially leading to foodborne illnesses such as Salmonellosis. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends cooking egg mixtures until the center reaches 71 °C (160 °F). The objectives of this study were to determine what endpoint temperature information consumers receive from egg dish recipes, and if recipes would lead to safe temperatures when followed. Egg dish recipes (n = 226) from 65 websites, 50 cookbooks, and nine magazine titles (multiple issues of each) were analyzed. Time was the most frequently used indicator, given in 92% of the recipes, with 15% using only time. Other indicators included: set (89), browned (76), clean toothpick/knife (60), puffed (27), and jiggled (13). Only two recipes indicated final endpoint temperatures. Three recipes (a pie, a quiche, and an egg casserole) were chosen and prepared in triplicate to see if they would reach recommended temperatures. The pie and quiche were still liquid at 71 °C, and were well over the recommended temperature when cooked according to instructions, but the egg casserole was not consistently above 71 °C, when the recipe instructions indicated it was done and the center was light brown and “jiggled” This research indicates that consumers are not receiving information on endpoint temperatures in egg recipes, but the likelihood of foodborne illness is low since most dishes probably be cooked past the recommended temperature before the consumer considers them done unless there are many inclusions that may absorb liquid and reduce the appearance of liquid in the dish. PMID:28231140

  7. Food Safety: Recommendations for Determining Doneness in Consumer Egg Dish Recipes and Measurement of Endpoint Temperatures When Recipes Are Followed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Sandria; Maughan, Curtis; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-06-23

    Many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking egg dishes, such as pies, quiches, and casseroles, potentially leading to foodborne illnesses such as Salmonellosis. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends cooking egg mixtures until the center reaches 71 °C (160 °F). The objectives of this study were to determine what endpoint temperature information consumers receive from egg dish recipes, and if recipes would lead to safe temperatures when followed. Egg dish recipes ( n = 226) from 65 websites, 50 cookbooks, and nine magazine titles (multiple issues of each) were analyzed. Time was the most frequently used indicator, given in 92% of the recipes, with 15% using only time. Other indicators included: set (89), browned (76), clean toothpick/knife (60), puffed (27), and jiggled (13). Only two recipes indicated final endpoint temperatures. Three recipes (a pie, a quiche, and an egg casserole) were chosen and prepared in triplicate to see if they would reach recommended temperatures. The pie and quiche were still liquid at 71 °C, and were well over the recommended temperature when cooked according to instructions, but the egg casserole was not consistently above 71 °C, when the recipe instructions indicated it was done and the center was light brown and "jiggled" This research indicates that consumers are not receiving information on endpoint temperatures in egg recipes, but the likelihood of foodborne illness is low since most dishes probably be cooked past the recommended temperature before the consumer considers them done unless there are many inclusions that may absorb liquid and reduce the appearance of liquid in the dish.

  8. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P coffee roasting and brewing (P > 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.

  9. Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The main efforts of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) was focused on support of quality assurance programmes development at responsible organizations Bohunice V-1 and V-v and Mochovce NPPs and their inspection. Development of the level two documentation of a partial quality assurance programme for NPP operation continued at Mochovce NPP. Most of documentation has been submitted to NRA SR for comments and approval. NRA SR invited a mission of French experts to Mochovce NPP to review preparation and performance of internal audits that would be beneficial for improvement in this kind activities at the NPP. Bohunice NPP continued in development of a partial quality assurance programme for operation. The Quality Assurance Programme submitted to NRA SR for approval. Based on a request of Bohunice NPPs, NRA SR consulted the draft quality assurance programme developed by Siemens for stage of the 'Basic Design' of V-1 NPP upgrading. The programme had not been submitted for approval to NRA SR prior to completion of works by Siemens. Based on an internal audit that had been performed, corrective measures were proposed to meet requirements on review and approval of suppliers quality assurance programmes. Requirements related to the quality assurance at nuclear installations were prepared to be incorporated into principles of a act on peaceful use of nuclear power in Slovak Republic

  10. Essence of demands of standard ISO 22000:2005 in aspect of assurances of milk health safety Istota wymagań standardu ISO 22000:2005 w aspekcie zapewnienia bezpieczeństwa zdrowotnego mleka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Górna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the essence of demands of ISO 22000 as a standard which allows of control milk health safety in a more effective way. The implementation of system HACCP in the dairy companies undoubtedly make for more safety health products, however microbiological research of pasterized milk shows that it is scarce. The elementary advantage for organization which comes from food quality management system meeting demands included in standard ISO 22000 is undoubtedly assurance of legal demands concerning production of food safety and more effective control of risk of food safety. The dairy companies should aspire for implementation of more rigorous standard ISO 22000:2005.

  11. Physical aspects of quality assurance in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, regulatory approach of the National Nuclear Safety Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez C, D.; Fuente P, A. de la; Quevedo G, J.R.; Lopez F, Y.; Varela C, C.

    2006-01-01

    The physical aspects of the quality guarantee in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy its are of cardinal importance to guarantee the quality of the diagnoses and treatments that are carried out to the patients in this type of services. The OIEA, the OMS and other scientific and professional organizations have contributed significantly to the elaboration of recommendations, Protocols, etc. applicable in the quality control programs and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. In spite of the great effort developed in this sense the Installation of the programs of quality control and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments can fail if the same ones are not based in three decisive elements that are: the existence of national regulations, the existence of the infrastructure required for it and the existence of enough qualified personnel to develop this programs. The present work shows the regulatory focus that on this topic, it has followed the National Center of Nuclear Safety of Cuba (CNSN). The same left of strengthen all the existent Synergies in the different organizations of the country and it went in two fundamental directions: installation of the regulatory requirements that govern this activity and the Authorization of a Cuban Entity, specialized in carrying out audits to the quality control and safety programs of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. After 4 work years in this direction, the results confirm the validity of the experience developed by the CNSN, at the moment all the services of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of Cuba possess quality control and safety programs, these programs are annually Auditing by an Authorized entity by the CNSN and the Inspectors of the Regulatory Authority, control, during the inspections, the one execution of the established requirements in the national regulations. The work developed so far can serve, modestly, of reference to others countries of Latin America that

  12. [Integrated quality assurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögel, K; Stöhr, K

    1994-07-01

    The definition of terms and connotation of "Quality", "Quality Assurance" and "Integration" lead to an analysis and understanding of inhibiting and fostering factors of the "Health Triad" of people, animals and environment. Although "Quality" is largely or ultimately determined by the consumer, there are considerable differences as this term is applied by (a) the individual consumer, (b) the dynamic producer defending or gaining markets, (c) those engaged in traditional product manufacturing, or (d) governments setting (minimum) requirements for the sake of free trade. "Quality Assurance" offers cooperation of partners all along the food chain from "pasture to table". The managerial process turned into a continuum of responsibility and agreement on processes and product characteristics. This overcomes the disadvantages of strategies stressing distinct defense barriers. In practice this philosophy of a predominant role of defence barriers proved largely partnership destructive, in that it permitted to shift responsibilities for failures and to claim administrative competence according to momentary situations and interests. "Integrated Quality Assurance" means mutual agreement of two or more partners along the food chain (e. g. feed producers, farmers, animal health industry, veterinarians and food processors) on product characteristics and production methods. It involves essential system elements including facilities, materials, manpower, information, transport, management etc. Different principles and procedures of quality assurance have been introduced in practice, including agriculture and food processing. These different approaches are not mutually exclusive but largely of complementary nature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Social media for arthritis-related comparative effectiveness and safety research and the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Chen, Lang; Higginbotham, Phillip; Nowell, W Benjamin; Gal-Levy, Ronit; Willig, James; Safford, Monika; Coe, Joseph; O'Hara, Kaitlin; Sa'adon, Roee

    2017-03-07

    Social media may complement traditional data sources to answer comparative effectiveness/safety questions after medication licensure. The Treato platform was used to analyze all publicly available social media data including Facebook, blogs, and discussion boards for posts mentioning inflammatory arthritis (e.g. rheumatoid, psoriatic). Safety events were self-reported by patients and mapped to medical ontologies, resolving synonyms. Disease and symptom-related treatment indications were manually redacted. The units of analysis were unique terms in posts. Pre-specified conditions (e.g. herpes zoster (HZ)) were selected based upon safety signals from clinical trials and reported as pairwise odds ratios (ORs); drugs were compared with Fisher's exact test. Empirically identified events were analyzed using disproportionality analysis and reported as relative reporting ratios (RRRs). The accuracy of a natural language processing (NLP) classifier to identify cases of shingles associated with arthritis medications was assessed. As of October 2015, there were 785,656 arthritis-related posts. Posts were predominantly US posts (75%) from patient authors (87%) under 40 years of age (61%). For HZ posts (n = 1815), ORs were significantly increased with tofacitinib versus other rheumatoid arthritis therapies. ORs for mentions of perforated bowel (n = 13) were higher with tocilizumab versus other therapies. RRRs associated with tofacitinib were highest in conditions related to baldness and hair regrowth, infections and cancer. The NLP classifier had a positive predictive value of 91% to identify HZ. There was a threefold increase in posts following television direct-to-consumer advertisement (p = 0.04); posts expressing medication safety concerns were significantly more frequent than favorable posts. Social media is a challenging yet promising data source that may complement traditional approaches for comparative effectiveness research for new medications.

  14. 16 CFR 1028.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.103 Assuring... deliberations; and any employment or other relationship between each member and the institution; for example... application or proposal may be returned to the institution. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  15. 10 CFR 76.93 - Quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality assurance. 76.93 Section 76.93 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.93 Quality assurance. The Corporation shall establish, maintain, and execute a quality assurance program satisfying each of...

  16. Quality assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchi, Maurice A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of quality assurance refers more specifically to the process of objectifying and clearly enunciating goals, and providing means of assessing the outcomes. In this article the author mentions four fundamental elements of quality assurance which should be applied in the medical profession in Malta. These elements should relate to professional performance, resource utilisation, risk management and patient satisfaction. The aim of the medical professionals in Malta is to provide the b...

  17. Food safety in the domestic environment: the effect of consumer risk information on human disease risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Maarten J; Fischer, Arnout R H; van Asselt, Esther D; de Jong, Aarieke E I; Frewer, Lynn J; de Jonge, Rob

    2008-02-01

    The improvement of food safety in the domestic environment requires a transdisciplinary approach, involving interaction between both the social and natural sciences. This approach is applied in a study on risks associated with Campylobacter on broiler meat. First, some web-based information interventions were designed and tested on participant motivation and intentions to cook more safely. Based on these self-reported measures, the intervention supported by the emotion "disgust" was selected as the most promising information intervention. Its effect on microbial cross-contamination was tested by recruiting a set of participants who prepared a salad with chicken breast fillet carrying a known amount of tracer bacteria. The amount of tracer that could be recovered from the salad revealed the transfer and survival of Campylobacter and was used as a measure of hygiene. This was introduced into an existing risk model on Campylobacter in the Netherlands to assess the effect of the information intervention both at the level of exposure and the level of human disease risk. We showed that the information intervention supported by the emotion "disgust" alone had no measurable effect on the health risk. However, when a behavioral cue was embedded within the instruction for the salad preparation, the risk decreased sharply. It is shown that a transdisciplinary approach, involving research on risk perception, microbiology, and risk assessment, is successful in evaluating the efficacy of an information intervention in terms of human health risks. The approach offers a novel tool for science-based risk management in the area of food safety.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health - Part 5: Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Doctor, P.G.; Selby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    Part 5 of the 1989 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1989. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work. 35 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5: Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1987 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, and the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1987. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work

  20. Nova laser assurance-management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    In a well managed project, Quality Assurance is an integral part of the management activities performed on a daily basis. Management assures successful performance within budget and on schedule by using all the good business, scientific, engineering, quality assurance, and safety practices available. Quality assurance and safety practices employed on Nova are put in perspective by integrating them into the overall function of good project management. The Nova assurance management system was developed using the quality assurance (QA) approach first implemented at LLNL in early 1978. The LLNL QA program is described as an introduction to the Nova assurance management system. The Nova system is described pictorially through the Nova configuration, subsystems and major components, interjecting the QA techniques which are being pragmatically used to assure the successful completion of the project

  1. Package leaflets of the most consumed medicines in Portugal: safety and regulatory compliance issues. A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pires

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Package leaflets are necessary for safe use of medicines. The aims of the present study were: 1 to assess the compliance between the content of the package leaflets and the specifications of the pharmaceutical regulations; and 2 to identify potential safety issues for patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative descriptive study, involving all the package leaflets of branded medicines from the three most consumed therapeutic groups in Portugal, analyzed in the Department of Pharmacoepidemiology, School of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon. METHODS: A checklist validated through an expert consensus process was used to gather the data. The content of each package leaflet in the sample was classified as compliant or non-compliant with compulsory regulatory issues (i.e. stated dosage and descriptions of adverse reactions and optional regulatory issues (i.e. adverse reaction frequency, symptoms and procedures in cases of overdose. RESULTS: A total of 651 package leaflets were identified. Overall, the package leaflets were found to be compliant with the compulsory regulatory issues. However, the optional regulatory issues were only addressed in around half of the sample of package leaflets, which made it possible to identify some situations of potentially compromised drug safety. CONCLUSION: Ideally, the methodologies for package leaflet approval should be reviewed and optimized as a way of ensuring the inclusion of the minimum essential information for safe use of medicines.

  2. Safety Evaluation of Potential Toxic Metals Exposure from Street Foods Consumed in Mid-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Ekhator

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Street-vended foods offer numerous advantages to food security; nevertheless, the safety of street food should be considered. This study has investigated the level of potential toxic metal (Pb, Cd, Hg, Sb, Mn, and Al contamination among street-vended foods in Benin City and Umunede. Methods. Twenty street food samples were purchased from vendors at bus stops. Metals were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The methods developed by the US EPA were employed to evaluate the potential health risk of toxic metals. Results. The concentrations of the toxic metals in mg/kg were in the range of Pb (0.014–1.37, Cd (0.00–0.00017, Hg (0.00–0.00014, Sb (0.00–0.021, Mn (0.00–0.012, and Al (0.00–0.22. All the toxic metals except Pb were below permissible limit set by WHO, EU, and USEPA. The daily intake, hazard quotient, and hazard index of all toxic metals except for Pb in some street foods were below the tolerable daily intake and threshold value of 1, indicating an insignificant health risk. Total cancer risk was within the priority risk level of 1.0E-04 but higher than the acceptable risk level of 1E-06. Conclusion. Consumption of some of these street foods is of public health concern.

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of food safety education interventions for consumers in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa; Harding, Shannon; Greig, Judy; Mascarenhas, Mariola; Sivaramalingam, Bhairavi; Pham, Mai T; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-08-26

    Foodborne illness has a large public health and economic burden worldwide, and many cases are associated with food handled and prepared at home. Educational interventions are necessary to improve consumer food safety practices and reduce the associated burden of foodborne illness. We conducted a systematic review and targeted meta-analyses to investigate the effectiveness of food safety education interventions for consumers. Relevant articles were identified through a preliminary scoping review that included: a comprehensive search in 10 bibliographic databases with verification; relevance screening of abstracts; and extraction of article characteristics. Experimental studies conducted in developed countries were prioritized for risk-of-bias assessment and data extraction. Meta-analysis was conducted on data subgroups stratified by key study design-intervention-population-outcome categories and subgroups were assessed for their quality of evidence. Meta-regression was conducted where appropriate to identify possible sources of between-trial heterogeneity. We identified 79 relevant studies: 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs); 12 non-randomized controlled trials (NRTs); and 50 uncontrolled before-and-after studies. Several studies did not provide sufficient details on key design features (e.g. blinding), with some high risk-of-bias ratings due to incomplete outcome data and selective reporting. We identified a moderate to high confidence in results from two large RCTs investigating community- and school-based educational training interventions on behaviour outcomes in children and youth (median standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.20, range: 0.05, 0.35); in two small RCTs evaluating video and written instructional messaging on behavioural intentions in adults (SMD = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 0.69); and in two NRT studies for university-based education on attitudes of students and staff (SMD = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.43). Uncontrolled before

  4. How much Baltic salmon can be consumed without exceeding the tolerable safety limit ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, H.R. [Mobile Nutrients Ltd. (Denmark)

    2004-09-15

    Because Baltic salmon is a top predator preying on sprat, herring and tobis, it is very vulnerable to contamination with dioxin and PCBs. The EU safety limit (SL) for fish is 4 picogram (pg) WHOTEQ g{sup -1} fresh fish. In April 2004, Danish commercial salmon fishing was banned to in the Baltic sea around Bornholm and Gotland (mainly ICES areas 25, 26), because the Food Administration reported dioxin levels exceeding the intervention level of 3 pg g{sup -1} fresh salmon. Their report was based on data from 10 individual salmon, and 3 pooled samples, each with 10 salmon. Since dioxins are widespread in the environment, the human population face a trade off to produce sufficient food that is safe to eat and avoid eating contaminated food. The world population is increasing, and the demand for healthy food is steadily increasing. Consequently, there is a need for risk assessments, where the consequences of eating foods with different grades of contamination is evaluated. The evaluation must be based on data of high quality, and because dioxin accumulation is a slow proces, the risk assessments should consider long time periods of months and years instead of days and weeks. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the statistical variation of dioxin data from Baltic herring and salmon. The data are used to calculate the quantity of herring and salmon, that humans of different body weight can eat without exceeding the tolerable daily intake (TDI). (In dietary recommendations exposure from dairy products etc. must also be taken into account). A PCDD/F box model is proposed that subtract losses during cooking and postprandially.

  5. Financial assurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paton, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    US Ecology is a full service waste management company. The company operates two of the nation's three existing low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities and has prepared and submitted license applications for two new LLRW disposal facilities in California and Nebraska. The issue of financial assurances is an important aspect of site development and operation. Proper financial assurances help to insure that uninterrupted operation, closure and monitoring of a facility will be maintained throughout the project's life. Unfortunately, this aspect of licensing is not like others where you can gauge acceptance by examining approved computer codes, site performance standards or applying specific technical formulas. There is not a standard financial assurance plan. Each site should develop its requirements based upon the conditions of the site, type of design, existing state or federal controls, and realistic assessments of future financial needs. Financial assurances at U.S. Ecology's existing sites in Richland, Washington, and Beatty, Nevada, have been in place for several years and are accomplished in a variety of ways by the use of corporate guarantees, corporate capital funds, third party liability insurance, and post closure/long-term care funds. In addressing financial assurances, one can divide the issue into three areas: Site development/operations, third party damages, and long-term care/cleanup

  6. Computational methods assuring nuclear power plant structural integrity and safety: an overview of the recent activities at VTT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinaenen, H.; Talja, H.; Rintamaa, R.

    1998-01-01

    Numerical, simplified engineering and standardised methods are applied in the safety analyses of primary circuit components and reactor pressure vessels. The integrity assessment procedures require input relating both to the steady state and transient loading actual material properties data and precise knowledge of the size and geometry of defects. Current procedures bold extensive information regarding these aspects. It is important to verify the accuracy of the different assessment methods especially in the case of complex structures and loading. The focus of this paper is on the recent results and development of computational fracture assessment methods at VTT Manufacturing Technology. The methods include effective engineering type tools for rapid structural integrity assessments and more sophisticated finite-element based methods. An integrated PC-based program system MASI for engineering fracture analysis is described. A summary of the verification of the methods in computational benchmark analyses and against the results of large scale experiments is presented. (orig.)

  7. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1977. Studies on hydrogen energy total systems and the safety assuring technologies thereon (Studies on preparing criteria for the safety assuring technologies for hydrogen energy total systems); 1977 nendo suiso energy total system to sono hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy total system no hoan gijutsu kijun no sakusei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-01

    Studies have been made on preparing criteria for the safety assuring technologies for hydrogen energy total systems. The outline of the technological guideline for hydrogen manufacturing processes in the high temperature and pressure water decomposition method is the same as that in the normal pressure water decomposition method. However, its high temperature and pressure environment can cause new safety problems. Considerations should be given on, for example, material problems in structural materials and insulation materials including electrodes and membranes, introduction of gas-liquid separation and pressure balancing devices, problems in electrolyte circulation, and safety problems that may occur because of generation of hydrogen and oxygen under high temperature and pressure conditions. This paper summarizes these matters by surveying literature data. In order to provide basic information to prepare criteria for safety assuring technologies for the gaseous hydrogen liquefaction process, surveys and studies were made based on different items of technological information and experimental study results. Safety assuring technologies were discussed on metal hydrides (promising means for storing hydrogen). Powder is used to enhance hydrogen absorbing performance, whereas the metal hydrides are pulverized as a result of repetition of absorption and discharge of hydrogen. This paper describes also metal dust explosion disaster and its risk of occurrence. (NEDO)

  8. Quality assurance in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, M.T. de

    1981-01-01

    The factors related to the licensing procedures of a nuclear power plant (quality assurance and safety analysis) are presented and discussed. The consequences of inadequate attitudes towards these factors are shown and suggestions to assure the safety of nuclear power plants in Brazil are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  9. The role of food quality assurance and product certification systems on marketing aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Z.; Milićević, D.; Nastasijević, I.; Đorđević, V.; Trbović, D.; Velebit, B.

    2017-09-01

    The level of quality that a product offers to consumers is a fundamental aspect of competition in many markets. Consumers’ confidence in the safety and quality of foods they buy and consume is a significant support to the economic development of production organizations of this type, and therefore the overall economic development. Consumer concerns about food safety as well as the globalization of food production have also led to the existence of a global internationally linked food production and distribution system. The necessity demanded by the consumer population to provide safe food with consistent quality at an attractive price imposes a choice of an appropriate quality assurance model in accordance with the specific properties of the product and the production processes. Modern trends, especially for the last ten years in quality assurance within specific production, such as the food industry, have marked the trend of hyperproduction and a number of production and safety standards, as well as a change of approach in the certification process of organizations according to one or more standards. This can be an additional source of costs for organizations, and can burden the food business operator`s budget in order to ensure their consistent application and maintenance. Quality assurance (QA) standards are considered to be a proven mechanism for delivering quality of product.

  10. TRADE LIBERALIZATION AND CONSUMER VULNERABILITY: A LEGAL FRAMEWORK ON LEGISLATIONS AND TESTING MECHANISM FOR ASEAN PRODUCT SAFETY DIRECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sagoff Alsagoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception in 1967 ASEAN has advanced in great leaps in the economic sector luring new member states into its pact. From a mere five member states (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines ASEAN has today managed to entice five other neighbouring states (Brunei 1984, Vietnam 1995, Laos & Myanmar 1997, Cambodia 1999 into its pact transforming itself into union of ten member states with a consumer population expected to exceed 600 million people. In order to ensure sustainability amid global challenges, member states have engrossed ASEAN Charter in 2007 with a view of creating an ASEAN Economic Community by 2015 that is robust, competitive and sustainable. At this juncture, ASEAN has to realize that like any trade liberalization initiatives, goods moved readily and freely throughout the free-trade area that is facilitated by a lucrative non-barrier tariffs incentives. This vision of a single market which creates a frontier without borders can prove to be advantageous to member states only if they have the required vehicle that is able to overcome the drawback of its progression through harmonization and synchronization efforts that is effective and successful. Like everything else, every advantage has some disadvantages attached to it. This article will address important determining factors that are crucial in the development and scope of proposed ASEAN Product Safety Directive including reviewing relevant determining factors such as regional stability, consumer protection legislations and standard and testing agencies of which one without the other will be incomplete. The proposals suggested in this article will strengthen and unite ASEAN in overcoming unsafe product issues at ASEAN level.

  11. Introduction to quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisic, N.

    1980-01-01

    Safety requirements set forth in the regulatory requirement, codes, standards as well as other requirements for various aspects of nuclear power plant design and operation are strictly implemented through QA activities. The overall QA aim is to assure that the plant is soundly and correctly designed and that it is built, tested and operated in accordance with stringent quality standards and conservative engineering practices. In this way a high degree of freedom from faults and errors can be achieved. (orig.)

  12. Probability of Loss of Assured Safety in Systems with Multiple Time-Dependent Failure Modes: Incorporation of Delayed Link Failure in the Presence of Aleatory Uncertainty.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie. [Engineering Mechanics Corp. of Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Probability of loss of assured safety (PLOAS) is modeled for weak link (WL)/strong link (SL) systems in which one or more WLs or SLs could potentially degrade into a precursor condition to link failure that will be followed by an actual failure after some amount of elapsed time. The following topics are considered: (i) Definition of precursor occurrence time cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for individual WLs and SLs, (ii) Formal representation of PLOAS with constant delay times, (iii) Approximation and illustration of PLOAS with constant delay times, (iv) Formal representation of PLOAS with aleatory uncertainty in delay times, (v) Approximation and illustration of PLOAS with aleatory uncertainty in delay times, (vi) Formal representation of PLOAS with delay times defined by functions of link properties at occurrence times for failure precursors, (vii) Approximation and illustration of PLOAS with delay times defined by functions of link properties at occurrence times for failure precursors, and (viii) Procedures for the verification of PLOAS calculations for the three indicated definitions of delayed link failure.

  13. The safety of petroleum supplying for consumers countries is a concept outside the purpose, thinks a counselor of the petroleum Saudi Arabian Ministry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The anxiety about the safety of petroleum supplying for consumers countries is the result of political and economical circumstances which are misunderstood or out of the purpose. Each part which seemed to have interests in conflict win to preserve the stability of the petroleum market. The economical competitiveness and the globalization of markets are the dominating realities in the world of today

  14. Quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the quality assurance and quality control practices of Hanford Site environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. Samples are analyzed according to documented standard analytical procedures. This section discusses specific measures taken to ensure quality in project management, sample collection, and analytical results.

  15. Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the quality assurance and quality control practices of Hanford Site environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. Samples are analyzed according to documented standard analytical procedures. This section discusses specific measures taken to ensure quality in project management, sample collection, and analytical results

  16. Quality assurance within regulatory bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The IAEA directed extensive efforts during the years 1991 to 1995 to the integral revision of all NUSS quality assurance publications, which were approved and issued as Safety Series No.50-C/SG-Q, Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and other Nuclear Installations (1996). When these quality assurance publications were developed, their prime focus was on requirements against which work performed by the licensees could be measured and assessed by the regulatory bodies. In this way, they only helped to facilitate the functions of regulators. No requirements or recommendations were provided on how the regulators should ensure the effective implementation of their own activities. The present publication is a first attempt to collect, integrate and offer available experience to directly support performance of regulatory activities. It presents a comprehensive compilation on the application of quality assurance principles and methods by regulatory bodies to their activities. The aim is consistent good performance of regulatory activities through a systematic approach

  17. Quality assurance records system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It supplements the IAEA Code of Practice on Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA Safety Series No.50-C-QA), which requires that for each nuclear power plant a system for the generation, identification, collection, indexing, filing, storing, maintenance and disposition of quality assurance records shall be established and executed in accordance with written procedures and instructions. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide assistance in the establishment and operation of such a system. An orderly established and maintained records system is considered to be part of the means of providing a basis for an appropriate level of confidence that the activities which affect the quality of a nuclear power plant have been performed in accordance with the specific requirements and that the required quality has been achieved and is maintained

  18. Quality assurance in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    Good radiotherapy results and safety of treatment require the radiation to be optimally applied to a specified target area and the correct dose. According to international recommendations, the average uncertainty in therapeutic dose should not exceed 5%. The need for high precision in therapeutic dose requires quality assurance covering the entire radiotherapy process. Besides the physical and technical characteristics of the therapy equipment, quality assurance must include all radiotherapy equipment and procedures that are significant for the correct magnitude and precision of application of the therapeutic dose. The duties and responsibilities pertaining to various stages of treatment must also be precisely defined. These requirements may be best implemented through a quality system. The general requirements for supervision and quality assurance of medical radiation apparatus are prescribed in section 40 of the Radiation Act (592/1991, amendment 1142/1998) and in sections 18 and 32 of the Decree of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health on the medical use of radiation (423/2000). Guide ST 2.2 imposes requirements on structural radiation shielding of radiotherapy equipment and the premises in which it is used, and on warning and safety arrangements. Guide ST 1.1 sets out the general safety principles for radiation practices and regulatory control procedure for the use of radiation. Guide ST 1.6 provides general requirements for operational measures in the use of radiation. This Guide sets out the duties of responsible parties (the party running a radiation practice) in respect of arranging and maintaining radiotherapy quality assurance. The principles set out in this Guide and Guide ST 6.3 may be applied to radionuclide therapy

  19. Consumers' trust in government institutions and their perception and concern about safety and healthiness of fast food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omari, Rose; Ruivenkamp, Guido T.P.; Tetteh, Emmanuel K.

    2017-01-01

    Consumers often depend on public institutions to provide safe and healthy food. Thus, trust in these institutions becomes an important consideration for food consumption. The objective was to examine the relationship between consumer trust in relevant government institutions and consumer perception

  20. Consumer Product Safety Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Surveillance International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS ...

  1. Qualtity assurance in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, U.

    1977-01-01

    The demand for safety in nuclear power plants is rooted in the Atomic Energy Act of the Federal Republic of Germany, under which 'preplanned safety' is a licensing condition. Moreover, the safety of nuclear power plants is outlined in more precise terms in the guidelines of the German Advisory Committee for Reactor Safeguards (Reaktorsicherheitskommission). The usual approach taken in this country, i.e., to establish quality assurance for each specific product, with supplementary quality assurance measures geared to systems requirements being implemented by industry, has proved to work satisfactorily. Product-based quality assurance mainly stems from the classical quality control concept, whereas systems-based quality assurance primarily is to ensure that both manufacturers and systems suppliers take all measures in advance which are needed for the satisfactory processing of an order and to achieve the quality level required. The special features and the advantages of the joint action of manufacturers, systems suppliers and experts, which are characteristic of the German approach, very clearly emerge from a comparison with practices in the United States. In the further refinement of the quality assurance concept as practised in Germany, qhich will have a particularly great impact on costs and schedules because of the manpower requirement involved, it should be carefully weighed where there are exaggerations and unnecessary complications which can no longer be justified by the demand for more safety. (orig.) [de

  2. How do pharmaceutical companies handle consumer adverse drug reaction reports? An overview based on a survey of French drug safety managers and officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuranceau-Morel, P

    2002-01-01

    It is surprising to see how consumer Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reports have been continuously increasing for the last few years in Europe. This probably results from the influence of United States (US) market where the patients feels justified in telephoning the pharmaceutical companies directly with queries regarding their treatment. The growing number of alternative sources of information (e.g. health and popular magazines, spots on radio and TV etc.) to which a consumer is exposed has added to this growth too. The changing relationship between patients and doctors may also contribute to this phenomenon. It is then interesting to evaluate the way pharmaceutical companies currently deal with consumer ADR reports. The management of consumer ADR reporting was investigated by means of a questionnaire sent to 46 French drug safety managers and drug safety officers (DSOs) of multinational pharmaceutical companies. The analysis of the survey stressed the fact that pharmaceutical companies should be prepared to face up to an increase in the number of consumer ADR reports. It clearly appears that the consumers who telephone to register side-effects should be forwarded to a trained DSO with medical or pharmaceutical background and the communication skills acquired through specific training. This person should also be able to release adequate product information validated by his/her own company. The influence of the US market seems to be changing the way pharmaceutical companies deal with consumer ADR reports. Nowadays, these reports are entered into a drug safety database by most of the companies without previously having contacted the patient's general practitioner (GP) or specialist for medical confirmation. Lastly, the drug safety managers and DSOs consulted have divided opinions about the usefulness of call centres and e-mails as tools for ADR reporting. But both tools are globally rejected by the pharmaceutical companies as a reliable means of reporting. As stated

  3. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Eva; Rosenthal, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union

  4. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eva [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Rosenthal, Harald [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  5. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330, Consumers Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Consumers Power Company, as applicant and owner, for a license to operate the Midland Plant Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located near the city of Midland in Midland County, Michigan. Subject to favorable resolution of the items discussed in this report, the staff concludes that the facility can be operated by the applicant without endangering the health and safety of the public

  6. Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    This compendium intends to give fast bibliographic information and to fill the visible gap between documentation and general bibliographic information. The reader is given an outline of quality assurance and some examples of techniques from the relevant literature. The practical engineer, who is always short of time, is thus offered a quick survey and a fast deepening of his understanding by means of literature dealing specifically with his unresolved problems. The mansucript has been kept in tis original form in order to speed up tis publication. The RKW technical department limited itself to checking its contents and the adherence to the established information goals. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 MB [de

  7. Chapter 8: Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The main efforts of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) have been focused on inspection of quality assurance programmes of Slovak Power Stations, plc. and its daughter companies at Bohunice and Mochovce. Two quality assurance inspections in the area of periodical in service inspections (V-2 units) and tests of selected equipment (NPP V-2 units) and operation control (V-1 units) has been performed at NPPs Bohunice. One violation of decree on quality assurance of selected equipment has been found in the area of documentation archiving. The inspection concerning the implementation of quality assurance programme for operation of NPP Mochovce in the area of operation control has been performed focused on safety aspects of operation, operational procedures, control of operational events and feedback from operational experience. The results of this inspection were positive. Inspection of implementation of quality assurance programme for operation of radioactive waste repository (RU RAW) at the Mochovce location has been performed focused on receiving of containers, with radioactive wastes, containers handling, radiation monitoring, activities of documentation control and radiation protection at the repository site. No serious deficiencies have been found out. Also one inspection of experimental nuclear installations of VUJE Trnava at Jaslovske Bohunice site has been performed focused on procurement control, quality audits, documentation and quality records control when performing activities at experimental nuclear installations. The activity on development of internal quality assurance system continued. The implementation of this system will assure quality and effective fulfilment enlarged tasks of UJD with limited resources for its activity. The analyses of possible use of existing internal administrative control documentation as a basis for future quality system procedures was performed in co-operation with an external specialised organisation. The

  8. Quality assurance during site construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dommke, J.; Jurgutat, H.

    1980-01-01

    During the time of planing and construction of a nuclear power plant, the following proceeding is approved: - the deliverer of a nuclear power plant provides the reports fixing the quality assurance program, it means that he is responsible to write the safety analysis report, the specifications for the erection of the components, the working manuals and specifications for testing (eg nondestr. testing) - the manufacturing of components or systems will be controlled by an own independent quality assurance group, provided that this group was checked by the quality assurance group of the applicant - the TUeV with its independent assessors will fix the requirements relating to quality assurance in its assessment. On this basis the examination of the applicants specifications, working manuals, testing specifications will be done. The efficiency of quality assurance at the manufacturer and at the applicant will be checked by the TUeV specialists by considering specifications of modifications, repairs or tolerances. A mean point of the quality assurance in Germany is the dynamic adjustment, of an action on the latest state of engineering or science. If there exists a change of rules or guidelines, the quality assurance requirements have to be fit on this state in so far as it is feasible from the technical point of view. (orig./RW)

  9. Home Safe Home: Appliances, Tools, and Small Equipment. Proceed with Caution: Consumer Safety in the Home, III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    Many accidents in the home are caused by faulty, defective or improperly designed tools, appliances, and equipment. Government, non-governmental organizations, and industries cooperate to develop and implement standards for the safe design and manufacture of consumer products. This booklet provides information to help consumers select products,…

  10. Quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    This topical report describes the Gibbs and Hill Quality Assurance Program and sets forth the methods to be followed in controlling quality-related activities performed by Gibbs and Hill and its contractors. The program is based on company experience in nuclear power and related work, and defines a system found effective in providing independent control of quality-related functions and documentation. The scope of the report covers activities involving nuclear safety-related structures, systems, and components covered by Gibbs and Hill' contractual obligation to the Utility Owner for each project

  11. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Establishment of a rationalized safety assurance logic aiming at FBRs with enhanced social acceptance (1). Interim report of CEA/JNC collaboration NWP-5(a) from 1999 to 2001: common view and JNC's contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hajime; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Kurisaka, Kenichi; Kubo, Shigenobu; Kamiyama, Kenji

    2001-12-01

    This is an interim report describing the progress and the results of the collaborative research works between JNC and CEA on the safety logic in future fast reactors under the title of 'Establishment of a Rationalized Safety Assurance Logic Aiming at FBRs with Enhanced Social Acceptance' from 1999 to 2001. This contains JNC's contribution and common view of both partners. (1) Safety goals are proposed from JNC and CEA. Significant coherency is found such as to keep defense-in depth concept, mitigation measures against core melt are taken into account for containment design, evacuation free' concept is pursued, quantitative safety target is also considered as well as deterministic approach, and improvement of social acceptance is considered from the development stage of the fuel cycle including nuclear power plants. (2) Safety characteristics of each candidate coolant were compared and discussed. Gas-cooled fast reactor is a common interest area. Discussions are focused on: safety design requirements, safety evaluation events list, transient behavior analysis, core catcher designs, and so on. (3) JNC's results include criticality map for predicting CDA behavior and consequences, and CDA analysis results of lead-cooled and gas-cooled fast reactors with SIMMER-III. The collaboration on the action NWP-5a is recognized as being of great importance for the orientation of the innovative design studies. (author)

  13. Quality assurance plan, Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Nuclear Energy Systems Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements.

  14. 30 CFR 7.7 - Quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality assurance. 7.7 Section 7.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY General § 7.7 Quality assurance. Applicants granted...

  15. 30 CFR 15.8 - Quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality assurance. 15.8 Section 15.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... § 15.8 Quality assurance. (a) Applicants granted an approval or an extension of approval under this...

  16. Design quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Standard contains the requirements for the quality assurance program applicable to the design phase of a nuclear plant, and is applicable to the design of safety-related equipment, systems, and structures, as identified by the owner. 1 fig

  17. Design quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    This Standard contains the requirements for the quality assurance program applicable to the design phase of a nuclear plant, and is applicable to the design of safety-related equipment, systems, and structures, as identified by the owner. 1 fig.

  18. Consumer attitudes to vaccination of food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudamore, J M

    2007-08-01

    The 2001 outbreak of foot and mouth disease in the United Kingdom was unprecedented, with the need to develop a vaccination policy at the height of the epidemic. The extent of consumer concerns about eating products derived from vaccinated animals was unknown as survey results were equivocal. A recent survey on avian influenza reveals that the European public are well informed about the disease and its control, but over 50% of respondents would be reluctant to consume meat from vaccinated birds. There is little specific information available on consumer views about routine vaccination for other diseases. Their concerns appear to increase in an emergency situation when there is heightened awareness through the media. With the development of newer types of vaccines consumers will need more assurance about the safety and use of these products. This article examines these issues and makes practical recommendations for ensuring public confidence when emergency vaccination for disease control is proposed.

  19. Quality assurance program manual for nuclear power plants. Volume I. Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The Consumers Power Company Quality Assurance Program Manual for Nuclear Power Plants consists of policies and procedures which comply with current NRC regulatory requirements and industry codes and standards in effect during the design, procurement, construction, testing, operation, refueling, maintenance, repair and modification activities associated with nuclear power plants. Specific NRC and industry documents that contain the requirements, including the issue dates in effect, are identified in each nuclear power plant's Safety Analysis Report. The requirements established by these documents form the basis for the Consumer Power Quality Assurance Program, which is implemented to control those structures, systems, components and operational safety actions listed in each nuclear power plant's Quality List (Q-List). As additional and revised requirements are issued by the NRC and professional organizations involved in nuclear activities, they will be reviewed for their impact on this manual, and changes will be made where considered necessary. CP Co 1--Consumers Power Company QA Program Topical Report is Volume I of this manual and contains Quality Assurance Program Policies applicable during all phases of nuclear power plant design, construction and operation

  20. Concepts of nuclear quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randers, G.; Morris, P.A.; Pomeroy, D.

    1976-01-01

    While the safety record of the nuclear industry continues to be excellent, the forced outage rates for recent years continue to be 15% or more. Quality assurance, therefore, needs to be applied not only to nuclear safety matters, but to the goals of increased productivity and reduced construction and operating costs. Broadening the application of the general concept of quality assurance in this way leads to the introduction of reliability technology. The total activity might better be called reliability assurance. That effective quality assurance systems do pay off is described by examples from the utility industry, from a manufacturer of instruments and systems and from the experience of Westinghouse Electric Company's manufacturing divisions. The special situation of applying quality assurance to nuclear fuel is discussed. Problems include the lack of a fully developed regulatory policy in this area, incomplete understanding of the mechanism for pellet-clad interaction failures, incomplete access to manufacturers design and process information, inability to make desirable changes on a timely basis and inadequate feedback of irradiation experience. (author)

  1. Quality assurance in plant engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsumi, Morimichi

    1977-01-01

    Quality assurance is defined as the intentional and systematic activity carried out to obtain such reliability that the functions of nuclear power generating plants are demonstrated during the plant operation, and the section in charge has the role to organize, adjust and communicate so that the related sections can work smoothly. There are many documents concerning the quality assurance, such as quality assurance basic program, quality assurance manual, quality control plan and its manual and many specifications, etc. The content of the quality assurance is different for every step of plant planning such as at inquiry and order receiving, and prior to manufacturing, for example, inspection specification being decided for the material and the welded parts of classified pipings at the step of order receiving. Document management, engineering schedule and the custody of quality records are also quality assurance activities. Design management is controlled step by step; plant planning including safety analysis, overall layout plan, conceptual design of buildings, aseismatic design guide, heat balance and so on, system design mainly with system description, piping design including piping specification, standard dimensions of edge preparation, piping and valve lists, inspection manual, etc., detailed design, standardization of piping and design review, etc. are explained. The management of the intermediate between soft and hard parts consists of the quality check for material manufacturers and shipment inspection, etc. (Nakai, Y.)

  2. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eva; Rosenthal, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Käferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  3. Quality assurance program plan for Building 324

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanke, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides an overview of the quality assurance program for Building 324. This plan supersedes the PNNL Nuclear Facilities Quality Management System Description, PNL-NF-QMSD, Revision 2, dated March 1996. The program applies to the facility safety structures, systems, and components and to activities that could affect safety structures, systems, and components. Adherence to the quality assurance program ensures the following: US Department of Energy missions and objectives are effectively accomplished; Products and services are safe, reliable, and meet or exceed the requirements and expectations of the user; Hazards to the public, to Hanford Site and facility workers, and to the environment are minimized. The format of this Quality Assurance Program Plan is structured to parallel that of 10 CFR 83 0.120, Quality Assurance Requirements

  4. Quality assurance considerations in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    Proper use of quality assurance will provide the basis for an effective management control system for nuclear waste management programs. Control is essential for achieving successful programs free from costly losses and failures and for assuring the public and regulators that the environment and health and safety are being protected. The essence of quality assurance is the conscientious use of planned and systematic actions, based on selecting and applying appropriate requirements from an established quality assurance standard. Developing a quality assurance program consists of using knowledge of the technical and managerial aspects of a project to identify and evaluate risks of loss and failure and then to select appropriate quality assurance requirements that will minimize the risks. Those requirements are integrated into the project planning documents and are carried out as specific actions during the life of the project

  5. Quality assurance systems at SKODA JS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecek, P.

    2000-01-01

    In addition to technical requirements put upon the design, manufacture, installation and commissioning of equipment for nuclear power plants, emphasis is laid upon quality assurance of such activities so as to secure nuclear safety of installations over the world. As the technical level of nuclear safety assurance is being enhanced continuously, the requirements are becoming more and more stringent, which is mirrored by the relevant standards and legislation. SKODA JS has always been pursuing the quality goal and has been contributing to this aspect markedly. The quality assurance system at SKODA JS helps the company to satisfy all the appropriate requirements of its customers as well as the applicable standards and regulations. (author)

  6. Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions quality assurance plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements. This program satisfies the NRC Quality Assurance Criteria, 10CFR50 Appendix B, to the extent that these criteria apply to safety related NSSS equipment. Also, it follows the regulatory position provided in NRC regulatory guides and the requirements of ANSI Standard N45.2.12 as identified in this Topical Report

  7. Quality assurance in the project of RECH-2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goycolea Donoso, C.; Nino de Zepeda Schele, A.

    1989-01-01

    The implantation of a Quality Assurance Program for the design, supply, construction, installation, and testing of the RECH-2 research reactor, is described in this paper. The obtained results, demonstrate that a Quality Assurance Program constitutes a suitable mean to assure that the installation complies with the safety and reliability requirements. (author)

  8. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  9. Quality Assurance - Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarslev, Axel

    1996-01-01

    Gives contains three main chapters:1. Quality Assurance initiated by external demands2. Quality Assurance initiated by internal company goals3. Innovation strategies......Gives contains three main chapters:1. Quality Assurance initiated by external demands2. Quality Assurance initiated by internal company goals3. Innovation strategies...

  10. On incentives for assurance of petroleum supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Aven, Terje; Tomasgard, Asgeir

    2010-01-01

    Assurance of supply is a crucial objective for producers and consumers of oil and gas. A basic requirement to meet this objective is that producers and transmitters have sufficient economic incentives and capabilities to assure a desired degree of supply. The topic of this paper is to evaluate these incentives from a broad perspective. We examine economic trade-offs inherent in a delay of production, including reputational issues, as well as contract incentives for gas sellers, drilling companies, and oil service companies.

  11. The necessity of periodic fire safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowrer, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Effective fire safety requires the coordinated integration of many diverse elements. Clear fire safety objectives are defined by plant management and/or regulatory authorities. Extensive and time-consuming systematic analyses are performed. Fire safety features (both active and passive) are installed and maintained, and administrative programs are established and implemented to achieve the defined objectives. Personnel are rigorously trained. Given the time, effort and monetary resources expended to achieve a specific level of fire safety, conducting periodic assessments to verify that the specified level of fire safety has been achieved and is maintained is a matter of common sense. Periodic fire safety reviews and assessment play an essential role in assuring continual nuclear safety in the world's power plants

  12. Safety and quality assurance management in radiation oncology, What is the role for qualiticians?: example of the Centre Alexis Vautrin; Management de la qualite et de la securite en radiotherapie. Quel role pour les qualiticiens?: exemple au centre Alexis-Vautrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigle, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Unite qualite et organisation, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Sobczyk, C.; Androni, M.L.; Peiffert, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Marchesi, V.; Buchheit, I.; Noel, A. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2009-10-15

    Since 2007, the Centre Alexis-Vautrin Cancer Institute in Nancy began its safety and quality assurance management policy in the department of radiation oncology. This development induced a collaborative work flow between the quality unit and the department of radiation oncology, with a definition of the responsibilities. The quality unit provides its methodology for the quality assurance, the professionals of the radiation oncology department their expertise. In parallel, a quality referee was nominated in the radiation oncology department to implement the projects for improvement, linked with the quality assurance unit, and under the control of the radiation oncology department staff. (authors)

  13. Introduction to quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaden, W.

    1980-01-01

    In today's interpretation 'quality assurance' means 'good management'. Quality assurance has to cover all phases of a work, but all quality assurance measures must be adapted to the relevance and complexity of the actual task. Examples are given for the preparation of quality classes, the organization of quality assurance during design and manufacturing and for auditing. Finally, efficiency and limits of quality assurance systems are described. (orig.)

  14. Quality management and quality assurance contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichler, M.

    1991-01-01

    Quality assurance contracts belong to the most important instruments of quality management systems. As a result of such contracts, quality control is to be done not only by the buyer, but is made a task to be fulfilled by the manufacturer. The author of the article shows that quality assurance contracts do change the contractual relationship between supplier and buyer, but have no effect on economic and practical conditions. This is so because quality assurance contracts apply only to warranty claims, which play a subordinate role in the legal relationship between producer and buyer, or producer and consumer, as compared to the claims for damages arising out of the contracts. (orig.) [de

  15. The 'Harmonizing Optimal Strategy for Treatment of coronary artery stenosis - sAfety & effectiveneSS of drug-elUting stents & antiplatelet REgimen' (HOST-ASSURE trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Kyung

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES have raised the bar of clinical performance. These stents are mostly made from cobalt chromium alloy. A newer generation DES has been developed from platinum chromium alloy, but clinical data regarding the efficacy and safety of the platinum chromium-based everolimus-eluting stent (PtCr-EES is limited, with no comparison data against the cobalt chromium-based zotarolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-ZES. In addition, an antiplatelet regimen is an integral component of medical therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. A 1-week duration of doubling the dose of clopidogrel (double-dose antiplatelet therapy (DDAT was shown to improve outcome at 1 month compared with conventional dose in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients undergoing PCI. However in Asia, including Korea, the addition of cilostazol (triplet antiplatelet therapy (TAT is used more commonly than doubling the dose of clopidogrel in high-risk patients. Methods In the 'Harmonizing Optimal Strategy for Treatment of coronary artery stenosis - sAfety & effectiveneSS of drug-elUting stents & antiplatelet REgimen' (HOST-ASSURE trial, approximately 3,750 patients are being prospectively and randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design according to the type of stent (PtCr-EES vs CoCr-ZES and antiplatelet regimen (TAT vs DDAT. The first primary endpoint is target lesion failure at 1 year for the stent comparison, and the second primary endpoint is net clinical outcome at 1 month for comparison of antiplatelet therapy regimen. Discussion The HOST-ASSURE trial is the largest study yet performed to directly compare the efficacy and safety of the PtCr-EES versus CoCr-ZES in an 'all-comers' population. In addition, this study will also compare the clinical outcome of TAT versus DDAT for 1-month post PCI. Trial registration ClincalTrials.gov number NCT01267734.

  16. Quality management and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieroni, N.

    1991-01-01

    The main common difficulties are presented found in the implementation of effective Quality Management and Quality Assurance Programmes, based on the recommendations of the IAEA International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group, the information collected by the IAEA experts participating in its meetings, and the results of the IAEA Operational Safety Review Team missions. The difficulties were identified in several areas. The most relevant root causes can be characterized as lack of understanding of quality principles and difficulty in implementation by the responsible management. The IAEA programme is described attempting to provide advice and support in the implementation of an effective quality programme through a number of activities including: preparation of practical guidelines, training programmes for management personnel, assistance in building up qualified manpower, and promoting the quest for excellence through the exchange of experience in the implementation of effective Quality Management and Quality Assurance Programmes in nuclear power plants with good performance records. (Z.S.)

  17. [Plant protection products and their residues : Aspects of consumer safety in context of the new EU regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasiak, U; Michalski, B; Pfeil, R; Solecki, R

    2010-06-01

    The law regulating plant protection products (PPP) in the European Union (EU) was fundamentally revised through the introduction of Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009 which is due to enter into force on 14 June 2011. EU-wide harmonized maximum residue levels (MRLs) for the active substances of PPP in foods are laid down in Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 and apply since entry into force of the regulation on 1 September 2008. The goal of both regulations is to strengthen the level of consumer protection. PPP are subject to a strict assessment of active substances, which is regulated at the EU level as well as an authorization procedure in the EU Member States. Prior to application for authorization of a PPP, the active substance(s) it contains must be included in a positive list. Tests regarding the toxicity and residue behavior of PPP must be conducted by the applicant, and the respective documents must be submitted to the authorities for evaluation. Following review of the required data, toxicological threshold values are derived, consumer exposure is assessed, and the risk to health is evaluated. The goal of this evaluation is to ensure that the use of PPP according to good plant protection practice does not have any harmful effects on human health.

  18. Made in China: Policy Analysis and Prescriptions to Improve China’s Consumer Product Safety Regulatory Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    34Food and Agricultural Imports from China," 4. 40 in developing equivalent standards to the United States for the inspection meat and poultry ...interview: “With more than 10,000 athletes and 22,000-plus international journalist in Beijing, China, for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games [food safety...of fruits and vegetables, 130 tons of meat , 82 tons of seafood, 21 tons of cheese and 19 tons of eggs…There [was] great pressure on [the Beijing

  19. Regulatory viewpoint on nuclear fuel quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Considerations of the importance of fuel quality and performance to nuclear safety, ''as low reasonably achievable'' release of radioactive materials in reactor effluents, and past fuel performance problems demonstrate the need for strong regulatory input, review and inspection of nuclear fuel quality assurance programs at all levels. Such a regulatory program is being applied in the United States of America by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Quality assurance requirements are contained within government regulations. Guidance on acceptable methods of implementing portions of the quality assurance program is contained within Regulatory Guides and other NRC documents. Fuel supplier quality assurance program descriptions are reviewed as a part of the reactor licensing process. Inspections of reactor licensee control of their fuel vendors as well as direct inspections of fuel vendor quality assurance programs are conducted on a regularly scheduled basis. (author)

  20. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  1. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  2. Manpower requirements for quality assurance during operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, J.M.; Sollenberger, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    As a result of the Three Mile Island accident and the findings presented in various investigatory reports, some fundamental changes are taking place in the role and scope of quality assurance. Recent changes to United States national codes, guides and standards are analysed in order to identify the principles involved. This analysis shows that the scope of the programme is being extended beyond the equipment designated 'nuclear safety related' and greater emphasis is being placed upon the independent verification of the satisfactory performance of activities affecting safety. Such fundamental changes could lead to a significant increase in the number of quality assurance personnel required to support an operating nuclear power plant. The evolving quality assurance organization at Three Mile Island is used to illustrate how these fundamental changes could affect the quality assurance organization and manpower requirements. (author)

  3. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Practice Hospital Bed Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... It depends on the complexity of the bed." Safety Tips CDRH offers the following safety tips for ...

  4. Commissioning quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-09-01

    This standard contains the requirements for the quality assurance program applicable to the commissioning phase of a nuclear power plant. This standard embodies the relevant quality assurance requirements of CSA Standard CAN3-N286.0, and is the governing Standard for commissioning quality assurance activities in the event of any conflicting requirements. This Standard applies to the commissioning of safety-related equipment, systems, and structures as identified by the owner. It may be applied to other equipment, systems, and structures at the discretion of the owner. 1 fig.

  5. A Quality Assurance Program for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    Defining the Quality Assurance Program for the US Department of Energy Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) was a unique opportunity because this is the first full-sized commercial nuclear power plant to be decommissioned. General Electric Company defined a Quality Assurance Program that provided adequate control, yet was stripped down to the essentials. The Program is designed to provide a flexible degree of monitoring of subcontractor work, built around a core of radiation safety monitoring, detailed planning, inspection and auditing, and operated with a minimum of dedicated personnel. This paper will concentrate on the traditional quality assurance activities, leaving radiation and environmental monitoring for other presentations

  6. Quality assurance organization of the plant owner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, K.

    1980-01-01

    It is not the primary task of the plant owner to assure the quality during erection. It is, however, his responsibility to check the quality assurance system established by the plant, the supplier and the subcontractor. In the lecture, it is shown that the plant owners do this control in the best efficient way. The special consideration of the plant owner in deciding questions of quality assurance is demonstrated by special examples. The meaning of basic safety for the plant owner is presented. (orig./RW)

  7. Commissioning quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This standard contains the requirements for the quality assurance program applicable to the commissioning phase of a nuclear power plant. This standard embodies the relevant quality assurance requirements of CSA Standard CAN3-N286.0, and is the governing Standard for commissioning quality assurance activities in the event of any conflicting requirements. This Standard applies to the commissioning of safety-related equipment, systems, and structures as identified by the owner. It may be applied to other equipment, systems, and structures at the discretion of the owner. 1 fig

  8. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330, Consumers Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report related to the Operation of Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2 (SER) (NUREG-0793) issued in May 1982 by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by Consumers Power Company, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330). The facility is located in the city of Midland in Midland County, Michigan. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of the soils settlement issue, one of the open items identified in the SER. Certain confirmatory issues identified in the SER also are addressed

  9. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  10. Computer software quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, K.A.

    1986-06-01

    The author defines some criteria for the evaluation of software quality assurance elements for applicability to the regulation of the nuclear industry. The author then analyses a number of software quality assurance (SQA) standards. The major extracted SQA elements are then discussed, and finally specific software quality assurance recommendations are made for the nuclear industry

  11. Data Quality Assurance Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Gonzalez; Stephanie Suhr

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable describes the ELIXIR-EXCELERATE Quality Management Strategy, addressing EXCELERATE Ethics requirement no. 5 on Data Quality Assurance Governance. The strategy describes the essential procedures and practices within ELIXIR-EXCELERATE concerning planning of quality management, performing quality assurance and controlling quality. It also depicts the overall organisation of ELIXIR with emphasis on authority and specific responsibilities related to quality assurance.

  12. Multinational Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Multinational colleges and universities pose numerous challenges to the traditional models of quality assurance that are designed to validate domestic higher education. When institutions cross international borders, at least two quality assurance protocols are involved. To guard against fraud and abuse, quality assurance in the host country is…

  13. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Young Sook; Kim, Ha Kyung [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to chickens for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity and nutritional safety. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay and in chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of mouse of treated groups were not affected during the experimental periods(four-weeks). In urine analysis, in hematological examination as well as in serum biochemical experiment, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. Although minor changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters were observed, they were in the normal range and were not dose dependent. In nutritional safety, the proximate composition of foods were not significantly changed by irradiation dose. No significant difference in the components of fatty acids were observed by gamma irradiation. In general, the amount of released free amino acid was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. There was no difference in total amino acid content between non irradiated and irradiated samples. The SDS electrophoresis patterns of samples were not significantly different between nonirradiated and irradiated samples. The major mineral compositions of chicken were phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium. The content of mineral was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. 58 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  14. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  15. Analysis of compatibility of current Czech initial documentation in the area of technical assurance of nuclear safety with the requirements of the EUR document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdebor, J.; Zdebor, R.; Kratochvil, L.

    2001-11-01

    The publication is structured as follows: Description of existing documentation. General requirements, goals, principles and design principles: Documents being compared; Method of comparison; Results and partial evaluation of comparison of requirements between EUR and Czech regulations (basic goals and safety philosophy; quantitative safety objectives; basic design requirements; extended design requirements; external and internal threats; technical requirements; site conditions); Summary of the comparison of safety requirements. Comparison of requirements for the systems: Requirements for the nuclear reactor unit systems; Barrier systems (fuel system; reactor cooling system; containment system); Remaining systems (control systems; protection systems; coolant makeup and purification system; residual heat removal system; emergency cooling system; power systems); Common technical requirements for systems (technical requirements for systems; internal and external events). (P.A.)

  16. Management of national nuclear power programs for assured safety. Report of visit by international participants to INEL on August 24, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhani, S.Z.

    1985-10-01

    Through a special arrangement with the US State Department and support from the Department of Energy a group of high ranking officials from six different countries visited the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on August 24, 1985. They were briefed on the highlights of the US-NRC's nuclear safety research programs at the INEL. The purpose of this project was to broadcast the advancements of the US nuclear safety technology to other nations that are at the start of major programs for peaceful use of nuclear energy in their countries

  17. Seafood Safety and Quality: The Consumer’s Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris T. Hicks

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available All the good news about seafood—the health and nutritional benefits, the wide varieties and flavors—has had a positive effect on consumption: people are eating more seafood (http://www.seagrant.sunysb.edu/seafood/pdfs/SeafoodSavvy.pdf. Yet consumers want to be assured that seafood is as safe as, or safer to eat than, other foods. When you hear “seafood safety”, think of a safety net designed to protect you, the consumer, from food-borne illness. Every facet of the seafood industry, from harvester to consumer, plays a role in holding up the safety net. The role of state and federal agencies, fishermen, aquaculturists, retailers, processors, restaurants, and scientists is to provide, update, and carry out the necessary handling, processing, and inspection procedures to give consumers the safest seafood possible. The consumer’s responsibility is to follow through with proper handling techniques, from purchase to preparation. It doesn’t matter how many regulations and inspection procedures are set up; the final edge of the safety net is held by the consumer. This article will give you the information you need to educate yourself and be assured that the fish and shellfish you consume are safe. The most common food-borne illnesses are caused by a combination of bacteria naturally present in our environment and food handling errors made in commercial settings, food service institutions, or at home.

  18. Assessment of Primary Production of Horticultural Safety Management Systems of Mushroom Farms in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzingirayi, Garikayi; Korsten, Lise

    2016-07-01

    Growing global consumer concern over food safety in the fresh produce industry requires producers to implement necessary quality assurance systems. Varying effectiveness has been noted in how countries and food companies interpret and implement food safety standards. A diagnostic instrument (DI) for global fresh produce industries was developed to measure the compliancy of companies with implemented food safety standards. The DI is made up of indicators and descriptive grids for context factors and control and assurance activities to measure food safety output. The instrument can be used in primary production to assess food safety performance. This study applied the DI to measure food safety standard compliancy of mushroom farming in South Africa. Ten farms representing almost half of the industry farms and more than 80% of production were independently assessed for their horticultural safety management system (HSMS) compliance via in-depth interviews with each farm's quality assurance personnel. The data were processed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and are represented in frequency tables. The diagnosis revealed that the mushroom farming industry had an average food safety output. The farms were implementing an average-toadvanced HSMS and operating in a medium-risk context. Insufficient performance areas in HSMSs included inadequate hazard analysis and analysis of control points, low specificity of pesticide assessment, and inadequate control of suppliers and incoming materials. Recommendations to the industry and current shortcomings are suggested for realization of an improved industry-wide food safety assurance system.

  19. Reliability assurance for regulation of advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.; Lofaro, R.; Samanta, P.

    1991-01-01

    The advanced nuclear power plants must achieve higher levels of safety than the first generation of plants. Showing that this is indeed true provides new challenges to reliability and risk assessment methods in the analysis of the designs employing passive and semi-passive protection. Reliability assurance of the advanced reactor systems is important for determining the safety of the design and for determining the plant operability. Safety is the primary concern, but operability is considered indicative of good and safe operation. This paper discusses several concerns for reliability assurance of the advanced design encompassing reliability determination, level of detail required in advanced reactor submittals, data for reliability assurance, systems interactions and common cause effects, passive component reliability, PRA-based configuration control system, and inspection, training, maintenance and test requirements. Suggested approaches are provided for addressing each of these topics

  20. Reliability assurance for regulation of advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.; Lofaro, R.; Samanta, P.

    1992-01-01

    The advanced nuclear power plants must achieve higher levels of safety than the first generation of plants. Showing that this is indeed true provides new challenges to reliability and risk assessment methods in the analysis of the designs employing passive and semi-passive protection. Reliability assurance of the advanced reactor systems is important for determining the safety of the design and for determining the plant operability. Safety is the primary concern, but operability is considered indicative of good and safe operation. this paper discusses several concerns for reliability assurance of the advanced design encompassing reliability determination, level of detail required in advanced reactor submittals, data for reliability assurance, systems interactions and common cause effects, passive component reliability, PRA-based configuration control system, and inspection, training, maintenance and test requirements. Suggested approaches are provided for addressing each of these topics

  1. A systematic assessment of quality assurance-based food safety management system of Chinese edible oil manufacturer in view of context characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yingxue; He, Zhen; Luning, Pieternel A.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a framework of a food safety management system-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI), for the assessment of the context of a Chinese edible oil manufacture through the view of a case study, and an evaluation of the performance of the FSMS of a Chinese edible oil company. The study

  2. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  3. The application of quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovatt, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the application of quality assurance to structures, systems and components for the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plant and fuel reprocessing plant. A description is given of:- the requirements for quality assurance, the establishment of quality assurance arrangements, quality assurance documents structure, and quality assurance manuals and programmes. Quality assurance procedures and auditing are also discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Quality assurance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    It consists of 14 chapters, which are outline of quality assurance of nuclear energy, standard of quality assurance, business quality assurance, design quality assurance, purchase quality assurance, production quality assurance, a test warranty operation warranty, maintenance warranty, manufacture of nuclear power fuel warranty, computer software warranty, research and development warranty and quality audit.

  5. New techniques in quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornicola, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    GPU Nuclear Corp. has a multifaceted quality assurance (QA) program. This program includes a comprehensive QA organization to help ensure its implementation. The QA organization employs various techniques in assuring quality at GPU Nuclear. These techniques not only include the typical QA/quality-control verification activities, i.e., QA engineering, quality control, and audits, but also include some new innovative techniques. Several new techniques have been developed for verifying activities. These techniques include monitoring and functional audits of safety systems. Several new techniques for assessing performance and adequacy and effectiveness of plant and QA programs, such as plant assessments and QA systems engineering evaluations, have also been developed. This paper provides an overview of these and other new techniques being employed by GPU Nuclear's QA organization

  6. Experiment Safety Assurance Package for the 40- to 50-GWd/MT Burnup Phase of Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation in Small I-Hole Positions in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khericha, S.T.

    2002-06-30

    This experiment safety assurance package (ESAP) is a revision of the last MOX ESAP issued in February 2001(Khericha 2001). The purpose of this revision is to identify the changes in the loading pattern and to provide a basis to continue irradiation up to {approx}42 GWd/MT burnup (+ 2.5%) as predicted by MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) transport code before the preliminary postirradiation examination (PIE) results for 40 GWd/MT burnup are available. Note that the safety analysis performed for the last ESAP is still applicable and no additional analysis is required (Khericha 2001). In July 2001, it was decided to reconfigure the test assembly using the loading pattern for Phase IV, Part 3, at the end of Phase IV, Part 1, as the loading pattern for Phase IV, Parts 2 and 3. Three capsule assemblies will be irradiated until the highest burnup capsule assembly accumulates: {approx}50 GWd/MT burnup, based on the MCNP code predictions. The last ESAP suggests that at the end of Phase IV, Part 1, we remove the two highest burnup capsule assemblies ({at} {approx}40 GWd/MT burnup) and send them to ORNL for PIE. Then, irradiate the test assembly using the loading pattern for Phase IV, Part 2, until the highest burnup capsule reaches {approx}40 GWd/MT burnup per MCNP-predicted values.

  7. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  8. High assurance SPIRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Franz; Sandryhaila, Aliaksei; Johnson, Jeremy R.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we introduce High Assurance SPIRAL to solve the last mile problem for the synthesis of high assurance implementations of controllers for vehicular systems that are executed in today's and future embedded and high performance embedded system processors. High Assurance SPIRAL is a scalable methodology to translate a high level specification of a high assurance controller into a highly resource-efficient, platform-adapted, verified control software implementation for a given platform in a language like C or C++. High Assurance SPIRAL proves that the implementation is equivalent to the specification written in the control engineer's domain language. Our approach scales to problems involving floating-point calculations and provides highly optimized synthesized code. It is possible to estimate the available headroom to enable assurance/performance trade-offs under real-time constraints, and enables the synthesis of multiple implementation variants to make attacks harder. At the core of High Assurance SPIRAL is the Hybrid Control Operator Language (HCOL) that leverages advanced mathematical constructs expressing the controller specification to provide high quality translation capabilities. Combined with a verified/certified compiler, High Assurance SPIRAL provides a comprehensive complete solution to the efficient synthesis of verifiable high assurance controllers. We demonstrate High Assurance SPIRALs capability by co-synthesizing proofs and implementations for attack detection and sensor spoofing algorithms and deploy the code as ROS nodes on the Landshark unmanned ground vehicle and on a Synthetic Car in a real-time simulator.

  9. [Equipping the bacteriological laboratories of a tuberculosis service as the most important element of assurance of the quality and safety of their work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevast'ianova, E V; Martynova, L P; Barilo, V N; Golyshevskaia, V I; Shul'gina, M V

    2009-01-01

    By taking into account the present requirements for the equipping of the laboratories, the authors have drawn up the minimum standard list of equipment, as well as a list of additional equipment for the specialized bacteriological laboratory of a tuberculosis-controlling institution, which performs microbiological studies for the diagnosis and control of chemotherapy for tuberculosis. The specifications and characteristics of the baric types of equipment used to fit out the laboratories under the present conditions are described. Equipping the laboratories in accordance with the draw-up lists is shown to ensure a qualitative, effective, and safe work. Recommendations on how to supply the laboratories with equipment, to make the optimal choice, and to use consumables for tests are given.

  10. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. General safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Priority to safety; (2) Financial and human resources;; (3) Human factor; (4) Operator's quality assurance system; (5) Safety assessment and Verification; (6) Radiation protection and (7) Emergency preparedness

  12. Quality assurance for fittings considering nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Negative experience made during World War II led to the idea of quality assurance being born in the United States. Thoroughly misunderstood, it came to be incorporated in European mechanical engineering. Quality assurance there was initially considered to be a new term for the oganizational combination of all parts of an enterprise dealing with testing. German manufacturers of heavy-duty and safety fittings represented in the international market were compelled at a relatively early date to properly understand and realize a quality assurance programme. But the multi-fariousness of specifications to be applied and great number of the most different parts made eminent demands on the suitability and variability of the products developed. On the basis of 18 quality criteria the article describes the structure of 'quality' and what its consequences are for an effective quality assurance system - suited for all kinds of specifications. (orig.) [de

  13. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  14. Quality assurance of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The guide presents the quality assurance requirements to be completed with in the procurement, design, manufacture, transport, handling and operation of the nuclear fuel. The guide also applies to the procurement of the control rods and the shield elements to be placed in the reactor. The guide is mainly aimed for the licensee responsible for the procurement and operation of fuel, for the fuel designer and manufacturer and for other organizations whose activities affect fuel quality, the safety of fuel transport, storage and operation. (2 refs.)

  15. Hanford Tanks Initiative quality assurance implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huston, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan for Nuclear Facilities defines the controls for the products and activities developed by HTI. Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD)(HNF-PRO599) is the document that defines the quality requirements for Nuclear Facilities. The QAPD provides direction for compliance to 10 CFR 830.120 Nuclear Safety Management, Quality Assurance Requirements. Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year activity resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the US Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30), and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). HTI will develop and demonstrate technologies and processes for characterization and retrieval of single shell tank waste. Activities and products associated with HTI consist of engineering, construction, procurement, closure, retrieval, characterization, and safety and licensing

  16. Quality assurance in tube manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, H.

    1976-01-01

    Reliability in service essential for many high-technology products fabricated today. This is particularly the case within the nuclear industry. Here defective materials or components may have diastrous consequences to the safety of human beings and the environment. A new concept - Quality Assurance - originates from this industry. The concept implies that all contractors, fabricators and material manufactures involved must prove that the quality control system used, fulfits particular requirements at all manufacturing, inspection and testing stages. These requirement are laid down in two standards issued by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. These standards are discussed in the paper. As a manufacturer of steel products for nuclear applications Sandvik has been forced to establish a quality assurance system according to these principles. The Sandvik approach is briefly described with regard to organisation and other major quality assurance activities. Further the education and training of operators and technicians is touched upon. Finally some viewpoints regarding audits performed by customers of steel manufacturers are expressed. (author)

  17. Quality assurance during preoperational testing and during startup operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisele, H.; Meyer, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    Rules and guidelines for the quality assurance. Quality assurance in the course of preoperational testing and the startup period: preoperational testing; hot functional test I; hot functional test II; initial making critical and zero power physics testing; power range testing. Startup documents: startup program; startup instructions; startup data sheet; startup sequence outlines; final startup reports. Advisory safety committee for nuclear startup. (orig./RW)

  18. Consumer protection: how much and who decides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Some topics discussed are: safety characteristics of electronic products such as color television sets and microwave ovens; impossibility of lay consumer determining frequency, severity, and probability of injury from radiation emissions; leakage of x radiation from color television sets; costs of safety standards to consumer; user habits and attitudes such as ignoring directions in instruction booklets; and consumer participation such as Consumers Union petition to amend the federal microwave standard and meetings of the technical electronic products radiation safety standards committee

  19. Quality assurance in radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi Netto, T.; Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: 1) the importance of the application of a quality assurance program in radiodiagnosis, with its main consequences : improvement of imaging quality, reduction of the patient expossure rate, cost reduction and 2) how to introduce the quality assurance control in the radiodiagnostic area. (M.A.) [pt

  20. Authentication Assurance Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Cash, James R.; Devaney, David M.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Hansen, Randy R.; Melton, Ronald B.; Pitts, W. Karl

    2002-01-01

    This Common Criteria approach has been applied to create a definition of Authentication Assurance Levels that can quantify the level of assurance reached for a system subject to a set of authentication procedures. The arms-control authentication application of the Common Criteria expands on more typical information security evaluations in that it must contend with information barriers and preclude sophisticated intentional subversion attempts.

  1. Quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.L.

    The concept of levels of quality assurance as applied to CANDU-type nuclear power plant components, i.e. maintaining an appropriate cost/benefit ratio, is introduced. The design process itself has quality assurance features by virtue of multi-level review. (E.C.B.)

  2. [Design of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan to assure the safety of a bologna product produced by a meat processing plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Rached, Lizet; Ascanio, Norelis; Hernández, Pilar

    2004-03-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic integral program used to identify and estimate the hazards (microbiological, chemical and physical) and the risks generated during the primary production, processing, storage, distribution, expense and consumption of foods. To establish a program of HACCP has advantages, being some of them: to emphasize more in the prevention than in the detection, to diminish the costs, to minimize the risk of manufacturing faulty products, to allow bigger trust to the management, to strengthen the national and international competitiveness, among others. The present work is a proposal based on the design of an HACCP program to guarantee the safety of the Bologna Special Type elaborated by a meat products industry, through the determination of hazards (microbiological, chemical or physical), the identification of critical control points (CCP), the establishment of critical limits, plan corrective actions and the establishment of documentation and verification procedures. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven basic principles settled down by the Codex Alimentarius, obtaining the design of this program. In view of the fact that recently the meat products are linked with pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, these were contemplated as microbiological hazard for the establishment of the HACCP plan whose application will guarantee the obtaining of a safe product.

  3. Laboratory quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    The elements (principles) of quality assurance can be applied to the operation of the analytical chemistry laboratory to provide an effective tool for indicating the competence of the laboratory and for helping to upgrade competence if necessary. When used, those elements establish the planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence in each analytical result reported by the laboratory (the definition of laboratory quality assurance). The elements, as used at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), are discussed and they are qualification of analysts, written methods, sample receiving and storage, quality control, audit, and documentation. To establish a laboratory quality assurance program, a laboratory QA program plan is prepared to specify how the elements are to be implemented into laboratory operation. Benefits that can be obtained from using laboratory quality assurance are given. Experience at HEDL has shown that laboratory quality assurance is not a burden, but it is a useful and valuable tool for the analytical chemistry laboratory

  4. Surveillance of Salmonella enteritidis in layer houses: a retrospective comparison of the Food and Drug Administration's egg safety rule (2010-2011) and the California Egg Quality Assurance Program (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitesky, Maurice; Charlton, Bruce; Bland, Mark; Rolfe, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Between July 2007 and December 2011, 2660 environmental drag swab samples were collected in total from California layer flocks on behalf of the California Egg Quality Assurance Program (CEQAP), the egg safety rule (21 CFR Parts 16 and 118) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or both. The samples were processed by the California Animal Health and Food Safety Lab, and positive or negative results for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) were recorded. This study retrospectively compares the differences between the FDA and CEQAP programs with respect to their SE environmental sampling surveillance results. To accomplish this comparison, two different CEQAP (new and old) data sets representing different SE environmental surveillance approaches in the life of the flock were compared against each other and against the FDA's SE environmental testing plan. Significant differences were noted between the CEQAP and FDA programs with respect to the prevalence of SE in the farm environment. Analyses of the prevalence of SE at different stages in the flock's life cycle (chick papers, preproduction, midproduction, postmolt, and premarket) found the highest prevalence of SE in premarket (11.9%), followed by postmolt (3.5%) and midproduction (3.4%), and there was a tie between chick papers and preproduction (2.1%). To assess the main effects of the presence of SE in the farm environment, backwards binary logistic regression was used. Of six independent variables examined (age of flock, year, season, owner, CEQAP membership, and analysis of pooled samples vs. individual swabs), only age of flock, owner, and year were determined to be significant factors in the final model. Although CEQAP membership and pooling vs. individuals swabs were not included in the final model, Pearson chi-square tests did show significantly higher odds of SE for non-CEQAP member farms and higher odds of SE in pooled samples vs. individual swabs.

  5. 10 CFR 72.142 - Quality assurance organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... activities are performed, the organizational structure for executing the quality assurance program may take... the required authority and organizational freedom. Irrespective of the organizational structure, the... functions of structures, systems, and components which are important to safety. These activities include...

  6. Quality assurance manual for the development of digital systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Kwon; Kwon, Kee Choon; You, Young Eun; Kim, Kwan Hyun; Park, Jung Woo; Park, Chan Seok

    2001-12-01

    A digital safety system is being developed by three companies under the Korea Nuclear I and C System R and D Program. This Quality Assurance Manual (QAM) is written to ensure the safety and reliability of the system and to meet the regulatory requirements associated with quality assurance. This QAM describes eighteen elements of quality assurance criteria required for the development of the system, which are coincident with the criteria specified in Nuclear Energy Laws and Enforcement Regulations of Nuclear Energy Laws and 10CFR50 Appendix B. This QAM is submitted to the regulatory body with other documents related to the quality assurance activities performed during the system development. And its safety, validity and fulfillment are reviewed and audited in the review process of topical report of the digital safety system

  7. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompon Wanwimolruk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits and also the maximum residue limits (MRL regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015. MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice. This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets and 99% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets and 100% (supermarkets for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets and 97% (supermarkets for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets and 35% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets and 55% (supermarkets for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets and 49% (supermarkets for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold

  8. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations

  9. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations.

  10. 75 FR 32161 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Consumer Focus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... staff relies on its expert judgment about consumer behavior, perceptions, and similar information... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC-2010-0046] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Consumer Focus Groups AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety...

  11. Product Failures in Respirators and Consumables: Analysis of Field Safety Notices of 2005-2013 Publicized by the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Jürgen; Siekmeier, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    The current European system governed by the three EC directives 93/42/EEC (Medical Device Directive), 98/79/EC (In-Vitro Diagnostic Directive) and 90/385/EEC (Active Implantable Medical Device Directive) regulates marketing and post-market surveillance of medical devices in the European Economic Area (EEA). In cases of incidents raising the field safety corrective actions (FSCA), manufacturers have to inform the responsible Competent Authority (CA; in Germany this is the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, BfArM) and the public by field safety notices (FSN). In this study we analyzed FSN of respirators and consumables directly required for their function, whereas devices for anesthesia and gas delivery were excluded. FSCA and FSN of 2005-2013 publicized by BfArM for the included products were analyzed with respect to the MEDDEV 2.12-1 rev. 8. In total, 60 FSCA were publicized. German and English FSN were found in 59/53 cases, respectively. FSN were clearly characterized as FSN in 44/38 cases and declaration of the type of action in 45/44 cases, respectively. Product names were provided in all cases. Lot numbers or other information for product characterization were available in 7/7 and 43/40 cases, respectively. Detailed information regarding FSCA and product malfunction was found in all cases. Information on product related risks with previous use of affected devices was provided in 42/38 cases. In 53/53 cases manufacturers provided information to mitigate product related risks. Requests to pass FSN to persons needing awareness in the organization were found in 27/24 cases. Contact data were provided in 53/48 cases, respectively. Confirmation that a CA was informed was found in 28/26 cases and in 19/15 cases a customer confirmation was included. The identified risks were: total loss of function (19/16), short circuit (1/1) and burn (3/3), and inhalation of foreign particles (1/1) which might cause severe risk to patients and users. The most frequent

  12. DOE financial assurance presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, R.

    1990-01-01

    The presentation topic is California's approach to license application review in meeting financial assurances for the proposed Ward Valley site. The purpose of the presentation is to provide information on specific financial assurance provisions contained in 10 CFR Part 61 and how California intends to satisfy those requirements. Also, as rate setter, California intends to demonstrate how it will assure allowable costs to the rate base though a financial prudency review. The key provisions of financial assurance are: 10 CFR Section 61.61 - This provision requires an applicant to demonstrate its ability to finance licensed activities; 10 CFR Section 61.62 - This provision requires an applicant to provide assurance that sufficient funds will be available for site closure and stabilization; and 10 CFR Section 61.63 - This provision requires an applicant to provide 'a copy of a binding arrangement, such as a lease, between the applicant and the disposal site owner, so that sufficient funds will be available to cover the costs of the institutional control period.' To assist California in its determination of financial assurance compliance to be demonstrated by the applicant for Part 61 requirements, is NUREG guidance document 1199 'Standard Format and Content of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Disposal Facility.' The detailed financial assurance provisions of NUREG 1199 are then embodied in NUREG 1200, 'Standard Review Plant for the Review of a License Application for a LLRW Disposal Facility.'

  13. Software quality assurance handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    There are two important reasons for Software Quality Assurance (SQA) at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD): First, the benefits from SQA make good business sense. Second, the Department of Energy has requested SQA. This handbook is one of the first steps in a plant-wide implementation of Software Quality Assurance at KCD. The handbook has two main purposes. The first is to provide information that you will need to perform software quality assurance activities. The second is to provide a common thread to unify the approach to SQA at KCD. 2 figs.

  14. Metrics design for safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Yaping; van den Brand, M.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:In the safety domain, safety assessment is used to show that safety-critical systems meet the required safety objectives. This process is also referred to as safety assurance and certification. During this procedure, safety standards are used as development guidelines to keep the risk at an

  15. Repository construction management and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    An emphasis on preventive rather than reactive management is key to an efficient construction management operation. Development of contingency plans to deal with unexpected adverse conditions, e.g., brine pockets during mining operations, are an integral part of the management program to ensure project safety, quality, cost, schedule and environmental objectives are met. A viable quality assurance program with active management support will optimize management effectiveness in reaching project goals. With adequate planning and perceptive application of the proper management controls, Quality Assurance becomes an essential ingredient for efficiently managing a job because it has been built into the management system rather than being an uninvolved peripheral entity. 6 references, 3 figures

  16. Model Based Mission Assurance: Emerging Opportunities for Robotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John W.; DiVenti, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) in a Model Based Engineering framework has created new opportunities to improve effectiveness and efficiencies across the assurance functions. The MBSE environment supports not only system architecture development, but provides for support of Systems Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis concurrently in the same framework. Linking to detailed design will further improve assurance capabilities to support failures avoidance and mitigation in flight systems. This also is leading new assurance functions including model assurance and management of uncertainty in the modeling environment. Further, the assurance cases, a structured hierarchal argument or model, are emerging as a basis for supporting a comprehensive viewpoint in which to support Model Based Mission Assurance (MBMA).

  17. Quality assurance in the manufacture of pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoedler, D.

    1979-01-01

    New regulations for nuclear power plants emphasize more quality assurance than it was the case in the past. Quality assurance is a management tool. During erection the quality assurance measures of the manufacturer, the main contractor and the required quality and the reliability of the proof of quality. The qualification of processes, equipment and personnel is a significant measure of quality assurance. The proof for quality assurance to be effective needs not only system-oriented audits, but also product audits aimed at quality characteristics of the product itself. The existing problems of examination techniques not optimized according to latest experience and of the large volume of documetation will persist in case the existing regulations are not adjusted according to the results of relevant studies. Furthermore the effectiveness of quality assurance is too often hampered by vague definitions of the safety objectives. (orig.) [de

  18. Application of project design peer review to improve quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    DOE ORDER 5481.1B Safety Analysis and Review Systems and DOE ORDER 6430.1A General Design Criteria require that the design of facilities shall incorporate the necessary Quality Assurance review requirements to assure that the established program quality assurance objectives are met in the design criteria and the construction documents. The use of Project Design Peer Review to satisfy these requirements is presented. The University of California manages the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratory. The 1988 University Seismic Safety Policy requires the use of independent Project Design Peer Review in its capital improvement and seismic reconstruction program

  19. Is quality assurance really necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwen, L.

    1983-01-01

    The modern concept of quality assurance began to take root in the 50's in Japan. In the rest of the world the demand for quality of products and services might well have arisen through the demise of the craftsman, concurrent with a change in emphasis from quality and workmanship towards economy and output. In the beginning this metamorphosis had its virtues, when rationalisation of production methods benefited both producer and consumer. However, the increasing pressure on production in virtually all sectors of commerce and industry inevitably lead to a trend towards cutting corners, a philosophy not conducive to increasing the standards of quality. The shortage of skilled manpower began to make itself felt at about the same time. The civil construction industry did not remain unscathed

  20. Is quality assurance really necessary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwen, L

    1983-03-01

    The modern concept of quality assurance began to take root in the 50's in Japan. In the rest of the world the demand for quality of products and services might well have arisen through the demise of the craftsman, concurrent with a change in emphasis from quality and workmanship towards economy and output. In the beginning this metamorphosis had its virtues, when rationalisation of production methods benefited both producer and consumer. However, the increasing pressure on production in virtually all sectors of commerce and industry inevitably lead to a trend towards cutting corners, a philosophy not conducive to increasing the standards of quality. The shortage of skilled manpower began to make itself felt at about the same time. The civil construction industry did not remain unscathed.

  1. Research on quality assurance classification methodology for domestic AP1000 nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jinhua; Jiang Huijie; Li Jingyan

    2012-01-01

    To meet the quality assurance classification requirements of domestic nuclear safety codes and standards, this paper analyzes the quality assurance classification methodology of domestic AP1000 nuclear power projects at present, and proposes the quality assurance classification methodology for subsequent AP1000 nuclear power projects. (authors)

  2. Quality assurance program manual for nuclear power plants. Volume I. Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Policies and procedures are presented which comply with current NRC regulatory requirements and industry codes and standards in effect during the design, procurement, construction, testing, operation, refueling, maintenance, repair and modification activities associated with nuclear power plants. Specific NRC and industry documents that contain the requirements, including the issue dates in effect, are identified in each nuclear power plant's Safety Analysis Report. The requirements established by these documents form the basis for the Consumers Power Quality Assurance Program, which is implemented to control those structures, systems, components and operational safety actions listed in each nuclear power plant's Quality List (Q-List). As additional and revised requirements are issued by the NRC and professional organizations involved in nuclear activities, they will be reviewed for their impact on this manual, and changes will be made where considered necessary

  3. Quality assurance and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of the quality assurance program of an office of waste management development (OWTD). The program's needs and commitment are examined. The author reports on the role of program and technical managers in such a program

  4. The changing consciousness of the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, G.

    1989-01-01

    There has been a growing world-wide shift in consumer consciousness during the 1980s. More and more, consumers are challenging the conclusions and assurances of authorities and demanding to be better informed so that they can draw their own conclusions and make their choices accordingly. The viewpoint of these consumers is articulated, so that the specialists involved in the radurization of food can have a better understanding of what they are dealing with

  5. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  6. Quality assurance in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, S.; Meghzifene, A.; Tatsuzaki, H.; Levin, V.; Izewska, J.

    2001-01-01

    Quality assurance in the management of a patient receiving radiation therapy and the role of the radiation oncologist and medical physicist in this process is described. The constraints on available personnel are recognised and the need for further education resources and IAEA activities in education for both groups described. IAEA activities in the clinical and dosimetric aspects and the resultant publications and education have contributed to a culture of quality assurance. (author)

  7. Quality assurance in NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, K.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of Nondestructive Testing (NDT) as a Quality Control/Quality Assurance tool in the industrial domain cannot be over-emphasized. With the rapid advancement in research and technology, the NDT field is becoming larger and more sophisticated day by day. Innovative research in materials science and digital technology is paving the way for more and more new methods in NDT technology. Although the NDT technology has improved over the years, the basic 'human factor' underlying the success of the NDT field remains the same. There are two major factors that influence the 'Quality Assurance in NDT'. First, knowledgeable and skilled NDT Operators are the most important factor in assuring the reliable test results. Second, the Management oversight of the NDT operations plays a major role in assuring the overall quality of NDT. Management responsibilities include the implementation of a Quality Management System (QMS) that focuses on the NDT operations and apply all the elements of Quality Assurance relevant to NDT. Whether the NDT operations are performed in-house or by a contractor, periodic Management Self-assessments should include the following question: How can the Management assess and improve the 'Quality Assurance in NDT'? This paper attempts to answer the above question. Some practical examples are provided to illustrate the potential quality incidents that could lead to costly failures, and the role of NDT Operator and the Management in preventing such quality incidents. Also, some guidelines are provided on how the Management can apply the elements of Quality Assurance to NDT in order to assess and improve the 'Quality Assurance in NDT'. (author)

  8. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  9. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  10. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  11. Using in vitro/in silico data for consumer safety assessment of feed flavoring additives e A feasibility study using piperine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, A.; Etheve, S.; Fabian, E.; Leeman, W.R.; Plautz, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Consumer health risk assessment for feed additives is based on the estimated human exposure to the additive that may occur in livestock edible tissues compared to its hazard.We present an approach using alternative methods for consumer health risk assessment. The aim was to use the fewest possible

  12. Phase 2 sampling and analysis plan, Quality Assurance Project Plan, and environmental health and safety plan for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: An addendum to the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Greeley, M.S.; Halbrook, R.S.; Harris, R.A.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Howell, P.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    This document contains a three-part addendum to the Clinch River Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation Plan. The Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation began in 1989, as part of the comprehensive remediation of facilities on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The ORR was added to the National Priorities List in December 1989. The regulatory agencies have encouraged the adoption of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) terminology; therefore, the Clinch River activity is now referred to as the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI), not the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. Part 1 of this document is the plan for sampling and analysis (S A) during Phase 2 of the CRRI. Part 2 is a revision of the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the CRRI, and Part 3 is a revision of the Environmental Health and Safety Plan for the CRRI. The Clinch River RI (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds) released from the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. The contaminants identified in the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) downstream of the ORR are those associated with the water, suspended particles, deposited sediments, aquatic organisms, and wildlife feeding on aquatic organisms. The purpose of the Phase 2 S A Plan is to describe the proposed tasks and subtasks developed to meet the primary objectives of the CRRI.

  13. Phase 2 sampling and analysis plan, Quality Assurance Project Plan, and environmental health and safety plan for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: An addendum to the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Greeley, M.S.; Halbrook, R.S.; Harris, R.A.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Howell, P.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    This document contains a three-part addendum to the Clinch River Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation Plan. The Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation began in 1989, as part of the comprehensive remediation of facilities on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The ORR was added to the National Priorities List in December 1989. The regulatory agencies have encouraged the adoption of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) terminology; therefore, the Clinch River activity is now referred to as the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI), not the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. Part 1 of this document is the plan for sampling and analysis (S ampersand A) during Phase 2 of the CRRI. Part 2 is a revision of the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the CRRI, and Part 3 is a revision of the Environmental Health and Safety Plan for the CRRI. The Clinch River RI (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds) released from the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. The contaminants identified in the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) downstream of the ORR are those associated with the water, suspended particles, deposited sediments, aquatic organisms, and wildlife feeding on aquatic organisms. The purpose of the Phase 2 S ampersand A Plan is to describe the proposed tasks and subtasks developed to meet the primary objectives of the CRRI

  14. 12: Assuring the quality of critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacky, J.; Kalet, I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors recommend quality assurance procedures for radiation therapy software. Software quality assurance deals with preventing, detecting and repairing programming errors. Error detection difficulties are most severe in computer-based control systems, for example therapy machine control systems, because it may be impossible for users to confirm correct operation while treatments are in progress, or to intervene if things go wrong. Software quality assurance techniques observed in other industries in which public safety is at risk are reviewed. In some of these industries software must be approved or certified before it can be used. Approval is subject to technical reviews and audits by experts other than the program authors. The main obstacles to adoption of these techniques in the radiation therapy field are costs, lack of familiarity and doubts regarding efficacy. 18 refs

  15. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  16. The NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Mission Assurance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, NASA established the Commercial Crew Program in order to provide human access to the International Space Station and low earth orbit via the commercial (non-governmental) sector. A particular challenge to NASA has been how to determine the commercial providers transportation system complies with Programmatic safety requirements. The process used in this determination is the Safety Technical Review Board which reviews and approves provider submitted Hazard Reports. One significant product of the review is a set of hazard control verifications. In past NASA programs, 100 percent of these safety critical verifications were typically confirmed by NASA. The traditional Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) model does not support the nature of the Commercial Crew Program. To that end, NASA SMA is implementing a Risk Based Assurance (RBA) process to determine which hazard control verifications require NASA authentication. Additionally, a Shared Assurance Model is also being developed to efficiently use the available resources to execute the verifications. This paper will describe the evolution of the CCP Mission Assurance process from the beginning of the Program to its current incarnation. Topics to be covered include a short history of the CCP; the development of the Programmatic mission assurance requirements; the current safety review process; a description of the RBA process and its products and ending with a description of the Shared Assurance Model.

  17. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  18. Floating nuclear power plant safety assurance principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, B.M.; Kuchin, N.L.; Sergeev, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    In the north regions of the Russian federation and low density population areas, there is a real necessity for ecological clean energy small power sources. For this purpose, floating nuclear power plants, designed on the basis of atomic ship building engineering, are being conceptualized. It is possible to use the ship building plants for the reactor purposes. Issues such as radioactive waste management are described

  19. The challenge of Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.; Price, M.S.T.; Krischer, W.

    1985-01-01

    The safe terminal containment of hazardous wastes cannot only rely upon the geographic remoteness and the arid climates of the repository sites. Radioactive and permanently toxic chemical wastes must by prevented from returning to the human environment by natural and engineered barriers. The long-term integrity of these barriers and the safety of waste emplacement operation will be controlled by systematic actions under the common objective of Quality Assurance (QA). The following paper presents the aims of QA in the design and production of waste packages. It lists the most relevant acceptance criteria and regulatory requirements, investigates the institutional and technical problems of carrying out Quality Assurance and presents suggestions for establishing suitable organizational structures and technical programmes to provide adequate confidence in the safe nature and the performance of waste packages. In view of the technical difficulties of verifying the compliance of industrially produced waste forms with the acceptance criteria, the CEC has laid emphasis on the development of appropriate test methods in its last R and D programme. First results of the work are reviewed in the context of international progress in this field

  20. Consumer Fetish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien

    2015-01-01

    in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological...

  1. Consumer protection in electronic commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and other participants.

  2. Quality assurance and product quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Bastiani, P. de

    2004-01-01

    The basic quality assurance requirements have to be completed by means that are oriented towards the quality of products; in COGEMA LOGISTICS our approach is based on four principles: 1) an integrated management system: Quality, health and safety, environment 2) an organization based on the responsibility of all actors, trust and transparency 3) a methodical approach to continuously improve the methods that are employed to achieve quality: -process management -corrective and preventive actions -self assessments and various surveys 4) but at the same time strong procedures for control and monitoring of all activities: -technical and quality audits (external and internal) -at source inspections -engineering activities inspections This performance-based approach is necessary to guaranty the effectiveness of the traditional formal QA means

  3. Review of SKB's Quality Assurance Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, Tamara D.; Hicks, Timothy W.

    2009-06-01

    SKB is preparing a license application for the construction of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. This application will be supported by the safety assessment SR-Site for the post-closure phase. The assessment of long-term safety is based on a broad range of experimental results from laboratory scale, intermediate scale and up to full scale experiments. It is essential that there is a satisfactory level of assurance that experiments have been carried of with sufficient quality, so that results can be considered to be reliable within the context of their use in safety assessment. SSM has initiated a series of reviews of SKB's methods of quality assurance and their implementation. This project includes reviews of the quality assurance (QA) procedures and instructions that have been prepared for the SR-Site assessment as well as reviews of QA implementation at the canister and buffer/backfill laboratories in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The purpose of this project is to assess SKB's quality assurance with the view of providing a good basis for subsequent quality reviews in the context of future licensing. This has been achieved by examination of a number of SKB experiments using a check list, visits to the relevant facilities, and meetings with contractors and a few members of the SKB staff. Overall, the reviewed set of QA documents and instructions do provide reasonably comprehensive coverage of quality-affecting issues relating to the SR-Site safety assessment and, if implemented correctly, will generate confidence in the reliability of the safety assessment results. The results show that the efforts involving quality assurance are increasing within the SKB programme and in general appear to be satisfactory for ongoing experiments and measurements. However, progress in development of the QA documents and instructions has been relatively recent and it may be difficult for these to be fully implemented in the short period remaining before the planned licence

  4. Quality assurance of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frier, M.; Hesslewood, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    A practical guide has been composed for all persons involved in the preparation and use of radiopharmaceuticals on methods used in quality assurance and their applications. These methods include the calibration of ionization chamber assay calibrators, the determination of radionuclide purity, radiochemical purity and chemical purity, particle size analysis and the measurement of pH. Quality assurance procedures are described for products not described in Compendial Monographs, or where the monograph exists, additional useful information is provided; such radiopharmaceuticals include technetium, indium-labelled and iodine-labelled products. (U.K.)

  5. Software quality assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Laporte, Claude Y

    2018-01-01

    This book introduces Software Quality Assurance (SQA) and provides an overview of standards used to implement SQA. It defines ways to assess the effectiveness of how one approaches software quality across key industry sectors such as telecommunications, transport, defense, and aerospace. * Includes supplementary website with an instructor's guide and solutions * Applies IEEE software standards as well as the Capability Maturity Model Integration for Development (CMMI) * Illustrates the application of software quality assurance practices through the use of practical examples, quotes from experts, and tips from the authors

  6. Benchmarking Software Assurance Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    product The chicken#. (a.k.a. Process Focused Assessment ) – Management Systems ( ISO 9001, ISO 27001 , ISO 2000) – Capability Maturity Models (CMMI...Assurance PRM, RMM, Assurance for CMMI)) – Lifecycle Processes ( ISO /IEEE 15288, ISO /IEEE 12207) – COBIT, ITIL, MS SDL, OSAMM, BSIMM 5 The egg...a.k.a Product Focused Assessments) – SCAP - NIST-SCAP – ISO /OMG W3C – KDM, BPMN, RIF, XMI, RDF – OWASP Top 10 – SANS TOP 25 – Secure Code Check Lists

  7. Nuclear fuel quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Full text: Quality assurance is used extensively in the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. This methodology is applied to all activities affecting the quality of a nuclear power plant in order to obtain confidence that an item or a facility will perform satisfactorily in service. Although the achievement of quality is the responsibility of all parties participating in a nuclear power project, establishment and implementation of the quality assurance programme for the whole plant is a main responsibility of the plant owner. For the plant owner, the main concern is to achieve control over the quality of purchased products or services through contractual arrangements with the vendors. In the case of purchase of nuclear fuel, the application of quality assurance might be faced with several difficulties because of the lack of standardization in nuclear fuel and the proprietary information of the fuel manufacturers on fuel design specifications and fuel manufacturing procedures. The problems of quality assurance for purchase of nuclear fuel were discussed in detail during the seminar. Due to the lack of generally acceptable standards, the successful application of the quality assurance concept to the procurement of fuel depends on how much information can be provided by the fuel manufacturer to the utility which is purchasing fuel, and in what form and how early this information can be provided. The extent of information transfer is basically set out in the individual vendor-utility contracts, with some indirect influence from the requirements of regulatory bodies. Any conflict that exists appears to come from utilities which desire more extensive control over the product they are buying. There is a reluctance on the part of vendors to permit close insight of the purchasers into their design and manufacturing procedures, but there nevertheless seems to be an increasing trend towards release of more information to the purchasers. It appears that

  8. Quality assurance inspections in the transportation packaging supplier industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovich, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the quality assurance inspections of the transportation packaging supplier industry, conducted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on a routine basis since 1989 are discussed. The term supplier is used to include designers, fabricators, and distributors that hold NRC approved Quality Assurance Programs and Certificates of Compliance for packagings to transport radioactive materials. The objective of the inspections is to provide assurance that transportation packagings are fabricated and procured in accordance with 10 CFR Parts 21 and 71 requirements. The inspections are conducted in a systematic and comprehensive manner, utilizing uniform inspection techniques in order to assure uniformity and comparability. During the April 1989 and May 1991 period approximately 21 inspections were conducted by the Transportation Branch, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards of the NRC. The majority of the findings were identified in the areas of quality assurance procedures, control of special processes (e.g. welding, radiography), and maintenance of QA records

  9. AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

  10. Defining Baconian Probability for Use in Assurance Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of assurance cases (e.g., safety cases) in certification raises questions about confidence in assurance argument claims. Some researchers propose to assess confidence in assurance cases using Baconian induction. That is, a writer or analyst (1) identifies defeaters that might rebut or undermine each proposition in the assurance argument and (2) determines whether each defeater can be dismissed or ignored and why. Some researchers also propose denoting confidence using the counts of defeaters identified and eliminated-which they call Baconian probability-and performing arithmetic on these measures. But Baconian probabilities were first defined as ordinal rankings which cannot be manipulated arithmetically. In this paper, we recount noteworthy definitions of Baconian induction, review proposals to assess confidence in assurance claims using Baconian probability, analyze how these comport with or diverge from the original definition, and make recommendations for future practice.

  11. Consumer Neoteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Alemany Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.

  12. Medicine in Ancient Assur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbøll, Troels Pank

    This dissertation is a microhistorical study of a single individual named Kiṣir-Aššur who practiced medicine in the ancient city of Assur (modern northern Iraq) in the 7th century BCE. The study provides the first detailed analysis of one healer’s education and practice in ancient Mesopotamia...

  13. Quality assurance. 6. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masing, W.

    1979-01-01

    Brief introduction to the quality sector. After some explanations of the terms of quality, feature, and defect, the article discusses the planning of quality and testing, industrial metrology, the test risk, quality assurance, quality enhancement, quality cost, and organisational problems. (RW) [de

  14. Quality Assurance Program Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halford, Vaughn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryder, Ann Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Effective May 1, 2017, led by a new executive leadership team, Sandia began operating within a new organizational structure. National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (Sandia’s) Quality Assurance Program (QAP) was established to assign responsibilities and authorities, define workflow policies and requirements, and provide for the performance and assessment of work.

  15. Providing Continuous Assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, Jonne; Hulstijn, Joris

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that continuous assurance can be attained by combining continuous monitoring by management, with continuous auditing of data streams and the effectiveness of internal controls by an external auditor. However, we find that in existing literature the final step to continuous

  16. Bringing the DERP to consumers: 'Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Steven D

    2006-01-01

    Consumers Union, publisher of Consumer Reports magazine, has used the drug class reviews of the Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) as one critical component of a free public information project on the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost of prescription drugs. The project translates the DERP findings for consumers. Drawing on other sources and adding information on drug costs, the project chooses Best Buy drugs in each category it evaluates. This guidance can help consumers save up to thousands of dollars per year, and it has the potential to reduce overall drug spending.

  17. General safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness.

  18. General safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness.

  19. General safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness

  20. General safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness

  1. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

  2. Pedagogical guidance for consumer studies reflected in the South

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Umalusi (the Council for Quality Assurance in. General and ... government executed a national audit on teaching. In 1997, the ... refers to the methods, activities, principles or practices that ...... based learning in pre-service Consumer Studies.

  3. Creating Quality Assurance and International Transparency for Quality Assurance Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Dorte; Lindeberg, Tobias

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the experiences gained in the pilot project on mutual recognition conducted by the quality assurance agencies in the Nordic countries and the future perspective for international quality assurance of national quality assurance agencies. The background of the project was the nee...

  4. Safety strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The basis for safety strategy in nuclear industry and especially nuclear power plants is the prevention of radioactivity release inside or outside of the technical installation. Therefore either technical or administrative measures are combined to a general strategy concept. This introduction will explain in more detail the following topics: - basic principles of safety - lines of assurance (LOA) - defense in depth - deterministic and probabilistic methods. This presentation is seen as an introduction to the more detailed discussion following in this course, nevertheless some selected examples will be used to illustrate the aspects of safety strategy development although they might be repeated later on. (orig.)

  5. BYU Food Quality Assurance Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Quality Assurance Lab is located in the Eyring Science Center in the department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science. The Quality Assurance Lab has about 10...

  6. Physical aspects of quality assurance in cobalt teletherapy units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Kwan Hong [Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1989-06-01

    ICRU Report No. 24 states that +- 5% is a reasonable degree of accuracy to strive for in the delivery of absorbed doses to target volumes in radiotherapy. To achieve this quality assurance level, a comprehensive programme comprising both physical and clinical components is needed. The purpose of this paper is to present the rationale and guidelines for implementing a recommended quality assurance programme. It will emphasize the physical aspects pertaining to acceptance and constancy tests using Cobalt-60 teletherapy units. It will also outline a suggested schedule of quality assurance testings including radiation dosimetry, geometry and electrochemical safety. (author).

  7. Quality assurance program preparation - review of requirements and plant systems - selection of program levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmuss, G.

    1980-01-01

    The establishment and implementation for a practicable quality assurance program for a nuclear power plant demands a detailed background in the field of engineering, manufacturing, organization and quality assurance. It will be demonstrated with examples to define and control the achievement of quality related activities during the phases of design, procurement, manufactoring, commissioning and operation. In general the quality assurance program applies to all items, processes and services important to safety of nuclear power plant. The classification for safety related and non-safety related items and services demonstrate the levels of quality assurance requirements. The lecture gives an introduction of QA Program preparation under the following topics: -Basic criteria and international requirements - Interaction of QA activities - Modular and product oriented QA programs - Structuring of organization for the QA program - Identification of the main quality assurance functions and required actions - Quality Assurance Program documentation - Documentation of planning of activities - Control of program documents - Definitions. (orig./RW)

  8. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a safety...

  9. The Associations between the Milk Mothers Drink and the Milk Consumed by Their School-Aged Children. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel K.; Panely, Celeste V.; Wang, Min Qi

    2001-01-01

    A national survey identified predictors of school-age children's and adolescents' amount and type of milk intake. Findings indicated that geographic region, child's gender, and amount of milk mothers consumed predicted the children's milk consumption. Predictors of child milk type included the children's age, gender, race, geographic region,…

  10. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330. Consumers Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report, NUREG-0793, issued with respect to the application filed for licenses to operate the Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330). This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the open items identified in the Safety Evaluation Report and discusses recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards in its interim report dated June 8, 1982

  11. The development of quality assurance program in Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Rizal Mamat; Mohamad Zaid Mohamad; Mohd Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib

    2007-01-01

    One of the trivial issues in the operation of Nuclear Reactor is the safety of the system. Worldwide publicity on a few nuclear accidents as well as the notorious Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing has always bring about general public fear on anything related to nuclear. IAEA has always emphasized on the assurance of nuclear safety for all nuclear installations and activities. According to the IAEA safety guides, all research reactors are required to implement quality assurance programs to ensure the conduct of operations are in accordance with the safety standards required. This paper discusses the activities carried out toward the establishment of Quality Assurance Program for Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP). (Author)

  12. Creating Quality Assurance and International Transparency for Quality Assurance Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Dorte; Lindeberg, Tobias

    2004-01-01

    , on the one hand, to advance internationalisation of quality assurance of higher education, and on the other hand, allow for the differences in the national approaches to quality assurance. The paper will focus on two issues: first, the strength and weaknesses of the method employed and of the use of the ENQA......The paper presents the experiences gained in the pilot project on mutual recognition conducted by the quality assurance agencies in the Nordic countries and the future perspective for international quality assurance of national quality assurance agencies. The background of the project was the need...

  13. Metrology's role in quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeederberg, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    Metrology, the science of measurement, is playing an increasing role in modern industry as part of an on-going quality assurance programme. At Escom, quality assurance was critical during the construction of the Koeberg nuclear facility, and also a function in controlling services provided by Escom. This article deals with the role metrology plays in quality assurance

  14. Quality assurance program plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boom, R.J.

    1995-03-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies quality assurance program requirements and addresses the various Westinghouse Hanford Company organizations and their particular responsibilities in regards to sample and data handling of airborne emissions. The Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions requirements are defined in National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1991a). Reporting of the emissions to the US Department of Energy is performed in compliance with requirements of US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE-RL 1988). This Quality Assurance Program Plan is prepared in accordance with and to the requirements of QAMS-004/80, Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Program Plans (EPA 1983). Title 40 CFR Part 61, Appendix B, Method 114, Quality Assurance Methods (EPA 1991b) specifies the quality assurance requirements and that a program plan should be prepared to meet the requirements of this regulation. This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies NESHAP responsibilities and how the Westinghouse Hanford Company Environmental, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance Division will verify that the methods are properly implemented

  15. An operational health physics quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costigan, S.A.; McAtee, J.L. III; Somers, W.M.; Huchton, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, stipulates QA requirements for all DOE activities. This order is now codified as 10CFR830.120, Nuclear Safety Management, Quality Assurance Requirements, which is applicable to DOE nuclear facilities. A Quality Assurance Management Plan (QAMP) was developed by the Health Physics Operations Group (ESH-1) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of the ESH-1 QAMP is to ensure that operational radiation protection activities meet the criteria outlined in DOE Order 5700.6C, DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 and 10CFR830.120. The ten required elements are QA Program, Personal Training and Qualifications, Quality Improvement, Documents and Records, Work Processes, Design, Procurement, Inspection and Acceptance Testing, Management Assessment and Independent Assessment. The QAMP has been useful for the development of QAMPs at nuclear facilities and has helped ensure uniformity of institutional requirements where Health Physics services are deployed to facilities. To implement a subset of QAMP requirements, a Quality Assurance Self-Evaluation Program (QASE) was established. This program provides a novel self-audit mechanism for the formal identification and correction of non-conforming items related to Operational Health Physics. Additionally, the QASE is a useful management tool for Radiological Control Technician Supervisors and staff and provides a tracking mechanism for ongoing problem areas. Data have been Collected for two calendar years on a number of concerns that fall into four general categories: radiological posting and labeling, instrumentation, monitoring requirements, and radiological documents/records

  16. Revision of Krsko NPP Quality Assurance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscan, R.; Fifnja, I.; Kavsek, D.

    2012-01-01

    International standards from nuclear power plant operation area are being frequently upgraded and revised in accordance with the continuous improvement philosophy. This philosophy applies also to the area of Quality Assurance, which has also undergone significant improvement since the early 1950s. Besides just nuclear industry, there are also other international quality standards that are being continuously developed and revised, bringing needs for upgrades also in the nuclear application. Since the beginning of Krsko NPP construction, the overall Quality Assurance program and its applicable procedures were in place to assure that all planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that an item or service will satisfy given requirements to quality, are in place. The overall requirements for quality as one of the major objectives for Krsko NPP operation are also set forth in the Updated Safety Analyses Report, the document that serves as a base for operating license. During more than 30 years of Krsko NPP operation, the quality requirements and related documents were revised and upgraded in several attempts. The latest revision 6 of QD-1, Quality Assurance Plan was issued during the year 2011. The bases for the revision were: Changes of the Slovenian regulatory requirements (ZVISJV, JV5, JV9?), Changes of Krsko NPP licensing documents (USAR section 13?), SNSA inspection requirements, Changes of international standards (IAEA, ISO?), Conclusions of first PSR, Implementation of ISO standards in Krsko NPP (ISO14001, ISO17025), Changes of plant procedures, etc. One of the most obvious changes was the enlargement of the QA Plan scope to cover interdisciplinary areas defined in the plant management program MD-1, such as Safety culture, Self-assessment, Human performance, Industrial Safety etc. The attachment of the QA Plan defining relationships between certain standards was also updated to provide matrix for better correlation of requirements of

  17. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... safe to eat as food from conventionally bred animals. This conclusion stems from an extensive study of ...

  18. Quality assurance in microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Arora D

    2004-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) is the total process whereby the quality of laboratory reports can be guaranteed. The term quality control covers that part of QA, which primarily concerns the control of errors in the performance of tests and verification of test results. All materials, equipment and procedures must be adequately controlled. Culture media must be tested for sterility and performance. Each laboratory must have standard operating procedures (SOPs). QA of pre-analytical, analytical and po...

  19. SGHWR - quality assurance documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrard, R.S.; Caulfield, J.

    1976-01-01

    The quality assurance program for a modern power station such as an SGHWR type reactor plant must include a record of quality achievement. The case history record which is evidence of the actual quality of the plant and is a data bank of design, manufacture, and results of inspections and tests, is described. Documentation distribution, which keeps all key areas informed of plant item quality status, and the retrieval and storage of information, are briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  20. High-Assurance Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    HIGH-ASSURANCE SPIRAL CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY NOVEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO...MU 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Ave Pittsburgh, PA 15217 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. Carnegie Mellon Carnegie Mellon HA SPIRAL Code Synthesis KeYmaera X Hybrid Theorem Prover