Sample records for assurance sampling method


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Salarilak


    Full Text Available To determine the coverage rate, timeliness and quality of ante-natal care in rural areas under the coverage of Health Houses in West Azerbaijan province, 30 Health Houses (HH were randomly selected out of 731 HH in the province. In each HH, using the method of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS 28 women having recently born babies was selected. Data were collected using check-list for facilities, and questionnaires and forms to be completed from the files by interview. The study showed that the method of LQAS is quite effective for evaluation of this service at HH level. The weighted total coverage of ante-natal care was 46.2%. Quality of care was acceptable for 53.9% of mothers. The weighted average of time lines of care was 49.8%. Availability of facilities in delivery of this service was 100%, showing there was no short coming in this respect.

  2. Prevalence study of yaws in the Democratic Republic of Congo using the lot quality assurance sampling method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Gerstl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Until the 1970s the prevalence of non-venereal trepanomatosis, including yaws, was greatly reduced after worldwide mass treatment. In 2005, cases were again reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We carried out a survey to estimate the village-level prevalence of yaws in the region of Equator in the north of the country in order to define appropriate strategies to effectively treat the affected population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a community-based survey using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method to classify the prevalence of active yaws in 14 groups of villages (lots. The classification into high, moderate, or low yaws prevalence corresponded to World Health Organization prevalence thresholds for identifying appropriate operational treatment strategies. Active yaws cases were defined by suggestive clinical signs and positive rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination serological tests. The overall prevalence in the study area was 4.7% (95% confidence interval: 3.4-6.0. Two of 14 lots had high prevalence (>10%, three moderate prevalence (5-10% and nine low prevalence (<5%.. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although yaws is no longer a World Health Organization priority disease, the presence of yaws in a region where it was supposed to be eradicated demonstrates the importance of continued surveillance and control efforts. Yaws should remain a public health priority in countries where previously it was known to be endemic. The integration of sensitive surveillance systems together with free access to effective treatment is recommended. As a consequence of our study results, more than 16,000 people received free treatment against yaws.

  3. Sampling for assurance of future reliability (United States)

    Klauenberg, Katy; Elster, Clemens


    Ensuring measurement trueness, compliance with regulations and conformity with standards are key tasks in metrology which are often considered at the time of an inspection. Current practice does not always verify quality after or between inspections, calibrations, laboratory comparisons, conformity assessments, etc. Statistical models describing behavior over time may ensure reliability, i.e. they may give the probability of functioning, compliance or survival until some future point in time. It may not always be possible or economic to inspect a whole population of measuring devices or other units. Selecting a subset of the population according to statistical sampling plans and inspecting only these, allows conclusions about the quality of the whole population with a certain confidence. Combining these issues of sampling and aging, raises questions such as: How many devices need to be inspected, and at least how many of them must conform, so that one can be sure, that more than 100p % of the population will comply until the next inspection? This research is to raise awareness and offer a simple answer to such time- and sample-based quality statements in metrology and beyond. Reliability demonstration methods, such as the prevailing Weibull binomial model, quantify the confidence in future reliability on the basis of a sample. We adapt the binomial model to be applicable to sampling without replacement and simplify the Weibull model so that sampling plans may be determined on the basis of existing ISO standards. Provided the model is suitable, no additional information and no software are needed; and yet, the consumer is protected against future failure. We establish new sampling plans for utility meter surveillance, which are required by a recent modification of German law. These sampling plans are given in similar tables to the previous ones, which demonstrates their suitability for everyday use.

  4. Authentication Assurance Level Application to the Inventory Sampling Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, Mike M.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Hansen, Randy R.; Geelhood, Bruce D.


    This document concentrates on the identification of a standardized assessment approach for the verification of security functionality in specific equipment, the Inspection Sampling Measurement System (ISMS) being developed for MAYAK. Specifically, an Authentication Assurance Level 3 is proposed to be reached in authenticating the ISMS.

  5. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs. (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello


    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate.

  6. Optimization of single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS with sample anchoring as an assured method for bacterial and yeast cfu enumeration and single colony isolation from diverse samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pious Thomas


    Full Text Available We propose a simple technique for bacterial and yeast cfu estimations from diverse samples with no prior idea of viable counts, designated as single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS with the prime recommendation of sample anchoring (100 stocks. For pure cultures, serial dilutions were prepared from 0.1 OD (100 stock and 20 μl aliquots of six dilutions (101–106 were applied as 10–15 micro-drops in six sectors over agar-gelled medium in 9-cm plates. For liquid samples 100–105 dilutions, and for colloidal suspensions and solid samples (10% w/v, 101–106 dilutions were used. Following incubation, at least one dilution level yielded 6–60 cfu per sector comparable to the standard method involving 100 μl samples. Tested on diverse bacteria, composite samples and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SP-SDS offered wider applicability over alternative methods like drop-plating and track-dilution for cfu estimation, single colony isolation and culture purity testing, particularly suiting low resource settings.

  7. Chapter 5: Quality assurance/quality control in stormwater sampling (United States)

    Sampling the quality of stormwater presents unique challenges because stormwater flow is relatively short-lived with drastic variability. Furthermore, storm events often occur with little advance warning, outside conventional work hours, and under adverse weather conditions. Therefore, most stormwat...

  8. Procedures for sampling and sample reduction within quality assurance systems for solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective of this experimental study on sampling was to determine the size and number of samples of biofuels required (taken at two sampling points in each case) and to compare two methods of sampling. The first objective of the sample-reduction exercise was to compare the reliability of various sampling methods, and the second objective was to measure the variations introduced as a result of reducing the sample size to form suitable test portions. The materials studied were sawdust, wood chips, wood pellets and bales of straw, and these were analysed for moisture, ash, particle size and chloride. The sampling procedures are described. The study was conducted in Scandinavia. The results of the study were presented in Leipzig in October 2004. The work was carried out as part of the UK's DTI Technology Programme: New and Renewable Energy.

  9. Sampling system and method (United States)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee


    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  10. Sampling system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee


    In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. In various examples, the clamp is external to the tubing bundle or integral with the tubing bundle. According to one method, a tubing bundle and wireline are deployed together and the tubing bundle periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit. In a specific example, one or more clamps are used to connect the first and/or second conduits to an external wireline.

  11. Evaluation of a Standardized Method of Quality Assurance in Mental Health Records: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Bradshaw, Kelsey M.; Donohue, Bradley; Fayeghi, Jasmine; Lee, Tiffany; Wilks, Chelsey R.; Ross, Brendon


    The widespread adoption of research-supported treatments by mental health providers has facilitated empirical development of quality assurance (QA) methods. Research in this area has focused on QA systems aimed at assuring the integrity of research-supported treatment implementation, while examination of QA systems to assure appropriate…

  12. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L


    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  13. 42 CFR 440.260 - Methods and standards to assure quality of services. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods and standards to assure quality of services. 440.260 Section 440.260 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... and Limits Applicable to All Services § 440.260 Methods and standards to assure quality of...

  14. 利用LQAS方法开展疫苗接种率调查的分析%Analysis of carrying out the immunization coverage rate survey using Lot-Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢群; 池益强; 马姗姗


    Objective To evaluate the advantage and disadvantage of LQAS in investigating immunization coverage rate in children of Xiamen city, by comparing immunization coverage rate in children of Xiamen city with routine report immunization coverage rate. Methods Forty-two eligible children were sampled from each of the three towns, Xike, Gulangyu and Jinshan with LQAS, immunization coverage rate was calculated and was compared with routine report immunization coverage rate from na-tional routine immunization system. Results The investigated immunization coverage rates of the three towns were all above 97. 62%, while the routine report immunization coverage rates were above 97. 84%. The compared results showed that there was no significant difference between the two rates in Gulangyu and Jinshan town, while the investigated immunization coverage rate in Xike town was slightly lower than that of the reported. Conclusion LQAS can be used to investigate large-scale immunization coverage rate survey and evaluate the quality of reported immunization coverage rate because it is fast and convenient. It can’t be used to estimate the level of immunization coverage rate and should be used with caution in solving practical problems. Be sure to sample randomly and control the quality of investigation when using it.%目的:比较厦门市儿童调查疫苗接种率与常规免疫报告接种率的差异,评价调查抽样方法LQAS的优点与缺点。方法采用批质量保证抽样方法( LQAS)抽取厦门3个乡镇适龄儿童各42名,调查统计儿童疫苗接种情况,并将调查疫苗接种率与中国国家常规免疫监测系统中报告疫苗接种率进行比较。结果3个街道/乡镇调查疫苗接种率均在97.62%以上,报告疫苗接种率均在97.84%以上。思明区鼓浪屿街道与湖里区金山街道调查疫苗接种率与报告疫苗接种率相比无显著性差异,而同安区西柯镇调查疫苗接种率低于报

  15. A method of language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik; Hengeveld, Kees


    In recent years more attention is paid to the quality of language samples in typological work. Without an adequate sampling strategy, samples may suffer from various kinds of bias. In this article we propose a sampling method in which the genetic criterion is taken as the most important: samples...... to determine how many languages from each phylum should be selected, given any required sample size....

  16. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for collecting samples for conventional and liquid-based cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbyn, M.; Herbert, A.; Schenck, U.; Nieminen, P.; Jordan, J.; Mcgoogan, E.; Patnick, J.; Bergeron, C.; Baldauf, J.J.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Martin-Hirsch, P.


    The current paper presents an annex in the second edition of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. It provides guidance on how to make a satisfactory conventional Pap smear or a liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample. Practitioners taking samples for cytology should

  17. Multitumor "sausage" blocks in immunohistochemistry. Simplified method of preparation, practical uses, and roles in quality assurance. (United States)

    Miller, R T; Groothuis, C L


    This report describes a simplified method for preparing multitumor sausage blocks (MTSBs) for use in immunohistochemical procedures. Rather than relying on previously processed paraffin blocks as a source of material, this procedure involves procuring tissue at the time of gross specimen examination. The tissue is processed along with routine surgical pathologic material, and the paraffinized samples are placed in "storage cassettes" for easy cataloging and storage. Thin strips are cut from the tissue in the "storage cassettes" and combined by dripping liquid paraffin onto them while they are rolled between the thumbs and forefingers, somewhat like making a cigarette. This results in a tissue "log." Transverse sections of the "log" are embedded in paraffin blocks and used as MTSBs. Practical uses of MTSBs are discussed, and their role in quality assurance is stressed.

  18. Use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to Ascertain Levels of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jezmir

    Full Text Available To classify the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in two different geographic settings in western Kenya using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS methodology.The prevalence of drug resistance was classified among treatment-naïve smear positive TB patients in two settings, one rural and one urban. These regions were classified as having high or low prevalence of MDR-TB according to a static, two-way LQAS sampling plan selected to classify high resistance regions at greater than 5% resistance and low resistance regions at less than 1% resistance.This study classified both the urban and rural settings as having low levels of TB drug resistance. Out of the 105 patients screened in each setting, two patients were diagnosed with MDR-TB in the urban setting and one patient was diagnosed with MDR-TB in the rural setting. An additional 27 patients were diagnosed with a variety of mono- and poly- resistant strains.Further drug resistance surveillance using LQAS may help identify the levels and geographical distribution of drug resistance in Kenya and may have applications in other countries in the African Region facing similar resource constraints.

  19. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Sampling and Analysis Methods Manual (Methods Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.

  1. Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods (United States)

    Stolzer, Alan J.; Halford, Carl


    In a previous study, multiple regression techniques were applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance-derived data to develop parsimonious model(s) for fuel consumption on the Boeing 757 airplane. The present study examined several data mining algorithms, including neural networks, on the fuel consumption problem and compared them to the multiple regression results obtained earlier. Using regression methods, parsimonious models were obtained that explained approximately 85% of the variation in fuel flow. In general data mining methods were more effective in predicting fuel consumption. Classification and Regression Tree methods reported correlation coefficients of .91 to .92, and General Linear Models and Multilayer Perceptron neural networks reported correlation coefficients of about .99. These data mining models show great promise for use in further examining large FOQA databases for operational and safety improvements.

  2. Distance sampling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckland, S T; Marques, T A; Oedekoven, C S


    In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book’s accompanying website.  Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts.  The first part addresses basic methods, the ...

  3. Methods for quality-assurance review of water-quality data in New Jersey (United States)

    Brown, G. Allan; Pustay, Edward A.; Gibs, Jacob


    This report is an instructional and reference manual that describes methods developed and used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), New Jersey District, to assure the accuracy and precision of the results of analyses of surface- and ground-water samples received from analyzing laboratories and, ultimately, to ensure the integrity of water-quality data in USGS databases and published reports. A statistical-analysis computer program, COMP.PPL, is used to determine whether the values reported by the laboratories are internally consistent, whether they are reasonable when compared with values for samples previously collected at the same site, and whether they exceed applicable drinking-water regulations. The program output consists of three files -- QWREVIEW, QWOUTLIERS, and QWCALC. QWREVIEW presents the results of tests of chemical logic and shows values that exceed drinking-water regulations. QWOUTLIERS identifies values that fall outside the historical range of values for the site sampled. QWCALC shows values and calculations used for reference purposes.

  4. An Iterative Rejection Sampling Method

    CERN Document Server

    Sherstnev, A


    In the note we consider an iterative generalisation of the rejection sampling method. In high energy physics, this sampling is frequently used for event generation, i.e. preparation of phase space points distributed according to a matrix element squared $|M|^2$ for a scattering process. In many realistic cases $|M|^2$ is a complicated multi-dimensional function, so, the standard von Neumann procedure has quite low efficiency, even if an error reducing technique, like VEGAS, is applied. As a result of that, many of the $|M|^2$ calculations go to ``waste''. The considered iterative modification of the procedure can extract more ``unweighted'' events, i.e. distributed according to $|M|^2$. In several simple examples we show practical benefits of the technique and obtain more events than the standard von Neumann method, without any extra calculations of $|M|^2$.

  5. Improving data quality and supervision of antiretroviral therapy sites in Malawi: an application of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedt-Gauthier Bethany L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High quality program data is critical for managing, monitoring, and evaluating national HIV treatment programs. By 2009, the Malawi Ministry of Health had initiated more than 270,000 patients on HIV treatment at 377 sites. Quarterly supervision of these antiretroviral therapy (ART sites ensures high quality care, but the time currently dedicated to exhaustive record review and data cleaning detracts from other critical components. The exhaustive record review is unlikely to be sustainable long term because of the resources required and increasing number of patients on ART. This study quantifies the current levels of data quality and evaluates Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS as a tool to prioritize sites with low data quality, thus lowering costs while maintaining sufficient quality for program monitoring and patient care. Methods In January 2010, a study team joined supervision teams at 19 sites purposely selected to reflect the variety of ART sites. During the exhaustive data review, the time allocated to data cleaning and data discrepancies were documented. The team then randomly sampled 76 records from each site, recording secondary outcomes and the time required for sampling. Results At the 19 sites, only 1.2% of records had discrepancies in patient outcomes and 0.4% in treatment regimen. However, data cleaning took 28.5 hours in total, suggesting that data cleaning for all 377 ART sites would require over 350 supervision-hours quarterly. The LQAS tool accurately identified the sites with the low data quality, reduced the time for data cleaning by 70%, and allowed for reporting on secondary outcomes. Conclusions Most sites maintained high quality records. In spite of this, data cleaning required significant amounts of time with little effect on program estimates of patient outcomes. LQAS conserves resources while maintaining sufficient data quality for program assessment and management to allow for quality patient

  6. Quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Gleckler, B.P.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the quality assurance and quality control practices of Hanford Site environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. Samples are analyzed according to documented standard analytical procedures. This section discusses specific measures taken to ensure quality in project management, sample collection, and analytical results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Czernyszewicz


    Full Text Available Poland is significant producer of fruits in Europe. After accession to the EU, fruit producers are obligated to comply with operative rules and standards on this market which are related to ensuring commercial and healthcare products of appropriate quality. The quality of fruits available on the market is varied. This results from the fact that in the past, in domestic horticulture, more attention was paid to enlargement of the acreage, the modernization of orchards, increasing the intensity of production and productivity than on issues related to certification and quality management systems. Therefore, the aim of the work was to show the producer's opinion on methods and systems which assure quality of fruits. It was stated that producers have a good knowledge of the methods and systems of fruit quality assurance. Knowledge of these issues is significantly associated with the scale of the fruit production. The knowledge of the principles of integrated fruit production and trading standards GLOBALG.A.P. was declared most often. These methods of quality assurance were also top rated by producers and implemented mostly in farms.

  8. A method for critical software event execution reliability in high assurance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidd, M.E.C.


    This paper presents a method for Critical Software Event Execution Reliability (Critical SEER). The Critical SEER method is intended for high assurance software that operates in an environment where transient upsets could occur, causing a disturbance of the critical software event execution order, which could cause safety or security hazards. The method has a finite automata based module that watches (hence SEER) and tracks the critical events and ensures they occur in the proper order or else a fail safe state is forced. This method is applied during the analysis, design and implementation phases of software engineering.

  9. Towards Cost-efficient Sampling Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Luo; Chong, Wu


    The sampling method has been paid much attention in the field of complex network in general and statistical physics in particular. This paper presents two new sampling methods based on the perspective that a small part of vertices with high node degree can possess the most structure information of a network. The two proposed sampling methods are efficient in sampling the nodes with high degree. The first new sampling method is improved on the basis of the stratified random sampling method and selects the high degree nodes with higher probability by classifying the nodes according to their degree distribution. The second sampling method improves the existing snowball sampling method so that it enables to sample the targeted nodes selectively in every sampling step. Besides, the two proposed sampling methods not only sample the nodes but also pick the edges directly connected to these nodes. In order to demonstrate the two methods' availability and accuracy, we compare them with the existing sampling methods in...

  10. Paediatric rehabilitation treatment standards: a method for quality assurance in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Ahnert


    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the German Pension Insurance has implemented a new method of quality assurance for inpatient rehabilitation of children and adolescents diagnosed with bronchial asthma, obesity, or atopic dermatitis: the so-called rehabilitation treatment standards (RTS. They aim at promoting a comprehensive and evidence-based care in rehabilitation. Furthermore, they are intended to make the therapeutic processes in medical rehabilitation as well as potential deficits more transparent. The development of RTS was composed of five phases during which current scientific evidence, expert knowledge, and patient expectations were included. Their core element is the specification of evidence-based treatment modules that describe a good rehabilitation standard for children diagnosed with bronchial asthma, obesity, or atopic dermatitis. Opportunities and limitations of the RTS as a tool for quality assurance are discussed.

  11. A Novel Method for Quality Assurance of the Cyberknife Iris Variable Aperture Collimator (United States)

    Kremer, Nikolaus; Fürweger, Christoph


    Objective: To characterize a novel method for field-size quality assurance of a variable approximately circular aperture collimator by means of dose-area product measurements and to validate its practical use over two years of clinical application. Methods:  To assess methodical limitations, we analyze measurement errors due to change in linac output, beam tuning, uncertainty in MU delivery, daily factors, inherent uncertainty of the large-area parallel-plate ionisation chamber, and misalignment of the large-area parallel-plate ionisation chamber relative to the primary beam axis. To establish a baseline for quality assurance, the dose-area product is measured with the large-area parallel-plate ionisation chamber for all 12 clinical iris apertures in relation to the 60 mm fixed reference aperture. To evaluate the long-term stability of the Iris collimation system, deviation from baseline data is assessed monthly and compared to a priori derived tolerance levels. Results: Only chamber misalignment, variation in output, and uncertainty in MU delivery contribute to a combined error that is estimated at 0.2 % of the nominal field size. This is equivalent to a resolution of 0.005 mm for the 5 mm, and 0.012 mm for the 60 mm field. The method offers ease of use, small measurement time commitment, and is independent of most error sources. Over the observed period, the Iris accuray is within the tolerance levels. Conclusions:  The method is an advantageous alternative to film quality assurance with a high reliability, short measurement time, and superior accuracy in field-size determination. PMID:27382526

  12. Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith (United States)

    Thompson, Cyril V.


    A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allow an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds.

  13. Direct method for second-order sensitivity analysis of modal assurance criterion (United States)

    Lei, Sheng; Mao, Kuanmin; Li, Li; Xiao, Weiwei; Li, Bin


    A Lagrange direct method is proposed to calculate the second-order sensitivity of modal assurance criterion (MAC) values of undamped systems. The eigenvalue problem and normalizations of eigenvectors, which augmented by using some Lagrange multipliers, are used as the constraints of the Lagrange functional. Once the Lagrange multipliers are determined, the sensitivities of MAC values can be evaluated directly. The Lagrange direct method is accurate, efficient and easy to implement. A simply supported beam is utilized to check the accuracy of the proposed method. A frame is adopted to validate the predicting capacity of the first- and second-order sensitivities of MAC values. It is shown that the computational costs of the proposed method can be remarkably reduced in comparison with those of the indirect method without loss of accuracy.

  14. Comparison of sampling methods for animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, P.J.L.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Hoeksma, P.


    Currently available and recently developed sampling methods for slurry and solid manure were tested for bias and reproducibility in the determination of total phosphorus and nitrogen content of samples. Sampling methods were based on techniques in which samples were taken either during loading from

  15. Food safety assurance systems: Microbiological testing, sampling plans, and microbiological criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Ross, T.; Gorris, L.G.M.


    Microbiological criteria give information about the quality or safety of foods. A key component of a microbiological criterion is the sampling plan. Considering: (1) the generally low level of pathogens that are deemed tolerable in foods, (2) large batch sizes, and (3) potentially substantial hetero

  16. Private sector delivery of health services in developing countries: a mixed-methods study on quality assurance in social franchises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlein Karen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Across the developing world health care services are most often delivered in the private sector and social franchising has emerged, over the past decade, as an increasingly popular method of private sector health care delivery. Social franchising aims to strengthen business practices through economies of scale: branding clinics and purchasing drugs in bulk at wholesale prices. While quality is one of the established goals of social franchising, there is no published documentation of how quality levels might be set in the context of franchised private providers, nor what quality assurance measures can or should exist within social franchises. The aim of this study was to better understand the quality assurance systems currently utilized in social franchises, and to determine if there are shared standards for practice or quality outcomes that exist across programs. Methods The study included three data sources and levels of investigation: 1 Self-reported program data; 2 Scoping telephone interviews; and 3 In-depth field interviews and clinic visits. Results Social Franchises conceive of quality assurance not as an independent activity, but rather as a goal that is incorporated into all areas of franchise operations, including recruitment, training, monitoring of provider performance, monitoring of client experience and the provision of feedback. Conclusions These findings are the first evidence to support the 2002 conceptual model of social franchising which proposed that the assurance of quality was one of the three core goals of all social franchises. However, while quality is important to franchise programs, quality assurance systems overall are not reflective of the evidence to-date on quality measurement or quality improvement best practices. Future research in this area is needed to better understand the details of quality assurance systems as applied in social franchise programs, the process by which quality assurance

  17. Private sector delivery of health services in developing countries: a mixed-methods study on quality assurance in social franchises (United States)


    Background Across the developing world health care services are most often delivered in the private sector and social franchising has emerged, over the past decade, as an increasingly popular method of private sector health care delivery. Social franchising aims to strengthen business practices through economies of scale: branding clinics and purchasing drugs in bulk at wholesale prices. While quality is one of the established goals of social franchising, there is no published documentation of how quality levels might be set in the context of franchised private providers, nor what quality assurance measures can or should exist within social franchises. The aim of this study was to better understand the quality assurance systems currently utilized in social franchises, and to determine if there are shared standards for practice or quality outcomes that exist across programs. Methods The study included three data sources and levels of investigation: 1) Self-reported program data; 2) Scoping telephone interviews; and 3) In-depth field interviews and clinic visits. Results Social Franchises conceive of quality assurance not as an independent activity, but rather as a goal that is incorporated into all areas of franchise operations, including recruitment, training, monitoring of provider performance, monitoring of client experience and the provision of feedback. Conclusions These findings are the first evidence to support the 2002 conceptual model of social franchising which proposed that the assurance of quality was one of the three core goals of all social franchises. However, while quality is important to franchise programs, quality assurance systems overall are not reflective of the evidence to-date on quality measurement or quality improvement best practices. Future research in this area is needed to better understand the details of quality assurance systems as applied in social franchise programs, the process by which quality assurance becomes a part of the

  18. Statistical methods for quality assurance basics, measurement, control, capability, and improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Vardeman, Stephen B


    This undergraduate statistical quality assurance textbook clearly shows with real projects, cases and data sets how statistical quality control tools are used in practice. Among the topics covered is a practical evaluation of measurement effectiveness for both continuous and discrete data. Gauge Reproducibility and Repeatability methodology (including confidence intervals for Repeatability, Reproducibility and the Gauge Capability Ratio) is thoroughly developed. Process capability indices and corresponding confidence intervals are also explained. In addition to process monitoring techniques, experimental design and analysis for process improvement are carefully presented. Factorial and Fractional Factorial arrangements of treatments and Response Surface methods are covered. Integrated throughout the book are rich sets of examples and problems that help readers gain a better understanding of where and how to apply statistical quality control tools. These large and realistic problem sets in combination with the...

  19. AOAC Official MethodSM Matrix Extension Validation Study of Assurance GDSTM for the Detection of Salmonella in Selected Spices. (United States)

    Feldsine, Philip; Kaur, Mandeep; Shah, Khyati; Immerman, Amy; Jucker, Markus; Lienau, Andrew


    Assurance GDSTM for Salmonella Tq has been validated according to the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Methods Committee Guidelines for Validation of Microbiological Methods for Food and Environmental Surfaces for the detection of selected foods and environmental surfaces (Official Method of AnalysisSM 2009.03, Performance Tested MethodSM No. 050602). The method also completed AFNOR validation (following the ISO 16140 standard) compared to the reference method EN ISO 6579. For AFNOR, GDS was given a scope covering all human food, animal feed stuff, and environmental surfaces (Certificate No. TRA02/12-01/09). Results showed that Assurance GDS for Salmonella (GDS) has high sensitivity and is equivalent to the reference culture methods for the detection of motile and non-motile Salmonella. As part of the aforementioned validations, inclusivity and exclusivity studies, stability, and ruggedness studies were also conducted. Assurance GDS has 100% inclusivity and exclusivity among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 35 non-Salmonella organisms analyzed. To add to the scope of the Assurance GDS for Salmonella method, a matrix extension study was conducted, following the AOAC guidelines, to validate the application of the method for selected spices, specifically curry powder, cumin powder, and chili powder, for the detection of Salmonella.

  20. Subrandom methods for multidimensional nonuniform sampling (United States)

    Worley, Bradley


    Methods of nonuniform sampling that utilize pseudorandom number sequences to select points from a weighted Nyquist grid are commonplace in biomolecular NMR studies, due to the beneficial incoherence introduced by pseudorandom sampling. However, these methods require the specification of a non-arbitrary seed number in order to initialize a pseudorandom number generator. Because the performance of pseudorandom sampling schedules can substantially vary based on seed number, this can complicate the task of routine data collection. Approaches such as jittered sampling and stochastic gap sampling are effective at reducing random seed dependence of nonuniform sampling schedules, but still require the specification of a seed number. This work formalizes the use of subrandom number sequences in nonuniform sampling as a means of seed-independent sampling, and compares the performance of three subrandom methods to their pseudorandom counterparts using commonly applied schedule performance metrics. Reconstruction results using experimental datasets are also provided to validate claims made using these performance metrics.

  1. Subrandom methods for multidimensional nonuniform sampling. (United States)

    Worley, Bradley


    Methods of nonuniform sampling that utilize pseudorandom number sequences to select points from a weighted Nyquist grid are commonplace in biomolecular NMR studies, due to the beneficial incoherence introduced by pseudorandom sampling. However, these methods require the specification of a non-arbitrary seed number in order to initialize a pseudorandom number generator. Because the performance of pseudorandom sampling schedules can substantially vary based on seed number, this can complicate the task of routine data collection. Approaches such as jittered sampling and stochastic gap sampling are effective at reducing random seed dependence of nonuniform sampling schedules, but still require the specification of a seed number. This work formalizes the use of subrandom number sequences in nonuniform sampling as a means of seed-independent sampling, and compares the performance of three subrandom methods to their pseudorandom counterparts using commonly applied schedule performance metrics. Reconstruction results using experimental datasets are also provided to validate claims made using these performance metrics.

  2. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suermann, J.F.


    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits.

  3. Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples (United States)

    Teddlie, Charles; Yu, Fen


    This article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and…

  4. Assessing Local Risk of Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L Heidebrecht

    Full Text Available KwaZulu-Natal (KZN has the highest burden of notified multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR TB cases in South Africa. A better understanding of spatial heterogeneity in the risk of drug-resistance may help to prioritize local responses.Between July 2012 and June 2013, we conducted a two-way Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS study to classify the burden of rifampicin (RIF-resistant TB among incident TB cases notified within the catchment areas of seven laboratories in two northern and one southern district of KZN. Decision rules for classification of areas as having either a high- or low-risk of RIF resistant TB (based on proportion of RIF resistance among all TB cases were based on consultation with local policy makers.We classified five areas as high-risk and two as low-risk. High-risk areas were identified in both Southern and Northern districts, with the greatest proportion of RIF resistance observed in the northernmost area, the Manguzi community situated on the Mozambique border.Our study revealed heterogeneity in the risk of RIF resistant disease among incident TB cases in KZN. This study demonstrates the potential for LQAS to detect geographic heterogeneity in areas where access to drug susceptibility testing is limited.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Stable lyophilized ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA)-blood haemolysates were applied in an external quality assurance programme (SKZL, The Netherlands) for glycohaemoglobin assays in 101 laboratories using 12 methods. The mean intralaboratory day-to-day coefficient of variation (CV), calculate

  6. Application of Sampling Methods to Geological Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@There are two kinds of research methods in geological observation study. One is the remote-sensing observation. The other is the partial sampling method extensively used in every stage of the geological work, for example, in arranging the lines and points of geologic survey, and in arranging the exploration engineering. Three problems may occur in practical application of the sampling method: (1) Though we use the partial sampling method in geological work, we must make use of many labor powers, materials and money to accomplish the geological task. Is the method we use appropriate to some special geological task? (2) How many samples or observation points should be appropriate to the geological research?

  7. Systems and methods for sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Li, Guangtao; Li, Xin; Ouyang, Zheng


    The invention generally relates to systems and methods for sample analysis. In certain embodiments, the invention provides a system for analyzing a sample that includes a probe including a material connected to a high voltage source, a device for generating a heated gas, and a mass analyzer.

  8. Sample preparation method for scanning force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jankov, I R; Szente, R N; Carreno, M N P; Swart, J W; Landers, R


    We present a method of sample preparation for studies of ion implantation on metal surfaces. The method, employing a mechanical mask, is specially adapted for samples analysed by Scanning Force Microscopy. It was successfully tested on polycrystalline copper substrates implanted with phosphorus ions at an acceleration voltage of 39 keV. The changes of the electrical properties of the surface were measured by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy and the surface composition was analysed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy.

  9. The rank product method with two samples. (United States)

    Koziol, James A


    Breitling et al. (2004) introduced a statistical technique, the rank product method, for detecting differentially regulated genes in replicated microarray experiments. The technique has achieved widespread acceptance and is now used more broadly, in such diverse fields as RNAi analysis, proteomics, and machine learning. In this note, we extend the rank product method to the two sample setting, provide distribution theory attending the rank product method in this setting, and give numerical details for implementing the method.

  10. Countdown to 2015: Tracking Maternal and Child Health Intervention Targets Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in Bauchi State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dele Abegunde

    Full Text Available Improving maternal and child health remains a top priority in Nigeria's Bauchi State in the northeastern region where the maternal mortality ratio (MMR and infant mortality rate (IMR are as high as 1540 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births respectively. In this study, we used the framework of the continuum of maternal and child care to evaluate the impact of interventions in Bauchi State focused on improved maternal and child health, and to ascertain progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5.At baseline (2012 and then at follow-up (2013, we randomly sampled 340 households from 19 random locations in each of the 20 Local Government Areas (LGA of Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria, using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS technique. Women residents in the households were interviewed about their own health and that of their children. Estimated LGA coverage of maternal and child health indicators were aggregated across the State. These values were then compared to the national figures, and the differences from 2012 to 2014 were calculated.For several of the indicators, a modest improvement from baseline was found. However, the indicators in the continuum of care neither reached the national average nor attained the 90% globally recommended coverage level. The majority of the LGA surveyed were classifiable as high priority, thus requiring intensified efforts and programmatic scale up.Intensive scale-up of programs and interventions is needed in Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria, to accelerate, consolidate and sustain the modest but significant achievements in the continuum of care, if MDGs 4 and 5 are to be achieved by the end of 2015. The intentional focus of LGAs as the unit of intervention ought to be considered a condition precedent for future investments. Priority should be given to the re-allocating resources to program areas and regions where coverage has been low. Finally, systematic

  11. Alternate calibration method of radiochromic EBT3 film for quality assurance verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments (United States)

    Park, Soah; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Hwang, Taejin; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Koo, Taeryool; Han, Tae Jin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me Yeon; Bae, Hoonsik; Kim, Kyoung Ju


    EBT3 film is utilized as a dosimetry quality assurance tool for the verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments. In this work, we suggest a percentage-depth-dose (PDD) calibration method that can calibrate several EBT3 film pieces together at different dose levels because photon beams provide different dose levels at different depths along the axis of the beam. We investigated the feasibility of the film PDD calibration method based on PDD data and compared the results those from the traditional film calibration method. Photon beams at 6 MV were delivered to EBT3 film pieces for both calibration methods. For the PDD-based calibration, the film pieces were placed on solid phantoms at the depth of maximum dose (dmax) and at depths of 3, 5, 8, 12, 17, and 22 cm, and a photon beam was delivered twice, at 100 cGy and 400 cGy, to extend the calibration dose range under the same conditions. Fourteen film pieces, to maintain their consistency, were irradiated at doses ranging from approximately 30 to 400 cGy for both film calibrations. The film pieces were located at the center position on the scan bed of an Epson 1680 flatbed scanner in the parallel direction. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were created, and their dose distributions were delivered to the film. The dose distributions for the traditional method and those for the PDD-based calibration method were evaluated using a Gamma analysis. The PDD dose values using a CC13 ion chamber and those obtained by using a FC65-G Farmer chamber and measured at the depth of interest produced very similar results. With the objective test criterion of a 1% dosage agreement at 1 mm, the passing rates for the four cases of the three IMRT plans were essentially identical. The traditional and the PDD-based calibrations provided similar plan verification results. We also describe another alternative for calibrating EBT3 films, i.e., a PDD-based calibration method that provides an easy and time-saving approach

  12. Building Assured Systems Framework (United States)


    Extraction (FX) Techniques to Reverse Engineer Virtual Machines Mark Pleszkoch, Stacy Prowell, Cory F. Cohen, and Jeffrey S. Havrilla 6.3 Assured...Cory F. Cohen and Jeffrey S. Havrilla 5.1.2 Potential attack methods, 5.2.1 Historic and potential operational attack methods, 6.3 Assured

  13. Chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment in Great Lakes areas of concern, 2010 to 2011-Collection methods, analyses methods, quality assurance, and data (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Menheer, Michael A.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Smith, Steven G.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on a study to identify the occurrence of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in water and bottom-sediment samples collected during 2010–11 at sites in seven areas of concern (AOCs) throughout the Great Lakes. Study sites include tributaries to the Great Lakes in AOCs located near Duluth, Minn.; Green Bay, Wis.; Roches­ter, N.Y.; Detroit, Mich.; Toledo, Ohio; Milwaukee, Wis.; and Ashtabula, Ohio. This report documents the collection meth­ods, analyses methods, quality-assurance data and analyses, and provides the data for this study. Water and bottom-sediment samples were analyzed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., for a broad suite of CECs. During this study, 135 environmental and 23 field dupli­cate samples of surface water and wastewater effluent, 10 field blank water samples, and 11 field spike water samples were collected and analyzed. Sixty-one of the 69 wastewater indicator chemicals (laboratory method 4433) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 11.2 micrograms per liter. Twenty-eight of the 48 pharmaceuticals (research method 8244) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.0029 to 22.0 micro­grams per liter. Ten of the 20 steroid hormones and sterols analyzed (research method 4434) were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 10,000 nanograms per liter. During this study, 75 environmental, 13 field duplicate samples, and 9 field spike samples of bottom sediment were collected and analyzed for a wide variety of CECs. Forty-seven of the 57 wastewater indicator chemicals (laboratory method 5433) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.921 to 25,800 nanograms per gram. Seventeen of the 20 steroid hormones and sterols (research method 6434) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 8,921 nanograms per gram. Twelve of

  14. A Quality Assurance Method that Utilizes 3D Dosimetry and Facilitates Clinical Interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldham, Mark, E-mail: [Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Thomas, Andrew; O' Daniel, Jennifer; Juang, Titania [Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Ibbott, Geoffrey [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Adamovics, John [Rider University, Lawrenceville, New Jersey (United States); Kirkpatrick, John P. [Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)


    Purpose: To demonstrate a new three-dimensional (3D) quality assurance (QA) method that provides comprehensive dosimetry verification and facilitates evaluation of the clinical significance of QA data acquired in a phantom. Also to apply the method to investigate the dosimetric efficacy of base-of-skull (BOS) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment. Methods and Materials: Two types of IMRT QA verification plans were created for 6 patients who received BOS IMRT. The first plan enabled conventional 2D planar IMRT QA using the Varian portal dosimetry system. The second plan enabled 3D verification using an anthropomorphic head phantom. In the latter, the 3D dose distribution was measured using the DLOS/Presage dosimetry system (DLOS = Duke Large-field-of-view Optical-CT System, Presage Heuris Pharma, Skillman, NJ), which yielded isotropic 2-mm data throughout the treated volume. In a novel step, measured 3D dose distributions were transformed back to the patient's CT to enable calculation of dose-volume histograms (DVH) and dose overlays. Measured and planned patient DVHs were compared to investigate clinical significance. Results: Close agreement between measured and calculated dose distributions was observed for all 6 cases. For gamma criteria of 3%, 2 mm, the mean passing rate for portal dosimetry was 96.8% (range, 92.0%-98.9%), compared to 94.9% (range, 90.1%-98.9%) for 3D. There was no clear correlation between 2D and 3D passing rates. Planned and measured dose distributions were evaluated on the patient's anatomy, using DVH and dose overlays. Minor deviations were detected, and the clinical significance of these are presented and discussed. Conclusions: Two advantages accrue to the methods presented here. First, treatment accuracy is evaluated throughout the whole treated volume, yielding comprehensive verification. Second, the clinical significance of any deviations can be assessed through the generation of DVH curves and dose overlays on

  15. Guidelines for the processing and quality assurance of benthic invertebrate samples collected as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Gurtz, M.E.; Meador, M.R.


    Benthic invertebrate samples are collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This is a perennial, multidisciplinary program that integrates biological, physical, and chemical indicators of water quality to evaluate status and trends and to develop an understanding of the factors controlling observed water quality. The Program examines water quality in 60 study units (coupled ground- and surface-water systems) that encompass most of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii. Study-unit teams collect and process qualitative and semi-quantitative invertebrate samples according to standardized procedures. These samples are processed (elutriated and subsampled) in the field to produce as many as four sample components: large-rare, main-body, elutriate, and split. Each sample component is preserved in 10-percent formalin, and two components, large-rare and main-body, are sent to contract laboratories for further processing. The large-rare component is composed of large invertebrates that are removed from the sample matrix during field processing and placed in one or more containers. The main-body sample component consists of the remaining sample materials (sediment, detritus, and invertebrates) and is subsampled in the field to achieve a volume of 750 milliliters or less. The remaining two sample components, elutriate and split, are used for quality-assurance and quality-control purposes. Contract laboratories are used to identify and quantify invertebrates from the large-rare and main-body sample components according to the procedures and guidelines specified within this document. These guidelines allow the use of subsampling techniques to reduce the volume of sample material processed and to facilitate identifications. These processing procedures and techniques may be modified if the modifications provide equal or greater levels of accuracy and precision. The intent of sample processing is to

  16. Assurance Cases (United States)


    2015 Carnegie Mellon University Assurance Cases Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Charles B...1. REPORT DATE 26 JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assurance Cases 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... Assurance Cases Charles B. Weinstock, January 2015 © 2015 Carnegie Mellon University Copyright 2015 Carnegie Mellon University This material is based upon

  17. Constrained sampling method for analytic continuation (United States)

    Sandvik, Anders W.


    A method for analytic continuation of imaginary-time correlation functions (here obtained in quantum Monte Carlo simulations) to real-frequency spectral functions is proposed. Stochastically sampling a spectrum parametrized by a large number of δ functions, treated as a statistical-mechanics problem, it avoids distortions caused by (as demonstrated here) configurational entropy in previous sampling methods. The key development is the suppression of entropy by constraining the spectral weight to within identifiable optimal bounds and imposing a set number of peaks. As a test case, the dynamic structure factor of the S =1 /2 Heisenberg chain is computed. Very good agreement is found with Bethe ansatz results in the ground state (including a sharp edge) and with exact diagonalization of small systems at elevated temperatures.

  18. SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS | Science ... (United States)

    The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout the United States. Inadequate site characterization and a lack of knowledge of surface and subsurface contaminant distributions hinders EPA's ability to make the best decisions on remediation options and to conduct the most effective cleanup efforts. To assist OSWER, NERL conducts research to improve their capability to more accurately, precisely, and efficiently characterize Superfund, RCRA, LUST, oil spills, and brownfield sites and to improve their risk-based decision making capabilities, research is being conducted on improving soil and sediment sampling techniques and improving the sampling and handling of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soils, among the many research programs and tasks being performed at ESD-LV.Under this task, improved sampling approaches and devices will be developed for characterizing the concentration of VOCs in soils. Current approaches and devices used today can lose up to 99% of the VOCs present in the sample due inherent weaknesses in the device and improper/inadequate collection techniques. This error generally causes decision makers to markedly underestimate the soil VOC concentrations and, therefore, to greatly underestimate the ecological

  19. Flow cytometric detection method for DNA samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasarabadi,Shanavaz (Livermore, CA); Langlois, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S. (Round Rock, TX)


    Disclosed herein are two methods for rapid multiplex analysis to determine the presence and identity of target DNA sequences within a DNA sample. Both methods use reporting DNA sequences, e.g., modified conventional Taqman.RTM. probes, to combine multiplex PCR amplification with microsphere-based hybridization using flow cytometry means of detection. Real-time PCR detection can also be incorporated. The first method uses a cyanine dye, such as, Cy3.TM., as the reporter linked to the 5' end of a reporting DNA sequence. The second method positions a reporter dye, e.g., FAM.TM. on the 3' end of the reporting DNA sequence and a quencher dye, e.g., TAMRA.TM., on the 5' end.

  20. Statistical methods to evaluate the correlation between measured and calculated dose using quality assurance method in IMRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhamid Chaikh


    Full Text Available Purpose: the objective of this study is to validate a procedure based on a statistical method to assess the agreement and the correlation between measured and calculated dose in the process of quality assurance (QA for Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT.Patients and methods: 10 patients including 56 fields for head and neck cancer treatment were analyzed. For each patient, one treatment plan was generated using Eclipse TPS®. To compare the calculated dose with measured dose a CT-scan of solid water slabs (30 × 30 × 15 cm3 was used. The measurements were done for absolute dose by a pinpoint ionization chamber and 2D dose distributions using electronic portal imaging device dosimetry. Six criteria levels were applied for each case (3%, 3 mm, (4%, 3 mm, (5%, 3 mm, (4%, 4 mm, (5%, 4 mm and (5%, 5 mm. The normality of the data and the variance homogeneity were tested using Shapiro-Wilks test and Levene’s test, respectively. Wilcoxon signed-rank paired test was used to calculate p-value. Bland-Altman method was used to calculate the limit of agreement between calculated and measured doses and to draw a scatter plot. The correlation between calculated and measured doses was assessed using Spearman’s rank test.Results: The statistical tests indicate that the data do not fulfill normal distribution, p < 0.001 and had a homogenous variance, p = 0.85. The upper and lower limit of agreements for absolute dose measurements were 6.44% and -6.40%, respectively. Wilcoxon test indicated a significance difference between calculated and measured dose with ionization chamber, p = 0.01. Spearman’s test indicated a strong correlation between calculated and absolute measured dose, ρ = 0.99. Therefore, there is a lack of correlation between dose difference for absolute dose measurements and gamma passing rates for 2D dose measurements.Conclusion: the statistical tests showed that the common acceptance criteria’s using gamma evaluation are not able

  1. Well purge and sample apparatus and method (United States)

    Schalla, Ronald; Smith, Ronald M.; Hall, Stephen H.; Smart, John E.; Gustafson, Gregg S.


    The present invention specifically permits purging and/or sampling of a well but only removing, at most, about 25% of the fluid volume compared to conventional methods and, at a minimum, removing none of the fluid volume from the well. The invention is an isolation assembly with a packer, pump and exhaust, that is inserted into the well. The isolation assembly is designed so that only a volume of fluid between the outside diameter of the isolation assembly and the inside diameter of the well over a fluid column height from the bottom of the well to the top of the active portion (lower annulus) is removed. The packer is positioned above the active portion thereby sealing the well and preventing any mixing or contamination of inlet fluid with fluid above the packer. Ports in the wall of the isolation assembly permit purging and sampling of the lower annulus along the height of the active portion.

  2. Methods, quality assurance, and data for assessing atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California (United States)

    Zamora, Celia; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.


    The U.S. Geological Survey monitored atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California during two studies in 2001 and 2002–04. The 2001 study sampled wet deposition (rain) and storm-drain runoff in the Modesto, California, area during the orchard dormant-spray season to examine the contribution of pesticide concentrations to storm runoff from rainfall. In the 2002–04 study, the number and extent of collection sites in the Central Valley were increased to determine the areal distribution of organophosphate insecticides and other pesticides, and also five more sample types were collected. These were dry deposition, bulk deposition, and three sample types collected from a soil box: aqueous phase in runoff, suspended sediment in runoff, and surficial-soil samples. This report provides concentration data and describes methods and quality assurance of sample collection and laboratory analysis for pesticide compounds in all samples collected from 16 sites. Each sample was analyzed for 41 currently used pesticides and 23 pesticide degradates, including oxygen analogs (oxons) of 9 organophosphate insecticides. Analytical results are presented by sample type and study period. The median concentrations of both chloryprifos and diazinon sampled at four urban (0.067 micrograms per liter [μg/L] and 0.515 μg/L, respectively) and four agricultural sites (0.079 μg/L and 0.583 μg/L, respectively) during a January 2001 storm event in and around Modesto, Calif., were nearly identical, indicating that the overall atmospheric burden in the region appeared to be fairly similar during the sampling event. Comparisons of median concentrations in the rainfall to those in the McHenry storm-drain runoff showed that, for some compounds, rainfall contributed a substantial percentage of the concentration in the runoff; for other compounds, the concentrations in rainfall were much greater than in the runoff. For example, diazinon concentrations in rainfall were about

  3. Tracking the quality of care for sick children using lot quality assurance sampling: targeting improvements of health services in Jigawa, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Adekola Oladele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Nigeria, 30% of child deaths are due to malaria. The National Malaria Control Program of Nigeria (NMCP during 2009 initiated a program to improve the quality of paediatric malaria services delivered in health facilities (HF. This study reports a rapid approach used to assess the existing quality of services in Jigawa state at decentralised levels of the health system. METHODS: NMCP selected Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS to identify the variation in HF service quality among Senatorial Districts (SD. LQAS was selected because it was affordable and could be used by local health workers (HW in a population-based survey. NMCP applied a 2-stage LQAS using a structured Rapid Health Facility Assessment (R-HFA tool to identify high and low performing SD for specified indicators. FINDINGS: LQAS identified variations in HF performance (n = 21 and enabled resources to be targeted to address priorities. All SD exhibited deficient essential services, supplies and equipment. Only 9.7% of HF had Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies and other first-line treatments for childhood illnesses. No SD and few HF exhibited adequate HW performance for the assessment, treatment or counselling of sick children. Using the IMCI algorithm, 17.5% of HW assessed the child's vaccination status, 46.8% assessed nutritional status, and 65.1% assessed children for dehydration. Only 5.1% of HW treatments were appropriate for the assessment. Exit interviews revealed that 5.1% of caregivers knew their children's illness, and only 19.9% could accurately describe how to administer the prescribed drug. CONCLUSION: This R-HFA, using LQAS principles, is a rapid, simple tool for assessing malaria services and can be used at scale. It identified technical deficiencies that could be corrected by improved continuing medical education, targeted supervision, and recurrent R-HFA assessments of the quality of services.

  4. CC-Case as an Integrated Method of Security Analysis and Assurance over Life-cycle Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kaneko


    Full Text Available Secure system design faces many risks such as information leakage and denial of service. We propose a method named CC-Case to describe se-curity assurance cases based on the security struc-tures and thereat analysis. CC-Case uses Common Criteria (ISO/IEC15408. While the scope of CC-Case mainly focuses to the requirement stage, CC-Case can handle the life-cycle process of sys-tem design that contains the requirement, design, implementation, test and the maintenance stages. It can make countermeasure easily against the situation which an unexpected new threat produced by invisible attackers incessantly.

  5. Quality assurance of metabolomics. (United States)

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Beger, Richard; Flynn, Thomas; Guo, Lining; Harris, Georgina; Hogberg, Helena; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Kamp, Hennicke; Kleensang, Andre; Maertens, Alexandra; Odwin-DaCosta, Shelly; Pamies, David; Robertson, Donald; Smirnova, Lena; Sun, Jinchun; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas


    Metabolomics promises a holistic phenotypic characterization of biological responses to toxicants. This technology is based on advanced chemical analytical tools with reasonable throughput, including mass-spectroscopy and NMR. Quality assurance, however - from experimental design, sample preparation, metabolite identification, to bioinformatics data-mining - is urgently needed to assure both quality of metabolomics data and reproducibility of biological models. In contrast to microarray-based transcriptomics, where consensus on quality assurance and reporting standards has been fostered over the last two decades, quality assurance of metabolomics is only now emerging. Regulatory use in safety sciences, and even proper scientific use of these technologies, demand quality assurance. In an effort to promote this discussion, an expert workshop discussed the quality assurance needs of metabolomics. The goals for this workshop were 1) to consider the challenges associated with metabolomics as an emerging science, with an emphasis on its application in toxicology and 2) to identify the key issues to be addressed in order to establish and implement quality assurance procedures in metabolomics-based toxicology. Consensus has still to be achieved regarding best practices to make sure sound, useful, and relevant information is derived from these new tools.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Acoustic Emission (AE signatures of various weld defects of stainless steel 316L nuclear grade weld material are investigated. The samples are fabricated by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG Welding Method have final dimension of 140 mm x 15 mm x 10 mm. AE signals from weld defects such as Pinhole, Porosity, Lack of Penetration, Lack of Side Fusion and Slag are recorded under dynamic load conditions by specially designed mechanical jig. AE features of the weld defects were attained using Linear Location Technique (LLT. The results from this study concluded that, stress release and structure deformation between the sections in welding area are load conditions major part of Acoustic Emission activity during loading.

  7. Creating Quality Assurance and International Transparency for Quality Assurance Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Dorte; Lindeberg, Tobias


    The paper presents the experiences gained in the pilot project on mutual recognition conducted by the quality assurance agencies in the Nordic countries and the future perspective for international quality assurance of national quality assurance agencies. The background of the project was the need......, on the one hand, to advance internationalisation of quality assurance of higher education, and on the other hand, allow for the differences in the national approaches to quality assurance. The paper will focus on two issues: first, the strength and weaknesses of the method employed and of the use of the ENQA...

  8. Clustered lot quality assurance sampling: a tool to monitor immunization coverage rapidly during a national yellow fever and polio vaccination campaign in Cameroon, May 2009. (United States)

    Pezzoli, L; Tchio, R; Dzossa, A D; Ndjomo, S; Takeu, A; Anya, B; Ticha, J; Ronveaux, O; Lewis, R F


    We used the clustered lot quality assurance sampling (clustered-LQAS) technique to identify districts with low immunization coverage and guide mop-up actions during the last 4 days of a combined oral polio vaccine (OPV) and yellow fever (YF) vaccination campaign conducted in Cameroon in May 2009. We monitored 17 pre-selected districts at risk for low coverage. We designed LQAS plans to reject districts with YF vaccination coverage <90% and with OPV coverage <95%. In each lot the sample size was 50 (five clusters of 10) with decision values of 3 for assessing OPV and 7 for YF coverage. We 'rejected' 10 districts for low YF coverage and 14 for low OPV coverage. Hence we recommended a 2-day extension of the campaign. Clustered-LQAS proved to be useful in guiding the campaign vaccination strategy before the completion of the operations.

  9. Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This quality assurance plan identifies the data necessary, and techniques designed to attain the required quality, to meet the specific data quality objectives associated with the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report specifies sampling, waste testing, and analytical methods for transuranic wastes.

  10. Optimisation of small-scale hydropower using quality assurance methods - Preliminary project; Vorprojekt: Optimierung von Kleinwasserkraftwerken durch Qualitaetssicherung. Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, S.; Staubli, T.


    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary project that examined how quality assurance methods can be used in the optimisation of small-scale hydropower projects. The aim of the project, to use existing know-how, experience and synergies, is examined. Discrepancies in quality and their effects on production prices were determined in interviews. The paper describes best-practice guidelines for the quality assurance of small-scale hydro schemes. A flow chart describes the various steps that have to be taken in the project and realisation work. Information collected from planners and from interviews made with them are presented along with further information obtained from literature. The results of interviews concerning planning work, putting to tender and the construction stages of these hydro schemes are presented and commented on. Similarly, the operational phase of such power plant is also examined, including questions on operation and guarantees. The aims of the follow-up main project - the definition of a tool and guidelines for ensuring quality - are briefly reviewed.

  11. Guidance for characterizing explosives contaminated soils: Sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Craig, H.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Portland, OR (United States). Oregon Operations Office; Jenkins, T.F. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States); Sisk, W.E. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD (United States)


    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling due to the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult due to the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of samples, and extracting larger samples. On-site analytical methods are essential to more economical and improved characterization. On-site methods might suffer in terms of precision and accuracy, but this is more than offset by the increased number of samples that can be run. While verification using a standard analytical procedure should be part of any quality assurance program, reducing the number of samples analyzed by the more expensive methods can result in significantly reduced costs. Often 70 to 90% of the soil samples analyzed during an explosives site investigation do not contain detectable levels of contamination. Two basic types of on-site analytical methods are in wide use for explosives in soil, calorimetric and immunoassay. Calorimetric methods generally detect broad classes of compounds such as nitroaromatics or nitramines, while immunoassay methods are more compound specific. Since TNT or RDX is usually present in explosive-contaminated soils, the use of procedures designed to detect only these or similar compounds can be very effective.

  12. Data quality assurance in monitoring of wastewater quality: Univariate on-line and off-line methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alferes, J.; Poirier, P.; Lamaire-Chad, C.;

    To make water quality monitoring networks useful for practice, the automation of data collection and data validation still represents an important challenge. Efficient monitoring depends on careful quality control and quality assessment. With a practical orientation a data quality assurance...... procedure is presented that combines univariate off-line and on-line methods to assess water quality sensors and to detect and replace doubtful data. While the off-line concept uses control charts for quality control, the on-line methods aim at outlier and fault detection by using autoregressive models....... The proposed tools were successfully tested with data sets collected at the inlet of a primary clarifier,where probably the toughest measurement conditions are found in wastewater treatment plants....

  13. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 261 - Representative Sampling Methods (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representative Sampling Methods I...—Representative Sampling Methods The methods and equipment used for sampling waste materials will vary with the form and consistency of the waste materials to be sampled. Samples collected using the...

  14. Evaluation of Sampling Methods for Bacillus Spore ... (United States)

    Journal Article Following a wide area release of biological materials, mapping the extent of contamination is essential for orderly response and decontamination operations. HVAC filters process large volumes of air and therefore collect highly representative particulate samples in buildings. HVAC filter extraction may have great utility in rapidly estimating the extent of building contamination following a large-scale incident. However, until now, no studies have been conducted comparing the two most appropriate sampling approaches for HVAC filter materials: direct extraction and vacuum-based sampling.

  15. Fast identification of microplastics in complex environmental samples by a thermal degradation method. (United States)

    Dümichen, Erik; Eisentraut, Paul; Bannick, Claus Gerhard; Barthel, Anne-Kathrin; Senz, Rainer; Braun, Ulrike


    In order to determine the relevance of microplastic particles in various environmental media, comprehensive investigations are needed. However, no analytical method exists for fast identification and quantification. At present, optical spectroscopy methods like IR and RAMAN imaging are used. Due to their time consuming procedures and uncertain extrapolation, reliable monitoring is difficult. For analyzing polymers Py-GC-MS is a standard method. However, due to a limited sample amount of about 0.5 mg it is not suited for analysis of complex sample mixtures like environmental samples. Therefore, we developed a new thermoanalytical method as a first step for identifying microplastics in environmental samples. A sample amount of about 20 mg, which assures the homogeneity of the sample, is subjected to complete thermal decomposition. The specific degradation products of the respective polymer are adsorbed on a solid-phase adsorber and subsequently analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry. For certain identification, the specific degradation products for the respective polymer were selected first. Afterwards real environmental samples from the aquatic (three different rivers) and the terrestrial (bio gas plant) systems were screened for microplastics. Mainly polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) were identified for the samples from the bio gas plant and PE and PS from the rivers. However, this was only the first step and quantification measurements will follow.

  16. Quality assurance and quality control in light stable isotope laboratories: A case study of Rio Grande, Texas, water samples (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Qi, H.


    New isotope laboratories can achieve the goal of reporting the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty for the same material analysed decades apart by (1) writing their own acceptance testing procedures and putting them into their mass spectrometric or laser-based isotope-ratio equipment procurement contract, (2) requiring a manufacturer to demonstrate acceptable performance using all sample ports provided with the instrumentation, (3) for each medium to be analysed, prepare two local reference materials substantially different in isotopic composition to encompass the range in isotopic composition expected in the laboratory and calibrated them with isotopic reference materials available from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), (4) using the optimum storage containers (for water samples, sealing in glass ampoules that are sterilised after sealing is satisfactory), (5) interspersing among sample unknowns local laboratory isotopic reference materials daily (internationally distributed isotopic reference materials can be ordered at three-year intervals, and can be used for elemental analyser analyses and other analyses that consume less than 1 mg of material) - this process applies to H, C, N, O, and S isotope ratios, (6) calculating isotopic compositions of unknowns by normalising isotopic data to that of local reference materials, which have been calibrated to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials, (7) reporting results on scales normalised to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials (where they are available) and providing to sample submitters the isotopic compositions of internationally distributed isotopic reference materials of the same substance had they been analysed with unknowns, (8) providing an audit trail in the laboratory for analytical results - this trail commonly will be in electronic format and might include a laboratory

  17. SU-E-T-438: Commissioning of An In-Vivo Quality Assurance Method Using the Electronic Portal Imaging Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, O; Held, M; Pouliot, J [UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Purpose: Patient specific pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) using arrays of detectors or film have been the standard approach to assure the correct treatment is delivered to the patient. This QA approach is expensive, labor intensive and does not guarantee or document that all remaining fractions were treated properly. The purpose of this abstract is to commission and evaluate the performance of a commercially available in-vivo QA software using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to record the daily treatments. Methods: The platform EPIgray V2.0.2 (Dosisoft), which machine model compares ratios of TMR with EPID signal to predict dose was commissioned for an Artiste (Siemens Oncology Care Systems) and a Truebeam (Varian medical systems) linear accelerator following the given instructions. The systems were then tested on three different phantoms (homogeneous stack of solid water, anthropomorphic head and pelvis) and on a library of patient cases. Simple and complex fields were delivered at different exposures and for different gantry angles. The effects of the table attenuation and the EPID sagging were evaluated. Gamma analysis of the measured dose was compared to the predicted dose for complex clinical IMRT cases. Results: Commissioning of the EPIgray system for two photon energies took 8 hours. The difference between the dose planned and the dose measured with EPIgray was better than 3% for all phantom scenarios tested. Preliminary results on patients demonstrate an accuracy of 5% is achievable in high dose regions for both 3DCRT and IMRT. Large discrepancies (>5%) were observed due to metallic structures or air cavities and in low dose areas. Flat panel sagging was visible and accounted for in the EPIgray model. Conclusion: The accuracy achieved by EPIgray is sufficient to document the safe delivery of complex IMRT treatments. Future work will evaluate EPIgray for VMAT and high dose rate deliveries. This work is supported by Dosisoft, Cachan, France.

  18. A method for sampling waste corn (United States)

    Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.


    Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

  19. 19 CFR 151.70 - Method of sampling by Customs. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of sampling by Customs. 151.70 Section 151.70 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Method of sampling by Customs. A general sample shall be taken from each sampling unit, unless it is...

  20. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Volume 2, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, S.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.


    J-Field encompasses about 460 acres at the southern end of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of APG (Figure 2.1). Since World War II, the Edgewood Area of APG has been used to develop, manufacture, test, and destroy chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). For the purposes of this project, J-Field has been divided into eight geographic areas or facilities that are designated as areas of concern (AOCs): the Toxic Burning Pits (TBP), the White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP), the Riot Control Burning Pit (RCP), the Robins Point Demolition Ground (RPDG), the Robins Point Tower Site (RPTS), the South Beach Demolition Ground (SBDG), the South Beach Trench (SBT), and the Prototype Building (PB). The scope of this project is to conduct a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and ecological risk assessment to evaluate the impacts of past disposal activities at the J-Field site. Sampling for the RI will be carried out in three stages (I, II, and III) as detailed in the FSP. A phased approach will be used for the J-Field ecological risk assessment (ERA).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯士雍; 邹国华


    This paper proposes a new method for increasing the precision in survey sampling, i.e., a method combining sampling with prediction. The two cases where auxiliary information is or not available are considered. A numerical example is given.

  2. Use of destructive and nondestructive methods of analysis for quality assurance at MOX fuel production in the Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibilashvili, Y.K.; Rudenko, V.S.; Chorokhov, N.A.; Korovin, Y.I.; Petrov, A.M.; Vorobiev, A.V.; Mukhortov, N.F.; Smirnov, Y.A.; Kudryavtsev, V.N. [A.A. Bochvar All-Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (Russian Federation)


    Parameters of MOX fuel with various plutonium contents are considered from the point of view of necessity of their control for quality assurance. Destructive and nondestructive methods used for this purpose in the Russia are described: controlled potential coulometry for determination of uranium or/and plutonium contents, their ratio and oxygen factor; mass spectrometry for determination of uranium and plutonium isotopic composition; chemical spectral emission method for determination of contents of 'metal' impurities, boron and silicon, and methods of determination of gas forming impurities. Capabilities of nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry techniques are considered in detail and results of their use at measurement of uranium and plutonium isotopic composition in initial dioxides, at determination of contents of uranium and plutonium, and uniformity of their distribution in MOX powder and pellets. The necessity of correction of algorithm of the MGA program is shown for using the program at analyses of gamma-ray spectra of MOX with low contents of low burnup plutonium. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of Environmental Sample Analysis Methods and Results Reporting in the National Children's Study Vanguard Study. (United States)

    Heikkinen, Maire S A; Khalaf, Abdisalam; Beard, Barbara; Viet, Susan M; Dellarco, Michael


    During the initial Vanguard phase of the U.S. National Children's Study (NCS), about 2000 tap water, surface wipe, and air samples were collected and analyzed immediately. The shipping conditions, analysis methods, results, and laboratory performance were evaluated to determine the best approaches for use in the NCS Main Study. The main conclusions were (1) to employ established sample analysis methods, when possible, and alternate methodologies only after careful consideration with method validation studies; (2) lot control and prescreening sample collection materials are important quality assurance procedures; (3) packing samples correctly requires careful training and adjustment of shipping conditions to local conditions; (4) trip blanks and spiked samples should be considered for samplers with short expiration times and labile analytes; (5) two study-specific results reports should be required: laboratory electronic data deliverables (EDD) of sample results in a useable electronic format (CSV or SEDD XML/CSV) and a data package with sample results and supporting information in PDF format. These experiences and lessons learned can be applied to any long-term study.

  4. Evaluation of Sampling Methods and Development of Sample Plans for Estimating Predator Densities in Cotton (United States)

    The cost-reliability of five sampling methods (visual search, drop cloth, beat bucket, shake bucket and sweep net) was determined for predatory arthropods on cotton plants. The beat bucket sample method was the most cost-reliable while the visual sample method was the least cost-reliable. The beat ...

  5. Quality assurance using outlier detection on an automatic segmentation method for the cerebellar peduncles (United States)

    Li, Ke; Ye, Chuyang; Yang, Zhen; Carass, Aaron; Ying, Sarah H.; Prince, Jerry L.


    Cerebellar peduncles (CPs) are white matter tracts connecting the cerebellum to other brain regions. Automatic segmentation methods of the CPs have been proposed for studying their structure and function. Usually the performance of these methods is evaluated by comparing segmentation results with manual delineations (ground truth). However, when a segmentation method is run on new data (for which no ground truth exists) it is highly desirable to efficiently detect and assess algorithm failures so that these cases can be excluded from scientific analysis. In this work, two outlier detection methods aimed to assess the performance of an automatic CP segmentation algorithm are presented. The first one is a univariate non-parametric method using a box-whisker plot. We first categorize automatic segmentation results of a dataset of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans from 48 subjects as either a success or a failure. We then design three groups of features from the image data of nine categorized failures for failure detection. Results show that most of these features can efficiently detect the true failures. The second method—supervised classification—was employed on a larger DTI dataset of 249 manually categorized subjects. Four classifiers—linear discriminant analysis (LDA), logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest classification (RFC)—were trained using the designed features and evaluated using a leave-one-out cross validation. Results show that the LR performs worst among the four classifiers and the other three perform comparably, which demonstrates the feasibility of automatically detecting segmentation failures using classification methods.

  6. 76 FR 26341 - Medicaid Program; Methods for Assuring Access to Covered Medicaid Services (United States)


    ..., telemedicine and telehealth, nurse help lines, health information technology and other methods for providing... payment changes have led to confusion about the analysis required to demonstrate compliance with Medicaid... hospital, clinic, long-term care facilities, hospice, home health care, durable medical equipment,...

  7. Evaporation from weighing precipitation gauges: impacts on automated gauge measurements and quality assurance methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Leeper


    Full Text Available The effects of evaporation on precipitation measurements have been understood to bias total precipitation lower. For automated weighing-bucket gauges, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO suggests the use of evaporative suppressants with frequent observations. However, the use of evaporation suppressants is not always feasible due to environmental hazards and the added cost of maintenance, transport, and disposal of the gauge additive. In addition, research has suggested that evaporation prior to precipitation may affect precipitation measurements from auto-recording gauges operating at sub-hourly frequencies. For further evaluation, a field campaign was conducted to monitor evaporation and its impacts on the quality of precipitation measurements from gauges used at US Climate Reference Network (USCRN stations. Collocated Geonor gauges with (nonEvap and without (evap an evaporative suppressant were compared to evaluate evaporative losses and evaporation biases on precipitation measurements. From June to August, evaporative losses from the evap gauge exceeded accumulated precipitation, with an average loss of 0.12 mm h−1. However, the impact of evaporation on precipitation measurements was sensitive to calculation methods. In general, methods that utilized a longer time series to smooth out sensor noise were more sensitive to gauge (−4.6% bias with respect to control evaporation than methods computing depth change without smoothing (< +1% bias. These results indicate that while climate and gauge design affect gauge evaporation rates computational methods can influence the magnitude of evaporation bias on precipitation measurements. It is hoped this study will advance QA techniques that mitigate the impact of evaporation biases on precipitation measurements from other automated networks.

  8. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.


    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  9. Optical fiber detectors as in-vivo dosimetry method of quality assurance in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plazas, M.C. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Physics Dept. Medical Physics Group; Justus, B.L.; Falkenstein, P.; Huston, A.L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States). Optical Sciences Div.; Ning, H.; Miller, R. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States). Radiation Oncology Branch


    A new in-vivo dosimetry system has been under development for some time using radio luminescent phosphors. These phosphors are activated, metal ion doped glasses (Ex: Cu{sup 1{+-}} doped quartz fiber), have excellent optical transparency and offer several potential advantages for radiation dosimetry; including: small size, high sensitivity, linearity of dose response insensitivity to electromagnetic interference. The utility of these phosphors as a detection modality has been limited in real-time dosimetry applications due to the production of Cerenkov radiation in the carrier fiber, which produces a contaminant signal proportional to dose rate as well as the size of the radiation field. One possible method for eliminating this signal is using an electronic gating signal from the accelerator to delay data acquisition during the actual beam pulse, when Cerenkov radiation is produced. Due to the intrinsic properties of our particular scintillator, this method offers the best mechanism for eliminating Cerenkov noise, while retaining the ability to detect individual beam pulses. The dosimeter was tested using an external beam radiotherapy machine that provided pulses of 6 MeV x-rays. Gated detection was used to discriminate the signal collected during the radiation pulses, which included contributions from Cerenkov radiation and native fiber fluorescence, from the signal collected between the radiation pulses, which contained only the long-lived phosphorescence from the Cu{sup 1{+-}} doped fused quartz detector. Gated detection of the phosphorescence provided accurate, real-time dose measurements that were linear with absorbed dose, independent of dose rate and that were accurate for all field sizes studied. (author)

  10. Sampling Methods in Cardiovascular Nursing Research: An Overview. (United States)

    Kandola, Damanpreet; Banner, Davina; O'Keefe-McCarthy, Sheila; Jassal, Debbie


    Cardiovascular nursing research covers a wide array of topics from health services to psychosocial patient experiences. The selection of specific participant samples is an important part of the research design and process. The sampling strategy employed is of utmost importance to ensure that a representative sample of participants is chosen. There are two main categories of sampling methods: probability and non-probability. Probability sampling is the random selection of elements from the population, where each element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. There are five main types of probability sampling including simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and multi-stage sampling. Non-probability sampling methods are those in which elements are chosen through non-random methods for inclusion into the research study and include convenience sampling, purposive sampling, and snowball sampling. Each approach offers distinct advantages and disadvantages and must be considered critically. In this research column, we provide an introduction to these key sampling techniques and draw on examples from the cardiovascular research. Understanding the differences in sampling techniques may aid nurses in effective appraisal of research literature and provide a reference pointfor nurses who engage in cardiovascular research.

  11. Sampling Methods for Wallenius' and Fisher's Noncentral Hypergeometric Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner


    the mode, ratio-of-uniforms rejection method, and rejection by sampling in the tau domain. Methods for the multivariate distributions include: simulation of urn experiments, conditional method, Gibbs sampling, and Metropolis-Hastings sampling. These methods are useful for Monte Carlo simulation of models......Several methods for generating variates with univariate and multivariate Wallenius' and Fisher's noncentral hypergeometric distributions are developed. Methods for the univariate distributions include: simulation of urn experiments, inversion by binary search, inversion by chop-down search from...... of biased sampling and models of evolution and for calculating moments and quantiles of the distributions....

  12. On Angular Sampling Methods for 3-D Spatial Channel Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Jämsä, Tommi; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum


    This paper discusses generating three dimensional (3D) spatial channel models with emphasis on the angular sampling methods. Three angular sampling methods, i.e. modified uniform power sampling, modified uniform angular sampling, and random pairing methods are proposed and investigated in detail....... The random pairing method, which uses only twenty sinusoids in the ray-based model for generating the channels, presents good results if the spatial channel cluster is with a small elevation angle spread. For spatial clusters with large elevation angle spreads, however, the random pairing method would fail...... and the other two methods should be considered....

  13. Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.


    Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

  14. 19 CFR 151.83 - Method of sampling. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of sampling. 151.83 Section 151.83 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Cotton § 151.83 Method of sampling....

  15. 7 CFR 29.110 - Method of sampling. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of sampling. 29.110 Section 29.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.110 Method of sampling. In sampling...

  16. Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices by the U. S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of four selected mosquito insecticides and a synergist in water using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chrom (United States)

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Strahan, A.P.; Thurman, E.M.


    A method of analysis and quality-assurance practices were developed for the determination of four mosquito insecticides (malathion, metho-prene, phenothrin, and resmethrin) and one synergist (piperonyl butoxide) in water. The analytical method uses liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Good precision and accuracy were demonstrated in reagent water, urban surface water, and ground water. The mean accuracies as percentages of the true compound concentrations from water samples spiked at 10 and 50 nanograms per liter ranged from 68 to 171 percent, with standard deviations in concentrations of 27 nanograms per liter or less. The method detection limit for all compounds was 5.9 nanograms per liter or less for 247-milliliter samples. This method is valuable for acquiring information about the fate and transport of these mosquito insecticides and one synergist in water.

  17. Photoacoustic sample vessel and method of elevated pressure operation (United States)

    Autrey, Tom; Yonker, Clement R.


    An improved photoacoustic vessel and method of photoacoustic analysis. The photoacoustic sample vessel comprises an acoustic detector, an acoustic couplant, and an acoustic coupler having a chamber for holding the acoustic couplant and a sample. The acoustic couplant is selected from the group consisting of liquid, solid, and combinations thereof. Passing electromagnetic energy through the sample generates an acoustic signal within the sample, whereby the acoustic signal propagates through the sample to and through the acoustic couplant to the acoustic detector.

  18. Simple quality assurance method of dynamic tumor tracking with the gimbaled linac system using a light field. (United States)

    Miura, Hideharu; Ozawa, Shuichi; Hayata, Masahiro; Tsuda, Shintaro; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Yasushi


    We proposed a simple visual method for evaluating the dynamic tumor tracking (DTT) accuracy of a gimbal mechanism using a light field. A single photon beam was set with a field size of 30 × 30 mm2 at a gantry angle of 90°. The center of a cube phantom was set up at the isocenter of a motion table, and 4D modeling was performed based on the tumor and infrared (IR) marker motion. After 4D modeling, the cube phantom was replaced with a sheet of paper, which was placed perpen-dicularly, and a light field was projected on the sheet of paper. The light field was recorded using a web camera in a treatment room that was as dark as possible. Calculated images from each image obtained using the camera were summed to compose a total summation image. Sinusoidal motion sequences were produced by moving the phantom with a fixed amplitude of 20 mm and different breathing periods of 2, 4, 6, and 8 s. The light field was projected on the sheet of paper under three conditions: with the moving phantom and DTT based on the motion of the phantom, with the moving phantom and non-DTT, and with a stationary phantom for comparison. The values of tracking errors using the light field were 1.12 ± 0.72, 0.31 ± 0.19, 0.27 ± 0.12, and 0.15 ± 0.09 mm for breathing periods of 2, 4, 6, and 8s, respectively. The tracking accuracy showed dependence on the breath-ing period. We proposed a simple quality assurance (QA) process for the tracking accuracy of a gimbal mechanism system using a light field and web camera. Our method can assess the tracking accuracy using a light field without irradiation and clearly visualize distributions like film dosimetry.

  19. Marshall Island radioassay quality assurance program an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrado, C.L.; Hamilton, T.F.; Kehl, S.R.; Robison, W.L.; Stoker, A.C.


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed an extensive quality assurance program to provide high quality data and assessments in support of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Program. Our quality assurance objectives begin with the premise of providing integrated and cost-effective program support (to meet wide-ranging programmatic needs, scientific peer review, litigation defense, and build public confidence) and continue through from design and implementation of large-scale field programs, sampling and sample preparation, radiometric and chemical analyses, documentation of quality assurance/quality control practices, exposure assessments, and dose/risk assessments until publication. The basic structure of our radioassay quality assurance/quality control program can be divided into four essential elements; (1) sample and data integrity control; (2) instrument validation and calibration; (3) method performance testing, validation, development and documentation; and (4) periodic peer review and on-site assessments. While our quality assurance objectives are tailored towards a single research program and the evaluation of major exposure pathways/critical radionuclides pertinent to the Marshall Islands, we have attempted to develop quality assurance practices that are consistent with proposed criteria designed for laboratory accre

  20. Systems and methods for self-synchronized digital sampling (United States)

    Samson, Jr., John R. (Inventor)


    Systems and methods for self-synchronized data sampling are provided. In one embodiment, a system for capturing synchronous data samples is provided. The system includes an analog to digital converter adapted to capture signals from one or more sensors and convert the signals into a stream of digital data samples at a sampling frequency determined by a sampling control signal; and a synchronizer coupled to the analog to digital converter and adapted to receive a rotational frequency signal from a rotating machine, wherein the synchronizer is further adapted to generate the sampling control signal, and wherein the sampling control signal is based on the rotational frequency signal.

  1. γ-ray spectrometry results versus sample preparation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    According to recommended conditions two bio-samples, tea leave and flour, are prepared with different methods: grounding into powder and reducing to ash, then they were analyzed by γ ray spectrometry. Remarkable difference was shown between the measured values of tea samples prepared with these different methods. One of the reasons may be that the method of reducing to ash makes some nuclides lost. Compared with the "non-destructive"method of grounding into powder, the method of reducing to ash can be much more sensible to the loss of some nuclides. The probable reasons are discussed for the varied influences of different preparation methods of tea leave and flour samples.

  2. A method for selecting training samples based on camera response (United States)

    Zhang, Leihong; Li, Bei; Pan, Zilan; Liang, Dong; Kang, Yi; Zhang, Dawei; Ma, Xiuhua


    In the process of spectral reflectance reconstruction, sample selection plays an important role in the accuracy of the constructed model and in reconstruction effects. In this paper, a method for training sample selection based on camera response is proposed. It has been proved that the camera response value has a close correlation with the spectral reflectance. Consequently, in this paper we adopt the technique of drawing a sphere in camera response value space to select the training samples which have a higher correlation with the test samples. In addition, the Wiener estimation method is used to reconstruct the spectral reflectance. Finally, we find that the method of sample selection based on camera response value has the smallest color difference and root mean square error after reconstruction compared to the method using the full set of Munsell color charts, the Mohammadi training sample selection method, and the stratified sampling method. Moreover, the goodness of fit coefficient of this method is also the highest among the four sample selection methods. Taking all the factors mentioned above into consideration, the method of training sample selection based on camera response value enhances the reconstruction accuracy from both the colorimetric and spectral perspectives.

  3. Sampling bee communities using pan traps: alternative methods increase sample size (United States)

    Monitoring of the status of bee populations and inventories of bee faunas require systematic sampling. Efficiency and ease of implementation has encouraged the use of pan traps to sample bees. Efforts to find an optimal standardized sampling method for pan traps have focused on pan trap color. Th...


    Frisch, H. P.


    SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any

  5. Validation of a 20-h real-time PCR method for screening of Salmonella in poultry faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Hoorfar, Jeffrey


    for 18 ± 2 h, centrifugation of a 1-ml subsample, DNA extraction on the pellet and PCR. The total analysis time is 20 h. The validation study included comparative and collaborative trials, based on the recommendations from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods...... (NordVal). The comparative trial was performed against a reference method from the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL187, 2007) using 132 artificially and naturally contaminated samples. The limit of detection (LOD50) was found to be 24 and 33 CFU/sample for the PCR and NMKL187 methods......Efficient and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the poultry production chain is necessary to assure safe food. The objective was to validate an open-formula real-time PCR method for screening of Salmonella in poultry faeces (sock samples). The method consists of incubation in buffered peptone water...

  6. Comparative Study of Two Vitreous Humor Sampling Methods in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; ZHOU Weiguang; REN Liang; LIU Qian; LIU Liang


    To compare and evaluate two methodologies, entire-sampling and micro-sampling for the harvesting of vitreous humor, the vitreous humor of rabbits were sampled with the two methods respectively, and the concentrations of calcium, chlorine, potassium, sodium and phosphorus of the were measured. The results showed that the differences in the variance coefficient and two-eye concentrations of micro-sampled specimens were less than those of the entire-sampled specimens. In the micro-sampling group, the concentrations of repeated micro-sampling showed no differences among different groups (P>0.05) and the intra-ocular fluid dynamics did not have significant influence on post-mortem sampling. The sampling technique may affect the concentrations of specimen collected.Our study suggests that micro-sampling is less influenced by the human factor and is reliable, reproducible, and more suitable for forensic investigation.

  7. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S C; McCulloch, M; Thomas, B L; Riley, R G; Sklarew, D S; Mong, G M; Fadeff, S K [eds.; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) provides applicable methods in use by. the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories for sampling and analyzing constituents of waste and environmental samples. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division (LMD) of the DOE. This document contains chapters and methods that are proposed for use in evaluating components of DOE environmental and waste management samples. DOE Methods is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities that will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or others.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Marketing and statistical literature available to practitioners provides a wide range of sampling methods that can be implemented in the context of marketing research. Ranking sampling method is based on taking apart the general population into several strata, namely into several subdivisions which are relatively homogenous regarding a certain characteristic. In fact, the sample will be composed by selecting, from each stratum, a certain number of components (which can be proportional or non-proportional to the size of the stratum until the pre-established volume of the sample is reached. Using ranking sampling within marketing research requires the determination of some relevant statistical indicators - average, dispersion, sampling error etc. To that end, the paper contains a case study which illustrates the actual approach used in order to apply the ranking sample method within a marketing research made by a company which provides Internet connection services, on a particular category of customers – small and medium enterprises.

  9. Rapid method for sampling metals for materials identification (United States)

    Higgins, L. E.


    Nondamaging process similar to electrochemical machining is useful in obtaining metal samples from places inaccessible to conventional sampling methods or where methods would be hazardous or contaminating to specimens. Process applies to industries where metals or metal alloys play a vital role.

  10. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.


    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  11. Evaluation of common methods for sampling invertebrate pollinator assemblages: net sampling out-perform pan traps. (United States)

    Popic, Tony J; Davila, Yvonne C; Wardle, Glenda M


    Methods for sampling ecological assemblages strive to be efficient, repeatable, and representative. Unknowingly, common methods may be limited in terms of revealing species function and so of less value for comparative studies. The global decline in pollination services has stimulated surveys of flower-visiting invertebrates, using pan traps and net sampling. We explore the relative merits of these two methods in terms of species discovery, quantifying abundance, function, and composition, and responses of species to changing floral resources. Using a spatially-nested design we sampled across a 5000 km(2) area of arid grasslands, including 432 hours of net sampling and 1296 pan trap-days, between June 2010 and July 2011. Net sampling yielded 22% more species and 30% higher abundance than pan traps, and better reflected the spatio-temporal variation of floral resources. Species composition differed significantly between methods; from 436 total species, 25% were sampled by both methods, 50% only by nets, and the remaining 25% only by pans. Apart from being less comprehensive, if pan traps do not sample flower-visitors, the link to pollination is questionable. By contrast, net sampling functionally linked species to pollination through behavioural observations of flower-visitation interaction frequency. Netted specimens are also necessary for evidence of pollen transport. Benefits of net-based sampling outweighed minor differences in overall sampling effort. As pan traps and net sampling methods are not equivalent for sampling invertebrate-flower interactions, we recommend net sampling of invertebrate pollinator assemblages, especially if datasets are intended to document declines in pollination and guide measures to retain this important ecosystem service.

  12. Evaluating Composite Sampling Methods of Bacillus spores at Low Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Becky M.; Amidan, Brett G.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Hutchison, Janine R.


    Restoring facility operations after the 2001 Amerithrax attacks took over three months to complete, highlighting the need to reduce remediation time. The most time intensive tasks were environmental sampling and sample analyses. Composite sampling allows disparate samples to be combined, with only a single analysis needed, making it a promising method to reduce response times. We developed a statistical experimental design to test three different composite sampling methods: 1) single medium single pass composite: a single cellulose sponge samples multiple coupons; 2) single medium multi-pass composite: a single cellulose sponge is used to sample multiple coupons; and 3) multi-medium post-sample composite: a single cellulose sponge samples a single surface, and then multiple sponges are combined during sample extraction. Five spore concentrations of Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura spores were tested; concentrations ranged from 5 to 100 CFU/coupon (0.00775 to 0.155CFU/cm2, respectively). Study variables included four clean surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, ceramic tile, and painted wallboard) and three grime coated/dirty materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile). Analysis of variance for the clean study showed two significant factors: composite method (p-value < 0.0001) and coupon material (p-value = 0.0008). Recovery efficiency (RE) was higher overall using the post-sample composite (PSC) method compared to single medium composite from both clean and grime coated materials. RE with the PSC method for concentrations tested (10 to 100 CFU/coupon) was similar for ceramic tile, painted wall board, and stainless steel for clean materials. RE was lowest for vinyl tile with both composite methods. Statistical tests for the dirty study showed RE was significantly higher for vinyl and stainless steel materials, but significantly lower for ceramic tile. These results suggest post-sample compositing can be used to reduce sample analysis time when

  13. A Mixed Methods Sampling Methodology for a Multisite Case Study (United States)

    Sharp, Julia L.; Mobley, Catherine; Hammond, Cathy; Withington, Cairen; Drew, Sam; Stringfield, Sam; Stipanovic, Natalie


    The flexibility of mixed methods research strategies makes such approaches especially suitable for multisite case studies. Yet the utilization of mixed methods to select sites for these studies is rarely reported. The authors describe their pragmatic mixed methods approach to select a sample for their multisite mixed methods case study of a…

  14. Alternative sample preparation methods for MALDI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G.B.; Buchanan, M.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Czartoski, T.J. [Kenyon College, Gambier, OH (United States)


    Since the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI), sample preparation has been a limiting step in the applicability of this important technique for mass spectrometric analysis of biomolecules. A number of variations on the original sample preparation method for have been described. The {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} method of MALDI sample preparation requires mixing a solution containing the analyte and a large excess of matrix, and allowing a small volume of this solution to dry on a probe tip before insertion into the mass spectrometer. The resulting sample can fairly inhomogeneous. As a result, the process of aiming the desorption laser at a favorable spot on the dried sample can be tedious and time-consuming. The authors are evaluating several approaches to MALDI sample preparation, with the goal of developing a faster and more reproducible method.

  15. Do Too Many Rights Make a Wrong? A Qualitative Study of the Experiences of a Sample of Malaysian and Singapore Private Higher Education Providers in Transnational Quality Assurance (United States)

    Lim, Fion Choon Boey


    Assuring the quality of transnational education has been an endeavour of increasing importance in the internationalisation of higher education but is also increasingly challenging given the involvement of many stakeholders. This paper focuses on the experiences of and challenges faced by private tertiary education providers in Malaysia and…

  16. Methods of analysis and quality-assurance practices of the U.S. Geological Survey organic laboratory, Sacramento, California; determination of pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (United States)

    Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.


    Analytical method and quality-assurance practices were developed for a study of the fate and transport of pesticides in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Sacramento and San Joaquin River. Water samples were filtered to remove suspended parti- culate matter and pumped through C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges to extract the pesticides. The cartridges were dried with carbon dioxide, and the pesticides were eluted with three 2-milliliter aliquots of hexane:diethyl ether (1:1). The eluants were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full-scan mode. Method detection limits for analytes determined per 1,500-milliliter samples ranged from 0.006 to 0.047 microgram per liter. Recoveries ranged from 47 to 89 percent for 12 pesticides in organic-free, Sacramento River and San Joaquin River water samples fortified at 0.05 and 0.26 microgram per liter. The method was modified to improve the pesticide recovery by reducing the sample volume to 1,000 milliliters. Internal standards were added to improve quantitative precision and accuracy. The analysis also was expanded to include a total of 21 pesticides. The method detection limits for 1,000-milliliter samples ranged from 0.022 to 0.129 microgram per liter. Recoveries ranged from 38 to 128 percent for 21 pesticides in organic-free, Sacramento River and San Joaquin River water samples fortified at 0.10 and 0.75 microgram per liter.

  17. Method for using polarization gating to measure a scattering sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S.


    Described herein are systems, devices, and methods facilitating optical characterization of scattering samples. A polarized optical beam can be directed to pass through a sample to be tested. The optical beam exiting the sample can then be analyzed to determine its degree of polarization, from which other properties of the sample can be determined. In some cases, an apparatus can include a source of an optical beam, an input polarizer, a sample, an output polarizer, and a photodetector. In some cases, a signal from a photodetector can be processed through attenuation, variable offset, and variable gain.

  18. SU-E-I-60: Quality Assurance Testing Methods and Customized Phantom for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K-H; Lee, D-W; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Purpose: The objectives of this study are to develop an magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI-MRS) fused phantom along with the inserts for metabolite quantification and to conduct quantitative analysis and evaluation of the layered vials of brain-mimicking solution for quality assurance (QA) performance, according to the localization sequence. Methods: The outer cylindrical phantom body is made of acrylic materials. The section other than where the inner vials are located was filled with copper sulfate and diluted with water so as to reduce the T1 relaxation time. Sodium chloride was included to provide conductivity similar to the human body. All measurements of MRI and MRS were made using a 3.0 T scanner (Achiva Tx 3.0 T; Philips Medical Systems, Netherlands). The MRI scan parameters were as follows: (1) spin echo (SE) T1-weighted image: repetition time (TR), 500ms; echo time (TE), 20ms; matrix, 256×256; field of view (FOV), 250mm; gap, 1mm; number of signal averages (NSA), 1; (2) SE T2-weighted image: TR, 2,500 ms; TE, 80 ms; matrix, 256×256; FOV, 250mm; gap, 1mm; NSA, 1; 23 slice images were obtained with slice thickness of 5mm. The water signal of each volume of interest was suppressed by variable pulse power and optimized relaxation delays (VAPOR) applied before the scan. By applying a point-resolved spectroscopy sequence, the MRS scan parameters were as follows: voxel size, 0.8×0.8×0.8 cm{sup 3}; TR, 2,000ms; TE, 35ms; NSA, 128. Results: Using the fused phantom, the results of measuring MRI factors were: geometric distortion, <2% and ±2 mm; image intensity uniformity, 83.09±1.33%; percent-signal ghosting, 0.025±0.004; low-contrast object detectability, 27.85±0.80. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio of N-acetyl-aspartate was consistently high (42.00±5.66). Conclusion: The MRI-MRS QA factors obtained simultaneously using the phantom can facilitate evaluation of both images and spectra, and provide guidelines for obtaining MRI and MRS QA

  19. Interval sampling methods and measurement error: a computer simulation. (United States)

    Wirth, Oliver; Slaven, James; Taylor, Matthew A


    A simulation study was conducted to provide a more thorough account of measurement error associated with interval sampling methods. A computer program simulated the application of momentary time sampling, partial-interval recording, and whole-interval recording methods on target events randomly distributed across an observation period. The simulation yielded measures of error for multiple combinations of observation period, interval duration, event duration, and cumulative event duration. The simulations were conducted up to 100 times to yield measures of error variability. Although the present simulation confirmed some previously reported characteristics of interval sampling methods, it also revealed many new findings that pertain to each method's inherent strengths and weaknesses. The analysis and resulting error tables can help guide the selection of the most appropriate sampling method for observation-based behavioral assessments.

  20. Software Assurance Using Structured Assurance Case Models. (United States)

    Rhodes, Thomas; Boland, Frederick; Fong, Elizabeth; Kass, Michael


    Software assurance is an important part of the software development process to reduce risks and ensure that the software is dependable and trustworthy. Software defects and weaknesses can often lead to software errors and failures and to exploitation by malicious users. Testing, certification and accreditation have been traditionally used in the software assurance process to attempt to improve software trustworthiness. In this paper, we examine a methodology known as a structured assurance model, which has been widely used for assuring system safety, for its potential application to software assurance. We describe the structured assurance model and examine its application and use for software assurance. We identify strengths and weaknesses of this approach and suggest areas for further investigation and testing.

  1. Sampling and analysis methods for geothermal fluids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.C.


    The sampling procedures for geothermal fluids and gases include: sampling hot springs, fumaroles, etc.; sampling condensed brine and entrained gases; sampling steam-lines; low pressure separator systems; high pressure separator systems; two-phase sampling; downhole samplers; and miscellaneous methods. The recommended analytical methods compiled here cover physical properties, dissolved solids, and dissolved and entrained gases. The sequences of methods listed for each parameter are: wet chemical, gravimetric, colorimetric, electrode, atomic absorption, flame emission, x-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, spark source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, and emission spectrometry. Material on correction of brine component concentrations for steam loss during flashing is presented. (MHR)

  2. Research into the sampling methods of digital beam position measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬维浩; 赵雷; 陈二雷; 刘树彬; 安琪


    A fully digital beam position monitoring system (DBPM) has been designed for SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility). As analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is a crucial part in the DBPM system, the sampling methods should be studied to achieve optimum performance. Different sampling modes were used and com-pared through tests. Long term variation among four sampling channels, which would introduce errors in beam position measurement, is investigated. An interleaved distribution scheme was designed to address this issue. To evaluate the sampling methods, in-beam tests were conducted in SSRF. Test results indicate that with proper sampling methods, a turn-by-turn (TBT) position resolution better than 1 µm is achieved, and the slow-acquisition (SA) position resolution is improved from 4.28 µm to 0.17 µm.

  3. Quality Assurance - Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarslev, Axel


    Gives contains three main chapters:1. Quality Assurance initiated by external demands2. Quality Assurance initiated by internal company goals3. Innovation strategies......Gives contains three main chapters:1. Quality Assurance initiated by external demands2. Quality Assurance initiated by internal company goals3. Innovation strategies...

  4. Field evaluation of personal sampling methods for multiple bioaerosols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsun Wang

    Full Text Available Ambient bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the daily environment and can affect health in various ways. However, few studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate personal bioaerosol exposure in occupational and indoor environments because of the complex composition of bioaerosols and the lack of standardized sampling/analysis methods. We conducted a study to determine the most efficient collection/analysis method for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. The sampling efficiencies of three filters and four samplers were compared. According to our results, polycarbonate (PC filters had the highest relative efficiency, particularly for bacteria. Side-by-side sampling was conducted to evaluate the three filter samplers (with PC filters and the NIOSH Personal Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. According to the results, the Button Aerosol Sampler and the IOM Inhalable Dust Sampler had the highest relative efficiencies for fungi and bacteria, followed by the NIOSH sampler. Personal sampling was performed in a pig farm to assess occupational bioaerosol exposure and to evaluate the sampling/analysis methods. The Button and IOM samplers yielded a similar performance for personal bioaerosol sampling at the pig farm. However, the Button sampler is more likely to be clogged at high airborne dust concentrations because of its higher flow rate (4 L/min. Therefore, the IOM sampler is a more appropriate choice for performing personal sampling in environments with high dust levels. In summary, the Button and IOM samplers with PC filters are efficient sampling/analysis methods for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols.

  5. Comparison of Methods for Soil Sampling and Carbon Content Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Zgorelec


    Full Text Available In this paper methods for sampling and analysis of total carbon in soil were compared. Soil sampling was done by sampling scheme according to agricultural soil monitoring recommendations. Soil samples were collected as single (four individual probe patterns and composite soil samples (16 individual probe patterns from agriculture soil. In soil samples mass ratio of total soil carbon was analyzed by dry combustion method (according to Dumas; HRN ISO 10694:2004 in Analytical Laboratory of Department of General Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb (FAZ and by oxidation method with chromium sulfuric acid (modified HRN ISO 14235:2004 in Analytical laboratory of Croatian Center for Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Department of Soil and Land Conservation (ZZT. The observed data showed very strong correlation (r = 0.8943; n = 42 between two studied methods of analysis. Very strong correlation was also noted between different sampling procedures for single and composite samples in both laboratories, and coefficients of correlation were 0.9697 and 0.9950 (n = 8, respectively.

  6. Field evaluation of personal sampling methods for multiple bioaerosols. (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Hsun; Chen, Bean T; Han, Bor-Cheng; Liu, Andrew Chi-Yeu; Hung, Po-Chen; Chen, Chih-Yong; Chao, Hsing Jasmine


    Ambient bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the daily environment and can affect health in various ways. However, few studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate personal bioaerosol exposure in occupational and indoor environments because of the complex composition of bioaerosols and the lack of standardized sampling/analysis methods. We conducted a study to determine the most efficient collection/analysis method for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. The sampling efficiencies of three filters and four samplers were compared. According to our results, polycarbonate (PC) filters had the highest relative efficiency, particularly for bacteria. Side-by-side sampling was conducted to evaluate the three filter samplers (with PC filters) and the NIOSH Personal Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. According to the results, the Button Aerosol Sampler and the IOM Inhalable Dust Sampler had the highest relative efficiencies for fungi and bacteria, followed by the NIOSH sampler. Personal sampling was performed in a pig farm to assess occupational bioaerosol exposure and to evaluate the sampling/analysis methods. The Button and IOM samplers yielded a similar performance for personal bioaerosol sampling at the pig farm. However, the Button sampler is more likely to be clogged at high airborne dust concentrations because of its higher flow rate (4 L/min). Therefore, the IOM sampler is a more appropriate choice for performing personal sampling in environments with high dust levels. In summary, the Button and IOM samplers with PC filters are efficient sampling/analysis methods for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols.

  7. Nominal Weights Mean Equating: A Method for Very Small Samples (United States)

    Babcock, Ben; Albano, Anthony; Raymond, Mark


    The authors introduced nominal weights mean equating, a simplified version of Tucker equating, as an alternative for dealing with very small samples. The authors then conducted three simulation studies to compare nominal weights mean equating to six other equating methods under the nonequivalent groups anchor test design with sample sizes of 20,…

  8. A microRNA isolation method from clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Zununi Vahed


    Conclusion: The current isolation method can be applied for most clinical samples including cells, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues and even body fluids with a wide applicability in molecular biology investigations.

  9. [Medical quality assurance today]. (United States)

    Schäfer, Robert D


    Both the quality and performance of health systems are strongly influenced by the number and the qualification of the professional staff. Quality assurance programs help to analyse causalities which are responsible for medical malpractice. On the basis of the experiences gained by the performance of established Quality Assurance Programs (QAP) in the North Rhine area since 1982 various aspects of the efficiency of these programs will be discussed. The implementation of legal regulations making these programs mandatory is criticised not only for its bureaucratic effect but also for the attempt to exclude professional experts from the interpretation of results. It is recommended to liberalize these regulations in order to facilitate improvement of methods and participation of the medical profession.

  10. On-capillary sample cleanup method for the electrophoretic determination of carbohydrates in juice samples. (United States)

    Morales-Cid, Gabriel; Simonet, Bartolomé M; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel


    On many occasions, sample treatment is a critical step in electrophoretic analysis. As an alternative to batch procedures, in this work, a new strategy is presented with a view to develop an on-capillary sample cleanup method. This strategy is based on the partial filling of the capillary with carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotube (c-SWNT). The nanoparticles retain interferences from the matrix allowing the determination and quantification of carbohydrates (viz glucose, maltose and fructose). The precision of the method for the analysis of real samples ranged from 5.3 to 6.4%. The proposed method was compared with a method based on a batch filtration of the juice sample through diatomaceous earth and further electrophoretic determination. This method was also validated in this work. The RSD for this other method ranged from 5.1 to 6%. The results obtained by both methods were statistically comparable demonstrating the accuracy of the proposed methods and their effectiveness. Electrophoretic separation of carbohydrates was achieved using 200 mM borate solution as a buffer at pH 9.5 and applying 15 kV. During separation, the capillary temperature was kept constant at 40 degrees C. For the on-capillary cleanup method, a solution containing 50 mg/L of c-SWNTs prepared in 300 mM borate solution at pH 9.5 was introduced for 60 s into the capillary just before sample introduction. For the electrophoretic analysis of samples cleaned in batch with diatomaceous earth, it is also recommended to introduce into the capillary, just before the sample, a 300 mM borate solution as it enhances the sensitivity and electrophoretic resolution.

  11. Probability Sampling Method for a Hidden Population Using Respondent-Driven Sampling: Simulation for Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo


    When there is no sampling frame within a certain group or the group is concerned that making its population public would bring social stigma, we say the population is hidden. It is difficult to approach this kind of population survey-methodologically because the response rate is low and its members are not quite honest with their responses when probability sampling is used. The only alternative known to address the problems caused by previous methods such as snowball sampling is respondent-driven sampling (RDS), which was developed by Heckathorn and his colleagues. RDS is based on a Markov chain, and uses the social network information of the respondent. This characteristic allows for probability sampling when we survey a hidden population. We verified through computer simulation whether RDS can be used on a hidden population of cancer survivors. According to the simulation results of this thesis, the chain-referral sampling of RDS tends to minimize as the sample gets bigger, and it becomes stabilized as the wave progresses. Therefore, it shows that the final sample information can be completely independent from the initial seeds if a certain level of sample size is secured even if the initial seeds were selected through convenient sampling. Thus, RDS can be considered as an alternative which can improve upon both key informant sampling and ethnographic surveys, and it needs to be utilized for various cases domestically as well.

  12. Tomotherapy treatment plan quality assurance: The impact of applied criteria on passing rate in gamma index method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresciani, Sara; Di Dia, Amalia; Maggio, Angelo; Cutaia, Claudia; Miranti, Anna; Infusino, Erminia; Stasi, Michele [Medical Physics Division, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCCS), 10060 Candiolo (Italy)


    Purpose: Pretreatment patient plan verification with gamma index (GI) metric analysis is standard procedure for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the variability of the local and global gamma index obtained during standard pretreatment quality assurance (QA) measurements for plans performed with Tomotherapy unit. The QA measurements were performed with a 3D diode array, using variable passing criteria: 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm, each with both local and global normalization.Methods: The authors analyzed the pretreatment QA results for 73 verifications; 37 were prostate cancer plans, 16 were head and neck plans, and 20 were other clinical sites. All plans were treated using the Tomotherapy Hi-Art System. Pretreatment QA plans were performed with the commercially available 3D diode array ArcCHECK™. This device has 1386 diodes arranged in a helical geometry spaced 1 cm apart. The dose measurements were acquired on the ArcCHECK™ and then compared with the calculated dose using the standard gamma analysis method. The gamma passing rate (%GP), defined as the percentage of points satisfying the condition GI < 1, was calculated for different criteria (3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm) and for both global and local normalization. In the case of local normalization method, the authors set three dose difference threshold (DDT) values of 2, 3, and 5 cGy. Dose difference threshold is defined as the minimum absolute dose error considered in the analysis when using local normalization. Low-dose thresholds (TH) of 5% and 10% were also applied and analyzed.Results: Performing a paired-t-test, the authors determined that the gamma passing rate is independent of the threshold values for all of the adopted criteria (5%TH vs 10%TH, p > 0.1). Our findings showed that mean %GPs for local (or global) normalization for the entire study group were 93% (98%), 84% (92%), and 66% (61%) for 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 1%/1 mm criteria

  13. Integrated Hamiltonian sampling: a simple and versatile method for free energy simulations and conformational sampling. (United States)

    Mori, Toshifumi; Hamers, Robert J; Pedersen, Joel A; Cui, Qiang


    Motivated by specific applications and the recent work of Gao and co-workers on integrated tempering sampling (ITS), we have developed a novel sampling approach referred to as integrated Hamiltonian sampling (IHS). IHS is straightforward to implement and complementary to existing methods for free energy simulation and enhanced configurational sampling. The method carries out sampling using an effective Hamiltonian constructed by integrating the Boltzmann distributions of a series of Hamiltonians. By judiciously selecting the weights of the different Hamiltonians, one achieves rapid transitions among the energy landscapes that underlie different Hamiltonians and therefore an efficient sampling of important regions of the conformational space. Along this line, IHS shares similar motivations as the enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) approach of van Gunsteren and co-workers, although the ways that distributions of different Hamiltonians are integrated are rather different in IHS and EDS. Specifically, we report efficient ways for determining the weights using a combination of histogram flattening and weighted histogram analysis approaches, which make it straightforward to include many end-state and intermediate Hamiltonians in IHS so as to enhance its flexibility. Using several relatively simple condensed phase examples, we illustrate the implementation and application of IHS as well as potential developments for the near future. The relation of IHS to several related sampling methods such as Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics and λ-dynamics is also briefly discussed.

  14. A quantitative sampling method for Oncomelania quadrasi by filter paper. (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Santos, M J; Matsuda, H; Yasuraoka, K; Santos, A T


    Filter paper was found to attract Oncomelania quadrasi in waters the same way as fallen dried banana leaves, although less number of other species of snails was collected on the former than on the latter. Snails were collected in limited areas using a tube (85 cm2 area at cross-section) and a filter paper (20 X 20 CM) samplers. The sheet of filter paper was placed close to the spot where a tube sample was taken, and recovered after 24 hours. At each sampling, 30 samples were taken by each method in an area and sampling was made four times. The correlation of the number of snails collected by the tube and that by filter paper was studied. The ratio of the snail counts by the tube sampler to those by the filter paper was 1.18. A loose correlation was observed between snail counts of both methods as shown by the correlation coefficient r = 0.6502. The formulas for the regression line were Y = 0.77 X + 1.6 and X = 0.55 Y + 1.35 for 3 experiments where Y is the number of snails collected by tube sampling and X is the number of snails collected in the sheet of filter paper. The type of snail distribution was studied in the 30 samples taken by each method and this was observed to be nearly the same in both sampling methods. All sampling data were found to fit the negative binomial distribution with the values of the constant k varying very much from 0.5775 to 5.9186 in (q -- p)-k. In each experiment, the constant k was always larger in tube sampling than in filter paper sampling. This indicates that the uneven distribution of snails on the soil surface becomes more conspicuous by the filter paper sampling.

  15. The use of microbead-based spoligotyping for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to evaluate the quality of the conventional method: Providing guidelines for Quality Assurance when working on membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzelli Carlo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical spoligotyping technique, relying on membrane reverse line-blot hybridization of the spacers of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis CRISPR locus, is used world-wide (598 references in Pubmed on April 8th, 2011. However, until now no inter-laboratory quality control study had been undertaken to validate this technique. We analyzed the quality of membrane-based spoligotyping by comparing it to the recently introduced and highly robust microbead-based spoligotyping. Nine hundred and twenty-seven isolates were analyzed totaling 39,861 data points. Samples were received from 11 international laboratories with a worldwide distribution. Methods The high-throughput microbead-based Spoligotyping was performed on CTAB and thermolyzate DNA extracted from isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC strains coming from the genotyping participating centers. Information regarding how the classical Spoligotyping method was performed by center was available. Genotype discriminatory analyses were carried out by comparing the spoligotypes obtained by both methods. The non parametric U-Mann Whitney homogeneity test and the Spearman rank correlation test were performed to validate the observed results. Results Seven out of the 11 laboratories (63 %, perfectly typed more than 90% of isolates, 3 scored between 80-90% and a single center was under 80% reaching 51% concordance only. However, this was mainly due to discordance in a single spacer, likely having a non-functional probe on the membrane used. The centers using thermolyzate DNA performed as well as centers using the more extended CTAB extraction procedure. Few centers shared the same problematic spacers and these problematic spacers were scattered over the whole CRISPR locus (Mostly spacers 15, 14, 18, 37, 39, 40. Conclusions We confirm that classical spoligotyping is a robust method with generally a high reliability in most centers. The applied DNA extraction procedure (CTAB

  16. Soil separator and sampler and method of sampling (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry H [Idaho Falls, ID; Ritter, Paul D [Idaho Falls, ID


    A soil sampler includes a fluidized bed for receiving a soil sample. The fluidized bed may be in communication with a vacuum for drawing air through the fluidized bed and suspending particulate matter of the soil sample in the air. In a method of sampling, the air may be drawn across a filter, separating the particulate matter. Optionally, a baffle or a cyclone may be included within the fluidized bed for disentrainment, or dedusting, so only the finest particulate matter, including asbestos, will be trapped on the filter. The filter may be removable, and may be tested to determine the content of asbestos and other hazardous particulate matter in the soil sample.

  17. System and method for measuring fluorescence of a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riot, Vincent J


    The present disclosure provides a system and a method for measuring fluorescence of a sample. The sample may be a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) array, a loop-mediated-isothermal amplification array, etc. LEDs are used to excite the sample, and a photodiode is used to collect the sample's fluorescence. An electronic offset signal is used to reduce the effects of background fluorescence and the noises from the measurement system. An integrator integrates the difference between the output of the photodiode and the electronic offset signal over a given period of time. The resulting integral is then converted into digital domain for further processing and storage.

  18. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Thomas, B.L.; Riley, R.G.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mong, G.M.; Fadeff, S.K. [eds.


    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities for the evaluation of environmental and waste management samples from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE Methods is the result of extensive cooperation from all DOE analytical laboratories. All of these laboratories have contributed key information and provided technical reviews as well as significant moral support leading to the success of this document. DOE Methods is designed to encompass methods for collecting representative samples and for determining the radioisotope activity and organic and inorganic composition of a sample. These determinations will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or others. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Analytical Services Division of DOE. Unique methods or methods consolidated from similar procedures in the DOE Procedures Database are selected for potential inclusion in this document. Initial selection is based largely on DOE needs and procedure applicability and completeness. Methods appearing in this document are one of two types, {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes}. {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} methods that have been reviewed internally and show potential for eventual verification are included in this document, but they have not been reviewed externally, and their precision and bias may not be known. {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes} methods in DOE Methods have been reviewed by volunteers from various DOE sites and private corporations. These methods have delineated measures of precision and accuracy.

  19. Reliability analysis method for slope stability based on sample weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-gang YANG


    Full Text Available The single safety factor criteria for slope stability evaluation, derived from the rigid limit equilibrium method or finite element method (FEM, may not include some important information, especially for steep slopes with complex geological conditions. This paper presents a new reliability method that uses sample weight analysis. Based on the distribution characteristics of random variables, the minimal sample size of every random variable is extracted according to a small sample t-distribution under a certain expected value, and the weight coefficient of each extracted sample is considered to be its contribution to the random variables. Then, the weight coefficients of the random sample combinations are determined using the Bayes formula, and different sample combinations are taken as the input for slope stability analysis. According to one-to-one mapping between the input sample combination and the output safety coefficient, the reliability index of slope stability can be obtained with the multiplication principle. Slope stability analysis of the left bank of the Baihetan Project is used as an example, and the analysis results show that the present method is reasonable and practicable for the reliability analysis of steep slopes with complex geological conditions.

  20. Method of monitoring core sampling during borehole drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, A.; Barnes, D.; Gennings, T.L.


    This paper describes a method of monitoring the acquisition of a core sample obtained from a coring tool on a drillstring in a borehole. It comprises: measuring the weight of a portion of the drillstring at a pre-selected borehole depth when the drillstring is off bottom to define a first measurement; drilling to acquire a core sample; measuring the weight of a portion of the drillstring at a pre-selected borehole depth when the drillstring is off-bottom to define a second measurement; determining the difference between the first and second measurements, the difference corresponding to the weight of the core sample; and comparing the measured core sample weight to a calculated weight of a full core sample to determine if the core sample has been acquired.

  1. Using re-sampling methods in mortality studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Itskovich

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of computing standardized mortality ratios (SMR in mortality studies rely upon a number of conventional statistical propositions to estimate confidence intervals for obtained values. Those propositions include a common but arbitrary choice of the confidence level and the assumption that observed number of deaths in the test sample is a purely random quantity. The latter assumption may not be fully justified for a series of periodic "overlapping" studies. We propose a new approach to evaluating the SMR, along with its confidence interval, based on a simple re-sampling technique. The proposed method is most straightforward and requires neither the use of above assumptions nor any rigorous technique, employed by modern re-sampling theory, for selection of a sample set. Instead, we include all possible samples that correspond to the specified time window of the study in the re-sampling analysis. As a result, directly obtained confidence intervals for repeated overlapping studies may be tighter than those yielded by conventional methods. The proposed method is illustrated by evaluating mortality due to a hypothetical risk factor in a life insurance cohort. With this method used, the SMR values can be forecast more precisely than when using the traditional approach. As a result, the appropriate risk assessment would have smaller uncertainties.

  2. Comparative Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Population Studies using Molecular Sampling and Traditional Sampling Methods. (United States)

    Saeb, Amr Tm; David, Satish Kumar


    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are efficient biological pest control agents. Population genetics studies on EPN are seldom known. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the significance of molecular sampling method (MSM) for accuracy, time needed, and cost effectiveness over traditional sampling method (TSM). The study was conducted at the Mohican Hills golf course at the state of Ohio where the EPN H. bacteriophora has been monitored for 18 years. The nematode population occupies an area of approximately 3700 m(2) with density range from 0.25-2 per gram soil. Genetic diversity of EPN was studied by molecular sampling method (MSM) and traditional sampling method (TSM) using the mitochondrial gene pcox1. The MSM picked 88% in compared to TSM with only 30% of sequenced cox 1 gene. All studied genetic polymorphism measures (sequence and haplotype) showed high levels of genetic diversity of MSM over TSM. MSM minimizes the chance of mitochondrial genes amplification from non target organisms (insect or other contaminating microorganisms). Moreover, it allows the sampling of more individuals with a reliable and credible representative sample size. Thus, we show that MSM supersedes TSM in labour intensity, time consumption and requirement of no special experience and efficiency.

  3. 7 CFR 58.812 - Methods of sample analysis. (United States)


    ... Marketing Service, Dairy Programs, or the Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Methods of sample analysis. 58.812 Section 58.812 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  4. Heat-capacity measurements on small samples: The hybrid method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaasse, J.C.P.; Brück, E.H.


    A newly developed method is presented for measuring heat capacities on small samples, particularly where thermal isolation is not sufficient for the use of the traditional semiadiabatic heat-pulse technique. This "hybrid technique" is a modification of this heat-pulse method in case the temperature

  5. Efficiency of snake sampling methods in the Brazilian semiarid region. (United States)

    Mesquita, Paula C M D; Passos, Daniel C; Cechin, Sonia Z


    The choice of sampling methods is a crucial step in every field survey in herpetology. In countries where time and financial support are limited, the choice of the methods is critical. The methods used to sample snakes often lack objective criteria, and the traditional methods have apparently been more important when making the choice. Consequently researches using not-standardized methods are frequently found in the literature. We have compared four commonly used methods for sampling snake assemblages in a semiarid area in Brazil. We compared the efficacy of each method based on the cost-benefit regarding the number of individuals and species captured, time, and financial investment. We found that pitfall traps were the less effective method in all aspects that were evaluated and it was not complementary to the other methods in terms of abundance of species and assemblage structure. We conclude that methods can only be considered complementary if they are standardized to the objectives of the study. The use of pitfall traps in short-term surveys of the snake fauna in areas with shrubby vegetation and stony soil is not recommended.

  6. An algorithm to improve sampling efficiency for uncertainty propagation using sampling based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campolina, Daniel; Lima, Paulo Rubens I., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Tecnologia de Reatores; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear


    Sample size and computational uncertainty were varied in order to investigate sample efficiency and convergence of the sampling based method for uncertainty propagation. Transport code MCNPX was used to simulate a LWR model and allow the mapping, from uncertain inputs of the benchmark experiment, to uncertain outputs. Random sampling efficiency was improved through the use of an algorithm for selecting distributions. Mean range, standard deviation range and skewness were verified in order to obtain a better representation of uncertainty figures. Standard deviation of 5 pcm in the propagated uncertainties for 10 n-samples replicates was adopted as convergence criterion to the method. Estimation of 75 pcm uncertainty on reactor k{sub eff} was accomplished by using sample of size 93 and computational uncertainty of 28 pcm to propagate 1σ uncertainty of burnable poison radius. For a fixed computational time, in order to reduce the variance of the uncertainty propagated, it was found, for the example under investigation, it is preferable double the sample size than double the amount of particles followed by Monte Carlo process in MCNPX code. (author)

  7. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik


    to repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining...... four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental...... concern, the waste-sample concentrations were above the detection limit (e.g. Cd gt; 0.001 mg kg-1, Cr gt; 0.01 mg kg-1, Hg gt; 0.002 mg kg-1, Pb gt; 0.005 mg kg-1). The variance was in the range of 5-100%, depending on material fraction and substance as documented by repeated sampling of two highly...

  8. Fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, W. Henry; Dzenitis, John M.; Bennet, William J.; Baker, Brian R.


    Herein provided are fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis. The fluidics platform is capable of analyzing DNA from blood samples using amplification assays such as polymerase-chain-reaction assays and loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification assays. The fluidics platform can also be used for other types of assays and analyzes. In some embodiments, a sample in a sealed tube can be inserted directly. The following isolation, detection, and analyzes can be performed without a user's intervention. The disclosed platform may also comprises a sample preparation system with a magnetic actuator, a heater, and an air-drying mechanism, and fluid manipulation processes for extraction, washing, elution, assay assembly, assay detection, and cleaning after reactions and between samples.

  9. Self-contained cryogenic gas sampling apparatus and method (United States)

    McManus, G.J.; Motes, B.G.; Bird, S.K.; Kotter, D.K.


    Apparatus for obtaining a whole gas sample, is composed of: a sample vessel having an inlet for receiving a gas sample; a controllable valve mounted for controllably opening and closing the inlet; a valve control coupled to the valve for opening and closing the valve at selected times; a portable power source connected for supplying operating power to the valve control; and a cryogenic coolant in thermal communication with the vessel for cooling the interior of the vessel to cryogenic temperatures. A method is described for obtaining an air sample using the apparatus described above, by: placing the apparatus at a location at which the sample is to be obtained; operating the valve control to open the valve at a selected time and close the valve at a selected subsequent time; and between the selected times maintaining the vessel at a cryogenic temperature by heat exchange with the coolant. 3 figs.

  10. Examination of Hydrate Formation Methods: Trying to Create Representative Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.; Nakagawa, S.; Kwon, T.-H.


    Forming representative gas hydrate-bearing laboratory samples is important so that the properties of these materials may be measured, while controlling the composition and other variables. Natural samples are rare, and have often experienced pressure and temperature changes that may affect the property to be measured [Waite et al., 2008]. Forming methane hydrate samples in the laboratory has been done a number of ways, each having advantages and disadvantages. The ice-to-hydrate method [Stern et al., 1996], contacts melting ice with methane at the appropriate pressure to form hydrate. The hydrate can then be crushed and mixed with mineral grains under controlled conditions, and then compacted to create laboratory samples of methane hydrate in a mineral medium. The hydrate in these samples will be part of the load-bearing frame of the medium. In the excess gas method [Handa and Stupin, 1992], water is distributed throughout a mineral medium (e.g. packed moist sand, drained sand, moistened silica gel, other porous media) and the mixture is brought to hydrate-stable conditions (chilled and pressurized with gas), allowing hydrate to form. This method typically produces grain-cementing hydrate from pendular water in sand [Waite et al., 2004]. In the dissolved gas method [Tohidi et al., 2002], water with sufficient dissolved guest molecules is brought to hydrate-stable conditions where hydrate forms. In the laboratory, this is can be done by pre-dissolving the gas of interest in water and then introducing it to the sample under the appropriate conditions. With this method, it is easier to form hydrate from more soluble gases such as carbon dioxide. It is thought that this method more closely simulates the way most natural gas hydrate has formed. Laboratory implementation, however, is difficult, and sample formation is prohibitively time consuming [Minagawa et al., 2005; Spangenberg and Kulenkampff, 2005]. In another version of this technique, a specified quantity of gas

  11. Characterizing lentic freshwater fish assemblages using multiple sampling methods (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Quist, Michael


    Characterizing fish assemblages in lentic ecosystems is difficult, and multiple sampling methods are almost always necessary to gain reliable estimates of indices such as species richness. However, most research focused on lentic fish sampling methodology has targeted recreationally important species, and little to no information is available regarding the influence of multiple methods and timing (i.e., temporal variation) on characterizing entire fish assemblages. Therefore, six lakes and impoundments (48–1,557 ha surface area) were sampled seasonally with seven gear types to evaluate the combined influence of sampling methods and timing on the number of species and individuals sampled. Probabilities of detection for species indicated strong selectivities and seasonal trends that provide guidance on optimal seasons to use gears when targeting multiple species. The evaluation of species richness and number of individuals sampled using multiple gear combinations demonstrated that appreciable benefits over relatively few gears (e.g., to four) used in optimal seasons were not present. Specifically, over 90 % of the species encountered with all gear types and season combinations (N = 19) from six lakes and reservoirs were sampled with nighttime boat electrofishing in the fall and benthic trawling, modified-fyke, and mini-fyke netting during the summer. Our results indicated that the characterization of lentic fish assemblages was highly influenced by the selection of sampling gears and seasons, but did not appear to be influenced by waterbody type (i.e., natural lake, impoundment). The standardization of data collected with multiple methods and seasons to account for bias is imperative to monitoring of lentic ecosystems and will provide researchers with increased reliability in their interpretations and decisions made using information on lentic fish assemblages.

  12. Comparison of pigment content of paint samples using spectrometric methods (United States)

    Trzcińska, Beata; Kowalski, Rafał; Zięba-Palus, Janina


    The aim of the paper was to evaluate the influence of pigment concentration and its distribution in polymer binder on the possibility of colour identification and paint sample comparison. Two sets of paint samples: one containing red and another one green pigment were prepared. Each set consisted of 13 samples differing gradually in the concentration of pigment. To obtain the sets of various colour shades white paint was mixed with the appropriate pigment in the form of a concentrated suspension. After solvents evaporation the samples were examined using spectrometric methods. The resin and main filler were identified by IR method. Colour and white pigments were identified on the base of Raman spectra. Colour of samples were compared based on Vis spectrometry according to colour theory. It was found that samples are homogenous (parameter measuring colour similarity ΔE < 3). The values of ΔE between the neighbouring samples in the set revealed decreasing linear function and between the first and following one - a logarithmic function.

  13. Methods for Sampling and Measurement of Compressed Air Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L.


    In order to improve the technique for measuring oil and water entrained in a compressed air stream, a laboratory study has been made of some methods for sampling and measurement. For this purpose water or oil as artificial contaminants were injected in thin streams into a test loop, carrying dry compressed air. Sampling was performed in a vertical run, down-stream of the injection point. Wall attached liquid, coarse droplet flow, and fine droplet flow were sampled separately. The results were compared with two-phase flow theory and direct observation of liquid behaviour. In a study of sample transport through narrow tubes, it was observed that, below a certain liquid loading, the sample did not move, the liquid remaining stationary on the tubing wall. The basic analysis of the collected samples was made by gravimetric methods. Adsorption tubes were used with success to measure water vapour. A humidity meter with a sensor of the aluminium oxide type was found to be unreliable. Oil could be measured selectively by a flame ionization detector, the sample being pretreated in an evaporation- condensation unit

  14. A comparison of sampling methods for examining the laryngeal microbiome (United States)

    Hanshew, Alissa S.; Jetté, Marie E.; Tadayon, Stephanie; Thibeault, Susan L.


    Shifts in healthy human microbial communities have now been linked to disease in numerous body sites. Noninvasive swabbing remains the sampling technique of choice in most locations; however, it is not well known if this method samples the entire community, or only those members that are easily removed from the surface. We sought to compare the communities found via swabbing and biopsied tissue in true vocal folds, a location that is difficult to sample without causing potential damage and impairment to tissue function. A secondary aim of this study was to determine if swab sampling of the false vocal folds could be used as proxy for true vocal folds. True and false vocal fold mucosal samples (swabbed and biopsied) were collected from six pigs and used for 454 pyrosequencing of the V3–V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Most of the alpha and beta measures of diversity were found to be significantly similar between swabbed and biopsied tissue samples. Similarly, the communities found in true and false vocal folds did not differ considerably. These results suggest that samples taken via swabs are sufficient to assess the community, and that samples taken from the false vocal folds may be used as proxies for the true vocal folds. Assessment of these techniques opens an avenue to less traumatic means to explore the role microbes play in the development of diseases of the vocal folds, and perhaps the rest of the respiratory tract. PMID:28362810

  15. WHO informal consultation on the application of molecular methods to assure the quality, safety and efficacy of vaccines, Geneva, Switzerland, 7-8 April 2005. (United States)

    Shin, Jinho; Wood, David; Robertson, James; Minor, Philip; Peden, Keith


    In April 2005, the World Health Organization convened an informal consultation on molecular methods to assure the quality, safety and efficacy of vaccines. The consultation was attended by experts from national regulatory authorities, vaccine industry and academia. Crosscutting issues on the application of molecular methods for a number of vaccines that are currently in use or under development were presented, and specific methods for further collaborative studies were discussed and identified. The main points of recommendation from meeting participants were fourfold: (i) that molecular methods should be encouraged; (ii) that collaborative studies are needed for many methods/applications; (iii) that basic science should be promoted; and (iv) that investment for training, equipment and facilities should be encouraged.

  16. Optimizing the atmospheric sampling sites using fuzzy mathematic methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new approach applying fuzzy mathematic theorems, including the Primary Matrix Element Theorem and the Fisher ClassificationMethod, was established to solve the optimization problem of atmospheric environmental sampling sites. According to its basis, an applicationin the optimization of sampling sites in the atmospheric environmental monitoring was discussed. The method was proven to be suitable andeffective. The results were admitted and applied by the Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) of many cities of China. A set of computersoftware of this approach was also completely compiled and used.

  17. On the Exploitation of Sensitivity Derivatives for Improving Sampling Methods (United States)

    Cao, Yanzhao; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Zang, Thomas A.


    Many application codes, such as finite-element structural analyses and computational fluid dynamics codes, are capable of producing many sensitivity derivatives at a small fraction of the cost of the underlying analysis. This paper describes a simple variance reduction method that exploits such inexpensive sensitivity derivatives to increase the accuracy of sampling methods. Three examples, including a finite-element structural analysis of an aircraft wing, are provided that illustrate an order of magnitude improvement in accuracy for both Monte Carlo and stratified sampling schemes.

  18. Recording 2-D Nutation NQR Spectra by Random Sampling Method. (United States)

    Glotova, Olga; Sinyavsky, Nikolaj; Jadzyn, Maciej; Ostafin, Michal; Nogaj, Boleslaw


    The method of random sampling was introduced for the first time in the nutation nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy where the nutation spectra show characteristic singularities in the form of shoulders. The analytic formulae for complex two-dimensional (2-D) nutation NQR spectra (I = 3/2) were obtained and the condition for resolving the spectral singularities for small values of an asymmetry parameter η was determined. Our results show that the method of random sampling of a nutation interferogram allows significant reduction of time required to perform a 2-D nutation experiment and does not worsen the spectral resolution.

  19. A proficiency test system to improve performance of milk analysis methods and produce reference values for component calibration samples for infrared milk analysis. (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M


    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of combining proficiency testing, analytical method quality-assurance system, and production of reference samples for calibration of infrared milk analyzers to achieve a more efficient use of resources and reduce costs while maximizing analytical accuracy within and among milk payment-testing laboratories. To achieve this, we developed and demonstrated a multilaboratory combined proficiency testing and analytical method quality-assurance system as an approach to evaluate and improve the analytical performance of methods. A set of modified milks was developed and optimized to serve multiple purposes (i.e., proficiency testing, quality-assurance and method improvement, and to provide reference materials for calibration of secondary testing methods). Over a period of years, the approach has enabled the group of laboratories to document improved analytical performance (i.e., reduced within- and between-laboratory variation) of chemical reference methods used as the primary reference for calibration of high-speed electronic milk-testing equipment. An annual meeting of the laboratory technicians allows for review of results and discussion of each method and provides a forum for communication of experience and techniques that are of value to new analysts in the group. The monthly proficiency testing sample exchanges have the added benefit of producing all-laboratory mean reference values for a set of 14 milks that can be used for calibration, evaluation, and troubleshooting of calibration adjustment issues on infrared milk analyzers.

  20. Evaluation of sample preservation methods for poultry manure. (United States)

    Pan, J; Fadel, J G; Zhang, R; El-Mashad, H M; Ying, Y; Rumsey, T


    When poultry manure is collected but cannot be analyzed immediately, a method for storing the manure is needed to ensure accurate subsequent analyses. This study has 3 objectives: (1) to investigate effects of 4 poultry manure sample preservation methods (refrigeration, freezing, acidification, and freeze-drying) on the compositional characteristics of poultry manure; (2) to determine compositional differences in fresh manure with manure samples at 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation under bird cages; and (3) to assess the influence of 14-d freezing storage on the composition of manure when later exposed to 25 degrees C for 7 d as compared with fresh manure. All manure samples were collected from a layer house. Analyses performed on the manure samples included total Kjeldahl nitrogen, uric acid nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and urea nitrogen. In experiment 1, the storage methods most similar to fresh manure, in order of preference, were freezing, freeze-drying, acidification, and refrigeration. Thoroughly mixing manure samples and compressing them to 2 to 3 mm is important for the freezing and freeze-dried samples. In general, refrigeration was found unacceptable for nitrogen analyses. A significant effect (P Kjeldahl nitrogen and uric acid nitrogen were significantly lower (P < 0.05) for 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation compared with fresh manure. Manure after 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation had similar nitrogen compositions. The results from experiment 3 show that nitrogen components from fresh manure samples and thawed samples from 14 d of freezing are similar at 7 d but high variability of nitrogen compositions during intermediate times from 0 to 7 d prevents the recommendation of freezing manure for use in subsequent experiments and warrants future experimentation. In conclusion, fresh poultry manure can be frozen for accurate subsequent nitrogen compositional analyses but this same frozen manure may not be a reliable substitute for fresh manure if a subsequent experiment

  1. Comparison of sampling methods for radiocarbon dating of carbonyls in air samples via accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Matthias, E-mail:; Kretschmer, Wolfgang; Scharf, Andreas; Tschekalinskij, Alexander


    Three new methods to sample and prepare various carbonyl compounds for radiocarbon measurements were developed and tested. Two of these procedures utilized the Strecker synthetic method to form amino acids from carbonyl compounds with either sodium cyanide or trimethylsilyl cyanide. The third procedure used semicarbazide to form crystalline carbazones with the carbonyl compounds. The resulting amino acids and semicarbazones were then separated and purified using thin layer chromatography. The separated compounds were then combusted to CO{sub 2} and reduced to graphite to determine {sup 14}C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All of these methods were also compared with the standard carbonyl compound sampling method wherein a compound is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  2. Comparison of sampling methods for radiocarbon dating of carbonyls in air samples via accelerator mass spectrometry (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias; Kretschmer, Wolfgang; Scharf, Andreas; Tschekalinskij, Alexander


    Three new methods to sample and prepare various carbonyl compounds for radiocarbon measurements were developed and tested. Two of these procedures utilized the Strecker synthetic method to form amino acids from carbonyl compounds with either sodium cyanide or trimethylsilyl cyanide. The third procedure used semicarbazide to form crystalline carbazones with the carbonyl compounds. The resulting amino acids and semicarbazones were then separated and purified using thin layer chromatography. The separated compounds were then combusted to CO2 and reduced to graphite to determine 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All of these methods were also compared with the standard carbonyl compound sampling method wherein a compound is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  3. A molecular method to assess Phytophthora diversity in environmental samples. (United States)

    Scibetta, Silvia; Schena, Leonardo; Chimento, Antonio; Cacciola, Santa O; Cooke, David E L


    Current molecular detection methods for the genus Phytophthora are specific to a few key species rather than the whole genus and this is a recognized weakness of protocols for ecological studies and international plant health legislation. In the present study a molecular approach was developed to detect Phytophthora species in soil and water samples using novel sets of genus-specific primers designed against the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Two different rDNA primer sets were tested: one assay amplified a long product including the ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 regions (LP) and the other a shorter product including the ITS1 only (SP). Both assays specifically amplified products from Phytophthora species without cross-reaction with the related Pythium s. lato, however the SP assay proved the more sensitive and reliable. The method was validated using woodland soil and stream water from Invergowrie, Scotland. On-site use of a knapsack sprayer and in-line water filters proved more rapid and effective than centrifugation at sampling Phytophthora propagules. A total of 15 different Phytophthora phylotypes were identified which clustered within the reported ITS-clades 1, 2, 3, 6, 7 and 8. The range and type of the sequences detected varied from sample to sample and up to three and five different Phytophthora phylotypes were detected within a single sample of soil or water, respectively. The most frequently detected sequences were related to members of ITS-clade 6 (i.e. P. gonapodyides-like). The new method proved very effective at discriminating multiple species in a given sample and can also detect as yet unknown species. The reported primers and methods will prove valuable for ecological studies, biosecurity and commercial plant, soil or water (e.g. irrigation water) testing as well as the wider metagenomic sampling of this fascinating component of microbial pathogen diversity.

  4. 30 CFR 74.9 - Quality assurance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality assurance. 74.9 Section 74.9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES Requirements for Continuous Personal Dust Monitors § 74.9 Quality assurance....

  5. Development of an automated data processing method for sample to sample comparison of seized methamphetamines. (United States)

    Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Jaesin; Choi, Hyeyoung; Park, Yujin; Lee, Heesang; Pyo, Jaesung; Jo, Jiyeong; Park, Yonghoon; Choi, Hwakyung; Kim, Suncheun


    The information about the sources of supply, trafficking routes, distribution patterns and conspiracy links can be obtained from methamphetamine profiling. The precursor and synthetic method for the clandestine manufacture can be estimated from the analysis of minor impurities contained in methamphetamine. Also, the similarity between samples can be evaluated using the peaks that appear in chromatograms. In South Korea, methamphetamine was the most popular drug but the total seized amount of methamphetamine whole through the country was very small. Therefore, it would be more important to find the links between samples than the other uses of methamphetamine profiling. Many Asian countries including Japan and South Korea have been using the method developed by National Research Institute of Police Science of Japan. The method used gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), DB-5 column and four internal standards. It was developed to increase the amount of impurities and minimize the amount of methamphetamine. After GC-FID analysis, the raw data have to be processed. The data processing steps are very complex and require a lot of time and effort. In this study, Microsoft Visual Basic Application (VBA) modules were developed to handle these data processing steps. This module collected the results from the data into an Excel file and then corrected the retention time shift and response deviation generated from the sample preparation and instruments analysis. The developed modules were tested for their performance using 10 samples from 5 different cases. The processed results were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient for similarity assessment and the correlation coefficient of the two samples from the same case was more than 0.99. When the modules were applied to 131 seized methamphetamine samples, four samples from two different cases were found to have the common origin and the chromatograms of the four samples were appeared visually identical

  6. 7 CFR 58.245 - Method of sample analysis. (United States)


    ... laboratory analysis contained in either DA Instruction 918-RL as issued by the USDA, Agricultural Marketing... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of sample analysis. 58.245 Section 58.245 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Zhongxin; FEI Heliang


    In reliability theory and survival analysis,the problem of point estimation based on the censored sample has been discussed in many literatures.However,most of them are focused on MLE,BLUE etc;little work has been done on the moment-method estimation in censoring case.To make the method of moment estimation systematic and unifiable,in this paper,the moment-method estimators(abbr.MEs) and modified momentmethod estimators(abbr.MMEs) of the parameters based on type I and type Ⅱ censored samples are put forward involving mean residual lifetime. The strong consistency and other properties are proved. To be worth mentioning,in the exponential distribution,the proposed moment-method estimators are exactly MLEs. By a simulation study,in the view point of bias and mean square of error,we show that the MEs and MMEs are better than MLEs and the "pseudo complete sample" technique introduced in Whitten et al.(1988).And the superiority of the MEs is especially conspicuous,when the sample is heavily censored.

  8. A Frequency Domain Design Method For Sampled-Data Compensators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Jannerup, Ole Erik


    A new approach to the design of a sampled-data compensator in the frequency domain is investigated. The starting point is a continuous-time compensator for the continuous-time system which satisfy specific design criteria. The new design method will graphically show how the discrete...

  9. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples (United States)

    Albano, Anthony D.


    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  10. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations. (United States)

    Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F; Adams, Rachel G; Cargill, John G; Gan, Jay; Gouin, Todd; Gschwend, Philip M; Hawthorne, Steven B; Helm, Paul; Witt, Gesine; You, Jing; Escher, Beate I


    Passive sampling methods (PSMs) allow the quantification of the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) of an organic contaminant even in complex matrices such as sediments. Cfree is directly related to a contaminant's chemical activity, which drives spontaneous processes including diffusive uptake into benthic organisms and exchange with the overlying water column. Consequently, Cfree provides a more relevant dose metric than total sediment concentration. Recent developments in PSMs have significantly improved our ability to reliably measure even very low levels of Cfree . Application of PSMs in sediments is preferably conducted in the equilibrium regime, where freely dissolved concentrations in the sediment are well-linked to the measured concentration in the sampler via analyte-specific partition ratios. The equilibrium condition can then be assured by measuring a time series or a single time point using passive samplers with different surface to volume ratios. Sampling in the kinetic regime is also possible and generally involves the application of performance reference compounds for the calibration. Based on previous research on hydrophobic organic contaminants, it is concluded that Cfree allows a direct assessment of 1) contaminant exchange and equilibrium status between sediment and overlying water, 2) benthic bioaccumulation, and 3) potential toxicity to benthic organisms. Thus, the use of PSMs to measure Cfree provides an improved basis for the mechanistic understanding of fate and transport processes in sediments and has the potential to significantly improve risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments.

  11. Multinational Quality Assurance (United States)

    Kinser, Kevin


    Multinational colleges and universities pose numerous challenges to the traditional models of quality assurance that are designed to validate domestic higher education. When institutions cross international borders, at least two quality assurance protocols are involved. To guard against fraud and abuse, quality assurance in the host country is…

  12. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples (United States)

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.


    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  13. Sample Selected Averaging Method for Analyzing the Event Related Potential (United States)

    Taguchi, Akira; Ono, Youhei; Kimura, Tomoaki

    The event related potential (ERP) is often measured through the oddball task. On the oddball task, subjects are given “rare stimulus” and “frequent stimulus”. Measured ERPs were analyzed by the averaging technique. In the results, amplitude of the ERP P300 becomes large when the “rare stimulus” is given. However, measured ERPs are included samples without an original feature of ERP. Thus, it is necessary to reject unsuitable measured ERPs when using the averaging technique. In this paper, we propose the rejection method for unsuitable measured ERPs for the averaging technique. Moreover, we combine the proposed method and Woody's adaptive filter method.

  14. Quality assurance in the ambulatory care setting. (United States)

    Tyler, R D


    One of the most utilitarian developments in the field of quality assurance in health care has been the introduction of industrial concepts of quality management. These concepts, coupled with buyer demand for accountability, are bringing new perspectives to health care quality assurance. These perspectives provide a new view of quality assurance as a major responsibility and strategic opportunity for management; a competitive and marketable commodity; and a method of improving safety, effectiveness, and satisfaction with medical care.

  15. Soybean yield modeling using bootstrap methods for small samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalposso, G.A.; Uribe-Opazo, M.A.; Johann, J.A.


    One of the problems that occur when working with regression models is regarding the sample size; once the statistical methods used in inferential analyzes are asymptotic if the sample is small the analysis may be compromised because the estimates will be biased. An alternative is to use the bootstrap methodology, which in its non-parametric version does not need to guess or know the probability distribution that generated the original sample. In this work we used a set of soybean yield data and physical and chemical soil properties formed with fewer samples to determine a multiple linear regression model. Bootstrap methods were used for variable selection, identification of influential points and for determination of confidence intervals of the model parameters. The results showed that the bootstrap methods enabled us to select the physical and chemical soil properties, which were significant in the construction of the soybean yield regression model, construct the confidence intervals of the parameters and identify the points that had great influence on the estimated parameters. (Author)

  16. On-line sample processing methods in flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald


    In this chapter, the state of the art of flow injection and related approaches thereof for automation and miniaturization of sample processing regardless of the aggregate state of the sample medium is overviewed. The potential of the various generation of flow injection for implementation of in......-line dilution, derivatization, separation and preconcentration methods encompassing solid reactors, solvent extraction, sorbent extraction, precipitation/coprecipitation, hydride/vapor generation and digestion/leaching protocols as hyphenated to a plethora of detection devices is discussed in detail...

  17. Rational Construction of Stochastic Numerical Methods for Molecular Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Leimkuhler, Benedict


    In this article, we focus on the sampling of the configurational Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution, that is, the calculation of averages of functions of the position coordinates of a molecular $N$-body system modelled at constant temperature. We show how a formal series expansion of the invariant measure of a Langevin dynamics numerical method can be obtained in a straightforward way using the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff lemma. We then compare Langevin dynamics integrators in terms of their invariant distributions and demonstrate a superconvergence property (4th order accuracy where only 2nd order would be expected) of one method in the high friction limit; this method, moreover, can be reduced to a simple modification of the Euler-Maruyama method for Brownian dynamics involving a non-Markovian (coloured noise) random process. In the Brownian dynamics case, 2nd order accuracy of the invariant density is achieved. All methods considered are efficient for molecular applications (requiring one force evaluation per times...

  18. The Sensitivity of Respondent-driven Sampling Method

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xin; Britton, Tom; Camitz, Martin; Kim, Beom Jun; Thorson, Anna; Liljeros, Fredrik


    Researchers in many scientific fields make inferences from individuals to larger groups. For many groups however, there is no list of members from which to take a random sample. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new sampling methodology that circumvents this difficulty by using the social networks of the groups under study. The RDS method has been shown to provide unbiased estimates of population proportions given certain conditions. The method is now widely used in the study of HIV-related high-risk populations globally. In this paper, we test the RDS methodology by simulating RDS studies on the social networks of a large LGBT web community. The robustness of the RDS method is tested by violating, one by one, the conditions under which the method provides unbiased estimates. Results reveal that the risk of bias is large if networks are directed, or respondents choose to invite persons based on characteristics that are correlated with the study outcomes. If these two problems are absent, the RD...

  19. Microfluidic Sample Preparation Methods for the Analysis of Milk Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Adami


    Full Text Available In systems for food analysis, one of the major challenges is related to the quantification of specific species into the complex chemical and physical composition of foods, that is, the effect of “matrix”; the sample preparation is often the key to a successful application of biosensors to real measurements but little attention is traditionally paid to such aspects in sensor research. In this critical review, we discuss several microfluidic concepts that can play a significant role in sample preparation, highlighting the importance of sample preparation for efficient detection of food contamination. As a case study, we focus on the challenges related to the detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk and we evaluate possible approaches based on inertial microfluidics, electrophoresis, and acoustic separation, compared with traditional laboratory and industrial methods for phase separation as a baseline of thrust and well-established techniques.

  20. A Novel Fast Method for Point-sampled Model Simplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Zhi


    Full Text Available A novel fast simplification method for point-sampled statue model is proposed. Simplifying method for 3d model reconstruction is a hot topic in the field of 3D surface construction. But it is difficult as point cloud of many 3d models is very large, so its running time becomes very long. In this paper, a two-stage simplifying method is proposed. Firstly, a feature-preserved non-uniform simplification method for cloud points is presented, which simplifies the data set to remove the redundancy while keeping down the features of the model. Secondly, an affinity clustering simplifying method is used to classify the point cloud into a sharp point or a simple point. The advantage of Affinity Propagation clustering is passing messages among data points and fast speed of processing. Together with the re-sampling, it can dramatically reduce the duration of the process while keep a lower memory cost. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that after the simplification, the performance of the proposed method is efficient as well as the details of the surface are preserved well.

  1. An improved method for concentrating rotavirus from water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittigul Leera


    Full Text Available A modified adsorption-elution method for the concentration of seeded rotavirus from water samples was used to determine various factors which affected the virus recovery. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the rotavirus antigen after concentration. Of the various eluents compared, 0.05M glycine, pH 11.5 gave the highest rotavirus antigen recovery using negatively charged membrane filtration whereas 2.9% tryptose phosphate broth containing 6% glycine; pH 9.0 was found to give the greatest elution efficiency when a positively charged membrane was used. Reconcentration of water samples by a speedVac concentrator showed significantly higher rotavirus recovery than polyethylene glycol precipitation through both negatively and positively charged filters (p-value 1,800 MPN/100 ml were observed but rotavirus was not detected in any sample. This study suggests that the speedVac reconcentration method gives the most efficient rotavirus recovery from water samples.

  2. A direct method for e-cigarette aerosol sample collection. (United States)

    Olmedo, Pablo; Navas-Acien, Ana; Hess, Catherine; Jarmul, Stephanie; Rule, Ana


    E-cigarette use is increasing in populations around the world. Recent evidence has shown that the aerosol produced by e-cigarettes can contain a variety of toxicants. Published studies characterizing toxicants in e-cigarette aerosol have relied on filters, impingers or sorbent tubes, which are methods that require diluting or extracting the sample in a solution during collection. We have developed a collection system that directly condenses e-cigarette aerosol samples for chemical and toxicological analyses. The collection system consists of several cut pipette tips connected with short pieces of tubing. The pipette tip-based collection system can be connected to a peristaltic pump, a vacuum pump, or directly to an e-cigarette user for the e-cigarette aerosol to flow through the system. The pipette tip-based system condenses the aerosol produced by the e-cigarette and collects a liquid sample that is ready for analysis without the need of intermediate extraction solutions. We tested a total of 20 e-cigarettes from 5 different brands commercially available in Maryland. The pipette tip-based collection system condensed between 0.23 and 0.53mL of post-vaped e-liquid after 150 puffs. The proposed method is highly adaptable, can be used during field work and in experimental settings, and allows collecting aerosol samples from a wide variety of e-cigarette devices, yielding a condensate of the likely exact substance that is being delivered to the lungs.

  3. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten


    BACKGROUND: There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study...... was to evaluate two different DNA extraction methods in order to choose the most efficient method for studying intestinal bacterial diversity using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). FINDINGS: In this study, a semi-automatic DNA extraction system (easyMag®, BioMérieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France......) and a manual one (QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) were tested on stool samples collected from 3 patients with Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) and 5 healthy individuals. DNA extracts obtained by the QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit yield a higher amount of DNA compared to DNA extracts obtained...

  4. Method of determining an electrical property of a test sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method of obtaining an electrical property of a test sample, comprising a non-conductive area and a conductive or semi-conductive test area, byperforming multiple measurements using a multi-point probe. The method comprising the steps of providing a magnetic field having field lines passing...... each tip, selecting one tip to be a current source positioned between conductive tips being used for determining a voltage in the test sample, performing a first measurement, moving the probe and performing a second measurement, calculating on the basis of the first and second measurement...... perpendicularly through the test area, bringing the probe into a first position on the test area, the conductive tips of the probe being in contact with the test area, determining a position for each tip relative to the boundary between the non- conductive area and the test area, determining distances between...

  5. A Method for Separating PCBs and OCPs in Biota Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONG Fu-qiang


    Full Text Available Chromatographic fraction and cleanup method was developed for PCBs and OCPs in biota samples, using a self-developing chro- matographic fraction instrument and solid phase mixture. The solid phase was composed of florisil(30%-35%, acid-treated silica gel(50%-60%and anhydrous sodiumsulphate(10%-15%. The recoveriesof spiked PCBsand OCPs in column ranged from 96.4% to 119% and from 78.4% to 103% respectively, while in fish fat tissue ranged from 74.4% to 100% and from 78.3% to 102% respectively. This approach was proved to be an efficient, fast, simple and cost-effective method for fraction and cleanup of PCBs and OCPs in biota samples.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction. Giardiasis is one of the health problems in the world including Iran. To determine the biochemical and biological problems and also identification of various strains, it is essential to obtain pure culture and then mass production of Giardia lamblia. The goal of this study was to isolate this protozoa purely.
    Methods. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from 50 stool samples by use of floating of a four - layer of sucrose method. The cysts were transfered to an inducing solution. Subsequently, they were cultured in a modified culture medium (TYIS-33. Following excystation of trophozoite and its multiplication, the parasite was caltured and purified.
    Findings. Excitation of trophozoite was observed in 40 samples (80 percent from which 22 samples (55 percent yielded pure culture. The doubling time was approximately 13hr and the peak of parasite was observed between third and fourth days.
    Conclusion. The proliferation and growth rate of Giardia lamblia have enabled us to use this method widely. Cystein and ascorbic acid which are present in the induction solution, have a key role in excystation of trophozoite. Purification and passage of samples has facilitated the culture of this parasite in vitro. Therefore this method has yielded better results in comparison with other studies. This is probably due to a decrease in the amount of bovine bile or using different strains of Giardia lamblia in the present study.

  7. Rock sampling. [method for controlling particle size distribution (United States)

    Blum, P. (Inventor)


    A method for sampling rock and other brittle materials and for controlling resultant particle sizes is described. The method involves cutting grooves in the rock surface to provide a grouping of parallel ridges and subsequently machining the ridges to provide a powder specimen. The machining step may comprise milling, drilling, lathe cutting or the like; but a planing step is advantageous. Control of the particle size distribution is effected primarily by changing the height and width of these ridges. This control exceeds that obtainable by conventional grinding.

  8. Global metabolite analysis of yeast: evaluation of sample preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Højer-Pedersen, Jesper; Åkesson, Mats Fredrik;


    , which is the analysis of a large number of metabolites with very diverse chemical and physical properties. This work reports the leakage of intracellular metabolites observed during quenching yeast cells with cold methanol solution, the efficacy of six different methods for the extraction...... of intracellular metabolites, and the losses noticed during sample concentration by lyophilization and solvent evaporation. A more reliable procedure is suggested for quenching yeast cells with cold methanol solution, followed by extraction of intracellular metabolites by pure methanol. The method can be combined...

  9. A direct sampling method to an inverse medium scattering problem

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi


    In this work we present a novel sampling method for time harmonic inverse medium scattering problems. It provides a simple tool to directly estimate the shape of the unknown scatterers (inhomogeneous media), and it is applicable even when the measured data are only available for one or two incident directions. A mathematical derivation is provided for its validation. Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations are presented, which show that the method is accurate even with a few sets of scattered field data, computationally efficient, and very robust with respect to noises in the data. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Recent advances in sample preparation techniques for effective bioanalytical methods. (United States)

    Kole, Prashant Laxman; Venkatesh, Gantala; Kotecha, Jignesh; Sheshala, Ravi


    This paper reviews the recent developments in bioanalysis sample preparation techniques and gives an update on basic principles, theory, applications and possibilities for automation, and a comparative discussion on the advantages and limitation of each technique. Conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), protein precipitation (PP) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques are now been considered as methods of the past. The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of novel sample preparation techniques in bioanalysis. Developments in SPE techniques such as selective sorbents and in the overall approach to SPE, such as hybrid SPE and molecularly imprinted polymer SPE, have been addressed. Considerable literature has been published in the area of solid-phase micro-extraction and its different versions, e.g. stir bar sorptive extraction, and their application in the development of selective and sensitive bioanalytical methods. Techniques such as dispersive solid-phase extraction, disposable pipette extraction and micro-extraction by packed sorbent offer a variety of extraction phases and provide unique advantages to bioanalytical methods. On-line SPE utilizing column-switching techniques is rapidly gaining acceptance in bioanalytical applications. PP sample preparation techniques such as PP filter plates/tubes offer many advantages like removal of phospholipids and proteins in plasma/serum. Newer approaches to conventional LLE techniques (salting-out LLE) are also covered in this review article.

  11. Microextraction Methods for Preconcentration of Aluminium in Urine Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Farajbakhsh, Mohammad Amjadi, Jamshid Manzoori, Mohammad R. Ardalan, Abolghasem Jouyban


    Full Text Available Background: Analysis of aluminium (Al in urine samples is required in management of a number of diseases including patients with renal failure. This work aimed to present dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME methods for the preconcentration of ultra-trace amount of aluminum in human urine prior to its determination by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS. Methods: The microextraction methods were based on the complex formation of Al3+ with 8-hydroxyquinoline. The effect of various experimental parameters on the efficiencies of the methods and their optimum values were studied. Results: Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection for USAEME-GFAAS and DLLME-GFAAS were 0.19 and 0.30 ng mL−1, respectively and corresponding relative standard deviations (RSD, n=5 for the determination of 40 ng mL−1 Al3+ were 5.9% and 4.9%. Conclusion: Both methods could be successfully used to the analysis of ultra trace concentrations of Al in urine samples of dialysis patients.

  12. Sediment sampling and processing methods in Hungary, and possible improvements (United States)

    Tamas, Eniko Anna; Koch, Daniel; Varga, Gyorgy


    The importance of the monitoring of sediment processes is unquestionable: sediment balance of regulated rivers suffered substantial alterations in the past century, affecting navigation, energy production, fish habitats and floodplain ecosystems alike; infiltration times to our drinking water wells have shortened, exposing them to an eventual pollution event and making them vulnerable; and sediment-attached contaminants accumulate in floodplains and reservoirs, threatening our healthy environment. The changes in flood characteristics and rating curves of our rivers are regularly being researched and described, involving state-of-the-art measurement methods, modeling tools and traditional statistics. Sediment processes however, are much less known. Unlike the investigation of flow processes, sediment-related research is scarce, which is partly due to the outdated methodology and poor database background in the specific field. Sediment-related data, information and analyses form an important and integral part of Civil engineering in relation to rivers all over the world. In relation to the second largest river of Europe, the Danube, it is widely known in expert community and for long discussed at different expert forums that the sediment balance of the river Danube has changed drastically over the past century. Sediment monitoring on the river Danube started as early as the end of the 19th century, with scattered measurements carried out. Regular sediment sampling was developed in the first half of the 20th century all along the river, with different station density and monitoring frequencies in different countries. After the first few decades of regular sampling, the concept of (mainly industrial) development changed along the river and data needs changed as well, furthermore the complicated and inexact methods of sampling bed load on the alluvial reach of the river were not developed further. Frequency of suspended sediment sampling is very low along the river

  13. Analytical Quality by Design in pharmaceutical quality assurance: Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of zolmitriptan and its impurities. (United States)

    Orlandini, Serena; Pasquini, Benedetta; Caprini, Claudia; Del Bubba, Massimo; Pinzauti, Sergio; Furlanetto, Sandra


    A fast and selective CE method for the determination of zolmitriptan (ZOL) and its five potential impurities has been developed applying the analytical Quality by Design principles. Voltage, temperature, buffer concentration, and pH were investigated as critical process parameters that can influence the critical quality attributes, represented by critical resolution values between peak pairs, analysis time, and peak efficiency of ZOL-dimer. A symmetric screening matrix was employed for investigating the knowledge space, and a Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the main, interaction, and quadratic effects of the critical process parameters on the critical quality attributes. Contour plots were drawn highlighting important interactions between buffer concentration and pH, and the gained information was merged into the sweet spot plots. Design space (DS) was established by the combined use of response surface methodology and Monte Carlo simulations, introducing a probability concept and thus allowing the quality of the analytical performances to be assured in a defined domain. The working conditions (with the interval defining the DS) were as follows: BGE, 138 mM (115-150 mM) phosphate buffer pH 2.74 (2.54-2.94); temperature, 25°C (24-25°C); voltage, 30 kV. A control strategy was planned based on method robustness and system suitability criteria. The main advantages of applying the Quality by Design concept consisted of a great increase of knowledge of the analytical system, obtained throughout multivariate techniques, and of the achievement of analytical assurance of quality, derived by probability-based definition of DS. The developed method was finally validated and applied to the analysis of ZOL tablets.

  14. Progressive prediction method for failure data with small sample size

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hua; FU Hui-min; LIU Cheng-rui


    The small sample prediction problem which commonly exists in reliability analysis was discussed with the progressive prediction method in this paper.The modeling and estimation procedure,as well as the forecast and confidence limits formula of the progressive auto regressive(PAR) method were discussed in great detail.PAR model not only inherits the simple linear features of auto regressive(AR) model,but also has applicability for nonlinear systems.An application was illustrated for predicting the future fatigue failure for Tantalum electrolytic capacitors.Forecasting results of PAR model were compared with auto regressive moving average(ARMA) model,and it can be seen that the PAR method can be considered good and shows a promise for future applications.

  15. A Novel Method for Sampling Alpha-Helical Protein Backbones (United States)

    Fain, Boris; Levitt, Michael


    We present a novel technique of sampling the configurations of helical proteins. Assuming knowledge of native secondary structure, we employ assembly rules gathered from a database of existing structures to enumerate the geometrically possible 3-D arrangements of the constituent helices. We produce a library of possible folds for 25 helical protein cores. In each case the method finds significant numbers of conformations close to the native structure. In addition we assign coordinates to all atoms for 4 of the 25 proteins. In the context of database driven exhaustive enumeration our method performs extremely well, yielding significant percentages of structures (0.02%--82%) within 6A of the native structure. The method's speed and efficiency make it a valuable contribution towards the goal of predicting protein structure.

  16. A time domain sampling method for inverse acoustic scattering problems (United States)

    Guo, Yukun; Hömberg, Dietmar; Hu, Guanghui; Li, Jingzhi; Liu, Hongyu


    This work concerns the inverse scattering problems of imaging unknown/inaccessible scatterers by transient acoustic near-field measurements. Based on the analysis of the migration method, we propose efficient and effective sampling schemes for imaging small and extended scatterers from knowledge of time-dependent scattered data due to incident impulsive point sources. Though the inverse scattering problems are known to be nonlinear and ill-posed, the proposed imaging algorithms are totally "direct" involving only integral calculations on the measurement surface. Theoretical justifications are presented and numerical experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our methods. In particular, the proposed static imaging functionals enhance the performance of the total focusing method (TFM) and the dynamic imaging functionals show analogous behavior to the time reversal inversion but without solving time-dependent wave equations.

  17. Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Porto, Isabel M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FOP/UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia; Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FORP/USP), Rieirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia; Costa, Fanny N. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear


    Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10{sup -1}0 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

  18. Ontario's Quality Assurance Framework: A Critical Response (United States)

    Heap, James


    Ontario's Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) is reviewed and found not to meet all five criteria proposed for a strong quality assurance system focused on student learning. The QAF requires a statement of student learning outcomes and a method and means of assessing those outcomes, but it does not require that data on achievement of intended…

  19. A direct sampling method for inverse electromagnetic medium scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi


    In this paper, we study the inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problem of estimating the support and shape of medium scatterers from scattered electric/magnetic near-field data. We shall develop a novel direct sampling method based on an analysis of electromagnetic scattering and the behavior of the fundamental solution. It is applicable to a few incident fields and needs only to compute inner products of the measured scattered field with the fundamental solutions located at sampling points. Hence, it is strictly direct, computationally very efficient and highly robust to the presence of data noise. Two- and three-dimensional numerical experiments indicate that it can provide reliable support estimates for multiple scatterers in the case of both exact and highly noisy data. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Methods for parasitic protozoans detection in the environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skotarczak B.


    Full Text Available The environmental route of transmission of many parasitic protozoa and their potential for producing large numbers of transmissive stages constitute persistent threats to public and veterinary health. Conventional and new immunological and molecular methods enable to assess the occurrence, prevalence, levels and sources of waterborne protozoa. Concentration, purification, and detection are the three key steps in all methods that have been approved for routine monitoring of waterborne cysts and oocysts. These steps have been optimized to such an extent that low levels of naturally occurring (oocysts of protozoan can be efficiently recovered from water. Ten years have passed since the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA introduced the 1622 and 1623 methods and used them to concentrate and detect the oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in water samples. Nevertheless, the methods still need studies and improvements. Pre-PCR processing procedures have been developed and they are still improved to remove or reduce the effects of PCR inhibitors. The progress in molecular methods allows to more precise distinction of species or simultaneous detection of several parasites, however, they are still not routinely used and need standardization. Standardized methods are required to maximize public health surveillance.

  1. Methods for parasitic protozoans detection in the environmental samples. (United States)

    Skotarczak, B


    The environmental route of transmission of many parasitic protozoa and their potential for producing large numbers of transmissive stages constitute persistent threats to public and veterinary health. Conventional and new immunological and molecular methods enable to assess the occurrence, prevalence, levels and sources of waterborne protozoa. Concentration, purification, and detection are the three key steps in all methods that have been approved for routine monitoring of waterborne cysts and oocysts. These steps have been optimized to such an extent that low levels of naturally occurring (oo)cysts of protozoan can be efficiently recovered from water. Ten years have passed since the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) introduced the 1622 and 1623 methods and used them to concentrate and detect the oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in water samples. Nevertheless, the methods still need studies and improvements. Pre-PCR processing procedures have been developed and they are still improved to remove or reduce the effects of PCR inhibitors. The progress in molecular methods allows to more precise distinction of species or simultaneous detection of several parasites, however, they are still not routinely used and need standardization. Standardized methods are required to maximize public health surveillance.

  2. Path Sampling Methods for Enzymatic Quantum Particle Transfer Reactions. (United States)

    Dzierlenga, M W; Varga, M J; Schwartz, S D


    The mechanisms of enzymatic reactions are studied via a host of computational techniques. While previous methods have been used successfully, many fail to incorporate the full dynamical properties of enzymatic systems. This can lead to misleading results in cases where enzyme motion plays a significant role in the reaction coordinate, which is especially relevant in particle transfer reactions where nuclear tunneling may occur. In this chapter, we outline previous methods, as well as discuss newly developed dynamical methods to interrogate mechanisms of enzymatic particle transfer reactions. These new methods allow for the calculation of free energy barriers and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) with the incorporation of quantum effects through centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and the full complement of enzyme dynamics through transition path sampling (TPS). Recent work, summarized in this chapter, applied the method for calculation of free energy barriers to reaction in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). We found that tunneling plays an insignificant role in YADH but plays a more significant role in LDH, though not dominant over classical transfer. Additionally, we summarize the application of a TPS algorithm for the calculation of reaction rates in tandem with CMD to calculate the primary H/D KIE of YADH from first principles. We found that the computationally obtained KIE is within the margin of error of experimentally determined KIEs and corresponds to the KIE of particle transfer in the enzyme. These methods provide new ways to investigate enzyme mechanism with the inclusion of protein and quantum dynamics.

  3. Miniaturized sample preparation method for determination of amphetamines in urine. (United States)

    Nishida, Manami; Namera, Akira; Yashiki, Mikio; Kimura, Kojiro


    A simple and miniaturized sample preparation method for determination of amphetamines in urine was developed using on-column derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Urine was directly applied to the extraction column that was pre-packed with Extrelut and sodium carbonate. Amphetamine (AP) and methamphetamine (MA) in urine were adsorbed on the surface of Extrelut. AP and MA were then converted to a free base and derivatized to N-propoxycarbonyl derivatives using propylchloroformate on the column. Pentadeuterated MA was used as an internal standard. The recoveries of AP and MA from urine were 100 and 102%, respectively. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range of 0.50-50 microg/mL for AP and MA in urine. When urine samples containing two different concentrations (0.50 and 5.0 microg/mL) of AP and MA were determined, the intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were 1.4-7.7%. This method was applied to 14 medico-legal cases of MA intoxication. The results were compared and a good agreement was obtained with a HPLC method.

  4. Vadose Zone Sampling Methods for Detection of Preferential Pesticides Transport (United States)

    Peranginangin, N.; Richards, B. K.; Steenhuis, T. S.


    Leaching of agricultural applied chemicals through the vadose zone is a major cause for the occurrence of agrichemicals in groundwater. Accurate soil water sampling methods are needed to ensure meaningful monitoring results, especially for soils that have significant preferential flow paths. The purpose of this study was to assess the capability and the effectiveness of various soil water sampling methods in detecting preferential transport of pesticides in a strongly-structured silty clay loam (Hudson series) soil. Soil water sampling devices tested were wick pan and gravity pan lysimeters, tile lines, porous ceramic cups, and pipe lysimeters; all installed at 45 to105 cm depth below the ground surface. A reasonable worse-case scenario was tested by applying a simulated rain storm soon after pesticides were sprayed at agronomic rates. Herbicides atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid) were chosen as model compounds. Chloride (KCl) tracer was used to determine spatial and temporal distribution of non-reactive solute and water as well as a basis for determining the retardation in pesticides movement. Results show that observed pesticide mobility was much greater than would be predicted by uniform flow. Under relatively high soil moisture conditions, gravity and wick pan lysimeters had comparably good collection efficiencies, whereas the wick samplers had an advantage over gravity driven sampler when the soil moisture content was below field capacity. Pipe lysimeters had breakthrough patterns that were similar to pan samplers. At small plot scale, tile line samplers tended to underestimate solute concentration because of water dilution around the samplers. The use of porous cup samplers performed poorly because of their sensitivity to local profile characteristics: only by chance can they intercept and sample the preferential flow paths that are critical to transport. Wick sampler had the least

  5. Artifact free denuder method for sampling of carbonaceous aerosols (United States)

    Mikuška, P.; Vecera, Z.; Broškovicová, A.


    Over the past decade, a growing attention has been focused on the carbonaceous aerosols. Although they may account for 30--60% of the total fine aerosol mass, their concentration and formation mechanisms are not well understood, particularly in comparison with major fine particle inorganic species. The deficiency in knowledge of carbonaceous aerosols results from their complexity and because of problems associated with their collection. Conventional sampling techniques of the carbonaceous aerosols, which utilize filters/backup adsorbents suffer from sampling artefacts. Positive artifacts are mainly due to adsorption of gas-phase organic compounds by the filter material or by the already collected particles, whereas negative artifacts arise from the volatilisation of already collected organic compounds from the filter. Furthermore, in the course of the sampling, the composition of the collected organic compounds may be modified by oxidants (O_3, NO_2, PAN, peroxides) that are present in the air passing through the sampler. It is clear that new, artifact free, method for sampling of carbonaceous aerosols is needed. A combination of a diffusion denuder and a filter in series is very promising in this respect. The denuder is expected to collect gaseous oxidants and gas-phase organic compounds from sample air stream prior to collection of aerosol particles on filters, and eliminate thus both positive and negative sampling artifacts for carbonaceous aerosols. This combination is subject of the presentation. Several designs of diffusion denuders (cylindrical, annular, parallel plate, multi-channel) in combination with various types of wall coatings (dry, liquid) were examined. Special attention was given to preservation of the long-term collection efficiency. Different adsorbents (activated charcoal, molecular sieve, porous polymers) and sorbents coated with various chemical reagents (KI, Na_2SO_3, MnO_2, ascorbic acid) or chromatographic stationary phases (silicon oils

  6. A GPU code for analytic continuation through a sampling method (United States)

    Nordström, Johan; Schött, Johan; Locht, Inka L. M.; Di Marco, Igor

    We here present a code for performing analytic continuation of fermionic Green's functions and self-energies as well as bosonic susceptibilities on a graphics processing unit (GPU). The code is based on the sampling method introduced by Mishchenko et al. (2000), and is written for the widely used CUDA platform from NVidia. Detailed scaling tests are presented, for two different GPUs, in order to highlight the advantages of this code with respect to standard CPU computations. Finally, as an example of possible applications, we provide the analytic continuation of model Gaussian functions, as well as more realistic test cases from many-body physics.

  7. Eigenvector method for umbrella sampling enables error analysis. (United States)

    Thiede, Erik H; Van Koten, Brian; Weare, Jonathan; Dinner, Aaron R


    Umbrella sampling efficiently yields equilibrium averages that depend on exploring rare states of a model by biasing simulations to windows of coordinate values and then combining the resulting data with physical weighting. Here, we introduce a mathematical framework that casts the step of combining the data as an eigenproblem. The advantage to this approach is that it facilitates error analysis. We discuss how the error scales with the number of windows. Then, we derive a central limit theorem for averages that are obtained from umbrella sampling. The central limit theorem suggests an estimator of the error contributions from individual windows, and we develop a simple and computationally inexpensive procedure for implementing it. We demonstrate this estimator for simulations of the alanine dipeptide and show that it emphasizes low free energy pathways between stable states in comparison to existing approaches for assessing error contributions. Our work suggests the possibility of using the estimator and, more generally, the eigenvector method for umbrella sampling to guide adaptation of the simulation parameters to accelerate convergence.

  8. Applicability Comparison of Methods for Acid Generation Assessment of Rock Samples (United States)

    Oh, Chamteut; Ji, Sangwoo; Yim, Giljae; Cheong, Youngwook


    Minerals including various forms of sulfur could generate AMD (Acid Mine Drainage) or ARD (Acid Rock Drainage), which can have serious effects on the ecosystem and even on human when exposed to air and/or water. To minimize the hazards by acid drainage, it is necessary to assess in advance the acid generation possibility of rocks and estimate the amount of acid generation. Because of its relatively simple and effective experiment procedure, the method of combining the results of ABA (Acid Base Accounting) and NAG (Net Acid Generation) tests have been commonly used in determining acid drainage conditions. The simplicity and effectiveness of the above method however, are derived from massive assumptions of simplified chemical reactions and this often leads to results of classifying the samples as UC (Uncertain) which would then require additional experimental or field data to reclassify them properly. This paper therefore, attempts to find the reasons that cause samples to be classified as UC and suggest new series of experiments where samples can be reclassified appropriately. Study precedents on evaluating potential acid generation and neutralization capacity were reviewed and as a result three individual experiments were selected in the light of applicability and compatibility of minimizing unnecessary influence among other experiments. The proposed experiments include sulfur speciation, ABCC (Acid Buffering Characteristic Curve), and Modified NAG which are all improved versions of existing experiments of Total S, ANC (Acid Neutralizing Capacity), and NAG respectively. To assure the applicability of the experiments, 36 samples from 19 sites with diverse geologies, field properties, and weathering conditions were collected. The samples were then subject to existing experiments and as a result, 14 samples which either were classified as UC or could be used as a comparison group had been selected. Afterwards, the selected samples were used to conduct the suggested

  9. The curvHDR method for gating flow cytometry samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wand Matthew P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput flow cytometry experiments produce hundreds of large multivariate samples of cellular characteristics. These samples require specialized processing to obtain clinically meaningful measurements. A major component of this processing is a form of cell subsetting known as gating. Manual gating is time-consuming and subjective. Good automatic and semi-automatic gating algorithms are very beneficial to high-throughput flow cytometry. Results We develop a statistical procedure, named curvHDR, for automatic and semi-automatic gating. The method combines the notions of significant high negative curvature regions and highest density regions and has the ability to adapt well to human-perceived gates. The underlying principles apply to dimension of arbitrary size, although we focus on dimensions up to three. Accompanying software, compatible with contemporary flow cytometry infor-matics, is developed. Conclusion The method is seen to adapt well to nuances in the data and, to a reasonable extent, match human perception of useful gates. It offers big savings in human labour when processing high-throughput flow cytometry data whilst retaining a good degree of efficacy.

  10. BMAA extraction of cyanobacteria samples: which method to choose? (United States)

    Lage, Sandra; Burian, Alfred; Rasmussen, Ulla; Costa, Pedro Reis; Annadotter, Heléne; Godhe, Anna; Rydberg, Sara


    β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxin reportedly produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, is proposed to be linked to the development of neurological diseases. BMAA has been found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, both in its phytoplankton producers and in several invertebrate and vertebrate organisms that bioaccumulate it. LC-MS/MS is the most frequently used analytical technique in BMAA research due to its high selectivity, though consensus is lacking as to the best extraction method to apply. This study accordingly surveys the efficiency of three extraction methods regularly used in BMAA research to extract BMAA from cyanobacteria samples. The results obtained provide insights into possible reasons for the BMAA concentration discrepancies in previous publications. In addition and according to the method validation guidelines for analysing cyanotoxins, the TCA protein precipitation method, followed by AQC derivatization and LC-MS/MS analysis, is now validated for extracting protein-bound (after protein hydrolysis) and free BMAA from cyanobacteria matrix. BMAA biological variability was also tested through the extraction of diatom and cyanobacteria species, revealing a high variance in BMAA levels (0.0080-2.5797 μg g(-1) DW).

  11. Field evaluation of broiler gait score using different sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFS Cordeiro


    Full Text Available Brazil is today the world's largest broiler meat exporter; however, in order to keep this position, it must comply with welfare regulations while maintaining low production costs. Locomotion problems restrain bird movements, limiting their access to drinking and feeding equipment, and therefore their survival and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate locomotion deficiency in broiler chickens reared under stressful temperature conditions using three different sampling methods of birds from three different ages. The experiment consisted in determining the gait score of 28, 35, 42 and 49-day-old broilers using three different known gait scoring methods: M1, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then stimulated to walk out of the circle; M2, ten birds were randomly selected and gait scored; and M3, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then observed while walking away from the circle without stimulus to walking. Environmental temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity inside the poultry houses were recorded. No evidence of interaction between scoring method and age was found however, both method and age influenced gait score. Gait score was found to be lower at 28 days of age. The evaluation using the ten randomly selected birds within the house was the method that presented the less reliable results. Gait score results when birds were stimulated to walk were lower than when they were not simulated, independently of age. The gait scores obtained with the three tested methods and ages were higher than those considered acceptable. The highest frequency of normal gait score (0 represented 50% of the flock. These results may be related to heat stress during rearing. Average gait score incresead with average ambient temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity. The evaluation of gait score to detect locomotion problems of broilers under rearing conditions seems subjective and

  12. Introduction: Cybersecurity and Software Assurance Minitrack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Luanne [JHU Applied Physics Laboratory; George, Richard [JHU Applied Physics Laboratory; Linger, Richard C [ORNL


    Modern society is dependent on software systems of remarkable scope and complexity. Yet methods for assuring their security and functionality have not kept pace. The result is persistent compromises and failures despite best efforts. Cybersecurity methods must work together for situational awareness, attack prevention and detection, threat attribution, minimization of consequences, and attack recovery. Because defective software cannot be secure, assurance technologies must play a central role in cybersecurity approaches. There is increasing recognition of the need for rigorous methods for cybersecurity and software assurance. The goal of this minitrack is to develop science foundations, technologies, and practices that can improve the security and dependability of complex systems.

  13. 中国消除新生儿破伤风现场认证调查%Validation on the elimination of neonatal tetanus programs through Lot Quality Assurance-Cluster Sample Survey in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊朝阳; 关宏岩; 罗树生; 左树岩; 朱徐; 夏伟; 罗会明; 徐晓超; 曹彬


    Objective Field surveys were performed under WHO recommended validation procedures,using the Lot Quality Assurance-Cluster Sample (LQA-CS) method to validate the elimination status regarding neonatal tetanus in China.Methods LQA-CS surveys were conducted in two areas under the highest risk of neonatal tetanus-Jiangrnen prefecture in Guangdong and Hechi in Guangxi.Random sampling method was conducted on 96 survey clusters in each prefecture with 12 eligible live births (live birth born one year before the survey) for each cluster,by trained investigators.Results There were 1 153 eligible live births from 23 465 families surveyed in Jiangmen and 1 152 eligible live births from 21 623 families being studied in Hechi.All the indices on quality control were strictly followed.There was no neonatal tetanus case which met the criteria of neonatal elimination found in either of the areas.Data showed that neonatal tetanus had been eliminated in both Jiangmen and Hechi cities.Conclusion Since both Jiangmen and Hechi were cities having the highest-risk in China,it was most likely that neonatal tetanus had also been eliminated in other prefectures at lower risk.Elimination programs on MNT was therefore considered validate in China when the study was carried out.However,the achievements needed to be maintained.%目的 现场调查认证中国是否消除新生儿破伤风(NT).方法 采用批质量保证-群抽样(LQA-CS)方法,现场入户调查中国NT发病风险最高的广东省江门市和广西壮族自治区河池市各随机抽取的96个调查点、每个点调查12名符合条件(调查前一年内出生)活产儿的NT发病情况.结果 江门市共调查23 465户家庭、1 153名合格活产儿,河池市共调查21 623户家庭、1 152名合格活产儿.现场认证调查所设立的各项质控指标均符合要求.调查中两市均未发现因NT引起的死亡或者住院病例,已达到消除NT的标准,结合现场调查各项可靠质控指标,也

  14. Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Testing Methods to Reduce 235 Uranium Enrichment in Tank 43H Supernatant Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.


    In July of 1997, the 2H-Evaporator was shutdown due to the inability to lift material from the vessel. Inspections of the gravity drain line (GDL) showed a scale deposit coating the inside of the line. A Sample of the material was obtained and analyses performed. Plans are to chemically clean the evaporator pot by dissolving the solids in a 1.5M nitric acid solution containing depleted uranium.

  15. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples. (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G


    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  16. Improved transition path sampling methods for simulation of rare events. (United States)

    Chopra, Manan; Malshe, Rohit; Reddy, Allam S; de Pablo, J J


    The free energy surfaces of a wide variety of systems encountered in physics, chemistry, and biology are characterized by the existence of deep minima separated by numerous barriers. One of the central aims of recent research in computational chemistry and physics has been to determine how transitions occur between deep local minima on rugged free energy landscapes, and transition path sampling (TPS) Monte-Carlo methods have emerged as an effective means for numerical investigation of such transitions. Many of the shortcomings of TPS-like approaches generally stem from their high computational demands. Two new algorithms are presented in this work that improve the efficiency of TPS simulations. The first algorithm uses biased shooting moves to render the sampling of reactive trajectories more efficient. The second algorithm is shown to substantially improve the accuracy of the transition state ensemble by introducing a subset of local transition path simulations in the transition state. The system considered in this work consists of a two-dimensional rough energy surface that is representative of numerous systems encountered in applications. When taken together, these algorithms provide gains in efficiency of over two orders of magnitude when compared to traditional TPS simulations.

  17. High assurance services computing

    CERN Document Server


    Covers service-oriented technologies in different domains including high assurance systemsAssists software engineers from industry and government laboratories who develop mission-critical software, and simultaneously provides academia with a practitioner's outlook on the problems of high-assurance software development

  18. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods. (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L; Paretti, Nicholas V; Foreman, William T; Iverson, Jana L; Alvarez, David A


    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19-23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method.

  19. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Foreman, William T.; Iverson, Jana L.; Alvarez, David A.


    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19–23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method.

  20. Methods and quality assurance in environmental medicine. Formation of a RKI-Commission; Methoden und Qualitaetssicherung in der Umweltmedizin. Einrichtung einer Umweltmedizin-Kommission am RKI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eis, D. [Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany). Robert-Koch-Institut


    An almost bewildering number of widely differing methods and techniques, often not validated, are being applied often inappropriately in the field of environmental medicine to answer questions regarding exposure assessment, diagnosis, treatment, counselling and prevention. Therefore, quality control within the field of environmental medicine is quite problematic. A primary goal of the newly formed RKI-Commission 'Methods and Quality Assurance in Environmental Medicine' is to form a panel of experts in the field, who evaluate the situation and generate consensus documents containing respective recommendations. By this the commission will contribute to standardization and agreement on appropriate methods, procedures and their correct application in the practice of environmental medicine. Hopefully it will also achieve a stronger, more consistent use of evidence-based-medicine and improve the quality of the structure, processes and results of research and practice in this field. The committee will initially deal with the issue of clinical environmental medicine, because here the largest problems in quality assurance are seen. In this context the commission will look at the problem areas of environmental-medical outpatient units and environmental clinics. The work of the commission will be supported by the newly formed Documentation and Evaluation Center for Methods in Environmental Medicine (Zentrale Erfassungs- und Bewertungsstelle fuer umweltmedizinische Methoden, ZEBUM) at the Robert Koch Institute. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen der umweltmedizinischen Expositionserfassung, Diagnostik, Beratung, Therapie, Prophylaxe und Sanierung wird eine kaum mehr ueberschaubare Zahl unterschiedlichster, zum Teil nichtvalidierter Verfahren bei oftmals fragwuerdiger Indikation eingesetzt. Die umweltmedizinische Qualitaetssicherung (QS) ist damit zum Problem geworden. Ein Hauptanliegen der neu eingerichteten RKI-Kommission 'Methoden und Qualitaetssicherung in der

  1. Internal Quality Assurance System and Its Implementation in Kaunas College (United States)

    Misiunas, Mindaugas


    The article discusses the internal system of quality assurance and its implementation methods in Kaunas College. The issues of quality assurance are reviewed in the context of the European higher education area covering the three levels: European, national and institutional. The importance of quality assurance and its links with external…

  2. Contaminated soil remediation and quality assurance; Pilaantuneen maan kunnostaminen ja laadunvarmistus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkkila, J.; Mroueh, U.M.; Leino-Forsman, H.


    The aim of contaminated soil remediation quality assurance is to carry out remediation activities according to plans. Besides the design work the appropriate implementation of the quality assurance covers source data and investigation methods as well as the requirements for documentation. Contaminated soil characterization and the selection of the most suitable remediation method is made with the help of various sampling and analysis methods. There are different kinds of requirements to the sampling plan depending on the type of remediation project. Quality assurance is taken into account in sampling, in sample handling and analysis as well as in the reporting of results. The most common unsaturated zone remediation methods used in Finland are introduced in this guide. These methods include excavation (as part of remediation), encapsulating, stabilization, thermal desorption, soil washing, composting, soil vapor extraction and bioventing. The methods are introduced on a general level with emphasis on their technical implementation and feasibility as well as on the eventual material requirements. Harmful environmental impacts of the methods must be identified and prevented. In order to monitor the remediation process, various chemical and physical quality assurance measurements are performed. Additionally the work safety issues related to remediation methods must be taken into account and proper documentation must be prepared. (orig.)

  3. Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method (United States)

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Uymin, G.; Moncet, J.-L.


    The large volume of existing and planned infrared observations of Mars have prompted the development of a new martian radiative transfer model that could be used in the retrievals of atmospheric and surface properties. The model is based on the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS) method [1]. The method is a fast and accurate monochromatic technique applicable to a wide range of remote sensing platforms (from microwave to UV) and was originally developed for the real-time processing of infrared and microwave data acquired by instruments aboard the satellites forming part of the next-generation global weather satellite system NPOESS (National Polarorbiting Operational Satellite System) [2]. As part of our on-going research related to the radiative properties of the martian polar caps, we have begun the development of a martian OSS model with the goal of using it to perform self-consistent atmospheric corrections necessary to retrieve caps emissivity from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra. While the caps will provide the initial focus area for applying the new model, it is hoped that the model will be of interest to the wider Mars remote sensing community.

  4. A simple capacitive method to evaluate ethanol fuel samples (United States)

    Vello, Tatiana P.; de Oliveira, Rafael F.; Silva, Gustavo O.; de Camargo, Davi H. S.; Bufon, Carlos C. B.


    Ethanol is a biofuel used worldwide. However, the presence of excessive water either during the distillation process or by fraudulent adulteration is a major concern in the use of ethanol fuel. High water levels may cause engine malfunction, in addition to being considered illegal. Here, we describe the development of a simple, fast and accurate platform based on nanostructured sensors to evaluate ethanol samples. The device fabrication is facile, based on standard microfabrication and thin-film deposition methods. The sensor operation relies on capacitance measurements employing a parallel plate capacitor containing a conformational aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin layer (15 nm). The sensor operates over the full range water concentration, i.e., from approximately 0% to 100% vol. of water in ethanol, with water traces being detectable down to 0.5% vol. These characteristics make the proposed device unique with respect to other platforms. Finally, the good agreement between the sensor response and analyses performed by gas chromatography of ethanol biofuel endorses the accuracy of the proposed method. Due to the full operation range, the reported sensor has the technological potential for use as a point-of-care analytical tool at gas stations or in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and beverage industries, to mention a few. PMID:28240312

  5. Structure and process of university teaching in psychiatry: a field for methods of quality assurance and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkmann, Claus


    Full Text Available Objective: Given the exceptional workload at a university psychiatric hospital and the current emphasis on clinical medicine and science, teaching is systematically being neglected.Methods: With the help of evaluation methods involving the completion of a questionnaire, lectures and seminars held during one semester at the Department for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf were assessed separately by students and lecturers in terms of form, content, lecturers, and overall assessment.Results: Despite organizational shortcomings, the lectures and seminars were rated on average as good in all four assessment areas. Using a bivariate prediction model, it was possible to explain 46% of the variance in overall assessment. A surprisingly high concordance was found between the assessments by students and lecturers.Conclusion: Continuous and systematic evaluation of lectures and seminars ensures and improves the quality of current and future teaching methods.

  6. Sequential sampling: a novel method in farm animal welfare assessment. (United States)

    Heath, C A E; Main, D C J; Mullan, S; Haskell, M J; Browne, W J


    Lameness in dairy cows is an important welfare issue. As part of a welfare assessment, herd level lameness prevalence can be estimated from scoring a sample of animals, where higher levels of accuracy are associated with larger sample sizes. As the financial cost is related to the number of cows sampled, smaller samples are preferred. Sequential sampling schemes have been used for informing decision making in clinical trials. Sequential sampling involves taking samples in stages, where sampling can stop early depending on the estimated lameness prevalence. When welfare assessment is used for a pass/fail decision, a similar approach could be applied to reduce the overall sample size. The sampling schemes proposed here apply the principles of sequential sampling within a diagnostic testing framework. This study develops three sequential sampling schemes of increasing complexity to classify 80 fully assessed UK dairy farms, each with known lameness prevalence. Using the Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme, the first 'basic' scheme involves two sampling events. At the first sampling event half the Welfare Quality sample size is drawn, and then depending on the outcome, sampling either stops or is continued and the same number of animals is sampled again. In the second 'cautious' scheme, an adaptation is made to ensure that correctly classifying a farm as 'bad' is done with greater certainty. The third scheme is the only scheme to go beyond lameness as a binary measure and investigates the potential for increasing accuracy by incorporating the number of severely lame cows into the decision. The three schemes are evaluated with respect to accuracy and average sample size by running 100 000 simulations for each scheme, and a comparison is made with the fixed size Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme. All three schemes performed almost as well as the fixed size scheme but with much smaller average sample sizes. For the third scheme, an overall

  7. Geothermal water and gas: collected methods for sampling and analysis. Comment issue. [Compilation of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J.G.; Serne, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Woodruff, E.M.


    A collection of methods for sampling and analysis of geothermal fluids and gases is presented. Compilations of analytic options for constituents in water and gases are given. Also, a survey of published methods of laboratory water analysis is included. It is stated that no recommendation of the applicability of the methods to geothermal brines should be assumed since the intent of the table is to encourage and solicit comments and discussion leading to recommended analytical procedures for geothermal waters and research. (WHK)

  8. Analytical results, database management and quality assurance for analysis of soil and groundwater samples collected by cone penetrometer from the F and H Area seepage basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, D.R.; Johnson, W.H.; Serkiz, S.M.


    The Quantification of Soil Source Terms and Determination of the Geochemistry Controlling Distribution Coefficients (K{sub d} values) of Contaminants at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB) study was designed to generate site-specific contaminant transport factors for contaminated groundwater downgradient of the Basins. The experimental approach employed in this study was to collect soil and its associated porewater from contaminated areas downgradient of the FHSB. Samples were collected over a wide range of geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, conductivity, and contaminant concentration) and were used to describe the partitioning of contaminants between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at the site. The partitioning behavior may be used to develop site-specific transport factors. This report summarizes the analytical procedures and results for both soil and porewater samples collected as part of this study and the database management of these data.

  9. Processes and procedures for a worldwide biological samples distribution; product assurance and logistic activities to support the mice drawer system tissue sharing event (United States)

    Benassai, Mario; Cotronei, Vittorio

    The Mice Drawer System (MDS) is a scientific payload developed by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), it hosted 6 mice on the International Space Station (ISS) and re-entered on ground on November 28, 2009 with the STS 129 at KSC. Linked to the MDS experiment, a Tissue Sharing Program (TSP), was developed in order to make available to 16 Payload Investigators (PI) (located in USA, Canada, EU -Italy, Belgium and Germany -and Japan) the biological samples coming from the mice. ALTEC SpA (a PPP owned by ASI, TAS-I and local institutions) was responsible to support the logistics aspects of the MDS samples for the first MDS mission, in the frame of Italian Space Agency (ASI) OSMA program (OSteoporosis and Muscle Atrophy). The TSP resulted in a complex scenario, as ASI, progressively, extended the original OSMA Team also to researchers from other ASI programs and from other Agencies (ESA, NASA, JAXA). The science coordination was performed by the University of Genova (UNIGE). ALTEC has managed all the logistic process with the support of a specialized freight forwarder agent during the whole shipping operation phases. ALTEC formalized all the steps from the handover of samples by the dissection Team to the packaging and shipping process in a dedicated procedure. ALTEC approached all the work in a structured way, performing: A study of the aspects connected to international shipments of biological samples. A coopera-tive work with UNIGE/ASI /PIs to identify all the needs of the various researchers and their compatibility. A complete revision and integration of shipment requirements (addresses, tem-peratures, samples, materials and so on). A complete definition of the final shipment scenario in terms of boxes, content, refrigerant and requirements. A formal approach to identification and selection of the most suited and specialized Freight Forwarder. A clear identification of all the processes from sample dissection by PI Team, sample processing, freezing, tube preparation

  10. Software quality assurance handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    There are two important reasons for Software Quality Assurance (SQA) at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD): First, the benefits from SQA make good business sense. Second, the Department of Energy has requested SQA. This handbook is one of the first steps in a plant-wide implementation of Software Quality Assurance at KCD. The handbook has two main purposes. The first is to provide information that you will need to perform software quality assurance activities. The second is to provide a common thread to unify the approach to SQA at KCD. 2 figs.

  11. SU-E-T-570: New Quality Assurance Method Using Motion Tracking for 6D Robotic Couches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, W; Cho, J [SungKyunKwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, S [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Y; Choi, D [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Purpose: To accommodate geometrically accurate patient positioning, a robotic couch that is capable of 6-degrees of freedom has been introduced. However, conventional couch QA methods are not sufficient to enable the necessary accuracy of tests. Therefore, we have developed a camera based motion detection and geometry calibration system for couch QA. Methods: Employing a Visual-Tracking System (VTS, BonitaB10, Vicon, UK) which tracks infrared reflective(IR) markers, camera calibration was conducted using a 5.7 × 5.7 × 5.7 cm{sup 3} cube attached with IR markers at each corner. After positioning a robotic-couch at the origin with the cube on the table top, 3D coordinates of the cube’s eight corners were acquired by VTS in the VTS coordinate system. Next, positions in reference coordinates (roomcoordinates) were assigned using the known relation between each point. Finally, camera calibration was completed by finding a transformation matrix between VTS and reference coordinate systems and by applying a pseudo inverse matrix method. After the calibration, the accuracy of linear and rotational motions as well as couch sagging could be measured by analyzing the continuously acquired data of the cube while the couch moves to a designated position. Accuracy of the developed software was verified through comparison with measurement data when using a Laser tracker (FARO, Lake Mary, USA) for a robotic-couch installed for proton therapy. Results: VTS system could track couch motion accurately and measured position in room-coordinates. The VTS measurements and Laser tracker data agreed within 1% of difference for linear and rotational motions. Also because the program analyzes motion in 3-Dimension, it can compute couch sagging. Conclusion: Developed QA system provides submillimeter/ degree accuracy which fulfills the high-end couch QA. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning. (2013M2A2A

  12. Photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array vessels and photoacoustic spectroscopy methods for using the same (United States)

    Amonette, James E.; Autrey, S. Thomas; Foster-Mills, Nancy S.


    Methods and apparatus for simultaneous or sequential, rapid analysis of multiple samples by photoacoustic spectroscopy are disclosed. Particularly, a photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array vessel including a vessel body having multiple sample cells connected thereto is disclosed. At least one acoustic detector is acoustically positioned near the sample cells. Methods for analyzing the multiple samples in the sample array vessels using photoacoustic spectroscopy are provided.

  13. Establishing a novel automated magnetic bead-based method for the extraction of DNA from a variety of forensic samples. (United States)

    Witt, Sebastian; Neumann, Jan; Zierdt, Holger; Gébel, Gabriella; Röscheisen, Christiane


    Automated systems have been increasingly utilized for DNA extraction by many forensic laboratories to handle growing numbers of forensic casework samples while minimizing the risk of human errors and assuring high reproducibility. The step towards automation however is not easy: The automated extraction method has to be very versatile to reliably prepare high yields of pure genomic DNA from a broad variety of sample types on different carrier materials. To prevent possible cross-contamination of samples or the loss of DNA, the components of the kit have to be designed in a way that allows for the automated handling of the samples with no manual intervention necessary. DNA extraction using paramagnetic particles coated with a DNA-binding surface is predestined for an automated approach. For this study, we tested different DNA extraction kits using DNA-binding paramagnetic particles with regard to DNA yield and handling by a Freedom EVO(®)150 extraction robot (Tecan) equipped with a Te-MagS magnetic separator. Among others, the extraction kits tested were the ChargeSwitch(®)Forensic DNA Purification Kit (Invitrogen), the PrepFiler™Automated Forensic DNA Extraction Kit (Applied Biosystems) and NucleoMag™96 Trace (Macherey-Nagel). After an extensive test phase, we established a novel magnetic bead extraction method based upon the NucleoMag™ extraction kit (Macherey-Nagel). The new method is readily automatable and produces high yields of DNA from different sample types (blood, saliva, sperm, contact stains) on various substrates (filter paper, swabs, cigarette butts) with no evidence of a loss of magnetic beads or sample cross-contamination.

  14. Requirement Assurance: A Verification Process (United States)

    Alexander, Michael G.


    Requirement Assurance is an act of requirement verification which assures the stakeholder or customer that a product requirement has produced its "as realized product" and has been verified with conclusive evidence. Product requirement verification answers the question, "did the product meet the stated specification, performance, or design documentation?". In order to ensure the system was built correctly, the practicing system engineer must verify each product requirement using verification methods of inspection, analysis, demonstration, or test. The products of these methods are the "verification artifacts" or "closure artifacts" which are the objective evidence needed to prove the product requirements meet the verification success criteria. Institutional direction is given to the System Engineer in NPR 7123.1A NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements with regards to the requirement verification process. In response, the verification methodology offered in this report meets both the institutional process and requirement verification best practices.

  15. Method of 14C Sample Preparation for AMS Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Xu-ran


    Full Text Available In order to carry out the application research of 14C by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS, the principle of sample preparation were systematically studied and more attention was paid to improve the preparation process efficiently. The set of integrated system of sample preparation was built up on the research. The experimental results showed that the sample preparation scheme was able to meet the demand of AMS measurement.

  16. Multi-Scaling Sampling: An Adaptive Sampling Method for Discovering Approximate Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-Yan Jia; Xie-Ping Gao


    One of the obstacles of the efficient association rule mining is the explosive expansion of data sets since it is costly or impossible to scan large databases, esp., for multiple times. A popular solution to improve the speed and scalability of the association rule mining is to do the algorithm on a random sample instead of the entire database. But how to effectively define and efficiently estimate the degree of error with respect to the outcome of the algorithm, and how to determine the sample size needed are entangling researches until now. In this paper, an effective and efficient algorithm is given based on the PAC (Probably Approximate Correct) learning theory to measure and estimate sample error. Then, a new adaptive, on-line, fast sampling strategy - multi-scaling sampling - is presented inspired by MRA (Multi-Resolution Analysis) and Shannon sampling theorem, for quickly obtaining acceptably approximate association rules at appropriate sample size. Both theoretical analysis and empirical study have showed that the sampling strategy can achieve a very good speed-accuracy trade-off.

  17. [Novel quality assurance method in oncology: the two-level, multi-disciplinary and oncotherapy oncology team system]. (United States)

    Mangel, László; Kövér, Erika; Szilágyi, István; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Bércesi, Eva; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Holcz, Tibor; Karádi, Oszkár; Farkas, Róbert; Csák, Szilvia; Csere, Tibor; Kásler, Miklós


    By now therapy decision taken by a multi-disciplinary oncology team in cancer care has become a routine method in worldwide. However, multi-disciplinary oncology team has to face more and more difficulties in keeping abreast with the fast development in oncology science, increasing expectations, and financial considerations. Naturally the not properly controlled decision mechanisms, the permanent lack of time and shortage of professionals are also hindering factors. Perhaps it would be a way out if the staff meetings and discussions of physicians in the oncology departments were transformed and provided with administrative, legal and decision credentials corresponding to those of multi-disciplinary oncology team. The new form of the oncotherapy oncoteam might be able to decide the optimal and particular treatment after previous consultation with the patient. The oncotherapy oncoteam is also suitable to carry out training and tasks of a cancer centre and by diminishing the psychological burden of the doctors it contributes to an improved patient care. This study presents the two-level multi-disciplinary and oncotherapy oncology team system at the University of Pécs including the detailed analysis of the considerations above.

  18. A novel sampling method for the investigation of gut microbiota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM: In order to characterize the qualitative and quantitative microorganisms in different sites of the lower digestive tract (LDT) in healthy volunteers, a specific technique was developed for collecting mucous of the distal ileum, colon and rectum.METHODS: A polyethylene tube was designed to go through the colonoscope channel with a No. 8 French tube. In order to avoid internal contamination, the distal extremity was protected with a membrane of microfilm after being sterilized in ethilene oxid. To facilitate the aspiration of a precise volume, its interior was coated with silicone. One hundred microlliter (0.1 mL) sample of mucous was collected and transferred into an Eppenddorff tube containing nine hundred microlliter (0.9 mL) of VMGA-3 (viable medium of Goteborg). This procedure was repeated at each site of the LDT with a new sterilized catheter.RESULTS: All sites revealed the "non pathogenic"anaerobic bacteria Veillonella sp (average 105 colony forming units/mL-CFU/mL), allowing to conclude an environment of low oxidation-reduction potential (redox)in the LDT. It was also characterized the presence of Klebisiella sp with significant statistical predominance (SSP) in the ileum. Enterobacter sp was found with SSP in the sigmoid colon, BacteroideS sp non-pigmented (npg)and E. coli with SSP in the sigmoid colon and rectum,Enterococcus sp and Lactobacillus sp with SSP in the rectum, all in a mean concentration of 105 CFU/mL.CONCLUSION: This procedure is feasible and efficient and can point out a similar distribution of the aerobic and anaerobic bacteria with the presence of biological markers of normal microbiota in the LDT.

  19. Validated Test Method 5030C: Purge-and-Trap for Aqueous Samples (United States)

    This method describes a purge-and-trap procedure for the analysis of volatile organic compoundsin aqueous samples & water miscible liquid samples. It also describes the analysis of high concentration soil and waste sample extracts prepared in Method 5035.

  20. SAR imaging method based on coprime sampling and nested sparse sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyin Shi; Baojing Jia


    As the signal bandwidth and the number of channels increase, the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging system pro-duces huge amount of data according to the Shannon-Nyquist theorem, causing a huge burden for data transmission. This pa-per concerns the coprime sampling and nested sparse sampling, which are proposed recently but have never been applied to real world for target detection, and proposes a novel way which uti-lizes these new sub-Nyquist sampling structures for SAR sam-pling in azimuth and reconstructs the data of SAR sampling by compressive sensing (CS). Both the simulated and real data are processed to test the algorithm, and the results indicate the way which combines these new undersampling structures and CS is able to achieve the SAR imaging effectively with much less data than regularly ways required. Final y, the influence of a little sam-pling jitter to SAR imaging is analyzed by theoretical analysis and experimental analysis, and then it concludes a little sampling jitter have no effect on image quality of SAR.

  1. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  2. Performance assurance program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, B.H.


    B and W Protec, Inc. (BWP) is responsible for implementing the Performance Assurance Program for the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) in accordance with DOE Order 470.1, Safeguards and Security Program (DOE 1995a). The Performance Assurance Program applies to safeguards and security (SAS) systems and their essential components (equipment, hardware, administrative procedures, Protective Force personnel, and other personnel) in direct support of Category I and H special nuclear material (SNM) protection. Performance assurance includes several Hanford Site activities that conduct performance, acceptance, operability, effectiveness, and validation tests. These activities encompass areas of training, exercises, quality assurance, conduct of operations, total quality management, self assessment, classified matter protection and control, emergency preparedness, and corrective actions tracking and trending. The objective of the Performance Assurance Program is to capture the critical data of the tests, training, etc., in a cost-effective, manageable program that reflects the overall effectiveness of the program while minimizing operational impacts. To aid in achieving this objective, BWP will coordinate the Performance Assurance Program for Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and serve as the central point for data collection.

  3. Development of a field sampling method based on magnetic nanoparticles for the enrichment of pesticides in aqueous samples. (United States)

    Zhang, Lingyi; Sheng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Runsheng; Xiong, Zhichao; Wu, Zhongping; Yan, Songmao; Zhang, Yurong; Zhang, Weibing


    A field sampling method based on magnetic core-shell silica nanoparticles was developed for field sampling and the enrichment of low concentrations of pesticides in aqueous samples. The magnetic nanoparticles could be easily extracted from water samples by a custom-made magnetic nanoparticle collector. The recovery of 15 mg of magnetic particles from a 500 mL water sample was 90.8%. Mixtures of seven pesticides spiked into pure water and pond water were used as marker samples to evaluate the field sampling method. The average recoveries at three levels of spiking were in the range 60.0-104.7% with relative standard deviations method has good linearity with a correlation coefficient >0.9990 in the concentration range 0.5-15 μg L(-1). The results of the analysis of a sample of poisoned pond water indicate that this method is fast, convenient and efficient for the field sampling and enrichment of pesticides in aqueous samples.

  4. Developing new extension of GafChromic RTQA2 film to patient quality assurance field using a plan-based calibration method. (United States)

    Peng, Jiayuan; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Jiazhou; Xie, Jiang; Chen, Junchao; Hu, Weigang


    GafChromic RTQA2 film is a type of radiochromic film designed for light field and radiation field alignment. The aim of this study is to extend the application of RTQA2 film to the measurement of patient specific quality assurance (QA) fields as a 2D relative dosimeter.Pre-irradiated and post-irradiated RTQA2 films were scanned in reflection mode using a flatbed scanner. A plan-based calibration (PBC) method utilized the mapping information of the calculated dose image and film grayscale image to create a dose versus pixel value calibration model. This model was used to calibrate the film grayscale image to the film relative dose image. The dose agreement between calculated and film dose images were analyzed by gamma analysis. To evaluate the feasibility of this method, eight clinically approved RapidArc cases (one abdomen cancer and seven head-and-neck cancer patients) were tested using this method. Moreover, three MLC gap errors and two MLC transmission errors were introduced to eight Rapidarc cases respectively to test the robustness of this method.The PBC method could overcome the film lot and post-exposure time variations of RTQA2 film to get a good 2D relative dose calibration result. The mean gamma passing rate of eight patients was 97.90%  ±  1.7%, which showed good dose consistency between calculated and film dose images. In the error test, the PBC method could over-calibrate the film, which means some dose error in the film would be falsely corrected to keep the dose in film consistent with the dose in the calculated dose image. This would then lead to a false negative result in the gamma analysis. In these cases, the derivative curve of the dose calibration curve would be non-monotonic which would expose the dose abnormality.By using the PBC method, we extended the application of more economical RTQA2 film to patient specific QA. The robustness of the PBC method has been improved by analyzing the monotonicity of the derivative of the calibration

  5. Modern methods of sample preparation for GC analysis


    de Koning; Janssen, H.-G.; Brinkman, U.A.T.


    Today, a wide variety of techniques is available for the preparation of (semi-) solid, liquid and gaseous samples, prior to their instrumental analysis by means of capillary gas chromatography (GC) or, increasingly, comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC × GC). In the past two decades, a large number of ‘modern’ sample-preparation techniques has been introduced, which have partly superseded their ‘classical’ counterparts. These novel techniques include off-line and on-line (sometimes semi- or f...

  6. Quality assurance of qualitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ríos, Ángel; Barceló, Damiá; Buydens, Lutgarde


    The European Commission has supported the G6MA-CT-2000-01012 project on "Metrology of Qualitative Chemical Analysis" (MEQUALAN), which was developed during 2000-2002. The final result is a document produced by a group of scientists with expertise in different areas of chemical analysis, metrology......: traceability, reliability (uncertainty), validation, and internal/external quality control for qualitative methods.......The European Commission has supported the G6MA-CT-2000-01012 project on "Metrology of Qualitative Chemical Analysis" (MEQUALAN), which was developed during 2000-2002. The final result is a document produced by a group of scientists with expertise in different areas of chemical analysis, metrology...... and quality assurance. One important part of this document deals, therefore, with aspects involved in analytical quality assurance of qualitative analysis. This article shows the main conclusions reported in the document referring to the implementation of quality principles in qualitative analysis...

  7. Photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array vessel and photoacoustic spectroscopy method for using the same (United States)

    Amonette, James E.; Autrey, S. Thomas; Foster-Mills, Nancy S.; Green, David


    Methods and apparatus for analysis of multiple samples by photoacoustic spectroscopy are disclosed. Particularly, a photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array vessel including a vessel body having multiple sample cells connected thereto is disclosed. At least one acoustic detector is acoustically coupled with the vessel body. Methods for analyzing the multiple samples in the sample array vessels using photoacoustic spectroscopy are provided.

  8. Improvements in Sample Selection Methods for Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Sehn Körting


    Full Text Available Traditional image classification algorithms are mainly divided into unsupervised and supervised paradigms. In the first paradigm, algorithms are designed to automatically estimate the classes’ distributions in the feature space. The second paradigm depends on the knowledge of a domain expert to identify representative examples from the image to be used for estimating the classification model. Recent improvements in human-computer interaction (HCI enable the construction of more intuitive graphic user interfaces (GUIs to help users obtain desired results. In remote sensing image classification, GUIs still need advancements. In this work, we describe our efforts to develop an improved GUI for selecting the representative samples needed to estimate the classification model. The idea is to identify changes in the common strategies for sample selection to create a user-driven sample selection, which focuses on different views of each sample, and to help domain experts identify explicit classification rules, which is a well-established technique in geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA. We also propose the use of the well-known nearest neighbor algorithm to identify similar samples and accelerate the classification.

  9. Facile implementation of integrated tempering sampling method to enhance the sampling over a broad range of temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Peng; Gao, Yi Qin; Lu, Zhong-Yuan


    Integrated tempering sampling (ITS) method is an approach to enhance the sampling over a broad range of energies and temperatures in computer simulations. In this paper, a new version of integrated tempering sampling method is proposed. In the new approach presented here, we obtain parameters such as the set of temperatures and the corresponding weighting factors from canonical average of potential energies. These parameters can be easily obtained without estimating partition functions. We apply this new approach to study the Lennard-Jones fluid, the ALA-PRO peptide and the single polymer chain systems to validate and benchmark the method.

  10. Demonstration Report for Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Verification Sampling Methods at the Navy/DRI Site (United States)


    time kinematic ( RTK ) global positioning system ( GPS ) performed anomaly reacquisition. The procedure for reacquiring the location of the anomalies was...load the target anomalies onto the RTK GPS positioning system in the correct format, and 3. place a non-metallic pin flag marked with the unique...Demonstrate the utility of the PRV sampling modules and gain regulator acceptance

  11. Implementation of Fowler's method for end-tidal air sampling. (United States)

    Di Francesco, F; Loccioni, C; Fioravanti, M; Russo, A; Pioggia, G; Ferro, M; Roehrer, I; Tabucchi, S; Onor, M


    The design, realization and testing of a CO(2)-triggered breath sampler, capable of a separate collection of dead space and end-tidal air on multiple breaths, is presented. This sampling procedure has advantages in terms of the sample volume, insights regarding the origin of compounds, increased reproducibility and higher concentrations of compounds. The high quality of design and the speed of the components ensure a breath-by-breath estimate of dead volume, as well as the comfort and safety of the subject under test. The system represents a valid tool to contribute to the development of a standardized sampling protocol needed to compare results obtained by the various groups in this field.

  12. Statistical Methods and Tools for Hanford Staged Feed Tank Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Peterson, Reid A.


    This report summarizes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to technically evaluate the current approach to staged feed sampling of high-level waste (HLW) sludge to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for transfer from tank farms to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The current sampling and analysis approach is detailed in the document titled Initial Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria, 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014, Revision 0 (Arakali et al. 2011). The goal of this current work is to evaluate and provide recommendations to support a defensible, technical and statistical basis for the staged feed sampling approach that meets WAC data quality objectives (DQOs).

  13. Method for validating radiobiological samples using a linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brengues, Muriel [The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Center for Applied NanoBioscience and Medicine, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Liu, David; Korn, Ronald [Scottsdale Clinical Research Institute, Scottsdale Healthcare, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Zenhausern, Frederic [The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Center for Applied NanoBioscience and Medicine, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Scottsdale Clinical Research Institute, Scottsdale Healthcare, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)


    There is an immediate need for rapid triage of the population in case of a large scale exposure to ionizing radiation. Knowing the dose absorbed by the body will allow clinicians to administer medical treatment for the best chance of recovery for the victim. In addition, today's radiotherapy treatment could benefit from additional information regarding the patient's sensitivity to radiation before starting the treatment. As of today, there is no system in place to respond to this demand. This paper will describe specific procedures to mimic the effects of human exposure to ionizing radiation creating the tools for optimization of administered radiation dosimetry for radiotherapy and/or to estimate the doses of radiation received accidentally during a radiation event that could pose a danger to the public. In order to obtain irradiated biological samples to study ionizing radiation absorbed by the body, we performed ex-vivo irradiation of human blood samples using the linear accelerator (LINAC). The LINAC was implemented and calibrated for irradiating human whole blood samples. To test the calibration, a 2 Gy test run was successfully performed on a tube filled with water with an accuracy of 3% in dose distribution. To validate our technique the blood samples were ex-vivo irradiated and the results were analyzed using a gene expression assay to follow the effect of the ionizing irradiation by characterizing dose responsive biomarkers from radiobiological assays. The response of 5 genes was monitored resulting in expression increase with the dose of radiation received. The blood samples treated with the LINAC can provide effective irradiated blood samples suitable for molecular profiling to validate radiobiological measurements via the gene-expression based biodosimetry tools. (orig.)

  14. A method for time-resolved calorespirometry of terrestrial samples. (United States)

    Wadsö, Lars


    A new vessel for simultaneous isothermal calorimetry and respirometry (calorespirometry) on terrestrial (non-aqueous) samples has been developed. All types of small (absorbent. Typically a 7 h measurement results in seven measurements of heat production rate, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, which can be used to evaluate how the metabolic activity in a sample changes over time. Results from three experiments on leaves, a cut vegetable, and mold are given. As uncertainties--especially in the carbon dioxide production--tend to be quite high, improvements to the technique are also discussed.

  15. Determination of ferrous iron in rock and mineral samples by three volumetric methods


    Saikkonen, R.J.; Rautiainen, I.A.


    Ferrous iron was determined by three volumetric methods in 13 in-house reference rock samples and in 31 international geological reference samples. The methods used were Amonette & Scott' s oxidimetric method, Wilson's oxidimetric method and Pratt's method. The results for FeO by these volumetric methods in 13 in-house rock samples were compared to the results obtained in other analytical laboratories in Finland. The results for FeO in the international samples were compared with published da...

  16. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K


    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  17. 40 CFR 80.582 - What are the sampling and testing methods for the fuel marker? (United States)


    ... What are the sampling and testing methods for the fuel marker? For heating oil and NRLM diesel fuel... accordance with the requirements in this section. (a) Sampling and testing for methods for the fuel marker. The sampling, sample preparation, and testing methods qualified for use in accordance with...

  18. Quality Assurance Project Plan for waste tank vapor characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suydam, C.D. Jr.


    This Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-013, applies to four separate vapor sampling tasks associated with Phases 1 and 2 of the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program and support of the Rotary Mode Core Drilling Portable Exhauster Permit. These tasks focus on employee safety concerns and tank ventilation emission control design requirements. Previous characterization efforts and studies are of insufficient accuracy to adequately define the problem. It is believed that the technology and maturity of sampling and analytical methods can be sufficiently developed to allow the characterization of the constituents of the tank vapor space.

  19. Technical Evaluation of Sample-Processing, Collection, and Preservation Methods (United States)


    policy document entitled The National Strategy for Biosurveillance was released (White House, July 2012) as part of the National Security Strategy...concept of leveraging existing capabilities to “scan and discern the environment,” which implies the use of current technical biosurveillance ...testing of existing sample-processing technologies are expected to enable in silico evaluations of biosurveillance methodologies, equipment, and

  20. Validation of EIA sampling methods - bacterial and biochemical analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheelu, G.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.

    Deep sea sediments from Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) were sampled from 10 degrees .00'-10 degrees .10'S latitude and 75 degrees .55'-76 degrees .05'E longitude for assessing the potential environmental impact of polymetallic nodule mining under...

  1. Modern Numerical Methods for Classical Sampled System Analysis-SAMSAN (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.


    SAMSAN aids control-system analyst by providing self-consistent set of computer algorithms that support large-order control-system design and evaluation studies, with emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Program provides set of algorithms readily integrated for solving control-system problems.

  2. Numerical Methods for Classical Sampled-System Analysis (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.; Bauer, F. H.


    SAMSAN provides control-system analyst with self-consistent computer algorithms that support large-order control-system design and evaluation studies. Emphasizes sampled-system analysis. SAMSAN reduces burden on analyst by providing set of algorithms well tested and documented and readily integrated for solving control-system problems.

  3. Vegetation Sampling for Wetland Delineation: A Review and Synthesis of Methods and Sampling Issues (United States)


    and floristic habitat sampling for estimating bryophyte diversity. Diversity and Distributions 11(1): 57–72. Niemi, G. J., and M. E. Mcdonald. 2004...non-wetland habitats . Observed differences in the relative frequency with which a species occurs in wetlands provides the basis for the National and...where communities are viewed as loose aggregations of independently distributed plant species that co-occur because of similarities in habitat

  4. Vega flow assurance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Marit; Munaweera, Sampath


    Vega is a gas condensate field located at the west coast of Norway and developed as a tie-in to the Gjoea platform. Operator is Statoil, production startup is estimated to the end of 2010. Flow assurance challenges are high reservoir pressure and temperature, hydrate and wax control, liquid accumulation and monitoring the well/template production rates. The Vega Flow Assurance System (FAS) is a software that supports monitoring and operation of the field. The FAS is based FlowManagerTM designed for real time systems. This is a flexible tool with its own steady state multiphase- and flow assurance models. Due to the long flowlines lines and the dynamic behavior, the multiphase flow simulator OLGA is also integrated in the system. Vega FAS will be used as: - An online monitoring tool - An offline what-if simulation and validation tool - An advisory control system for well production allocation. (Author)

  5. A new method of snowmelt sampling for water stable isotopes (United States)

    Penna, D.; Ahmad, M.; Birks, S. J.; Bouchaou, L.; Brencic, M.; Butt, S.; Holko, L.; Jeelani, G.; Martinez, D. E.; Melikadze, G.; Shanley, J.B.; Sokratov, S. A.; Stadnyk, T.; Sugimoto, A.; Vreca, P.


    We modified a passive capillary sampler (PCS) to collect snowmelt water for isotopic analysis. Past applications of PCSs have been to sample soil water, but the novel aspect of this study was the placement of the PCSs at the ground-snowpack interface to collect snowmelt. We deployed arrays of PCSs at 11 sites in ten partner countries on five continents representing a range of climate and snow cover worldwide. The PCS reliably collected snowmelt at all sites and caused negligible evaporative fractionation effects in the samples. PCS is low-cost, easy to install, and collects a representative integrated snowmelt sample throughout the melt season or at the melt event scale. Unlike snow cores, the PCS collects the water that would actually infiltrate the soil; thus, its isotopic composition is appropriate to use for tracing snowmelt water through the hydrologic cycle. The purpose of this Briefing is to show the potential advantages of PCSs and recommend guidelines for constructing and installing them based on our preliminary results from two snowmelt seasons.

  6. Benchmarking Software Assurance Implementation (United States)


    product The chicken#. (a.k.a. Process Focused Assessment ) – Management Systems ( ISO 9001 , ISO 27001, ISO 2000) – Capability Maturity Models (CMMI...Assurance PRM, RMM, Assurance for CMMI)) – Lifecycle Processes ( ISO /IEEE 15288, ISO /IEEE 12207) – COBIT, ITIL, MS SDL, OSAMM, BSIMM 5 The egg...a.k.a Product Focused Assessments) – SCAP - NIST-SCAP – ISO /OMG W3C – KDM, BPMN, RIF, XMI, RDF – OWASP Top 10 – SANS TOP 25 – Secure Code Check Lists

  7. Just in Time Assurance (United States)


    Just in Time Assurance Ji Al F PhD U i it f Id hm ves- oss, , n vers y o a o Director Center for Secure and Dependable Computing W. Mark Vanfleet...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Just in Time Assurance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...discusses how practical and affordable recertification can become the norm instead of the rare exception 2 What Does Just in Time Mean? Manufacturing

  8. A method for reducing sampling jitter in digital control systems (United States)

    Anderson, T. O.; HURBD W. J.; Hurd, W. J.


    Digital phase lock loop system is designed by smoothing the proportional control with a low pass filter. This method does not significantly affect the loop dynamics when the smoothing filter bandwidth is wide compared to loop bandwidth.

  9. Methods for parasitic protozoans detection in the environmental samples


    Skotarczak B.


    The environmental route of transmission of many parasitic protozoa and their potential for producing large numbers of transmissive stages constitute persistent threats to public and veterinary health. Conventional and new immunological and molecular methods enable to assess the occurrence, prevalence, levels and sources of waterborne protozoa. Concentration, purification, and detection are the three key steps in all methods that have been approved for routine monitoring of waterborne cysts an...

  10. Automatic Sampling with the Ratio-of-uniforms Method


    Leydold, Josef


    Applying the ratio-of-uniforms method for generating random variates results in very efficient, fast and easy to implement algorithms. However parameters for every particular type of density must be precalculated analytically. In this paper we show, that the ratio-of-uniforms method is also useful for the design of a black-box algorithm suitable for a large class of distributions, including all with log-concave densities. Using polygonal envelopes and squeezes results in an algorithm that is ...

  11. Method for spiking soil samples with organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Ulla C; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten S


    We examined the harmful side effects on indigenous soil microorganisms of two organic solvents, acetone and dichloromethane, that are normally used for spiking of soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for experimental purposes. The solvents were applied in two contamination protocols to either...... the whole soil sample or 25% of the soil volume, which was subsequently mixed with 75% untreated soil. For dichloromethane, we included a third protocol, which involved application to 80% of the soil volume with or without phenanthrene and introduction of Pseudomonas fluorescens VKI171 SJ132 genetically...

  12. Detecting spatial structures in throughfall data: The effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and variogram estimation method (United States)

    Voss, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Beate; Zimmermann, Alexander


    In the last decades, an increasing number of studies analyzed spatial patterns in throughfall by means of variograms. The estimation of the variogram from sample data requires an appropriate sampling scheme: most importantly, a large sample and a layout of sampling locations that often has to serve both variogram estimation and geostatistical prediction. While some recommendations on these aspects exist, they focus on Gaussian data and high ratios of the variogram range to the extent of the study area. However, many hydrological data, and throughfall data in particular, do not follow a Gaussian distribution. In this study, we examined the effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and calculation method on variogram estimation of throughfall data. For our investigation, we first generated non-Gaussian random fields based on throughfall data with large outliers. Subsequently, we sampled the fields with three extents (plots with edge lengths of 25 m, 50 m, and 100 m), four common sampling designs (two grid-based layouts, transect and random sampling) and five sample sizes (50, 100, 150, 200, 400). We then estimated the variogram parameters by method-of-moments (non-robust and robust estimators) and residual maximum likelihood. Our key findings are threefold. First, the choice of the extent has a substantial influence on the estimation of the variogram. A comparatively small ratio of the extent to the correlation length is beneficial for variogram estimation. Second, a combination of a minimum sample size of 150, a design that ensures the sampling of small distances and variogram estimation by residual maximum likelihood offers a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency. Third, studies relying on method-of-moments based variogram estimation may have to employ at least 200 sampling points for reliable variogram estimates. These suggested sample sizes exceed the number recommended by studies dealing with Gaussian data by up to 100 %. Given that most previous

  13. Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of Nisoldipine from Pharmaceutical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta


    Full Text Available A simple and specific high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of nisoldipine from tablet dosage form. The method was carried out at 320 nm after extraction of drug in methanol. The method uses aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as stationary phase and cyclohexane-ethyl acetate-toluene (3:3:4, v/v/v as mobile phase. Linearity was established over a range of 400-2400 ng per zone. Both peak area ratio and peak height ratio showed acceptable correlation coefficient i.e. more than 0.99. However we used peak area for validation purpose. Intra-day and inter-day precision was determined and found to have less than 6.0 % RSD.

  14. [DOE method for evaluating environmental and waste management samples: Revision 1, Addendum 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.


    The US Dapartment of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental and waste management (EM) sampling and analysis activities require that large numbers of samples be analyzed for materials characterization, environmental surveillance, and site-remediation programs. The present document, DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), is a supplemental resource for analyzing many of these samples.

  15. 40 CFR 80.580 - What are the sampling and testing methods for sulfur? (United States)


    ... the sampling and testing methods for sulfur? The sulfur content of diesel fuel and diesel fuel additives is to be determined in accordance with this section. (a) Sampling method. The applicable sampling... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the sampling and...

  16. Probabilistic finite element stiffness of a laterally loaded monopile based on an improved asymptotic sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammadjavad; Bayat, Mehdi; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard


    shear strength of clay. Normal and Sobol sampling are employed to provide the asymptotic sampling method to generate the probability distribution of the foundation stiffnesses. Monte Carlo simulation is used as a benchmark. Asymptotic sampling accompanied with Sobol quasi random sampling demonstrates...... an efficient method for estimating the probability distribution of stiffnesses for the offshore monopile foundation....

  17. Sampling Males Who Inject Drugs in Haiphong, Vietnam: Comparison of Time-Location and Respondent-Driven Sampling Methods. (United States)

    Tran, Hoang Vu; Le, Linh-Vi N; Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Nadol, Patrick; Van Do, Anh; Tran, Ha Thi Thanh; Nguyen, Tuan Anh


    Accurate measurements of HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among hidden and high-risk groups are vital for program planning and implementation. However, only two sampling methods are purported to provide representative estimates for populations without sampling frames: time-location sampling (TLS) and respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Each method is subject to potential biases and questionable reliability. In this paper, we evaluate surveys designed to estimate HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among people who inject drugs (PWID) sampled through TLS versus RDS. In 2012, males aged ≥16 years who reported injecting drugs in the previous month and living in Haiphong, Vietnam, were sampled using TLS or RDS. Data from each survey were analyzed to compare HIV prevalence, related risk factors, socio-demographic characteristics, refusal estimates, and time and expenditures for field implementation. TLS (n = 432) and RDS (n = 415) produced similarly high estimates for HIV prevalence. Significantly lower proportions of PWID sampled through RDS received methadone treatment or met an outreach worker. Refusal estimates were lower for TLS than for RDS. Total expenditures per sample collected and number of person-days of staff effort were higher for TLS than for RDS. Both survey methods were successful in recruiting a diverse sample of PWID in Haiphong. In Vietnam, surveys of PWID are conducted throughout the country; although the refusal estimate was calculated to be much higher for RDS than TLS, RDS in Haiphong appeared to sample PWID with less exposure to services and required fewer financial and staff resources compared with TLS.

  18. Mission Operations Assurance (United States)

    Faris, Grant


    Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.

  19. Effect of sample preparation methods on photometric determination of the tellurium and cobalt content in the samples of copper concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Butenko


    Full Text Available Methods of determination of cobalt and nickel in copper concentrates currently used in factory laboratories are very labor intensive and time consuming. The limiting stage of the analysis is preliminary chemical sample preparation. Carrying out the decomposition process of industrial samples with concentrated mineral acids in open systems does not allow to improve the metrological characteristics of the methods, for this reason improvement the methods of sample preparation is quite relevant and has a practical interest. The work was dedicated to the determination of the optimal conditions of preliminary chemical preparation of copper concentrate samples for the subsequent determination of cobalt and tellurium in the obtained solution using tellurium-spectrophotometric method. Decomposition of the samples was carried out by acid dissolving in individual mineral acids and their mixtures by heating in an open system as well as by using ultrasonification and microwave radiation in a closed system. In order to select the optimal conditions for the decomposition of the samples in a closed system the phase contact time and ultrasonic generator’s power were varied. Intensification of the processes of decomposition of copper concentrates with nitric acid (1:1, ultrasound and microwave radiation allowed to transfer quantitatively cobalt and tellurium into solution spending 20 and 30 min respectively. This reduced the amount of reactants used and improved the accuracy of determination by running the process in strictly identical conditions.

  20. 7 CFR 51.308 - Methods of sampling and calculation of percentages. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Methods of sampling and calculation of percentages. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Methods of Sampling and Calculation of Percentages § 51.308 Methods of sampling and calculation of percentages. (a) When the...

  1. 40 CFR 80.8 - Sampling methods for gasoline and diesel fuel. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling methods for gasoline and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.8 Sampling methods for gasoline and diesel fuel. The sampling methods specified in this section shall be used to collect...

  2. Tissue sampling methods and standards for vertebrate genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Pamela BY


    Full Text Available Abstract The recent rise in speed and efficiency of new sequencing technologies have facilitated high-throughput sequencing, assembly and analyses of genomes, advancing ongoing efforts to analyze genetic sequences across major vertebrate groups. Standardized procedures in acquiring high quality DNA and RNA and establishing cell lines from target species will facilitate these initiatives. We provide a legal and methodological guide according to four standards of acquiring and storing tissue for the Genome 10K Project and similar initiatives as follows: four-star (banked tissue/cell cultures, RNA from multiple types of tissue for transcriptomes, and sufficient flash-frozen tissue for 1 mg of DNA, all from a single individual; three-star (RNA as above and frozen tissue for 1 mg of DNA; two-star (frozen tissue for at least 700 μg of DNA; and one-star (ethanol-preserved tissue for 700 μg of DNA or less of mixed quality. At a minimum, all tissues collected for the Genome 10K and other genomic projects should consider each species’ natural history and follow institutional and legal requirements. Associated documentation should detail as much information as possible about provenance to ensure representative sampling and subsequent sequencing. Hopefully, the procedures outlined here will not only encourage success in the Genome 10K Project but also inspire the adaptation of standards by other genomic projects, including those involving other biota.

  3. Designing waveforms for temporal encoding using a frequency sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    , the amplitude spectrum of the transmitted waveform can be optimized, such that most of the energy is transmitted where the transducer has large amplification. To test the design method, a waveform was designed for a BK8804 linear array transducer. The resulting nonlinear frequency modulated waveform...... for the linear frequency modulated signal) were tested for both waveforms in simulation with respect to the Doppler frequency shift occurring when probing moving objects. It was concluded that the Doppler effect of moving targets does not significantly degrade the filtered output. Finally, in vivo measurements...

  4. BYU Food Quality Assurance Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Quality Assurance Lab is located in the Eyring Science Center in the department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science. The Quality Assurance Lab has about 10...

  5. Random Sampling of Quantum States: a Survey of Methods. And Some Issues Regarding the Overparametrized Method (United States)

    Maziero, Jonas


    The numerical generation of random quantum states (RQS) is an important procedure for investigations in quantum information science. Here, we review some methods that may be used for performing that task. We start by presenting a simple procedure for generating random state vectors, for which the main tool is the random sampling of unbiased discrete probability distributions (DPD). Afterwards, the creation of random density matrices is addressed. In this context, we first present the standard method, which consists in using the spectral decomposition of a quantum state for getting RQS from random DPDs and random unitary matrices. In the sequence, the Bloch vector parametrization method is described. This approach, despite being useful in several instances, is not in general convenient for RQS generation. In the last part of the article, we regard the overparametrized method (OPM) and the related Ginibre and Bures techniques. The OPM can be used to create random positive semidefinite matrices with unit trace from randomly produced general complex matrices in a simple way that is friendly for numerical implementations. We consider a physically relevant issue related to the possible domains that may be used for the real and imaginary parts of the elements of such general complex matrices. Subsequently, a too fast concentration of measure in the quantum state space that appears in this parametrization is noticed.

  6. Random sampling of quantum states: a survey of methods and some issues regarding the Overparametrized Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziero, Jonas, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica


    The numerical generation of random quantum states (RQS) is an important procedure for investigations in quantum information science. Here, we review some methods that may be used for performing that task. We start by presenting a simple procedure for generating random state vectors, for which the main tool is the random sampling of unbiased discrete probability distributions (DPD). Afterwards, the creation of random density matrices is addressed. In this context, we first present the standard method, which consists in using the spectral decomposition of a quantum state for getting RQS from random DPDs and random unitary matrices. In the sequence, the Bloch vector parametrization method is described. This approach, despite being useful in several instances, is not in general convenient for RQS generation. In the last part of the article, we regard the overparametrized method (OPM) and the related Ginibre and Bures techniques. The OPM can be used to create random positive semidefinite matrices with unit trace from randomly produced general complex matrices in a simple way that is friendly for numerical implementations. We consider a physically relevant issue related to the possible domains that may be used for the real and imaginary parts of the elements of such general complex matrices. Subsequently, a too fast concentration of measure in the quantum state space that appears in this parametrization is noticed. (author)

  7. Field methods and quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities and water-level measurements, U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Maimer, Neil V.; Wehnke, Amy J.


    Water-quality activities and water-level measurements by the personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office coincide with the USGS mission of appraising the quantity and quality of the Nation’s water resources. The activities are carried out in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office. Results of the water-quality and hydraulic head investigations are presented in various USGS publications or in refereed scientific journals and the data are stored in the National Water Information System (NWIS) database. The results of the studies are used by researchers, regulatory and managerial agencies, and interested civic groups. In the broadest sense, quality assurance refers to doing the job right the first time. It includes the functions of planning for products, review and acceptance of the products, and an audit designed to evaluate the system that produces the products. Quality control and quality assurance differ in that quality control ensures that things are done correctly given the “state-of-the-art” technology, and quality assurance ensures that quality control is maintained within specified limits.

  8. [Comparative Analysis of Spectrophotometric Methods of the Protein Measurement in the Pectic Polysaccharide Samples]. (United States)

    Ponomareva, S A; Golovchenko, V V; Patova, O A; Vanchikova, E V; Ovodov, Y S


    For the assay to reliability of determination of the protein content in the pectic polysaccharide samples by absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum a comparison of the eleven techniques called Flores, Lovry, Bradford, Sedmak, Rueman (ninhydrin reaction) methods, the method of ultraviolet spectrophotometry, the method Benedict's reagent, the method Nessler's reagent, the method with amide black, the bicinchoninic reagent and the biuret method was carried out. The data obtained show that insufficient sensitivity of the seven methods from the listed techniques doesn't allow their usage for determination of protein content in pectic polysaccharide samples. But the Lowry, Bradford, Sedmak methods, and the method Nessler's reagent may be used for determination of protein content in pectic polysaccharide samples, and the Bradford method is advisable for protein contaminants content determination in pectic polysaccharide samples in case protein content is less than 15%, and the Lowry method--for samples is more than 15%.

  9. Improvements in pentosan polysulfate sodium quality assurance using fingerprint electropherograms. (United States)

    Schirm, B; Benend, H; Wätzig, H


    Complex samples from polymer production, plant extracts or biotechnology mixtures can be characterized by fingerprints. Currently, the standard approach for sample characterization employs near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy fingerprinting. Up to now, however, fingerprints obtained by chromatography or electrophoresis could only be visually evaluated. This type of inspection is very labor-intensive and difficult to validate. In order to transfer the use of fingerprints from spectroscopy to electrophoresis, spectra-like properties must be obtained through a complete alignment of the electropherograms. This has been achieved by interpolation and wavelet filtering of the baseline signal in the present work. The resulting data have been classified by several algorithms. The methods under survey include self-organizing maps (SOMs), artificial neural networks (ANNs), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and k-nearest neighbors (KNNs). In order to test the performance of this combined approach in practice, it was applied to the quality assurance of pentosan polysulfate (PPS). A recently developed capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using indirect UV detection was employed in these studies [1]. All algorithms were well capable of classifying the examined PPS test batches. Even minor variations in the PPS composition, not perceptible by visual inspection, could be automatically detected. The whole method has been validated by classifying various (n = 400) unknown PPS quality assurance samples, which have been correctly identified without exception.

  10. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations.

  11. Surveying immigrants without sampling frames - evaluating the success of alternative field methods. (United States)

    Reichel, David; Morales, Laura


    This paper evaluates the sampling methods of an international survey, the Immigrant Citizens Survey, which aimed at surveying immigrants from outside the European Union (EU) in 15 cities in seven EU countries. In five countries, no sample frame was available for the target population. Consequently, alternative ways to obtain a representative sample had to be found. In three countries 'location sampling' was employed, while in two countries traditional methods were used with adaptations to reach the target population. The paper assesses the main methodological challenges of carrying out a survey among a group of immigrants for whom no sampling frame exists. The samples of the survey in these five countries are compared to results of official statistics in order to assess the accuracy of the samples obtained through the different sampling methods. It can be shown that alternative sampling methods can provide meaningful results in terms of core demographic characteristics although some estimates differ to some extent from the census results.

  12. Power transformers quality assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Indrajit


    About the Book: With the view to attain higher reliability in power system operation, the quality assurance in the field of distribution and power transformers has claimed growing attention. Besides new developments in the material technology and manufacturing processes of transformers, regular diagnostic testing and maintenance of any engineering product may be ascertained by ensuring: right selection of materials and components and their quality checks. application of correct manufacturing processes any systems engineering. the user`s awareness towards preventive maintenance. The

  13. A fast method to prepare water samples for 15N analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖化云; 刘丛强


    Automatic element analyser is often used to prepare organic matters tor 15N analysis. It is seldom used to prepare water samples. Water samples are conventionally dealt with by Kjeldahl-Rittenberg technique. But it requires tedious and labor-intensive sample preparation. A fast and reliable method is proposed in this paper to prepare water samples for 15N analysis.

  14. 46 CFR 160.010-7 - Methods of sampling, inspections and tests. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of sampling, inspections and tests. 160.010-7... Vessels § 160.010-7 Methods of sampling, inspections and tests. (a) General. Production tests must be... by the Commandant (CG-521). (b) Sampling of production lots. A production lot must consist of...

  15. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickels, J.M.


    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Quality assurance in diagnostic ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, Outi, E-mail: [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, 00029 HUS (Finland); Mannila, Vilma, E-mail: [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, 00029 HUS (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki University (Finland); Vartiainen, Eija, E-mail: [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 750, 00029 HUS (Finland)


    Objective: To setup a practical ultrasound quality assurance protocol in a large radiological center, results from transducer tests, phantom measurements and visual checks for physical faults were compared. Materials and methods: Altogether 151 transducers from 54 ultrasound scanners, from seven different manufacturers, were tested with a Sonora FirstCall aPerio{sup TM} system (Sonora Medical Systems, Inc., Longmont, CO, USA) to detect non-functional elements. Phantom measurements using a CIRS General Purpose Phantom Model 040 (CIRS Tissue Simulation and Phantom Technology, VA, USA) were available for 135 transducers. The transducers and scanners were also checked visually for physical faults. The percentages of defective findings in these tests were computed. Results: Defective results in the FirstCall tests were found in 17% of the 151 transducers, and in 16% of the 135 transducers. Defective image quality resulted with 15% of the transducers, and 25% of the transducers had a physical flaw. In 16% of the scanners, a physical fault elsewhere than in the transducer was found. Seven percent of the transducers had a concurrent defective result both in the FirstCall test and in the phantom measurements, 8% in the FirstCall test and in the visual check, 4% in the phantom measurements and in the visual check, and 2% in all three tests. Conclusion: The tested methods produced partly complementary results and seemed all to be necessary. Thus a quality assurance protocol is forced to be rather labored, and therefore the benefits and costs must be closely followed.

  17. Enhanced Sampling in Free Energy Calculations: Combining SGLD with the Bennett's Acceptance Ratio and Enveloping Distribution Sampling Methods. (United States)

    König, Gerhard; Miller, Benjamin T; Boresch, Stefan; Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R


    One of the key requirements for the accurate calculation of free energy differences is proper sampling of conformational space. Especially in biological applications, molecular dynamics simulations are often confronted with rugged energy surfaces and high energy barriers, leading to insufficient sampling and, in turn, poor convergence of the free energy results. In this work, we address this problem by employing enhanced sampling methods. We explore the possibility of using self-guided Langevin dynamics (SGLD) to speed up the exploration process in free energy simulations. To obtain improved free energy differences from such simulations, it is necessary to account for the effects of the bias due to the guiding forces. We demonstrate how this can be accomplished for the Bennett's acceptance ratio (BAR) and the enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) methods. While BAR is considered among the most efficient methods available for free energy calculations, the EDS method developed by Christ and van Gunsteren is a promising development that reduces the computational costs of free energy calculations by simulating a single reference state. To evaluate the accuracy of both approaches in connection with enhanced sampling, EDS was implemented in CHARMM. For testing, we employ benchmark systems with analytical reference results and the mutation of alanine to serine. We find that SGLD with reweighting can provide accurate results for BAR and EDS where conventional molecular dynamics simulations fail. In addition, we compare the performance of EDS with other free energy methods. We briefly discuss the implications of our results and provide practical guidelines for conducting free energy simulations with SGLD.

  18. Towards Run-time Assurance of Advanced Propulsion Algorithms (United States)

    Wong, Edmond; Schierman, John D.; Schlapkohl, Thomas; Chicatelli, Amy


    This paper covers the motivation and rationale for investigating the application of run-time assurance methods as a potential means of providing safety assurance for advanced propulsion control systems. Certification is becoming increasingly infeasible for such systems using current verification practices. Run-time assurance systems hold the promise of certifying these advanced systems by continuously monitoring the state of the feedback system during operation and reverting to a simpler, certified system if anomalous behavior is detected. The discussion will also cover initial efforts underway to apply a run-time assurance framework to NASA's model-based engine control approach. Preliminary experimental results are presented and discussed.

  19. Composite sampling a novel method to accomplish observational economy in environmental studies

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Ganapati P; Taillie, Charles


    This monograph provides a comprehensive statistical account of composite sampling as an ingenious environmental sampling method to help accomplish observational economy in a variety of environmental and ecological studies.

  20. 基于无干扰理论的安全保障方法%Security assurance method based on non-interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙瑜; 陈亚莎; 张兴; 刘毅


    In recent years,more and more researchers have given attention to security assurance as an important aspect of an operating system security.For a high level secure operating system,structuration of the architecture level must be met as security assurance requirements,which is the essential characteristics from the low level secure system.First,the lack of the traditional information flow model on solving the problem of security is analyzed,and the description and reflection of the security assurance in the non-interference model are studied.Then structural rules are raised that can match reference monitor hypothesis.Second,the concept of the trusted pipeline is applied to the structural assurance of the non-interference model,and security of the new model is proven.Finally,an implementation scheme of structured information flow control based on the trusted pipeline is proposed.%近年来,安全保障作为操作系统安全的一个重要方面越来越受到研究者的重视。对于高安全级别操作系统,体系结构层次的结构化是必须要达到的安全保障要求,是其区别于低安全级别系统的本质特征。本文首先分析了传统信息流模型在解决安全保障问题方面的不足,然后以传统无干扰模型为基础,研究了安全保障在其中的描述和体现,提出了能够满足引用监视器假设的结构化规则。其次,提出可信管道的概念,将其应用到无干扰模型的结构化保障中,并对模型的安全性进行了证明。最后,给出了一种基于可信管道的结构化信息流控制的实现方案。

  1. Quality assurance and statistical control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.


    In scientific research laboratories it is rarely possible to use quality assurance schemes, developed for large-scale analysis. Instead methods have been developed to control the quality of modest numbers of analytical results by relying on statistical control: Analysis of precision serves...... to detect analytical errors by comparing the a priori precision of the analytical results with the actual variability observed among replicates or duplicates. The method relies on the chi-square distribution to detect excess variability and is quite sensitive even for 5-10 results. Interference control...... serves to detect analytical bias by comparing results obtained by two different analytical methods, each relying on a different detection principle and therefore exhibiting different influence from matrix elements; only 5-10 sets of results are required to establish whether a regression line passes...

  2. Effect of different sample collection methods on the results of raw milk analysis


    Cabral, Jakeline Fernandes; Silva, Marco Antônio Pereira da; Brasil, Rafaella Belchior; Carvalho, Thiago Soares; Giovannini, Cristiane Isabô; Nicolau, Edmar Soares


    The collection of samples of raw milk shall be careful to reflect their actual composition, and different methods of collection, may lead to variations in levels of milk components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different methods of milk sampling on the chemical composition and somatic cell count. Milk samples were taken from 492 cows in a dairy farm of Rio Verde, state of Goiás, Brazil. Two sampling methodologies were used: a pool-sample and a complete sample (40 mL) of...

  3. Novel Sampling and Reconstruction Method for Non-Bandlimited Impulse Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yang; Jian-Hao Hu; Shao-Qian Li


    To sample non-bandlimited impulse signals, an extremely high-sampling rate analog-to- digital converters (ADC) is required. Such an ADC is very difficult to be implemented with present semi- conductor technology. In this paper, a novel sampling and reconstruction method for impulse signals is proposed. The required sampling rate of the proposed method is close to the signal innovation rate, which is much lower than the Nyquist rate in conventional Shannon sampling theory. Analysis and simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve very good reconstruction performance in the presence of noise.

  4. Sampling uncertainty evaluation for data acquisition board based on Monte Carlo method (United States)

    Ge, Leyi; Wang, Zhongyu


    Evaluating the data acquisition board sampling uncertainty is a difficult problem in the field of signal sampling. This paper analyzes the sources of dada acquisition board sampling uncertainty in the first, then introduces a simulation theory of dada acquisition board sampling uncertainty evaluation based on Monte Carlo method and puts forward a relation model of sampling uncertainty results, sampling numbers and simulation times. In the case of different sample numbers and different signal scopes, the author establishes a random sampling uncertainty evaluation program of a PCI-6024E data acquisition board to execute the simulation. The results of the proposed Monte Carlo simulation method are in a good agreement with the GUM ones, and the validities of Monte Carlo method are represented.

  5. B-splines smoothed rejection sampling method and its applications in quasi-Monte Carlo integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The rejection sampling method is one of the most popular methods used in Monte Carlo methods. It turns out that the standard rejection method is closely related to the problem of quasi-Monte Carlo integration of characteristic functions, whose accuracy may be lost due to the discontinuity of the characteristic functions. We proposed a B-splines smoothed rejection sampling method, which smoothed the characteristic function by B-splines smoothing technique without changing the integral quantity. Numerical experiments showed that the convergence rate of nearly O(N-1) is regained by using the B-splines smoothed rejection method in importance sampling.

  6. B-splines smoothed rejection sampling method and its applications in quasi-Monte Carlo integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The rejection sampling method is one of the most popular methods used in Monte Carlo methods. It turns out that the standard rejection method is closely related to the problem of quasi-Monte Carlo integration of characteristic functions, whose accuracy may be lost due to the discontinuity of the characteristic functions. We proposed a B-splines smoothed rejection sampling method, which smoothed the characteristic function by B-splines smoothing technique without changing the integral quantity. Numerical experiments showed that the convergence rate of nearly O( N-1 ) is regained by using the B-splines smoothed rejection method in importance sampling.

  7. Security assurance capability assessment based on entropy weight method for cryptographic module%基于熵权法的密码模块安全保障能力评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟登银; 徐开勇; 高杨


    To solve the problems that the index value of cryptographic modules is not fixed, the index system is hardly built, and the security assurance ability can not be quantitatively assessed, a security assurance capability assessment for cryptographic module was proposed. The description on indexes by interval number was applied to illustrate the security attribute of cryptographic modules. This paper determined the weight vector of each period point by entropy weight coefficient method combined with expert decision weight method. According to the interval multi-attribute decision methodology, a feasible methodology was adopted to solve the interval Information Assurance ( IA) capability evaluation problem of cryptographic modules. Finally, through analyzing two kinds of cryptographic modules, the experimental results show that the proposed method is feasible.%针对密码模块这类信息安全产品指标值不固定、指标系统难以建立、安全保障能力难以定量评估的问题,提出了一种定量描述密码模块安全保障能力的可行方法.方法运用区间数描述密码模块的安全属性,采用熵权法结合主观赋权法确定每个安全属性的权重值,运用区间型多属性决策方法进行综合评价,最后运用所提方法对两种商用密码模块进行了实例分析,计算结果表明所提方法可行.

  8. Performance comparison between sampling methods using DOP as feedback signal for higher-order PMD compensator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yao; Huanyou Wang; Lin Chen


    We numerically analyzed the performance of the two polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) compensation methods of the single degree of polarization (DOP) sampling and DOP ellipsoid sampling methods. The numerical results show that the single DOP sampling method can generate the maximum DOP, and may result in a small overall differential group delay (DGD) or the principal state of polarization (PSP)launching. By the PSP launching, just the first-order PMD is compensated while second-order PMD not.When the DOP ellipsoid sampling method is used the performance is evidently better, because the effect of high-order PMD on PMD compensation is reduced.

  9. Evaluation of sampling methods for the detection of Salmonella in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne N.; Carstensen, B.; Tornoe, N.


    The present study compares four different sampling methods potentially applicable to detection of Salmonella in broiler flocks, based on collection of faecal samples (i) by hand, 300 fresh faecal samples (ii) absorbed on five sheets of paper (iii) absorbed on five pairs of socks (elastic cotton...... horizontal or vertical) were found in the investigation. The results showed that the sock method (five pairs of socks) had a sensitivity comparable with the hand collection method (60 pools of five faecal samples); the paper collection method was inferior, as was the use of only one pair of socks, Estimation...

  10. Measuring larval nematode contamination on cattle pastures: Comparing two herbage sampling methods. (United States)

    Verschave, S H; Levecke, B; Duchateau, L; Vercruysse, J; Charlier, J


    Assessing levels of pasture larval contamination is frequently used to study the population dynamics of the free-living stages of parasitic nematodes of livestock. Direct quantification of infective larvae (L3) on herbage is the most applied method to measure pasture larval contamination. However, herbage collection remains labour intensive and there is a lack of studies addressing the variation induced by the sampling method and the required sample size. The aim of this study was (1) to compare two different sampling methods in terms of pasture larval count results and time required to sample, (2) to assess the amount of variation in larval counts at the level of sample plot, pasture and season, respectively and (3) to calculate the required sample size to assess pasture larval contamination with a predefined precision using random plots across pasture. Eight young stock pastures of different commercial dairy herds were sampled in three consecutive seasons during the grazing season (spring, summer and autumn). On each pasture, herbage samples were collected through both a double-crossed W-transect with samples taken every 10 steps (method 1) and four random located plots of 0.16 m(2) with collection of all herbage within the plot (method 2). The average (± standard deviation (SD)) pasture larval contamination using sampling methods 1 and 2 was 325 (± 479) and 305 (± 444)L3/kg dry herbage (DH), respectively. Large discrepancies in pasture larval counts of the same pasture and season were often seen between methods, but no significant difference (P = 0.38) in larval counts between methods was found. Less time was required to collect samples with method 2. This difference in collection time between methods was most pronounced for pastures with a surface area larger than 1 ha. The variation in pasture larval counts from samples generated by random plot sampling was mainly due to the repeated measurements on the same pasture in the same season (residual variance

  11. Quality assurance and product quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, D.; Bastiani, P. de [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)


    The basic quality assurance requirements have to be completed by means that are oriented towards the quality of products; in COGEMA LOGISTICS our approach is based on four principles: 1) an integrated management system: Quality, health and safety, environment 2) an organization based on the responsibility of all actors, trust and transparency 3) a methodical approach to continuously improve the methods that are employed to achieve quality: -process management -corrective and preventive actions -self assessments and various surveys 4) but at the same time strong procedures for control and monitoring of all activities: -technical and quality audits (external and internal) -at source inspections -engineering activities inspections This performance-based approach is necessary to guaranty the effectiveness of the traditional formal QA means.

  12. 42 CFR 431.53 - Assurance of transportation. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurance of transportation. 431.53 Section 431.53... Requirements § 431.53 Assurance of transportation. A State plan must— (a) Specify that the Medicaid agency will ensure necessary transportation for recipients to and from providers; and (b) Describe the methods...

  13. Product assurance policies and procedures for flight dynamics software development (United States)

    Perry, Sandra; Jordan, Leon; Decker, William; Page, Gerald; Mcgarry, Frank E.; Valett, Jon


    The product assurance policies and procedures necessary to support flight dynamics software development projects for Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The quality assurance and configuration management methods and tools for each phase of the software development life cycles are described, from requirements analysis through acceptance testing; maintenance and operation are not addressed.

  14. Quality assurance of absorbed energy in Charpy impact test (United States)

    Rocha, C. L. F.; Fabricio, D. A. K.; Costa, V. M.; Reguly, A.


    In order to ensure the quality assurance and comply with standard requirements, an intralaboratory study has been performed for impact Charpy tests, involving two operators. The results based on ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and Normalized Error statistical techniques pointed out that the execution of the tests is appropriate, because the implementation of quality assurance methods showed acceptable results.

  15. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Černá


    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Material and Methods: Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. Results: The total number of colony-forming units (CFU/m3 of airborne fungi was dependent on the type of sampling device, on the time of sampling, which was carried out every hour from the beginning of the work shift, and on the type of cultivation medium (p < 0.001. Detected concentrations of airborne fungi ranged 2×102–1.7×106 CFU/m3 when using the membrane filters (MF method, and 3×102–6.4×104 CFU/m3 when using the surface air system (SAS method. Conclusions: Both methods showed comparable sensitivity to the fluctuations of the concentrations of airborne fungi during the work shifts. The SAS method is adequate for a fast indicative determination of concentration of airborne fungi. The MF method is suitable for thorough assessment of working environment contamination by airborne fungi. Therefore we recommend the MF method for the implementation of a uniform standard methodology of airborne fungi sampling in working environments of waste treatment facilities.

  16. MCNP{trademark} Software Quality Assurance plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhold, H.M.; Hendricks, J.S.


    MCNP is a computer code that models the interaction of radiation with matter. MCNP is developed and maintained by the Transport Methods Group (XTM) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This plan describes the Software Quality Assurance (SQA) program applied to the code. The SQA program is consistent with the requirements of IEEE-730.1 and the guiding principles of ISO 900.

  17. An improved adaptive sampling and experiment design method for aerodynamic optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jiangtao; Gao Zhenghong; Zhou Zhu; Zhao Ke


    Experiment design method is a key to construct a highly reliable surrogate model for numerical optimization in large-scale project. Within the method, the experimental design criterion directly affects the accuracy of the surrogate model and the optimization efficient. According to the shortcomings of the traditional experimental design, an improved adaptive sampling method is pro-posed in this paper. The surrogate model is firstly constructed by basic sparse samples. Then the supplementary sampling position is detected according to the specified criteria, which introduces the energy function and curvature sampling criteria based on radial basis function (RBF) network. Sampling detection criteria considers both the uniformity of sample distribution and the description of hypersurface curvature so as to significantly improve the prediction accuracy of the surrogate model with much less samples. For the surrogate model constructed with sparse samples, the sample uniformity is an important factor to the interpolation accuracy in the initial stage of adaptive sam-pling and surrogate model training. Along with the improvement of uniformity, the curvature description of objective function surface gradually becomes more important. In consideration of these issues, crowdness enhance function and root mean square error (RMSE) feedback function are introduced in C criterion expression. Thus, a new sampling method called RMSE and crowd-ness enhance (RCE) adaptive sampling is established. The validity of RCE adaptive sampling method is studied through typical test function firstly and then the airfoil/wing aerodynamic opti-mization design problem, which has high-dimensional design space. The results show that RCE adaptive sampling method not only reduces the requirement for the number of samples, but also effectively improves the prediction accuracy of the surrogate model, which has a broad prospects for applications.

  18. Methods and devices for hyperpolarising and melting NMR samples in a cryostat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Axelsson, Oskar H. E.; Golman, Klaes Koppel;


    The present invention relates to devices and method for melting solid polarised sample while retaining a high level of polarisation. In an embodiment of the present invention a sample is polarised in a sample-retaining cup 9 in a strong magnetic field in a polarising means 3a, 3b, 3c in a cryostat...

  19. Global mean estimation using a self-organizing dual-zoning method for preferential sampling. (United States)

    Pan, Yuchun; Ren, Xuhong; Gao, Bingbo; Liu, Yu; Gao, YunBing; Hao, Xingyao; Chen, Ziyue


    Giving an appropriate weight to each sampling point is essential to global mean estimation. The objective of this paper was to develop a global mean estimation method with preferential samples. The procedure for this estimation method was to first zone the study area based on self-organizing dual-zoning method and then to estimate the mean according to stratified sampling method. In this method, spreading of points in both feature and geographical space is considered. The method is tested in a case study on the metal Mn concentrations in Jilin provinces of China. Six sample patterns are selected to estimate the global mean and compared with the global mean calculated by direct arithmetic mean method, polygon method, and cell method. The results show that the proposed method produces more accurate and stable mean estimates under different feature deviation index (FDI) values and sample sizes. The relative errors of the global mean calculated by the proposed method are from 0.14 to 1.47 % and they are the largest (4.83-8.84 %) by direct arithmetic mean method. At the same time, the mean results calculated by the other three methods are sensitive to the FDI values and sample sizes.

  20. Systems and methods for separating particles and/or substances from a sample fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dougherty, George M.; Dzenitis, John M.; Miles, Robin R.; Clague, David S.


    Systems and methods for separating particles and/or toxins from a sample fluid. A method according to one embodiment comprises simultaneously passing a sample fluid and a buffer fluid through a chamber such that a fluidic interface is formed between the sample fluid and the buffer fluid as the fluids pass through the chamber, the sample fluid having particles of interest therein; applying a force to the fluids for urging the particles of interest to pass through the interface into the buffer fluid; and substantially separating the buffer fluid from the sample fluid.

  1. A standardized method for sampling and extraction methods for quantifying microplastics in beach sand. (United States)

    Besley, Aiken; Vijver, Martina G; Behrens, Paul; Bosker, Thijs


    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the environment, are frequently ingested by organisms, and may potentially cause harm. A range of studies have found significant levels of microplastics in beach sand. However, there is a considerable amount of methodological variability among these studies. Methodological variation currently limits comparisons as there is no standard procedure for sampling or extraction of microplastics. We identify key sampling and extraction procedures across the literature through a detailed review. We find that sampling depth, sampling location, number of repeat extractions, and settling times are the critical parameters of variation. Next, using a case-study we determine whether and to what extent these differences impact study outcomes. By investigating the common practices identified in the literature with the case-study, we provide a standard operating procedure for sampling and extracting microplastics from beach sand.

  2. Serum chromium levels sampled with steel needle versus plastic IV cannula. Does method matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Overgaard, Søren


    PURPOSE: Modern metal-on-metal (MoM) joint articulations releases metal ions to the body. Research tries to establish how much this elevates metal ion levels and whether it causes adverse effects. The steel needle that samples the blood may introduce additional chromium to the sample thereby...... causing bias. This study aimed to test that theory. METHODS: We compared serum chromium values for two sampling methods, steel needle and IV plastic cannula, as well as sampling sequence in 16 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: We found statistically significant chromium contamination from the steel needle...... with mean differences between the two methods of 0.073 ng/mL, for the first sample, and 0.033 ng/mL for the second. No difference was found between the first and second plastic sample. The first steel needle sample contained an average of 0.047 ng/mL more than the second. This difference was only borderline...

  3. The impact of particle size selective sampling methods on occupational assessment of airborne beryllium particulates. (United States)

    Sleeth, Darrah K


    In 2010, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) formally changed its Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for beryllium from a 'total' particulate sample to an inhalable particulate sample. This change may have important implications for workplace air sampling of beryllium. A history of particle size-selective sampling methods, with a special focus on beryllium, will be provided. The current state of the science on inhalable sampling will also be presented, including a look to the future at what new methods or technology may be on the horizon. This includes new sampling criteria focused on particle deposition in the lung, proposed changes to the existing inhalable convention, as well as how the issues facing beryllium sampling may help drive other changes in sampling technology.

  4. Total nitrogen determination of various sample types: a comparison of the Hach, Kjeltec, and Kjeldahl methods. (United States)

    Watkins, K L; Veum, T L; Krause, G F


    Conventional Kjeldahl analysis with modifications, Kjeltec analysis with block digestion and semiautomated distillation, and the Hach method for determining nitrogen (N) were compared using a wide range of samples. Twenty different sample types were ground and mixed. Each sample type was divided into 5 subsamples which were analyzed for N by each of the 3 methods. In each sample type, differences (P less than 0.05) were detected among the 3 N determination methods in 5 of the 20 N sources analyzed. The mean N content over all 20 samples was higher with Kjeldahl analysis (P less than 0.05) than with Kjeltec, while Hach analysis produced intermediate results. Results also indicated that the Hach procedure had the greatest ability to detect differences in N content among sample types, being more sensitive than either other method (P less than 0.05).

  5. Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research. (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Green, Carla A; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly


    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research.

  6. Optical method and system for the characterization of laterally-patterned samples in integrated circuits (United States)

    Maris, Humphrey J.


    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample having a structure disposed on or within the sample, comprising the steps of applying a first pulse of light to a surface of the sample for creating a propagating strain pulse in the sample, applying a second pulse of light to the surface so that the second pulse of light interacts with the propagating strain pulse in the sample, sensing from a reflection of the second pulse a change in optical response of the sample, and relating a time of occurrence of the change in optical response to at least one dimension of the structure.

  7. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Ehler, Deborah S. (Los Alamos, NM); John, Kevin D. (Santa Fe, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Collis, Gavin E. (Los Alamos, NM); Minogue, Edel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)


    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  8. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.


    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  9. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.


    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  10. Sampling Methods and the Accredited Population in Athletic Training Education Research (United States)

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer


    Context: We describe methods of sampling the widely-studied, yet poorly defined, population of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Objective: There are two purposes to this study; first to describe the incidence and types of sampling methods used in athletic training education research, and second to clearly define the…

  11. Evaluation of beef trim sampling methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (United States)

    Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major concern in ground beef. Several methods for sampling beef trim prior to grinding are currently used in the beef industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the sampling methods for detecting STEC in beef ...

  12. Medicare: a strategy for quality assurance. (United States)

    Lohr, K N


    This paper has outlined a strategy proposed by an IOM study committee for a quality review and assurance program for Medicare. The committee intended that such a program respond to several major issues, including: the burdens of harm of poor quality of care (poor performance of clinicians in both technical and interpersonal ways, unnecessary and inappropriate services, and lack of needed and appropriate services); difficulties and incentives presented by the organization and financing of healthcare; the state of scientific knowledge; the problems of adversarial, punitive, and burdensome external QA activities and the need to foster successful internal, organization-based QA programs; the adequacy of quality review and assurance methods and tools; and the human and financial resources for quality assurance. In comparison with the existing federal peer review organization program, the IOM's proposed program is intended to focus far more directly on quality assurance, cover all major settings of care, emphasize both a wide range of patient outcomes and the process of care, and have a greatly expanded program evaluation component and greater public oversight and accountability. In laying out the details of such a program, the IOM committee advanced 10 recommendations to support its proposed program. Two of these call for the Secretary of DHHS to support and expand research and educational activities designed to improve the nation's knowledge base and capacity for quality assurance. Finally, the committee emphasized both the extraordinary challenges of quality assurance and the diversity of support for addressing those challenges, noting that patients, providers, and societal agents all have a responsibility in this regard. Building the nation's capacity through additional research and expanded educational efforts is a major cornerstone of the entire enterprise.

  13. Hanford analytical services quality assurance requirements documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, J.E.


    Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Document (HASQARD) is issued by the Analytical Services, Program of the Waste Management Division, US Department of Energy (US DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The HASQARD establishes quality requirements in response to DOE Order 5700.6C (DOE 1991b). The HASQARD is designed to meet the needs of DOE-RL for maintaining a consistent level of quality for sampling and field and laboratory analytical services provided by contractor and commercial field and laboratory analytical operations. The HASQARD serves as the quality basis for all sampling and field/laboratory analytical services provided to DOE-RL through the Analytical Services Program of the Waste Management Division in support of Hanford Site environmental cleanup efforts. This includes work performed by contractor and commercial laboratories and covers radiological and nonradiological analyses. The HASQARD applies to field sampling, field analysis, and research and development activities that support work conducted under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Tri-Party Agreement and regulatory permit applications and applicable permit requirements described in subsections of this volume. The HASQARD applies to work done to support process chemistry analysis (e.g., ongoing site waste treatment and characterization operations) and research and development projects related to Hanford Site environmental cleanup activities. This ensures a uniform quality umbrella to analytical site activities predicated on the concepts contained in the HASQARD. Using HASQARD will ensure data of known quality and technical defensibility of the methods used to obtain that data. The HASQARD is made up of four volumes: Volume 1, Administrative Requirements; Volume 2, Sampling Technical Requirements; Volume 3, Field Analytical Technical Requirements; and Volume 4, Laboratory Technical Requirements. Volume 1 describes the administrative requirements

  14. Validation of a screening method for rapid control of macrocyclic lactone mycotoxins in maize flour samples. (United States)

    Zougagh, Mohammed; Téllez, Helena; Sánchez, Alberto; Chicharro, Manuel; Ríos, Angel


    A procedure for the analytical validation of a rapid supercritical fluid extraction amperometric screening method for controlling macrocyclic lactone mycotoxins in maize flour samples has been developed. The limit established by European legislation (0.2 mg kg(-1)), in reference to zearalenone (ZON) mycotoxin, was taken as the reference threshold to validate the proposed method. Natural ZON metabolites were also included in this study to characterize the final screening method. The objective was the reliable classification of samples as positive or negative samples. The cut-off level was fixed at a global concentration of mycotoxins of 0.17 mg kg(-1). An expanded unreliability zone between 0.16 and 0.23 mg kg(-1) characterized the screening method for classifying the samples. A set of 30 samples was used for the final demonstration of the reliability and usefulness of the method.

  15. The impact of different blood sampling methods on laboratory rats under different types of anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Martin Fitzner; Petersen, Mikke Haxø; Dragsted, Nils


    for rats sampled from the tail vein, which showed fluctuations in body temperature in excess of 30 h after sampling. Increases in heart rate and blood pressure within the first hours after sampling indicated that periorbital puncture was the method that had the largest acute impact on the rats......Rats with implanted telemetry transponders were blood sampled by jugular puncture, periorbital puncture or tail vein puncture, or sampled by jugular puncture in carbon dioxide (CO?), isoflurane or without anaesthesia in a crossover design. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were...... registered for three days after sampling. Initially blood pressure increased, but shortly after sampling it decreased, which led to increased heart rate. Sampling induced rapid fluctuations in body temperature, and an increase in body temperature. Generally, rats recovered from sampling within 2-3 h, except...

  16. Comparison of Six Culture Methods for Salmonella Isolation from Poultry Fecal Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morshed, R. (PhD


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Salmonellosis is one of the most important food-borne bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide, and poultry and its products are the major sources for salmonella transmission to human. Isolation of Salmonella enterica from poultry needs bacteriologic enrichment and selected cultures of fecal samples. In this study, different culture methods for the isolation of salmonella from fecal samples were compared. Material and Methods: Forty- five positive samples from infected farms and 45 negative samples from normal farms were processed using enrichment media including tetrathionate broth, selenite cistine and Rappaport-Vassiliadis. Then the samples were incubated in selective cultures, and after 24 h, their results were compared with standard method. Results: Specificity of all methods for salmonella isolation was 100%, and salmonella was not isolated from the negative samples. The highest susceptibility was related to the method in which the sample first in Selenite cistine and later in Rappaport-Vassiliadis was enriched (100%. Enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis could isolate 41 salmonella from 45 positive samples (91% while the result of enrichment in tetrathionate was 6 isolates (13.3%. Conclusion: This study shows that enrichment in selenite cistine and then in Rappaport-Vassiliadis is currently the best method for isolating salmonella from fecal samples of poultry. Key words: Salmonella; Bacteriologic Culture; Diagnosis; Isolation; Enrichment; Poultry

  17. The case of sustainability assurance: constructing a new assurance service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dwyer, B.


    This paper presents an in-depth longitudinal case study examining the processes through which practitioners in two Big 4 professional services firms have attempted to construct sustainability assurance (independent assurance on sustainability reports). Power’s (1996, 1997, 1999, 2003) theorization o

  18. Estimation of the sensitivity of various environmental sampling methods for detection of Salmonella in duck flocks. (United States)

    Arnold, Mark E; Mueller-Doblies, Doris; Gosling, Rebecca J; Martelli, Francesca; Davies, Robert H


    Reports of Salmonella in ducks in the UK currently rely upon voluntary submissions from the industry, and as there is no harmonized statutory monitoring and control programme, it is difficult to compare data from different years in order to evaluate any trends in Salmonella prevalence in relation to sampling methodology. Therefore, the aim of this project was to assess the sensitivity of a selection of environmental sampling methods, including the sampling of faeces, dust and water troughs or bowls for the detection of Salmonella in duck flocks, and a range of sampling methods were applied to 67 duck flocks. Bayesian methods in the absence of a gold standard were used to provide estimates of the sensitivity of each of the sampling methods relative to the within-flock prevalence. There was a large influence of the within-flock prevalence on the sensitivity of all sample types, with sensitivity reducing as the within-flock prevalence reduced. Boot swabs (individual and pool of four), swabs of faecally contaminated areas and whole house hand-held fabric swabs showed the overall highest sensitivity for low-prevalence flocks and are recommended for use to detect Salmonella in duck flocks. The sample type with the highest proportion positive was a pool of four hair nets used as boot swabs, but this was not the most sensitive sample for low-prevalence flocks. All the environmental sampling types (faeces swabs, litter pinches, drag swabs, water trough samples and dust) had higher sensitivity than individual faeces sampling. None of the methods consistently identified all the positive flocks, and at least 10 samples would be required for even the most sensitive method (pool of four boot swabs) to detect a 5% prevalence. The sampling of dust had a low sensitivity and is not recommended for ducks.

  19. Population survey sampling methods in a rural African setting: measuring mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byass Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based sample surveys and sentinel surveillance methods are commonly used as substitutes for more widespread health and demographic monitoring and intervention studies in resource-poor settings. Such methods have been criticised as only being worthwhile if the results can be extrapolated to the surrounding 100-fold population. With an emphasis on measuring mortality, this study explores the extent to which choice of sampling method affects the representativeness of 1% sample data in relation to various demographic and health parameters in a rural, developing-country setting. Methods Data from a large community based census and health survey conducted in rural Burkina Faso were used as a basis for modelling. Twenty 1% samples incorporating a range of health and demographic parameters were drawn at random from the overall dataset for each of seven different sampling procedures at two different levels of local administrative units. Each sample was compared with the overall 'gold standard' survey results, thus enabling comparisons between the different sampling procedures. Results All sampling methods and parameters tested performed reasonably well in representing the overall population. Nevertheless, a degree of variation could be observed both between sampling approaches and between different parameters, relating to their overall distribution in the total population. Conclusion Sample surveys are able to provide useful demographic and health profiles of local populations. However, various parameters being measured and their distribution within the sampling unit of interest may not all be best represented by a particular sampling method. It is likely therefore that compromises may have to be made in choosing a sampling strategy, with costs, logistics the intended use of the data being important considerations.

  20. [Sample preparation methods for chromatographic analysis of organic components in atmospheric particulate matter]. (United States)

    Hao, Liang; Wu, Dapeng; Guan, Yafeng


    The determination of organic composition in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is of great importance in understanding how PM affects human health, environment, climate, and ecosystem. Organic components are also the scientific basis for emission source tracking, PM regulation and risk management. Therefore, the molecular characterization of the organic fraction of PM has become one of the priority research issues in the field of environmental analysis. Due to the extreme complexity of PM samples, chromatographic methods have been the chief selection. The common procedure for the analysis of organic components in PM includes several steps: sample collection on the fiber filters, sample preparation (transform the sample into a form suitable for chromatographic analysis), analysis by chromatographic methods. Among these steps, the sample preparation methods will largely determine the throughput and the data quality. Solvent extraction methods followed by sample pretreatment (e. g. pre-separation, derivatization, pre-concentration) have long been used for PM sample analysis, and thermal desorption methods have also mainly focused on the non-polar organic component analysis in PM. In this paper, the sample preparation methods prior to chromatographic analysis of organic components in PM are reviewed comprehensively, and the corresponding merits and limitations of each method are also briefly discussed.

  1. Application of ATP-based bioluminescence for bioaerosol quantification: effect of sampling method. (United States)

    Han, Taewon; Wren, Melody; DuBois, Kelsey; Therkorn, Jennifer; Mainelis, Gediminas


    An adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based bioluminescence has potential to offer a quick and affordable method for quantifying bioaerosol samples. Here we report on our investigation into how different bioaerosol aerosolization parameters and sampling methods affect bioluminescence output per bacterium, and implications of that effect for bioaerosol research. Bacillus atrophaeus and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria were aerosolized by using a Collison nebulizer (BGI Inc., Waltham, MA) with a glass or polycarbonate jar and then collected for 15 and 60 min with: (1) Button Aerosol Sampler (SKC Inc., Eighty Four, PA) with polycarbonate, PTFE, and cellulose nitrate filters, (2) BioSampler (SKC Inc.) with 5 and 20 mL of collection liquid, and (3) our newly developed Electrostatic Precipitator with Superhydrophobic Surface (EPSS). For all aerosolization and sampling parameters we compared the ATP bioluminescence output per bacterium relative to that before aerosolization and sampling. In addition, we also determined the ATP reagent storage and preparation conditions that that do not affect the bioluminescence signal intensity. Our results show that aerosolization by a Collison nebulizer with a polycarbonate jar yields higher bioluminescence output per bacterium compared to the glass jar. Interestingly enough, the bioluminescence output by P. fluorescens increased substantially after its aerosolization compared to the fresh liquid suspension. For both test microorganisms, the bioluminescence intensity per bacterium after sampling was significantly lower than that before sampling suggesting negative effect of sampling stress on bioluminescence output. The decrease in bioluminescence intensity was more pronounces for longer sampling times and significantly and substantially depended on the sampling method. Among the investigated method, the EPSS was the least injurious for both microorganisms and sampling times. While the ATP-based bioluminescence offers a quick bioaerosol

  2. Measurement quality assurance for beta particle calibrations at NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, C.G.; Pruitt, J.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)


    Standardized beta-particle fields have been established in an international standard and have been adopted for use in several U.S. dosimeter and instrument testing standards. Calibration methods and measurement quality assurance procedures employed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for beta-particle calibrations in these reference fields are discussed. The calibration facility including the NIST-automated extrapolation ionization chamber is described, and some sample results of calibrations are shown. Methods for establishing and maintaining traceability to NIST of secondary laboratories are discussed. Currently, there are problems in finding a good method for routine testing of traceability to NIST. Some examples of past testing methods are given and solutions to this problem are proposed.

  3. A case-base sampling method for estimating recurrent event intensities. (United States)

    Saarela, Olli


    Case-base sampling provides an alternative to risk set sampling based methods to estimate hazard regression models, in particular when absolute hazards are also of interest in addition to hazard ratios. The case-base sampling approach results in a likelihood expression of the logistic regression form, but instead of categorized time, such an expression is obtained through sampling of a discrete set of person-time coordinates from all follow-up data. In this paper, in the context of a time-dependent exposure such as vaccination, and a potentially recurrent adverse event outcome, we show that the resulting partial likelihood for the outcome event intensity has the asymptotic properties of a likelihood. We contrast this approach to self-matched case-base sampling, which involves only within-individual comparisons. The efficiency of the case-base methods is compared to that of standard methods through simulations, suggesting that the information loss due to sampling is minimal.

  4. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup


    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and dimini......When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  5. Large loop conformation sampling using the activation relaxation technique, ART-nouveau method. (United States)

    St-Pierre, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand


    We present an adaptation of the ART-nouveau energy surface sampling method to the problem of loop structure prediction. This method, previously used to study protein folding pathways and peptide aggregation, is well suited to the problem of sampling the conformation space of large loops by targeting probable folding pathways instead of sampling exhaustively that space. The number of sampled conformations needed by ART nouveau to find the global energy minimum for a loop was found to scale linearly with the sequence length of the loop for loops between 8 and about 20 amino acids. Considering the linear scaling dependence of the computation cost on the loop sequence length for sampling new conformations, we estimate the total computational cost of sampling larger loops to scale quadratically compared to the exponential scaling of exhaustive search methods.

  6. A modified method for estimation of chemical oxygen demand for samples having high suspended solids. (United States)

    Yadvika; Yadav, Asheesh Kumar; Sreekrishnan, T R; Satya, Santosh; Kohli, Sangeeta


    Determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of samples having high suspended solids concentration such as cattle dung slurry with open reflux method of APHA-AWWA-WPCF did not give consistent results. This study presents a modification of the open reflux method (APHA-AWWA-WPCF) to make it suitable for samples with high percentage of suspended solids. The new method is based on a different technique of sample preparation, modified quantities of reagents and higher reflux time as compared to the existing open reflux method. For samples having solids contents of 14.0 g/l or higher, the modified method was found to give higher value of COD with much higher consistency and accuracy as compared to the existing open reflux method.

  7. A new enrichment method for isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from diverse sample types. (United States)

    Patel, Ketan D; Bhanshali, Forum C; Chaudhary, Avani V; Ingle, Sanjay S


    New or more efficient methodologies having different principles are needed, as one method could not be suitable for isolation of organisms from samples of diverse types and from various environments. In present investigation, growth kinetics study revealed a higher germination rate, a higher growth rate, and maximum sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) compared to other Bacillus species. Considering these facts, a simple and efficient enrichment method was devised which allowed propagation of spores and vegetative cells of Bt and thereby increased Bt cell population proportionately. The new enrichment method yielded Bt from 44 out of 58 samples. Contrarily, Bt was isolated only from 16 and 18 samples by sodium acetate selection and dry heat pretreatment methods, respectively. Moreover, the percentages of Bt colonies isolated by the enrichment method were higher comparatively. Vegetative whole cell protein profile analysis indicated isolation of diverse population of Bt from various samples. Bt strains isolated by the enrichment method represented novel serovars and possibly new cry2 gene.

  8. FESA Quality Assurance

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    FESA is a framework used by 100+ developers at CERN to design and implement the real-time software used to control the accelerators. Each new version must be tested and qualified to ensure that no backward compatibility issues have been introduced and that there is no major bug which might prevent accelerator operations. Our quality assurance approach is based on code review and a two-level testing process. The first level is made of unit-test (Python unittest & Google tests for C++). The second level consists of integration tests running on an isolated test environment. We also use a continuous integration service (Bamboo) to ensure the tests are executed periodically and the bugs caught early. In the presentation, we will explain the reasons why we took this approach, the results and some thoughts on the pros and cons.

  9. Construction quality assurance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscha, V.


    This report provides a summary of the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and test results, including: The results of the geosynthetic and soil materials conformance testing. The observation and testing results associates with the installation of the soil liners. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the HDPE geomembrane liner systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the leachate collection and removal systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the working surfaces. The observation and testing results associated with in-plant manufacturing process. Summary of submittal reviews by Golder Construction Services, Inc. The submittal and certification of the piping material specifications. The observation and verification associated of the Acceptance Test Procedure results of the operational equipment functions. Summary of the ECNs which are incorporated into the project.

  10. A comparison of microscopic and spectroscopic identification methods for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples. (United States)

    Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Lee, Jongmyoung; Shim, Won Joon


    The analysis of microplastics in various environmental samples requires the identification of microplastics from natural materials. The identification technique lacks a standardized protocol. Herein, stereomicroscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FT-IR) identification methods for microplastics (microplastics were significantly (p0.05) different. Depending on the number of samples and the microplastic size range of interest, the appropriate identification method should be determined; selecting a suitable identification method for microplastics is crucial for evaluating microplastic pollution.

  11. Comparison of individual and pooled sampling methods for detecting bacterial pathogens of fish (United States)

    Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Evered, J.; Brunson, Ray; Levine, J.; Winton, J.


    Examination of finfish populations for viral and bacterial pathogens is an important component of fish disease control programs worldwide. Two methods are commonly used for collecting tissue samples for bacteriological culture, the currently accepted standards for detection of bacterial fish pathogens. The method specified in the Office International des Epizooties Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals permits combining renal and splenic tissues from as many as 5 fish into pooled samples. The American Fisheries Society (AFS) Blue Book/US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Inspection Manual specifies the use of a bacteriological loop for collecting samples from the kidney of individual fish. An alternative would be to more fully utilize the pooled samples taken for virology. If implemented, this approach would provide substantial savings in labor and materials. To compare the relative performance of the AFS/USFWS method and this alternative approach, cultures of Yersinia ruckeri were used to establish low-level infections in groups of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that were sampled by both methods. Yersinia ruckeri was cultured from 22 of 37 groups by at least 1 method. The loop method yielded 18 positive groups, with 1 group positive in the loop samples but negative in the pooled samples. The pooled samples produced 21 positive groups, with 4 groups positive in the pooled samples but negative in the loop samples. There was statistically significant agreement (Spearman coefficient 0.80, P < 0.001) in the relative ability of the 2 sampling methods to permit detection of low-level bacterial infections of rainbow trout.

  12. A rapid and reliable method for the clonal isolation of Acanthamoeba from environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Zanella


    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba are abundant in a wide range of environments, and some species are responsible for cutaneous infections, keratitis, and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE. The conventional detection and isolation of amoeba from clinical and environmental samples involves sampling and culture on non-nutrient Ágar medium. Although efficient, this system requires several transfers in order to eliminate contaminants, and is not appropriate for the isolation of individual amoeba from samples with a biodiverse community. In this study we propose an alternative method for the isolation of monocystic clones of Acanthamoeba. The propose method involves sampling, enrichment, encystment induction, and direct cysts micromanipulation and culture on Ágar plates.

  13. Recent Trends in Quality Assurance (United States)

    Amaral, Alberto; Rosa, Maria Joao


    In this paper we present a brief description of the evolution of quality assurance in Europe, paying particular attention to its relationship to the rising loss of trust in higher education institutions. We finalise by analysing the role of the European Commission in the setting up of new quality assurance mechanisms that tend to promote…

  14. An effective method based on dynamic sampling for data assimilation in a global wave model (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Yin, Xunqiang; Yang, Yongzeng; Wu, Kejian


    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) performs well because that the covariance of background error is varying along time. It provides a dynamic estimate of background error and represents the reasonable statistic characters of background error. However, high computational cost due to model ensemble in EnKF is employed. In this study, two methods referred as static and dynamic sampling methods are proposed to obtain a good performance and reduce the computation cost. Ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF) method is used in a global surface wave model to examine the performance of EnKF. The 24-h interval difference of simulated significant wave height (SWH) within 1 year is used to compose the static samples for ensemble errors, and these errors are used to construct the ensemble states at each time the observations are available. And then, the same method of updating the model states in the EAKF is applied for the ensemble states constructed by a static sampling method. The dynamic sampling method employs a similar method to construct the ensemble states, but the period of the simulated SWH is changing with time. Here, 7 days before and after the observation time is used as this period. To examine the performance of three schemes, EAKF, static, or dynamic sampling method, observations from satellite Jason-2 in 2014 are assimilated into a global wave model, and observations from satellite Saral are used for validation. The results indicate that the EAKF performs best, while the static sampling method is relatively worse. The dynamic sampling method improves an assimilation effect dramatically compared to the static sampling method, and its overall performance is closed to the EAKF. In low latitudes, the dynamic sampling method has a slight advantage over the EAKF. In the dynamic or static sampling methods, only one wave model is required to run and their computational cost is reduced sharply. According to the performance of these three methods, the dynamic sampling

  15. [Sampling methods for PM2.5 from stationary sources: a review]. (United States)

    Jiang, Jing-Kun; Deng, Jian-Guo; Li, Zhen; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Hao, Ji-Ming


    The new China national ambient air quality standard has been published in 2012 and will be implemented in 2016. To meet the requirements in this new standard, monitoring and controlling PM2,,5 emission from stationary sources are very important. However, so far there is no national standard method on sampling PM2.5 from stationary sources. Different sampling methods for PM2.5 from stationary sources and relevant international standards were reviewed in this study. It includes the methods for PM2.5 sampling in flue gas and the methods for PM2.5 sampling after dilution. Both advantages and disadvantages of these sampling methods were discussed. For environmental management, the method for PM2.5 sampling in flue gas such as impactor and virtual impactor was suggested as a standard to determine filterable PM2.5. To evaluate environmental and health effects of PM2.5 from stationary sources, standard dilution method for sampling of total PM2.5 should be established.

  16. Probe Heating Method for the Analysis of Solid Samples Using a Portable Mass Spectrometer. (United States)

    Kumano, Shun; Sugiyama, Masuyuki; Yamada, Masuyoshi; Nishimura, Kazushige; Hasegawa, Hideki; Morokuma, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Yuichiro


    We previously reported on the development of a portable mass spectrometer for the onsite screening of illicit drugs, but our previous sampling system could only be used for liquid samples. In this study, we report on an attempt to develop a probe heating method that also permits solid samples to be analyzed using a portable mass spectrometer. An aluminum rod is used as the sampling probe. The powdered sample is affixed to the sampling probe or a droplet of sample solution is placed on the tip of the probe and dried. The probe is then placed on a heater to vaporize the sample. The vapor is then introduced into the portable mass spectrometer and analyzed. With the heater temperature set to 130°C, the developed system detected 1 ng of methamphetamine, 1 ng of amphetamine, 3 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 1 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, and 0.3 ng of cocaine. Even from mixtures consisting of clove powder and methamphetamine powder, methamphetamine ions were detected by tandem mass spectrometry. The developed probe heating method provides a simple method for the analysis of solid samples. A portable mass spectrometer incorporating this method would thus be useful for the onsite screening of illicit drugs.

  17. The accuracy of parameters determined with the core-sampling method application to Voronoi tessellations

    CERN Document Server

    Doroshkevich, A G; Madsen, S; Doroshkevich, Andrei G.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Madsen, Soeren


    The large-scale matter distribution represents a complex network of structure elements such as voids, clusters, filaments, and sheets. This network is spanned by a point distribution. The global properties of the point process can be measured by different statistical methods, which, however, do not describe directly the structure elements. The morphology of structure elements is an important property of the point distribution. Here we apply the core-sampling method to various Voronoi tessellations. Using the core-sampling method we identify one- and two-dimensional structure elements (filaments and sheets) in these Voronoi tessellations and reconstruct their mean separation along random straight lines. We compare the results of the core-sampling method with the a priori known structure elements of the Voronoi tessellations under consideration and find good agreement between the expected and found structure parameters, even in the presence of substantial noise. We conclude that the core-sampling method is a po...

  18. Analysis method on shoot precision of weapon in small-sample case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Jun; Song Baowei; Liang Qingwei


    Because of limits of cost, in general, the test data of weapons are shortness. It is always an important topic that to gain scientific results of weapon performance analyses in small-sample case. Based on the analysis of distribution function characteristics and grey mathematics, a weighting grey method in small-sample case is presented. According to the analysis of test data of a weapon, it is proved that the method is a good method to deal with data in the small-sample case and has a high value in the analysis of weapon performance.

  19. Determination of thorium and uranium contents in soil samples using SSNTD's passive method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T A Salama; U Seddik; T M Dsoky; A Ahmed Morsy; R El-Asser


    Thorium-to-uranium ratios have been determined in different soil samples using CR-39 and LR-115-II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). A calibration method based on determination of SSNTD registration sensitivity ratio for -particles of thorium and uranium series has been developed. Thorium and uranium contents of the standard soil samples have been determined and compared with its known values. There is a good agreement between the results of this method and the values of standard samples. The method is simple, inexpensive, non-destructive and has a wide range of applications in environment, building materials and petroleum fields.

  20. Application Of Relevance Maps Method To Evaluate The Suitability Of Coal Samples For Fluidal Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamroz Dariusz


    The methods being used to visualization of multidimensional data through transformation of multidimensional space into two-dimensional space allow to present multidimensional data on computer screen. Among such methods, relevance maps method can be found which was used in this paper to present and analyze set of seven-dimensional data describing coal samples originating from both mines. It was decided to check whether this method of visualization of multidimensional data allows to divide the samples space into subspaces of various usefulness to the process of fluidal gasification or not. The method enables the visualisation of the optimal subspace containing the set requirements concerning the properties of coals intended for this process.

  1. Current Practices in Constructing and Evaluating Assurance Cases With Applications to Aviation (United States)

    Rinehart, David J.; Knight, John C.; Rowanhill, Jonathan


    This report introduces and provides an overview of assurance cases including theory, practice, and evaluation. This report includes a section that introduces the principles, terminology, and history of assurance cases. The core of the report presents twelve example uses of assurance cases from a range of domains, using a novel classification scheme. The report also reviews the state of the art in assurance case evaluation methods.

  2. Evolving Principles of Office Quality Assurance


    Norman, Lee A.


    The application of medical quality assurance principles to ambulatory patient care using the traditional methods of medical chart audit, process review, and physician education has yielded generally disappointing results in improving patient care and physician performance. Newer methods assist physicians by providing patient and medical reference data at the time of a patient's visit. Techniques for tracking treatment outcomes and patients' test results and for providing instructions to patie...

  3. Quality Assurance Program for Molecular Medicine Laboratories


    Hajia, M; Safadel, N; Samiee, S Mirab; Dahim, P; Anjarani, S; N Nafisi; Sohrabi, A; M Rafiee; Sabzavi, F; B Entekhabi


    Background: Molecular diagnostic methods have played and continuing to have a critical role in clinical laboratories in recent years. Therefore, standardization is an evolutionary process that needs to be upgrade with increasing scientific knowledge, improvement of the instruments and techniques. The aim of this study was to design a quality assurance program in order to have similar conditions for all medical laboratories engaging with molecular tests. Methods: We had to design a plan for al...

  4. Apparatus and method for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry Gordon; Farthing, William Earl; Irvin, James Hodges; Snyder, Todd Robert


    A dilution apparatus for diluting a gas sample. The apparatus includes a sample gas conduit having a sample gas inlet end and a diluted sample gas outlet end, and a sample gas flow restricting orifice disposed proximate the sample gas inlet end connected with the sample gas conduit and providing fluid communication between the exterior and the interior of the sample gas conduit. A diluted sample gas conduit is provided within the sample gas conduit having a mixing end with a mixing space inlet opening disposed proximate the sample gas inlet end, thereby forming an annular space between the sample gas conduit and the diluted sample gas conduit. The mixing end of the diluted sample gas conduit is disposed at a distance from the sample gas flow restricting orifice. A dilution gas source connected with the sample gas inlet end of the sample gas conduit is provided for introducing a dilution gas into the annular space, and a filter is provided for filtering the sample gas. The apparatus is particularly suited for diluting heated sample gases containing one or more condensable components.

  5. Monte Carlo Methods Development and Applications in Conformational Sampling of Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Pengfei

    sampling methods to address these two problems. First of all, a novel technique has been developed for reliably estimating diffusion coefficients for use in the enhanced sampling of molecular simulations. A broad applicability of this method is illustrated by studying various simulation problems...... are not sufficient to provide an accurate structural and dynamical description of certain properties of proteins, (2), it is difficult to obtain correct statistical weights of the samples generated, due to lack of equilibrium sampling. In this dissertation I present several new methodologies based on Monte Carlo...... such as protein folding and aggregation. Second, by combining Monte Carlo sampling with a flexible probabilistic model of NMR chemical shifts, a series of simulation strategies are developed to accelerate the equilibrium sampling of free energy landscapes of proteins. Finally, a novel approach is presented...

  6. Methods, compounds and systems for detecting a microorganism in a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colston, Jr, Bill W.; Fitch, J. Patrick; Gardner, Shea N.; Williams, Peter L.; Wagner, Mark C.


    Methods to identify a set of probe polynucleotides suitable for detecting a set of targets and in particular methods for identification of primers suitable for detection of target microorganisms related polynucleotides, set of polynucleotides and compositions, and related methods and systems for detection and/or identification of microorganisms in a sample.

  7. Comparison of dust sampling methods in Estonia and Sweden--a field study. (United States)

    Berg, P; Jaakmees, V; Bodin, L


    The purpose of this field study was to compare an Estonian dust sampling method, a method also used in other former East Block countries, with a Swedish method and to estimate inter-method agreement with statistical analyses. The Estonian standard method (ESM), used to assess exposure in Estonia since the early 1950s, is based on a strategy where air samples are collected for 10 minutes every hour over a full shift. This method was compared to a Swedish standard method (SSM), a modified NIOSH method, comparable to international standards, where one air sample is collected during a full shift. The study was carried out at a cement plant that in the beginning of the 1990s was subjected to an epidemiological study, including collection of exposure data. The results of the analysis from 31 clusters of parallel samples of the two methods, when dust consisting of Portland cement was collected, showed a relatively weak correlation between the SSM and the ESM, ri = 0.81 (Pearson's intra-class correlation coefficient). A conversion factor between the two methods was estimated, where SSM is 0.69 times ESM and the limits of agreement are 0.25 and 1.84, respectively. These results indicate a substantial inter-method difference. We therefore recommend that measurements obtained from the two methods should not be used interchangeably. Because the present study is of limited extent, our findings are confined to the operations studied and further studies covering other exposure situations will be needed.

  8. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2 (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.


    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  9. How Laboratory Sampling Techniques and Extraction Methods Affect Reproducibility of PAH Results (United States)


    Original Extraction Soxhlet US Army Corps of Engineers 4th Serial Extraction by Sonication US Army Corps of Engineers 654321 250000 200000 150000 100000...n z o ( a ) p y r e n e Scatterplot of Benzo (a) pyrene vs Extraction US Army Corps of Engineers Skeet Serial Extraction in mg/Kg Analyte...Army Corps of Engineers Field Sample Serial Extraction Analyte Sample A Sample B Benzo (a) pyrene 0.12% 0.03% Extraction Efficiency Extraction Method

  10. Sample displacement chromatography as a method for purification of proteins and peptides from complex mixtures


    Gajdosik, Martina Srajer; Clifton, James; Josic, Djuro


    Sample displacement chromatography (SDC) in reversed-phase and ion-exchange modes was introduced approximately twenty years ago. This method takes advantage of relative binding affinities of components in a sample mixture. During loading, there is a competition among different sample components for the sorption on the surface of the stationary phase. SDC was first used for the preparative purification of proteins. Later, it was demonstrated that this kind of chromatography can also be perform...

  11. Sampling Methods for Detection and Monitoring of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). (United States)

    Monzo, C; Arevalo, H A; Jones, M M; Vanaclocha, P; Croxton, S D; Qureshi, J A; Stansly, P A


    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is a key pest of citrus due to its role as vector of citrus greening disease or "huanglongbing." ACP monitoring is considered an indispensable tool for management of vector and disease. In the present study, datasets collected between 2009 and 2013 from 245 citrus blocks were used to evaluate precision, sensitivity for detection, and efficiency of five sampling methods. The number of samples needed to reach a 0.25 standard error-mean ratio was estimated using Taylor's power law and used to compare precision among sampling methods. Comparison of detection sensitivity and time expenditure (cost) between stem-tap and other sampling methodologies conducted consecutively at the same location were also assessed. Stem-tap sampling was the most efficient sampling method when ACP densities were moderate to high and served as the basis for comparison with all other methods. Protocols that grouped trees near randomly selected locations across the block were more efficient than sampling trees at random across the block. Sweep net sampling was similar to stem-taps in number of captures per sampled unit, but less precise at any ACP density. Yellow sticky traps were 14 times more sensitive than stem-taps but much more time consuming and thus less efficient except at very low population densities. Visual sampling was efficient for detecting and monitoring ACP at low densities. Suction sampling was time consuming and taxing but the most sensitive of all methods for detection of sparse populations. This information can be used to optimize ACP monitoring efforts.

  12. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, T.P.


    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  13. Application of the van der Pauw method for samples with holes (United States)

    Oh, Donggeon; Ahn, Cheongeung; Kim, Minchul; Park, Eung-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Sang


    Modifications of the original van der Pauw relation were suggested recently. The methods are applicable to samples with a hole, unlike the original van der Pauw relation, but it takes too much time and effort to apply the methods to samples with high randomness. So in this paper we suggest two generalizations of the van der Pauw method which are applicable for two-dimensional homogeneous systems with a finite number of holes. Both methods rely on obtaining a crucial constant of the system, ν. The first method involves setting the probes far from each other while conducting the experiment using a sample with a small hole, approximating a relation that gives ν as a linear function of the area ratio of the hole only. The second method produces an identical sample of known resistivity and thickness to obtain ν, which is believed to be dependent on the geometrical properties only. Unlike the earlier methods, which entailed complex procedures, little in the way of measurements and computation is needed for the new methods. The methods will be very useful in electric experiments or industries which need to measure the resistivity of samples.

  14. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate in adults: accuracy of five single-sample plasma clearance methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehling, M; Rabøl, A


    After an intravenous injection of a tracer that is removed from the body solely by filtration in the kidneys, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be determined from its plasma clearance. The method requires a great number of blood samples but collection of urine is not needed. In the present......-acetate) was determined simultaneously. Using these clearance values as reference the accuracy of six simplified methods were studied: five single-sample methods and one five-sample method. The standard error of estimate (SEE) of the single-sample methods ranged from 4.2 to 7.5 ml min-1 using EDTA, and from 3.8 to 6.3 ml...... min-1 using DTPA. SEE of the five-samples method was 3.0 ml min-1 (EDTA) and 3.1 ml min-1 (DTPA). The single-sample methods given by Christensen & Groth (1986) and by Tauxe (1986) are recommended for daily use, as SEE was small even at low GFR values. In patients with GFR less than 80 ml min-1...

  15. Segmented compressed sampling for analog-to-information conversion: Method and performance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Taheri, Omid


    A new segmented compressed sampling method for analog-to-information conversion (AIC) is proposed. An analog signal measured by a number of parallel branches of mixers and integrators (BMIs), each characterized by a specific random sampling waveform, is first segmented in time into $M$ segments. Then the sub-samples collected on different segments and different BMIs are reused so that a larger number of samples than the number of BMIs is collected. This technique is shown to be equivalent to extending the measurement matrix, which consists of the BMI sampling waveforms, by adding new rows without actually increasing the number of BMIs. We prove that the extended measurement matrix satisfies the restricted isometry property with overwhelming probability if the original measurement matrix of BMI sampling waveforms satisfies it. We also show that the signal recovery performance can be improved significantly if our segmented AIC is used for sampling instead of the conventional AIC. Simulation results verify the e...

  16. Fast and Flexible Geometric Method For Enhancing MC Sampling of Compact Configurations For Protein Docking Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ozkan, Aysegul; Sitharam, Meera; Kurnikova, Maria


    EASAL (efficient atlasing and sampling of assembly landscapes) is a recently reported geometric method for representing, visualizing, sampling and computing integrals over the potential energy landscape tailored for small molecular assemblies. EASAL's efficiency arises from the fact that small assembly landscapes permit the use of so-called Cayley parameters (inter-atomic distances) for geometric representation and sampling of the assembly configuration space regions; this results in their isolation, convexification, customized sampling and systematic traversal using a comprehensive topological roadmap. By sampling the assembly landscape of 2 TransMembrane Helices, with short-range pair-potentials, this paper demonstrates that EASAL provides reasonable coverage of crucial but narrow regions of low effective dimension with much fewer samples and computational resources than traditional MonteCarlo or Molecular Dynamics based sampling. Promising avenues are discussed, for combining the complementary advantages o...

  17. A venue-based method for sampling hard-to-reach populations. (United States)

    Muhib, F B; Lin, L S; Stueve, A; Miller, R L; Ford, W L; Johnson, W D; Smith, P J


    Constructing scientifically sound samples of hard-to-reach populations, also known as hidden populations, is a challenge for many research projects. Traditional sample survey methods, such as random sampling from telephone or mailing lists, can yield low numbers of eligible respondents while non-probability sampling introduces unknown biases. The authors describe a venue-based application of time-space sampling (TSS) that addresses the challenges of accessing hard-to-reach populations. The method entails identifying days and times when the target population gathers at specific venues, constructing a sampling frame of venue, day-time units (VDTs), randomly selecting and visiting VDTs (the primary sampling units), and systematically intercepting and collecting information from consenting members of the target population. This allows researchers to construct a sample with known properties, make statistical inference to the larger population of venue visitors, and theorize about the introduction of biases that may limit generalization of results to the target population. The authors describe their use of TSS in the ongoing Community Intervention Trial for Youth (CITY) project to generate a systematic sample of young men who have sex with men. The project is an ongoing community level HIV prevention intervention trial funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The TSS method is reproducible and can be adapted to hard-to-reach populations in other situations, environments, and cultures.

  18. Optimised Spatial Sampling Scheme for Soil Electriclal Conductivity Based on Variance Quad-Tree(VQT)Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; SHI Zhou; WU Ci-fang; LI Feng; LI Hong-yi


    The acquisition of precise soil data representative of the entire survey area,is a critical issue for many treatments such as irrigation or fertilization in precision agriculture.The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial variability of soil bulk electrical conductivity(ECb)in a coastal saline field and design an optimized spatial sampling scheme of ECb based on a sampling design algorithm,the variance quad-tree(VQT)method.Soil ECb data were collected from the field at 20m interval in a regular grid scheme.The smooth contour map of the whole field was obtained by ordinary kriging interpolation,VQT algorithm was then used to split the smooth contour map into strata of different number desired,the sampling locations can be selected within each stratum in subsequent sampling.The result indicated that the probability of choosing representative sampling sites was increased significantly by using VQT method with the sampling number being greatly reduced compared to grid sampling design while retaining the same prediction accuracy.The advantage of the VQT method is that this scheme samples sparsely in fields where the spatial variability is relatively uniform and more intensive where the variability is large.Thus the sampling efficiency can be improved,hence facilitate an assessment methodology that can be applied in a rapid,practical and cost-effective manner.

  19. A method for disaggregating clay concretions and eliminating formalin smell in the processing of sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas


    A complete handling procedure for processing sediment samples is described. It includes some improvements of conventional methods. The fixed sediment sample is mixed with a solution of the alkaline detergent AJAX® (Colgate-Palmolive). It is kept at 80-900 C for 20-40 min. This treatment facilitates...

  20. Environmental Sampling Procedures and Methods to Respond to Biological Contamination (White Powder)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.


    This is a contribution to the annual report for the DHS Standards Office. It summarizes statistics-focused work associated with developing validated sampling procedures and methods. The main focus is on the experimental and sampling design constructed for contamination and decontamination field tests conducted during September 2007 in a remote, unused office building on the Idaho National Laboratory site.

  1. 77 FR 39895 - New Analytic Methods and Sampling Procedures for the United States National Residue Program for... (United States)


    ... Service 9 CFR Parts 417 New Analytic Methods and Sampling Procedures for the United States National... sampling and scheduling, the Agency is implementing several multi-residue methods for analyzing samples of... analytical ] methods to devise a final sampling plan. FSIS publishes the final sampling plan in the...

  2. Non-invasive sampling methods of inflammatory biomarkers in asthma and allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Johan Diderik


    In this thesis, a series of clinical studies have been described, in which we applied, evaluated or modified novel and existing non- or semi-invasive sampling methods and detection techniques for the assessment of biomarkers in allergic airway inflammation.

  3. Active Search on Carcasses versus Pitfall Traps: a Comparison of Sampling Methods. (United States)

    Zanetti, N I; Camina, R; Visciarelli, E C; Centeno, N D


    The study of insect succession in cadavers and the classification of arthropods have mostly been done by placing a carcass in a cage, protected from vertebrate scavengers, which is then visited periodically. An alternative is to use specific traps. Few studies on carrion ecology and forensic entomology involving the carcasses of large vertebrates have employed pitfall traps. The aims of this study were to compare both sampling methods (active search on a carcass and pitfall trapping) for each coleopteran family, and to establish whether there is a discrepancy (underestimation and/or overestimation) in the presence of each family by either method. A great discrepancy was found for almost all families with some of them being more abundant in samples obtained through active search on carcasses and others in samples from traps, whereas two families did not show any bias towards a given sampling method. The fact that families may be underestimated or overestimated by the type of sampling technique highlights the importance of combining both methods, active search on carcasses and pitfall traps, in order to obtain more complete information on decomposition, carrion habitat and cadaveric families or species. Furthermore, a hypothesis advanced on the reasons for the underestimation by either sampling method showing biases towards certain families. Information about the sampling techniques indicating which would be more appropriate to detect or find a particular family is provided.

  4. Short communication: appropriate and alternative methods to determine viable bacterial counts in cow milk samples. (United States)

    Loss, G; Apprich, S; Kneifel, W; von Mutius, E; Genuneit, J; Braun-Fahrländer, C


    Farm milk consumption is reported to be inversely related to the development of asthma and atopy in children and it has been hypothesized that microorganisms in milk might contribute to this protective effect. The GABRIEL study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a large population of European children, calling for a rapid alternative to classical culture techniques to determine bacteriological properties of milk samples. One objective was to evaluate 2 different rapid methods to determine bacteriological properties in a large number of cow milk samples collected under field conditions. BactoScan (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark), an automated standard flow cytometric method utilized for routine testing of milk quality, and TEMPO (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), an automated most-probable-number method, were used to assess the total viable bacterial count in farm and commercial milk samples. Both methods were compared with standard plate count method and each other. Measurements based on the TEMPO method were in good agreement with the standard plate count method and showed reliable results, whereas BactoScan results did not correlate with standard plate count measurements and yielded higher bacteria counts in heat-treated milk samples compared with raw milk samples. Most likely, these discrepant results were due to inferences with staining reactions and detection of bacteria in heat-treated milk samples. We conclude that, in contrast to the routinely used BactoScan method, the TEMPO method is an inexpensive and rapid alternative to standard culture methods suitable to assess total bacterial counts in processed and raw milk samples.

  5. NASA's Approach to Software Assurance (United States)

    Wetherholt, Martha


    NASA defines software assurance as: the planned and systematic set of activities that ensure conformance of software life cycle processes and products to requirements, standards, and procedures via quality, safety, reliability, and independent verification and validation. NASA's implementation of this approach to the quality, safety, reliability, security and verification and validation of software is brought together in one discipline, software assurance. Organizationally, NASA has software assurance at each NASA center, a Software Assurance Manager at NASA Headquarters, a Software Assurance Technical Fellow (currently the same person as the SA Manager), and an Independent Verification and Validation Organization with its own facility. An umbrella risk mitigation strategy for safety and mission success assurance of NASA's software, software assurance covers a wide area and is better structured to address the dynamic changes in how software is developed, used, and managed, as well as it's increasingly complex functionality. Being flexible, risk based, and prepared for challenges in software at NASA is essential, especially as much of our software is unique for each mission.

  6. Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices for determination of pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at the U.S. Geological Survey California District Organic Chemistry Laboratory, 1996-99 (United States)

    Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Baker, Lucian M.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.


    A method of analysis and quality-assurance practices were developed to study the fate and transport of pesticides in the San Francisco Bay-Estuary by the U.S. Geological Survey. Water samples were filtered to remove suspended-particulate matter and pumped through C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges to extract the pesticides. The cartridges were dried with carbon dioxide and the pesticides were eluted with three cartridge volumes of hexane:diethyl ether (1:1) solution. The eluants were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full-scan mode. Method detection limits for pesticides ranged from 0.002 to 0.025 microgram per liter for 1-liter samples. Recoveries ranged from 44 to 140 percent for 25 pesticides in samples of organic-free reagent water and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Suisun Bay water fortified at 0.05 and 0.50 microgram per liter. The estimated holding time for pesticides after extraction on C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges ranged from 10 to 257 days.

  7. Efficient free energy calculations by combining two complementary tempering sampling methods. (United States)

    Xie, Liangxu; Shen, Lin; Chen, Zhe-Ning; Yang, Mingjun


    Although energy barriers can be efficiently crossed in the reaction coordinate (RC) guided sampling, this type of method suffers from identification of the correct RCs or requirements of high dimensionality of the defined RCs for a given system. If only the approximate RCs with significant barriers are used in the simulations, hidden energy barriers with small to medium height would exist in other degrees of freedom (DOFs) relevant to the target process and consequently cause the problem of insufficient sampling. To address the sampling in this so-called hidden barrier situation, here we propose an effective approach to combine temperature accelerated molecular dynamics (TAMD), an efficient RC-guided sampling method, with the integrated tempering sampling (ITS), a generalized ensemble sampling method. In this combined ITS-TAMD method, the sampling along the major RCs with high energy barriers is guided by TAMD and the sampling of the rest of the DOFs with lower but not negligible barriers is enhanced by ITS. The performance of ITS-TAMD to three systems in the processes with hidden barriers has been examined. In comparison to the standalone TAMD or ITS approach, the present hybrid method shows three main improvements. (1) Sampling efficiency can be improved at least five times even if in the presence of hidden energy barriers. (2) The canonical distribution can be more accurately recovered, from which the thermodynamic properties along other collective variables can be computed correctly. (3) The robustness of the selection of major RCs suggests that the dimensionality of necessary RCs can be reduced. Our work shows more potential applications of the ITS-TAMD method as the efficient and powerful tool for the investigation of a broad range of interesting cases.

  8. Relative efficiency of anuran sampling methods in a restinga habitat (Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. D. Rocha

    Full Text Available Studies on anurans in restinga habitats are few and, as a result, there is little information on which methods are more efficient for sampling them in this environment. Ten methods are usually used for sampling anuran communities in tropical and sub-tropical areas. In this study we evaluate which methods are more appropriate for this purpose in the restinga environment of Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba. We analyzed six methods among those usually used for anuran samplings. For each method, we recorded the total amount of time spent (in min., the number of researchers involved, and the number of species captured. We calculated a capture efficiency index (time necessary for a researcher to capture an individual frog in order to make comparable the data obtained. Of the methods analyzed, the species inventory (9.7 min/searcher /ind.- MSI; richness = 6; abundance = 23 and the breeding site survey (9.5 MSI; richness = 4; abundance = 22 were the most efficient. The visual encounter inventory (45.0 MSI and patch sampling (65.0 MSI methods were of comparatively lower efficiency restinga, whereas the plot sampling and the pit-fall traps with drift-fence methods resulted in no frog capture. We conclude that there is a considerable difference in efficiency of methods used in the restinga environment and that the complete species inventory method is highly efficient for sampling frogs in the restinga studied and may be so in other restinga environments. Methods that are usually efficient in forested areas seem to be of little value in open restinga habitats.

  9. A Nonlinear Lagrange Algorithm for Stochastic Minimax Problems Based on Sample Average Approximation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxiang He


    Full Text Available An implementable nonlinear Lagrange algorithm for stochastic minimax problems is presented based on sample average approximation method in this paper, in which the second step minimizes a nonlinear Lagrange function with sample average approximation functions of original functions and the sample average approximation of the Lagrange multiplier is adopted. Under a set of mild assumptions, it is proven that the sequences of solution and multiplier obtained by the proposed algorithm converge to the Kuhn-Tucker pair of the original problem with probability one as the sample size increases. At last, the numerical experiments for five test examples are performed and the numerical results indicate that the algorithm is promising.

  10. A Method to Reconstruct Nth-Order Periodically Nonuniform Sampled Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yao


    It is well known that nonuniform sampling is usually needed in special signals processing.In this paper, a general method to reconstruct Nth-order periodically nonuniform sampled signals is presented which is also developed to digital domain, and the designs of the digital filters and the synthesis system are given. This paper extends the studies of Kohlenberg, whose work concentrate on the periodically nonuniform sampling of second order, as well as the studies of A.J. Coulson, J.L.Brown,whose work deal with the problems of two-band signals' Nth-order sampling and reconstruction.

  11. A new method for analyzing the characteristics of sampled chirped fiber grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙成城; 李春赟; 于小宇


    On the basis of the coherence theory a new method is presented to analyze the sampled chirped fiber gratings (SCFG). With this method, more results on the SCFG are obtained, including not only the characteristics of reflectivity, transmission and time delay, but also the simplified reflectivity formula, the channel's number, wavelength spacing and channel's bandwidth. Therefore, this method is more systematic and perfect than the usual transfer matrix method and can well guide the design of the SCFG.

  12. A Novel Method to Handle the Effect of Uneven Sampling Effort in Biodiversity Databases (United States)

    Pardo, Iker; Pata, María P.; Gómez, Daniel; García, María B.


    How reliable are results on spatial distribution of biodiversity based on databases? Many studies have evidenced the uncertainty related to this kind of analysis due to sampling effort bias and the need for its quantification. Despite that a number of methods are available for that, little is known about their statistical limitations and discrimination capability, which could seriously constrain their use. We assess for the first time the discrimination capacity of two widely used methods and a proposed new one (FIDEGAM), all based on species accumulation curves, under different scenarios of sampling exhaustiveness using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses. Additionally, we examine to what extent the output of each method represents the sampling completeness in a simulated scenario where the true species richness is known. Finally, we apply FIDEGAM to a real situation and explore the spatial patterns of plant diversity in a National Park. FIDEGAM showed an excellent discrimination capability to distinguish between well and poorly sampled areas regardless of sampling exhaustiveness, whereas the other methods failed. Accordingly, FIDEGAM values were strongly correlated with the true percentage of species detected in a simulated scenario, whereas sampling completeness estimated with other methods showed no relationship due to null discrimination capability. Quantifying sampling effort is necessary to account for the uncertainty in biodiversity analyses, however, not all proposed methods are equally reliable. Our comparative analysis demonstrated that FIDEGAM was the most accurate discriminator method in all scenarios of sampling exhaustiveness, and therefore, it can be efficiently applied to most databases in order to enhance the reliability of biodiversity analyses. PMID:23326357

  13. A passive guard for low thermal conductivity measurement of small samples by the hot plate method (United States)

    Jannot, Yves; Degiovanni, Alain; Grigorova-Moutiers, Veneta; Godefroy, Justine


    Hot plate methods under steady state conditions are based on a 1D model to estimate the thermal conductivity, using measurements of the temperatures T 0 and T 1 of the two sides of the sample and of the heat flux crossing it. To be consistent with the hypothesis of the 1D heat flux, either a hot plate guarded apparatus is used, or the temperature is measured at the centre of the sample. On one hand the latter method can be used only if the ratio thickness/width of the sample is sufficiently low and on the other hand the guarded hot plate method requires large width samples (typical cross section of 0.6  ×  0.6 m2). That is why both methods cannot be used for low width samples. The method presented in this paper is based on an optimal choice of the temperatures T 0 and T 1 compared to the ambient temperature T a, enabling the estimation of the thermal conductivity with a centered hot plate method, by applying the 1D heat flux model. It will be shown that these optimal values do not depend on the size or on the thermal conductivity of samples (in the range 0.015-0.2 W m-1 K-1), but only on T a. The experimental results obtained validate the method for several reference samples for values of the ratio thickness/width up to 0.3, thus enabling the measurement of the thermal conductivity of samples having a small cross-section, down to 0.045  ×  0.045 m2.

  14. A proteomics sample preparation method for mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Gang

    Full Text Available Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie. An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

  15. Detection of PRRSV in 218 field samples using six molecular methods: What we are looking for?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toplak, Ivan; Štukelj, Marina; Gracieux, Patrice


    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and the specificity of six molecular methods used for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Methods 218 field samples (serum, tissues) were collected between 2009 and 2011 from 50 PRRSV...... positive and 45 negative pig herds from Slovenia. Total viral RNA was extracted from original samples and stored in aliquots at -70 °C until analysis. RT-PCR and direct sequencing of positive samples was performed as described previously (Toplak et al., 2012). All field samples were analyzed with five...... commercial real-time RT-PCR kits (named as kit A to E) according to the instructions of producer. Results According to determined 258 nucleotides long sequences (ORF7) 102 PRRSV samples belong to Type I (identification of 12 different lineages of EU subtype 1 (a=1, b=8, c=1, d=1, e=61, f=8, g=2, h=4, i=3, j...

  16. Distributed sampling measurement method of network traffic in high-speed IPv6 networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Qiao; Pei Changxing


    With the advent of large-scale and high-speed IPv6 network technology, an effective multi-point traffic sampling is becoming a necessity. A distributed multi-point traffic sampling method that provides an accurate and efficient solution to measure IPv6 traffic is proposed. The proposed method is to sample IPv6 traffic based on the analysis of bit randomness of each byte in the packet header. It offers a way to consistently select the same subset of packets at each measurement point, which satisfies the requirement of the distributed multi-point measurement. Finally, using real IPv6 traffic traces, the conclusion that the sampled traffic data have a good uniformity that satisfies the requirement of sampling randomness and can correctly reflect the packet size distribution of full packet trace is proved.

  17. Comparison of sampling methods for the assessment of indoor microbial exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, M; Timm, Michael; Hansen, E W


    Abstract Indoor microbial exposure has been related to allergy and respiratory disorders. However, the lack of standardized sampling methodology is problematic when investigating dose-response relationships between exposure and health effects. In this study, different sampling methods were compared...... with those from GSP. Settled dust from the EDC was most representative of airborne dust and may thus be considered as a surrogate for the assessment of indoor airborne microbial exposure. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Significant discrepancies between sampling methods regarding indoor microbial exposures have been...... regarding their assessment of microbial exposures, including culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, as well as the total inflammatory potential (TIP) of dust samples from Danish homes. The Gesamtstaubprobenahme (GSP) filter sampler and BioSampler were used for sampling of airborne dust, whereas the dust...

  18. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods (United States)

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.


    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  19. [Sample preprocessing method for residual quinolones in honey using immunoaffinity resin]. (United States)

    Ihara, Yoshiharu; Kato, Mihoko; Kodaira, Tsukasa; Itoh, Shinji; Terakawa, Mika; Horie, Masakazu; Saito, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki


    A sample preparation method was developed for determination of quinolones in honey using immunoaffinity resin. For this purpose, an immunoaffinity resin for quinolones was prepared by coupling a quinolone-specific monoclonal antibody to agarose resin. Honey samples diluted with phosphate buffer were reacted with immunoaffinity resin. After the resin was washed, quinolones were eluted with glycine-HCl. Quinolones in the eluate were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. No interfering peak was found on the chromatograms of honey samples. The recoveries of quinolones from samples were over 70% at fortification levels of 20 ng/g (for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin) and 10 ng/g (for danofloxacin). The quantification limits of quinolones were 2 ng/g. This sample preprocessing method using immunoaffinity resin was found to be effective and suitable for determining residual quinolones in honey.

  20. New method to estimate the sample size for calculation of a proportion assuming binomial distribution. (United States)

    Vallejo, Adriana; Muniesa, Ana; Ferreira, Chelo; de Blas, Ignacio


    Nowadays the formula to calculate the sample size for estimate a proportion (as prevalence) is based on the Normal distribution, however it would be based on a Binomial distribution which confidence interval was possible to be calculated using the Wilson Score method. By comparing the two formulae (Normal and Binomial distributions), the variation of the amplitude of the confidence intervals is relevant in the tails and the center of the curves. In order to calculate the needed sample size we have simulated an iterative sampling procedure, which shows an underestimation of the sample size for values of prevalence closed to 0 or 1, and also an overestimation for values closed to 0.5. Attending to these results we proposed an algorithm based on Wilson Score method that provides similar values for the sample size than empirically obtained by simulation.

  1. Estimation and Comparison of Immunization Coverage under Different Sampling Methods for Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Nath


    Full Text Available Immunization currently averts an estimated 2-3 million deaths every year in all age groups. Hepatitis B is a major public health problem worldwide. In this study, the estimates of hepatitis B vaccine coverage are compared among three sampling plans namely, 30×30 sampling and 30×7 sampling method under cluster sampling and systematic random sampling schemes. The data has been taken from the survey “Comparison of Two Survey Methodologies to Estimate Total Vaccination Coverage” sponsored by Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. It is observed that the estimations of proportions of this vaccination coverage are significantly not different at 5% level of probability. Both 30×30 sampling and 30×7 sampling will be preferred to systematic sampling in estimation of hepatitis B vaccine coverage for this study population because of quick estimation and lesser cost. The 30×7 cluster sampling is the most recommended method for such immunization coverage especially in a developing country.

  2. Satisfaction survey with DNA cards method to collect genetic samples for pharmacogenetics studies (United States)

    Vidal-Taboada, Jose M; Cucala, Mercedes; Mas Herrero, Sergio; Lafuente, Amalia; Cobos, Albert


    Background Pharmacogenetic studies are essential in understanding the interindividual variability of drug responses. DNA sample collection for genotyping is a critical step in genetic studies. A method using dried blood samples from finger-puncture, collected on DNA-cards, has been described as an alternative to the usual venepuncture technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the DNA cards method in a multicentre clinical trial, and to assess the degree of investigators' satisfaction and the acceptance of the patients perceived by the investigators. Methods Blood samples were collected on DNA-cards. The quality and quantity of DNA recovered were analyzed. Investigators were questioned regarding their general interest, previous experience, safety issues, preferences and perceived patient satisfaction. Results 151 patients' blood samples were collected. Genotyping of GST polymorphisms was achieved in all samples (100%). 28 investigators completed the survey. Investigators perceived patient satisfaction as very good (60.7%) or good (39.3%), without reluctance to finger puncture. Investigators preferred this method, which was considered safer and better than the usual methods. All investigators would recommend using it in future genetic studies. Conclusion Within the clinical trial setting, the DNA-cards method was very well accepted by investigators and patients (in perception of investigators), and was preferred to conventional methods due to its ease of use and safety. PMID:16681846

  3. Satisfaction survey with DNA cards method to collect genetic samples for pharmacogenetics studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Herrero Sergio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacogenetic studies are essential in understanding the interindividual variability of drug responses. DNA sample collection for genotyping is a critical step in genetic studies. A method using dried blood samples from finger-puncture, collected on DNA-cards, has been described as an alternative to the usual venepuncture technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the DNA cards method in a multicentre clinical trial, and to assess the degree of investigators' satisfaction and the acceptance of the patients perceived by the investigators. Methods Blood samples were collected on DNA-cards. The quality and quantity of DNA recovered were analyzed. Investigators were questioned regarding their general interest, previous experience, safety issues, preferences and perceived patient satisfaction. Results 151 patients' blood samples were collected. Genotyping of GST polymorphisms was achieved in all samples (100%. 28 investigators completed the survey. Investigators perceived patient satisfaction as very good (60.7% or good (39.3%, without reluctance to finger puncture. Investigators preferred this method, which was considered safer and better than the usual methods. All investigators would recommend using it in future genetic studies. Conclusion Within the clinical trial setting, the DNA-cards method was very well accepted by investigators and patients (in perception of investigators, and was preferred to conventional methods due to its ease of use and safety.

  4. Evaluation of sampling methods for Bacillus spore-contaminated HVAC filters. (United States)

    Calfee, M Worth; Rose, Laura J; Tufts, Jenia; Morse, Stephen; Clayton, Matt; Touati, Abderrahmane; Griffin-Gatchalian, Nicole; Slone, Christina; McSweeney, Neal


    The objective of this study was to compare an extraction-based sampling method to two vacuum-based sampling methods (vacuum sock and 37mm cassette filter) with regards to their ability to recover Bacillus atrophaeus spores (surrogate for Bacillus anthracis) from pleated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters that are typically found in commercial and residential buildings. Electrostatic and mechanical HVAC filters were tested, both without and after loading with dust to 50% of their total holding capacity. The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA across material types, presence or absence of dust, and sampling device. The extraction method gave higher relative recoveries than the two vacuum methods evaluated (p≤0.001). On average, recoveries obtained by the vacuum methods were about 30% of those achieved by the extraction method. Relative recoveries between the two vacuum methods were not significantly different (p>0.05). Although extraction methods yielded higher recoveries than vacuum methods, either HVAC filter sampling approach may provide a rapid and inexpensive mechanism for understanding the extent of contamination following a wide-area biological release incident.

  5. Comparative analysis of RNA sequencing methods for degraded or low-input samples. (United States)

    Adiconis, Xian; Borges-Rivera, Diego; Satija, Rahul; DeLuca, David S; Busby, Michele A; Berlin, Aaron M; Sivachenko, Andrey; Thompson, Dawn Anne; Wysoker, Alec; Fennell, Timothy; Gnirke, Andreas; Pochet, Nathalie; Regev, Aviv; Levin, Joshua Z


    RNA-seq is an effective method for studying the transcriptome, but it can be difficult to apply to scarce or degraded RNA from fixed clinical samples, rare cell populations or cadavers. Recent studies have proposed several methods for RNA-seq of low-quality and/or low-quantity samples, but the relative merits of these methods have not been systematically analyzed. Here we compare five such methods using metrics relevant to transcriptome annotation, transcript discovery and gene expression. Using a single human RNA sample, we constructed and sequenced ten libraries with these methods and compared them against two control libraries. We found that the RNase H method performed best for chemically fragmented, low-quality RNA, and we confirmed this through analysis of actual degraded samples. RNase H can even effectively replace oligo(dT)-based methods for standard RNA-seq. SMART and NuGEN had distinct strengths for measuring low-quantity RNA. Our analysis allows biologists to select the most suitable methods and provides a benchmark for future method development.

  6. A New Method of Measuring 81Kr and 85Kr Abundances in Environmental Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Du, X; Bailey, K; Lehmann, B E; Lorenzo, R; Lu, Z T; Müller, P; O'Connor, T P; Sturchio, N C; Young, L


    We demonstrate a new method for determining the 81Kr/Kr ratio in environmental samples based upon two measurements: the 85Kr/81Kr ratio measured by Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) and the 85Kr/Kr ratio measured by Low-Level Counting (LLC). This method can be used to determine the mean residence time of groundwater in the range of 10^5 - 10^6 a. It requires a sample of 100 micro-l STP of Kr extracted from approximately two tons of water. With modern atmospheric Kr samples, we demonstrate that the ratios measured by ATTA and LLC are directly proportional to each other within the measurement error of +/- 10%; we calibrate the 81Kr/Kr ratio of modern air measured using this method; and we show that the 81Kr/Kr ratios of samples extracted from air before and after the development of the nuclear industry are identical within the measurement error.

  7. Recent advances in sample preparation techniques and methods of sulfonamides detection - A review. (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Stanislava G; Kochuk, Elena V; Apyari, Vladimir V; Tolmacheva, Veronika V; Zolotov, Yury A


    Sulfonamides (SAs) have been the most widely used antimicrobial drugs for more than 70 years, and their residues in foodstuffs and environmental samples pose serious health hazards. For this reason, sensitive and specific methods for the quantification of these compounds in numerous matrices have been developed. This review intends to provide an updated overview of the recent trends over the past five years in sample preparation techniques and methods for detecting SAs. Examples of the sample preparation techniques, including liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and QuEChERS, are given. Different methods of detecting the SAs present in food and feed and in environmental, pharmaceutical and biological samples are discussed.

  8. [Influence of interpolation method and sampling number on spatial prediction accuracy of soil Olsen-P]. (United States)

    Sun, Yi-xiang; Wu, Chuan-zhou; Zhu, Ke-bao; Cui, Zhen-ling; Chen, Xin-ping; Zhang, Fu-suo


    Different from the large scale farm management in Europe and America, the scattered farmland management in China made the spatial variability of soil nutrients at county scale in this country more challenging. Taking soil Olsen-P in Wuhu County as an example, the influence of interpolation method and sampling number on the spatial prediction accuracy of soil nutrients was evaluated systematically. The results showed that local polynomial method, ordinary kriging, simple kriging, and disjunctive kriging had higher spatial prediction accuracy than the other interpolation methods. Considering of its simplicity, ordinary kriging was recommended to evaluate the spatial variability of soil Olsen-P within a county. The spatial prediction accuracy would increase with increasing soil sampling number. Taking the spatial prediction accuracy and soil sampling cost into consideration, the optimal sampling number should be from 500 to 1000 to evaluate the spatial variability of soil Olsen-P at county scale.

  9. Simultaneous extraction of PCDDs/PCDFs, PCBs and PBDEs. Extension of a sample preparation method for determination of PCDDs/PCDFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, C.; Nicolaysen, T.; Broadwell, S.L.; Haug, L.S.; Becher, G. [Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway)


    Due to emission controls and regulatory measures, the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been steadily decreasing in the environment and in human samples the last decades. Nevertheless, the exposure of general populations is still considered to be high and many individuals may have a dietary intake above the established tolerable daily intake. During the recent years, several brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and especially the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been shown to be potential persistent organic pollutants (POPs)5. In contrast to PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs, levels of BFRs seem to be increasing in several environmental compartments. Thus it is of great importance to obtain information on levels of both PCDDs/PCDFs, PCBs and BFRs. Traditionally, PCDDs/PCDFs have been extracted together with the non-ortho PCBs, while extracts of other POPs and PCBs have been prepared separately. Recently, efficient automated methods preparing PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs extracts at the same time, have been described. A simultaneous sample preparation is advantageous in cases where limited amounts of sample is available, e.g. when analysing human milk or blood, and assures comparable results since the different POPs are determined in exactly the same sample aliquot. Also, due to the low concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs usually present, a relatively large amount of sample is applied for the extraction, which leads to the possibility of detecting other POPs that are normally not found. We present here a simple and inexpensive extension of our sample preparation method used for determination of PCDDs/PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs that leads to inclusion of both ortho PCBs and PBDEs.

  10. New method for estimating bacterial cell abundances in natural samples by use of sublimation (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Cleaves, H. James; Schubert, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeffrey L.


    We have developed a new method based on the sublimation of adenine from Escherichia coli to estimate bacterial cell counts in natural samples. To demonstrate this technique, several types of natural samples, including beach sand, seawater, deep-sea sediment, and two soil samples from the Atacama Desert, were heated to a temperature of 500 degrees C for several seconds under reduced pressure. The sublimate was collected on a cold finger, and the amount of adenine released from the samples was then determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection. Based on the total amount of adenine recovered from DNA and RNA in these samples, we estimated bacterial cell counts ranging from approximately 10(5) to 10(9) E. coli cell equivalents per gram. For most of these samples, the sublimation-based cell counts were in agreement with total bacterial counts obtained by traditional DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining.

  11. Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.


    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

  12. A culture independent method for the detection of Aeromonas sp. from water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadua Latif-Eugenín


    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas is present in a wide variety of water environments and is recognised as potentially pathogenic to humans and animals. Members of this genus are often confused with Vibrio when using automated, commercial identification systems that are culture-dependent. This study describes a polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection method for Aeromonas that is culture- independent and that targets the glycerophospholopid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat gene, which is specific for this genus. The GCAT-PCR was 100% specific in artificially inoculated water samples, with a detection limit that ranged from 2.5 to 25 cfu/mL. The success at detecting this pathogen in 86 water samples using the GCAT-PCR method was identical to the conventional culturing method when a pre-enrichment step was carried out, yielding 83.7% positive samples. On the other hand, without a pre-enrichment step, only 77.9% of the samples were positive by culturing and only 15.1% with the GCATPCR. However, 83.7% positive samples were obtained for the GCAT-PCR when the water volume for the DNA extraction was increased from 400 μL to 4 mL. The proposed molecular method is much faster (5 or 29 h than the culturing method (24 or 48 h whether performed directly or after a pre-enrichment step and it will enable the fast detection of Aeromonas in water samples helping to prevent a possible transmission to humans.

  13. Phylogenetic representativeness: a new method for evaluating taxon sampling in evolutionary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passamonti Marco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxon sampling is a major concern in phylogenetic studies. Incomplete, biased, or improper taxon sampling can lead to misleading results in reconstructing evolutionary relationships. Several theoretical methods are available to optimize taxon choice in phylogenetic analyses. However, most involve some knowledge about the genetic relationships of the group of interest (i.e., the ingroup, or even a well-established phylogeny itself; these data are not always available in general phylogenetic applications. Results We propose a new method to assess taxon sampling developing Clarke and Warwick statistics. This method aims to measure the "phylogenetic representativeness" of a given sample or set of samples and it is based entirely on the pre-existing available taxonomy of the ingroup, which is commonly known to investigators. Moreover, our method also accounts for instability and discordance in taxonomies. A Python-based script suite, called PhyRe, has been developed to implement all analyses we describe in this paper. Conclusions We show that this method is sensitive and allows direct discrimination between representative and unrepresentative samples. It is also informative about the addition of taxa to improve taxonomic coverage of the ingroup. Provided that the investigators' expertise is mandatory in this field, phylogenetic representativeness makes up an objective touchstone in planning phylogenetic studies.

  14. Shear Strength of Remoulding Clay Samples Using Different Methods of Moulding (United States)

    Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Nurul, N. J.


    Shear strength for clay soil was required to determine the soil stability. Clay was known as a soil with complex natural formations and very difficult to obtain undisturbed samples at the site. The aim of this paper was to determine the unconfined shear strength of remoulded clay on different methods in moulding samples which were proctor compaction, hand operated soil compacter and miniature mould methods. All the samples were remoulded with the same optimum moisture content (OMC) and density that were 18% and 1880 kg/m3 respectively. The unconfined shear strength results of remoulding clay soils for proctor compaction method was 289.56kPa with the strain 4.8%, hand operated method was 261.66kPa with the strain 4.4% and miniature mould method was 247.52kPa with the strain 3.9%. Based on the proctor compaction method, the reduction percentage of unconfined shear strength of remoulded clay soil of hand operated method was 9.66%, and for miniature mould method was 14.52%. Thus, because there was no significant difference of reduction percentage of unconfined shear strength between three different methods, so it can be concluded that remoulding clay by hand operated method and miniature mould method were accepted and suggested to perform remoulding clay samples by other future researcher. However for comparison, the hand operated method was more suitable to form remoulded clay sample in term of easiness, saving time and less energy for unconfined shear strength determination purposes.

  15. Improved Algorithms and Coupled Neutron-Photon Transport for Auto-Importance Sampling Method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xin; Qiu, Rui; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Man-Chun; Zhang, Hui; Li, Jun-Li


    Auto-Importance Sampling (AIS) method is a Monte Carlo variance reduction technique proposed by Tsinghua University for deep penetration problem, which can improve computational efficiency significantly without pre-calculations for importance distribution. However AIS method is only validated with several basic deep penetration problems of simple geometries and cannot be used for coupled neutron-photon transport. This paper firstly presented the latest algorithm improvements for AIS method including particle transport, fictitious particles creation and adjustment, fictitious surface geometry, random number allocation and calculation of estimated relative error, which made AIS method applicable to complicated deep penetration problem. Then, a coupled Neutron-Photon Auto-Importance Sampling (NP-AIS) method was proposed to apply AIS method with the improved algorithms in coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport. Finally, the NUREG/CR-6115 PWR benchmark model was calculated with the method of geometry splitti...

  16. Simplified sampling methods for estimating levels of lactobacilli in saliva in dental clinical practice. (United States)

    Gabre, P; Martinsson, T; Gahnberg, L


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether estimation of lactobacilli was possible with simplified saliva sampling methods. Dentocult LB (Orion Diagnostica AB, Trosa, Sweden) was used to estimate the number of lactobacilli in saliva sampled by 3 different methods from 96 individuals: (i) Collecting and pouring stimulated saliva over a Dentocult dip-slide; (ii) direct licking of the Dentocult LB dip-slide; (iii) contaminating a wooden spatula with saliva and pressing against the Dentocult dip-slide. The first method was in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and selected as the 'gold standard'; the other 2 methods were compared with this result. The 2 simplified methods for estimating levels of lactobacilli in saliva showed good reliability and specificity. Sensitivity, defined as the ability to detect individuals with a high number of lactabacilli in saliva, was sufficient for the licking method (85%), but significantly reduced for the wooden spatula method (52%).

  17. Effects of Sample Size, Estimation Methods, and Model Specification on Structural Equation Modeling Fit Indexes. (United States)

    Fan, Xitao; Wang, Lin; Thompson, Bruce


    A Monte Carlo simulation study investigated the effects on 10 structural equation modeling fit indexes of sample size, estimation method, and model specification. Some fit indexes did not appear to be comparable, and it was apparent that estimation method strongly influenced almost all fit indexes examined, especially for misspecified models. (SLD)

  18. Comparison of sampling methods for determining relative densities of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on Citrus (United States)

    : Four sampling methods that included A-Vac, D-Vac, pole-bucket, and beat-net devices were evaluated for estimating relative densities of glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)) nymphs and adults on citrus trees. All four methods produced similar temporal and spatial distribut...

  19. Comprehensive comparative analysis of RNA sequencing methods for degraded or low input samples (United States)

    Adiconis, Xian; Borges-Rivera, Diego; Satija, Rahul; DeLuca, David S.; Busby, Michele A.; Berlin, Aaron M.; Sivachenko, Andrey; Thompson, Dawn Anne; Wysoker, Alec; Fennell, Timothy; Gnirke, Andreas; Pochet, Nathalie; Regev, Aviv; Levin, Joshua Z.


    RNA-Seq is an effective method to study the transcriptome, but can be difficult to apply to scarce or degraded RNA from fixed clinical samples, rare cell populations, or cadavers. Recent studies have proposed several methods for RNA-Seq of low quality and/or low quantity samples, but their relative merits have not been systematically analyzed. Here, we compare five such methods using metrics relevant to transcriptome annotation, transcript discovery, and gene expression. Using a single human RNA sample, we constructed and sequenced ten libraries with these methods and two control libraries. We find that the RNase H method performed best for low quality RNA, and confirmed this with actual degraded samples. RNase H can even effectively replace oligo (dT) based methods for standard RNA-Seq. SMART and NuGEN had distinct strengths for low quantity RNA. Our analysis allows biologists to select the most suitable methods and provides a benchmark for future method development. PMID:23685885

  20. Determination of Adenosine Triphosphate on Marine Particulates:Synthesis of Methods for Use on OTEC Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Anthony T.; Hartwig, Eric O.


    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an indicator of living biomass in marine particulates. This report details the method used by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to analyze particulate ATP in samples taken from oligotrophic, tropical ocean waters. It represents a synthesis of previously published methods.

  1. Determination of adenosine triphosphate on marine particulates: synthesis of methods for use on OTEC samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.T.; Hartwig, E.O.


    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an indicator of living biomass in marine particulates. This report details the method used by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to analyze particulate ATP in samples taken from oligotrophic, tropical ocean waters. It represents a synthesis of previously published methods.

  2. Methods for point-of-care detection of nucleic acid in a sample (United States)

    Bearinger, Jane P.; Dugan, Lawrence C.


    Provided herein are methods and apparatus for detecting a target nucleic acid in a sample and related methods and apparatus for diagnosing a condition in an individual. The condition is associated with presence of nucleic acid produced by certain pathogens in the individual.

  3. A sampling method for the reconstruction of a periodic interface in a layered medium (United States)

    Sun, Guanying; Zhang, Ruming


    In this paper, we consider the inverse problem of reconstructing periodic interfaces in a two-layered medium with TM-mode. We propose a sampling-type method to recover the top periodic interface from the near-field data measured on a straight line above the total structure. Finally, numerical experiments are illustrated to show the effectiveness of the method.

  4. Sampling a guide for internal auditors

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolou, Barbara


    While it is possible to examine 100 percent of an audit customer's data, the time and cost associated with such a study are often prohibitive. To obtain sufficient, reliable, and relevant information with a limited data set, sampling is an efficient and effective tool. It can help you evaluate the customer's assertions, as well as reach audit conclusions and provide reasonable assurance to your organization. This handbook will help you understand sampling. It also serves as a guide for auditors and students preparing for certification. Topics include: An overview of sampling. Statistical and nonstatistical sampling issues. Sampling selection methods and risks. The pros and cons of popular sampling plans.

  5. [Quality assurance in acupuncture therapy]. (United States)

    Kubiena, G


    Quality assurance for acupuncture therapy requires a good basic and on-going training in both conventional western medicine as well as in the theory and practice of acupuncture, the ability to synthesize the patient's objective findings and subjective feelings, and honesty with the patient and towards oneself. Thus, based on the continuous critical evaluation of the objective and subjective parameters, the question of acupunture as the optimal form of therapy for this specific case is honestly answered and one has the courage to admit failures. With regard to the theory, surveys of the acupuncture literature show that a considerable improvement in quality and honesty is necessary. There is a lack of standardised experimental methods (e.g. 28 different placebos in 28 different studies!). Especially German acupuncture journals have a disturbed relation to failures. To hide or deny failures is of no benefit neither to acupuncture, science to the relationship between the physician and the patient since the practitioner must be able to rely on the information in the literature. Furthermore, one should be open minded to alternative methods even if this means to refer a patient to a colleague.

  6. Analysis of aroma compounds of Roselle by Dynamic Headspace Sampling using different preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; Varming, Camilla; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin


    The influence of different methods of sample preparation on the aroma profiles of dried Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was studied. Least amounts of aroma compounds were recovered by analysis of whole dry calyxes (WD) followed by ground dry (GD), blended together with water (BTW), and ground...... and then mixed with water (GMW). The highest number of aroma compounds was found in Roselle treated in water bath (2hr/40°C) (GMWKB). GMW was chosen as the preparation method because it was shown to be an efficient extraction method without the possibility of excessive chemical changes of the sample....

  7. [The activity of Codex Alimentarius Commission FAO/WHO Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling]. (United States)

    Jedrzejczak, Renata; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Traczyk, Iwona


    In the light of issues discussed during 24th Session of Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling that was held in Budapest, 18-22 November 2002, the current activity of this Committee is presented. More detailed information about some of the most advanced or interesting documents is included, i. e. Proposed Draft General Guidelines On Sampling, Harmonized IUPAC Guidelines for Single-Laboratory Validation of Methods of Analysis, Consideration of methods for the detection and identification of food derived from biotechnology.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.


    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using this two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Vrkljan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal dissolution method for silicate rock samples for further analytical purposes. Analytical FAAS method of determining cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc content in gabbro sample and geochemical standard AGV-1 has been applied for verification. Dissolution in mixtures of various inorganic acids has been tested, as well as Na2CO3 fusion technique. The results obtained by different methods have been compared and dissolution in the mixture of HNO3 + HF has been recommended as optimal.

  10. Software Assurance Measurement -- State of the Practice (United States)


    NET 39 ActionScript 39 Ada 40 C/C++ 40 Java 41 JavaScript 42 Objective-C 42 Opa 42 Packages 42 Perl 42 PHP 42 Python 42 Formal Methods... debugging of the system, which encompasses such concerns as the probable number of software errors that will be corrected at a given time in system...testing process and the economics of debugging due to error growth. Because assurance is normally judged against failure, the use of a measurement

  11. Quality Assurance Training Tracking (QATTS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is metadata documentation for the Quality Assurance Training Tracking System (QATTS) which tracks Quality Assurace training given by R7 QA staff to in-house...


    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

  13. A method to combine non-probability sample data with probability sample data in estimating spatial means of environmental variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.


    In estimating spatial means of environmental variables of a region from data collected by convenience or purposive sampling, validity of the results can be ensured by collecting additional data through probability sampling. The precision of the pi estimator that uses the probability sample can be in

  14. Effect of preservation method on the assessment of bacterial community structure in soil and water samples. (United States)

    Tatangelo, Valeria; Franzetti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Isabella; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Ambrosini, Roberto


    The methods used in sample preservation may affect the description of the microbial community structure by DNA-based techniques. This study aims at evaluating the effect of different storage conditions, including freezing, adding two liquid-based preservatives or simply storing samples with no preservative, on the structure of the microbial communities in aliquots of organic-rich soil and water samples as revealed by a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The results showed that the number of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) detected in soil aliquots stored with LifeGuard(™) solution was significantly lower than that of samples analyzed immediately after sampling. Moreover, cluster and PCA analyses showed that soil aliquots stored using LifeGuard(™) clustered separately from those stored with the other methods. Conversely, soil and water aliquots stored with DMSO-EDTA-salt solution did not show either significant reduction in the number of TRFs or any change in the structure of the microbial community. Finally, the number of TRFs and the structure of microbial communities from soil aliquots stored with no preservative did not differ from those of aliquots analyzed immediately after sampling. Preservation methods should therefore be accurately evaluated before collecting samples that have to be stored for long time before DNA extraction.

  15. The application of variable sampling method in the audit testing of insurance companies' premium income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovković Biljana


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the procedure of audit sampling using the variable sampling methods for conducting the tests of income from insurance premiums in insurance company 'Takovo'. Since the incomes from the insurance premiums from vehicle insurance and third-party vehicle insurance have the dominant share of the insurance company's income, the application of this method will be shown in the audit examination of these incomes - incomes from VI and TPVI premiums. For investigating the applicability of these methods in testing the income of other insurance companies, we shall implement the method of variable sampling in the audit testing of the premium income from the three leading insurance companies in Serbia, 'Dunav', 'DDOR' and 'Delta Generali' Insurance.

  16. Sample Duplication Method for Monte Carlo Simulation of Large Reaction-Diffusion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红东; 陆建明; 杨玉良


    The sample duplication method for the Monte Carlo simulation of large reaction-diffusion system is proposed in this paper. It is proved that the sample duplication method will effectively raise the efficiency and statistical precision of the simulation without changing the kinetic behaviour of the reaction-diffusion system and the critical condition for the bifurcation of the steady-states. The method has been applied to the simulation of spatial and time dissipative structure of Brusselator under the Dirichlet boundary condition. The results presented in this paper definitely show that the sample duplication method provides a very efficient way to sol-’e the master equation of large reaction-diffusion system. For the case of two-dimensional system, it is found that the computation time is reduced at least by a factor of two orders of magnitude compared to the algorithm reported in literature.

  17. A New Method for Estimating Bacterial Abundances in Natural Samples using Sublimation (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Cleaves, H. James; Schubert, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeffrey L.


    We have developed a new method based on the sublimation of adenine from Escherichia coli to estimate bacterial cell counts in natural samples. To demonstrate this technique, several types of natural samples including beach sand, seawater, deep-sea sediment, and two soil samples from the Atacama Desert were heated to a temperature of 500 C for several seconds under reduced pressure. The sublimate was collected on a cold finger and the amount of adenine released from the samples then determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV absorbance detection. Based on the total amount of adenine recovered from DNA and RNA in these samples, we estimated bacterial cell counts ranging from approx. l0(exp 5) to l0(exp 9) E. coli cell equivalents per gram. For most of these samples, the sublimation based cell counts were in agreement with total bacterial counts obtained by traditional DAPI staining. The simplicity and robustness of the sublimation technique compared to the DAPI staining method makes this approach particularly attractive for use by spacecraft instrumentation. NASA is currently planning to send a lander to Mars in 2009 in order to assess whether or not organic compounds, especially those that might be associated with life, are present in Martian surface samples. Based on our analyses of the Atacama Desert soil samples, several million bacterial cells per gam of Martian soil should be detectable using this sublimation technique.

  18. Sparse feature learning for instrument identification: Effects of sampling and pooling methods. (United States)

    Han, Yoonchang; Lee, Subin; Nam, Juhan; Lee, Kyogu


    Feature learning for music applications has recently received considerable attention from many researchers. This paper reports on the sparse feature learning algorithm for musical instrument identification, and in particular, focuses on the effects of the frame sampling techniques for dictionary learning and the pooling methods for feature aggregation. To this end, two frame sampling techniques are examined that are fixed and proportional random sampling. Furthermore, the effect of using onset frame was analyzed for both of proposed sampling methods. Regarding summarization of the feature activation, a standard deviation pooling method is used and compared with the commonly used max- and average-pooling techniques. Using more than 47 000 recordings of 24 instruments from various performers, playing styles, and dynamics, a number of tuning parameters are experimented including the analysis frame size, the dictionary size, and the type of frequency scaling as well as the different sampling and pooling methods. The results show that the combination of proportional sampling and standard deviation pooling achieve the best overall performance of 95.62% while the optimal parameter set varies among the instrument classes.

  19. A Method of Multi-channel Data Acquisition with Adjustable Sampling Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Shujing


    Full Text Available Sampling rate of current signal acquisition systems are singular. Aiming at this shortcoming, a method of multi-channel data acquisition(DAQ with adjustable sampling rate is presented. The method realizes the cut-off frequency of anti-aliasing filter controlled by program with the help of switched-capacitor; by independently pulsing sampling signal of different ADCs, 16-channel sampling rate are adjustable within the range 50ksps, 25ksps, 10ksps, 5ksps, 1ksps. Theoretical analysis and experimental verification pointing at the proposed method are implemented: theoretical analysis shows that parameters of the filter meet the design requirements; experimental results show that cut-off frequency of the anti-aliasing filter matches variable sampling rate very well; choosing appropriate sampling rate according to the characteristics of the measured signal not only can well restore the measured signal, but also prevents system resources from waste. This method can meet needs of testing various signals with different frequency at the same time.  

  20. A method to combine non-probability sample data with probability sample data in estimating spatial means of environmental variables. (United States)

    Brus, D J; de Gruijter, J J


    In estimating spatial means of environmental variables of a region from data collected by convenience or purposive sampling, validity of the results can be ensured by collecting additional data through probability sampling. The precision of the pi estimator that uses the probability sample can be increased by interpolating the values at the nonprobability sample points to the probability sample points, and using these interpolated values as an auxiliary variable in the difference or regression estimator. These estimators are (approximately) unbiased, even when the nonprobability sample is severely biased such as in preferential samples. The gain in precision compared to the pi estimator in combination with Simple Random Sampling is controlled by the correlation between the target variable and interpolated variable. This correlation is determined by the size (density) and spatial coverage of the nonprobability sample, and the spatial continuity of the target variable. In a case study the average ratio of the variances of the simple regression estimator and pi estimator was 0.68 for preferential samples of size 150 with moderate spatial clustering, and 0.80 for preferential samples of similar size with strong spatial clustering. In the latter case the simple regression estimator was substantially more precise than the simple difference estimator.

  1. Fast acquisition of multidimensional NMR spectra of solids and mesophases using alternative sampling methods. (United States)

    Lesot, Philippe; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof; Trébosc, Julien; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Lafon, Olivier


    Unique information about the atom-level structure and dynamics of solids and mesophases can be obtained by the use of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Nevertheless, the acquisition of these experiments often requires long acquisition times. We review here alternative sampling methods, which have been proposed to circumvent this issue in the case of solids and mesophases. Compared to the spectra of solutions, those of solids and mesophases present some specificities because they usually display lower signal-to-noise ratios, non-Lorentzian line shapes, lower spectral resolutions and wider spectral widths. We highlight herein the advantages and limitations of these alternative sampling methods. A first route to accelerate the acquisition time of multidimensional NMR spectra consists in the use of sparse sampling schemes, such as truncated, radial or random sampling ones. These sparsely sampled datasets are generally processed by reconstruction methods differing from the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). A host of non-DFT methods have been applied for solids and mesophases, including the G-matrix Fourier transform, the linear least-square procedures, the covariance transform, the maximum entropy and the compressed sensing. A second class of alternative sampling consists in departing from the Jeener paradigm for multidimensional NMR experiments. These non-Jeener methods include Hadamard spectroscopy as well as spatial or orientational encoding of the evolution frequencies. The increasing number of high field NMR magnets and the development of techniques to enhance NMR sensitivity will contribute to widen the use of these alternative sampling methods for the study of solids and mesophases in the coming years.

  2. Out-of-Sample Extensions for Non-Parametric Kernel Methods. (United States)

    Pan, Binbin; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Bo; Xu, Chen; Lai, Jianhuang


    Choosing suitable kernels plays an important role in the performance of kernel methods. Recently, a number of studies were devoted to developing nonparametric kernels. Without assuming any parametric form of the target kernel, nonparametric kernel learning offers a flexible scheme to utilize the information of the data, which may potentially characterize the data similarity better. The kernel methods using nonparametric kernels are referred to as nonparametric kernel methods. However, many nonparametric kernel methods are restricted to transductive learning, where the prediction function is defined only over the data points given beforehand. They have no straightforward extension for the out-of-sample data points, and thus cannot be applied to inductive learning. In this paper, we show how to make the nonparametric kernel methods applicable to inductive learning. The key problem of out-of-sample extension is how to extend the nonparametric kernel matrix to the corresponding kernel function. A regression approach in the hyper reproducing kernel Hilbert space is proposed to solve this problem. Empirical results indicate that the out-of-sample performance is comparable to the in-sample performance in most cases. Experiments on face recognition demonstrate the superiority of our nonparametric kernel method over the state-of-the-art parametric kernel methods.

  3. Validation of the ANSR Listeria method for detection of Listeria spp. in environmental samples. (United States)

    Wendorf, Michael; Feldpausch, Emily; Pinkava, Lisa; Luplow, Karen; Hosking, Edan; Norton, Paul; Biswas, Preetha; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer


    ANSR Listeria is a new diagnostic assay for detection of Listeria spp. in sponge or swab samples taken from a variety of environmental surfaces. The method is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay based on the nicking enzyme amplification reaction technology. Following single-step sample enrichment for 16-24 h, the assay is completed in 40 min, requiring only simple instrumentation. In inclusivity testing, 48 of 51 Listeria strains tested positive, with only the three strains of L. grayi producing negative results. Further investigation showed that L. grayi is reactive in the ANSR assay, but its ability to grow under the selective enrichment conditions used in the method is variable. In exclusivity testing, 32 species of non-Listeria, Gram-positive bacteria all produced negative ANSR assay results. Performance of the ANSR method was compared to that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service reference culture procedure for detection of Listeria spp. in sponge or swab samples taken from inoculated stainless steel, plastic, ceramic tile, sealed concrete, and rubber surfaces. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and probability of detection models. Only one surface, stainless steel, showed a significant difference in performance between the methods, with the ANSR method producing more positive results. Results of internal trials were supported by findings from independent laboratory testing. The ANSR Listeria method can be used as an accurate, rapid, and simple alternative to standard culture methods for detection of Listeria spp. in environmental samples.

  4. A Simple Joint Estimation Method of Residual Frequency Offset and Sampling Frequency Offset for DVB Systems (United States)

    Kwon, Ki-Won; Cho, Yongsoo

    This letter presents a simple joint estimation method for residual frequency offset (RFO) and sampling frequency offset (STO) in OFDM-based digital video broadcasting (DVB) systems. The proposed method selects a continual pilot (CP) subset from an unsymmetrically and non-uniformly distributed CP set to obtain an unbiased estimator. Simulation results show that the proposed method using a properly selected CP subset is unbiased and performs robustly.

  5. Sampling methods for assessing syrphid biodiversity (Diptera: Syrphidae) in tropical forests. (United States)

    Marcos-García, M A; García-López, A; Zumbado, M A; Rotheray, G E


    When assessing the species richness of a taxonomic group in a specific area, the choice of sampling method is critical. In this study, the effectiveness of three methods for sampling syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae) in tropical forests is compared: Malaise trapping, collecting adults with an entomological net, and collecting and rearing immatures. Surveys were made from 2008 to 2011 in six tropical forest sites in Costa Rica. The results revealed significant differences in the composition and richness of syrphid faunas obtained by each method. Collecting immatures was the most successful method based on numbers of species and individuals, whereas Malaise trapping was the least effective. This pattern of sampling effectiveness was independent of syrphid trophic or functional group and annual season. An advantage of collecting immatures over collecting adults is the quality and quantity of associated biological data obtained by the former method. However, complementarity between results of collecting adults and collecting immatures, showed that a combined sampling regime obtained the most complete inventory. Differences between these results and similar studies in more open Mediterranean habitats, suggest that for effective inventory, it is important to consider the effects of environmental characteristics on the catchability of syrphids as much as the costs and benefits of different sampling techniques.

  6. Microwave resonator method of dynamic measurement of mass of the samples of gasifying solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perov Victor V.


    Full Text Available The paper describes novel contactless method of determining instantaneous gasification rate of solid materials under intensive blowing the reacting (gasified surface. Method is based on dynamic measurement of the mass of dielectric substance within specially designed microwave resonator. The attenuation of passing through the resonator signal is proportional to the actual value of the sample mass. Before firing experiments the setup is calibrated using samples of studied material with different channel radius. With the proper choice of data acquisition system one can achieve the web sample thickness resolution around few microns and time resolution higher than 1 kHz. The examples of preliminary tests with paraffin samples blown by air jets with temperatures of 350-1500 K and speeds of 375–700 m/s are presented.

  7. A rapid method for determination of the isotopic composition of uranium samples by alpha spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Sanchez, A.; Tome, F.V.; Diaz Bejarano, J.; Jurado Vargas, M. (Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain))


    A simple method of analyzing alpha spectra from natural and enriched or depleted uranium samples is developed. The procedure is non-iterative, and takes into consideration low-energy tail and branching-ratio corrections to accurately calculate the area corresponding to each uranium isotope ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U) in the spectrum, and then the isotopic composition of the sample. A BASIC computer program, called ENURA, has been developed to perform all the necessary calculations to give the results together with their uncertainties. Several samples were prepared with different uranium concentrations made from standard solutions with known compositions, and the method was checked against the experimental measurements from these samples. Other series of uranium spectra were theoretically constructed using a given line shape in order to cover the required range of enriched or depleted uranium. (orig.).

  8. Detection of protozoa in water samples by formalin/ether concentration method. (United States)

    Lora-Suarez, Fabiana; Rivera, Raul; Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E


    Methods to detect protozoa in water samples are expensive and laborious. We evaluated the formalin/ether concentration method to detect Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Toxoplasma in water. In order to test the properties of the method, we spiked water samples with different amounts of each protozoa (0, 10 and 50 cysts or oocysts) in a volume of 10 L of water. Immunofluorescence assay was used for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Toxoplasma oocysts were identified by morphology. The mean percent of recovery in 10 repetitions of the entire method, in 10 samples spiked with ten parasites and read by three different observers, were for Cryptosporidium 71.3 ± 12, for Giardia 63 ± 10 and for Toxoplasma 91.6 ± 9 and the relative standard deviation of the method was of 17.5, 17.2 and 9.8, respectively. Intraobserver variation as measured by intraclass correlation coefficient, was fair for Toxoplasma, moderate for Cryptosporidium and almost perfect for Giardia. The method was then applied in 77 samples of raw and drinkable water in three different plant of water treatment. Cryptosporidium was found in 28 of 77 samples (36%) and Giardia in 31 of 77 samples (40%). Theses results identified significant differences in treatment process to reduce the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, the formalin ether method to concentrate protozoa in water is a new alternative for low resources countries, where is urgently need to monitor and follow the presence of theses protozoa in drinkable water.

  9. Minimally invasive blood sampling method for genetic studies on Gopherus tortoises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García–Feria, L. M.


    Full Text Available Obtaining good quality tissue samples is the first hurdle in any molecular study. This is especially true for studies involving management and conservation of wild fauna. In the case of tortoises, the most common sources of DNA are blood samples. However, only a minimal amount of blood is required for PCR assays. Samples are obtained mainly from the brachial and jugular vein after restraining the animal chemically, or from conscious individuals by severe handling methods and clamping. Herein, we present a minimally invasive technique that has proven effective for extracting small quantities of blood, suitable for genetic analyses. Furthermore, the samples obtained yielded better DNA amplification than other cell sources, such as cloacal epithelium cells. After two years of use on wild tortoises, this technique has shown to be harmless. We suggest that sampling a small amount of blood could also be useful for other types of analyses, such as physiologic and medical monitoring.

  10. Photothermal method using a pyroelectric sensor for thermophysical characterization of agricultural and biological samples (United States)

    Frandas, A.; Dadarlat, Dorin; Chirtoc, Mihai; Jalink, Henk; Bicanic, Dane D.; Paris, D.; Antoniow, Jean S.; Egee, Michel; Ungureanu, Costica


    The photopyroelectric method in different experimental configurations was used for thermophysical characterization of agricultural and biological samples. The study appears important due to the relation of thermal parameters to the quality of foodstuffs (connected to their preservation, storage and adulteration), migration profiles in biodegradable packages, and the mechanism of desiccation tolerance of seeds. Results are presented on the thermal parameters measurement and their dependence on temperature and water content for samples such as: honey, starch, seeds.

  11. A novel method of sampling gingival crevicular fluid from a mouse model of periodontitis. (United States)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Movila, Alexandru; Suzuki, Maiko; Kajiya, Mikihito; Wisitrasameewong, Wichaya; Kayal, Rayyan; Hirshfeld, Josefine; Al-Dharrab, Ayman; Savitri, Irma J; Mira, Abdulghani; Kurihara, Hidemi; Taubman, Martin A; Kawai, Toshihisa


    Using a mouse model of silk ligature-induced periodontal disease (PD), we report a novel method of sampling mouse gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) to evaluate the time-dependent secretion patterns of bone resorption-related cytokines. GCF is a serum transudate containing host-derived biomarkers which can represent cellular response in the periodontium. As such, human clinical evaluations of PD status rely on sampling this critical secretion. At the same time, a method of sampling GCF from mice is absent, hindering the translational value of mouse models of PD. Therefore, we herein report a novel method of sampling GCF from a mouse model of periodontitis, involving a series of easy steps. First, the original ligature used for induction of PD was removed, and a fresh ligature for sampling GCF was placed in the gingival crevice for 10min. Immediately afterwards, the volume of GCF collected in the sampling ligature was measured using a high precision weighing balance. The sampling ligature containing GCF was then immersed in a solution of PBS-Tween 20 and subjected to ELISA. This enabled us to monitor the volume of GCF and detect time-dependent changes in the expression of such cytokines as IL-1b, TNF-α, IL-6, RANKL, and OPG associated with the levels of alveolar bone loss, as reflected in GCF collected from a mouse model of PD. Therefore, this novel GCF sampling method can be used to measure various cytokines in GCF relative to the dynamic changes in periodontal bone loss induced in a mouse model of PD.

  12. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Adams, Rachel G.


    Passive sampling methods (PSMs) allow the quantification of the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) of an organic contaminant even in complex matrices such as sediments. Cfree is directly related to a contaminant's chemical activity, which drives spontaneous processes including diffusive uptake...... point using passive samplers with different surface to volume ratios. Sampling in the kinetic regime is also possible and generally involves the application of performance reference compounds for the calibration. Based on previous research on hydrophobic organic contaminants, it is concluded that Cfree...

  13. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis from Saliva by PCR by Using a Simple Sample-Processing Method


    Mättö, Jaana; Saarela, Maria; Alaluusua, Satu; Oja, Virva; Jousimies-Somer, Hannele; Asikainen, Sirkka


    Simple sample-processing methods for PCR detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen causing adult periodontitis, from saliva were studied. The ability to detect P. gingivalis from 118 salivary samples by PCR after boiling and Chelex 100 processing was compared with bacterial culture. P. gingivalis was detected three times more often by PCR than by culture. Chelex 100 processing of saliva proved to be effective in preventing PCR inhibition and was applied to determine the occurren...

  14. Steady neutron source measurement method for sigma(a) and sigma(s) in geological samples (United States)

    Sood; Gardner; Gray


    An improved experimental method, using a steady neutron source in a moderating medium, has been developed to determine thermal neutron absorption and scattering cross sections for bulk geological media using discrete samples. The system design has been optimized and experimental results have been benchmarked using Monte Carlo simulation. Studies have been performed to improve the measurement sensitivity and reproducibility over previous designs. A semi-empirical model has been developed for determining both absorption and scattering cross sections of the sample.

  15. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods (United States)

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [E. Van Handel, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1(1985) 302] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo ...

  16. A two-step semiparametric method to accommodate sampling weights in multiple imputation. (United States)

    Zhou, Hanzhi; Elliott, Michael R; Raghunathan, Trviellore E


    Multiple imputation (MI) is a well-established method to handle item-nonresponse in sample surveys. Survey data obtained from complex sampling designs often involve features that include unequal probability of selection. MI requires imputation to be congenial, that is, for the imputations to come from a Bayesian predictive distribution and for the observed and complete data estimator to equal the posterior mean given the observed or complete data, and similarly for the observed and complete variance estimator to equal the posterior variance given the observed or complete data; more colloquially, the analyst and imputer make similar modeling assumptions. Yet multiply imputed data sets from complex sample designs with unequal sampling weights are typically imputed under simple random sampling assumptions and then analyzed using methods that account for the sampling weights. This is a setting in which the analyst assumes more than the imputer, which can led to biased estimates and anti-conservative inference. Less commonly used alternatives such as including case weights as predictors in the imputation model typically require interaction terms for more complex estimators such as regression coefficients, and can be vulnerable to model misspecification and difficult to implement. We develop a simple two-step MI framework that accounts for sampling weights using a weighted finite population Bayesian bootstrap method to validly impute the whole population (including item nonresponse) from the observed data. In the second step, having generated posterior predictive distributions of the entire population, we use standard IID imputation to handle the item nonresponse. Simulation results show that the proposed method has good frequentist properties and is robust to model misspecification compared to alternative approaches. We apply the proposed method to accommodate missing data in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System when estimating means and parameters of

  17. Geostatistical Sampling Methods for Efficient Uncertainty Analysis in Flow and Transport Problems (United States)

    Liodakis, Stylianos; Kyriakidis, Phaedon; Gaganis, Petros


    In hydrogeological applications involving flow and transport of in heterogeneous porous media the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity is often parameterized in terms of a lognormal random field based on a histogram and variogram model inferred from data and/or synthesized from relevant knowledge. Realizations of simulated conductivity fields are then generated using geostatistical simulation involving simple random (SR) sampling and are subsequently used as inputs to physically-based simulators of flow and transport in a Monte Carlo framework for evaluating the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of solute concentration due to the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of hydraulic con- ductivity [1]. Realistic uncertainty analysis, however, calls for a large number of simulated concentration fields; hence, can become expensive in terms of both time and computer re- sources. A more efficient alternative to SR sampling is Latin hypercube (LH) sampling, a special case of stratified random sampling, which yields a more representative distribution of simulated attribute values with fewer realizations [2]. Here, term representative implies realizations spanning efficiently the range of possible conductivity values corresponding to the lognormal random field. In this work we investigate the efficiency of alternative methods to classical LH sampling within the context of simulation of flow and transport in a heterogeneous porous medium. More precisely, we consider the stratified likelihood (SL) sampling method of [3], in which attribute realizations are generated using the polar simulation method by exploring the geometrical properties of the multivariate Gaussian distribution function. In addition, we propose a more efficient version of the above method, here termed minimum energy (ME) sampling, whereby a set of N representative conductivity realizations at M locations is constructed by: (i) generating a representative set of N points distributed on the

  18. Detection of Acanthamoeba and Toxoplasma in River Water Samples by Molecular Methods in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mahmoudi


    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae such as Acanthamoeba species may act as carriers of Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma oocysts, thus, may play an important role in the water-borne transmission of these parasites. In the present study, a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for detection of Toxoplasma and a PCR assay were developed for investigation of Acanthamoeba in environmental water samples.A total of 34 samples were collected from the surface water in Guilan Province. Water samples were filtrated with membrane filters and followed by DNA extraction. PCR and LAMP methods used for detection of the protozoan parasites Acanthamoeba and Toxoplasma respectively.Totally 30 and 2 of 34 samples were positive for Acanthamoeba and Toxoplasma oocysts respectively. Two samples were positive for both investigated parasites.The investigated water supplies, are contaminated by Toxoplasma and Acanthamoeba (oocystes. Acanthamoeba may play an important role in water-borne transmission of Toxoplasma in the study area. For the first time in Iran, protocol of LAMP method was used effectively for the detection of Toxoplasma in surface water samples in Iran.

  19. Nonuniform sampling and non-Fourier signal processing methods in multidimensional NMR. (United States)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Hoch, Jeffrey C


    Beginning with the introduction of Fourier Transform NMR by Ernst and Anderson in 1966, time domain measurement of the impulse response (the free induction decay, FID) consisted of sampling the signal at a series of discrete intervals. For compatibility with the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the intervals are kept uniform, and the Nyquist theorem dictates the largest value of the interval sufficient to avoid aliasing. With the proposal by Jeener of parametric sampling along an indirect time dimension, extension to multidimensional experiments employed the same sampling techniques used in one dimension, similarly subject to the Nyquist condition and suitable for processing via the discrete Fourier transform. The challenges of obtaining high-resolution spectral estimates from short data records using the DFT were already well understood, however. Despite techniques such as linear prediction extrapolation, the achievable resolution in the indirect dimensions is limited by practical constraints on measuring time. The advent of non-Fourier methods of spectrum analysis capable of processing nonuniformly sampled data has led to an explosion in the development of novel sampling strategies that avoid the limits on resolution and measurement time imposed by uniform sampling. The first part of this review discusses the many approaches to data sampling in multidimensional NMR, the second part highlights commonly used methods for signal processing of such data, and the review concludes with a discussion of other approaches to speeding up data acquisition in NMR.

  20. A two-stage method to determine optimal product sampling considering dynamic potential market. (United States)

    Hu, Zhineng; Lu, Wei; Han, Bing


    This paper develops an optimization model for the diffusion effects of free samples under dynamic changes in potential market based on the characteristics of independent product and presents a two-stage method to figure out the sampling level. The impact analysis of the key factors on the sampling level shows that the increase of the external coefficient or internal coefficient has a negative influence on the sampling level. And the changing rate of the potential market has no significant influence on the sampling level whereas the repeat purchase has a positive one. Using logistic analysis and regression analysis, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all parameters, which provides a two-stage method to estimate the impact of the relevant parameters in the case of inaccuracy of the parameters and to be able to construct a 95% confidence interval for the predicted sampling level. Finally, the paper provides the operational steps to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation and an innovational way to estimate the sampling level.

  1. Thoughts on Internal and External Quality Assurance (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxin


    Quality assurance of higher education is made up of two parts: internal quality assurance (IQA) and external quality assurance (EQA). Both belong to a union of the coexistence and balance of yin and yang. But in reality there exists a paradox of "confusion of quality assurance (QA) subject consciousness, singularity of social QA and lack of QA…

  2. 10 CFR 71.37 - Quality assurance. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality assurance. 71.37 Section 71.37 Energy NUCLEAR... Package Approval § 71.37 Quality assurance. (a) The applicant shall describe the quality assurance program... quality assurance program that are applicable to the particular package design under...

  3. 40 CFR 51.363 - Quality assurance. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality assurance. 51.363 Section 51... Requirements § 51.363 Quality assurance. An ongoing quality assurance program shall be implemented to discover... impede program performance. The quality assurance and quality control procedures shall be...

  4. Rapid radiochemical method for determination of actinides in emergency concrete and brick samples. (United States)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Kelsey-Wall, Angel; Shaw, Patrick J


    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in emergency concrete and brick samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis. If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or nuclear accident occurs, there will be a urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including building materials such as concrete and brick, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean-up. The new method for actinides in concrete and brick method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Alpha emitters are prepared using rare earth microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of actinides in concrete and brick sample analysis can be performed in less than 8h with excellent quality for emergency samples. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory actinide particles are effectively digested.

  5. A combined method for correlative 3D imaging of biological samples from macro to nano scale (United States)

    Kellner, Manuela; Heidrich, Marko; Lorbeer, Raoul-Amadeus; Antonopoulos, Georgios C.; Knudsen, Lars; Wrede, Christoph; Izykowski, Nicole; Grothausmann, Roman; Jonigk, Danny; Ochs, Matthias; Ripken, Tammo; Kühnel, Mark P.; Meyer, Heiko


    Correlative analysis requires examination of a specimen from macro to nano scale as well as applicability of analytical methods ranging from morphological to molecular. Accomplishing this with one and the same sample is laborious at best, due to deformation and biodegradation during measurements or intermediary preparation steps. Furthermore, data alignment using differing imaging techniques turns out to be a complex task, which considerably complicates the interconnection of results. We present correlative imaging of the accessory rat lung lobe by combining a modified Scanning Laser Optical Tomography (SLOT) setup with a specially developed sample preparation method (CRISTAL). CRISTAL is a resin-based embedding method that optically clears the specimen while allowing sectioning and preventing degradation. We applied and correlated SLOT with Multi Photon Microscopy, histological and immunofluorescence analysis as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy, all in the same sample. Thus, combining CRISTAL with SLOT enables the correlative utilization of a vast variety of imaging techniques.

  6. An Investigation of the Sequential Sampling Method for Crossdocking Simulation Output Variance Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adewunmi, Adrian; Byrne, Mike


    This paper investigates the reduction of variance associated with a simulation output performance measure, using the Sequential Sampling method while applying minimum simulation replications, for a class of JIT (Just in Time) warehousing system called crossdocking. We initially used the Sequential Sampling method to attain a desired 95% confidence interval half width of plus/minus 0.5 for our chosen performance measure (Total usage cost, given the mean maximum level of 157,000 pounds and a mean minimum level of 149,000 pounds). From our results, we achieved a 95% confidence interval half width of plus/minus 2.8 for our chosen performance measure (Total usage cost, with an average mean value of 115,000 pounds). However, the Sequential Sampling method requires a huge number of simulation replications to reduce variance for our simulation output value to the target level. Arena (version 11) simulation software was used to conduct this study.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    General Sampling Expansion Reconstruction Method(GSERM)and Digital Spectrum Reconstruction Method(DSRM),which prove effective to reconstruct azimuth signal of Displaced Phase Center Apertures(DPCA) Synthetic Aperture areal"(SAR)system from its Periodic Non-Uniform Sampling(PNUS)data sequences,would amplify the noise and sidelobe clutter simultaneously in the reconstruction.This paper formulates the relation of the system transfer matrixes of the above two methods,gives the properties,such aS periodicity,symmetry,and time-shift property,of their Noise and Sidelobe Clutter Amplification Factor(NSCAF),and discovers that DSRM is more sensitive than GSERM in the white noise environment.In addition,criteria based on initial sampling point analysis for the robust PRF selection are suggested.Computer simulation results support these con-clusions.

  8. Sample preparation methods for beeswax characterization by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. (United States)

    Jiménez, J J; Bernal, J L; del Nozal, M A J; Martín, M A T; Bernal, J


    New and simpler methods of sample preparation to determine several families of compounds in beeswax by conventional and high temperature gas chromatography are proposed. To analyze hydrocarbons and palmitates, a dilution of sample is enough whereas for the total acid content, a hydrolysis and simultaneous methylation with BF3-methanol results more effective than the usual methods; for the total content of alcohols, a further acetylation with acetic anhydride is necessary. Free alcohols are directly acetylated in a sample dissolution but for free acids and monoesterified 1,2,3-propanetriols analysis, a previous extraction with acetonitrile is required. The concentrations of all the compounds studied are expressed in weight percentage referred only to one standard: octadecyl octadecanoate. The precision of the analytical methods has been evaluated showing its importance in the analysis of beeswaxes used in apiculture.

  9. Multicenter validation of PCR-based method for detection of Salmonella in chicken and pig samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.;


    As part of a standardization project, an interlaboratory trial including 15 laboratories from 13 European countries was conducted to evaluate the performance of a noproprietary polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of Salmonella on artificially contaminated chicken rinse...... and pig swab samples. The 3 levels were 1-10, 10-100, and 100-1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL. Sample preparations, including inoculation and pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), were performed centrally in a German laboratory; the pre-PCR sample preparation (by a resin-based method...... specificity was 80.1% (with 85.7% accordance and 67.5% concordance) for chicken rinse, and 91.7% (with 100% accordance and 83.3% concordance) for pig swab. Thus, the interlaboratory variation due to personnel, reagents, thermal cyclers, etc., did not affect the performance of the method, which...

  10. Final LDRD report : development of sample preparation methods for ChIPMA-based imaging mass spectrometry of tissue samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille


    The objective of this short-term LDRD project was to acquire the tools needed to use our chemical imaging precision mass analyzer (ChIPMA) instrument to analyze tissue samples. This effort was an outgrowth of discussions with oncologists on the need to find the cellular origin of signals in mass spectra of serum samples, which provide biomarkers for ovarian cancer. The ultimate goal would be to collect chemical images of biopsy samples allowing the chemical images of diseased and nondiseased sections of a sample to be compared. The equipment needed to prepare tissue samples have been acquired and built. This equipment includes an cyro-ultramicrotome for preparing thin sections of samples and a coating unit. The coating unit uses an electrospray system to deposit small droplets of a UV-photo absorbing compound on the surface of the tissue samples. Both units are operational. The tissue sample must be coated with the organic compound to enable matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and matrix enhanced secondary ion mass spectrometry (ME-SIMS) measurements with the ChIPMA instrument Initial plans to test the sample preparation using human tissue samples required development of administrative procedures beyond the scope of this LDRD. Hence, it was decided to make two types of measurements: (1) Testing the spatial resolution of ME-SIMS by preparing a substrate coated with a mixture of an organic matrix and a bio standard and etching a defined pattern in the coating using a liquid metal ion beam, and (2) preparing and imaging C. elegans worms. Difficulties arose in sectioning the C. elegans for analysis and funds and time to overcome these difficulties were not available in this project. The facilities are now available for preparing biological samples for analysis with the ChIPMA instrument. Some further investment of time and resources in sample preparation should make this a useful tool for chemical imaging applications.

  11. Rapid, sensitive and cost effective method for isolation of viral DNA from feacal samples of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A simple method for viral DNA extraction using chelex resin was developed. The method used was eco-friendly and cost effective compared to other methods such as phenol chloroform method which use health hazardous organic reagents. Further, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR based detection of canine parvovirus (CPV using primers from conserved region of VP2 gene was developed. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of reaction, nested PCR was designed. PCR reaction was optimized to amplify 747bp product of VP2 gene. The assay can be completed in few hours and doesn’t need hazardous chemicals. Thus, the sample preparation using chelating resin along with nested PCR seems to be a sensitive, specific and practical method for the detection of CPV in diarrhoeal feacal samples. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 105-106

  12. Preparation of Samples for Leaf Architecture Studies, A Method for Mounting Cleared Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vasco


    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Several recent waves of interest in leaf architecture have shown an expanding range of approaches and applications across a number of disciplines. Despite this increased interest, examination of existing archives of cleared and mounted leaves shows that current methods for mounting, in particular, yield unsatisfactory results and deterioration of samples over relatively short periods. Although techniques for clearing and staining leaves are numerous, published techniques for mounting leaves are scarce. Methods and Results: Here we present a complete protocol and recommendations for clearing, staining, and imaging leaves, and, most importantly, a method to permanently mount cleared leaves. Conclusions: The mounting protocol is faster than other methods, inexpensive, and straightforward; moreover, it yields clear and permanent samples that can easily be imaged, scanned, and stored. Specimens mounted with this method preserve well, with leaves that were mounted more than 35 years ago showing no signs of bubbling or discoloration.

  13. [Quality assurance in occupational health services]. (United States)

    Michalak, J


    The general conditions influencing the quality assurance and audit in Polish occupational health services are presented. The factors promoting or hampering the implementation of quality assurance and audits are also discussed. The major influence on the transformation of Polish occupational health services in exorted by employers who are committed to cover the costs of the obligatory prophylactic examination of their employees. This is the factor which also contributes to the improvement of quality if services. The definitions of the most important terms are reviewed to highlight their accordance with the needs of occupational health services in Poland. The examples of audit are presented and the elements of selected methods of auditing are suggested to be adopted in Poland.

  14. Methods for determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental samples--review. (United States)

    Fulara, Izabela; Czaplicka, Marianna


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants. They are used as flame retardants in plastics, paints, varnishes and textile materials. PBDEs pose great risk to the environment because of their high persistence and ability to get into the environment easily due to the lack of chemical bonds with the matrix of materials, to which they are added. Global research studies confirmed the occurrence of those compounds in the majority of elements of water and land environment. Analysis of PBDEs in environmental samples is one of the specific analytical methods of criteria that comprise low detection limits and high selectivity. The analysis of PBDEs in environmental samples is one of the specific analytical methods, in which the main criteria are low detection limits and high selectivity. In this article, a literature review of methods for environmental sample preparation and analysis of the PBDE content was presented. The article discusses the potential of modern extraction techniques such as: solid-phase microextraction, single-drop microextraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, microwave-assisted extraction, cloud point extraction, hollow fibre-liquid phase microextraction and others for the separation of PBDEs from environmental samples with a complex matrix. Among the methods for qualitative and quantitative determination of PBDEs, a particular focus was put on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with various injection techniques and different types of sample ionisation.

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry targets of submilligram carbonaceous samples using the high-throughput Zn reduction method. (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kelly, Peter B; Clifford, Andrew J


    The high-throughput Zn reduction method was developed and optimized for various biological/biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) applications of mg of C size samples. However, high levels of background carbon from the high-throughput Zn reduction method were not suitable for sub-mg of C size samples in environmental, geochronology, and biological/biomedical AMS applications. This study investigated the effect of background carbon mass (mc) and background 14C level (Fc) from the high-throughput Zn reduction method. Background mc was 0.011 mg of C and background Fc was 1.5445. Background subtraction, two-component mixing, and expanded formulas were used for background correction. All three formulas accurately corrected for backgrounds to 0.025 mg of C in the aerosol standard (NIST SRM 1648a). Only the background subtraction and the two-component mixing formulas accurately corrected for backgrounds to 0.1 mg of C in the IAEA-C6 and -C7 standards. After the background corrections, our high-throughput Zn reduction method was suitable for biological (diet)/biomedical (drug) and environmental (fine particulate matter) applications of sub-mg of C samples (> or = 0.1 mg of C) in keeping with a balance between throughput (270 samples/day/analyst) and sensitivity/accuracy/precision of AMS measurement. The development of a high-throughput method for examination of > or = 0.1 mg of C size samples opens up a range of applications for 14C AMS studies. While other methods do exist for > or = 0.1 mg of C size samples, the low throughput has made them cost prohibitive for many applications.

  16. An enzyme-based DNA preparation method for application to forensic biological samples and degraded stains. (United States)

    Lounsbury, Jenny A; Coult, Natalie; Miranian, Daniel C; Cronk, Stephen M; Haverstick, Doris M; Kinnon, Paul; Saul, David J; Landers, James P


    Extraction of DNA from forensic samples typically uses either an organic extraction protocol or solid phase extraction (SPE) and these methods generally involve numerous sample transfer, wash and centrifugation steps. Although SPE has been successfully adapted to the microdevice, it can be problematic because of lengthy load times and uneven packing of the solid phase. A closed-tube enzyme-based DNA preparation method has recently been developed which uses a neutral proteinase to lyse cells and degrade proteins and nucleases [14]. Following a 20 min incubation of the buccal or whole blood sample with this proteinase, DNA is polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ready. This paper describes the optimization and quantitation of DNA yield using this method, and application to forensic biological samples, including UV- and heat-degraded whole blood samples on cotton or blue denim substrates. Results demonstrate that DNA yield can be increased from 1.42 (±0.21)ng/μL to 7.78 (±1.40)ng/μL by increasing the quantity of enzyme per reaction by 3-fold. Additionally, there is a linear relationship between the amount of starting cellular material added and the concentration of DNA in the solution, thereby allowing DNA yield estimations to be made. In addition, short tandem repeat (STR) profile results obtained using DNA prepared with the enzyme method were comparable to those obtained with a conventional SPE method, resulting in full STR profiles (16 of 16 loci) from liquid samples (buccal swab eluate and whole blood), dried buccal swabs and bloodstains and partial profiles from UV or heat-degraded bloodstains on cotton or blue denim substrates. Finally, the DNA preparation method is shown to be adaptable to glass or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microdevices with little impact on STR peak height but providing a 20-fold reduction in incubation time (as little as 60 s), leading to a ≥1 h reduction in DNA preparation time.

  17. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 2, Sample preparation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This volume contains the interim change notice for sample preparation methods. Covered are: acid digestion for metals analysis, fusion of Hanford tank waste solids, water leach of sludges/soils/other solids, extraction procedure toxicity (simulate leach in landfill), sample preparation for gamma spectroscopy, acid digestion for radiochemical analysis, leach preparation of solids for free cyanide analysis, aqueous leach of solids for anion analysis, microwave digestion of glasses and slurries for ICP/MS, toxicity characteristic leaching extraction for inorganics, leach/dissolution of activated metal for radiochemical analysis, extraction of single-shell tank (SST) samples for semi-VOC analysis, preparation and cleanup of hydrocarbon- containing samples for VOC and semi-VOC analysis, receiving of waste tank samples in onsite transfer cask, receipt and inspection of SST samples, receipt and extrusion of core samples at 325A shielded facility, cleaning and shipping of waste tank samplers, homogenization of solutions/slurries/sludges, and test sample preparation for bioassay quality control program.

  18. Purity calculation method for event samples with two the same particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmin, Valentin


    We present a method of the two dimensional background calculation for an analysis of events with two the same particles observing by a detector of high energy physics. Usual two dimensional integration is replaced by an approximation of a specially constructed one-dimensional function. The value of the signal events is found by the subtraction of the background from the value of all selected events. It allows to calculate the purity value of the selected events sample. The procedure does not require a hypothesis about background and signal shapes. The nice performance of the purity calculation method is shown on Monte Carlo examples of double J/psi samples.

  19. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.


    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project. This project is a U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies, and technologies for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Technologies Project staff.

  20. Comparison between active (pumped) and passive (diffusive) sampling methods for formaldehyde in pathology and histology laboratories. (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Magrm, Rana; Kusti, Mohannad; Kashon, Michael L; Guffey, Steven; Costas, Michelle M; Boykin, Carie J; Harper, Martin


    This study was to determine occupational exposures to formaldehyde and to compare concentrations of formaldehyde obtained by active and passive sampling methods. In one pathology and one histology laboratories, exposure measurements were collected with sets of active air samplers (Supelco LpDNPH tubes) and passive badges (ChemDisk Aldehyde Monitor 571). Sixty-six sample pairs (49 personal and 17 area) were collected and analyzed by NIOSH NMAM 2016 for active samples and OSHA Method 1007 (using the manufacturer's updated uptake rate) for passive samples. All active and passive 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) measurements showed compliance with the OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL-0.75 ppm) except for one passive measurement, whereas 78% for the active and 88% for the passive samples exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL-0.016 ppm). Overall, 73% of the passive samples showed higher concentrations than the active samples and a statistical test indicated disagreement between two methods for all data and for data without outliers. The OSHA Method cautions that passive samplers should not be used for sampling situations involving formalin solutions because of low concentration estimates in the presence of reaction products of formaldehyde and methanol (a formalin additive). However, this situation was not observed, perhaps because the formalin solutions used in these laboratories included much less methanol (3%) than those tested in the OSHA Method (up to 15%). The passive samplers in general overestimated concentrations compared to the active method, which is prudent for demonstrating compliance with an occupational exposure limit, but occasional large differences may be a result of collecting aerosolized droplets or splashes on the face of the samplers. In the situations examined in this study the passive sampler generally produces higher results than the active sampler so that a body of results from passive samplers demonstrating compliance with the

  1. Gray bootstrap method for estimating frequency-varying random vibration signals with small samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanqing


    Full Text Available During environment testing, the estimation of random vibration signals (RVS is an important technique for the airborne platform safety and reliability. However, the available methods including extreme value envelope method (EVEM, statistical tolerances method (STM and improved statistical tolerance method (ISTM require large samples and typical probability distribution. Moreover, the frequency-varying characteristic of RVS is usually not taken into account. Gray bootstrap method (GBM is proposed to solve the problem of estimating frequency-varying RVS with small samples. Firstly, the estimated indexes are obtained including the estimated interval, the estimated uncertainty, the estimated value, the estimated error and estimated reliability. In addition, GBM is applied to estimating the single flight testing of certain aircraft. At last, in order to evaluate the estimated performance, GBM is compared with bootstrap method (BM and gray method (GM in testing analysis. The result shows that GBM has superiority for estimating dynamic signals with small samples and estimated reliability is proved to be 100% at the given confidence level.

  2. [A method for the medical image registration based on the statistics samples averaging distribution theory]. (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong; Luo, Fen


    The registration method based on mutual information is currently a popular technique for the medical image registration, but the computation for the mutual information is complex and the registration speed is slow. In engineering process, a subsampling technique is taken to accelerate the registration speed at the cost of registration accuracy. In this paper a new method based on statistics sample theory is developed, which has both a higher speed and a higher accuracy as compared with the normal subsampling method, and the simulation results confirm the validity of the new method.

  3. A comparison of two methods for isolation of Salmonella from poultry litter samples. (United States)

    Read, S C; Irwin, R J; Poppe, C; Harris, J


    Two methods were compared to determine their ability and efficiency in detecting Salmonella in poultry litter samples. Method 1 consisted of pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), selective motility enrichment in Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV) agar, and plating onto MacConkey (MC) agar. Method 2 employed tetrathionate brilliant green (TBG) broth and plating on brilliant green agar with novobiocin (BGAN) and on xylose lysine tergitol 4 (XLT4) agar. Method 1 resulted in a significantly higher isolation rate, was cheaper, and was less labor intensive.

  4. A sampling method for estimating the accuracy of predicted breeding values in genetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laloë Denis


    Full Text Available Abstract A sampling-based method for estimating the accuracy of estimated breeding values using an animal model is presented. Empirical variances of true and estimated breeding values were estimated from a simulated n-sample. The method was validated using a small data set from the Parthenaise breed with the estimated coefficient of determination converging to the true values. It was applied to the French Salers data file used for the 2000 on-farm evaluation (IBOVAL of muscle development score. A drawback of the method is its computational demand. Consequently, convergence can not be achieved in a reasonable time for very large data files. Two advantages of the method are that a it is applicable to any model (animal, sire, multivariate, maternal effects... and b it supplies off-diagonal coefficients of the inverse of the mixed model equations and can therefore be the basis of connectedness studies.

  5. Comparison of chlorzoxazone one-sample methods to estimate CYP2E1 activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Iza; Dalhoff, Kim; Clemmesen, Jens O


    OBJECTIVE: Comparison of a one-sample with a multi-sample method (the metabolic fractional clearance) to estimate CYP2E1 activity in humans. METHODS: Healthy, male Caucasians ( n=19) were included. The multi-sample fractional clearance (Cl(fe)) of chlorzoxazone was compared with one...... estimates, Cl(est) at 3 h or 6 h, and MR at 3 h, can serve as reliable markers of CYP2E1 activity. The one-sample clearance method is an accurate, renal function-independent measure of the intrinsic activity; it is simple to use and easily applicable to humans.......-time-point clearance estimation (Cl(est)) at 3, 4, 5 and 6 h. Furthermore, the metabolite/drug ratios (MRs) estimated from one-time-point samples at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h were compared with Cl(fe). RESULTS: The concordance between Cl(est) and Cl(fe) was highest at 6 h. The minimal mean prediction error (MPE) of Cl...

  6. A simple sample preparation method for measuring amoxicillin in human plasma by hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration. (United States)

    Dong, Wei-Chong; Hou, Zi-Li; Jiang, Xin-Hui; Jiang, Ye


    A simple sample preparation method has been developed for the determination of amoxicillin in human plasma by hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration (HF-CF-UF). A 400-μL plasma sample was placed directly into the HF-CF-UF device, which consisited of a slim glass tube and a U-shaped hollow fiber. After centrifugation at 1.25 × 10(3) g for 10 min, the filtrate was withdrawn from the hollow fiber and 20 µL was directly injected into the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for analysis. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-20 µg/mL (r = 0.9996) and the limit of detection was as low as 0.025 µg/mL. The average recovery and absolute recovery were 99.9% and 84.5%, respectively. Both the intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were less than 3.1% for three concentrations (0.25, 2.5 and 10 µg/mL). The sample preparation process was simplified. Only after a single centrifugal ultrafiltration can the filtrate be injected directly into HPLC. The present method is simple, sensitive and accurate. It could be effective for the analysis of biological samples with high protein contents, especially for the biopharmaceutical analysis of drugs that use traditional isolation techniques for sample preparation such as the protein precipitation method.

  7. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research. (United States)

    Lobo, Diana; Godinho, Raquel; Álvares, Francisco; López-Bao, José V; Rodríguez, Alejandro


    Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng μl(-1)). We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures). Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%). Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog's mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine). Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates.

  8. An evaluation of analytical methods, air sampling techniques, and airborne occupational exposure of metalworking fluids. (United States)

    Verma, Dave K; Shaw, Don S; Shaw, M Lorraine; Julian, Jim A; McCollin, Shari-Ann; des Tombe, Karen


    This article summarizes an assessment of air sampling and analytical methods for both oil and water-based metalworking fluids (MWFs). Three hundred and seventy-four long-term area and personal airborne samples were collected at four plants using total (closed-face) aerosol samplers and thoracic samplers. A direct-reading device (DustTrak) was also used. The processes sampled include steel tube making, automotive component manufacturing, and small part manufacturing in a machine shop. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method PS42-97 of analysis was evaluated in the laboratory. This evaluation included sample recovery, determination of detection limits, and stability of samples during storage. Results of the laboratory validation showed (a) the sample recovery to be about 87%, (b) the detection limit to be 35 microg, and (c) sample stability during storage at room temperature to decline rapidly within a few days. To minimize sample loss, the samples should be stored in a freezer and analyzed within a week. The ASTM method should be the preferred method for assessing metalworking fluids (MWFs). The ratio of thoracic aerosol to total aerosol ranged from 0.6 to 0.7. A similar relationship was found between the thoracic extractable aerosol and total extractable aerosol. The DustTrak, with 10-microm sampling head, was useful in pinpointing the areas of potential exposure. MWF exposure at the four plants ranged from 0.04 to 3.84 mg/m3 with the geometric mean ranging between 0.22 to 0.59 mg/m3. Based on this data and the assumption of log normality, MWF exposures are expected to exceed the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit of 0.5 mg/m3 as total mass and 0.4 mg/m3 as thoracic mass about 38% of the time. In addition to controlling airborne MWF exposure, full protection of workers would require the institution of programs for fluid management and dermal exposure prevention.

  9. Salmonella spp. contamination in commercial layer hen farms using different types of samples and detection methods. (United States)

    Soria, M C; Soria, M A; Bueno, D J; Godano, E I; Gómez, S C; ViaButron, I A; Padin, V M; Rogé, A D


    The performance of detection methods (culture methods and polymerase chain reaction assay) and plating media used in the same type of samples were determined as well as the specificity of PCR primers to detected Salmonella spp. contamination in layer hen farms. Also, the association of farm characteristics with Salmonella presence was evaluated. Environmental samples (feces, feed, drinking water, air, boot-swabs) and eggs were taken from 40 layer hen houses. Salmonella spp. was most detected in boot-swabs taken around the houses (30% and 35% by isolation and PCR, respectively) follow by fecal samples (15.2% and 13.6% by isolation and PCR, respectively). Eggs, drinking water, and air samples were negative for Salmonella detection. Salmonella Schwarzengrund and S. Enteritidis were the most isolated serotypes. For plating media, relative specificity was 1, and the relative sensitivity was greater for EF-18 agar than XLDT agar in feed and fecal samples. However, relative sensitivity was greater in XLDT agar than EF-18 agar for boot-swab samples. Agreement was between fair to good depending on the sample, and it was good between isolation and PCR (feces and boot-swabs), without agreement for feed samples. Salmonella spp. PCR was positive for all strains, while S. Typhimurium PCR was negative. Salmonella Enteritidis PCR used was not specific. Based in the multiple logistic regression analyses, categorization by counties was significant for Salmonella spp. presence (P-value = 0.010). This study shows the importance of considering different types of samples, plating media and detection methods during a Salmonella spp. monitoring study. In addition, it is important to incorporate the sampling of floors around the layer hen houses to learn if biosecurity measures should be strengthened to minimize the entry and spread of Salmonella in the houses. Also, the performance of some PCR methods and S. Enteritidis PCR should be improved, and biosecurity measures in hen farms must be

  10. Sampling and analytical method development and hand wipe measurements of dermal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Boeniger, Mark; Neumeister, Charles; Booth-Jones, Angela


    This article describes the laboratory assessment of a hand and surface wipe sampling method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The analytical method employed extraction of the wipe samples into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) flourometric detection of pyrene, a predominant PAH in used gasoline engine oils (UGEO). Recovery of pyrene was evaluated for two different sampling media by first contaminating the hands of a small number of volunteers with UGEO, followed by applying a small amount of corn oil to the palms, and by wiping the skin with a Whatman cellulostic filter paper or a polyester fabric wipe (i.e., Alpha wipes). In summary, using either Whatman or Alpha wipes, the mean recovery of pyrene from the UGEO that was applied to the hands and contained within three consecutive wipes was 69% and 54%, respectively. However, the relative recovery of the first to second wipe was on average 47% and 75% for the two media, respectively. These results indicate that the Alpha wipes were more efficient at recovering pyrene in the first wipe but less efficient overall when all three consecutive samples were included. Even though this sampling was performed in a controlled laboratory environment, the minimum and maximum amount of pyrene recovered in the individual composite samples using either method spanned a range of twofold. Overall, intra-and interpersonal variability, as measured by coefficient of variation, were 22% and 19%, respectively, and were not statistically different by type of media used. This method was used in a pilot field survey to sample the hands of 18 automotive repair technicians and 18 office workers. Detectable amounts of pyrene (>0.2 microg/sample) were found on the hands of 61% and 0% of these two groups, respectively, with the highest measured quantity equal to 1.06 microg. Samples from the upper surfaces of automobile motors were generally low to nondetectable (<0.027 microg/sample), while


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmana Naik


    Full Text Available A lean laboratory is one which is focused on testing products and materials to deliver results in the most efficient way in terms of cost or speed or both; primarily focused on improving measurable performance and reducing costs. The goal of a lean laboratory is to use less effort, less resources and less time to test incoming samples. Laboratories have a critical role to play in establishing and improving process capability and key performance indicator (KPI of the organization. There are inevitably many opinions as to what a lean lab actually is; here is one version fr om. Quality assurance laboratories are crucial to the success of organization and this effectiveness needs to be measurable and demonstrable. To facilitate this, a method of measuring a laboratory's progress towards complete deployment has been created by lean tools. These tools allow laboratories to conduct gap analysis and identify opportunities for improvement.

  12. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method


    Krauter, Paula A.; Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne


    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the...

  13. Measurement error robustness of a closed-loop minimal sampling method for HIV therapy switching. (United States)

    Cardozo, E Fabian; Zurakowski, Ryan


    We test the robustness of a closed-loop treatment scheduling method to realistic HIV viral load measurement error. The purpose of the algorithm is to allow the accurate detection of an induced viral load minimum with a reduced number of samples. Therapy must be switched at or near the viral-load minimum to achieve optimal therapeutic benefit; therapeutic benefit decreases logarithmically with increased viral load at the switching time. The performance of the algorithm is characterized using a number of metrics. These include the number of samples saved vs. fixed-rate sampling, the risk-reduction achieved vs. the risk-reduction possible with frequent sampling, and the difference between the switching time vs. the theoretical optimal switching time. The algorithm is applied to simulated patient data generated from a family of data-driven patient models and corrupted by experimentally confirmed levels of log-normal noise.

  14. Sampling methods for rumen microbial counts by Real-Time PCR techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Puppo


    Full Text Available Fresh rumen samples were withdrawn from 4 cannulated buffalo females fed a fibrous diets in order to quantify bacteria concentration in the rumen by Real-Time PCR techniques. To obtain DNA of a good quality from whole rumen fluid, eight (M1-M8 different pre-filtration methods (cheese cloths, glass-fibre and nylon filter in combination with various centrifugation speeds (1000, 5000 and 14,000 rpm were tested. Genomic DNA extraction was performed either on fresh or frozen samples (-20°C. The quantitative bacteria analysis was realized according to Real-Time PCR procedure for Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens reported in literature. M5 resulted the best sampling procedure allowing to obtain a suitable genomic DNA. No differences were revealed between fresh and frozen samples.

  15. Use of thermal neutron reflection method for chemical analysis of bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A., E-mail: [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Csikai, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Institute of Experimental Physics, University Debrecen (IEP), 4010 Debrecen-10, Pf. 105 (Hungary)


    Microscopic, σ{sub β}, and macroscopic, Σ{sub β}, reflection cross-sections of thermal neutrons averaged over bulk samples as a function of thickness (z) are given. The σ{sub β} values are additive even for bulk samples in the z=0.5–8 cm interval and so the σ{sub βmol}(z) function could be given for hydrogenous substances, including some illicit drugs, explosives and hiding materials of ∼1000 cm{sup 3} dimensions. The calculated excess counts agree with the measured R(z) values. For the identification of concealed objects and chemical analysis of bulky samples, different neutron methods need to be used simultaneously. - Highlights: • Check the proposed analytical expression for the description of the flux. • Determination of the reflection cross-sections averaged over bulk samples. • Data rendered to estimate the excess counts for various materials.

  16. Sampling sufficiency of the anatomical characteristics of Brazilian hardwood using the resampling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Missio


    Full Text Available Sampling sufficiency of the anatomical characteristics of fibres from Luehea divaricata wood was investigated through the bootstrap resampling method. Sampling sufficiency of fibre length, fibre diameter, lumen diameter and fibre wall thickness were determined. Three scenarios of sampling sufficiency evaluation were used: general, segregation between juvenile and mature wood, and accumulation throughout the life of the tree. The segregation of juvenile and mature wood showed that sampling sufficiency in juvenile wood was higher than in mature wood, up to three times for the fibre length. In general, results indicated higher values than suggested in specific standards and by other authors. Therefore, resampling bootstrap methodology, even though underused in forestry research, is an alternative for new studies, as it does not have restrictive hypotheses such as data normality.

  17. Device and method for automated separation of a sample of whole blood into aliquots (United States)

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.


    A device and a method for automated processing and separation of an unmeasured sample of whole blood into multiple aliquots of plasma. Capillaries are radially oriented on a rotor, with the rotor defining a sample chamber, transfer channels, overflow chamber, overflow channel, vent channel, cell chambers, and processing chambers. A sample of whole blood is placed in the sample chamber, and when the rotor is rotated, the blood moves outward through the transfer channels to the processing chambers where the blood is centrifugally separated into a solid cellular component and a liquid plasma component. When the rotor speed is decreased, the plasma component backfills the capillaries resulting in uniform aliquots of plasma which may be used for subsequent analytical procedures.

  18. Comparing generalized ensemble methods for sampling of systems with many degrees of freedom (United States)

    Lincoff, James; Sasmal, Sukanya; Head-Gordon, Teresa


    We compare two standard replica exchange methods using temperature and dielectric constant as the scaling variables for independent replicas against two new corresponding enhanced sampling methods based on non-equilibrium statistical cooling (temperature) or descreening (dielectric). We test the four methods on a rough 1D potential as well as for alanine dipeptide in water, for which their relatively small phase space allows for the ability to define quantitative convergence metrics. We show that both dielectric methods are inferior to the temperature enhanced sampling methods, and in turn show that temperature cool walking (TCW) systematically outperforms the standard temperature replica exchange (TREx) method. We extend our comparisons of the TCW and TREx methods to the 5 residue met-enkephalin peptide, in which we evaluate the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric to show that the rate of convergence between two independent trajectories is faster for TCW compared to TREx. Finally we apply the temperature methods to the 42 residue amyloid-β peptide in which we find non-negligible differences in the disordered ensemble using TCW compared to the standard TREx. All four methods have been made available as software through the OpenMM Omnia software consortium (

  19. A new method for automatic discontinuity traces sampling on rock mass 3D model (United States)

    Umili, G.; Ferrero, A.; Einstein, H. H.


    A new automatic method for discontinuity traces mapping and sampling on a rock mass digital model is described in this work. The implemented procedure allows one to automatically identify discontinuity traces on a Digital Surface Model: traces are detected directly as surface breaklines, by means of maximum and minimum principal curvature values of the vertices that constitute the model surface. Color influence and user errors, that usually characterize the trace mapping on images, are eliminated. Also trace sampling procedures based on circular windows and circular scanlines have been implemented: they are used to infer trace data and to calculate values of mean trace length, expected discontinuity diameter and intensity of rock discontinuities. The method is tested on a case study: results obtained applying the automatic procedure on the DSM of a rock face are compared to those obtained performing a manual sampling on the orthophotograph of the same rock face.

  20. Comparison of microRNA expression using different preservation methods of matched psoriatic skin samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendorf, Marianne B; Zibert, John R; Hagedorn, Peter H


    contains high levels of RNases. As microRNAs are 19-23 nucleotides long and lack a poly-A tail, they may be less prone to RNA degradation than mRNAs. We investigated whether microRNAs in psoriatic (FFPE) samples reliably reflect microRNA expression in samples less prone to RNA degradation such as fresh......-frozen (FS) and Tissue-Tek-embedding (OCT). We found a strong correlation of the microRNA expression levels between all preservation methods of matched psoriatic skin samples (r(s) ranging from 0.91 to 0.95 (P ... that microRNA detection in human skin is robust irrespective of preservation method; thus, microRNAs offer an appropriate and flexible approach in clinical practices and for diagnostic purposes in skin disorders....