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Sample records for associative star polymers

  1. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings. PMID:27299693

  2. Rheological Properties of Associative Star Polymers in Aqueous Solutions: Effect of Hydrophobe Length and Polymer Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, Sami; Strandman, Satu; Jarvi, Paula;

    2009-01-01

    Rheological properties of aqueous solutions of well-defined four-armed amphiphilic star block copolymers, poly(acrylic acid)-block-polystyrene (PAA-b-PS)(4), were investigated as a function of the length of the PS blocks, polymer concentration, and temperature and compared with a corresponding...... triblock copolymer. These polymers, synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), were found to form hydrogels due to intermolecular association originating from the PS blocks. The increasing length of the PS block was observed to lead to more elastic networks due to increased hydrophobic...... interaction. Polymers bearing shorter PS blocks gave gels with relatively long linear response followed by strain hardening before shear thinning while the longer PS blocks lead to formation of elastic but brittle gels with limited linear regime before shear thinning. Star-block copolymers showed more elastic...

  3. Synthesis and Rheological Properties of an Associative Star Polymer in Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, Sami; Mononen, Pekka; Strandman, Satu;

    2007-01-01

    Rheological properties of aqueous solutions and hydrogels fonned by an amphiphiIic star block copolymer poly(acrylic acid)-blockpolystyrene (PAAS4-b-PS6)4. were investigated as a function of the polymer concentration (Cp), temperature, and added saIt concentration. The water-soluble polymer...... synthesised by atom transfer radical. polymerization (ATRP) was found to fonn hydrogels at room temperature at polymer concentrations. Cp, over 22 gIL due to the interpolymer drophobic association of the PS blocks. Increasing Cp leads to stronger elastic networks at room temperature that show a gel......-to-solution transition with increasing temperature. Increase of ionic strength decreases the moduli compared with the pure hydrogel but did not affect the gel-sol transition temperature significantly. Small-angle X-ray experiments showed two distinct scattering correlation peaks for samples above the gelling Cp, which...

  4. Scaling exponents of star polymers

    OpenAIRE

    von Ferber, Christian; Holovatch, Yurij

    2002-01-01

    We review recent results of the field theoretical renormalization group analysis on the scaling properties of star polymers. We give a brief account of how the numerical values of the exponents governing the scaling of star polymers were obtained as well as provide some examples of the phenomena governed by these exponents. In particular we treat the interaction between star polymers in a good solvent, the Brownian motion near absorbing polymers, and diffusion-controlled reactions involving p...

  5. STAR-POLYMER -- COLLOID MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Dzubiella

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results in theory and simulation of star-polymer--colloid mixtures are reviewed. We present the effective interaction between hard, colloidal particles and star polymers in a good solvent derived by monomer-resolved Molecular Dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments. The relevant parameters are the size ratio q between the stars and the colloids, as well as the number of polymeric arms f (functionality attached to the common center of the star. By covering a wide range of q's ranging from zero (star against a flat wall up to about 0.5, we establish analytical forms for the star-colloid interaction which are in excellent agreement with simulation results. By employing this cross interaction and the effective interactions between stars and colloids themselves, a demixing transition in the fluid phase is observed and systematically investigated for different arm numbers and size ratios. The demixing binodals are compared with experimental observations and found to be consistent. Furthermore, we map the full two-component system on an effective one-component description for the colloids, by inverting the two-component Ornstein-Zernike equations. Some recent results for the depletion interaction and freezing transitions are shown.

  6. Scaling model for symmetric star polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ram; Rai, Durgesh K.; Beaucage, Gregory

    2010-03-01

    Neutron scattering data from symmetric star polymers with six poly (urethane-ether) arms, chemically bonded to a C-60 molecule are fitted using a new scaling model and scattering function. The new scaling function can describe both good solvent and theta solvent conditions as well as resolve deviations in chain conformation due to steric interactions between star arms. The scaling model quantifies the distinction between invariant topological features for this star polymer and chain tortuosity which changes with goodness of solvent and steric interaction. Beaucage G, Phys. Rev. E 70 031401 (2004).; Ramachandran R, et al. Macromolecules 41 9802-9806 (2008).; Ramachandran R, et al. Macromolecules, 42 4746-4750 (2009); Rai DK et al. Europhys. Lett., (Submitted 10/2009).

  7. Influence of Molecular Solvation on the Conformation of Star Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xin; Sánchez-Diáz, Luis E; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Smith, Gregory S; Hamilton, William A; Hong, Kunlun; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-01-01

    We have used neutron scattering to investigate the influence of concentration on the conformation of a star polymer. By varying the contrast between the solvent and isotopically labeled stars, we obtain the distributions of polymer and solvent within a star polymer from analysis of scattering data. A correlation between the local desolvation and the inward folding of star branches is discovered. From the perspective of thermodynamics, we find an analogy between the mechanism of polymer localization driven by solvent depletion and that of the hydrophobic collapse of polymers in solutions.

  8. Entropy-induced separation of star polymers in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a quantitative picture of the separation of star polymers in a solution where part of the volume is influenced by a porous medium. To this end, we study the impact of long-range-correlated quenched disorder on the entropy and scaling properties of f-arm star polymers in a good solvent. We assume that the disorder is correlated on the polymer length scale with a power-law decay of the pair correlation function g(r)∼r-a. Applying the field-theoretical renormalization group approach we show in a double expansion in ε=4-d and δ=4-a that there is a range of correlation strengths δ for which the disorder changes the scaling behavior of star polymers. In a second approach we calculate for fixed space dimension d=3 and different values of the correlation parameter a the corresponding scaling exponents γf that govern entropic effects. We find that γf-1, the deviation of γf from its mean field value is amplified by the disorder once we increase δ beyond a threshold. The consequences for a solution of diluted chain and star polymers of equal molecular weight inside a porous medium are that star polymers exert a higher osmotic pressure than chain polymers and in general higher branched star polymers are expelled more strongly from the correlated porous medium. Surprisingly, polymer chains will prefer a stronger correlated medium to a less or uncorrelated medium of the same density while the opposite is the case for star polymers

  9. Star clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All 33 papers presented at the symposium were inputted to INIS. They dealt with open clusters, globular clusters, stellar associations and moving groups, and local kinematics and galactic structures. (E.S.)

  10. Synthesis of cationic star polymers by simplified electrochemically mediated ATRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chmielarz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrin-based cationic star polymers were synthesized using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD core, and 2-(dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA as hydrophilic arms. Star-shaped polymers were prepared via a simplified electrochemically mediated ATRP (seATRP under potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions. The polymerization results showed molecular weight (MW evolution close to theoretical values, and maintained narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD of obtained stars. The rate of the polymerizations was controlled by applying more positive potential values thereby suppressing star-star coupling reactions. Successful chain extension of the ω-functional arms with a hydrophobic n-butyl acrylate (BA formed star block copolymers and confirmed the living nature of the β-CD-PDMAEMA star polymers prepared by seATRP. Novelty of this work is that the β-CD-PDMAEMA-b-PBA cationic star block copolymers were synthesized for the first time via seATRP procedure, utilizing only 40 ppm of catalyst complex. The results from 1H NMR spectral studies support the formation of cationic star (copolymers.

  11. Wavelength selective polymer network formation of end-functional star polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, Michael; Hiltebrandt, Kai; Trouillet, Vanessa; Mueller, Patrick; Quick, Alexander S; Wegener, Martin; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2016-01-31

    A wavelength selective technique for light-induced network formation based on two photo-active moieties, namely ortho-methylbenzaldehyde and tetrazole is introduced. The network forming species are photo-reactive star polymers generated via reversible activation fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, allowing the network to be based on almost any vinylic monomer. Direct laser writing (DLW) allows to form any complex three-dimensional structure based on the photo-reactive star polymers. PMID:26687371

  12. Neutron Star/Supernova Remnant Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspi, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    The evidence for associations between neutron stars and supernova remnants is reviewed. After summarizing the situation for young radio pulsars, I consider the evidence from associations that young neutron stars can have properties very different from those of radio pulsars. This, though still controversial, shakes our simple perception of the Crab pulsar as prototypical of the young neutron star population.

  13. Star polymer synthesis viaλ-orthogonal photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltebrandt, Kai; Kaupp, Michael; Molle, Edgar; Menzel, Jan P; Blinco, James P; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a light induced sequence enabling λ-orthogonal star polymer formation via an arms-first approach, based on an α,ω-functional polymer carrying tetrazole and o-methyl benzaldehyde moieties, which upon irradiation can readily undergo cycloaddition with a trifunctional maleimide core. Depending on the wavelength, the telechelic strand can be attached to the core at either photo-reactive end. PMID:27378494

  14. Bottle-brush polymers as an intermediate between star and cylindrical polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denesyuk, N. A.

    2003-09-01

    We present a theoretical study of a single bottle-brush molecule, which consists of multiarmed polymer stars grafted densely onto a stiff backbone. Mean-field approximation and a variational approach are used to calculate the dominant trajectories of the grafted chains, the shape of the molecule, and the segment density distribution around the backbone. All these properties are calculated for an arbitrary relationship between the size of the backbone and that of a grafted star. Hence cylindrical comb copolymer brushes and spherically symmetric polymer stars are considered as the limiting cases of the present problem.

  15. Bottle-brush polymers as an intermediate between star and cylindrical polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denesyuk, N A

    2003-09-01

    We present a theoretical study of a single bottle-brush molecule, which consists of multiarmed polymer stars grafted densely onto a stiff backbone. Mean-field approximation and a variational approach are used to calculate the dominant trajectories of the grafted chains, the shape of the molecule, and the segment density distribution around the backbone. All these properties are calculated for an arbitrary relationship between the size of the backbone and that of a grafted star. Hence cylindrical comb copolymer brushes and spherically symmetric polymer stars are considered as the limiting cases of the present problem. PMID:14524794

  16. Hyperbranched polymer stars with Gaussian chain statistics revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polińska, P; Gillig, C; Wittmer, J P; Baschnagel, J

    2014-02-01

    Conformational properties of regular dendrimers and more general hyperbranched polymer stars with Gaussian statistics for the spacer chains between branching points are revisited numerically. We investigate the scaling for asymptotically long chains especially for fractal dimensions df = 3 (marginally compact) and df = 2.5 (diffusion limited aggregation). Power-law stars obtained by imposing the number of additional arms per generation are compared to truly self-similar stars. We discuss effects of weak excluded-volume interactions and sketch the regime where the Gaussian approximation should hold in dense solutions and melts for sufficiently large spacer chains. PMID:24574057

  17. Peptidomimetic Star Polymers for Targeting Biological Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Lu, Derong; Xie, Zili; Feng, Jing; Jia, Zhongfan; Ho, Junming; Coote, Michelle L.; Wu, Yingliang; Monteiro, Michael J.; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Four end-functionalized star polymers that could attenuate the flow of ionic currents across biological ion channels were first de novo designed computationally, then synthesized and tested experimentally on mammalian K+ channels. The 4-arm ethylene glycol conjugate star polymers with lysine or a tripeptide attached to the end of each arm were specifically designed to mimic the action of scorpion toxins on K+ channels. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that the lysine side chain of the polymers physically occludes the pore of Kv1.3, a target for immuno-suppression therapy. Two of the compounds tested were potent inhibitors of Kv1.3. The dissociation constants of these two compounds were computed to be 0.1 μM and 0.7 μM, respectively, within 3-fold to the values derived from subsequent experiments. These results demonstrate the power of computational methods in molecular design and the potential of star polymers as a new infinitely modifiable platform for ion channel drug discovery. PMID:27007701

  18. Peptidomimetic Star Polymers for Targeting Biological Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Lu, Derong; Xie, Zili; Feng, Jing; Jia, Zhongfan; Ho, Junming; Coote, Michelle L; Wu, Yingliang; Monteiro, Michael J; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Four end-functionalized star polymers that could attenuate the flow of ionic currents across biological ion channels were first de novo designed computationally, then synthesized and tested experimentally on mammalian K+ channels. The 4-arm ethylene glycol conjugate star polymers with lysine or a tripeptide attached to the end of each arm were specifically designed to mimic the action of scorpion toxins on K+ channels. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that the lysine side chain of the polymers physically occludes the pore of Kv1.3, a target for immuno-suppression therapy. Two of the compounds tested were potent inhibitors of Kv1.3. The dissociation constants of these two compounds were computed to be 0.1 μM and 0.7 μM, respectively, within 3-fold to the values derived from subsequent experiments. These results demonstrate the power of computational methods in molecular design and the potential of star polymers as a new infinitely modifiable platform for ion channel drug discovery. PMID:27007701

  19. Star/linear polymer topology transformation facilitated by mechanical linking of polymer chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Daisuke; Uchida, Satoshi; Takata, Toshikazu

    2015-06-01

    Topology transformation of a star polymer to a linear polymer is demonstrated for the first time. A three-armed star polymer possessing a mechanical linking of two polymer chains was synthesized by the living ring-opening polymerization of δ-valerolactone initiated by a pseudo[2]rotaxane having three hydroxy groups as the initiator sites on the wheel component and at both axle termini. The polymerization was followed by the propagation end-capping reaction with a bulky isocyanate not only to prevent the wheel component deslippage but also to introduce the urethane moiety at the axle terminal. The resulting rotaxane-linked star polymer with a fixed rotaxane linkage based on the ammonium/crown ether interaction was subjected to N-acetylation of the ammonium moiety, which liberated the components from the interaction to move the wheel component to the urethane terminal as the interaction site, eventually affording the linear polymer. The physical property change caused by the present topology transformation was confirmed by the hydrodynamic volume and viscosity. PMID:25892579

  20. Structure and rheology of star polymers in confined geometries: a mesoscopic simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feiwo; Goujon, Florent; Mendonça, Ana C F; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J

    2015-11-28

    Mesoscopic simulations of star polymer melts adsorbed onto solid surfaces are performed using the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method. A set of parameters is developed to study the low functionality star polymers under shear. The use of a new bond-angle potential between the arms of the star creates more rigid chains and discriminates between different functionalities at equilibrium, but still allows the polymers to deform appropriately under shear. The rheology of the polymer melts is studied by calculating the kinetic friction and viscosity and there is good agreement with experimental properties of these systems. The study is completed with predictive simulations of star polymer solutions in an athermal solvent. PMID:26435466

  1. STAR POLYMER/WATER SOLUTIONS: NEW EXPERIMENTAL FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Branca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to highlight a number of recent experimental results that have contributed significantly to the research area of star polymer. Firstly we will refer to a very impressive SANS work by J.Peyrelasse, C.Perreur, J.-P.Habas and J.Francois which is focused on the study of the structural properties of aqueous solutions of a star copolymer of PEO and PPO by Small Angle Neutron Scattering. Next, we will refer to some experimental advances reported in the work by R.Triolo, V.Arrighi, A.Triolo, P.Migliardo, S.Magazu, J.B.McClain, D.Betts, J.M.DeSimone, H.D.Middendorf, which deals with a study of some dynamical properties of PS-b-PFOA aggregates in supercritical CO2 by Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering.

  2. Self and collective dynamics of ordered star polymer solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Stellbrink, J; Monkenbusch, M; Richter, D; Ehlers, G; Schleger, P

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of 18-arm polyisoprene star polymer solutions well above their overlap concentration c sup *. Combining neutron spin echo spectroscopy (NSE) and selective H/D labelling, we were able to separate inter- (collective) and intra-star (self) dynamics. Only at low Q-vectors do self and collective dynamics become discernible. Here, collective dynamics are found to be consistent with a colloidal approach resulting from star-star interactions. The collective short time diffusion coefficient D sub e sub f sub f is well described by the term D sub 0 /S(Q), with D sub 0 the diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution. At Q sub m , the peak position in the structure factor S(Q), no difference is observable between collective and self dynamics. For covering the slowed-down dynamics at Q sub m the time range of NSE was extended for the first time up to 350 ns using long wavelengths, lambda=19 A, at IN15 (ILL, Grenoble). We found that S(Q,t)/S(Q,0) relaxes into a concentration-dependent plateau. T...

  3. SUPER STAR CLUSTERS VERSUS OB ASSOCIATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Super star clusters (Mecl > 105 Msun) are the largest stellar nurseries in our local Universe, containing hundreds of thousands to millions of young stars within a few light years. Many of these systems are found in external galaxies, especially in pairs of interacting galaxies, and in some dwarf galaxies, but relatively few in disk galaxies like our own Milky Way. We show that a possible explanation for this difference is the presence of shear in normal spiral galaxies which impedes the formation of the very large and dense super star clusters but prefers the formation of loose OB associations possibly with a less massive cluster at the center. In contrast, in interacting galaxies and in dwarf galaxies, regions can collapse without having a large-scale sense of rotation. This lack of rotational support allows the giant clouds of gas and stars to concentrate into a single, dense, and gravitationally bound system.

  4. Viscoelasticity, nonlinear shear start-up, and relaxation of entangled star polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Snijkers, Frank

    2013-07-23

    We report on a detailed rheological investigation of well-defined symmetric entangled polymer stars of low functionality with varying number of arms, molar mass of the arms, and solvent content. Emphasis is placed on the response of the stars in simple shear, during start-up, and for relaxation upon flow cessation. To reduce experimental artifacts associated with edge fracture (primarily) and wall slip, we employ a homemade cone-partitioned plate fixture which was successfully implemented in recent studies. Reliable data for these highly entangled stars could be obtained for Weissenberg numbers below 300. The appearance of a stress overshoot during start-up with a corresponding strain approaching a value of 2 suggests that in the investigated shear regime the stars orient but do not stretch. This is corroborated by the fact that the empirical Cox-Merx rule appears to be validated, within experimental error. On the other hand, the (shear) rate dependent steady shear viscosity data exhibit a slope smaller than the convective constraint release slope of -1 (for linear polymers) for the investigated range of rates. The broadness of the stress overshoot reflects the broad linear relaxation spectrum of the stars. The initial stress relaxation rate, reflecting the initial loss of entanglements due to the action of convective constraint release in steady shear flow, increases with Weissenberg number. More importantly, when compared against the relevant rates for comb polymers with relatively short arms, the latter are slower at larger Weissenberg numbers. At long times, the relaxation data are consistent with the linear viscoelastic data on these systems. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Role of hydrophilicity and length of diblock arms for determining star polymer physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felberg, Lisa E; Brookes, David H; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Rice, Julia E; Swope, William C

    2015-01-22

    We present a molecular simulation study of star polymers consisting of 16 diblock copolymer arms bound to a small adamantane core by varying both arm length and the outer hydrophilic block when attached to the same hydrophobic block of poly-δ-valerolactone. Here we consider two biocompatible star polymers in which the hydrophilic block is composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polymethyloxazoline (POXA) in addition to a polycarbonate-based polymer with a pendant hydrophilic group (PC1). We find that the different hydrophilic blocks of the star polymers show qualitatively different trends in their interactions with aqueous solvent, orientational time correlation functions, and orientational correlation between pairs of monomers of their polymeric arms in solution, in which we find that the PEG polymers are more thermosensitive compared with the POXA and PC1 star polymers over the physiological temperature range we have investigated. PMID:25254622

  6. RAFT Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Free-Base Porphyrin Cored Star Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Wu; Ronan McHale; Guoqiang Feng; Xiaosong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) synthesis and self-assembly of free-base porphyrin cored star polymers are reported. The polymerization, in the presence of a free-base porphyrin cored chain transfer agent (CTA-FBP), produced porphyrin star polymers with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersities for a number of monomers including N, N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) and styrene (St). Well-defined amphiphilic star block copolymers, P-(PS-PDMA)4 and P-(PDMA-PS)4 (...

  7. Supramolecular Polymers Formed by ABC Miktoarm Star Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-An; Ou, Yu-Chuan; Cheetham, Andrew G; Cui, Honggang

    2013-12-17

    We report here the design and synthesis of an ABC miktoarm star peptide connecting through a lysine junction a short peptide sequence and two hydrophobic but immiscible blocks (a hydrocarbon and a fluorocarbon). The designed molecule can self-assemble into one-dimensional nanostructures with a great diversity of kinetically evolving morphologies in aqueous solution, while molecules that contain only one of the two hydrophobic blocks form structurally similar filaments. We believe the rich assembly behavior and morphological evolution are a direct reflection of the molecular frustration present within the filament core as a result of the in-compatibility of the fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon segments. Our finding opens new opportunities for creating complex supramolecular polymers through the architecture design of small molecular building units. PMID:24490124

  8. Conformation-dependent translocation of a star polymer through a nanochannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Liu, Jiannan; Xiao, Mengying; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2014-01-01

    The translocation process of star polymers through a nanochannel is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics simulations. The translocation process is strongly influenced by the star arm arrangement as the polymer enters the channel, and a scaling relation between the translocation time τ and the total number of beads Ntot is obtained. Qualitative agreements are found with predictions of the nucleation and growth model for linear block co-polymer translocation. In the intermediate stage where the center of the star polymer is at the channel entrance, the translocation time is found to have power law-dependence on the number of arms outside the channel and very weakly dependent on the number of arms in the channel. Increasing the total number of star arms also increases the star translocation time. PMID:25332744

  9. Disorder effects on the static scattering function of star branched polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Blavatska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the impact of structural disorder on the static scattering function of f-armed star branched polymers in d dimensions. To this end, we consider the model of a star polymer immersed in a good solvent in the presence of structural defects, correlated at large distances r according to a power law ~r-a. In particular, we are interested in the ratio g(f of the radii of gyration of star and linear polymers of the same molecular weight, which is a universal experimentally measurable quantity. We apply a direct polymer renormalization approach and evaluate the results within the double ϵ = 4 - d, δ = 4 - a-expansion. We find an increase of g(f with an increasing δ. Therefore, an increase of disorder correlations leads to an increase of the size measure of a star relative to linear polymers of the same molecular weight.

  10. STAR POLYMERS IN GOOD SOLVENTS FROM DILUTE TO CONCENTRATED REGIMES: CROSSOVER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B.Kiselev

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An introduction is given to the crossover theory of the conformational and thermodynamic properties of star polymers in good solvents. The crossover theory is tested against Monte Carlo simulation data for the structure and thermodynamics of model star polymers. In good solvent conditions, star polymers approach a "universal" limit as N → ∞, however, there are two types of approach towards this limit. In the dilute regime, a critical degree of polymerization N* is found to play a similar role as the Ginzburg number in the crossover theory for critical phenomena in simple fluids. A rescaled penetration function is found to control the free energy of star polymer solutions in the dilute and semidilute regions. This equation of state captures the scaling behaviour of polymer solutions in the dilute/semidilute regimes and also performs well in the concentrated regimes, where the details of the monomer-monomer interactions become important.

  11. Structure analysis of adsorbed star-like polymers with GISAS and SFM

    CERN Document Server

    Wolkenhauer, M; Wunnicke, O; Stamm, M; Roovers, J; Krosigk, G V; Cubitt, R

    2002-01-01

    The lateral structures of dried adsorbed binary mixtures of star polymers were investigated. Blends of protonated and deuterated polybutadiene stars were prepared from cyclohexane solutions and adsorbed onto silicon substrates. The number of arms and the molecular weight of the arms was varied. With grazing incidence small angle scattering techniques (GISAS) and scanning force microscopy (SFM), different dominant in-plane length scales were determined. The morphology of these structures is dominated by blob-like structures created from single stars or agglomerates of star polymers. (orig.)

  12. Polymer association in a microemulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using small angle neutron scattering technique with appropriate contrast we have been able to elucidate some associations structures of polystyrene (PS) and triblock co-polymers of polyethylene oxide-polystyrene- polyethylene oxide (PEO-PS-PEO) in a water-in-oil microemulsion system

  13. Design of conducting polymer matrix derived from the C{sub 60}-based star-shaped polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, L.Y.; Wang, L.Y. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-12-01

    Synthetic methods leading to the preparation of water-soluble polyhydroxylated C{sub 60} derivative (fullerenol) have been extensively investigated recently. This type of molecule, containing multiple polar hydroxyl functions in a ball-shaped fullerene structure, is suitable for utilization as a versatile intermediate in the prospective design of three-dimensionally stretched polymers. The strategy involves the use of fullerenol as a molecular core for anchoring various polymer arms on the C{sub 60} cage. Since the spherical space of fullerenol, covering the outer radius of hydroxyl groups, is in a diameter of approximately 13 {Angstrom}. The truly star-bursted polymer molecules can be made. The treatment of fullerenol with a prepolymer of diisocyanated urethane polyether under a mild condition afforded the C{sub 60}-based polyurethane polyether star-polymers with a narrow distribution of the number of polymer arms. We will discuss the use of C{sub 60}-based star-shaped polymer in the design and fabrication of polyaniline analog conducting polymer matrix.

  14. Palladium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Precatalyst Site Isolated in the Core of a Star Polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Bukhryakov, Konstantin V.

    2015-10-02

    An approach for supporting a Pd-NHC complex on a soluble star polymer with nanoscale dimensions is described. The resulting star polymer catalyst exhibits excellent activity in cross-coupling reactions, is stable in air and moisture, and is easily recoverable and recyclable. These properties are distinct and unattainable with the small-molecule version of the same catalyst. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  15. Determination of the interaction parameter and topological scaling features of symmetric star polymers in dilute solution

    KAUST Repository

    Rai, Durgesh K.

    2015-07-15

    Star polymers provide model architectures to understand the dynamic and rheological effects of chain confinement for a range of complex topological structures like branched polymers, colloids, and micelles. It is important to describe the structure of such macromolecular topologies using small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering to facilitate understanding of their structure-property relationships. Modeling of scattering from linear, Gaussian polymers, such as in the melt, has applied the random phase approximation using the Debye polymer scattering function. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter can be obtained using neutron scattering by this method. Gaussian scaling no longer applies for more complicated chain topologies or when chains are in good solvents. For symmetric star polymers, chain scaling can differ from ν=0.5(df=2) due to excluded volume, steric interaction between arms, and enhanced density due to branching. Further, correlation between arms in a symmetric star leads to an interference term in the scattering function first described by Benoit for Gaussian chains. In this work, a scattering function is derived which accounts for interarm correlations in symmetric star polymers as well as the polymer-solvent interaction parameter for chains of arbitrary scaling dimension using a hybrid Unified scattering function. The approach is demonstrated for linear, four-arm and eight-arm polyisoprene stars in deuterated p-xylene.

  16. Open boundary molecular dynamics of sheared star-polymer melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablić, Jurij; Praprotnik, Matej; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael

    2016-02-28

    Open boundary molecular dynamics (OBMD) simulations of a sheared star polymer melt under isothermal conditions are performed to study the rheology and molecular structure of the melt under a fixed normal load. Comparison is made with the standard molecular dynamics (MD) in periodic (closed) boxes at a fixed shear rate (using the SLLOD dynamics). The OBMD system exchanges mass and momentum with adjacent reservoirs (buffers) where the external pressure tensor is imposed. Insertion of molecules in the buffers is made feasible by implementing there a low resolution model (blob-molecules with soft effective interactions) and then using the adaptive resolution scheme (AdResS) to connect with the bulk MD. Straining with increasing shear stress induces melt expansion and a significantly different redistribution of pressure compared with the closed case. In the open sample, the shear viscosity is also a bit lowered but more stable against the viscous heating. At a given Weissenberg number, molecular deformations and material properties (recoverable shear strain and normal stress ratio) are found to be similar in both setups. We also study the modelling effect of normal and tangential friction between monomers implemented in a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) thermostat. Interestingly, the tangential friction substantially enhances the elastic response of the melt due to a reduction of the kinetic stress viscous contribution. PMID:26820315

  17. Two-dimensional polymeric liquids and polymer stars: learning from conflicting theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss systems for which two carefully derived, yet conflicting, theories coexisted. Dense polymers in two dimensions and star-shaped polymers in the θ-regime are considered. In both cases the two proposed theories are in a sense exact, but turn out to satisfy different crossing rules (for the 2d polymer) or to correspond to different orders of limits. Finally, both theories prove very useful, albeit for different subclasses of physical systems. (paper)

  18. Synthesis and Properties of Star-Comb Polymers and Their Doxorubicin Conjugates

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bo; van der Poll, Derek G.; Jerger, Katherine; Floyd, William C.; Fréchet, Jean M.J.; Szoka, Francis C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a six step synthesis to water soluble doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded biodegradable PEGylated star-comb polymers with favorable pharmaceutical properties by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) starting with a commercially available tripentaerythritol carrying eight reactive sites. The low polydispersity polymers degrade in a stepwise manner into lower molecular weight (MW) fragments by 15 days at 37 °C at either pH 5.0 or pH 7.4. The half-life of the star-comb polymers in blood i...

  19. SANS structural characterization of fullerenol-derived star polymers in solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jeng, U S; Wang, L Y; Chiang, L Y; Ho, D L; Han, C C

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the chain conformations of fullerenol-derived star polymers in two organic solvents using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS results indicate that the six poly(urethane-ether) arms, chemically bonded on the fullerenol of the C sub 6 sub 0 -based star polymer, have a Gaussian chain conformation in toluene. However, these arms exhibit a pronounced excluded-volume effect in dimethylformamide solutions. We use a scattering model, with the polydispersity of the polymer taken into account, and a fractal model to extract the radius of gyration R sub g values and the persistence lengths of the C sub 6 sub 0 -star polymers in these two organic solutions. (orig.)

  20. SANS structural characterization of fullerenol-derived star polymers in solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeng, U.S.; Lin, T.L. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30043 (Taiwan); Wang, L.Y.; Chiang, L.Y. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (Taiwan); Ho, D.L.; Han, C.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 02899 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    We have studied the chain conformations of fullerenol-derived star polymers in two organic solvents using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS results indicate that the six poly(urethane-ether) arms, chemically bonded on the fullerenol of the C{sub 60}-based star polymer, have a Gaussian chain conformation in toluene. However, these arms exhibit a pronounced excluded-volume effect in dimethylformamide solutions. We use a scattering model, with the polydispersity of the polymer taken into account, and a fractal model to extract the radius of gyration R{sub g} values and the persistence lengths of the C{sub 60}-star polymers in these two organic solutions. (orig.)

  1. Mechanisms of the self-organization of star-shaped polymers with a varied structure of branching center based on fullerene C60 in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-organization of star-shaped polymers in toluene has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering. Polystyrene stars with a mono-C60 branching center are ordered into globular clusters (∼1700 nm in diameter), whereas stars with a double (C60-C60) center are ordered into anisotropic structures (superchains), which are linked (depending on the concentration) into triads (chain clusters ∼2500 nm in diameter). On the contrary, heteroarm polystyrene and poly-2-vinylpyridine stars with a C60 center are weakly associated into dimers. Moderately polar stars with arms composed of polystyrene and diblock copolymer (poly-2-vinylpyridine-poly-tret-butyl methacrylate) form short chains composed of four macromolecules, while stars of higher polarity based on polystyrene and poly-tret-butyl methacrylate form clusters containing ∼12 macromolecules ∼50 nm in diameter. Thus, by varying the structure of the center and the arm polarity, one can control the modes of star structuring.

  2. Polymer networks from hyperbranched, dendritic and star shaped precursors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Karel; Dušková, Miroslava; Šomvársky, Ján

    Vina del Mar : Division de Macromoléculas de la Sociedad Chilena de Química , 1998. s. 12. [Latin American Symposium on Polymers /6./, Ibero-American Congress on Polymers /4./, Chilean Symposium on Chemistry and Physical Chemistry of Polymers /4./. 25.10.1998-28.10.1998, Vina del Mar] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050808 Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  3. SCALING THEORY AND COMPUTER SIMULATION OF STAR POLYMERS IN GOOD SOLVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ohno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The scaling theories and the results of the renormalization-group ε=4-d expansion (d is the spatial dimensionality as well as the computer simulations such as Monte Carlo simulations are extensively reviewed for star polymers with very long flexible arms of equal length in a dilute solution of the good solvent limit, with a close connection to general polymer networks. In particular, the asymptotic behaviour of the conformational and entropic quantities in the long chain limit is discussed in detail in terms of the polymer-magnetism analogy. Discussions are given not only for static properties such as the distribution functions and the osmotic pressure or entropy but also for dynamic properties such as the relaxation time and the intrinsic viscosity of star polymers.

  4. Synthesis and In Vitro Cancer Cell Targeting of Folate-Functionalized Biodegradable Amphiphilic Dendrimer-Like Star Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Weiqiang; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Yong; Zhu, Lei

    2010-01-01

    By coupling a well-defined PLLA star polymer with six carboxylic acid-terminated polyester dendrons based on 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid, a biodegradable dendrimer-like star polymer (DLSP) with multiple carboxylic acid groups at the outer surface was successfully synthesized. Conjugation of

  5. Single-chain crosslinked star polymers via intramolecular crosslinking of self-folding amphiphilic copolymers in water

    OpenAIRE

    Terashima, Takaya; Sugita, Takanori; Sawamoto, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Single-chain crosslinked star polymers with multiple hydrophilic short arms and a hydrophobic core were created as novel microgel star polymers of single polymer chains. The synthetic process involves the intramolecular crosslinking of self-folding amphiphilic random copolymers in water. For this process, amphiphilic random copolymers bearing hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydrophobic olefin pendants were synthesized by ruthenium-catalyzed living radical copolymerization of PEG m...

  6. Utilization of polyhydroxylated C{sub 60} as a molecular core for the synthesis of star-shaped polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, L.Y. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Wang, L.Y. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Tseng Shengmao [Inst. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Wu Jungsheng [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Hsieh Kuohuang [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-03-15

    Polyhydroxylated C{sub 60} derivative (fullerenol) was used as a molecular core in the design and synthesis of poly(urethane-ether) analog star-shaped polymers. Structure of these star-polymers were characterized to consist of 6 poly(urethane-ether) arms per C{sub 60}, on average, in a remarkably narrow distribution of the number of arms per polymer molecule, when the reaction was performed under the described conditions. (orig.)

  7. Partitioning of star branched polymers into pores at three chromatography conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongmei; Masur, Aaron; Zhu, Yutian; Ziebarth, Jesse

    2010-09-24

    The partitioning of star branched polymers into a slit pore at three different chromatography conditions, namely, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), liquid chromatography at the critical condition (LCCC), and liquid adsorption chromatography (LAC) have been investigated with lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Two different chain models are used: random walks (RW) that have no excluded volume interaction and self-avoiding walks (SAW) that have excluded volume interaction. The simulation data obtained for the two chain models are compared to illustrate the effect of excluded volume interactions on the partitioning of star branched polymers. The two most outstanding effects observed due to the introduction of excluded volume interactions are: (i) stars with a high number of arms can be excluded from the pore at condition corresponding to the LCCC of the linear polymers; (ii) the partition coefficient of stars in LAC mode is not dependent only on the total number of monomers on the chain. These effects illustrated by the current study should be taken into account when interpreting experimental chromatography data for branched polymers. PMID:20728895

  8. Quantification of interaction and topological parameters of polyisoprene star polymers under good solvent conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Beaucage, Gregory; Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Beaucage, Peter; Ramachandran, Ramnath; Hadjichristidis, Nikos

    2016-05-01

    Mass fractal scaling, reflected in the mass fractal dimension df, is independently impacted by topology, reflected in the connectivity dimension c , and by tortuosity, reflected in the minimum dimension dmin. The mass fractal dimension is related to these other dimensions by df=c dmin . Branched fractal structures have a higher mass fractal dimension compared to linear structures due to a higher c , and extended structures have a lower dimension compared to convoluted self-avoiding and Gaussian walks due to a lower dmin. It is found, in this work, that macromolecules in thermodynamic equilibrium display a fixed mass fractal dimension df under good solvent conditions, regardless of chain topology. These equilibrium structures accommodate changes in chain topology such as branching c by a decrease in chain tortuosity dmin. Symmetric star polymers are used to understand the structure of complex macromolecular topologies. A recently published hybrid Unified scattering function accounts for interarm correlations in symmetric star polymers along with polymer-solvent interaction for chains of arbitrary scaling dimension. Dilute solutions of linear, three-arm and six-arm polyisoprene stars are studied under good solvent conditions in deuterated p -xylene. Reduced chain tortuosity can be viewed as steric straightening of the arms. Steric effects for star topologies are quantified, and it is found that steric straightening of arms is more significant for lower-molecular-weight arms. The observation of constant df is explained through a modification of Flory-Krigbaum theory for branched polymers.

  9. Quantification of interaction and topological parameters of polyisoprene star polymers under good solvent conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Rai, Durgesh K.

    2016-05-05

    Mass fractal scaling, reflected in the mass fractal dimension df, is independently impacted by topology, reflected in the connectivity dimension c, and by tortuosity, reflected in the minimum dimension dmin. The mass fractal dimension is related to these other dimensions by df=cdmin. Branched fractal structures have a higher mass fractal dimension compared to linear structures due to a higher c, and extended structures have a lower dimension compared to convoluted self-avoiding and Gaussian walks due to a lower dmin. It is found, in this work, that macromolecules in thermodynamic equilibrium display a fixed mass fractal dimension df under good solvent conditions, regardless of chain topology. These equilibrium structures accommodate changes in chain topology such as branching c by a decrease in chain tortuosity dmin. Symmetric star polymers are used to understand the structure of complex macromolecular topologies. A recently published hybrid Unified scattering function accounts for interarm correlations in symmetric star polymers along with polymer-solvent interaction for chains of arbitrary scaling dimension. Dilute solutions of linear, three-arm and six-arm polyisoprene stars are studied under good solvent conditions in deuterated p-xylene. Reduced chain tortuosity can be viewed as steric straightening of the arms. Steric effects for star topologies are quantified, and it is found that steric straightening of arms is more significant for lower-molecular-weight arms. The observation of constant df is explained through a modification of Flory-Krigbaum theory for branched polymers.

  10. Core Cross-linked Star Polymers for Temperature/pH Controlled Delivery of 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sánchez-Bustos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RAFT polymerization with cross-linking was used to prepare core cross-linked star polymers bearing temperature sensitive arms. The arms consisted of a diblock copolymer containing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm and 4-methacryloyloxy benzoic acid (4MBA in the temperature sensitive block and poly(hexyl acrylate forming the second hydrophobic block, while ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate was used to form the core. The acid comonomer provides pH sensitivity to the arms and also increases the transition temperature of polyNIPAAm to values in the range of 40 to 46°C. Light scattering and atomic force microscopy studies suggest that loose core star polymers were obtained. The star polymers were loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, an anticancer agent, in values of up to 30 w/w%. In vitro release experiments were performed at different temperatures and pH values, as well as with heating and cooling temperature cycles. Faster drug release was obtained at 42°C or pH 6, compared to normal physiological conditions (37°C, pH 7.4. The drug carriers prepared acted as nanopumps changing the release kinetics of 5-FU when temperatures cycles were applied, in contrast with release rates at a constant temperature. The prepared core cross-linked star polymers represent advanced drug delivery vehicles optimized for 5-FU with potential application in cancer treatment.

  11. Understanding constraint release in star/linear polymer blends

    KAUST Repository

    Shivokhin, M. E.

    2014-04-08

    In this paper, we exploit the stochastic slip-spring model to quantitatively predict the stress relaxation dynamics of star/linear blends with well-separated longest relaxation times and we analyze the results to assess the validity limits of the two main models describing the corresponding relaxation mechanisms within the framework of the tube picture (Doi\\'s tube dilation and Viovy\\'s constraint release by Rouse motions of the tube). Our main objective is to understand and model the stress relaxation function of the star component in the blend. To this end, we divide its relaxation function into three zones, each of them corresponding to a different dominating relaxation mechanism. After the initial fast Rouse motions, relaxation of the star is dominated at intermediate times by the "skinny" tube (made by all topological constraints) followed by exploration of the "fat" tube (made by long-lived obstacles only). At longer times, the tube dilation picture provides the right shape for the relaxation of the stars. However, the effect of short linear chains results in time-shift factors that have never been described before. On the basis of the analysis of the different friction coefficients involved in the relaxation of the star chains, we propose an equation predicting these time-shift factors. This allows us to develop an analytical equation combining all relaxation zones, which is verified by comparison with simulation results. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  12. On the Kontsevich $\\star$-product associativity mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Buring, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The deformation quantization by Kontsevich [arXiv:q-alg/9709040] is a way to construct an associative noncommutative star-product $\\star=\\times+\\hbar \\{\\ ,\\ \\}_{P}+\\bar{o}(\\hbar)$ in the algebra of formal power series in $\\hbar$ on a given finite-dimensional affine Poisson manifold: here $\\times$ is the usual multiplication, $\\{\\ ,\\ \\}_{P}\

  13. Herbig Ae/Be Stars in nearby OB associations

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, J; Hartmann, L; Briceño, C; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Berlind, P; Hernandez, Jesus; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Briceno, Cesar; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Berlind, Perry

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out a study of the early type stars in nearby OB associations spanning an age range of $\\sim$ 3 to 16 Myr, with the aim of determining the fraction of stars which belong to the Herbig Ae/Be class. We studied the B, A, and F stars in the nearby ($\\le 500$ pc) OB associations Upper Scorpius, Perseus OB2, Lacerta OB1, and Orion OB1, with membership determined from Hipparcos data. We obtained spectra for 440 Hipparcos stars in these associations, from which we determined accurate spectral types, visual extinctions, effective temperatures, luminosities and masses, using Hipparcos photometry. Using colors corrected for reddening, we find that the Herbig Ae/Be stars and the Classical Be stars (CBe) occupy clearly different regions in the JHK diagram. Thus, we use the location on the JHK diagram, as well as the presence of emission lines and of strong 12 microns flux relative to the visual to identify the Herbig Ae/Be stars in the associations. We find that the Herbig Ae/Be stars constitute a small fr...

  14. Constitutional Isomers of Dendrimer-like Star Polymers: Design, Synthesis and Conformational and Structural Properties; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, synthesis and solution properties of six constitutional isomers of dendrimer-like star polymers is described. Each of the polymers have comparable molecular weights ((approx) 80,000 g/mol), narrow polydispersities ( and lt; 1.19) and an identical number of branching junctures (45) and surface hydroxyl functionalities (48). The only difference in the six isomers is the placement of the branching junctures. The polymers are constructed from high molecular weight poly(e-caprolactone) with branching junctures derived from 2,2'-bis(hydroxylmethyl) propionic acid (bis-MPA) emanating from a central core. The use of various generations of dendritic initiators and dendrons coupled with the ring opening polymerization of e-caprolactones allowed a modular approach to the dendrimer-like star polymer isomers. The most pronounced effects on the physical properties/morphology and hydrodynamic volume was for those polymers in which the branching was distributed throughout the sample in a dendrimer-like fashion. The versatility of this approach has provided the possibility of understanding the relationship between architecture and physical properties. Dynamic light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to determine the hydrodynamic radius Rh and radius of gyration Rg respectively. The relationship between Rg and molecular weight was indicative of a compact star-like structure, and did not show advanced bias towards either the dense core or dense shell models. The radial density distribution of the isomers was therefore modeled according to a many arm star polymer, and good agreement was found with experimental measures of Rh/Rg

  15. IAU Commission 37 "Star Clusters and Associations" Legacy report

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Elmegreen, Bruce; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Geisler, Douglas; Goodwin, Simon; Stetson, Peter; Minniti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that stars do not form in isolation but result from the fragmentation of molecular clouds, which in turn leads to star cluster formation. Over time, clusters dissolve or are destroyed by interactions with molecular clouds or tidal stripping, and their members become part of the general field population. Star clusters are thus among the basic building blocks of galaxies. In turn, star cluster populations, from young associations and open clusters to old globulars, are powerful tracers of the formation, assembly, and evolutionary history of their parent galaxies. Although their importance had been recognised for decades, major progress in this area has only become possible in recent years, both for Galactic and extragalactic cluster populations. Star clusters are the observational foundation for stellar astrophysics and evolution, provide essential tracers of galactic structure, and are unique stellar dynamical environments. Star formation, stellar structure, stellar evolution, and stellar...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of one star-shaped polymer with charged iridium complex as luminescent core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One new three-arm star-shaped polymer was synthesized by the core-first way using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. This polymer contained charged iridium (Ir) complex as the luminescent core and 2-(carbazol-9-yl) ethyl methacrylate as the arm repeat unit. Its structure was confirmed by elemental analysis, nuclear magnet resonance (NMR) and photoluminescence (PL). The polymer has a relatively low polydispersity index (PDI) of 1.30 with excellent thermal stability. It also possesses significant redox behavior with a HOMO level of -5.21 eV, which will be of benefit to hole-injection. The PL spectrum of the polymer in film state has a stable peak at 565 nm, however, its PL in dichloromethane solution varied with its concentration. It demonstrated effective energy transfer from the arm unit to the core in the host-guest system. This indicated that when the length of the arm is properly designed, highly luminescent materials can be achieved with emission at 565 nm. - Highlights: → One three-arm star-shaped polymer with Ir complex core was synthesized by ATRP method. → Cationic Ir complex can serve as versatile templates for polymerization initiators. → The polymer shows a pure emission at 565 nm attributed to 3MLCT transition. → The effective energy transfer occurs from the carbazole arm to the Ir complex core.

  17. Supramolecular Polymers Formed by ABC Miktoarm Star Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yi-an; Ou, Yu-Chuan; Cheetham, Andrew G.; Cui, Honggang

    2013-01-01

    We report here the design and synthesis of an ABC miktoarm star peptide connecting through a lysine junction a short peptide sequence and two hydrophobic but immiscible blocks (a hydrocarbon and a fluorocarbon). The designed molecule can self-assemble into one-dimensional nanostructures with a great diversity of kinetically evolving morphologies in aqueous solution, while molecules that contain only one of the two hydrophobic blocks form structurally similar filaments. We believe the rich ass...

  18. Electrochemical Interrogation of G3-Poly(propylene thiophenoimine Dendritic Star Polymer in Phenanthrene Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlamulo R. Makelane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel dendritic star-copolymer, generation 3 poly(propylene thiophenoimine (G3PPT-co-poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT star co-polymer on gold electrode (i.e., Au|G3PPT-co-P3HT was used as a sensor system for the determination of phenanthrene (PHE. The G3PPT-co-P3HT star co-polymer was synthesized via in situ electrochemical co-polymerization of generation 3 poly (propylene thiophenoimine and poly (3-hexylthiophene on gold electrode. 1HNMR spectroscopy was used to determine the regioregularity of the polymer composites, whereas Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study their structural and morphological properties. Au|G3PPT-co-P3HT in the absence of PHE, exhibited reversible electrochemistry attributable to the oligo (thiophene ‘pendants’ of the dendrimer. PHE produced an increase in the voltammetric signals (anodic currents due to its oxidation on the dendritic material to produce catalytic current, thereby suggesting the suitability of the Au|G3PPT-co-P3HT electrode as a PHE sensor. The electrocatalysis of PHE was made possible by the rigid and planar oligo-P3HT species (formed upon the oxidation of the oligo (thiophene pendants of the star-copolymer, which allowed the efficient capture (binding and detection (electrocatalytic oxidation of PHE molecules.

  19. A Method to Search for Associations of Young Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Quast, G R; Melo, C H F; Sterzik, M; De la Reza, R; Silva, L; Quast, Germano R.; Torres, Carlos A. O.; Melo, Claudio H. F.; Sterzik, Michael; Reza, Ramiro de la; Silva, Licio da

    2003-01-01

    In the SACY (Search for Associations Containing Young-stars) project we try to identify associations of stars younger than the Local Association among HIPPARCOS and/or TYCHO-2 stars later than G0 which are counterparts of the ROSAT X-ray bright sources. High-resolution spectra for the possible optical counterparts were obtained in order to assess both the youth and the spatial motion of each target. More than 1000 ROSAT sources were observed, covering a large area in the Southern Hemisphere. Associations are characterized mainly by the similarity in UVW velocity space of their proposed member, but other parameters, as evolutionary age, Li abundance and distribution in space must also be taken into account. We proposed a method to identify associations when proper motions and radial velocities are available, but no parallaxes. Using the method we found eleven associations in the SACY data.

  20. SACY - a Search for Associations Containing Young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, C A O; De la Reza, R; Silva, L; Melo, C H F; Sterzik, M; Melo, Claudio H. F.; Quast, Germano R.; Reza, Ramiro de la; Silva, Licio da; Sterzik, Michael; Torres, Carlos A. O.

    2003-01-01

    The scientific goal of the SACY (Search for Associations Containing Young-stars) was to identify possible associations of stars younger than the Pleiades Association among optical counterparts of the ROSAT X-ray bright sources. High-resolution spectra for possible optical counterparts later than G0 belonging to HIPPARCOS and/or TYCHO-2 catalogs were obtained in order to assess both the youth and the spatial motion of each target. More than 1000 ROSAT sources were observed, covering a large area in the Southern Hemisphere. The newly identified young stars present a patchy distribution in UVW and XYZ, revealing the existence of huge nearby young associations. Here we present the associations identified in this survey.

  1. Stimulus-responsive hydrogels based on associative polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, Sami; Hvilsted, Søren; Jankova Atanasova, Katja;

    2008-01-01

    associative behaviour with stimuli-responsiveness. Suitable stimuli include for example temperature, pH, ionic strength or variation of polymer or additive concentration. Developments in the controlled radical polymerization methods has enabled versatile modification of polymer structures, which in tum...... enables design of novel associating polymers. Two different stimuli-responsive hydrogel systems will be discussed. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) has attracted attention due to its sharp and reversible transition behavior and well-defined demixing temperature in aqueous medium. This however only...

  2. Photocrosslinkable Star Polymers via RAFT-Copolymerizations with N-Ethylacrylate-3,4-dimethylmaleimide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Vana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Z-RAFT-star copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate (BA and N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm, respectively, with N-ethylacrylate-3,4-dimethylmaleimide (1.1, a monomer carrying a UV-reactive unit that undergoes photocrosslinking. Addition of 1.1 slows down the polymerization rate both for BA and for NIPAm polymerization. Double star formation due to radical attack to the 3,4-dimethylmaleimide moiety was found in the case of BA. Dead polymer formation, presumably due to aminolysis as side-reaction, was pronounced in the NIPAm system. These two effects broadened the molar mass distributions, but did not impede the formation of functional star polymers. The composition of the copolymers as well as the reactivity ratios for the applied comonomers were determined via NMR spectroscopy (BA-co-1.1 r1.1 = 2.24 rBA = 0.95; NIPAm-co-1.1 r1.1 = 0.96 rNIPAm = 0.05. In both cases, the comonomer is consumed preferably in the beginning of the polymerization, thus forming gradient copolymer stars with the UV-reactive units being located in the outer sphere.

  3. RAFT Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Free-Base Porphyrin Cored Star Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT synthesis and self-assembly of free-base porphyrin cored star polymers are reported. The polymerization, in the presence of a free-base porphyrin cored chain transfer agent (CTA-FBP, produced porphyrin star polymers with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersities for a number of monomers including N, N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA and styrene (St. Well-defined amphiphilic star block copolymers, P-(PS-PDMA4 and P-(PDMA-PS4 (P: porphyrin, were also prepared and used for self-assembly studies. In methanol, a selective solvent for PDMA, spherical micelles were observed for both block copolymers as characterized by TEM. UV-vis studies suggested star-like micelles were formed from P-(PS-PDMA4, while P-(PDMA-PS4 aggregated into flower-like micelles. Spectrophotometric titrations indicated that the optical response of these two micelles to external ions was a function of micellar structures. These structure-related properties will be used for micelle studies and functional material development in the future.

  4. Synthesis and Solution Properties of Hydrophobic Associating Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任鲲; 姜桂元; 徐春明; 林梅钦

    2005-01-01

    Acrylamide/2-acrylamido alkane sulfonic acid hydrophobic associating copolymers were synthesized by micellar copolymerization. Effects of hydrophobe content, polymer concentration, salinity and surfactant on rheological behavior of copolymers were investigated and the conformation of polymers in solution was studied by means of environmental scanning electronic microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The experimental results showed that in the dilute regime the hydrophobic parts could interact intramolecularly, while in the regime where the polymer concentration was higher than the critical association concentration, intermolecular hydrophobic association became predominant. Within the limit of the solubility, the critical association concentration of the polymer decreased with the increase of the salinity. The experimental results of the solution conformation indicated the presence of the three-dimensional network structure in deionized water and the size of the mesh in the network varied with the polymer concentration. In NaG1 solution, above the critical association concentration, an increase in polymer concentration enhanced the intermolecular association and also enlarged the hydrodynamic radius. It would result in the imorovement of the thickening power of polvmers.

  5. NUMERICAL PATH-INTEGRATION CALCULATION OF TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF STAR POLYMERS AND THETA-DLA AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.Mansfield

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the calculation of transport properties of complex-shaped particles (Smoluchowski rate constants for diffusion-limited reactions, Stokes friction coefficient, virial coefficients for conductivity, viscosity and other transport properties is straightforward in principle, the accurate evaluation of these quantities for objects of general shape is a problem of classic difficulty. In the present paper, we illustrate a recently developed numerical path-integration method to estimate basic transport properties of representative complex-shaped objects having scientific and technological interest (i.e., star polymers and diffusion-limited aggregates without excluded volume interactions. The methodology applies to objects of essentially arbitrary shape and its validation for special geometries, where exact results are known, is described in a previous paper. Here we calculate the electrostatic capacity and electrical polarizability tensor of these model branched polymers and then exploit exact and approximate electrostatic-hydrodynamic property interrelations to estimate the Stokes translational friction coefficient and the virial coefficients for conductivity and shear viscosity (intrinsic conductivity and viscosity, respectively. Dimensionless ratios of these transport properties and equilibrium measures of particle size (radius of gyration are considered since these ratios are important experimentally in determining macromolecular topological structure and universality class. We also discuss and illustrate the influence of the branching architecture on the equilibrium charge distribution ("equilibrium measure" of these branched polymers where they are treated as conductors. An unexpected qualitative change in the charge distribution is found with increasing arm number in star polymers that may have important physical consequences.

  6. Six Isomers of Dendrimer-like Star Polymers: Design and Synthesis; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of polymer properties through the synthesis of complex macromolecular architectures is central to many areas of research and advanced technological applications. properties of novel materials are altered mainly through modification of their constitution. Examples of constitutional changes include the use of different monomers, variable molecular weights, block structures, grafted branching and so on. Living polymerization techniques has facilitated the preparation of these structures. The use of new multifunctional initiators has enhanced the availability of for example star polymers, which are believed to have smaller hydrodynamic volume and lower melt viscosity than their linear counterparts. Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers are other classes of macromolecules which have received a lot of attention due to their unique architectures

  7. Preparation of a Star Network PEG-based Gel Polymer Electrolyte and Its Application to Electrochromic Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yong-Feng; FU Xiang-Kai; ZHANG Shu-Peng; JIANG Qing-Long

    2007-01-01

    A star network polymer with a pentaerythritol core linking four PEG-block polymeric arms was synthesized,and its corresponding gel polymer electrolyte based on lithium perchlorate and plasticizers EC/PC with the character being colorless and highly transparent has been also prepared. The polymer host was characterized and confirmed to be of a star network and an amorphous structure by FTIR, 1H NMR and XRD studies. The polymer host hold good mechanical properties for pentaerythritol cross-linking. Maximum ionic conductivity of the prepared electrolyte showed that the thermal stability was up to at least 150 ℃. The gel polymer electrolyte was further evaluated in electrochromic devices fabricated by transparent PET-ITO and electrochromically active viologen derivative films, and its excellent performance promised the usage of the gel polymer electrolyte as ionic conductor material in electrochrornic devices.

  8. End group functionalization of poly(ethylene glycol with phenolphthalein: towards star-shaped polymers based on supramolecular interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Fleischmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a new phenolphthalein azide derivative, which can be easily utilized in polymer analogous reactions, is presented. The subsequent cycloaddition reaction with propargyl-functionalized methoxypoly(ethylene glycol yielded polymers bearing phenolphthalein as the covalently attached end group. In presence of per-β-cyclodextrin-dipentaerythritol, the formation of stable inclusion complexes was observed, representing an interesting approach towards the formation of star shaped polymers. The decolorization of a basic polymer solution caused by the complexation was of great advantage since this behavior enabled following the complex formation by UV–vis spectroscopy and even the naked eye.

  9. Modulating Antimicrobial Activity and Mammalian Cell Biocompatibility with Glucosamine-Functionalized Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edgar H H; Khin, Mya Mya; Ravikumar, Vikashini; Si, Zhangyong; Rice, Scott A; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2016-03-14

    The development of novel reagents and antibiotics for combating multidrug resistance bacteria has received significant attention in recent years. In this study, new antimicrobial star polymers (14-26 nm in diameter) that consist of mixtures of polylysine and glycopolymer arms were developed and were shown to possess antimicrobial efficacy toward Gram positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) (with MIC values as low as 16 μg mL(-1)) while being non-hemolytic (HC50 > 10 000 μg mL(-1)) and exhibit excellent mammalian cell biocompatibility. Structure function analysis indicated that the antimicrobial activity and mammalian cell biocompatibility of the star nanoparticles could be optimized by modifying the molar ratio of polylysine to glycopolymers arms. The technology described herein thus represents an innovative approach that could be used to fight deadly infectious diseases. PMID:26859230

  10. Simulation of dilute solutions of linear and star-branched polymers by dissipative particle dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardai, M M; Zifferer, G

    2009-09-28

    A most promising off-lattice technique in order to simulate not only static but in addition dynamic behavior of linear and star-branched chains is the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method. In this model the atomistic representation of polymer molecules is replaced by a (coarse-grained) equivalent chain consisting of beads which are repulsive for each other in order to mimic the excluded volume effect (successive beads in addition are linked by springs). Likewise solvent molecules are combined to beads which in turn are repulsive for each other as well as for the polymer segments. The system is relaxed by molecular dynamics solving Newton's laws under the influence of short ranged conservative forces (i.e., repulsion between nonbonded beads and a proper balance of repulsion and attraction between bonded segments) and dissipative forces due to friction between particles, the latter representing the thermostat in conjunction with proper random forces. A variation of the strength of the repulsion between different types of beads allows the simulation of any desired thermodynamic situation. Static and dynamic properties of isolated linear and star-branched chains embedded in athermal, exothermal, and endothermal solvent are presented and theta conditions are examined. The generally accepted scaling concept for athermal systems is fairly well reproduced by linear and star-branched DPD chains and theta conditions appear for a unique parameter independent of functionality as in the case of Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, the correspondence between DPD and Monte Carlo data referring to the shape of chains and stars is fairly well, too. For dilute solutions the Zimm behavior is expected for dynamic properties which is indeed realized in DPD systems. PMID:19791917

  11. Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer Flooding in the Daqing Oilfield Class II Reservoirs Using Associating Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Sen Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobically modified associating polyacrylamide (HAPAM has good compatibility with the Daqing heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant. The HAPAM alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP system can generate ultralow interfacial tension in a wide range of alkali/surfactant concentrations and maintain stable viscosity and interfacial tension for 120 days. The HAPAM ASP system has good injectivity for the Daqing class II reservoirs (100–300 × 10−3 μm2 and can improve oil recovery by more than 25% on top of water flooding. In the presence of both the alkali and the surfactant, the surfactant interacts with the associating groups of the polymer to form more micelles, which can significantly enhance the viscosity of the ASP system. Compared with using HPAM (Mw = 2.5 MDa, using HAPAM can reduce the polymer use by more than 40%.

  12. Molecular Thermodynamic Model for Associated Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Chang-Jun(彭昌军); LIU,Hong-Lai(刘洪来); HU,Ying(胡英)

    2001-01-01

    A molecular thermedynmnic model for homopolyrner and copolymer systems with association segments was establishedby adopting the molecular thermodynamic model for hard-sphere-chain fluid as a reference,a perturbation term contributed by the square-well potential and a contribution of as sociation terms.The latter considers the multi-associated-seg-ments in a chain-like molecule based on the shield-sticky model of chemical association.The model can be used to correlate the pVT of melten homopolymer and copolymer.Good agree-ments with experimental data have been obtained.

  13. Doxorubicin-loaded aromatic imine-contained amphiphilic branched star polymer micelles: synthesis, self-assembly, and drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Cai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Liang Qiu, Chun-Yan Hong, Cai-Yuan Pan Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Redox- and pH-sensitive branched star polymers (BSPs), BP(DMAEMA-co-MAEBA-co-DTDMA)(PMAIGP)ns, have been successively prepared by two steps of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The fir...

  14. Doxorubicin-loaded aromatic imine-contained amphiphilic branched star polymer micelles: synthesis, self-assembly, and drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu L; Hong CY; Pan CY

    2015-01-01

    Liang Qiu, Chun-Yan Hong, Cai-Yuan Pan Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Redox- and pH-sensitive branched star polymers (BSPs), BP(DMAEMA-co-MAEBA-co-DTDMA)(PMAIGP)ns, have been successively prepared by two steps of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The first step ...

  15. Effective Viscosity in Porous Media and Applicable Limitations for Polymer Flooding of an Associative Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobically associating polyacrylamide (HAPAM is considered to be a promising candidate for polymer flooding because of its excellent apparent viscosifying capability. Compared with partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM, the resistance factor and residual resistance factor caused by HAPAM tend to be higher. However, the effective viscosity of HAPAM is lower than that of conventional polymer at a concentration of 2 000 mg/L. The dynamic retention capacity of HAPAM is about 2.3 times that of HPAM. The oil displacement efficiency of HAPAM is lower than that of conventional polymer at a concentration of 2 000 mg/L in the homogeneous sandpack model. The oil displacement efficiency of HAPAM is higher than that of HPAM only in the heterogeneous model (permeability ratio 2.8. Neither high nor low permeability ratios are good for the oil displacement efficiency of HAPAM.

  16. Biocompatible polyester macroligands: new subunits for the assembly of star-shaped polymers with luminescent and cleavable metal cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, P S; Webb, M P; McAlvin, J E; Fraser, C L

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of star-shaped, biocompatible polyesters--polylactides (PLAs), polycaprolactones (PCLs), and various copolymer analogues--with either labile iron(II) tris-bipyridyl or luminescent ruthenium(II) tris-bipyridyl cores is described. These polymers were readily assembled by a convergent, metal-template-assisted approach that entailed the synthesis of bipyridine (bpy) ligands incorporating PLA- and PCL-containing arms and subsequent chelation of the "macroligands" to iron(II) or ruthenium(II). Specifically, the polyester macroligands bpyPLA(2) and bpyPCL(2) were prepared by a stannous octoate catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of DL- or L-lactide and epsilon-caprolactone, using bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine as the initiator. Copolymers bpy(PCL-PLA)(2) and bpy(PLA-PCL)(2) were generated in an analogous manner using bpyPLA(2) and bpyPCL(2) as macroinitiators. Polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions and with molecular weights close to values expected based upon monomer/initiator loading were produced. The macroligands were subsequently chelated to iron(II) to afford six-armed, iron-core star polymers, which were characterized by UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Estimated chelation efficiencies for formation of the star polymers (M(n) calcd: 20-240 kDa) were high, as determined by UV-vis spectral analysis. Within the molecular weight range investigated, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the small amounts of metal in the polyester stars and differences in polymer architecture had little effect on the thermal properties of the PLA/PCL materials. However, thin films of the red-violet colored iron-core stars exhibited reversible, thermochromic bleaching. Solutions and films of the polymers also responded (with color loss) to a variety of chemical stimuli (e.g., acid, base, peroxides, ammonia), thus revealing potential for use in diverse sensing applications. Likewise, the polyester

  17. Thermal curing and photocuring of a DGEBA modified with multiarm star poly(glycidol)-b-poly(e-caprolactone) polymers of different arm lengths

    OpenAIRE

    Morancho Llena, José María; Cadenato Matia, Ana María; Ramis Juan, Xavier; Morell, Mireia; Fernández Francos, Xavier; Salla Tarragó, José María; Serra Albet, Àngels

    2013-01-01

    The influence of two multiarm star polymers, hyperbranched poly(glycidol)-b-poly(e-caprolactone) of different arm lengths, on the thermal curing and the photocuring of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy resin (DGEBA) is studied. Star polymer with short arms PCL-10 decelerates more the thermal curing than the polymer with long arms PCL-30 because the latter is less solubilized in the epoxy matrix and its effect on the polymerization of the resin and the thermal–mec...

  18. Simultaneous nano- and micro-scale control of nanofibrous microspheres self-assembled from star-shaped polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanpeng; Marson, Ryan L.; Ge, Zhishen; Glotzer, Sharon C.; Ma, Peter X.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the multi-scale self-assembly of star-shaped polymers into non-hollow, hollow, and spongy nanofibrous microspheres is reported. Star-shaped poly(L-lactic acid) polymers with varying arm-numbers and arm-lengths are synthesized, dissolved in tetrahydrofuran, emulsified in glycerol, and thermally-induced to phase separate, resulting in microspheres that are either smooth or fibrous on the nano-scale, and either non-hollow, hollow, or spongy on the micro-scale. Molecular architecture and the hydroxyl density are shown to control assembly and morphology at both nano- and micro-scales. Nanofibers form only when the arm length is sufficiently long, while an increase in hydroxyl density causes the microspheres to change from non-hollow to hollow to spongy. We demonstrate via both experiments of capping or doubling the hydroxyl end groups and dissipative particle dynamics simulations that the affinity of hydroxyl to glycerol is critical to stabilizing the micro-scale structure. A “phase diagram” was constructed for the six types of microspheres in relation to the molecular structures of the star-shaped polymers. The proposed mechanism explains how star-shaped polymers self-assemble into various microspheres, and guides us to simultaneously control both nano- and micro-features of the microspheres. PMID:26009995

  19. SULFUR ABUNDANCES IN THE ORION ASSOCIATION B STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur abundances are derived for a sample of 10 B main-sequence star members of the Orion association. The analysis is based on LTE plane-parallel model atmospheres and non-LTE line formation theory by means of a self-consistent spectrum synthesis analysis of lines from two ionization states of sulfur, S II and S III. The observations are high-resolution spectra obtained with the ARCES spectrograph at the Apache Point Observatory. The abundance distribution obtained for the Orion targets is homogeneous within the expected errors in the analysis: A(S) = 7.15 ± 0.05. This average abundance result is in agreement with the recommended solar value (both from modeling of the photospheres in one-dimensional and three-dimensional, and meteorites) and indicates that little, if any, chemical evolution of sulfur has taken place in the last ∼4.5 billion years. The sulfur abundances of the young stars in Orion are found to agree well with results for the Orion Nebulae, and place strong constraints on the amount of sulfur depletion onto grains as being very modest or nonexistent. The sulfur abundances for Orion are consistent with other measurements at a similar galactocentric radius: combined with previous results for other OB-type stars produce a relatively shallow sulfur abundance gradient with a slope of -0.037 ± 0.012 dex kpc-1.

  20. Magnetic Properties of Young Stars in the TW Hydrae Association

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hao; Valenti, Jeff A

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of infrared (IR) echelle spectra of five stars in the TW Hydrae Association (TWA). We model the Zeeman broadening in four magnetic-sensitive \\ion{Ti}{1} lines near $2.2 \\mu$m and measure the value of the photospheric magnetic field averaged over the surface of each star. To ensure that other broadening mechanisms are properly taken into account, we also inspect several magnetically insensitive CO lines near $2.3 \\mu$m and find no excess broadening above that produced by stellar rotation and instrumental broadening, providing confidence in the magnetic interpretation of the width of the \\ion{Ti}{1} lines. We then utilize our results to test the relationship between stellar magnetic flux and X-ray properties and compare the measured fields with equipartition field values. Finally, we use our results and recent results on a large sample of stars in Taurus to discuss the potential evolution of magnetic field properties between the age of Taurus ($\\sim$2 Myrs) and the age of TWA ($\\sim$10 My...

  1. EPR spin probe study of polymer associative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, A. M.; Yasina, L. L.; Motyakin, M. V.; Aliev, I. I.; Churochkina, N. A.; Rogovina, L. Z.; Lysenko, E. A.; Baranovsky, V. Yu.

    2008-05-01

    Molecular dynamics of polyacrilamide gels, polymeric micelles and hydrogel of polyacrylic acid and macrodiisocyanate was investigated by the ESR spectroscopy of spin probes. The local mobility in network junction of polyacrylamide gels is found to be essentially slower than that in the micelles created by the low molecular weight detergents and does not depend on the amount and length of hydrophobic groups (C9 or C12) in the polymer chain. The immersion of 10-30 mol.% of ionic monomers into the polymer chain (sodium acrylate) influences insufficiently on the local mobility of network junctions. In aqueous solutions, polystyrene-block-poly-( N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide) block copolymers create polymeric micelles. The local mobility in the polystyrene core of the micelles is about twice as much as that in the solid polystyrene. Partially swellable polymer network in aqueous solutions was synthesized from polyacrylic acid and macrodiisocyanate. The local mobility in hydrophobic regions of the gel is substantially lower than that in the hydrophilic regions. It was concluded that the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions and the local dynamics of them dictate practical application of the polymer associative systems.

  2. Tracer microrheology study of a hydrophobically modified comblike associative polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Ahmed A; Amin, Samiul; van Zanten, John H; Khan, Saad A

    2015-04-01

    The viscoelastic properties of associative polymers are important not only for their use as rheology modifiers but also to understand their complex structure in aqueous media. In this study, the dynamics of comblike hydrophobically modified alkali swellable associative (HASE) polymers are probed using diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) based tracer microrheology. DWS-based tracer microrheology accurately probes the dynamics of HASE polymers, and the extracted microrheological moduli versus frequency profile obtained from this technique closely matches that obtained from rotational rheometry measurements. Quantitatively, however, the moduli extracted from DWS-based tracer microrheology measurements are slightly higher than those obtained using rotational rheometry. The creep compliance, elastic modulus, and relaxation time concentration scaling behavior exhibits a power-law dependence. The length scale associated with the elastic to glassy behavior change is obtained from the time-dependent diffusion coefficient. The Zimm-Rouse type scaling is recovered at high frequencies but shows a concentration effect switching from Zimm to more Rouse-like behavior at higher concentrations. PMID:25775221

  3. Single-molecule imaging reveals topological isomer-dependent diffusion by 4-armed star and dicyclic 8-shaped polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2015-04-21

    Diffusion dynamics of topological isomers of polymer molecules was investigated at the single-molecule level in a melt state by employing the fluorophore-incorporated 4-armed star and the corresponding doubly-cyclized, 8-shaped poly(THF) chains. While the single-molecule fluorescence imaging experiment revealed that the diffusion of the 4-armed star polymer was described by a single Gaussian distribution, the diffusion of the 8-shaped polymer exhibited a double Gaussian distribution behaviour. We reasoned that the two 8-shaped polymeric isomers have distinct diffusion modes in the melt state, although ensemble-averaged experimental methods cannot detect differences in overall conformational state of the isomers. The single-molecule experiments suggested that one of the 8-shaped polymeric isomer, having the horizontally oriented form, causes an efficient threading with the linear matrix chains which leads to the slower diffusion compared with the corresponding 4-armed star polymer, while the other 8-shaped polymeric isomer, having the vertically oriented form, displayed faster diffusion by the suppression of effective threading with the linear matrix chains due to its contracted chain conformation.

  4. Associative Polymer-Polymer and Polymer-Surfactant Systems: Phase Behaviour and the Influence of Chemical Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Salome

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous mixtures of two non-ionic polymers, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the amphiphilic triblock copolymer, (EO)27(PO)67(EO)27, known by its trade name Pluronic® P104, showed an associative phase separation (miscibility gap), which decreased with the decrease of PAA length. It was found that PAA is a much less selective “solvent” to P104 molecules than water. P104 aggregates are disintegrated and thus the liquid crystalline structures are destroyed upon replacement of water by PAA. Oppos...

  5. Neutron stars from young nearby associations the origin of RXJ1605.3+3249

    OpenAIRE

    Tetzlaff, Nina; Schmidt, Janos G.; Hohle, Markus M.; Neuhaeuser, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Many neutron stars (NSs) and runaway stars apparently come from the same regions on the sky. This suggests that they share the same birth places, namely associations and clusters of young massive stars. To identify NS birth places, we attempt to and NS-runaway pairs that could be former companions that were disrupted in a supernova (SN). The remains of recent (

  6. Star polymers by ATRP of styrene and acrylates employing multifunctional initiators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankova, Katja Atanassova; Bednarek, Melania; Hvilsted, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Multifunctional initiators for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are prepared by converting ditrimethylolpropane with four hydroxyl groups, dipentaerythritol with six hydroxyl groups, and poly(3-ethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-oxetane) with similar to 11 hydroxyl groups to the corresponding 2......-bromoisobutyrates or 2-bromopropionates as obtained by reaction with acid bromides. Star polystyrene (PS) is produced by using these macroinitiators and neat styrene in a controlled manner by ATRP at 110 degrees C, employing the catalytic system CuBr and bipyridine. M. up to 51,000 associated with narrow molecular...

  7. The Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution of a 64 kDa PolyPEG Star Polymer After Subcutaneous and Pulmonary Administration to Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Song Yang; Hu, Jinming; McLeod, Victoria M; Quinn, John F; Porter, Christopher J H; Whittaker, Michael R; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Davis, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    PolyPEG star polymers have potential utility as cost-effective polymeric drug delivery vehicles, and as such, it is important to develop an understanding of their biopharmaceutical behavior. Moreover, although a number of studies have evaluated the utility of PolyPEG stars in vitro, investigation of these novel materials in vivo has been limited. Herein, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of a 64 kDa tritiated PEG-based star polymer after subcutaneous and pulmonary administration in rats. After subcutaneous administration, the star polymer showed near complete bioavailability (∼80%) and a similar organ biodistribution profile to the polymer after intravenous administration. After intratracheal instillation to the lungs, the star polymer showed limited bioavailability (∼3%), and most of the administered radiolabel was recovered in lung tissue and feces after 6 d. The data reported here suggest that star polymers display similar pharmaceutical behavior to PEGylated dendrimers after subcutaneous and inhaled delivery and may therefore be used as similar, but more cost-effective drug delivery vehicles. PMID:26852861

  8. From polymer to polyelectrolyte: Studies of star-branched poly(ethylene oxide) with lithium functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Star-branched poly(ethylene oxide) with PG-PPO core has been synthesized. The branched structure had on average 18 poly(ethylene oxide) arms with average molecular weight of 1680. The chain ends were capped with OH groups which were then substituted with lithium-containing P(=O)(OLi)2, COOLi and SO3Li groups. The substitution level ranged from 30% to 95%. Characterization of physical properties was carried out by various methods, including differential scanning calorimetry and impedance spectroscopy. The results show that polymers with functional groups containing lithium are characterized by relatively high ionic conductivity. The highest ionic conductivity, reaching 8 × 10−6 S/cm at 20 °C was obtained for polymer with P(=O)(OLi)2 groups, which demonstrates possibility of using these polymers as polyelectrolyte. It has been also found, that the presence of end groups can decrease crystallinity and lower glass transition temperature of polymer. Electrolytes formed by adding LiN(CF3SO2)2 salt to polymers with functional groups containing lithium had higher ionic conductivity and lower glass transition temperature than electrolytes based on polymer without such groups

  9. Star-forming protoclusters associated with methanol masers

    CERN Document Server

    Minier, V; Hill, T; Pestalozzi, M R; Purcell, C R; Garay, G; Walsh, A; Longmore, S N

    2004-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of five methanol maser sites which are not directly associated with a strong ($>100$ mJy) radio continuum source: G 31.28+0.06, G 59.78+0.06, G 173.49+2.42 (S231, S233IR), G 188.95+0.89 (S252, AFGL5180) and G 192.60-0.05 (S255IR). These radio-quiet methanol maser sites are often interpreted as precursors of ultra-compact \\ion{H}{ii} regions or massive protostar sites. In this work, the environment of methanol masers is probed from mid-IR to millimetre wavelengths at angular resolutions of $8''-34''$. Spectral energy distribution (SED) diagrams for each site are presented, together with mass and luminosity estimates. Each radio-quiet maser site is always associated with a massive ($>50$ M$_{\\odot}$), deeply embedded ($A_v>40$ mag) and very luminous ($>10^4$ S L$_{\\odot}$) molecular clump, with $L_{total}{\\propto}M_{gas}^{0.75}$. These physical properties characterise massive star-forming clumps in earlier evolutionary phases than \\ion{H}{ii} regions. In addition, colder gas c...

  10. Poly(glycolide multi-arm star polymers: Improved solubility via limited arm length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian K. Wolf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low solubility of poly(glycolic acid (PGA, its use is generally limited to the synthesis of random copolyesters with other hydroxy acids, such as lactic acid, or to applications that permit direct processing from the polymer melt. Insolubility is generally observed for PGA when the degree of polymerization exceeds 20. Here we present a strategy that allows the preparation of PGA-based multi-arm structures which significantly exceed the molecular weight of processable oligomeric linear PGA (<1000 g/mol. This was achieved by the use of a multifunctional hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG macroinitiator and the tin(II-2-ethylhexanoate catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of glycolide in the melt. With this strategy it is possible to combine high molecular weight with good molecular weight control (up to 16,000 g/mol, PDI = 1.4–1.7, resulting in PGA multi-arm star block copolymers containing more than 90 wt % GA. The successful linkage of PGA arms and PG core via this core first/grafting from strategy was confirmed by detailed NMR and SEC characterization. Various PG/glycolide ratios were employed to vary the length of the PGA arms. Besides fluorinated solvents, the materials were soluble in DMF and DMSO up to an average arm length of 12 glycolic acid units. Reduction in the Tg and the melting temperature compared to the homopolymer PGA should lead to simplified processing conditions. The findings contribute to broadening the range of biomedical applications of PGA.

  11. Compatibilization of polystyrene and poly(dimethyl siloxane) with a star polymer having a γtcyclodextrin core and polystyrene arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balik, C. M.; Tonelli, A. E.; Busche, Brad

    2010-03-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic starch molecules having a hollow central cavity which can be threaded by a polymer to form an inclusion compound. This characteristic is exploited in a new type of compatibilizer: a star polymer with a γtCD core and polystyrene (PS) arms. Atom transfer radical polymerization is used to grow and control the size of the PS arms from brominated initiator sites on γtCD. Solutions and thin films of PS and poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) are compatibilized by this CD-star. The mechanism of compatibilization involves threading of the CD core by PDMS and solubilization of the resulting ``slip-ring graft copolymer'' via the PS star arms. Compatibilization of PS/PDMS in chloroform is visually observed when the initially turbid suspensions become clear solutions after addition of CD-star. Thin films spin-cast from these solutions exhibit a high degree of homogeneity and a nanoscale level of mixing. The solutions are characterized with NMR, dynamic light scattering and intrinsic viscosity measurements, and the thin films are characterized with optical and atomic force microscopy. Many different polymers are capable of threading the CD core, thus the same CD-star molecule could be used to compatibilize several different threading polymers with the same matrix polymer.

  12. Molecular Differentiated Initiator Reactivity in the Synthesis of Poly(caprolactone-Based Hydrophobic Homopolymer and Amphiphilic Core Corona Star Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Deng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Macromolecules that possess three-dimensional, branched molecular structures are of great interest because they exhibit significantly differentiated application performance compared to conventional linear (straight chain polymers. This paper reports the synthesis of 3- and 4-arm star branched polymers via ring opening polymerisation (ROP utilising multi-functional hydroxyl initiators and Sn(Oct2 as precatalyst. The structures produced include mono-functional hydrophobic and multi-functional amphiphilic core corona stars. The characteristics of the synthetic process were shown to be principally dependent upon the physical/dielectric properties of the initiators used. ROP’s using initiators that were more available to become directly involved with the Sn(Oct2 in the “in-situ” formation of the true catalytic species were observed to require shorter reaction times. Use of microwave heating (MWH in homopolymer star synthesis reduced reaction times compared to conventional heating (CH equivalents, this was attributed to an increased rate of “in-situ” catalyst formation. However, in amphiphilic core corona star formation, the MWH polymerisations exhibited slower propagation rates than CH equivalents. This was attributed to macro-structuring within the reaction medium, which reduced the potential for reaction. It was concluded that CH experiments were less affected by this macro-structuring because it was disrupted by the thermal currents/gradients caused by the conductive/convective heating mechanisms. These gradients are much reduced/absent with MWH because it selectively heats specific species simultaneously throughout the entire volume of the reaction medium. These partitioning problems were overcome by introducing additional quantities of the species that had been determined to selectively heat.

  13. Doxorubicin-loaded aromatic imine-contained amphiphilic branched star polymer micelles: synthesis, self-assembly, and drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu L

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Liang Qiu, Chun-Yan Hong, Cai-Yuan Pan Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Redox- and pH-sensitive branched star polymers (BSPs, BP(DMAEMA-co-MAEBA-co-DTDMA(PMAIGPns, have been successively prepared by two steps of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization. The first step is RAFT polymerization of 2-(N,N-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate (DMAEMA and p-(methacryloxyethoxybenzaldehyde (MAEBA in the presence of divinyl monomer, 2,2'-dithiodiethoxyl dimethacrylate (DTDMA. The resultant branched polymers were used as a macro-RAFT agent in the subsequent RAFT polymerization. After hydrolysis of the BSPs to form BP(DMAEMA-co-MAEBA-co-DTDMA(PMAGPns (BSP-H, the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX was covalently linked to branched polymer chains by reaction of primary amine of DOX and aldehyde groups in the polymer chains. Their compositions, structures, molecular weights, and molecular weight distributions were respectively characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and gel permeation chromatography measurements. The DOX-loaded micelles were fabricated by self-assembly of DOX-containing BSPs in water, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Aromatic imine linkage is stable in neutral water, but is acid-labile; controlled release of DOX from the BSP-H-DOX micelles was realized at pH values of 5 and 6, and at higher acidic solution, fast release of DOX was observed. In vitro cytotoxicity experiment results revealed low cytotoxicity of the BSPs and release of DOX from micelles in HepG2 and HeLa cells. Confocal laser fluorescence microscopy observations showed that DOX-loaded micelles have specific interaction with HepG2 cells. Thus, this type of BSP micelle is an efficient drug delivery system

  14. Synthesis of star and H-shape polymers via a combination of cobalt-mediated radical polymerization and nitrone-mediated radical coupling reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Detrembleur, Christophe; Debuigne, Antoine; Altintas, Ozcan; Conradi, Matthias; Wong, Edgar H. H.; Jerome, Christine; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Junkers, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Via consecutive cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP), nitrone-mediated radical coupling (NMRC) and copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), polymers with mikto-arm star and H-shape architecture were synthesized. Poly(vinyl acetate)(40)-block-poly(acrylonitrile)(78)-Co(acac)(2) polymers were synthesized via CMRC and subsequently coupled using an alkyne functional nitrone. The coupling efficiency of the NMRC process was assessed employing N-tert-butyl alpha-phenyl nitrone (...

  15. Hierarchical self-assembly of telechelic star polymers: from soft patchy particles to gels and diamond crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Barbara; Coluzza, Ivan; Blaak, Ronald; Lo Verso, Federica; Likos, Christos N.

    2013-09-01

    The design of self-assembling materials in the nanometer scale focuses on the fabrication of a class of organic and inorganic subcomponents that can be reliably produced on a large scale and tailored according to their vast applications for, e.g. electronics, therapeutic vectors and diagnostic imaging agent carriers, or photonics. In a recent publication (Capone et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 238301), diblock copolymer stars have been shown to be a novel system, which is able to hierarchically self-assemble first into soft patchy particles and thereafter into more complex structures, such as the diamond and cubic crystal. The self-aggregating single star patchy behavior is preserved from extremely low up to high densities. Its main control parameters are related to the architecture of the building blocks, which are the number of arms (functionality) and the fraction of attractive end-monomers. By employing a variety of computational and theoretical tools, ranging from the microscopic to the mesoscopic, coarse-grained level in a systematic fashion, we investigate the crossover between the formation of microstructure versus macroscopic phase separation, as well as the formation of gels and networks in these systems. We finally show that telechelic star polymers can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of open crystal structures, such as the diamond or the simple-cubic lattice, taking advantage of the strong correlation between single-particle patchiness and lattice coordination at finite densities.

  16. Infrared study of new star cluster candidates associated to dusty globules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto King, P.; Barbá, R.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Jaque, M.; Firpo, V.; Nilo, J. L.; Soto, M.; Minniti, D.

    2014-10-01

    We present results from a study of a sample of small star clusters associated to dusty globules and bright-rimmed clouds that have been observed under ESO/Chile public infrared survey Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV). In this short communication, we analyse the near-infrared properties of a set of four small clusters candidates associated to dark clouds. This sample of clusters associated to dusty globules are selected from the new VVV stellar cluster candidates developed by members of La Serena VVV Group (Barbá et al. 2014). Firstly, we are producing color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for both, cluster candidates and surrounding areas for comparison through PSF photometry. The cluster positions are determined from the morphology on the images and also from the comparison of the observed luminosity function for the cluster candidates and the surrounding star fields. Now, we are working in the procedures to establish the full sample of clusters to be analyzed and methods for subtraction of the star field contamination. These clusters associated to dusty globules are simple laboratories to study the star formation relatively free of the influence of large star-forming regions and populous clusters, and they will be compared with those clusters associated to bright-rimmed globules, which are influenced by the energetic action of nearby O and B massive stars.

  17. Variable X-Ray and UV emission from AGB stars: Accretion activity associated with binarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Sanz-Forcada, Jorge; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Almost all of our current understanding of the late evolutionary stages of (1 — 8) Mʘ stars is based on single-star models. However, binarity can drastically affect late stellar evolution, producing dramatic changes in the history and geometry of mass loss that occurs in stars as they evolve off the AGB to become planetary nebulae (PNe). A variety of binary models have been proposed, which can lead to the generation of accretion disks and magnetic fields, which in turn produce the highly collimated jets that have been proposed as the primary agents for the formation of bipolar and multipolar PNe. However, observational evidence of binarity in AGB stars is sorely lacking simply these stars are very luminous and variable, invalidating standard techniques for binary detection. Using an innovative technique of searching for UV emission from AGB stars with GALEX, we have identified a class of AGB stars with far- ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars), that are likely candidates for active accretion associated with a binary companion. We have carried out a pilot survey for X-ray emission from fuvAGB stars. The X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long times-scales, and simultaneous UV observations show similar variations in the UV fluxes. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a main-sequence companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  18. The Extreme Chemical Environments Associated with Dying Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziurys, Lucy

    Mass loss from dying stars is the main avenue by which material enters the interstellar medium, and eventually forms solar systems and planets. When stars consume all the hydrogen burning in their core, they start to burn helium, first in their centers, and then in a surrounding shell. During these phases, the so-called ``giant branches,'' large instabilities are created, and stars begin to shed their outer atmospheres, producing so-called circumstellar envelopes. Molecules form readily in these envelopes, in part by LTE chemistry at the base of the stellar photosphere, and also by radical reactions in the outer regions. Eventually most stars shed almost all their mass, creating ``planetary nebulae,'' which consist of a hot, ultraviolet-emitting white dwarf surrounded by the remnant stellar material. The environs in such nebulae are not conducive to chemical synthesis; yet molecular gas exits. The ejecta from these nebulae then flows into the interstellar medium, becoming the starting material for diffuse clouds, which subsequently collapse into dense clouds and then stars. This molecular ``life cycle'' is repeated many times in the course of the evolution of our Galaxy. We have been investigating the interstellar molecular life cycle, in particular the chemical environments of circumstellar shells and planetary nebulae, through both observational and laboratory studies. Using the facilities of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO), we have conducted broad-band spectral-line surveys to characterize the contrasting chemical and physical properties of carbon (IRC +10216) vs. oxygen-rich envelopes (VY CMa and NML Cyg). The carbon-rich types are clearly more complex in terms of numbers of chemical compounds, but the O-rich variety appear to have more energetic, shocked material. We have also been conducting surveys of polyatomic molecules towards planetary nebulae. Species such as HCN, HCO+, HNC, CCH, and H2CO appear to be common constituents of these objects, and their

  19. Effect of Associative Polymers on the Foaming Properties of Surfactant Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Alfredo; Robles, Emmanuel; Acuña, Heriberto; Gamez, Rogelio; Maldonado, Amir

    2006-03-01

    Aqueous foams are materials which have many industrial applications. Their stability is affected by three mechanisms: bubble coalescence (film rupture), coarsening (gas diffusion) and drainage (gravity-driven liquid flow). The aim of this work is to obtain some insight into the effect of associative polymers on the foamability, foam stability and drainage of surfactant solutions. The foams were produced by air bubbling and by the turbulent mixing method. The surfactant is SDS and the associative polymers studied are HEUR and POE-Stearate. We studied the effect of polymer concentration for each macromolecule. The results show that two opposite effects are present when the polymer concentration is increased: for low polymer concentrations, foamability and foam stability is higher than for high concentrations. Results are discussed in terms of the properties of the solution: surface tension, electrical conductivity, bulk viscosity, etc.

  20. Observations of the polarization of the radiation of R-association stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New observations have been made of the polarization parameters of the radiation of stars in the reflection nebulas in the regions of Cas, Per R1, Ser, CMa R1. Some stars with variable polarization have been found. For some stars, the parameters of the intrinsic circumstellar polarization have been calculated with allowance for the interstellar component using Serkowski's method. The connection between the polarization vector and the structure of the nebulas is considered. For the region CMa R1 a local magnetic field with a scale determined by the size of the association is identified

  1. Evolution of the T Tauri star population in the Lupus association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, P. A. B.; Bertout, C.; Teixeira, R.; Ducourant, C.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: In a recent study, we derived individual distances for 109 pre-main sequence stars that define the Lupus kinematic association of young stars. Here, we use these new distances to derive the masses and ages of Lupus T Tauri stars with the aim of better constraining the lifetime of their circumstellar disks. Methods: Using the photometric and spectroscopic information available in the literature, we computed the photospheric luminosity of 92 T Tauri stars in the Lupus association. Then, we estimated their masses and ages from theoretical evolutionary models. Based on Monte Carlo simulations and statistical tests, we compare the mass and age distribution of the classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) and weak-line T Tauri (WTTS) in our sample. Results: We show that the CTTSs are on average younger than the WTTSs and that the probability that both T Tauri subclasses are drawn from the same mass and age parental distribution is very low. Our results favor the scenario proposed earlier for the Taurus-Auriga association, where the CTTSs evolve into WTTSs when their disks are fully accreted by the star. Based on an empirical disk model, we find that the average disk lifetime for the T Tauri stars in the Lupus association is τd = 3 × 106 (M∗/M⊙)0.55 yr. Conclusions: We find evidence that the average lifetime of the circumstellar disks in the Lupus association is shorter than in the Taurus-Auriga association and discuss the implications of this result. Table 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. M Stars in the TW Hya Association: Stellar X-Rays and Disk Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Joel H.; Principe, David A.; Punzi, Kristina; Stelzer, Beate; Gorti, Uma; Pascucci, Ilaria; Argiroffi, Costanza

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the potential connection between the intense X-ray emission from young low-mass stars and the lifetimes of their circumstellar planet-forming disks, we have compiled the X-ray luminosities (L X ) of M stars in the ∼8 Myr old TW Hya Association (TWA) for which X-ray data are presently available. Our investigation includes analysis of archival Chandra data for the TWA binary systems TWA 8, 9, and 13. Although our study suffers from poor statistics for stars later than M3, we find a trend of decreasing {L}X/{L}{bol} with decreasing T eff for TWA M stars, wherein the earliest-type (M0–M2) stars cluster near {log}({L}X/{L}{bol})≈ -3.0 and then {log}({L}X/{L}{bol}) decreases, and its distribution broadens, for types M4 and later. The fraction of TWA stars that display evidence for residual primordial disk material also sharply increases in this same (mid-M) spectral type regime. This apparent anticorrelation between the relative X-ray luminosities of low-mass TWA stars and the longevities of their circumstellar disks suggests that primordial disks orbiting early-type M stars in the TWA have dispersed rapidly as a consequence of their persistent large X-ray fluxes. Conversely, the disks orbiting the very lowest-mass pre-MS stars and pre-MS brown dwarfs in the Association may have survived because their X-ray luminosities and, hence, disk photoevaporation rates are very low to begin with, and then further decline relatively early in their pre-MS evolution.

  3. M Stars in the TW Hya Association: Stellar X-rays and Disk Dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, Joel H; Punzi, Kristina; Stelzer, Beate; Gorti, Uma; Pascucci, Ilaria; Argiroffi, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the potential connection between the intense X-ray emission from young, low-mass stars and the lifetimes of their circumstellar, planet-forming disks, we have compiled the X-ray luminosities ($L_X$) of M stars in the $\\sim$8 Myr-old TW Hya Association (TWA) for which X-ray data are presently available. Our investigation includes analysis of archival Chandra data for the TWA binary systems TWA 8, 9, and 13. Although our study suffers from poor statistics for stars later than M3, we find a trend of decreasing $L_X/L_{bol}$ with decreasing $T_{eff}$ for TWA M stars wherein the earliest-type (M0--M2) stars cluster near $\\log{(L_X/L_{bol})} \\approx -3.0$ and then $\\log{(L_X/L_{bol})}$ decreases, and its distribution broadens, for types M4 and later. The fraction of TWA stars that display evidence for residual primordial disk material also sharply increases in this same (mid-M) spectral type regime. This apparent anticorrelation between the relative X-ray luminosities of low-mass TWA stars and the lo...

  4. Quantifying non-star formation associated 8um dust emission in NGC 628

    CERN Document Server

    Crocker, Alison F; Thilker, David A; Aniano, Gonzalo; Draine, Bruce T; Hunt, Leslie K; Kennicutt, Robert C; Sandstrom, Karin; Smith, J D T

    2012-01-01

    Combining Ha and IRAC images of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628, we find that between 30-43% of its 8um dust emission is not related to recent star formation. Contributions from dust heated by young stars are separated by identifying HII regions in the Ha map and using these areas as a mask to determine the 8um dust emission that must be due to heating by older stars. Corrections are made for sub-detection-threshold HII regions, photons escaping from HII regions and for young stars not directly associated to HII regions (i.e. 10-100 Myr old stars). A simple model confirms this amount of 8um emission can be expected given dust and PAH absorption cross-sections, a realistic star-formation history, and the observed optical extinction values. A Fourier power spectrum analysis indicates that the 8um dust emission is more diffuse than the Ha emission (and similar to observed HI), supporting our analysis that much of the 8um-emitting dust is heated by older stars. The 8um dust-to-Ha emission ratio declines with gal...

  5. The LMC transition star R84 and the core of the LH 39 OB association

    CERN Document Server

    Heydari-Malayeri, M; Rauw, G; Esslinger, O; Magain, P

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of sub-arcsecond optical imaging we resolve and study the core components of the LMC OB association LH 39. The central star of the association, the rare transition object R84, is also investigated using CASPEC echelle spectroscopy. A new, powerful image restoration code that conserves the fluxes allows us to obtain the magnitudes and colors of the components. We bring out some 30 stars in a ~16"x16", area centered on R84. At a resolution of 0.19", the closest components to R84 are shown to lie at 1.1" NW and 1.7" NW respectively of the transition star. One of these stars is the reddest star of the field after R84 but turns out to be too faint to correspond to the red M2 supergiant previously reported to contaminate the spectrum of R84. If the late-type spectrum is due to a line-of-sight supergiant with a luminosity comparable to R84, it should lie closer than 0.12" to R84. The transition star shows spectral variability between 1982 and 1991. We also note some slight radial velocity variations of ...

  6. Star formation associated with the infrared dust bubble N68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the environment of the infrared dust bubble N68 and searched for evidence of triggered star formation in its surroundings. We performed a multiwavelength study of the nebula with data taken from several large-scale surveys: GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL, IRAS, NVSS, GRS and JCMT. We analyzed the spectral profile and the distribution of the molecular gas (13CO J = 1 − 0 and J = 3 − 2), and the dust in the environment of N68. The position-velocity diagram clearly shows that N68 may be expanding outward. We used two three-color images of the mid-infrared emission to explore the physical environment, and one color-color diagram to investigate the distribution of young stellar objects (YSOs). We found that the 24 μm emission is surrounded by the 8.0 μm emission. Morphologically, the 1.4 GHz continuum strongly correlates with the 24 μm emission, and the 13CO J = 1 − 0 and J = 3 − 2 emissions correlate well with the 8.0 μm emission. We investigated two compact cores located in the shell of N68. The spectral intensity ratios of 13CO J = 3 − 2 to J = 1 − 0 range from 5 to 0.3. In addition, YSOs, masers, IRAS and UC HII regions are distributed in the shell of the bubble. The active region may be triggered by the expansion of the bubble N68. (research papers)

  7. Star formation associated with the infrared dust bubble N68

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Peng Zhang; Jun-Jie Wang

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the environment of the infrared dust bubble N68 and searched for evidence of triggered star formation in its surroundings.We performed a multiwavelength study of the nebula with data taken from several large-scale surveys:GLIMPSE,MIPSGAL,IRAS,NVSS,GRS and JCMT.We analyzed the spectral profile and the distribution of the molecular gas (13CO J =1-0 and J =3-2),and the dust in the environment of N68.The position-velocity diagram clearly shows that N68 may be expanding outward.We used two three-color images of the mid-infrared emission to explore the physical environment,and one color-color diagram to investigate the distribution of young stellar objects (YSOs).We found that the 24 μm emission is surrounded by the 8.0 μm emission.Morphologically,the 1.4 GHz continuum strongly correlates with the 24 μm emission,and the 13CO J =1-0 and J =3-2 emissions correlate well with the 8.0 μm emission.We investigated two compact cores located in the shell of N68.The spectral intensity ratios of 13CO J =3-2 to J =1-0 range from 5 to 0.3.In addition,YSOs,masers,IRAS and UC HII regions are distributed in the shell of the bubble.The active region may be triggered by the expansion of the bubble N68.

  8. Star Formation in Molecular Cloud Associated with IRAS 07028-110

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Sheng-Li; WU Yue-Fang; WANG Jun-Jie; ZHAO Gang; SHI Jian-Rong; MARTIN Miller

    2004-01-01

    @@ The first mapping observations in 12CO J = 2 - 1 and 12 CO J = 1 - 0 lines were made towards molecular cloud associated with IRAS 07028-1100. The results show a mono-polar outflow (primarily blueshifted component)near IRAS 07028-1100, which suggests that star formation is occurring in this region. On the basis of the MSX(Midcourse Space Experiment) band-A image, molecular cloud core contours, NVSS data and IRAS data, we identify IRAS 07028-1100 as an embedded young intermediate-mass star. According to the 2MASS data, we suggest a sequential star formation in the infrared cluster associated with IRAS 07028-1100.

  9. The Milky Way Project: A statistical study of massive star formation associated with infrared bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Kendrew, Sarah; Bressert, Eli; Povich, Matthew S; Sherman, Reid; Lintott, Chris; Robitaille, Thomas P; Schawinski, Kevin; Wolf-Chase, Grace

    2012-01-01

    The Milky Way Project citizen science initiative recently increased the number of known infrared bubbles in the inner Galactic plane by an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. We present a detailed statistical analysis of this dataset with the Red MSX Source catalog of massive young stellar sources to investigate the association of these bubbles with massive star formation. We particularly address the question of massive triggered star formation near infrared bubbles. We find a strong positional correlation of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and HII regions with Milky Way Project bubbles at separations of < 2 bubble radii. As bubble sizes increase, a statistically significant overdensity of massive young sources emerges in the region of the bubble rims, possibly indicating the occurrence of triggered star formation by the collect and collapse mechanism, to which the data and methods are most sensitive. Based on numbers of bubble-associated RMS sources we find that 67+/-3% of MYSOs and (ul...

  10. Manipulating Hydrophobic Interactions in Associative Polymer Solutions via Surfactant-Cyclodextrin Complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Sachin; Harding, Jonathon; Khan, Saad A.

    2008-07-01

    Associative polymers in combination with cyclodextrin (CD) provide a potent tool to manipulate the solution rheology of aqueous solutions. In this study, we discuss the viability and scope of employing surfactants in such systems to facilitate a more versatile and effective tailoring of rheological properties. A model hydrophobically modified alkali-soluble emulsion (HASE) polymer is used which forms a transient physical network of intra- and inter-molecular hydrophobic junctions in solution arising from the interactions between hydrophobic groups grafted on the polymer backbone. The presence of these hydrophobic junctions significantly enhances the solution rheological properties with both the steady state viscosity and dynamic moduli exhibiting an increase by several orders of magnitude. The ability of nonionic surfactants to modulate and recover the hydrophobic interactions in these polymer solutions in the presence of cyclodextrin is examined. The presence of either a- or β-CD results in a dramatic decrease in viscosity and viscoelastic properties of the HASE polymer solution resulting from the encapsulation of polymer hydrophobes by CDs. Addition of nonionic surfactants to such systems promotes a competition between CDs and surfactant molecules to complex with polymer hydrophobes thereby altering the hydrophobic interactions. In this regard, nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPe) with different ethylene oxide (EO) chain lengths, which determine the surfactant hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB), are used.

  11. Tumour-targeted polymer carriers based on star HPMA copolymers prepared by RAFT polymerisation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytil, Petr; Bittner, Matyáš; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel

    Heraklion : University of Crete, 2012. s. 26-27. [BIONANOTOX 2012 - "Biomaterials and Bionanomaterials: Recent Problems and Safety Issues", Russian-Hellenic Symposium with International Participation and Young Scientists School /3./, Advanced Research Workshop on Nanotechnologies & Bioanalytical Advances for Improved Public Security and Enviromental Safety and Health. 06.05.2012-13.05.2012, Heraklion] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP207/11/P551 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : star copolymers * HPMA copolymer * drug delivery Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  12. Evolution of the T Tauri star population in the Lupus association

    CERN Document Server

    Galli, P A B; Teixeira, R; Ducourant, C

    2015-01-01

    Aims: In a recent study, we derived individual distances for 109 pre-main sequence stars that define the Lupus kinematic association of young stars. Here, we use these new distances to derive the masses and ages of Lupus T Tauri stars with the aim of better constraining the lifetime of their circumstellar disks. Methods: Using the photometric and spectroscopic information available in the literature, we computed the photospheric luminosity of 92 T Tauri stars in the Lupus association. Then, we estimated their masses and ages from theoretical evolutionary models. Based on Monte Carlo simulations and statistical tests, we compare the mass and age distribution of the classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) and weak-line T Tauri (WTTS) in our sample. Results: We show that the CTTSs are on average younger than the WTTSs and that the probability that both T~Tauri subclasses are drawn from the same mass and age parental distribution is very low. Our results favor the scenario proposed earlier for the Taurus-Auriga associatio...

  13. Megasupramolecules for safer, cleaner fuel by end association of long telechelic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming-Hsin; Li, Boyu; David, R. L. Ameri; Jones, Simon C.; Sarohia, Virendra; Schmitigal, Joel A.; Kornfield, Julia A.

    2015-10-01

    We used statistical mechanics to design polymers that defy conventional wisdom by self-assembling into “megasupramolecules” (≥5000 kg/mol) at low concentration (≤0.3 weight percent). Theoretical treatment of the distribution of individual subunits—end-functional polymers—among cyclic and linear supramolecules (ring-chain equilibrium) predicts that megasupramolecules can form at low total polymer concentration if, and only if, the backbones are long (>400 kg/mol) and end-association strength is optimal. Viscometry and scattering measurements of long telechelic polymers having polycyclooctadiene backbones and acid or amine end groups verify the formation of megasupramolecules. They control misting and reduce drag in the same manner as ultralong covalent polymers. With individual building blocks short enough to avoid hydrodynamic chain scission (weight-average molecular weights of 400 to 1000 kg/mol) and reversible linkages that protect covalent bonds, these megasupramolecules overcome the obstacles of shear degradation and engine incompatibility.

  14. STUDIES ON SELF-ASSOCIATIVE BEHAVIOR OF A NOVEL CATION AMPHIPHILIC POLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Fei-peng Wu; Er-jian Wang

    2009-01-01

    A novel associating polymer P(AEBA) was synthesized by radical polymerization of the cationic amphiphilic monomer, 4-(2-(acryloyloxy)ethoxy)benzyl tri-ethyl ammonium bromide (AEBA), in aqueous solutions. P(AEBA) displays a strong tendency for self-association in aqueous solutions and is sensitive to the external stimulation such as added salt. The associative properties and morphologies of P(AEBA) were studied by fluorescnece probe technique, viscometry and TEM. In dilute salt-free solutions P(AEBA) behaves as polyelectrolyte, while its behavior is similar to that of the polysoap as salt added. Accompanying increasing polymer concentration, polymer aggregation conformation changes from an extended necklace-like structure to a compact globular aggregate corresponding to the viscosity reduction.

  15. Star formation associated with a large-scale infrared bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jin-Long

    2014-01-01

    Using the data from the Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) and Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE), we performed a study for a large-scale infrared bubble with a size of about 16 pc at a distance of 2.0 kpc. We present the 12CO J=1-0, 13CO J=1-0 and C18O J=1-0 observations of HII region G53.54-0.01 (Sh2-82) obtained at the the Purple Mountain Observation (PMO) 13.7 m radio telescope to investigate the detailed distribution of associated molecular material. The large-scale infrared bubble shows a half-shell morphology at 8 um. H II regions G53.54-0.01, G53.64+0.24, and G54.09-0.06 are situated on the bubble. Comparing the radio recombination line velocities and associated 13CO J=1-0 components of the three H II regions, we found that the 8 um emission associated with H II region G53.54-0.01 should belong to the foreground emission, and only overlap with the large-scale infrared bubble in the line of sight. Three extended green objects (EGOs, the candidate massive young stellar objects), ...

  16. High-Velocity H2O Masers Associated Massive Star Formation Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐烨; 蒋栋荣; 郑兴武; 顾敏峰; 俞志尧; 裴春传

    2001-01-01

    We report on the results of 12 CO (1-0) emission associated with H2O masers and massive star formation regions to identify high-velocity H2O masers. Several masers have a large blueshift, even up to 120 km.s-1, with respect to the CO peak, but no large redshifted maser appears. This result suggests that high-velocity H2O masers can most probably occur in high mass star-forming regions and quite a number of masers stem from the amplifications of a background source, which may enable those undetectable weak masers to come to an observable level.

  17. A Cornucopia of Massive Binary Star Systems in the Cygnus OB2 Association: Fifty and Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kiminki, D. C.; Burke, J. F.; Chapman, J. E.; Keller, E.; Lester, K. V.; Rolen, E.; Topel, E.; Lundquist, M. J.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Vargas Alvarez, C. A.; Runnoe, J. C.; Dale, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Massive binary star systems produce nature's most energetic events, including some classes of supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and double-degenerate objects that generate gravitational wave radiation. The Cygnus OB2 Association is the largest nearby collection of massive stars, consisting of several hundred O and early B stars at a distance of just 1.4 kpc. Our Cygnus OB2 Radial Velocity Survey team at the University of Wyoming has spectroscopically monitored 115 stars of type B2 or earlier between 1999 and 2013, accruing an average of 12 observations per star at a velocity precision of 2-6 km/s. We have identified fifty massive binary systems, nearly all of which have full orbital solutions. Periods range from 1.4 days - 12.5 years and velocity semi-amplitudes span 4-300 km/s. Monte-Carlo modeling indicates that as many as 90% of massive systems contain multiple stars and that 45% of these can be characterized as ``close'' binaries that will interact, exchanging matter during main-sequence or post-main-sequence evolution. Statistical analysis of the orbital parameters reveals a striking surplus of close, short-period systems with periods P=1.4--7 days, with fully 30% (17 out of 50 systems) of the known binaries falling in this tight range; their typical orbital separations are just a small fraction of an astronomical unit. The remainder of the binary systems are consistent with a period distribution described as flat in log(P) out to several thousand day periods. The mass ratio distribution appears flat over the interval q=M2/M1=0.1-1.0, meaning that massive stars preferentially have massive companions. These data constitute the largest and most complete homogeneous database on any single collection of massive stars in a common formation environment covering the full range of stars expected to explode as supernovae (B2V and earlier). As such, the Survey provides the raw data for modeling rates of cosmic supernova, gamma-ray bursts, and X-ray binaries

  18. QUANTIFYING NON-STAR-FORMATION-ASSOCIATED 8 μm DUST EMISSION IN NGC 628

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combining Hα and IRAC images of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628, we find that between 30% and 43% of its 8 μm dust emission is not related to recent star formation. Contributions from dust heated by young stars are separated by identifying H II regions in the Hα map and using these areas as a mask to determine the 8 μm dust emission that must be due to heating by older stars. Corrections are made for sub-detection-threshold H II regions, photons escaping from H II regions, and for young stars not directly associated with H II regions (i.e., 10-100 Myr old stars). A simple model confirms that this amount of 8 μm emission can be expected given dust and PAH absorption cross sections, a realistic star formation history, and the observed optical extinction values. A Fourier power spectrum analysis indicates that the 8 μm dust emission is more diffuse than the Hα emission (and similar to observed H I), supporting our analysis that much of the 8 μm-emitting dust is heated by older stars. The 8 μm dust-to-Hα emission ratio declines with galactocentric radius both within and outside of H II regions, probably due to a radial increase in disk transparency. In the course of this work, we have also found that intrinsic diffuse Hα fractions may be lower than previously thought in galaxies, if the differential extinction between H II regions and diffuse regions is taken into account.

  19. QUANTIFYING NON-STAR-FORMATION-ASSOCIATED 8 {mu}m DUST EMISSION IN NGC 628

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Alison F.; Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astrophysics, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Thilker, David A. [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Aniano, Gonzalo; Draine, Bruce T. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Hunt, Leslie K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Kennicutt, Robert C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sandstrom, Karin [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Smith, J. D. T., E-mail: alison.crocker@utoledo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Combining H{alpha} and IRAC images of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628, we find that between 30% and 43% of its 8 {mu}m dust emission is not related to recent star formation. Contributions from dust heated by young stars are separated by identifying H II regions in the H{alpha} map and using these areas as a mask to determine the 8 {mu}m dust emission that must be due to heating by older stars. Corrections are made for sub-detection-threshold H II regions, photons escaping from H II regions, and for young stars not directly associated with H II regions (i.e., 10-100 Myr old stars). A simple model confirms that this amount of 8 {mu}m emission can be expected given dust and PAH absorption cross sections, a realistic star formation history, and the observed optical extinction values. A Fourier power spectrum analysis indicates that the 8 {mu}m dust emission is more diffuse than the H{alpha} emission (and similar to observed H I), supporting our analysis that much of the 8 {mu}m-emitting dust is heated by older stars. The 8 {mu}m dust-to-H{alpha} emission ratio declines with galactocentric radius both within and outside of H II regions, probably due to a radial increase in disk transparency. In the course of this work, we have also found that intrinsic diffuse H{alpha} fractions may be lower than previously thought in galaxies, if the differential extinction between H II regions and diffuse regions is taken into account.

  20. Spitzer observations of the Orion OB1 association: disk census in the low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Jesus; Briceño, C; Hartmann, L; Vivas, A K; Muzerolle, J; Downes, J; Allen, L; Gutermuth, R

    2007-01-01

    We present new Spitzer Space Telescope observations of two fields in the Orion OB1 association. We report here IRAC/MIPS observations for 115 confirmed members and 41 photometric candidates of the ~10 Myr 25 Orionis aggregate in the OB1a subassociation, and 106 confirmed members and 65 photometric candidates of the 5 Myr region located in the OB1b subassociation. The 25 Orionis aggregate shows a disk frequency of 6% while the field in the OB1b subassociation shows a disk frequency of 13%. Combining IRAC, MIPS and 2MASS photometry we place stars bearing disks in several classes: stars with optically thick disks (class II systems), stars with an inner transitional disks (transitional disk candidates) and stars with "evolved disks"; the last exhibit smaller IRAC/MIPS excesses than class II systems. In all, we identify 1 transitional disk candidate in the 25 Orionis aggregate and 3 in the OB1b field; this represents ~10% of the disk bearing stars, indicating that the transitional disk phase can be relatively fast...

  1. Assessment of nanoparticle release and associated health effect of polymer-silicon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little information is currently available on possible release of nanomaterials or/and nanoparticles (NP) from conventional and novel products and associated health effect. This study aimed to assess the possible release of NP during the application stage of conventional and nanoproducts. NP release was monitored during physical processing of polymer-silicon composites, and the toxicity of both the released NP and the raw silica nanomaterials that were used as fillers in the nanocomposites was assessed in vitro using human lung epithelial A549 cells. This study suggests that 1) NP can be released from the conventional and novel polymer-silicon composites under certain application scenario; 2) the level of NP release from polymer composites could be altered by different reinforcement materials; e.g. nanostructured MMT could reduce the release while SiO2 NP could increase the release; 3) working with polymer composites under certain conditions could risk inhalation of high level of polymer NP; 4) raw nanomaterials appeared to be toxic in the chosen in vitro system. Further study of the effect of novel filler materials on NP release from final polymer products and the effect of released NP on environment and human health will inform design of safe materials and minimization of negative impact on the environment and human health.

  2. Chemical homogeneity in the Orion Association: Oxygen abundances of B stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanz T.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present non-LTE oxygen abundances for a sample of B stars in the Orion association. The abundance calculations included non-LTE line formation and used fully blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres. The stellar parameters were the same as adopted in the previous study by Cunha & Lambert (1994. We find that the young Orion stars in this sample of 10 stars are described by a single oxygen abundance with an average value of A(O = 8.78 and a small dispersion of ±0.05, dex which is of the order of the uncertainties in the analysis. This average oxygen abundance compares well with the average oxygen abundance obtained previously in Cunha & Lambert (1994: A(O = 8.72 ± 0.13 although this earlier study, based upon non-blanketed model atmospheres in LTE, displayed larger scatter. Small scatter of chemical abundances in Orion B stars had also been found in our previous studies for neon and argon; all based on the same effective temperature scale. The derived oxygen abundance distribution for the Orion association compares well with other results for the oxygen abundance in the solar neighborhood.

  3. Neutron stars from young nearby associations the origin of RXJ1605.3+3249

    CERN Document Server

    Tetzlaff, Nina; Hohle, Markus M; Neuhaeuser, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Many neutron stars (NSs) and runaway stars apparently come from the same regions on the sky. This suggests that they share the same birth places, namely associations and clusters of young massive stars. To identify NS birth places, we attempt to and NS-runaway pairs that could be former companions that were disrupted in a supernova (SN). The remains of recent (associations, or in Sco OB4 ~1 kpc 3.5 Myr ago. A SN in Octans is supported by the identification of one to two possible former companions the runaway stars HIP 68228 and HIP 89394, as well as the appearance of a feature in the gamma ray emission from 26Al decay at the ...

  4. Understanding the thermosensitivity of POEGA-based star polymers: LCST-type transition in water vs. UCST-type transition in ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Chen, Qijing; An, Zesheng; Wu, Peiyi

    2016-02-28

    The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) transition in water and the upper critical solution temperature (UCST) transition in ethanol of poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylate) (POEGA)-based core cross-linked star (CCS) polymers have been investigated and compared by employing turbidity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), (1)H NMR and FTIR measurements. Macroscopic phase transitions in water and in ethanol were observed to occur when passing through the transition temperature, as revealed by DLS and turbidity measurements. Analysis by IR indicated that the interactions between the polymer chains and solvent molecules in water are stronger than those in ethanol such that the CCS polymer arm chains in water adopt more extended conformations. Moreover, hydrophobic interaction among the aliphatic groups plays a predominant role in the LCST-type transition in water whereas weak solvation of the polymer chains results in the UCST-type transition in ethanol. Additionally, the LCST-type transition in water was observed to be much more abrupt and complete than the UCST-type transition in ethanol, as suggested by (1)H NMR and IR at the molecular level. Finally, an abnormal "forced hydration" phenomenon was observed during the LCST transition upon heating. This study provides a detailed understanding of the subtle distinctions between the thermal transitions of CCS polymers in two commonly used solvents, which may be useful to guide future materials design for a wide range of applications. PMID:26822827

  5. Star formation triggered by SN explosions: an application to the stellar association of $\\beta$ Pictoris

    CERN Document Server

    Melioli, C; De la Reza, R; Raga, A

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, considering the physical conditions that are relevant in interactions between supernova remnants (SNRs) and dense molecular clouds for triggering star formation we have built a diagram of SNR radius versus cloud density in which the constraints above delineate a shaded zone where star formation is allowed. We have also performed fully 3-D radiatively cooling numerical simulations of the impact between SNRs and clouds under different initial conditions in order to follow the initial steps of these interactions. We determine the conditions that may lead either to cloud collapse and star formation or to complete cloud destruction and find that the numerical results are consistent with those of the SNR-cloud density diagram. Finally, we have applied the results above to the $\\beta-$Pictoris stellar association which is composed of low mass Post-T Tauri stars with an age of 11 Myr. It has been recently suggested that its formation could have been triggered by the shock wave produced by a SN e...

  6. The evolution of stars in the Taurus-Auriga T association

    CERN Document Server

    Bertout, C; Cabrit, S

    2007-01-01

    In a recent study, individual parallaxes were determined for many stars of the Taurus-Auriga T association that are members of the same moving group. We use these new parallaxes to re-address the issue of the relationship between classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) and weak-emission line T Tauri stars (WTTSs). With the available spectroscopic and photometric information for 72 individual stars or stellar systems among the Taurus-Auriga objects with known parallaxes, we derived reliable photospheric luminosities, mainly from the Ic magnitude of these objects. We then studied the mass and age distributions of the stellar sample, using pre-main sequence evolutionary models to determine the basic properties of the stellar sample. Statistical tests and Monte Carlo simulations were then applied to studying the properties of the two T Tauri subclasses. We find that the probability of CTTS and WTTS samples being drawn from the same parental age and mass distributions is low; CTTSs are, on average, younger than WTTSs. The...

  7. Tuning the Solubility of Copper Complex in Atom Transfer Radical Self-Condensing Vinyl Polymerizations to Control Polymer Topology via One-Pot to the Synthesis of Hyperbranched Core Star Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Cheng Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a simple one-pot methodology for proceeding from atom transfer reaction-induced conventional free radical polymerization (AT-FRP to atom transfer self-condensing vinyl polymerization (AT-SCVP through manipulation of the catalyst phase homogeneity (i.e., CuBr/2,2'-bipyridine (CuBr/Bpy in a mixture of styrene (St, 4-vinyl benzyl chloride (VBC, and ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate. Tests of the solubilities of CuBr/Bpy and CuBr2/Bpy under various conditions revealed that both temperature and solvent polarity were factors affecting the solubility of these copper complexes. Accordingly, we obtained different polymer topologies when performing AT-SCVP in different single solvents. We investigated two different strategies to control the polymer topology in one-pot: varying temperature and varying solvent polarity. In both cases, different fractions of branching revealed the efficacy of varying the polymer topology. To diversify the functionality of the peripheral space, we performed chain extensions of the resulting hyperbranched poly(St-co-VBC macroinitiator (name as: hbPSt MI with either St or tBA (tert-butyl acrylate. The resulting hyperbranched core star polymer had high molecular weights (hbPSt-g-PSt: Mn = 25,000, Đ = 1.77; hbPSt-g-PtBA: Mn = 27,000, Đ = 1.98; hydrolysis of the tert-butyl groups of the later provided a hyperbranched core star polymer featuring hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid segments.

  8. Unexpected differences between thermal and photoinitiated cationic curing of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A modified with a multiarm star poly(styrene-b-poly(ε-caprolactone polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Morancho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adding a multiarm star poly(styrene-b-poly(ε-caprolactone polymer on the cationic thermal and photoinitiated curing of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A was studied. This star-polymer decelerated the thermal curing of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and modified the final structure of the epoxy matrix. The photocuring was influenced significantly by the addition of the multiarm star. When the proportion of this modifier added was 5%, much more time was necessary for complete photocuring (160 min at 40ºC. In the presence of 10% of modifier, the degree of photocuring reached was very low (0.196 at 120°C. A subsequent thermal post-curing was necessary to cure completely the system. During photocuring in presence of poly(styrene-b-poly(ε-caprolactone, the formation of dormant species, which are reactivated when the temperature increases, takes places. The kinetics of the thermal curing and the photocuring was analyzed using an isoconversional method due to the complexity of the reactive process. Applying this method, it has been confirmed the dependence of activation energy on the degree of conversion. The fracture morphology analyzed by scanning electron microscopy exhibited a second phase originated during photocuring by the presence of the modifier.

  9. INVERSION SYMMETRY, ARCHITECTURE AND DISPERSITY, AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THERMODYNAMICS IN BULK AND CONFINED REGIONS: FROM RANDOMLY BRANCHED POLYMERS TO LINEAR CHAINS, STARS AND DENDRIMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D.Gujrati

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical evidence is presented in this review that architectural aspects can play an important role, not only in the bulk but also in confined geometries by using our recursive lattice theory, which is equally applicable to fixed architectures (regularly branched polymers, stars, dendrimers, brushes, linear chains, etc. and variable architectures, i.e. randomly branched structures. Linear chains possess an inversion symmetry (IS of a magnetic system (see text, whose presence or absence determines the bulk phase diagram. Fixed architectures possess the IS and yield a standard bulk phase diagram in which there exists a theta point at which two critical lines C and C' meet and the second virial coefficient A2 vanishes. The critical line C appears only for infinitely large polymers, and an order parameter is identified for this criticality. The critical line C' exists for polymers of all sizes and represents phase separation criticality. Variable architectures, which do not possess the IS, give rise to a topologically different phase diagram with no theta point in general. In confined regions next to surfaces, it is not the IS but branching and monodispersity, which becomes important in the surface regions. We show that branching plays no important role for polydisperse systems, but become important for monodisperse systems. Stars and linear chains behave differently near a surface.

  10. Analysis of the WN star WR 102c, its WR nebula, and the associated cluster of massive stars in the Sickle Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Steinke, M; Hamann, W -R; Sander, A; Liermann, A; Todt, H

    2016-01-01

    The massive Wolf-Rayet type star WR 102c is located near the Quintuplet Cluster - one of the three massive star clusters in the Galactic Center region. Previous studies indicated that WR 102c may have a dusty circumstellar nebula and is among the main ionizing sources of the Sickle Nebula associated with the Quintuplet cluster. We obtained observations with the ESO's VLT integral field spectrograph SINFONI in the K-band, extracted the stellar spectra, and analyzed them by means of stellar atmosphere models. Our new analysis supersedes the results reported for WR 102c previously. We significantly revise down its bolometric luminosity and hydrogen content. We detect four early OB type stars close to WR 102c. These stars have radial velocities similar to that of WR 102c. We suggest that together with WR 102c these stars belong to a distinct star cluster with a total mass of about 1000 M_sun. We identify a new WR nebula around WR 102c in the SINFONI map of the diffuse Br$\\gamma$ emission and in the HST's Pa$\\alph...

  11. Analysis of the WN star WR 102c, its WR nebula, and the associated cluster of massive stars in the Sickle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, M.; Oskinova, L. M.; Hamann, W.-R.; Sander, A.; Liermann, A.; Todt, H.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The massive Wolf-Rayet type star WR 102c is located near the Quintuplet Cluster, one of the three massive star clusters in the Galactic centre region. Previous studies indicated that WR 102c may have a dusty circumstellar nebula and is among the main ionising sources of the Sickle Nebula associated with the Quintuplet Cluster. Aims: The goals of our study are to derive the stellar parameters of WR 102c from the analysis of its spectrum and to investigate its stellar and nebular environment. Methods: We obtained observations with the ESO VLT integral field spectrograph SINFONI in the K-band, extracted the stellar spectra, and analysed them by means of stellar atmosphere models. Results: Our new analysis supersedes the results previously reported for WR 102c. We significantly decrease its bolometric luminosity and hydrogen content. We detect four early OB type stars close to WR 102c. These stars have radial velocities similar to that of WR 102c. We suggest that together with WR 102c these stars belong to a distinct star cluster with a total mass of ~ 1000 M⊙. We identify a new WR nebula around WR 102c in the SINFONI map of the diffuse Brγ emission and in the HST Paα images. The Brγ line at different locations is not significantly broadened and similar to the width of nebular emission elsewhere in the H ii region around WR 102c. Conclusions: The massive star WR 102c located in the Galactic centre region resides in a star cluster containing additional early-type stars. The stellar parameters of WR 102c are typical for hydrogen-free WN6 stars. We identify a nebula surrounding WR 102c that has a morphology similar to other nebulae around hydrogen-free WR stars, and propose that the formation of this nebula is linked to interaction of the fast stellar wind with the matter ejected at a previous evolutionary stage of WR 102c. The scientific results reported in this article are based on observations obtained during the ESO VLT program 383.D-0323(A).

  12. Asymmetric AB3 Miktoarm Star Polymers: Synthesis, Self-Assembly, and Study of Micelle Stability Using AF4 for Efficient Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moquin, Alexandre; Sharma, Anjali; Cui, Yiming; Lau, Anthony; Maysinger, Dusica; Kakkar, Ashok

    2015-12-01

    A simple and versatile methodology, which employs a combination of ring-opening polymerization and alkyne-azide click chemistry to synthesize amphiphilic AB3 miktoarm stars, is reported. Their aqueous self-assembly behavior was studied using dynamic light scattering, fluorescence, and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). AB3 miktoarm stars form micelles which incorporate curcumin with high efficiency, and significantly reduce the viability of glioblastoma cells in spheroids. We demonstrate that AF4 is an effective technique to determine the size distribution of self-assembled structures exposed to a biological medium. The ease, with which asymmetric AB3 miktoarm polymers are constructed, provides a platform that can be widely employed to deliver a variety of lipophilic drugs. PMID:26259625

  13. Dynamics of associative polymer solutions: Capillary break-up, jetting and rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Serdy, James G.; Threfall-Holmes, Phil; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2010-03-01

    Associative polymer solutions are used in extensively in the formulations for water-borne paints, food, inks, cosmetics, etc to control the rheology and processing behavior of multi-component dispersions. The commercially relevant formulations use dilute solutions of associative polymers, which have low viscosity and short relaxation times, and hence their non-Newtonian response is not apparent in a conventional rheometer. In this talk, we explore several methods for systematically exploring the linear and nonlinear solution rheology of associative polymer dispersions, including: high frequency oscillatory tests at frequencies up to 10 kHz, microfluidic shear rheometry at deformation rates up to 10^6 s-1 and the influence of transientextensional rheology in the jet breakup. The presence of inertial, elastic and viscous effects typically leads to complex dynamics in a necking fluid thread. We show that by carefully controlling the excitation frequency, it is possible to drive the break-up in a particularly simple and symmetric mode, which can be used to extract extensional viscosity information using capillary thinning analysis.

  14. Dynamics of associative polymer solutions: Capillary break-up, jetting and rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Serdy, James G.; Threfall-Holmes, Phil; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2011-11-01

    Associative polymer solutions are used in extensively in the formulations for water-borne paints, food, inks, cosmetics, etc to control the rheology and processing behavior of multi-component dispersions. These complex dispersions are processed and used over a broad range of shear and extensional rates. Furthermore, the commercially relevant formulations use dilute solutions of associative polymers, which have low viscosity and short relaxation times, and hence their non-Newtonian response is not apparent in a conventional rheometer. In this talk, we explore several methods for systematically exploring the linear and nonlinear solution rheology of associative polymer dispersions, including: fractional model description of physical gelation, high frequency oscillatory tests at frequencies up to 10 kHz, microfluidic shear rheometry at deformation rates up to 1000000 /s and the influence of transient extensional rheology in the jet breakup. We show that high deformation rates can be obtained in jetting flows, and the growth and evolution of instability during jetting and break-up of these viscoelastic fluids shows the influence of both elasticity and extensibility.

  15. CKIα Is Associated with and Phosphorylates Star-PAP and Is Also Required for Expression of Select Star-PAP Target Messenger RNAs*

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Michael L.; Mellman, David L.; Richard A. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    We have recently identified Star-PAP, a nuclear poly(A) polymerase that associates with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase Iα (PIPKIα) and is required for the expression of a specific subset of mRNAs. Star-PAP activity is directly modulated by the PIPKIα product phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI-4,5-P2), linking nuclear phosphoinositide signaling to gene expression. Here, we show that PI-4,5-P2-dependent protein kinase activity is also a part of the ...

  16. Young stars in Epsilon Cha and their disks: disk evolution in sparse associations

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, M; Bouwman, J; Henning, Th; Lawson, W A; Sicilia-Aguilar, A

    2012-01-01

    The nearby young stellar association Epsilon Cha association has an estimated age of 3-5 Myr, making it an ideal laboratory to study the disk dissipation process and provide empirical constraints on the timescale of planet formation. We combine the available literature data with our Spitzer IRS spectroscopy and VLT/VISIR imaging data. The very low mass stars USNO-B120144.7 and 2MASS J12005517 show globally depleted spectral energy distributions pointing at strong dust settling. 2MASS J12014343 may have a disk with a very specific inclination where the central star is effectively screened by the cold outer parts of a flared disk but the 10 micron radiation of the warm inner disk can still reach us. We find the disks in sparse stellar associations are dissipated more slowly than those in denser (cluster) environments. We detect C_{2}H_{2} rovibrational band around 13.7 micron on the IRS spectrum of USNO-B120144.7. We find strong signatures of grain growth and crystallization in all Epsilon Cha members with 10 m...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of associating polymers which contain siloxanes chains; Synthese et caracterisation de polymeres associatifs porteurs de groupes siloxanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, V.

    1999-01-11

    Polymers that associate via physical interactions in solutions have received much attention as viscosifiers. Such associating polymers are now used in variety of applications due to their unique theological properties coating, food thickeners, paints, enhanced oil recovery, water treatment). They contain a hydrophilic main chain with hydrophobic side chain that is generally constituted of hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups. Novel copolymers with sites of association in aqueous solution were prepared by co-polymerizing acrylamide with an hydrophobic monomer containing siloxane parts. Rheological properties were studied as a function of polymer concentration, microstructure, shear rate and frequency in order to show intra intermolecular associations between the hydrophobic parts. The polymer solution viscosity increases as a function of the hydrophobic group content. Tests of adsorption show a high affinity of these copolymers with clay and the amount absorbed increase with the quantity of hydrophobic entities containing in the chain. These properties are enhanced compared to copolymers containing hydrocarbon chains. (authors) 456 refs.

  18. Polymer gels with associating side chains and their interaction with surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordievskaya, Yulia D; Rumyantsev, Artem M; Kramarenko, Elena Yu

    2016-05-14

    Conformational behaviour of hydrophobically modified (HM) polymer gels in solutions of nonionic surfactants is studied theoretically. A HM gel contains hydrophobic side chains (stickers) grafted to its subchains. Hydrophobic stickers are capable to aggregate into joint micelles with surfactant molecules. Micelles containing more than one sticker serve as additional physical cross-links of the network, and their formation causes gel shrinking. In the proposed theoretical model, the interior of the gel/surfactant complex is treated as an array of densely packed spherical polymer brushes consisting of gel subchains tethered to the surface of the spherical sticker/surfactant micelles. Effect of stickers length and grafting density, surfactant concentration and hydrophobicity on gel swelling as well as on hydrophobic association inside it is analyzed. It is shown that increasing surfactant concentration can result in a gel collapse, which is caused by surfactant-induced hydrophobic aggregation of stickers, and a successive gel reswelling. The latter should be attributed to a growing fraction of surfactants in joint aggregates and, hence, increasing number of micelles containing only one sticker and not participating in gel physical cross-linking. In polyelectrolyte (PE) gels hydrophobic aggregation is opposed by osmotic pressure of mobile counterions, so that at some critical ionization degree hydrophobic association is completely suppressed. Hydrophobic modification of polymers is shown to open new ways for controlling gel responsiveness. In particular, it is discussed that incorporation of photosensitive groups into gel subchains and/or surfactant tail could give a possibility to vary the gel volume by light. Since hydrophobic aggregation regularities in gels and solutions are common, we hope our findings will be useful for design of polymer based self-healing materials as well. PMID:27179504

  19. STAR FORMATION IN THE MOLECULAR CLOUD ASSOCIATED WITH THE MONKEY HEAD NEBULA: SEQUENTIAL OR SPONTANEOUS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We mapped the (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) lines of NH3 toward the molecular cloud associated with the Monkey Head Nebula (MHN) with a 1.'6 angular resolution using a Kashima 34 m telescope operated by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The kinetic temperature of the molecular gas is 15-30 K in the eastern part and 30-50 K in the western part. The warmer gas is confined to a small region close to the compact H II region S252A. The cooler gas is extended over the cloud even near the extended H II region, the MHN. We made radio continuum observations at 8.4 GHz using the Yamaguchi 32 m radio telescope. The resultant map shows no significant extension from the Hα image. This means that the molecular cloud is less affected by the MHN, suggesting that the molecular cloud did not form by the expanding shock of the MHN. Although the spatial distribution of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and Two Micron All Sky Survey point sources suggests that triggered low- and intermediate-mass star formation took place locally around S252A, but the exciting star associated with it should be formed spontaneously in the molecular cloud.

  20. STAR FORMATION IN THE MOLECULAR CLOUD ASSOCIATED WITH THE MONKEY HEAD NEBULA: SEQUENTIAL OR SPONTANEOUS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chibueze, James O.; Imura, Kenji; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Handa, Toshihiro; Kamezaki, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Nagayama, Takumi; Sunada, Kazuyoshi [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fujisawa, Kenta [Department of Physics and Informatics, Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University, Yoshida 1677-1, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Nakano, Makoto [Faculty of Education and Welfare Science, Oita University, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Sekido, Mamoru, E-mail: james@milkyway.sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Kashima Space Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 893-1 Hirai, Kashima, Ibaraki 314-8501 (Japan)

    2013-01-01

    We mapped the (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) lines of NH{sub 3} toward the molecular cloud associated with the Monkey Head Nebula (MHN) with a 1.'6 angular resolution using a Kashima 34 m telescope operated by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The kinetic temperature of the molecular gas is 15-30 K in the eastern part and 30-50 K in the western part. The warmer gas is confined to a small region close to the compact H II region S252A. The cooler gas is extended over the cloud even near the extended H II region, the MHN. We made radio continuum observations at 8.4 GHz using the Yamaguchi 32 m radio telescope. The resultant map shows no significant extension from the H{alpha} image. This means that the molecular cloud is less affected by the MHN, suggesting that the molecular cloud did not form by the expanding shock of the MHN. Although the spatial distribution of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and Two Micron All Sky Survey point sources suggests that triggered low- and intermediate-mass star formation took place locally around S252A, but the exciting star associated with it should be formed spontaneously in the molecular cloud.

  1. PREDICTION OF THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STAR-TYPE BRANCHED POLYMER SOLUTIONS BY MEANS OF THE FIXED SPECTRUM MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiye

    1995-01-01

    The Rouse-Zimm model with slippage was improved and the basic parameters of modelwere modified to explain the rheological properties of star-type branched polymersolutions. The theoretical results show good agreement with experimental data.

  2. Study on the Ion Association in PVdF-based Gel Polymer Electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes based on the poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) and the electrolyte of LiClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC) were prepared by the solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity of the gel electrolytes was concentration of lithium salt. Because of the strong coulombiq attractions, the dissolved salt ions might aggregate into ion pairs and multiple ion aggregates. The analysis of DSC and X-ray diffraction revealed that the ions association occurred at higher concentration of lithium salt.

  3. Dynamics of microemulsions bridged with hydrophobically end-capped star polymers studied by neutron spin-echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, I.; de Molina, Paula Malo; Farago, B.; Falus, P.; Herfurth, Christoph; Laschewsky, André; Gradzielski, M.

    2014-01-01

    The mesoscopic dynamical properties of oil-in-water microemulsions (MEs) bridged with telechelic polymers of different number of arms and with different lengths of hydrophobic stickers were studied with neutron spin-echo (NSE) probing the dynamics in the size range of individual ME droplets. These results then were compared to those of dynamicic light scattering (DLS) which allow to investigate the dynamics on a much larger length scale. Studies were performed as a function of the polymer concentration, number of polymer arms, and length of the hydrophobic end-group. In general it is observed that the polymer bridging has a rather small influence on the local dynamics, despite the fact that the polymer addition leads to an increase of viscosity by several orders of magnitude. In contrast to results from rheology and DLS, where the dynamics on much larger length and time scales are observed, NSE shows that the linear polymer is more efficient in arresting the motion of individual ME droplets. This finding can be explained by a simple simulation, merely by the fact that the interconnection of droplets becomes more efficient with a decreasing number of arms. This means that the dynamics observed on the short and on the longer length scale depend in an opposite way on the number of arms and hydrophobic stickers.

  4. Dynamics of microemulsions bridged with hydrophobically end-capped star polymers studied by neutron spin-echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, I., E-mail: ingo.hoffmann@tu-berlin.de [Stranski-Laboratorium für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 124, Sekr. TC 7, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin (ILL), F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Malo de Molina, Paula; Gradzielski, M., E-mail: michael.gradzielski@tu-berlin.de [Stranski-Laboratorium für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 124, Sekr. TC 7, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Farago, B.; Falus, P. [Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin (ILL), F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Herfurth, Christoph; Laschewsky, André [Fraunhofer Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung IAP, Geiselbergstraße 69, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2014-01-21

    The mesoscopic dynamical properties of oil-in-water microemulsions (MEs) bridged with telechelic polymers of different number of arms and with different lengths of hydrophobic stickers were studied with neutron spin-echo (NSE) probing the dynamics in the size range of individual ME droplets. These results then were compared to those of dynamicic light scattering (DLS) which allow to investigate the dynamics on a much larger length scale. Studies were performed as a function of the polymer concentration, number of polymer arms, and length of the hydrophobic end-group. In general it is observed that the polymer bridging has a rather small influence on the local dynamics, despite the fact that the polymer addition leads to an increase of viscosity by several orders of magnitude. In contrast to results from rheology and DLS, where the dynamics on much larger length and time scales are observed, NSE shows that the linear polymer is more efficient in arresting the motion of individual ME droplets. This finding can be explained by a simple simulation, merely by the fact that the interconnection of droplets becomes more efficient with a decreasing number of arms. This means that the dynamics observed on the short and on the longer length scale depend in an opposite way on the number of arms and hydrophobic stickers.

  5. An ALMA Survey for Disks Orbiting Low-Mass Stars in the TW Hya Association

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, David R; Kastner, Joel H; Schneider, Adam C; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Mardones, Diego; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Principe, David

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out an ALMA survey of 15 confirmed or candidate low-mass (<0.2M$_\\odot$) members of the TW Hya Association (TWA) with the goal of detecting molecular gas in the form of CO emission, as well as providing constraints on continuum emission due to cold dust. Our targets have spectral types of M4-L0 and hence represent the extreme low end of the TWA's mass function. Our ALMA survey has yielded detections of 1.3mm continuum emission around 4 systems (TWA 30B, 32, 33, & 34), suggesting the presence of cold dust grains. All continuum sources are unresolved. TWA 34 further shows 12CO(2-1) emission whose velocity structure is indicative of Keplerian rotation. Among the sample of known ~7-10 Myr-old star/disk systems, TWA 34, which lies just ~50 pc from Earth, is the lowest mass star thus far identified as harboring cold molecular gas in an orbiting disk.

  6. Measuring the rotation periods of 4-10 Myr T-Tauri stars in the Orion OB1 association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer Karim, Md; Stassun, Keivan; Briceno, Cesar; Vivas, Kathy; Raetz, Stefanie; Calvet, Nuria; Mateu, Cecilia; Downes, Juan Jose; Hernandez, Jesus; Neuhäuser, Ralph; Mugrauer, Markus; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tachihara, Kengo; Chini, Rolf; YETI

    2016-01-01

    Most existing studies of young stellar populations have focused on the youngest (natal gas and hence easier to identify. In contrast, older T-Tauri stars (~ 4-10 Myr), being more difficult to find, have been less studied, even though they hold key insight to understanding evolution of lower-mass (0.1-2 M⊙) stars and of protoplanetary discs. We present a study of photometric variability of 1974 confirmed 4-10 Myr old T-Tauri stars in the Orion OB1 association using optical time-series from three different surveys: the Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía-Quest Equatorial Survey Team (CIDA-QUEST), the Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (YETI) and from a Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) campaign. We investigated stellar rotation periods according to the type of stars (Classical or Weak-lined T-Tauri stars) and their locations, to look for population-wide trends. We detected 563 periodic variables and 1411 non-periodic variables by investigating the light curves of these stars. We find that ~ 30% of Weak-line T-Tauri stars (WTTS) and ~ 20% of Classical T-Tauri stars (CTTS) are periodic. Though we did not find any noticeable difference in rotation period between CTTS and WTTS, our study does show a change in the overall rotation periods of stars 4-10 Myr old, consistent with predictions of angular momentum evolution models, an important constraint for theoretical models for an age range for which no similar data existed.

  7. Effects of pairwise, self-associating functional side groups on polymer solubility, solution viscosity, and mist control

    OpenAIRE

    David, R. L. Ameri; Wei, Ming-Hsin; Liu, David; Bathel, Brett F.; Plog, Jan P.; Ratner, Albert; Kornfield, Julia A.

    2009-01-01

    Solution properties are reported for homologous series of narrowly distributed polymers with systematically varied content of self-associating groups. Anionically polymerized polybutadienes of two lengths (510 and 1250 kg/mol) serve as prepolymers that are modified by incorporation of carboxylic acid side groups using thiol−ene coupling to pendant vinyl groups. Carboxylic acid groups strongly reduce polymer solubility in hydrocarbon solvents, restricting the extent of functionalization that c...

  8. ON THE LINK BETWEEN ASSOCIATED Mg II ABSORBERS AND STAR FORMATION IN QUASAR HOSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few percent of quasars show strong associated Mg II absorption, with velocities (voff) lying within a few thousand km s–1 from the quasar systemic redshift. These associated absorption line (AAL) systems are usually interpreted as absorbers that are either intrinsic to the quasar and its host, or arising from external galaxies clustering around the quasar. Using composite spectra of ∼1800 Mg II AAL quasars selected from SDSS DR7 at 0.4 ∼off –1 have a prominent excess in [O II] λ3727 emission (detected at >7σ) at rest relative to the quasar host, compared to unabsorbed quasars. We interpret this [O II] excess as due to enhanced star formation in the quasar host. Our results suggest that a significant fraction of AALs with voff –1 are physically associated with the quasar and its host. AAL quasars also have dust reddening lying between normal quasars and the so-called dust-reddened quasars. We suggest that the unique properties of AAL quasars can be explained if they are the transitional population from heavily dust-reddened quasars to normal quasars in the formation process of quasars and their hosts. This scenario predicts a larger fraction of young bulges, disturbed morphologies, and interactions of AAL quasar hosts compared to normal quasars. The intrinsic link between associated absorbers and quasar hosts opens a new window to probe massive galaxy formation and galactic-scale feedback processes, and provides a crucial test of the evolutionary picture of quasars.

  9. Rheology resulting from shear-induced structure in associating polymer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polysaccharide with sodium borate (SB) are investigated as a model system for associating polymers which exhibit shear-induced fluid structure and shear-thickening rheology. Certain combinations of PVA and SB concentrations are shown to result in fluids that exhibit a viscosity maximum followed by shear thinning as shear rate is increased. Stress saturation is often observed in the shear-thinning region. A significant hysteresis is also reported in which higher viscosities and lower shear rate for the viscosity maximum are observed in steady-state measurements made while decreasing shear rate in a stepwise manner. Boron nuclear magnetic resonance spectra are shown to be useful for elucidating the nature of the borate/hydroxyl dyad complexes, including their stereoselectivity. Boron resonance peaks allow quantitative determination of the number of complexes and confirmation that only crosslinking complexes are present in most of the solutions studied. Dynamic mechanical properties are included, and a physical picture of network structure building and breaking during flow of associating polymers is discussed

  10. The Birth of Massive Stars and Star Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Jonathan C.

    2005-01-01

    In the present-day universe, it appears that most, and perhaps all, massive stars are born in star clusters. It also appears that all star clusters contain stars drawn from an approximately universal initial mass function, so that almost all rich young star clusters contain massive stars. In this review I discuss the physical processes associated with both massive star formation and with star cluster formation. First I summarize the observed properties of star-forming gas clumps, then address...

  11. Development of a multilayered association polymer system for sequential drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnakavanam Sundararaj, Sharath kumar

    As all the physiological processes in our body are controlled by multiple biomolecules, comprehensive treatment of certain disease conditions may be more effectively achieved by administration of more than one type of drug. Thus, the primary objective of this research was to develop a multilayered, polymer-based system for sequential delivery of multiple drugs. This particular device was designed aimed at the treatment of periodontitis, a highly prevalent oral inflammatory disease that affects 90% of the world population. This condition is caused by bacterial biofilm on the teeth, resulting in a chronic inflammatory response that leads to loss of alveolar bone and, ultimately, the tooth. Current treatment methods for periodontitis address specific parts of the disease, with no individual treatment serving as a complete therapy. The polymers used for the fabrication of this multilayered device consists of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) complexed with Pluronic F-127 (P). After evaluating morphology of the resulting CAPP system, in vitro release of small molecule drugs and a model protein was studied from both single and multilayered devices. Drug release from single-layered CAPP films followed zero-order kinetics related to surface erosion property of the association polymer. Release studies from multilayered CAPP devices showed the possibility of achieving intermittent release of one type of drug as well as sequential release of more than one type of drug. Mathematical modeling accurately predicted the release profiles for both single layer and multilayered devices. After the initial characterization of the CAPP system, the device was specifically modified to achieve sequential release of drugs aimed at the treatment of periodontitis. The four types of drugs used were metronidazole, ketoprofen, doxycycline, and simvastatin to eliminate infection, inhibit inflammation, prevent tissue destruction, and aid bone regeneration, respectively. To obtain different erosion

  12. AN UPDATED LOOK AT BINARY CHARACTERISTICS OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work provides a statistical analysis of the massive star binary characteristics in the Cygnus OB2 association using radial velocity information of 114 B3-O5 primary stars and orbital properties for the 24 known binaries. We compare these data to a series of Monte Carlo simulations to infer the intrinsic binary fraction and distributions of mass ratios, periods, and eccentricities. We model the distribution of mass ratio, log-period, and eccentricity as power laws and find best-fitting indices of α = 0.1 ± 0.5, β = 0.2 ± 0.4, and γ = –0.6 ± 0.3, respectively. These distributions indicate a preference for massive companions, short periods, and low eccentricities. Our analysis indicates that the binary fraction of the cluster is 44% ± 8% if all binary systems are (artificially) assumed to have P 4 years, then a plausible upper limit for bound systems, the binary fraction is ∼90% ± 10%. Of these binary (or higher order) systems, ∼45% will have companions close enough to interact during pre- or post-main-sequence evolution (semi-major axis ∼<4.7 AU). The period distribution for P < 26 days is not well reproduced by any single power law owing to an excess of systems with periods around 3-5 days (0.08-0.31 AU) and a relative shortage of systems with periods around 7-14 days (0.14-0.62 AU). We explore the idea that these longer-period systems evolved to produce the observed excess of short-period systems. The best-fitting binary parameters imply that secondaries generate, on average, ∼16% of the V-band light in young massive populations. This means that photometrically based distance measurements for young massive clusters and associations will be systematically low by ∼8% (0.16 mag in the distance modulus) if the luminous contributions of unresolved secondaries are not taken into account.

  13. Search for associations containing young stars (SACY). VII. New stellar and substellar candidate members in the young associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P.; Bayo, A.; Melo, C. H. F.; Torres, C. A. O.; Sterzik, M. F.; Quast, G. R.; Montes, D.; Brahm, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The young associations offer us one of the best opportunities to study the properties of young stellar and substellar objects and to directly image planets thanks to their proximity (<200 pc) and age (≈5-150 Myr). However, many previous works have been limited to identifying the brighter, more active members (≈1 M⊙) owing to photometric survey sensitivities limiting the detections of lower mass objects. Aims: We search the field of view of 542 previously identified members of the young associations to identify wide or extremely wide (1000-100 000 au in physical separation) companions. Methods: We combined 2MASS near-infrared photometry (J, H, K) with proper motion values (from UCAC4, PPMXL, NOMAD) to identify companions in the field of view of known members. We collated further photometry and spectroscopy from the literature and conducted our own high-resolution spectroscopic observations for a subsample of candidate members. This complementary information allowed us to assess the efficiency of our method. Results: We identified 84 targets (45: 0.2-1.3 M⊙, 17: 0.08-0.2 M⊙, 22: <0.08 M⊙) in our analysis, ten of which have been identified from spectroscopic analysis in previous young association works. For 33 of these 84, we were able to further assess their membership using a variety of properties (X-ray emission, UV excess, Hα, lithium and K I equivalent widths, radial velocities, and CaH indices). We derive a success rate of 76-88% for this technique based on the consistency of these properties. Conclusions: Once confirmed, the targets identified in this work would significantly improve our knowledge of the lower mass end of the young associations. Additionally, these targets would make an ideal new sample for the identification and study of planets around nearby young stars. Given the predicted substellar mass of the majority of these new candidate members and their proximity, high-contrast imaging techniques would facilitate the search for

  14. FUV Emission from AGB Stars: Modeling Accretion Activity Associated with a Binary Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alyx Catherine; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that the late stages of evolution for Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are influenced by the presence of binary companions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of direct observational evidence of binarity. However, more recently, strong indirect evidence comes from the discovery of UV emission in a subsample of these objects (fuvAGB stars). AGB stars are comparatively cool objects (accretion activity. We develop new models of UV emission from fuvAGB stars constrained by GALEX photometry and spectroscopy of these objects. We compare the GALEX UV grism spectra of the AGB M7 star EY Hya to predictions using the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, specifically investigating the ultraviolet wavelength range (1344-2831 Angstroms). We investigate models composed of contributions from a photoionized "hot spot" due to accretion activity around the companion, and "chromospheric" emission from collisionally ionized plasma, to fit the UV observations.

  15. Star forming activity in the H II regions associated with IRAS 17160-3707 complex

    CERN Document Server

    Nandakumar, G; Vig, S; Tej, A; Ghosh, S K; Ojha, D K

    2016-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength investigation of star formation activity towards the southern H II regions associated with IRAS 17160-3707, located at a distance of 6.2 kpc with a bolometric luminosity of 830000 Lsun.The ionised gas distribution and dust clumps in the parental molecular cloud are examined in detail using measurements at infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths.The radio continuum images at 1280 and 610 MHz obtained using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope reveal the presence of multiple compact sources as well as nebulous emission.At submillimeter wavelengths, we identify seven dust clumps and estimate their physical properties like temperature: 24 - 30 K, mass: 300 - 4800 Msun and luminosity: 900 - 31700 Lsun using modified blackbody fits to the spectral energy distributions between 70 and 870 um.We find 24 young stellar objects in the mid-infrared, with few of them coincident with the compact radio sources.The spectral energy distributions of young stellar objects have been fitted by the Rob...

  16. Search for associations containing young stars (SACY). VII. New stellar and substellar candidate members in the young associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P.; Bayo, A.; Melo, C. H. F.; Torres, C. A. O.; Sterzik, M. F.; Quast, G. R.; Montes, D.; Brahm, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The young associations offer us one of the best opportunities to study the properties of young stellar and substellar objects and to directly image planets thanks to their proximity (physical separation) companions. Methods: We combined 2MASS near-infrared photometry (J, H, K) with proper motion values (from UCAC4, PPMXL, NOMAD) to identify companions in the field of view of known members. We collated further photometry and spectroscopy from the literature and conducted our own high-resolution spectroscopic observations for a subsample of candidate members. This complementary information allowed us to assess the efficiency of our method. Results: We identified 84 targets (45: 0.2-1.3 M⊙, 17: 0.08-0.2 M⊙, 22: <0.08 M⊙) in our analysis, ten of which have been identified from spectroscopic analysis in previous young association works. For 33 of these 84, we were able to further assess their membership using a variety of properties (X-ray emission, UV excess, Hα, lithium and K I equivalent widths, radial velocities, and CaH indices). We derive a success rate of 76-88% for this technique based on the consistency of these properties. Conclusions: Once confirmed, the targets identified in this work would significantly improve our knowledge of the lower mass end of the young associations. Additionally, these targets would make an ideal new sample for the identification and study of planets around nearby young stars. Given the predicted substellar mass of the majority of these new candidate members and their proximity, high-contrast imaging techniques would facilitate the search for new low-mass planets. Based on FEROS observations obtained during CNTAC programme CN2015B-9 and observations made with the HERMES spectrograph mounted on the 1.2 m Mercator Telescope at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Full Table 4 (Appendix E) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  17. Regulatory issues and assumptions associated with polymers for subsurface barriers surrounding buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. Subsurface barriers will improve remediation performance by removing pathways for contaminant transport due to groundwater movement, meteorological water infiltration, vapor- and gas-phase transport, transpiration, etc. Subsurface barriers may be used to open-quotes directclose quotes contaminant movement to collection sumps/lysimeters in cases of unexpected remediation failures or transport mechanisms, to contain leakage from underground storage tanks, and to restrict in-situ soil cleanup operation and chemicals. Brookhaven National Laboratory is currently investigating advanced polymer materials for subsurface barriers. This report addresses the regulatory aspects of using of non-traditional polymer materials as well as soil-bentonite or cement-bentonite mixtures for such barriers. The regulatory issues fall into two categories. The first category consists of issues associated with the acceptability of subsurface barriers to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a method for achieving waste site performance improvement. The second category encompasses those regulatory issues concerning health, safety and the environment which must be addressed regarding barrier installation and performance, especially if non-traditional materials are to be used. Since many of EPA's concerns regarding subsurface barriers focus on the chemicals used during installation of these barriers the authors discuss the results of a search of the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations for references in Titles 29 and 40 pertaining to key chemicals likely to be utilized in installing non-traditional barrier materials. The use of polymeric materials in the construction industry has been accomplished with full compliance with the applicable health, safety, and environmental regulations

  18. Manager Factor Associated to the Compliance of Local Smoke-Free Regulation among Star Hotels in Badung District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Devhy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Smoke-free area regulation has been issued recently in Bali Province and Badung District. This study aimed to identify factors associated to the compliance of local smoke-free regulation in star hotel. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analytic study conducted in Badung District from March to May 2014. Samples of numbered 104 hotels and the managers that selected using systematic random sampling. Compliance data collected through observation using the observation form and the data of managers through interviews using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and poisson regression. Result: The results shows that the compliance of star hotel to local smoke-free regulation was low (15.4%. The concrete support of hotel managers was significantly associated with the compliance to smoke free regulation (PR=4.25; 95%CI: 1.03-17.58. The factors that not significantly associated to the compliance were the knowledge (PR=2.0; 95%CI: 0.8-4.9, attitude (PR=2.5; 95%CI: 0.8-8.2, and organization support (PR=1.8; 95%CI: 0.7-4.5. Furthermore the hotel compliance of managers who have smoking behavior was 0% while the managers without smoking behavior, the compliance was 19.5%. Conclusion: The compliance of star hotels in Badung District on the implementation of local smoke-free regulation was relatively low and the compliance was associated with the presence of concrete support of the hotel managers. Keywords: compliance, local smoke-free legislation, star hotel

  19. Discovery of Seven Companions to Intermediate Mass Stars with Extreme Mass Ratios in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkley, Sasha; Ireland, Michael J; Cheetham, Anthony; Carpenter, John M; Tuthill, Peter; Lacour, Sylvestre; Evans, Thomas M; Haubois, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection of seven low mass companions to intermediate-mass stars (SpT B/A/F; $M$$\\approx$1.5-4.5 solar masses) in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association using nonredundant aperture masking interferometry. Our newly detected objects have contrasts $\\Delta L'$$\\approx$4-6, corresponding to masses as low as $\\sim$20 Jupiter masses and mass ratios of $q$$\\approx$0.01-0.08, depending on the assumed age of the target stars. With projected separations $\\rho$$\\approx$10-30 AU, our aperture masking detections sample an orbital region previously unprobed by conventional adaptive optics imaging of intermediate mass Scorpius-Centaurus stars covering much larger orbital radii ($\\approx$30-3000 AU). At such orbital separations, these objects resemble higher mass versions of the directly imaged planetary mass companions to the 10-30 Myr, intermediate-mass stars HR 8799, $\\beta$ Pictoris, and HD95086. These newly discovered companions span the brown dwarf desert, and their masses and orbital radii provide a new co...

  20. Structure of the bipolar flow and molecular cloud associated with the Herbig Ae/Be star LkHα 198

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of CO outflow and a dense molecular cloud associated with the Herbig Ae/Be star LkHα 198 have been carried out at various molecular lines with high spatial resolution. The results show that the bipolar outflow, known as a well-collimated sample, is highly asymmetric. The physical parameters of this outflow are redetermined along with a discussion concerning its driving mechanism. Secondly, dense condensations around the star reveal many different distributions in molecular lines of 13CO, HCO+, HCN, and CS. The anticorrelation between HCO+ and HCN condensations is remarkable among currently observed clouds, for which different molecular species generally show similar distributions. The HCO+ and CS condensations show velocity gradients suggestive of rotation around the star. The structures of the CO bipolar flow and of the molecular condensations strongly support the adoption of LkHα 198 as being the driving source of the outflow, rather than the nearby luminous variable V376 Cas. Finally, the stellar activities of LkHα 198 are briefly considered in connection with the variable and inhomogeneous nature of the outflow and dense molecular condensations around the star. (author)

  1. Erratum to Star formation triggered by SN explosions: an application to the stellar association of $\\beta$Pictoris

    CERN Document Server

    Melioli, C; Leão, M R M; De la Reza, R; Raga, A

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, considering the physical conditions that are relevant interactions between supernova remnants (SNRs) and dense molecular clouds for triggering star formation we have built a diagram of SNR radius versus cloud density in which the constraints above delineate a shaded zone where star formation is allowed. We have also performed fully 3-D radiatively cooling numerical simulations of the impact between SNRs and clouds under different initial conditions in order to follow the initial steps of these interactions. We determine the conditions that may lead either to cloud collapse and star formation or to complete cloud destruction and find that the numerical results are consistent with those of the SNR-cloud density diagram. Finally, we have applied the results above to the $\\beta-$ Pictoris stellar association which is composed of low mass Post-T Tauri stars with an age of 11 Myr. It has been recently suggested that its formation could have been triggered by the shock wave produced by a SN exp...

  2. 星形聚合物胶束作为药物载体的研究进展%Star-shaped polymer micelles as drug delivery carriers: research advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丹; 赵燕军; 王征

    2012-01-01

    Star-shaped block copolymer micelles have been introduced to the drug delivery system as drug carriers in the past decades. Thanks to the unique structures of star polymers, the unimolecular micelles could exhibit perfect particle size and good stability. The nanocarriers would enhance the solubility and bioavailability of insoluble drugs and exhibit excellent release profiles without burst release. With the modification of targeting moiety, star-shaped polymer micelles would precisely deliver drugs to the target organ. In this article, the advantages of the star polymer micelles as drug delivery carrier are reviewed. It is believed that star micelles would draw more attention in the future as a new kind of nanocarrier in drug delivery system.%星形聚合物胶束是一类新型纳米药物载体,它具有独特的分枝结构,所形成的单分子胶束具有理想的粒径和稳定性,可使难溶性药物有效增溶,降低药物毒性,延长体循环时间,提高生物利用度和安全性.星形聚合物胶束作为药物载体具有良好的缓释效果,通过在聚合物表面接枝功能基团可产生靶向释放效果,聚酯结构的星形聚合物还具有良好的降解性能,不在体内蓄积产生毒副作用.本文对星形聚合物的合成及其胶束作为药物载体的理化性质、载药优势、制备方法等的研究进展进行综述.

  3. Periodic Radio Continuum Emission Associated with the beta Cephei Star V2187 Cyg

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia, Mauricio; Tovmassian, Gagik; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Gonzalez-Buitrago, Diego; Zharikov, Sergei; Ortiz-Leon, Gisela N

    2014-01-01

    We present new optical time-resolved photometry and medium-resolution spectroscopy of V2187 Cyg. We confirm its classification as a beta Cephei star based on sinusoidal light variations with a period of 0.2539 days and mean amplitudes of 0.037 and 0.042 magnitudes in "i" and "V", respectively. We classified the spectrum of this star B2-3V with no evidence of variations in the profiles of its absorption lines in timescales of hours or days. The stellar spectrum is totally absent of emission lines. We detected unexpected faint radio continuum emission (between 0.4 and 0.8 mJy at 6-cm) showing a sinusoidal variation with a period of 12.8 days. The radio spectrum is thermal. We searched in the Very Large Array archive for radio continuum emission toward other 15 beta Cephei stars. None of these additional stars, some of them much closer to the Sun than V2187 Cyg, was detected, indicating that radio emission is extremely uncommon toward beta Cephei stars.

  4. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: extraplanar gas, galactic winds and their association with star formation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, I.-Ting; Medling, Anne M.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Groves, Brent; Kewley, Lisa J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Dopita, Michael A.; Leslie, Sarah K.; Sharp, Rob; Allen, James T.; Bourne, Nathan; Bryant, Julia J.; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; Dunne, Loretta; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, Michael; Green, Andy W.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel; Sweet, Sarah M.; Tescari, Edoardo; Valiante, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a sample of 40 local, main-sequence, edge-on disc galaxies using integral field spectroscopy with the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey to understand the link between properties of the extraplanar gas and their host galaxies. The kinematics properties of the extraplanar gas, including velocity asymmetries and increased dispersion, are used to differentiate galaxies hosting large-scale galactic winds from those dominated by the extended diffuse ionized gas. We find rather that a spectrum of diffuse gas-dominated to wind-dominated galaxies exist. The wind-dominated galaxies span a wide range of star formation rates (SFRs; -1 ≲ log (SFR/M⊙ yr-1) ≲ 0.5) across the whole stellar mass range of the sample (8.5 ≲ log (M*/M⊙) ≲ 11). The wind galaxies also span a wide range in SFR surface densities (10- 3-10- 1.5 M⊙ yr- 1 kpc- 2) that is much lower than the canonical threshold of 0.1 M⊙ yr- 1 kpc- 2. The wind galaxies on average have higher SFR surface densities and higher HδA values than those without strong wind signatures. The enhanced HδA indicates that bursts of star formation in the recent past are necessary for driving large-scale galactic winds. We demonstrate with Sloan Digital Sky Survey data that galaxies with high SFR surface density have experienced bursts of star formation in the recent past. Our results imply that the galactic winds revealed in our study are indeed driven by bursts of star formation, and thus probing star formation in the time domain is crucial for finding and understanding galactic winds.

  5. Herschel/PACS view of disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the TW Hya association

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yao; Gong, Munan; Allers, Katelyn N; Brown, Joanna M; Kraus, Adam L; Liu, Michael C; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2014-01-01

    We conducted Herschel/PACS observations of five very low-mass stars or brown dwarfs located in the TW Hya association with the goal of characterizing the properties of disks in the low stellar mass regime. We detected all five targets at $70\\,\\mu{\\rm{m}}$ and $100\\,\\mu{\\rm{m}}$ and three targets at $160\\,\\mu{\\rm{m}}$. Our observations, combined with previous photometry from 2MASS, WISE, and SCUBA-2, enabled us to construct SEDs with extended wavelength coverage. Using sophisticated radiative transfer models, we analyzed the observed SEDs of the five detected objects with a hybrid fitting strategy that combines the model grids and the simulated annealing algorithm and evaluated the constraints on the disk properties via the Bayesian inference method. The modelling suggests that disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are generally flatter than their higher mass counterparts, but the range of disk mass extends to well below the value found in T Tauri stars, and the disk scale heights are comparable in both...

  6. Polymersomes via Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic β-Cyclodextrin-Centered Triarm Star Polymers for Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Water-Soluble Chemotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengying; Shen, Yurun; Zhang, Lu; Qiu, Liyan

    2016-03-14

    To date, improving oral bioavailability of water-soluble drugs with poor membrane permeability is still challenging. An example of this includes doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX·HCl), a widely used chemotherapeutic. We therefore developed a novel DOX·HCl-loaded polymersome (Ps-DOX·HCl) self-assembled by amphiphilic β-cyclodextrin-centered triarm star polymer (mPEG(2k)-PLA(3k))3-CD with the considerable drug loading capability. Using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells trans-well models, it was found that the cellular uptake and absorptive transport of DOX·HCl was significantly increased and the efflux was attenuated when delivered through polymersomes than free drugs. This phenomenon was further verified in mechanistic studies, which was attributed to the change in membrane transport pathway from paracellular route (free DOX·HCl) to active transcellular transport (drug-loaded polymersomes). Moreover, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in mice demonstrated a significant increase in the oral bioavailability of Ps-DOX·HCl compared with free DOX·HCl (7.32-fold), as well as extended half-life (8.22-fold). This resulted in a substantial anticancer efficacy against mouse sarcoma 180 (S180) tumor in vivo. The cardiotoxicity, which is intrinsically induced by DOX·HCl, and toxicity toward gastrointestinal tissues were avoided according to histological studies. These findings indicate that (mPEG(2k)-PLA(3k))3-CD copolymer displays great potential as a vehicle for the effective oral delivery of water-soluble drugs with low permeability. PMID:26840277

  7. A Neutron Star-driven XRF associated with SN 2006aj

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzali, P A; Maeda, K; Nomoto, K; Pian, E; Tanaka, M; Tominaga, N; Deng, Jinsong; Maeda, Keiichi; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Pian, Elena; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu

    2006-01-01

    Observations and models of SN 2006aj, while bringing fresh evidence of the connection between long Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) and Supernovae (SNe), suggest that there is variety among these events. The previously well observed cases (GRB980425/SN 1998bw, GRB030329/SN 2003dh, GRB031203/SN 2003lw) could be explained as the prompt collapse to a black hole of the core of a massive star (M ~ 40 Msun) that had lost its outer hydrogen and helium envelopes. All these SNe exhibited strong oxygen lines, thus being classified as Type Ic, and their energies were much larger than those of typical SNe. The case of SN 2006aj/GRB060218 appears different: the GRB was weak and soft (an X-Ray Flash, XRF); the SN is dimmer and has very weak oxygen lines, suggesting a "Type Ic/d" classification. The explosion energy of SN 2006aj was smaller, as was the ejected mass. In our model, the progenitor star had a smaller mass than other GRB/SNe (M ~ 20 Msun), suggesting that a neutron star rather than a black hole was formed. If the nascent...

  8. Star formation associated with neutral hydrogen in the outskirts of early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yıldız, Mustafa K; Peletier, Reynier F; Oosterloo, Tom A; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2016-01-01

    About 20 percent of all nearby early-type galaxies ($M_{\\star} \\gtrsim 6 \\times 10^{9}$ M$_{\\odot}$) outside the Virgo cluster are surrounded by a disc or ring of low-column-density neutral hydrogen (HI) gas with typical radii of tens of kpc, much larger than the stellar body. In order to understand the impact of these gas reservoirs on the host galaxies, we analyse the distribution of star formation out to large radii as a function of HI properties using GALEX UV and SDSS optical images. Our sample consists of 18 HI-rich galaxies as well as 55 control galaxies where no HI has been detected. In half of the HI-rich galaxies the radial UV profile changes slope at the position of the HI radial profile peak. To study the stellar populations, we calculate the FUV-NUV and UV-optical colours in two apertures, 1-3 and 3-10 R$_{eff}$ . We find that HI -rich galaxies are on average 0.5 and 0.8 mag bluer than the HI-poor ones, respectively. This indicates that a significant fraction of the UV emission traces recent star...

  9. Investigating the borderline between a young star cluster and a small stellar association: a test case with Bochum1

    CERN Document Server

    Bica, Eduardo; Dutra, Carlos M

    2008-01-01

    Usually, a loose stellar distribution can be classified as an OB stellar group, an association, or a young open cluster. We make use of comparisons with the typical OB association Vul OB1. In the present paper we discuss the nature of Bochum 1, a typical example of an object affected by the above classification problem.The field-decontaminated CMD of Bochum 1 presents main sequence (MS) and pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. We report two new small angular-size, compact young clusters and one embedded cluster in the area of Bochum 1. Vul OB1 harbours the young open cluster NGC 6823 and the very compact embedded cluster Cr 404. The Vul OB1 association includes the H II region Sh2-86, and its stellar content is younger ($\\approx3$ Myr) than that of Bochum 1 ($\\approx9$ Myr), which shows no gas emission. Bochum 1 harbours one of the newly found compact clusters as its core. The RDP of Bochum 1 is irregular and cannot be fitted by a King-like profile, which suggests important erosion or dispersion of stars from a pri...

  10. Triggered Star Formation by Massive Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hsu-Tai; Chen, W. P.

    2005-01-01

    We present our diagnosis of the role that massive stars play in the formation of low- and intermediate-mass stars in OB associations (the Lambda Ori region, Ori OB1, and Lac OB1 associations). We find that the classical T Tauri stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars tend to line up between luminous O stars and bright-rimmed or comet-shaped clouds; the closer to a cloud the progressively younger they are. Our positional and chronological study lends support to the validity of the radiation-driven implos...

  11. Detection of a large fraction of atomic gas not associated with star-forming material in M17 SW⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Stutzki, J.; Ossenkopf, V.; Spaans, M.; Güsten, R.; Wiesemeyer, H.

    2015-03-01

    Context. The [C II] 158 μm line is one of the dominant coolants of the ISM, and an important probe with which to study the star formation process. Recent Herschel/HIFI and SOFIA/GREAT observations showed that assuming the total velocity-integrated intensity of this line is directly associated with the star-forming material is inadequate. Aims: We probe the column densities and masses traced by the ionized and neutral atomic carbon with spectrally resolved maps, and compare them to the diffuse and dense molecular gas traced by [C I] and low-J CO lines toward the star-forming region M17 SW. Methods: We mapped a 4.1 pc × 4.7 pc region in the [C I] 609 μm line using the APEX telescope, as well as the CO isotopologues with the IRAM 30 m telescope. Because of the velocity-resolved spectra, we analyze the data based on velocity channel maps that are 1 km s-1 wide. We correlate their spatial distribution with that of the [C II] map obtained with SOFIA/GREAT. Optically thin approximations were used to estimate the column densities of [C I] and [C II] in each velocity channel. Results: The distribution of the emission from the isotopologues 13CO, C17O, and C18O resembles more closely that of the [C I] emission than that of the 12CO emission. The spatial distribution of the [C I] and all CO isotopologues emission was found to be associated with that of [C II] in about 20%-80% of the mapped region, with the high correlation found in the central (15-23 km s-1) velocity channels. Conclusions: The excitation temperature of [C I] ranges between 40 K and 100 K in the inner molecular region of M17 SW. Excitation temperatures up to 200 K are found along the ridge. Column densities in 1 km s-1 channels between ~1015 cm-2 and ~1017 cm-2 were found for [C I]. Just ~20 % of the velocity range (~40 km s-1) that the [C II] line spans is associated with the star-forming material traced by [C I] and CO. The total (integrated over the 0-40 km s-1 velocity range) gas mass estimated from the

  12. Cationic star-shaped polymer as an siRNA carrier for reducing MMP-9 expression in skin fibroblast cells and promoting wound healing in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li N

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Li,1,* Heng-Cong Luo,1,* Chuan Yang,1 Jun-Jie Deng,2 Meng Ren,1 Xiao-Ying Xie,1 Diao-Zhu Lin,1 Li Yan,1 Li-Ming Zhang2 1Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2DSAPM Lab and PCFM Lab, Institute of Polymer Science, Department of Polymer and Materials Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Excessive expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is deleterious to the cutaneous wound-healing process in the context of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to explore whether a cationic star-shaped polymer consisting of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD core and poly(amidoamine dendron arms (ß-CD-[D3]7 could be used as the gene carrier of small interfering RNA (siRNA to reduce MMP-9 expression for enhanced diabetic wound healing. Methods: The cytotoxicity of ß-CD-(D37 was investigated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (MMT method in the rat CRL1213 skin fibroblast cell line. The transfection efficiency of ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-small interfering RNA (siRNA complexes was determined by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Quantitative real time (RT polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the gene expression of MMP-9 after the transfection by ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes. The ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes were injected on the wounds of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound closure was measured on days 4 and 7 post-wounding. Results: ß-CD-(D37 exhibited low cytotoxicity in fibroblast cells, and easily formed the complexes with MMP-9-siRNA. The ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes were readily taken up by fibroblast cells, resulting in the downregulation of MMP-9 gene expression (P<0.01. Animal experiments revealed that the treatment by ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes enhanced wound

  13. Synthesis and characterization of PEPO grafted carboxymethyl guar and carboxymethyl tamarind as new thermo-associating polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nivika R; Torris A T, Arun; Wadgaonkar, Prakash P; Rajamohanan, P R; Ducouret, Guylaine; Hourdet, Dominique; Creton, Costantino; Badiger, Manohar V

    2015-03-01

    New thermo associating polymers were designed and synthesized by grafting amino terminated poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) (PEPO) onto carboxymethyl guar (CMG) and carboxymethyl tamarind (CMT). The grafting was performed by coupling reaction between NH2 groups of PEPO and COOH groups of CMG and CMT using water-soluble EDC/NHS as coupling agents. The grafting efficiency and the temperature of thermo-association, T(assoc) in the copolymer were studied by NMR spectroscopy. The graft copolymers, CMG-g-PEPO and CMT-g-PEPO exhibited interesting thermo-associating behavior which was evidenced by the detailed rheological and fluorescence measurements. The visco-elastic properties (storage modulus, G'; loss modulus, G") of the copolymer solutions were investigated using oscillatory shear experiments. The influence of salt and surfactant on the T(assoc) was also studied by rheology, where the phenomenon of "Salting out" and "Salting in" was observed for salt and surfactant, respectively, which can give an easy access to tunable properties of these copolymers. These thermo-associating polymers with biodegradable nature of CMG and CMT can have potential applications as smart injectables in controlled release technology and as thickeners in cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25498643

  14. Effect of Prior Information on Bayesian Membership Calculations for Nearby Young Star Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinhee; Song, Inseok

    2016-01-01

    We present a refined moving group membership diagnostics scheme based on Bayesian inference. Compared to the BANYAN II method, we improved the calculation by updating bona fide members of a moving group, field star treatment, and uniform spatial distribution of moving group members. Here, we present the detailed description of our method and the new results for Bayesian membership calculation. Comparison of our method with BANYAN II shows probability differences up to ~90%. We conclude that more cautious consideration is needed in moving group membership based on Bayesian inference.

  15. Ternary ion-association complex based ion imprinted polymers (IIPs) for trace determination of palladium(II) in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new ion imprinted polymer (IIP) material was synthesized by co-polymerization of palladium-iodide-vinyl pyridinium/palladium-thiocyanate-vinyl pyridinium ion ternary ion-association complex taken in methanol/DMSO with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (functional monomer) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (crosslinking monomer) in the presence of 2,2'-azobisisobutryonitrile (initiator). The imprinted anionic species [PdI4]2- or [Pd(SCN)4]2- were removed by leaching the dried and powdered materials particles for 18 h with 6 M HCl to obtain leached IIP particles. Non-imprinted/control polymers were also prepared in a similar fashion without the template. Various parameters that influence the percent extraction of palladium, viz. concentration of KI or KSCN, pH, weight of polymer particles, preconcentration and elution times, aqueous phase volume, etc., were systematically studied for both the systems, i.e., in batch as well as flow injection modes. As the on-line flow injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FI-FAAS) allow offer higher enrichment factor, better precision and can analyze more samples for a given time, compared to batch method, this procedure is preferred for the analysis of palladium present in the street/fan blade dust samples collected from busy cities of India and the values obtained were compared with the standard ICPMS values

  16. Ternary ion-association complex based ion imprinted polymers (IIPs) for trace determination of palladium(II) in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Sobhi [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Industrial Estate, P.O. Pappanamcode, Trivandrum, Kerala 695019 (India); Praveen, R.S. [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Industrial Estate, P.O. Pappanamcode, Trivandrum, Kerala 695019 (India); Rao, Talasila Prasada [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Industrial Estate, P.O. Pappanamcode, Trivandrum, Kerala 695019 (India)]. E-mail: tprasadarao@rediffmail.com

    2006-06-07

    A new ion imprinted polymer (IIP) material was synthesized by co-polymerization of palladium-iodide-vinyl pyridinium/palladium-thiocyanate-vinyl pyridinium ion ternary ion-association complex taken in methanol/DMSO with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (functional monomer) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (crosslinking monomer) in the presence of 2,2'-azobisisobutryonitrile (initiator). The imprinted anionic species [PdI{sub 4}]{sup 2-} or [Pd(SCN){sub 4}]{sup 2-} were removed by leaching the dried and powdered materials particles for 18 h with 6 M HCl to obtain leached IIP particles. Non-imprinted/control polymers were also prepared in a similar fashion without the template. Various parameters that influence the percent extraction of palladium, viz. concentration of KI or KSCN, pH, weight of polymer particles, preconcentration and elution times, aqueous phase volume, etc., were systematically studied for both the systems, i.e., in batch as well as flow injection modes. As the on-line flow injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FI-FAAS) allow offer higher enrichment factor, better precision and can analyze more samples for a given time, compared to batch method, this procedure is preferred for the analysis of palladium present in the street/fan blade dust samples collected from busy cities of India and the values obtained were compared with the standard ICPMS values.

  17. A CH3CN and HCO+ survey towards southern methanol masers associated with star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Purcell, C R; Burton, M G; Walsh, A J; Minier, V; Hunt-Cunningham, M R; Kedziora-Chudczer, L L; Longmore, S N; Hill, T; Bains, I; Barnes, P J; Busfield, A L; Calisse, P; Crighton, N H M; Curran, S J; Davis, T M; Dempsey, J T; Derragopian, G; Fulton, B R; Hidas, M G; Hoare, M G; Lee, J K; Ladd, E F; Lumsden, S L; Moore, T J T; Murphy, M T; Oudmaijer, R D; Pracy, M B; Rathborne, J; Robertson, S; Schultz, A S B; Shobbrook, J; Sparks, P A; Storey, J; Travouillion, T

    2005-01-01

    We present the initial results of a 3-mm spectral line survey towards 83 methanol maser selected massive star-forming regions. Here we report observations of the J=5-4 and 6-5 rotational transitions of methyl cyanide (CH3CN) and the J=1-0 transition of HCO+and H13CO+. CH3CN emission is detected in 58 sources (70 %) of our sample). We estimate the temperature and column density for 37 of these using the rotational diagram method. The temperatures we derive range from 28-166 K, and are lower than previously reported temperatures, derived from higher J transitions. We find that CH3CN is brighter and more commonly detected towards ultra-compact HII (UCHII) regions than towards isolated maser sources. Detection of CH3CN towards isolated maser sources strongly suggests that these objects are internally heated and that CH3CN is excited prior to the UCHII phase of massive star-formation. HCO+ is detected towards 82 sources (99 % of our sample), many of which exhibit asymmetric line profiles compared to H13CO+. Skewed...

  18. A RING/DISK/OUTFLOW SYSTEM ASSOCIATED WITH W51 NORTH: A VERY MASSIVE STAR IN THE MAKING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitive and high angular resolution (∼0.''4) SO2[222,20 → 221,21] and SiO[5 → 4] line and 1.3 and 7 mm continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Very Large Array (VLA) toward the young massive cluster W51 IRS2 are presented. We report the presence of a large (of about 3000 AU) and massive (40 M sun) dusty circumstellar disk and a hot gas molecular ring around a high-mass protostar or a compact small stellar system associated with W51 North. The simultaneous observations of the silicon monoxide molecule, an outflow gas tracer, further revealed a massive (200 M sun) and collimated (∼140) outflow nearly perpendicular to the dusty and molecular structures suggesting thus the presence of a single very massive protostar with a bolometric luminosity on the order of 105 L sun. A molecular hybrid local thermodynamic equilibrium model of a Keplerian and infalling disk with an inner cavity and a central stellar mass of more than 60 M sun agrees well with the SO2[222,20 → 221,21] line observations. Finally, these results suggest that mechanisms, such as mergers of low- and intermediate-mass stars, might not be necessary for forming very massive stars.

  19. LkH-alpha 101 - The stellar wind, the surrounding nebula, and an associated radio star cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Robert H.; White, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Radio observations of LkH-alpha 101 have been taken to determine the characteristics of the stellar wind from the central star as well as to image the surrounding nebulosity. They also revealed the presence of a high concentration of weak compact radio sources in the neighborhood of LkH-alpha 101, four of which have optical stellar counterparts. Spectra of three of the stars indicate two T Tauri stars and a highly obscured B star.

  20. LkH-alpha 101 - the stellar wind, the surrounding nebula, and an associated radio star cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio observations of LkH-alpha 101 have been taken to determine the characteristics of the stellar wind from the central star as well as to image the surrounding nebulosity. They also revealed the presence of a high concentration of weak compact radio sources in the neighborhood of LkH-alpha 101, four of which have optical stellar counterparts. Spectra of three of the stars indicate two T Tauri stars and a highly obscured B star. 15 references

  1. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: extraplanar gas, galactic winds, and their association with star formation history

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, I-Ting; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Groves, Brent; Kewley, Lisa J; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Dopita, Michael A; Leslie, Sarah K; Sharp, Rob; Allen, James T; Bourne, Nathan; Bryant, Julia J; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M; Dunne, Loretta; Fogarty, L M R; Goodwin, Michael; Green, Andy W; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S; Lawrence, Jon S; Lorente, Nuria P F; Owers, Matt S; Richards, Samuel; Sweet, Sarah M; Tescari, Edoardo; Valiante, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a sample of 40 local, main-sequence, edge-on disk galaxies using integral field spectroscopy with the SAMI Galaxy Survey to understand the link between properties of the extraplanar gas and their host galaxies. The kinematics properties of the extraplanar gas, including velocity asymmetries and increased dispersion, are used to differentiate galaxies hosting large-scale galactic winds from those dominated by the extended diffuse ionised gas. We find rather that a spectrum of diffuse gas-dominated to wind dominated galaxies exist. The wind-dominated galaxies span a wide range of star formation rates (-1 < log(SFR / Msun yr^{-1}) < 0.5) across the whole stellar mass range of the sample (8.5 < log(M*/Msun) < 11). The wind galaxies also span a wide range in SFR surface densities (10^{-3} - 10^{-1.5} Msun yr^{-1} kpc^{-2}) that is much lower than the canonical threshold of 0.1 Msun yr^{-1} kpc^{-2}. The wind galaxies on average have higher SFR surface densities and higher Hdelta_A values...

  2. Dense Gas and Star Formation Characteristics of Cloud Cores Associated with Water Masers

    CERN Document Server

    Plume, R; Evans, N J; Martín-Pintado, J; Gómez-González, J; Plume, Rene; II, Neal J. Evans

    1996-01-01

    We have observed 150 regions of massive star formation, selected originally by the presence of a water maser, in the J = 5-4, 3-2, and 2-1 transitions of CS, and 49 regions in the same transitions of C$^{34}$S. Over 90% of the 150 regions were detected in the J = 2-1 and 3-2 transitions of CS and 75% were detected in the J=5-4 transition. We have combined the data with the J = 7-6 data from our original survey (Plume et al. 1992) to determine the density by analyzing the excitation of the rotational levels. Using Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) models, we have determined densities and column densities for 71 of these regions. The gas densities are very high (the mean log of the density is 5.9), but much less than the critical density of the J=7-6 line. Small maps of 25 of the sources in the J = 5-4 line yield a mean diameter of 1.0 pc. The mean virial mass is 3800 solar masses. The mean ratio of bolometric luminosity to virial mass (L/M) is 190, about 50 times higher than estimates using CO emission, suggesting...

  3. Application of polymer nanocomposites in the nanomedicine landscape: envisaging strategies to combat implant associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Poushpi; Narvi, Shahid S; Tewari, Ravi P

    2013-01-01

    This review article presents an overview of the potential biomedical application of polymer nanocomposites arising from different chemistries, compositions, and constructions. The interaction between the chosen matrix and the filler is of critical importance. The existing polymer used in the biomedical arena includes aliphatic polyesters such as polylactide (PLA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(p-dioxanone) (PPDO), poly(butylenes succinate) (PBS), poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s, and natural biopolymers such as starch, cellulose, chitin, chitosan, lignin, and proteins. The nanosized fillers utilized to fabricate the nanocomposites are inorganic, organic, and metal particles such as clays, magnetites, hydroxyapatite, nanotubes chitin whiskers, lignin, cellulose, Au, Ag, Cu, etc. These nanomaterials are taking root in a variety of diverse healthcare applications in the sector of nanomedicine including the domain of medical implants and devices. Despite sterilization and aseptic procedures the use of these biomedical devices and prosthesis to improve the patient's 'quality of life' is facing a major impediment because of bacterial colonization causing nosocomial infection, together with the multi-drug-resistant 'super-bugs' posing a serious threat to its utility. This paper discusses the current efforts and key research challenges in the development of self-sterilizing nanocomposite biomaterials for potential application in this area. PMID:24127037

  4. Magnetic Inhibition of Convection and the Fundamental Properties of Low-Mass Stars. III. A Consistent 10 Myr Age for the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Feiden, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    When determining absolute ages of identifiably young stellar populations, results strongly depend on which stars are studied. Cooler (K, M) stars typically yield ages that are systematically younger than warmer (A, F, G) stars by a factor of two. I explore the possibility that these age discrepancies are the result of magnetic inhibition of convection in young cool stars by using magnetic stellar evolution isochrones to determine the age of the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association. A median age of 10 Myr consistent across spectral types A through M is found, except for a subset of F-type stars that appear significantly older. Agreement is shown for ages derived from the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and from the empirical mass-radius relationship defined by eclipsing multiple-star systems. Surface magnetic field strengths required to produce agreement are of order 2.5 kG and are predicted from a priori estimates of equipartition values. A region in the HR diagram is identified that p...

  5. Search for associations containing young stars (SACY) VII. New stellar and substellar candidate members in the young associations

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, P; Melo, C H F; Torres, C A O; Sterzik, M F; Quast, G R; Montes, D; Brahm, R

    2016-01-01

    The young associations offer us one of the best opportunities to study the properties of young stellar and substellar objects and to directly image planets thanks to their proximity ($<$200 pc) and age ($\\approx$5-150 Myr). However, many previous works have been limited to identifying the brighter, more active members ($\\approx$1 M$_\\odot$) owing to photometric survey sensitivities limiting the detections of lower mass objects. We search the field of view of 542 previously identified members of the young associations to identify wide or extremely wide (1000-100,000 au in physical separation) companions. We combined 2MASS near-infrared photometry ($J$, $H$, $K$) with proper motion values (from UCAC4, PPMXL, NOMAD) to identify companions in the field of view of known members. We collated further photometry and spectroscopy from the literature and conducted our own high-resolution spectroscopic observations for a subsample of candidate members. This complementary information allowed us to assess the efficienc...

  6. Gamma Ray Bursts versus OB Associations: do they trigger star formation?

    OpenAIRE

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Ehlerova, S.; Palous, J.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss differences in shapes, expansion velocities and fragmentation times of structures created by an energy deposition from a single Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) or an OB association to the ISM. After the initial inflation, supershells produced by GRBs are almost static or slowly expanding, contrary to more rapidly expanding supershells created by OB associations. We discuss the position of the energy source relative to the symmetry plane of the galaxy: observed arc-like structures can be the ...

  7. On the link between associated MgII absorbers and star formation in quasar hosts

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN Yue; Ménard, Brice

    2011-01-01

    A few percent of quasars show strong associated MgII absorption, with velocities (v_off) lying within a few thousand km/s from the quasar systemic redshift. These associated absorption line systems (AALs) are usually interpreted as absorbers that are either intrinsic to the quasar and its host, or arising from external galaxies clustering around the quasar. Using composite spectra of ~1,800 MgII AAL quasars selected from SDSS DR7 at 0.4

  8. Search for associations containing young stars. III- Ages and Li abundances

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, L; De la Reza, R; Quast, G R; Melo, C H F; Sterzik, M

    2009-01-01

    Our study is a follow-up of the SACY project, an extended survey in the Southern Hemisphere targeted to search for young nearby associations. Nine associations have either been newly identified, or had their member list better defined. These associations, with ages between about 6 Myr and 70 Myr, form an excellent sample to study the Li depletion in the pre-main sequence (PMS) evolution. We investigate the use of Li abundances as an independent clock to constrain the PMS evolution. We have calculated the LTE Li abundances for 376 members of different young associations. In addition we considered the effects of their projected stellar rotation. We present the Li depletion as function of age in the first hundred million years for the first time for the most extended sample of Li abundances in young stellar associations. A clear Li depletion can be measured in the temperature range from 5000K to 3500K for the age span covered by these nine associations. The age sequence based on the Li-clock agrees well with the...

  9. On the extraction of ion association data and transference numbers from ionic diffusivity and conductivity data in polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degree of ion association in polymer electrolytes is often characterized by the Nernst–Einstein deviation parameter Δ, which quantifies the relative difference between the true ionic conductivity directly measured by electrical methods and the hypothetical maximum conductivity calculated from the individual ionic self-diffusion coefficients. Despite its unambiguous definition, the parameter Δ is a global quantity with limited explanatory power. Similar is true for the cation transport number tcat*, which relies on the same ionic diffusion coefficients usually measured by nuclear magnetic resonance or radiotracer methods. Particularly in cases when neutral ion pairs dominate over higher-order aggregates, more specific information can be extracted from the same body of experimental data that is used for the calculation of Δ and tcat*. This information concerns the pair contributions to the diffusion coefficient of cations and anions. Also the true cation transference number based on charged species only can be deduced. We present the basic theoretical framework and some pertinent examples dealing with ion pairing in polymer electrolytes

  10. $\\gamma$ Ray Bursts versus OB Associations do they trigger star formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, Yu N; Palous, J; Efremov, Yu.N.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss differences in shapes, expansion velocities and fragmentation times of structures created by an energy deposition from a single Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) or an OB association to the ISM. After the initial inflation, supershells produced by GRBs are almost static or slowly expanding, contrary to more rapidly expanding supershells created by OB associations. We discuss the position of the energy source relative to the symmetry plane of the galaxy: observed arc-like structures can be the most dense parts of structures formed by an expansion from a source above or below the galactic plane. Arcs may also form, if the expansion takes place inside a giant HI cloud. We try to reproduce the size, the age and the average distance between OB associations in the Sextant region at the edge of LMC 4.

  11. Characterization of Associating Polymer (AP) Solutions. Influences on flow behavior by the degree of hydrophobicity and salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Perttamo, Elise Kvåle

    2013-01-01

    The most applied polymer today for chemical improved oil recovery (IOR) processes, such as polymer flood and/or polymer well treatments, is the synthetic partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and its derivatives. Several field projects have been carried out utilizing HPAM, and the observed trend is that these polymers show low shear stress stability and low salt tolerance. They are also sensitive to elevated reservoir temperatures. More robust, efficient and cost- effective thickeners ar...

  12. Synthesis and application of novel composites of associative polymers with organically modified montmorillonites in water/oil emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zixuan; Jiang, Guancheng; Li, Qingyang

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on the study of the rheology performance of water in oil (W/O) emulsions with novel composites of associative polymer/organically modified montmorillonite (AP/OMMT), further the mechanism of AP/OMMT is explored and then applied into deepwater drilling industry. In this study, both the yield point and gel strengths of W/O emulsions showed stability in a wide temperature range. Based on a combined use of FT-IR, particle-size distribution, XRD and TEM analysis, the probable mechanism was determined due to the identification of the structure of AP/OMMT. The results indicate that the formation of interlayered AP/OMMT between dispersed water droplets and the OMMT layers is primarily responsible for the excellent ability of improving rheology. In addition to this, the slippage and separation of OMMT colloidal particles due to the "weak multi-points adsorption" also contributed considerably to the rheology.

  13. The Work Function Associated with Ultra-relativistic Electron Emission from Strongly Magnetized Neutron Star Surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arpita Ghosh; Somenath Chakrabarty

    2011-09-01

    Following an extremely interesting idea (Schieber 1984), published long ago, the work function associated with the emission of ultra-relativistic electrons from magnetically deformed metallic crystal (mainly iron) at the outer crust of a magnetar is obtained using relativistic version of Thomas–Fermi type model for electron distribution around the nuclei in this region. In the present scenario, surprisingly, the work function becomes anisotropic; the longitudinal part is an increasing function of magnetic field strength, whereas the transverse part diverges.

  14. Unusual character of the radioemission of the OB star association in the Scorpius constellation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the observations of the Sco OB 2 association at the wavelength of 7,6 cm are given. The catalogue of 82 sources was compiled, the great majority of which have small angular sizes. An excess of the objects with nonthermal spectra is revealed, the distribution of which in the map plane is nonuniform. 10% of the sources have inversion spectra; these are compact H II regions with the lifetime 3 years

  15. Enteropathogens associated with diarrhea among military personnel during Operation Bright Star 96, in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyofo, B A; Peruski, L F; Ismail, T F; el-Etr, S H; Churilla, A M; Wasfy, M O; Petruccelli, B P; Gabriel, M E

    1997-06-01

    This study investigated the microbial causes of diarrheal disease among U.S. troops deployed near Alexandria, Egypt, during October 1995. Bacterial causes associated with 19 cases of diarrhea included: enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), 42% (21% heat-stable, 11% heat-labile, and 11% heat-stable/ heat-labile producers); enteropathogenic E. coli (5.3%); and enteroadherent E. coli (42%). Four cases of diarrhea were associated with enteroaggregative E. coli based on probe analysis for enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin 1. Protozoan causes included; Entamoeba histolytica (11%), E. hartmanni (5%), E. nana (5%), Blastocystis hominis (5%), Chilomastix mesnili (11%), Dientamoeba fragilis (5%), Entamoeba coli (5%), and Cryptosporidium (5%). Shigella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, Vibrio, Campylobacter, and Salmonella were not detected. Of the eight ETEC cases, one was colonization factor antigen (CFA)/I only, one was both CFA/I and CFA/III, three were CFA/II, two were CFA/IV, and two were CFA-negative. Antibiograms of the ETEC and enteroadherent E. coli strains showed that all isolates were susceptible to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid but resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and sulfamethoxazole. PMID:9183160

  16. Hydrophobically-associating cationic polymers as micro-bubble surface modifiers in dissolved air flotation for cyanobacteria cell separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, R K L; Whittaker, M; Diao, M; Stuetz, R M; Jefferson, B; Bulmus, V; Peirson, W L; Nguyen, A V; Henderson, R K

    2014-09-15

    Dissolved air flotation (DAF), an effective treatment method for clarifying algae/cyanobacteria-laden water, is highly dependent on coagulation-flocculation. Treatment of algae can be problematic due to unpredictable coagulant demand during blooms. To eliminate the need for coagulation-flocculation, the use of commercial polymers or surfactants to alter bubble charge in DAF has shown potential, termed the PosiDAF process. When using surfactants, poor removal was obtained but good bubble adherence was observed. Conversely, when using polymers, effective cell removal was obtained, attributed to polymer bridging, but polymers did not adhere well to the bubble surface, resulting in a cationic clarified effluent that was indicative of high polymer concentrations. In order to combine the attributes of both polymers (bridging ability) and surfactants (hydrophobicity), in this study, a commercially-available cationic polymer, poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (polyDMAEMA), was functionalised with hydrophobic pendant groups of various carbon chain lengths to improve adherence of polymer to a bubble surface. Its performance in PosiDAF was contrasted against commercially-available poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC). All synthesised polymers used for bubble surface modification were found to produce positively charged bubbles. When applying these cationic micro-bubbles in PosiDAF, in the absence of coagulation-flocculation, cell removals in excess of 90% were obtained, reaching a maximum of 99% cell removal and thus demonstrating process viability. Of the synthesised polymers, the polymer containing the largest hydrophobic functionality resulted in highly anionic treated effluent, suggesting stronger adherence of polymers to bubble surfaces and reduced residual polymer concentrations. PMID:24934266

  17. Detection of a large fraction of atomic gas not associated with star-forming material in M17 SW

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Beaupuits, J P; Ossenkopf, V; Spaans, M; Gusten, R; Wiesemeyer, H

    2015-01-01

    We probe the column densities and masses traced by the ionized and neutral atomic carbon with spectrally resolved maps, and compare them to the diffuse and dense molecular gas traced by [C I] and low-$J$ CO lines toward the star-forming region M17SW. We mapped a 4.1pc x 4.7pc region in the [C I] 609 m$\\mu$ line using the APEX telescope, as well as the CO isotopologues with the IRAM 30m telescope. We analyze the data based on velocity channel maps that are 1 km/s wide. We correlate their spatial distribution with that of the [C II] map obtained with SOFIA/GREAT. Optically thin approximations were used to estimate the column densities of [C I] and [C II] in each velocity channel. The spatial distribution of the [C I] and all CO isotopologues emission was found to be associated with that of [C II] in about 20%-80% of the mapped region, with the high correlation found in the central (15-23 km/s ) velocity channels. The excitation temperature of [C I] ranges between 40 K and 100 K in the inner molecular region of ...

  18. SN 2006aj Associated with XRF 060218 at Late Phases: Nucleosynthesis Signature of a Neutron Star-driven Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K.; Kawabata, K.; Tanaka, M.; Nomoto, K.; Tominaga, N.; Hattori, T.; Minezaki, T.; Kuroda, T.; Suzuki, T.; Deng, J.; Mazzali, P. A.; Pian, E.

    2007-03-01

    Optical spectroscopy and photometry of SN 2006aj have been performed with the Subaru telescope at t>200 days after GRB 060218, the X-ray flash with which it was associated. Strong nebular emission lines with an expansion velocity of v~7300 km s-1 were detected. The peaked but relatively broad [O I] λλ6300, 6363 suggests the existence of ~2 Msolar of materials in which ~1.3 Msolar is oxygen. The core might be produced by a mildly asymmetric explosion. The spectra are unique among SNe Ic in (1) the absence of [Ca II] λλ7291, 7324 emission and (2) a strong emission feature at ~7400 Å, which requires ~0.05 Msolar of newly synthesized 58Ni. Such a large amount of stable neutron-rich Ni strongly indicates the formation of a neutron star. The progenitor and the explosion energy are constrained to 18 Msolar<~Mms<~22 Msolar and E~(1-3)×1051 ergs, respectively. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  19. SN 2006aj Associated with XRF 060218 At Late Phases: Nucleosynthesis-Signature of A Neutron Star-Driven Explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, K; Tanaka, M; Nomoto, K; Tominaga, N; Hattori, T; Minezaki, T; Kuroda, T; Suzuki, T; Deng, J; Mazzali, P A; Pian, E; Maeda, Keiichi; Kawabata, Koji; Tanaka, Masaomi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Hattori, Takashi; Minezaki, Takeo; Kuroda, Takami; Suzuki, Tomoharu; Deng, Jinsong; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Pian, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy and photometry of SN 2006aj have been performed with the Subaru telescope at t > 200 days after GRB060218, the X-ray Flash with which it was associated. Strong nebular emission-lines with an expansion velocity of v ~ 7,300 km/s were detected. The peaked but relatively broad [OI]6300,6363 suggests the existence of ~ 2 Msun of materials in which ~1.3 Msun is oxygen. The core might be produced by a mildly asymmetric explosion. The spectra are unique among SNe Ic in (1) the absence of [CaII]7291,7324 emission, and (2) a strong emission feature at ~ 7400A, which requires ~ 0.05 Msun of newly-synthesized 58Ni. Such a large amount of stable neutron-rich Ni strongly indicates the formation of a neutron star. The progenitor and the explosion energy are constrained to 18 Msun < Mms < 22 Msun and E ~ (1 - 3) 10^{51} erg, respectively.

  20. The Death of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Kip S.

    1971-01-01

    Theories associated with the gravitational collapse of a star into black holes" are described. Suggests that the collapse and compression might go through the stages from white dwarf star to neutron core to black hole." (TS)

  1. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  2. Effects of amphiphilic star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) polymers with a cholic acid core on human red blood cell aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Janvier, Florence; Julian X. X. Zhu; Armstrong, Jonathan; Meiselman, Herbert J.; Cloutier, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Elevated red blood cell (RBC) aggregation increases low-shear blood viscosity and is closely related to several pathophysiological diseases such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and hereditary chronic hemolytic conditions. Non-ionic linear polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and Pluronic F68 have shown inhibitory effects against RBC aggregation. However, hypersensitivity reactions in some individuals, attributed to a diblock component of Pluronic F68, h...

  3. Evidence for non-stellar rest-frame near-IR emission associated with increased star formation in galaxies at $z \\sim 1$

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Johannes U; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Nelson, Erica J; Leja, Joel; Brammer, Gabriel; Whitaker, Katherine E; Franx, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    We explore the presence of non-stellar rest-frame near-IR ($2-5 \\ \\mu \\mathrm{m}$) emission in galaxies at $z \\sim 1$. Previous studies identified this excess in relatively small samples and suggested that such non-stellar emission, which could be linked to the $3.3 \\ \\mu \\mathrm{m}$ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons feature or hot dust emission, is associated with an increased star formation rate (SFR). In this Letter, we confirm and quantify the presence of an IR excess in a significant fraction of galaxies in the 3D-HST GOODS catalogs. By constructing a matched sample of galaxies with and without strong non-stellar near-IR emission, we find that galaxies with such emission are predominantly star-forming galaxies. Moreover, star-forming galaxies with an excess show increased mid- and far-IR and H$\\alpha$ emission compared to other star-forming galaxies without. While galaxies with a near-IR excess show a larger fraction of individually detected X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs), an X-ray stacking analysis,...

  4. Communication: When does a branched polymer become a particle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chremos, Alexandros; Douglas, Jack F

    2015-09-21

    Polymer melts with topologically distinct molecular structures, namely, linear chain, ring, and star polymers, are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. In particular, we determine the mean polymer size and shape, and glass transition temperature for each molecular topology. Both in terms of structure and dynamics, unknotted ring polymers behave similarly to star polymers with f ≈ 5-6 star arms, close to a configurational transition point between anisotropic chains to spherically symmetric particle-like structures. These counter-intuitive findings raise fundamental questions regarding the importance of free chain-ends and chain topology in the packing and dynamics of polymeric materials. PMID:26395679

  5. The open cluster NGC6823 and possible triggered star formation associated with SNR G59.5+0.1

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the environment in the vicinity of the supernova remnant (SNR) G59.5+0.1 and identify all young stellar objects (YSOs) around the SNR, to derive the physical properties, obtain insight into the star-formation history, and further see whether SNR G59.5+0.1 can trigger star formation in this region. We have performed the submillimeter/millimeter observations in CO lines toward the southeast of SNR G59.5+0.1 with the KOSMA 3m Telescope. High integrated CO line intensity ratio R(CO...

  6. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time (ZEIT) III: A Neptune-sized planet orbiting a pre-main-sequence star in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Andrew W; Rizzuto, Aaron C; Irwin, Jonathan; Feiden, Gregory A; Gaidos, Eric; Mace, Gregory N; Kraus, Adam L; James, David J; Ansdell, Megan; Charbonneau, David; Covey, Kevin R; Ireland, Michael J; Jaffe, Daniel T; Johnson, Marshall C; Kidder, Benjamin; Vanderburg, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We confirm and characterize a close-in ($P_\\rm{orb}$ = 5.425 days), super-Neptune sized ($5.04^{+0.34}_{-0.37}$ Earth radii) planet transiting EPIC 205117205 (2MASS J16101473-1919095), a late-type (M3) pre-main sequence ($\\simeq$11 Myr-old) star in the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association. The host star has the kinematics of a member of the Upper Scorpius OB association, and its spectrum contains lithium absorption, an unambiguous sign of youth (<20 Myr) in late-type dwarfs. We combine photometry from K2 and the ground-based MEarth project to refine the planet's properties and constrain the average stellar density. We determine EPIC 205117205's bolometric flux and effective temperature from moderate resolution spectra. By utilizing isochrones that include the effects of magnetic fields, we derive a precise (6-7%) radius and mass for the host star, and a stellar age consistent with the established value for Upper Scorpius. Follow-up high-resolution imaging and Doppler spectroscop...

  7. A CS J = 5 -> 4 Mapping Survey Towards High Mass Star Forming Cores Associated with H2O Masers

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Yancy L.; Evans II, Neal J.; Mueller, Kaisa E.; Knez, Claudia; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2001-01-01

    In this survey we have systematically mapped 63 cloud cores in the CS J = 5 -> 4 line towards a sample of high mass star forming cores with water masers (Plume et al. 1992, Plume et al. 1997) using the CSO. From the CS spectra and maps we determine cloud core sizes, virial masses, a mass spectrum, and a size-linewidth relationship.

  8. Stars and Star Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  9. Variable star data online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Roger; Wilson, Andy; Poyner, Gary

    2012-06-01

    Roger Pickard, Andy Wilson and Gary Poyner describe the online database of the British Astronomical Association Variable Star Section, a treasure trove of observations stretching back nearly 125 years.

  10. The Star-formation History and Accretion-Disk Fraction Among the K-Type Members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Pecaut, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a spectroscopic survey for new K- and M-type members of Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen), the nearest OB Association (~100-200 pc). Using an X-ray, proper motion and color-magnitude selected sample, we obtained spectra for 361 stars, for which we report spectral classifications and Li and Halpha equivalent widths. We identified 156 new members of Sco-Cen, and recovered 51 previously published members. We have combined these with previously known members to form a sample of 493 solar-mass (~0.7-1.3 Msun) members of Sco-Cen. We investigated the star-formation history of this sample, and re-assessed the ages of the massive main-sequence turn-off and the G-type members in all three subgroups. We performed a census for circumstellar disks in our sample using WISE infrared data and find a protoplanetary disk fraction for K-type stars of 4.4$^{+1.6}_{-0.9}$% for Upper Centaurus-Lupus and Lower Centaurus-Crux at ~16 Myr and 9.0$^{+4.0}_{-2.2}$% for Upper Scorpius at ~10 Myr. These data are consisten...

  11. Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Vroman; Lan Tighzert

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  12. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  13. STARs in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Ingrid; Fort, Philippe; Elliott, David J

    2016-08-15

    STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) proteins regulate splicing of target genes that have roles in neural connectivity, survival and myelination in the vertebrate nervous system. These regulated splicing targets include mRNAs such as the Neurexins (Nrxn), SMN2 (survival of motor neuron) and MAG (myelin-associated glycoprotein). Recent work has made it possible to identify and validate STAR protein splicing targets in vivo by using genetically modified mouse models. In this review, we will discuss the importance of STAR protein splicing targets in the CNS (central nervous system). PMID:27528753

  14. Polymer research by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer physics aims on an understanding of the macroscopic behavior of polymer systems on the basis of their molecular structure and dynamics. For this purpose neutrons serve as a unique probe, allowing a simultaneous investigation of polymer structure and dynamics on a molecular scale. Furthermore, hydrogen deuterium exchange facilitates molecular labeling and offers the possibility to observe selected chains or chain parts in dense systems. Neutron small angle scattering reveals information on the conformation and possible aggregation of polymer chains. Data on linear and star like molecules are shown as examples. High resolution neutron spin-echospectroscopy observes the molecular dynamics of long chain molecules. Results on the large scale motion of chins in polymer melts are presented. finally, experiments on chain relaxation close to the glass transition are displayed. Three distinctly different relaxation processes are revealed. (author)

  15. Synthetic Metal-Containing Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, Ian

    2004-04-01

    The development of the field of synthetic metal-containing polymers - where metal atoms form an integral part of the main chain or side group structure of a polymer - aims to create new materials which combine the processability of organic polymers with the physical or chemical characteristics associated with the metallic element or complex. This book covers the major developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of synthetic metal-containing macromolecules, and includes chapters on the preparation and characterization of metal-containing polymers, metallocene-based polymers, rigid-rod organometallic polymers, coordination polymers, polymers containing main group metals, and also covers dendritic and supramolecular systems. The book describes both polymeric materials with metals in the main chain or side group structure and covers the literature up to the end of 2002.

  16. Molecular Outflows and a Mid-Infrared Census of the Massive Star-Formation Region Associated with IRAS 18507+0121

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, D S; Whitney, B A; Robitaille, T P; Nurnberger, D E A; Bronfman, L; Stark, D P; Indebetouw, R; Meade, M R; Babler, B L

    2007-01-01

    We have observed the central region of the IR-dark cloud filament associated with IRAS 18507+0121 at millimeter wavelengths in CO(1-0), 13CO(1-0), and C18O(1-0) line emission and with the Spitzer Space Telescope at mid-IR wavelengths. Five massive outflows from two cloud cores were discovered. Three outflows are centered on or near an Ultracompact HII region (G34.4+0.23) while the remaining two outflows originate from the millimeter core G34.4+0.23 MM. Modeling of the SEDs of the mid-IR sources identified 31 young stellar objects in the filament with a combined stellar mass of ~127 +/- 27 Msun. An additional 22 sources were identified as probable cluster members based on the presence of strong 24 micron emission. The total star formation efficiency in the G34.4 cloud filament is estimated to be ~7% while the massive and intermediate mass star formation efficiency in the entire cloud filament is estimated to be roughly 2%. A comparison of the gravitational binding energy with the outflow kinetic energy suggest...

  17. A REVISED AGE FOR UPPER SCORPIUS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY AMONG THE F-TYPE MEMBERS OF THE SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS OB ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Bubar, Eric J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    We present an analysis of the ages and star formation history of the F-type stars in the Upper Scorpius (US), Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL), and Lower Centaurus-Crux (LCC) subgroups of Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen), the nearest OB association. Our parent sample is the kinematically selected Hipparcos sample of de Zeeuw et al., restricted to the 138 F-type members. We have obtained classification-resolution optical spectra and have also determined the spectroscopic accretion disk fraction. With Hipparcos and 2MASS photometry, we estimate the reddening and extinction for each star and place the candidate members on a theoretical H-R diagram. For each subgroup we construct empirical isochrones and compare to published evolutionary tracks. We find that (1) our empirical isochrones are consistent with the previously published age-rank of the Sco-Cen subgroups; (2) subgroups LCC and UCL appear to reach the main-sequence turn-on at spectral types {approx}F4 and {approx}F2, respectively. An analysis of the A-type stars shows US reaching the main sequence at about spectral type {approx}A3. (3) The median ages for the pre-main-sequence members of UCL and LCC are 16 Myr and 17 Myr, respectively, in agreement with previous studies, however we find that (4) Upper Sco is much older than previously thought. The luminosities of the F-type stars in US are typically a factor of {approx}2.5 less luminous than predicted for a 5 Myr old population for four sets of evolutionary tracks. We re-examine the evolutionary state and isochronal ages for the B-, A-, and G-type Upper Sco members, as well as the evolved M supergiant Antares, and estimate a revised mean age for Upper Sco of 11 {+-} 1 {+-} 2 Myr (statistical, systematic). Using radial velocities and Hipparcos parallaxes we calculate a lower limit on the kinematic expansion age for Upper Sco of >10.5 Myr (99% confidence). However, the data are statistically consistent with no expansion. We reevaluate the inferred masses for the known

  18. A REVISED AGE FOR UPPER SCORPIUS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY AMONG THE F-TYPE MEMBERS OF THE SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS OB ASSOCIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the ages and star formation history of the F-type stars in the Upper Scorpius (US), Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL), and Lower Centaurus-Crux (LCC) subgroups of Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen), the nearest OB association. Our parent sample is the kinematically selected Hipparcos sample of de Zeeuw et al., restricted to the 138 F-type members. We have obtained classification-resolution optical spectra and have also determined the spectroscopic accretion disk fraction. With Hipparcos and 2MASS photometry, we estimate the reddening and extinction for each star and place the candidate members on a theoretical H-R diagram. For each subgroup we construct empirical isochrones and compare to published evolutionary tracks. We find that (1) our empirical isochrones are consistent with the previously published age-rank of the Sco-Cen subgroups; (2) subgroups LCC and UCL appear to reach the main-sequence turn-on at spectral types ∼F4 and ∼F2, respectively. An analysis of the A-type stars shows US reaching the main sequence at about spectral type ∼A3. (3) The median ages for the pre-main-sequence members of UCL and LCC are 16 Myr and 17 Myr, respectively, in agreement with previous studies, however we find that (4) Upper Sco is much older than previously thought. The luminosities of the F-type stars in US are typically a factor of ∼2.5 less luminous than predicted for a 5 Myr old population for four sets of evolutionary tracks. We re-examine the evolutionary state and isochronal ages for the B-, A-, and G-type Upper Sco members, as well as the evolved M supergiant Antares, and estimate a revised mean age for Upper Sco of 11 ± 1 ± 2 Myr (statistical, systematic). Using radial velocities and Hipparcos parallaxes we calculate a lower limit on the kinematic expansion age for Upper Sco of >10.5 Myr (99% confidence). However, the data are statistically consistent with no expansion. We reevaluate the inferred masses for the known substellar companions in

  19. Catch a Star!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education are launching today the 2007 edition of 'Catch a Star!', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its fifth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. Students are invited to 'become astronomers' and embark on a journey to explore the Universe. ESO PR Photo 42/06 The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star!' also includes an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. "'Catch a Star!' offers a unique opportunity for students to learn more about astronomy and about the methods scientists use to discover new things about the Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. In teams, students choose an astronomical topic to study and produce an in-depth report. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes or a telescope of the future can contribute to their investigations of the subject. As well as the top prize - a trip to one of ESO's observatory sites in Chile - visits to observatories in Germany, Austria and Spain, and many other prizes are also available to be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners chosen with the help of a public online vote. The first editions of 'Catch a Star!' have attracted several hundred entries from more than 25 countries worldwide. Previous winning entries have included "Star clusters and the structure of the Milky Way" (Budapest, Hungary), "Vega" (Acqui Terme, Italy) and "Venus

  20. Shooting stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.

    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is the object of this article; orbit gathering projects are also presented.

  1. A CS J=5-4 Mapping Survey Towards High-mass Star Forming Cores Associated with Water Masers

    CERN Document Server

    Shirley, Y L; Knez, C; Jaffe, D T; Shirley, Yancy L.; II, Neal J Evans; Young, Kaisa E.; Knez, Claudia; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2003-01-01

    We have mapped 63 regions forming high-mass stars in CS J=5-4 using the CSO. The CS peak position was observed in C34S J=5-4 towards 57 cores and in 13CS J=5-4 towards the 9 brightest cores. The sample is a subset of a sample originally selected toward water masers; the selection on maser sources should favor sources in an early stage of evolution. The integrated intensity of CS J=5-4 correlates very well with the dust continuum emission at 350 microns. The distributions of size, virial mass, surface density, and luminosity are all peaked with a few cores skewed towards much larger values than the mean. We find a weak correlation between C34S linewidth and size, consistent with Dv ~ R^{0.3}. The linewidths are much higher than would be predicted by the usual relations between linewidth and size determined from regions of lower mass. These regions are very turbulent. The derived virial mass agrees within a factor of 2 to 3 with mass estimates from dust emission at 350 microns after corrections for the density ...

  2. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  3. Conformational properties of bottle-brush polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denesyuk, N. A.

    2003-05-01

    General and renormalized perturbation theories are used to study the conformational properties of a bottle-brush molecule, composed of multiarmed polymer stars grafted regularly onto a flexible backbone. The end-to-end distances of the backbone and of an arm of the middle star are calculated within the first order of perturbation theory. For the high grafting densities of stars, the calculated expressions are generalized with the help of the scaling arguments to give the equivalent power laws. According to these laws, the molecule may adopt a sequence of three different conformations (star-rod-coil) as the length of the backbone grows.

  4. Conformational properties of bottle-brush polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denesyuk, N A

    2003-05-01

    General and renormalized perturbation theories are used to study the conformational properties of a bottle-brush molecule, composed of multiarmed polymer stars grafted regularly onto a flexible backbone. The end-to-end distances of the backbone and of an arm of the middle star are calculated within the first order of perturbation theory. For the high grafting densities of stars, the calculated expressions are generalized with the help of the scaling arguments to give the equivalent power laws. According to these laws, the molecule may adopt a sequence of three different conformations (star-rod-coil) as the length of the backbone grows. PMID:12786171

  5. Radio stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars. PMID:17836594

  6. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  7. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta; Paulsen, Thomas Eide

    1997-01-01

    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  8. System for star catalog equalization to enhance attitude determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Li, Rongsheng (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for star catalog equalization to enhance attitude determination includes a star tracker, a star catalog and a controller. The star tracker is used to sense the positions of stars and generate signals corresponding to the positions of the stars as seen in its field of view. The star catalog contains star location data that is stored using a primary and multiple secondary arrays sorted by both declination (DEC) and right ascension (RA), respectively. The star location data stored in the star catalog is predetermined by calculating a plurality of desired star locations, associating one of a plurality of stars with each of the plurality of desired star locations based upon a neighborhood association angle to generate an associated plurality of star locations: If an artificial star gap occurs during association, then the neighborhood association angle for reassociation is increased. The controller uses the star catalog to determine which stars to select to provide star measurement residuals for correcting gyroscope bias and spacecraft attitude.

  9. Association of vertically coupled polymer micro-resonator and phase-sensitive optical low coherence interferometer for label-free biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaton, Anne-Françoise; Sanogo, Yacouba; Yardin, Catherine; Lautru, Joseph; Lyathaud, Cedric; Dubard, Jimmy; Fischer, Nicolas

    2014-02-01

    We report on a new accurate investigation tool whose principle is that of a Michelson interferometer with a broadband source, namely a phase-sensitive optical low-coherence interferometer, used to interrogate an optical micro-resonator based sensor for label-free biosensing applications. This set-up, which is able to provide the amplitude and also the phase of the guided mode in a single measurement, is also used to evaluate the performances of the micro-resonators. The best vertically coupled polymer racetrack micro-resonator fabricated displays a Q-factor higher than 38 000 and a finesse of 21 at 1527.7 nm when immersed in deionized water. The association of the phase-sensitive optical low coherence interferometer and the vertically coupled polymer micro-resonator in an opto-fluidic cell for biosensing applications was tested and allowed the detection of a concentration of glucose in water solution around 0.23 mg ml-1.

  10. Spectra of hot stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, D. John

    2015-08-01

    Non-LTE modeling is essential for interpreting the spectra of O stars and their decendents, and much progress has been made. The major uncertainty associated with analyzing photospheric spectra of O stars arises from issues related to microturbulence and macroturbulence. Many supergiants, for example, have microturbulent velocities that approach the sound speed, while macroturbulent velocities are often several times the sound speed. The cause of this turbulence is unknown, but may be related to pulsation, an underlying convection zone associated with the Fe opacity bump, or feedback from the stellar wind. Determining accurate abundances in O stars is hampered by the lack of lines belonging to low-z elements. Many species only have a few observable lines, and some of these are subject to complex non-LTE effects. A characteristic of massive stars is the existence of a stellar wind which is driven by radiation pressure. Radiation driving is inherently unstable, and this leads to winds with an inhomogeneous structure. Major issues that are still unresolved include: How are winds driven through the sonic point? What is the nature of the inhomogeneities, and how do the properties of these inhomogeneities change with density and velocity? How important is spatial porosity, and porosity in velocity space? What is the structure of the shocks, and in what stars do the shocks fail to cool? With Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars the major uncertainty arises because the classic spectroscopic radius (i.e., the location where τ = 2/3) often refers to a location in the wind — not necessarily the stellar radius associated with stellar evolution models. Derived radii are typically several times those predicted by stellar evolution calculations, although for strong-lined W-R stars it is possible to construct models that are consistent with evolution calculations. The driving of the winds in these stars is strongly coupled to the closeness of the stars to the Eddington limit and to their

  11. The use of azide-alkyne click chemistry in recent syntheses and applications of polytriazole-based nanostructured polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yi; Cao, Xiaosong; Gao, Haifeng

    2016-02-01

    The rapid development of efficient organic click coupling reactions has significantly facilitated the construction of synthetic polymers with sophisticated branched nanostructures. This Feature Article summarizes the recent progress in the application of efficient copper-catalyzed and copper-free azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC and CuFAAC) reactions in the syntheses of dendrimers, hyperbranched polymers, star polymers, graft polymers, molecular brushes, and cyclic graft polymers. Literature reports on the interesting properties and functions of these polytriazole-based nanostructured polymers are also discussed to illustrate their potential applications as self-healing polymers, adhesives, polymer catalysts, opto-electronic polymer materials and polymer carriers for drug and imaging molecules.

  12. Star Formation in Extreme Starburst Environments - "Super" Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    De Grijs, R

    2003-01-01

    The currently available empirical evidence on the star formation processes in the extreme, high-pressure environments induced by galaxy encounters, mostly based on high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging observations, strongly suggests that star CLUSTER formation is an important and perhaps even the dominant mode of star formation in the starburst events associated with galaxy interactions. The production of "super star clusters" (SSCs; luminous, compact star clusters) seems to be a hallmark of intense star formation, particularly in interacting and starburst galaxies. Their sizes, luminosities, and mass estimates are entirely consistent with what is expected for young Milky Way-type globular clusters (GCs). SSCs are important because of what they can tell us about GC formation and evolution (e.g., initial characteristics and early survival rates). They are also of prime importance as probes of the formation and (chemical) evolution of their host galaxies, and of the initial mass function in the extrem...

  13. Conjugated Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaneck, W. R.; Stafstrom, S.; Brédas, J. L.

    2003-10-01

    The authors illustrate the basic physics and materials science of conjugated polymers and their interfaces, particularly, but not exclusively, as they are applied to polymer-based light emitting diodes. The approach is to describe the basic physical and associated chemical principles that apply to these materials, which in many instances are different from those that apply to their inorganic counterparts. The main aim of the authors is to highlight specific issues and properties of polymer surfaces and interfaces that are relevant in the context of the emerging field of polymer-based electronics in general, and polymer-based light emitting diodes in particular. Both theoretical and experimental methods used in the study of these systems are discussed. This book will be of interest to graduate students and research workers in departments of physics, chemistry, electrical engineering and materials sciences studying polymer surfaces and interfaces and their application in polymer-based electronics.

  14. 遥爪型聚合物交联反应的耗散粒子动力学模拟%Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulation of Association Reaction in Telechelic Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 张静; 刘鸿; 孙家锺

    2011-01-01

    利用耗散粒子动力学( Dissipative particle dynamics,DPD)方法研究了稀溶液中遥爪型聚合物的交联反应过程.考察了体系中交联度、链长及浓度等因素对反应达到稳态时所形成的网络结构的影响,并通过计算聚合物交联结合能(U),统计达到稳态时特征交联结构的数量来判定各因素对体系的作用.结果表明,交联度决定体系的微观结构,而聚合物链长决定交联结构的连通性.另外,特征环形结构数与遥爪型聚合物的浓度及链长均存在线性依赖关系.%The process of association reaction in telechelic polymer solution was investigated by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation method. We studied the effect of some master factors such as the reaction degree, the length of telechelic polymers and the concentration of telechelic polymers on the product morphology. With a further investigation, we also studied the energy of association and the number of characteristic structures in steady state. The primary factors in association reaction include the reaction degree which controls the microstructure of this system, and the length of telechelic polymers which controls the connectivity of this system, and the length of telechelic polymers which controls the connectivity of the product. Besides, we find there is a linear dependence of the number of characteristic loop chains on the concentration of telechelic polymers, as well as on the length of telechelic polymers.

  15. Infrared Study of the Southern Galactic Star-Forming Regions Associated with IRAS 10049-5657 and IRAS 10031-5632

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Verma, R. P.

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the physical conditions of the interstellar medium and stellar components in the regions of the southern Galactic star-forming complexes associated with IRAS 10049-5657 and IRAS 10031-5632. These regions have been mapped simultaneously in two far-infrared bands (λeff ~ 150 and 210 μm), with ~1' angular resolution using the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research 1 m balloon-borne telescope. Spatial distribution of the temperature of cool dust and optical depth at 200 μm have been obtained taking advantage of the similar beams in the two bands. The HIRES processed Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) maps at 12, 25, 60, and 100 μm have been used for comparison. Using the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-infrared sources, we find the stellar populations of the embedded young clusters. A rich cluster of OB stars is seen in the IRAS 10049-5657 region. The fits to the stellar density radial profile of the cluster associated with IRAS 10049-5657 have been explored with the inverse radius profile as well as the King's profile; the cluster radius is ~2 pc. The source in the cluster closest to the IRAS peak is IRA-7, which lies above the zero-age main-sequence curve of spectral type O5 in the color-magnitude diagram. Unlike IRAS 10049-5657, a small cluster comprising a few deeply embedded sources is seen at the location of IRAS 10031-5632. Self-consistent radiative transfer modeling aimed at extracting important physical and geometrical details of the two IRAS sources shows that the best-fit models are in good agreement with the observed spectral energy distributions. The geometric details of the associated cloud and optical depths (τ100) have been estimated. A uniform density distribution of dust and gas is implied for both the sources. In addition, the infrared ionic fine-structure line emission from gas has been modeled for both the regions and compared with data from the IRAS low-resolution spectrometer. For IRAS 10049-5657, the observed and modeled

  16. Neutron studies of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility to contrast given fractions of a polymer system at a cost of a low enthalpy difference is responsible for the success of the neutron method. This approach is especially useful for polymers as compared to colloids or simple liquids, because of the significative intra- and inter-molecular correlations. In this respect, the pseudo diblock copolymer constitutes one of the best test molecule of homogeneous polymer system. A review is given of main results: polymer size in melts, true backbone conformation and universal constants related to polymer structures. Effects of mechanical stress, of mesogenic order have been revealed. Neutron spin-echo experiments have given characteristic dispersion relations of intra- and inter-polymer diffusive motions. The labelling method is however more powerful than first realized. The amplitude associated with a polymer structure at an interface has been obtained directly (as in ellipsometry) with the use of contrast variation. Such structures are currently investigated by neutron reflectivity. Latest developments are found in the use of spin polarized targets, from which important cross correlations are derived

  17. Horndeski's Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Rinaldi, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    We consider the sector of Horndeski's gravity characterized by a coupling between the kinetic scalar field term and the Einstein tensor. Our goal is to find realistic neutron star configurations in this framework. We show that, in a certain limit, there exist solutions that are identical to the Schwarzschild metric outside the star but change considerably inside, where the scalar field is not trivial. We study numerically the equations and find the region of the parameter space where neutron stars exist. We determine their internal pressure and mass-radius relation, and we compare them with standard general relativity models.

  18. Flare stars across the H-R diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Balona, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Flare stars appear to be as common among the hottest stars as among the coolest. Starspots, which are closely associated with flares, are likewise common among stars of all spectral types. This finding contradicts the long-help belief that only stars with convective envelopes can sustain magnetic fields. It is found that rotation is a dominant factor in inducing flares: flare stars nearly always have shorter rotation periods than non-flare stars. These findings have important implications for...

  19. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  20. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  1. Star counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of stars counted along a particular line of sight depends on the spatial distribution of stars, the luminosity function, and the absorption. Thus star count programs designed to constrain or determine one or more of these functions. Early efforts to understand the structure of our Galaxy, including the fundamentals of stellar statistics, were largely based on work that involved star counts. Since then a growing appreciation has developed for the variety of forms the density function and the luminosity function can take, especially the recognition of different stellar populations, each with different density and luminosity functions. In the simplest formulation two distinct populations are considered: disk and halo. This suggests two distinct formation histories, but uncertainty in the picture remains. (Auth.)

  2. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  3. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  4. SN 2006aj Associated with XRF 060218 At Late Phases: Nucleosynthesis-Signature of A Neutron Star-Driven Explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Keiichi; Kawabata, Koji; Tanaka, Masaomi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Hattori, Takashi; Minezaki, Takeo; Kuroda, Takami; Suzuki, Tomoharu; Deng, Jinsong; Mazzali, Paolo A; Pian, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy and photometry of SN 2006aj have been performed with the Subaru telescope at t > 200 days after GRB060218, the X-ray Flash with which it was associated. Strong nebular emission-lines with an expansion velocity of v ~ 7,300 km/s were detected. The peaked but relatively broad [OI]6300,6363 suggests the existence of ~ 2 Msun of materials in which ~1.3 Msun is oxygen. The core might be produced by a mildly asymmetric explosion. The spectra are unique among SNe Ic in (1) the a...

  5. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  6. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  7. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  8. Effect of polymers associated with N and K fertilizer sources on Dendrathema grandiflorum growth and K, Ca and Mg relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Regiane Cristina Marcato

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of polymer used with different nitrogen and potassium sources on the growth and nutrition of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiforum, var. "Virginal" and on chemical characteristics of substrate. Two substrates were evaluated: 1 composite with 50 % organic soil, 45 % sand, and 5 % composted tobacco; 2 plow layer soil (0-20 cm depth; red oxisol typical dystrophic. The experimental design was a factorial (4x2x2 and included four polymer rates (0, 1, 2, and 4 g kg-1of substrate, two nitrogen ((NH42SO4 and (H2N2CO, and two potassium (KCl and K2SO4 sources. Dry biomass, flower number, and concentration of K, Ca, and Mg were evaluated. Inverse relationships between polymer rates and plant biomass, macronutrient uptake were noticed, regardless substrate or nutrient source.O polímero agrícola tem um grande potencial de uso como condicionador de solo para produção de mudas. Contudo, pouco conhecimento existe sobre seu uso e interação com fertilizantes.Visando avaliar o efeito do polímero com diferentes fontes de abubações nitrogenadas e potássicas, no crescimento e nutrição do crisântemo (var. "Virginal" e características químicas dos substratos, um experimento foi montado. A instalação foi em casa de vegetação da Empresa CONSPIZZA HIDROSSEMEADURA Ltda., situada no município de Colombo-PR, no verão de 2001. Dois substratos foram testados: 1 composto de 50% de solo orgânico, 45% de areia e 5% de fumo compostado; 2 camada superficial (0-20cm de um LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Distrófico típico, do município de Ponta Grossa. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 5 repetições, em esquema fatorial 4x2x2, sendo 4 doses de polímero (0; 1; 2 e 4g kg-1 de substrato, 2 fontes nitrogenadas [(NH42SO4 e (H2N2CO] e duas fontes potássicas (KCl e K2SO4, respectivamente. Determinou-se massa seca de ramos, folhas e teores de K, Ca e Mg. Os substratos foram avaliados quanto aos teores de K

  9. Aggregation of amphiphilic polymers in the presence of adhesive small colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulin, Vladimir A.; Johner, Albert; Avalos, Josep Bonet

    2010-11-01

    The interaction of amphiphilic polymers with small colloids, capable to reversibly stick onto the chains, is studied. Adhesive small colloids in solution are able to dynamically bind two polymer segments. This association leads to topological changes in the polymer network configurations, such as looping and cross-linking, although the reversible adhesion permits the colloid to slide along the chain backbone. Previous analyses only consider static topologies in the chain network. We show that the sliding degree of freedom ensures the dominance of small loops, over other structures, giving rise to a new perspective in the analysis of the problem. The results are applied to the analysis of the equilibrium between colloidal particles and star polymers, as well as to block copolymer micelles. The results are relevant for the reversible adsorption of silica particles onto hydrophilic polymers, used in the process of formation of mesoporous materials of the type SBA or MCM, cross-linked cyclodextrin molecules threading on the polymers and forming the structures known as polyrotaxanes. Adhesion of colloids on the corona of the latter induce micellization and growth of larger micelles as the number of colloids increase, in agreement with experimental data.

  10. Expression of T-STAR gene is associated with regulation of telomerase activity in human colon cancer cell line HCT-116

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Zhang; Lian Guo; Yong Peng; Bing Chen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects on telomerase activity of transfection of human T-STAR gene full-length sense cDNA or partial antisense cDNA into human colon cancer cell line HCT-116.METHODS: mRNA and protein expression levels of T-STAR gene were determined by RT-PCR and western blot, and telomerase activity was measured by PCRELISA, after transfection of T-STAR sense or antisense gene into HCT-116 cells with lipofectamine.RESULTS: T-STAR gene expression was enhanced or knocked down both at mRNA and protein levels,and telomerase activity was significantly increased or decreased.CONCLUSION: The T-STAR gene may participate in regulation of telomerase activity in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells in a parallel fashion.

  11. Clustering of soft colloids due to polymer additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine theoretically the structural behaviour of dilute solutions of multiarm star polymers under the addition of smaller homopolymer chains. The approach is based on effective interactions, for which the star-polymer centres and the centres of mass of the linear chains are used as effective coordinates. We find that addition of linear chains first leads to a softening of the star-polymer repulsions and, at higher chain concentrations, to the formation of stable, multi-star clusters. We accompany the theoretical approach with dynamical light scattering measurements in real systems, finding agreement between theory and experiment. We rationalize our findings by deriving the chain-induced, one-component effective potential between stars, which features an attractive well followed by a repulsive barrier. We discuss the dependence of these characteristics on the size and concentration of the homopolymer additives and relate the present system to recent models that also display cluster formation

  12. Organic-inorganic hybrid star-like copolymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vraštil, J.; Špaček, V.; Matějka, Libor; Rýznarová, B.

    Praha : Ústav makromolekulární chemie AV ČR, 2005. PC45. ISBN 80-85009-50-1. [Microsymposium on Polymer Gels and Networks /44./. 10.07.2005-14.07.2005, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : hybrid star polymers * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  13. Molecular clouds in the Carina arm - the largest objects, associated regions of star formation, and the Carina arm in the Galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabelsky, D.A.; Cohen, R.S.; Bronfman, L.; Thaddeus, P.

    1988-08-01

    The Columbia CO survey of the southern Galactic plane is used to identify giant molecular clouds and cloud complexes in the Vela-Carina-Centaurus section of the Galaxy. Twenty-seven giant molecular clouds between l = 270 and 300 deg are catalogued and their heliocentric distances given. In addition, 16 clouds at l greater than 300 deg beyond the solar circle extend the catalog to include the very distant portion of the Carina arm. The most massive clouds in the catalog trace the Carina arm over 23 kpc in the plane of the Galaxy. The average mass of these objects is 1.4 x 10 to the 6th solar, and their average spacing along the arm is 700 pc. The composite distribution projected onto the Galactic plane of the largest molecular clouds in the Carina arm and of similarly massive clouds in the first and second quadrants strongly suggests that the Carina and Sagittarius arms form a single spiral arm about 40 kpc in length wrapping two-thirds of the way around the Galaxy. Descriptions of each cloud, including identification of associated star-forming regions, are presented in an appendix. 76 references.

  14. Nano-photo active cellulosic fabric through in situ phytosynthesis of star-like Ag/ZnO nanocomposites: Investigation and optimization of attributes associated with photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladpoosh, Razieh; Montazer, Majid

    2016-05-01

    In this study, nano-photo active cellulosic fabric was prepared through in situ phytosynthesis of star-like Ag/ZnO nanocomposites using the ashes of Seidlitzia rosmarinus plants so-called Keliab. This is provided alkali media as a vital condition for synthesis of nanocomposites, further increasing the reduce-ability of cellulosic chains by activation of hydroxyl groups. The intermolecular dehydrolysis of intermediates ions under thermal and alkaline conditions leads to formation of Ag/ZnO heterostructure. Various analytical techniques were employed to confirm Ag/ZnO nanocomposites on the cotton fabric. The surface morphology, crystal phase and chemical structure of the treated fabrics were characterized by field emission and scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Moreover, influence of precursors: silver nitrate, zinc acetate and Keliab solution on attributes associated with photocatalytic activities including self-cleaning, whiteness and wettability was investigated via central composite design (CCD). The treated cotton samples exhibited self-cleaning activities through methylene blue degradation under day-light exposure along with improved wettability and whiteness. The prepared sample in optimized conditions showed good antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with enhanced fabric tensile strength. PMID:26877003

  15. Molecular clouds in the Carina arm - The largest objects, associated regions of star formation, and the Carina arm in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabelsky, D. A.; Cohen, R. S.; Bronfman, L.; Thaddeus, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Columbia CO survey of the southern Galactic plane is used to identify giant molecular clouds and cloud complexes in the Vela-Carina-Centaurus section of the Galaxy. Twenty-seven giant molecular clouds between l = 270 and 300 deg are catalogued and their heliocentric distances given. In addition, 16 clouds at l greater than 300 deg beyond the solar circle extend the catalog to include the very distant portion of the Carina arm. The most massive clouds in the catalog trace the Carina arm over 23 kpc in the plane of the Galaxy. The average mass of these objects is 1.4 x 10 to the 6th solar, and their average spacing along the arm is 700 pc. The composite distribution projected onto the Galactic plane of the largest molecular clouds in the Carina arm and of similarly massive clouds in the first and second quadrants strongly suggests that the Carina and Sagittarius arms form a single spiral arm about 40 kpc in length wrapping two-thirds of the way around the Galaxy. Descriptions of each cloud, including identification of associated star-forming regions, are presented in an appendix.

  16. Small angle scattering and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs

  17. Small angle scattering and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, J.P. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs.

  18. Polymer Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nico

    Polymers are arguably the most important set of materials in common use. The increasing adoption of both combinatorial as well as high-throughput approaches, coupled with an increasing amount of interdisciplinarity, has wrought tremendous change in the field of polymer science. Yet the informatics tools required to support and further enhance these changes are almost completely absent. In the first part of the chapter, a critical analysis of the challenges facing modern polymer informatics is provided. It is argued, that most of the problems facing the field today are rooted in the current scholarly communication process and the way in which chemists and polymer scientists handle and publish data. Furthermore, the chapter reviews existing modes of representing and communicating polymer information and discusses the impact, which the emergence of semantic technologies will have on the way in which scientific and polymer data is published and transmitted. In the second part, a review of the use of informatics tools for the prediction of polymer properties and in silico design of polymers is offered.

  19. Polymers & People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Linda; Robinson, Thomas; Martin, Elizabeth; Miller, Mary; Ashburn, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Each Tuesday during the fall of 2002, teams of high school students from three South Carolina counties conducted a four-hour polymer institute for their peers. In less than two months, over 300 students visited the Charleston County Public Library in Charleston, South Carolina, to explore DNA, nylon, rubber, gluep, and other polymers. Teams of…

  20. Star block-copolymers: Enzyme-inspired catalysts for oxidation of alcohols in water

    KAUST Repository

    Mugemana, Clement

    2014-01-01

    A number of fluorous amphiphilic star block-copolymers containing a tris(benzyltriazolylmethyl)amine motif have been prepared. These polymers assembled into well-defined nanostructures in water, and their mode of assembly could be controlled by changing the composition of the polymer. The polymers were used for enzyme-inspired catalysis of alcohol oxidation. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  1. Rainbow's Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Garattini, Remo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a growing interest on the equilibrium of compact astrophysical objects like white dwarf and neutron stars has been manifested. In particular, various modifications due to Planck scale energy effects have been considered. In this paper we analyze the modification induced by Gravity's Rainbow on the equilibrium configurations described by the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation. Our purpose is to explore the possibility that the Rainbow Planck-scale deformation of space-time could support the existence of different compact stars.

  2. Pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M?rcio

    2014-01-01

    The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory.  Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.

  3. NuSTAR discovery of a young, energetic pulsar associated with the luminous gamma-ray source HESS J1640–465

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1640–465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640–4631 lies within the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3–0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative P-dot = 9.758(44) × 10–13, yielding a spin-down luminosity E-dot = 4.4 × 1036 erg s–1, characteristic age τc≡P/2 P-dot = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength Bs = 1.4 × 1013 G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3–0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640–465 is 6% of the pulsar's present E-dot . The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5–4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640–4631, but we find no γ-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640–465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n ≈ 2, and that its initial spin period was P 0 ∼ 15 ms.

  4. Biodegradable polymer systems with saccharide cores for targeted drug delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotrchová, Lenka; Etrych, Tomáš

    Bratislava: Young Scientists Council of Polymer Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2016. s. 49. ISBN 978-80-970923-8-2. [Bratislava Young Polymer Scientists workshop /6./ - BYPoS 2016. 14.03.2016-18.03.2016, Ždiar] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02986S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclodextrins * star polymers * degradation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  5. Organometallic Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reactions utilized to incorporate a metal-containing moiety into a polymer chain (addition, condensation, and coordination) are considered, emphasizing that these reactions also apply to smaller molecules. (JN)

  6. Coloured Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Pesando, I.

    1993-01-01

    We show that non-oriented coloured polymers (self--avoiding walks with different types of links) are in the same universality class of the ordinary self--avoiding walks, while the oriented coloured are not.

  7. Polymer electrolytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abbrent, Sabina; Greenbaum, S.; Peled, E.; Golodnitsky, D.

    Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2015 - (Dudney, N.; West, W.; Nanda, J.), s. 523-589 ISBN 978-981-4651-89-9 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer electrolytes * applications * mesuring techniques Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  8. Delocalization in polymer models

    CERN Document Server

    Jitomirskaya, S Yu; Stolz, G

    2003-01-01

    A polymer model is a one-dimensional Schroedinger operator composed of two finite building blocks. If the two associated transfer matrices commute, the corresponding energy is called critical. Such critical energies appear in physical models, an example being the widely studied random dimer model. Although the random models are known to have pure-point spectrum with exponentially localized eigenstates for almost every configuration of the polymers, the spreading of an initially localized wave packet is here proven to be at least diffusive for every configuration.

  9. Energetic outflows from young stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our galaxy, stars are born in clouds of gas, bodies so cold they do not emit any radiation at the visible wavelengths. Moreover, the clouds are permeated by cosmic dust, so that the visible radiation emitted by new stars is absorbed. Radiation at the wavelengths of infrared waves and the shortest radio waves penetrate these clouds. With the development of new telescopes and equipment for the detection of radiation at those wavelengths, astronomers are now able to explore the dark clouds where stars are born. A prime probe of the conditions within star-forming clouds has turned out to be the molecule carbon monoxide (CO). In interstellar molecular clouds, CO molecules emit radiation at a wavelength of 2.6 mm. The study of such radiation has recently revealed a new and intriguing phenomena closely associated with the birth and early evolution of stars. When certain stars are in the earliest stages of their life, they appear to be associated with violent outflows of mass. In a number of instances, molecular gas is found to be flowing outward from around newly formed stars in two supersonic streams 1800 apart. The origin and nature of these energetic outflows is a mystery. (SC)

  10. Polymers in disordered environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Blavatska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of our recent studies aiming at a better understanding of the scaling behaviour of polymers in disordered environments is given. The main emphasis is on a simple generic model where the polymers are represented by (interacting self-avoiding walks and the disordered environment by critical percolation clusters. The scaling behaviour of the number of conformations and their average spatial extent as a function of the number of monomers and the associated critical exponents γ and ν are examined with two complementary approaches: numerical chain-growth computer simulations using the PERM algorithm and complete enumerations of all possible polymer conformations employing a recently developed very efficient exact counting method.

  11. Synthetic biodegradable functional polymers for tissue engineering: a brief review

    OpenAIRE

    BaoLin, GUO; Ma, Peter X.

    2014-01-01

    Scaffolds play a crucial role in tissue engineering. Biodegradable polymers with great processing flexibility are the predominant scaffolding materials. Synthetic biodegradable polymers with well-defined structure and without immunological concerns associated with naturally derived polymers are widely used in tissue engineering. The synthetic biodegradable polymers that are widely used in tissue engineering, including polyesters, polyanhydrides, polyphosphazenes, polyurethane, and poly (glyce...

  12. Star Pattern Recognition for Attitude Determination using Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Paladugu, Lalitha; Williams, Brian,; Schoen, Marco

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study using Genetic Algorithms (GA) to solve the star pattern recognition problem associated with star tracker attitude determination systems. Characteristics of the stars that are visible within the Field of View (FOV) of an imager are defined with regard to relative distances and angles. The proposed GA minimizes the discrepancy between the characteristics of the stars inside the actual FOV and a candidate FOV selected from the star map in order to determine the inerti...

  13. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  14. Planck stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density --not by size-- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

  15. Implementation of an Associative Flow Rule Including Hydrostatic Stress Effects Into the High Strain Rate Deformation Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    A previously developed analytical formulation has been modified in order to more accurately account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses on the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical J2 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective inelastic strain, along with the equations used to compute the components of the inelastic strain rate tensor, are appropriately modified. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of two representative polymers are computed across a wide range of strain rates. Results computed using the developed constitutive equations correlate well with experimental data. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare well to experimentally obtained results.

  16. Massive young disks around Herbig Ae stars

    OpenAIRE

    Boissier, Jeremie; Alonso-Albi, Tomas; Fuente, Asuncion; Berne, Olivier; Bachiller, Rafael; Neri, Roberto; Ginard, David

    2011-01-01

    Herbig Ae stars (HAe) are the precursors of Vega-type systems and, therefore, crucial objects in planet formation studies. Thus far, only a few disks associated with HAe stars have been studied using millimetre interferometers. Our aim is to determine the dust evolution and the lifetime of the disks associated with Herbig Ae stars. We imaged the continuum emission at 3 mm and 1.3 mm of the Herbig Ae/Be stars BD+61154, RR Tau, VY Mon and LkHa 198 using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI)...

  17. Some rigorous results on semiflexible polymers, I : free and confined polymers.

    OpenAIRE

    Hryniv, O.; Velenik, Yvan Alain

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a class of models of semiflexible polymers. The latter are characterized by a strong rigidity, the correlation length associated with the gradient–gradient correlations, called the persistence length, being of the same order as the polymer length. We determine the macroscopic scaling limit, from which we deduce bounds on the free energy of a polymer confined inside a narrow tube.

  18. Engineering Polymer Informatics

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Nico; Ryder, Jennifer; Jessop, David M; Corbett, Peter; Murray-Rust, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The poster describes a strategy of for the development of polymer informatics. In particular, the development of polymer markup language, a polymer ontology and natural language processing tools for polymer literature.

  19. Antimocrobial Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi-Heng (Walnut Creek, CA); Wright, Stacy C. (Columbus, GA)

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  20. A reactive polystyrene-block-polyisoprene star copolymer as a toughening agent in an epoxy thermoset

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Raju

    2015-12-29

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg A polystyrene-block-polyisoprene ((PS-b-PI)3) star polymer was synthesized by photochemical reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The obtained star polymer was epoxidized and used as a toughening agent in an epoxy thermoset. The incorporation of the epoxidized star polymer resulted in the formation of nanostructures and it was fixed by a crosslinking reaction. The formation of nanostructures in the thermosets follows the mechanism of reaction-induced microphase separation. The mechanical properties such as toughness and tensile strength were considerably increased due to the nanostructures formed by reactive blending.

  1. Star-Shaped Polyacrylates: Highly Functionalized Architectures via CuAAC Click Conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammens, Mieke; Fournier, David; Fijten, Martin W M; Hoogenboom, Richard; Prez, Filip Du

    2009-12-01

    Well-defined functional star-shaped polymer structures with up to 29 arms have been successfully synthesized by the combination of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and click chemistry. First, azide end-functionalized poly(isobornyl acrylate) (PiBA) star-shaped polymers were prepared by successive ATRP and bromine substitution. Subsequently, alkyne end-functionalized molecules and polymers were introduced onto the star-shaped PiBA bearing pendant azide moieties by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The possibilities and limits for the CuAAC on such highly branched polyacrylates are described. PMID:21638494

  2. A Revised Age for Upper Scorpius and The Star-Formation History Among the F-Type Members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Pecaut, Mark J; Bubar, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the ages and star-formation history of the F-type stars in the Upper Scorpius (US), Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL) and Lower Centaurus-Crux (LCC) subgroups of Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen). We find that 1) our empirical isochrones are consistent with the previously published age-rank of the Sco-Cen subgroups, 2) subgroups LCC and UCL appear to reach the main sequence turn-on at spectral types ~F4 and ~F2, respectively. An analysis of the A-type stars shows US reaching the main sequence at about spectral type ~A3. 3) The median ages for the pre-main sequence members of UCL and LCC are 16 Myr and 17 Myr, respectively, in agreement with previous studies, however we find that 4) Upper Sco is much older than previously thought. The luminosities of the F-type stars in US are typically a factor of ~2.5 less luminous than predicted for a 5 Myr old population for four sets of evolutionary tracks. We re-examine the evolutionary state and isochronal ages for the B-, A-, and G-type Upper Sco members...

  3. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  4. Polymer Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles C. Han; DONG Jinyong; NIU Hui; CHENG He; HUANG Ye; ZHENG Jianfen; XU Shanshan

    2011-01-01

    @@ Since the second half of the 20th century, polymer materials have already become an essential part of our daily life.The use of polymeric materials has already exceeded that of metals and ceramics in terms of volume and is intimately connected to our clothing, food, household use, transportation, and medical needs.Meanwhile it also brought some recycle and environmental problems.In the 21 st century, human beings are facing ever increasing challenges on environmental protection, energy shortage, and health-medical problems, which have made even higher demand on polymer materials due to its light weight, flexibility and high functionality.

  5. Star formation environments and the distribution of binary separations

    OpenAIRE

    Brandner, Wolfgang; Koehler, Rainer

    1998-01-01

    We have carried out K-band speckle observations of a sample of 114 X-ray selected weak-line T Tauri stars in the nearby Scorpius-Centaurus OB association. We find that for binary T Tauri stars closely associated to the early type stars in Upper Scorpius, the youngest subgroup of the OB association, the peak in the distribution of binary separations is at 90 A.U. For binary T Tauri stars located in the direction of an older subgroup, but not closely associated to early type stars, the peak in ...

  6. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 931.6632 info@MilitaryFamily.org © 2016 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better Business Bureau Charity Watch Independent Charity of America nonprofit ...

  7. Massive Stars: Their Environment and Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Garay, Guido; Lizano, Susana

    1999-01-01

    Cloud environment is thought to play a critical role in determining the mechanism of formation of massive stars. In this contribution we review the physical characteristics of the environment around recently formed massive stars. Particular emphasis is given to recent high angular resolution observations which have improved our knowledge of the physical conditions and kinematics of compact regions of ionized gas and of dense and hot molecular cores associated with luminous O and B stars. We w...

  8. Stellar Archaeology: New Science with Old Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Frebel, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The abundance patterns of metal-poor stars provide us a wealth of chemical information about various stages of cosmic chemical evolution. In particular, these stars allow us to study the formation and evolution of the elements, and the involved nucleosynthesis processes. This knowledge is invaluable for our understanding of the nature and condition of the early Universe, and the associated processes of early star- and galaxy formation. This proceeding summarizes the astrophysical topics and q...

  9. B- and A-Type Stars in the Taurus-Auriga Star-Forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), t Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Star-branched Polyisobutylene by Combination of Anionic Polymerization and Cationic Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Feng LIU; Yang LI; Yu Rong WANG; Yan REN; Zhan Xia LU; Jin Bo ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    A star-shaped multifunctional styrene-isoprene copolymer was synthesized with n-BuLi as initiator, divinyl benzene as coupling agent, cyclohexane as solvent by living anionic polymerization.Using this polymer as grafting agent, a novel star-shaped branched polymer, containing several polyisobutylene, was prepared via cationic polymerization.The star PS-b-PI and star-branched polyisobutylene were characterized by GPC, HNMR and FT-IR, and the effects of different adding order and the amount of grafting agent were investigated.

  11. Polymer physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gedde, Ulf W

    1999-01-01

    This book is the result of my teaching efforts during the last ten years at the Royal Institute of Technology. The purpose is to present the subject of polymer physics for undergraduate and graduate students, to focus the fundamental aspects of the subject and to show the link between experiments and theory. The intention is not to present a compilation of the currently available literature on the subject. Very few reference citations have thus been made. Each chapter has essentially the same structure: starling with an introduction, continuing with the actual subject, summarizing the chapter in 30D-500 words, and finally presenting problems and a list of relevant references for the reader. The solutions to the problems presented in Chapters 1-12 are given in Chapter 13. The theme of the book is essentially polymer science, with the exclusion of that part dealing directly with chemical reactions. The fundamentals in polymer science, including some basic polymer chemistry, are presented as an introduction in t...

  12. Polymer Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Curtis W.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a series of four graduate level courses in polymer science, offered or currently in preparation, at Stanford University. Course descriptions and a list of required and recommended texts are included. Detailed course outlines for two of the courses are presented. (BT)

  13. True mechanical behavior and the associated structure morphology of poly(lactic acid) polymer in strain induced crystallization by in-situ time resolved X-ray diffraction and scattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in molecular structure configuration during strain induced crystallisation of an amorphous Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA 4032D) polymer was monitored in-situ by simultaneously recording the wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns together with polymer deformation images and force data. The amorphous chain orientation from the beginning of deformation until the onset of crystallisation was studied from the WAXS patterns. The true mechanical behaviour described by the true stress-true strain curve related to an amorphous chain orientation exhibited a linear behaviour. Approaching critical amorphous orientation, the true stress-true strain curve deviated from linear into non-linear behaviour. After the onset of crystallization, when the deformed polymer became a semicrystalline state, the true mechanical behaviour exhibited true strain hardening which greatly affected by the formation of the morphology. The gradual true strain hardening was associated with the formation of micro-fibrillar structure containing thin crystallite morphology whilst sharp increased in true strain hardening was associated with the formation of stacked lamellar morphology in the form of macro-lattice structure. The study was accomplished by the application of high brilliance synchrotron radiation at beamline ID2 of ESRF, Grenoble in France and the usage of the high contrast resolution of WAXS and SAXS charge-couple device (CCD) camera as well as 40 milliseconds temporal resolution of data acquisition system. (author)

  14. Cyclic polymers from alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Christopher D.; Li, Hong; Abboud, Khalil A.; Wagener, Kenneth B.; Veige, Adam S.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic polymers have dramatically different physical properties compared with those of their equivalent linear counterparts. However, the exploration of cyclic polymers is limited because of the inherent challenges associated with their synthesis. Conjugated linear polyacetylenes are important materials for electrical conductivity, paramagnetic susceptibility, optical nonlinearity, photoconductivity, gas permeability, liquid crystallinity and chain helicity. However, their cyclic analogues are unknown, and therefore the ability to examine how a cyclic topology influences their properties is currently not possible. We have solved this challenge and now report a tungsten catalyst supported by a tetraanionic pincer ligand that can rapidly polymerize alkynes to form conjugated macrocycles in high yield. The catalyst works by tethering the ends of the polymer to the metal centre to overcome the inherent entropic penalty of cyclization. Gel-permeation chromatography, dynamic and static light scattering, viscometry and chemical tests are all consistent with theoretical predictions and provide unambiguous confirmation of a cyclic topology. Access to a wide variety of new cyclic polymers is now possible by simply choosing the appropriate alkyne monomer.

  15. Auto-associação do dodecilsulfato de sódio (SDS com o polímero hidrofobicamente modificado etil(hidroxietil celulose (EHEC Self-association of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS with the hydrophobically modified polymer ethyl (hydroxyethyl cellulose (EHEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Medeiros Modolon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of ethyl(hydroxyethylcellulose (EHEC and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS were investigated using surface tension, conductivity and viscosity measurements in aqueous solutions. The parameters of the surfactant to polymer association processes such as the critical aggregation concentration (cac and saturation of the polymer by SDS (psp were determined from the plots of surface tension and specific conductivity versus surfactant concentration. Through the final results we see that there was no specific link of polymer with the surfactant, implying therefore a phenomenon of only cooperative association.

  16. Chemical abundances of giant stars in NGC 5053 and NGC 5634, two globular clusters associated with the Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Sbordone, L; Bidin, C Moni; Bonifacio, P; Villanova, S; Bellazzini, M; Ibata, R; Chiba, M; Geisler, D; Caffau, E; Duffau, S

    2015-01-01

    The tidal disruption of the Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) is producing the most prominent substructure in the Milky Way (MW) halo, the Sagittarius Stream. Aside from field stars, the Sgr dSph is suspected to have lost a number of globular clusters (GC). Many Galactic GC are suspected to have originated in the Sgr dSph. While for some candidates an origin in the Sgr dSph has been confirmed due to chemical similarities, others exist whose chemical composition has never been investigated. NGC 5053 and NGC 5634 are two among these scarcely studied Sgr dSph candidate-member clusters. To characterize their composition we analyzed one giant star in NGC 5053, and two in NGC 5634. We analize high-resolution and signal-to-noise spectra by means of the MyGIsFOS code, determining atmospheric parameters and abundances for up to 21 species between O and Eu. The abundances are compared with those of MW halo field stars, of "unassociated" MW halo globulars, and of the metal poor Sgr dSph main body population...

  17. A survey of star product geometry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachos, C.

    2000-08-15

    A brief pedagogical survey of the star product is provided, through Groenewold's original construction based on the Weyl correspondence. It is then illustrated how simple Landau orbits in a constant magnetic field, through their Dirac Brackets, define a noncommutative structure since these brackets exponentiate to a star product--a circumstance rarely operative for generic Dirac Brackets. The geometric picture of the star product based on its Fourier representation kernel is utilized in the evaluation of chains of star products. The intuitive appreciation of their associativity and symmetries is thereby enhanced. This construction is compared and contrasted with the remarkable phase space polygon construction of Almeida.

  18. Novel multiarm star block copolymer ionomers as proton conductive membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Demirel, Adem Levent; Erdoğan, Tuba; Bilir, Çiğdem; Ünveren, Elif; Tunca, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    A series of well-defined novel multiarm star block copolymer ionomers with an average of 6, 11 and 15 arms, sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl methacrylate) (SPS-b-PFPMA), were prepared via a combination of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), Diels–Alder click reaction and postsulfonation reaction. First, multiarm star polymer with anthracene functionality as reactive periphery groups was prepared by a cross-linking reaction of divinyl benzene using ?-anthr...

  19. Lifestyles of the Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  20. Massive Stars in Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, P A

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the various post-main sequence phases of massive stars, focusing on Wolf-Rayet stars, Luminous Blue Variables, plus connections with other early-type and late-type supergiants. End states for massive stars are also investigated, emphasising connections between Supernovae originating from core-collapse massive stars and Gamma Ray Bursts.

  1. Star product realizations of kappa-Minkowski space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Sitarz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We define a family of star products and involutions associated with κ -Minkowski space. Applying corresponding quantization maps we show that these star products restricted to a certain space of Schwartz functions have isomorphic Banach algebra completions. For two particular star products it is...

  2. Phase Diagram of Star-like Block Co-polymers Confined in a Cylindrical Self-assembly%星形嵌段共聚物在柱状受限下自组装的相图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 王文锦; 叶深杰

    2016-01-01

    本文用自洽平均场理论研究了多臂星形嵌段共聚物在柱状受限下的自组装。通过计算两种位于本体自组装柱状相区(A嵌段的体积分数为0.2或0.8)的多臂星形嵌段共聚物(臂数为3、9、15或21)在柱状受限下自组装结构的相图,我们将嵌段的不对称性、星形臂的数量以及柱状受限空间的直径与自组装结构的稳定性联系起来。我们发现fA=0.8的星形嵌段共聚物能够在吸引A嵌段的孔道中自组装出一类新的穿孔层结构,这种结构随着臂数增多越来越稳定。本工作对调控嵌段共聚物的自组装有一定指导意义。%The phase behavior of multi-arms star-like block copolymer confined in a cylindrical nanopore was investigated by using the self-consistent mean-field theory. We calculated the phase diagrams of cylinder-forming star-like copolymers with different number of arms f (f=3, 9, 15, and 21) and two opposite volume fraction of A block (0.2 and 0.8 respectively) confined in a cylindrical nanopore. The phase diagram indicated that the influence of asymmetry on star-like copolymer and number of arms should not be ignored in this system. Surprisingly, a new perforated-lamellae-on-cylinder was observed in the stable phase array offA=0.8 with the A-preferential pore wall exhibiting different performance for the number of arms. The results in this work would be instructive in some extent for the regulation of block copolymers self-assembly.

  3. The role of low-mass star clusters in massive star formation. The Orion Case

    CERN Document Server

    Rivilla, V M; Jimenez-Serra, I; Rodriguez-Franco, A

    2013-01-01

    To distinguish between the different theories proposed to explain massive star formation, it is crucial to establish the distribution, the extinction, and the density of low-mass stars in massive star-forming regions. We analyze deep X-ray observations of the Orion massive star-forming region using the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) catalog. We studied the stellar distribution as a function of extinction, with cells of 0.03 pc x 0.03 pc, the typical size of protostellar cores. We derived stellar density maps and calculated cluster stellar densities. We found that low-mass stars cluster toward the three massive star-forming regions: the Trapezium Cluster (TC), the Orion Hot Core (OHC), and OMC1-S. We derived low-mass stellar densities of 10^{5} stars pc^{-3} in the TC and OMC1-S, and of 10^{6} stars pc^{-3} in the OHC. The close association between the low-mass star clusters with massive star cradles supports the role of these clusters in the formation of massive stars. The X-ray observations show for ...

  4. Control of the structure and properties of water-soluble associating polymers synthesized by micellar copolymerization; Controle de la structure et des proprietes de polymeres hydrosolubles associatifs synthetises par copolymerisation micellaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputo, M.R.; Selb, J. [Institut Charles Sadron, CNRS, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the so-called micellar copolymerization process, hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers are radically co-polymerized in aqueous solution in the presence of surfactant micelles. This process leads to water-soluble polymers in which hydrophobic units are distributed as short blocks whose length can be easily varied. Such copolymers exhibit associative thickening properties. The kinetics of the hydrophobia incorporation within the hydrophilic polyacrylamide backbone has been compared for various anionic and cationic surfactants. A fluorescence technique based on excimer formation between fluorescent hydrophobic groups has been used to characterize the copolymer structure and the chain conformation in solution. (author)

  5. Polymer radiation curing: polyester resins. January 1973-December 1988 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the formulations and processes for radiation curing on polyester resins. Effects of radiation curing on polyester resins are also discussed. Electron-beam and ultraviolet radiation are emphasized. Polymer crosslinking by such electromagnetic wave radiation as in the visible wavelength is also examined. Applications in adhesives, coatings, lacquers, and printing inks are included. (Contains 200 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  6. 新型缔合聚合物AP调剖体系研制及矿场应用%Study and Application of a New Association Polymer System for Profile Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵化廷; 赵普春; 陈洪; 张三辉

    2004-01-01

    A new polymer system, referred to simply as the AP-P4 polymer system, aims at solving the problems of high temperature, high salinity and the poor shearing resistance, all of which are encountered by conventional polymers (such as polyacrylamide) used in profile control, profile performance improvement and EOR operations in the Zhongyuan Oilfield, Sinopec. This system has been developed on the basis of the specific molecular structure and the better properties of high temperature resistance, high salinity resistance and strong shearing resistance of the new type of APP4 association polymer. Acidity modifying agents and cross-linking agents (MZ-YL, MZ-BE, MZ-XS), compatible with the new polymer system, are selected. Results of performance tests have shown that the new polymer system has excellent thickening, high temperature, high salinity and shearing resistance and anti-dehydrating properties. In 2003, it underwent its first pilot test in 26 wells in China, with remarkable effects in increasing oil production and decreasing water production. The newly developed polymer system and its application technology described in this paper may play a guiding role in polymer profile control operations in the oil reservoirs of high temperature and high salinity.%本文针对常规聚合物如聚丙烯酰胺在调剖、调驱、三采使用过程中存在的耐温、耐盐、抗剪切性能的不足,利用新型缔合聚合物AP-P4的特殊分子结构及其抗温、抗盐、抗剪切优势,首次研究开发出了适合中原油田高温、高盐油藏的新型缔合聚合物调剖体系,筛选出了适合新型缔合聚合物调剖体系的酸度调整剂、交联剂MZ-YL、MZ-BE、MZ-XS,通过性能评价试验表明,该体系具有良好的增粘、耐温、耐盐、抗剪切和抗脱水特性.2003年率先在国内开展了新型缔合聚合物调剖现场试验26井次,取得了明显的增油降水效果.研制开发的新型缔合聚合物调剖体系及相关应用

  7. The Cambridge Double Star Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEvoy, Bruce; Tirion, Wil

    2015-12-01

    Preface; What are double stars?; The binary orbit; Double star dynamics; Stellar mass and the binary life cycle; The double star population; Detecting double stars; Double star catalogs; Telescope optics; Preparing to observe; Helpful accessories; Viewing challenges; Next steps; Appendices: target list; Useful formulas; Double star orbits; Double star catalogs; The Greek alphabet.

  8. Modeling of Polymer Erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Göpferich, Achim; Langer, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    The erosion of bioerodible polymers depends on many factors including the polymer chain length, bond cleavage velocity, swellability, crystallinity, and water diffusivity in the polymer matrix. This multitude of parameters makes modeling of erosion difficult. Only a few models exist that describe morphological changes of polymers during erosion qualitatively. In the present approach the polymer matrix was represented as the sum of small individual polymer matrix parts. The factors that determ...

  9. Luminous Stars in Galaxies Beyond 3 Mpc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, B. C.; Wfc3 Science Oversight Committee

    2011-06-01

    I am mainly interested in the formation and destruction of young star clusters in nearby star forming galaxies such as the Antennae, M83, and M51. One of the first analysis steps is to throw out all those pesky stars that keep contaminating my young cluster samples. Recently, spurred on by our new Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) Early Release Science data of galaxies including M83, NGC 4214, M82, NGC 2841, and Cen A, we began taking a closer look at the stellar component. Questions we are addressing are: 1) what are the most luminous stars, 2) how can we use them to help study the destruction of star clusters and the population of the field, 3) what fraction of stars, at least the bright stars, are formed in the field, in associations, and in compact clusters. In this contribution we describe some of the beginning steps in this process. More specifically, we describe how we separate stars from clusters in our galaxies, and describe how candidate Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and "Single Star" HII (SSHII) regions have been identified.

  10. Luminous Stars in Galaxies Beyond 3 Mpc

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, Bradley C

    2011-01-01

    I am mainly interested in the formation and destruction of young star clusters in nearby star forming galaxies such as the Antennae, M83, and M51. One of the first analysis steps is to throw out all those pesky stars that keep contaminating my young cluster samples. Recently, spurred on by our new WFC3 Early Release Science data of galaxies including M83, NGC 4214, M82, NGC 2841, and Cen A, we began taking a closer look at the stellar component. Questions we are addressing are: 1) what are the most luminous stars, 2) how can we use them to help study the destruction of star clusters and the population of the field, 3) what fraction of stars, at least the bright stars, are formed in the field, in associations, and in compact clusters. In this contribution we describe some of the beginning steps in this process. More specifically, we describe how we separate stars from clusters in our galaxies, and describe how candidate Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and "Single Star" HII (SSHII) regions have been identified.

  11. Hydrolytically degradable star-shaped conjugates intended for drug delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostková, Hana; Schindler, Lucie; Kostka, Libor; Filippov, Sergey K.; Šírová, Milada; Říhová, Blanka; Etrych, Tomáš

    Bratislava : Young Scientists Council of Polymer Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2016. s. 69. ISBN 978-80-970923-8-2. [Bratislava Young Polymer Scientists workshop /6./ - BYPoS 2016. 14.03.2016-18.03.2016, Ždiar] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC15-10527J; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02986S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : star polymer * drug delivery * doxorubicin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; FD - Oncology ; Hematology (MBU-M)

  12. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  13. Constraining the Birth Events of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspi, V M

    2002-01-01

    The prescient remark by Baade and Zwicky that supernovae beget neutron stars did little to prepare us for the remarkable variety of observational manifestations such objects display. Indeed, during the first thirty years of the empirical study of neutron stars, only a handful were found to be associated with the remnants of exploded stars. But recent X-ray and radio observations have gone a long way toward justifying the theoretical link between supernovae and neutron stars, and have revealed the wide range of properties with which newborn compact remnants are endowed. We review here our current state of knowledge regarding neutron star-supernova remnant associations, pointing out the pitfalls and the promise which such links hold. We discuss work on the ranges of neutron star velocities, initial spin periods, and magnetic field strengths, as well as on the prevalence of pulsar wind nebulae. The slots in neutron star demography held by AXPs, SGRs, radio-quiet neutron stars, and other denizens of the zoo are c...

  14. Pulsars and quark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, R

    2005-01-01

    Members of the family of pulsar-like stars are distinguished by their different manifestations observed, i.e., radio pulsars, accretion-driven X-ray pulsars, X-ray bursts, anomalous X-ray pulsars/soft gamma-ray repeaters, compact center objects, and dim thermal neutron stars. Though one may conventionally think that these stars are normal neutron stars, it is still an open issue whether they are actually neutron stars or quark stars, as no convincing work, either theoretical from first principles or observational, has confirmed Baade-Zwicky's original idea that supernovae produce neutron stars. After introducing briefly the history of pulsars and quark stars, the author summarizes the recent achievements in his pulsar group, including quark matter phenomenology at low temperature, starquakes of solid pulsars, low-mass quark stars, and the pulsar magnetospheric activities.

  15. Radio thermoluminescence of highly elastic polymer mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modification of polymers by mixing with other polymers improves their electro physical and physical-mechanical properties. Under this mode modification is observed as critical phenomena in the properties that are associated with the interfacial structure of the components, the relaxation of internal connections and changing the degree of homogenization. Depending on the choice of the same polymer as a matrix or modifier may significantly distinguish properties of the composition. One of the most reliable methods of studying of the process of component compatibility of polymer mixtures are radio thermoluminescence (RTL). It is known that heterogeneous polymers and polymer mixtures are characterized by having two or more glass transition temperatures (Tc). On radiation curve of RTL is observed ρ - maximums, corresponding to each of the components.

  16. From Commodity Polymers to Functional Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Xiang; Ling-Ren Wang; Lang Ma; Zhi-Yuan Han; Rui Wang; Chong Cheng; Yi Xia; Hui Qin; Chang-Sheng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Functional polymers bear specified chemical groups, and have specified physical, chemical, biological, pharmacological, or other uses. To adjust the properties while keeping material usage low, a method for direct synthesis of functional polymers is indispensable. Here we show that various functional polymers can be synthesized by in situ cross-linked polymerization/copolymerization. We demonstrate that the polymers synthesized by the facile method using different functional monomers own outs...

  17. QCM-D studies on polymer behavior at interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guangming

    2013-01-01

    QCM-D Studies on Polymer Behavior at Interfaces reviews the applications of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) in polymer research, including the conformational change of grafted polymer chains, the grafting kinetics of polymer chains, the growth mechanism of polyelectrolyte multilayers, and the interactions between polymers and phospholipid membranes. It focuses on how QCM-D can be applied to the study of polymer behavior at various solid-liquid interfaces. Moreover, it clearly reveals the physical significance of the changes in frequency and dissipation associated with the

  18. Coating of adeno-associated virus with reactive polymers can ablate virus tropism, enable retargeting and provide resistance to neutralising antisera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carlisle, R. C.; Benjamin, R.; Briggs, S. S.; Sumner-Jones, S.; McIntosh, J.; Gill, D.; Hyde, S.; Nathwani, A.; Šubr, Vladimír; Ulbrich, Karel; Seymour, L. W.; Fisher, K. D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2008), s. 400-411. ISSN 1099-498X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651 Grant ostatní: BBSRC SBRI(GB) 7633; FP6 European Commission Funded Research(EU) LSHB-CT-2004-512087 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : AAV * HPMA * polymer coating Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.141, year: 2008

  19. Biodegradable star-like carriers for controlled drug delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostková, Hana; Kostka, Libor; Pola, Robert; Pechar, Michal; Filippov, Sergey K.; Ulbrich, Karel; Etrych, Tomáš

    Salt Lake City : The University of Utah, 2015. P33. [International Symposium on Recent Advances in Drug Delivery Systems /17./. 14.06.2015-17.06.2015, Salt Lake City] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC15-10527J Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : star polymer * drug delivery * doxorubicin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  20. Real time macrophage migration analysis and associated pro-inflammatory cytokine release on transparent carbon nanotube/polymer composite nano-film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Dongwoo

    2015-08-01

    Surface chemistry and nanoscale surface morphology are both influential factors for cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation. In particular, cell migration is one of the major markers of initial immune response activation to implanted biomaterials. Despite their indication, it has been difficult to directly examine macrophages on nanoscale materials, because most nanomaterials possess greater thicknesses than nanoscale. This study developed transparent films comprising a carbon nanotube and polymer composite with controlled surface stiffness and nanoscale roughness. As nanoscale surface topography can incite immune cell activation, analysis of the real-time cell migration (including velocity) of macrophages due to changes in nanoscale surface topography of a biopolymer can support the direct relationship between initial macrophage dynamics and corresponding pro-inflammatory responses. Through real-time analysis, we have identified that surface chemistry and surface nanoscale topography are both independent factors mediating macrophage interactions, and, thus, immune cell behavior can be further controlled by the systematic variation of nanoscale surface topography for a given surface chemistry. Considering that the initial immune response can determine the fate and lifetime of implanted biomaterials, this study presents the direct relationship between initial macrophage dynamics and subsequent inflammatory cytokine release on transparent carbon nanotube polymer composites.

  1. Ratios of partition fucntions for the log-gamma polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Atilla; Georgiou, Nicos; Rassoul-Agha, Firas; Seppaelaeinen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a random walk in random environment associated to an underlying directed polymer model in 1 + 1 dimensions. This walk is the positive temperature counterpart of the competition interface of percolation and arises as the limit of quenched polymer measures. We prove this limit for the exactly solvable log-gamma polymer, as a consequence of almost sure limits of ratios of partition functions. These limits of ratios give the Busemann functions of the log-gamma polymer, and furnish ce...

  2. On the mechanism of gas transport in rigid polymer membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Hensema, E.R.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional polymers are compared as gas separation membrane materials with tailormade polymers. The increased permeability of the latter are due to their higher free volume available for gas transport. The increased free volume is associated with the rigidity polymer backbone. Free volume is obtained by subtracting the occupied volume, calculated using group contributions from the polymer specific volume. Wide Angle X-ray techniques are used to obtain average d-spacings that are interpreted...

  3. Polymer bank notes

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Lang

    2002-01-01

    In May 1999 the Reserve Bank issued its first polymer bank notes into circulation. By March 2000 all denominations had been converted from paper to polymer. By the end of 2001 approximately 110 million polymer notes had been issued into circulation. This article assesses the performance of polymer notes compared with our expectations at the time they were introduced.

  4. Star Formation in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Dehumidifiers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers that are effective as of October...

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Computers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers that are effective as of June 2,...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of June 1, 2013....

  9. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  10. Metal-Poor Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Frebel, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The abundance patterns of metal-poor stars provide us a wealth of chemical information about various stages of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. In particular, these stars allow us to study the formation and evolution of the elements and the involved nucleosynthesis processes. This knowledge is invaluable for our understanding of the cosmic chemical evolution and the onset of star- and galaxy formation. Metal-poor stars are the local equivalent of the high-redshift Universe, and offer cru...

  11. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren;

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  12. Cool Stars in Hot Places

    OpenAIRE

    Megeath, S. T.; Gaidos, E.; Hester, J. J.; Adams, F. C.; Bally, J.; Lee, J. -E.; Wolk, S.

    2007-01-01

    During the last three decades, evidence has mounted that star and planet formation is not an isolated process, but is influenced by current and previous generations of stars. Although cool stars form in a range of environments, from isolated globules to rich embedded clusters, the influences of other stars on cool star and planet formation may be most significant in embedded clusters, where hundreds to thousands of cool stars form in close proximity to OB stars. At the cool stars 14 meeting, ...

  13. Superfluid neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Langlois, David

    2001-01-01

    Neutron stars are believed to contain (neutron and proton) superfluids. I will give a summary of a macroscopic description of the interior of neutron stars, in a formulation which is general relativistic. I will also present recent results on the oscillations of neutron stars, with superfluidity explicitly taken into account, which leads in particular to the existence of a new class of modes.

  14. To rescue a star

    OpenAIRE

    Abada, As.; M.B. Gavela; Pène, O

    1996-01-01

    Massless neutrinos are exchanged in a neutron star, leading to long range interactions. Many body forces of this type follow and we resum them. Their net contribution to the total energy is negligible as compared to the star mass. The stability of the star is not in danger, contrary to recent assertions.

  15. The MONS Star Trackers

    CERN Document Server

    Bedding, T R; Bedding, Timothy R.; Kjeldsen, Hans

    2000-01-01

    The MONS satellite will have two Star Trackers to sense the spacecraft attitude, and we plan to use them as scientific instruments to perform high-precision photometry of thousands of stars. We briefly describe the current plans for the Star Trackers and their expected capabilities.

  16. A new star-forming region in Canis Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magakian, T. Yu.; Movsessian, T. A.; Bally, J.

    2016-07-01

    A new southern star-formation region, located at an estimated distance of ˜1.5 kpc in the Lynds 1664 dark cloud in Canis Major, is described. Lynds 1664 contains several compact star clusters, small stellar groups and young stars associated with reflection nebulae. Narrow-band H α and [S II] images obtained with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory reveal more than 20 new Herbig-Haro objects associated with several protostellar outflows.

  17. A new star-forming region in Canis Major

    OpenAIRE

    Magakian, T. Yu.; Movsessian, T. A.; Bally, J

    2016-01-01

    A new southern star-formation region, located at an estimated distance of ~1.5 kpc in the Lynds 1664 dark cloud in Canis Major, is described. Lynds 1664 contains several compact star clusters, small stellar groups, and young stars associated with reflection nebulae. Narrow-band H{\\alpha} and [SII] images obtained with 4-m CTIO telescope reveal more than 20 new Herbig-Haro objects associated with several protostellar outflows.

  18. Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to ...

  19. Friction between Polymer Brushes

    OpenAIRE

    Sokoloff, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    By solving the equilibrium equations for a polymer in a neutral polymer brush, the degree of interpenetration of two polymer brushes in contact and near contact is calculated. These results are used to calculate values of the force of static friction in agreement with recent friction measurements for polymer brush lubricated surfaces. It is shown that at sufficiently light loads polymer brush coated surfaces can slide, with the load supported entirely by osmotic pressure, at a sufficiently la...

  20. Gravitational Interactions of White Dwarf Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeough, James; Robinson, Chloe; Ortiz, Bridget; Hira, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    In the light of the possible role of White Dwarf stars as progenitors of Type Ia supernovas, we present computational simulations of some astrophysical phenomena associated with a study of gravitationally-bound binary stars, composed of at least one white dwarf star. Of particular interest to astrophysicists are the conditions inside a white dwarf star in the time frame leading up to its explosive end as a Type Ia supernova, for an understanding of the massive stellar explosions. In addition, the studies of the evolution of white dwarfs could serve as promising probes of theories of gravitation. We developed FORTRAN computer programs to implement our models for white dwarfs and other stars. These codes allow for different sizes and masses of stars. Simulations were done in the mass interval from 0.1 to 2.5 solar masses. Our goal was to obtain both atmospheric and orbital parameters. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant observational data. The data are further analyzed to identify trends in terms of sizes and masses of stars. We will extend our computational studies to blue giant and red giant stars in the future. Funding from National Science Foundation.

  1. Gaia FGK benchmark stars: Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, P.; Heiter, U.; Soubiran, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Worley, C. C.; Pancino, E.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Magrini, L.; Bergemann, M.; González Hernández, J. I.; Hill, V.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lind, K.; Masseron, T.; Montes, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Nordlander, T.; Recio Blanco, A.; Sobeck, J.; Sordo, R.; Sousa, S. G.; Tabernero, H.; Vallenari, A.; Van Eck, S.

    2014-04-01

    Context. To calibrate automatic pipelines that determine atmospheric parameters of stars, one needs a sample of stars, or "benchmark stars", with well-defined parameters to be used as a reference. Aims: We provide detailed documentation of the iron abundance determination of the 34 FGK-type benchmark stars that are selected to be the pillars for calibration of the one billion Gaia stars. They cover a wide range of temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities. Methods: Up to seven different methods were used to analyze an observed spectral library of high resolutions and high signal-to-noise ratios. The metallicity was determined by assuming a value of effective temperature and surface gravity obtained from fundamental relations; that is, these parameters were known a priori and independently from the spectra. Results: We present a set of metallicity values obtained in a homogeneous way for our sample of benchmark stars. In addition to this value, we provide detailed documentation of the associated uncertainties. Finally, we report a value of the metallicity of the cool giant ψ Phe for the first time. Based on NARVAL and HARPS data obtained within the Gaia DPAC (Data Processing and Analysis Consortium) and coordinated by the GBOG (Ground-Based Observations for Gaia) working group and on data retrieved from the ESO-ADP database.Tables 6-76 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A133

  2. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has been hypothesized that these unusual properties result from fast diffusion of the nanostructures in the host polymer, which facilitates polymer chain relaxation by constraint release and other processes. In this study, the effects of addition of sterically stabilized inorganic nanoparticles to entangled cis-1,4-polyisoprene and polydimethylsiloxane on the overall rheology of nanocomposites are discussed. In addition, insights about the relaxation of the host polymer chains and transport properties of nanoparticles in entangled polymer nanocomposites are presented. The nanoparticles are found to act as effective plasticizers for their entangled linear hosts, and below a critical, chemistry and molecular-weight dependent particle volume fraction, lead to reduced viscosity, glass transition temperature, number of entanglements, and polymer relaxation time. We also find that the particle motions in the polymer host are hyperdiffusive and at the nanoparticle length scale, the polymer host acts like a simple, ideal fluid and the composites\\' viscosity rises with increasing particle concentration. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Vacuum polarization around stars: Nonlocal approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the vacuum polarization associated with quantum massless fields around stars with spherical symmetry. The nonlocal contribution to the vacuum polarization is dominant in the weak field limit and induces quantum corrections to the static exterior metric that depend on the inner structure of the star. It also violates the null energy conditions. We argue that similar results also hold in the low energy limit of quantum gravity. Previous calculations of the vacuum polarization in spherically symmetric spacetimes, based on local approximations, are not adequate for Newtonian stars

  4. Vacuum polarization around stars: nonlocal approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, A; Alvarez, E; Satz, Alejandro; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; Alvarez, Ezequiel

    2004-01-01

    We compute the vacuum polarization associated with quantum massless fields around stars with spherical symmetry. The nonlocal contribution to the vacuum polarization is dominant in the weak field limit, and induces quantum corrections to the exterior metric that depend on the inner structure of the star. It also violates the null energy conditions. We argue that similar results also hold in the low energy limit of quantum gravity. Previous calculations of the vacuum polarization in spherically symmetric spacetimes, based on local approximations, are not adequate for newtonian stars.

  5. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book

  6. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  7. Magnetic chemically peculiar stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schöller, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Chemically peculiar (CP) stars are main-sequence A and B stars with abnormally strong or weak lines for certain elements. They generally have magnetic fields and all observables tend to vary with the same period. Chemically peculiar stars provide a wealth of information; they are natural atomic and magnetic laboratories. After a brief historical overview, we discuss the general properties of the magnetic fields in CP stars, describe the oblique rotator model, explain the dependence of the magnetic field strength on the rotation, and concentrate at the end on HgMn stars.

  8. The massive star population of Cygnus OB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicholas J.; Drew, Janet E.; Mohr-Smith, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We have compiled a significantly updated and comprehensive census of massive stars in the nearby Cygnus OB2 association by gathering and homogenizing data from across the literature. The census contains 169 primary OB stars, including 52 O-type stars and 3 Wolf-Rayet stars. Spectral types and photometry are used to place the stars in a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, which is compared to both non-rotating and rotating stellar evolution models, from which stellar masses and ages are calculated. The star formation history and mass function of the association are assessed, and both are found to be heavily influenced by the evolution of the most massive stars to their end states. We find that the mass function of the most massive stars is consistent with a `universal' power-law slope of Γ = 1.3. The age distribution inferred from stellar evolutionary models with rotation and the mass function suggest the majority of star formation occurred more or less continuously between 1 and 7 Myr ago, in agreement with studies of low- and intermediate-mass stars in the association. We identify a nearby young pulsar and runaway O-type star that may have originated in Cyg OB2 and suggest that the association has already seen its first supernova. Finally we use the census and mass function to calculate the total mass of the association of 16 500^{+3800}_{-2800} M⊙, at the low end, but consistent with, previous estimates of the total mass of Cyg OB2. Despite this Cyg OB2 is still one of the most massive groups of young stars known in our Galaxy making it a prime target for studies of star formation on the largest scales.

  9. THE FIRST STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whalen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pop III stars are the key to the character of primeval galaxies, the first heavy elements, the onset of cosmological reionization, and the seeds of supermassive black holes. Unfortunately, in spite of their increasing sophistication, numerical models of Pop III star formation cannot yet predict the masses of the first stars. Because they also lie at the edge of the observable universe, individual Pop III stars will remain beyond the reach of observatories for decades to come, and so their properties are unknown. However, it will soon be possible to constrain their masses by direct detection of their supernovae, and by reconciling their nucleosynthetic yields to the chemical abundances measured in ancient metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo, some of which may bear the ashes of the first stars. Here, I review the state of the art in numerical simulations of primordial stars and attempts to directly and indirectly constrain their properties.

  10. Ponderable soliton stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars. Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin. It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole. The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.

  11. Loop polymer brushes from polymer single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Li, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Loop polymer brushes represent a category of polymer brushes with both chain ends being tethered to a surface or interface with sufficiently high density. Due to this morphological difference, loop brushes exhibit distinct properties compared with traditional polymer brushes with single chain end being tethered. In our study, α, ω-functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL) single crystals were prepared as templates for polymer brush synthesis. By carefully controlling crystallization condition and immobilization, looped polymer brushes were successfully prepared. Comprehensive studies on the morphology and physical properties of these polymer brushes were carried out using Atomic Force Microscopy and FTIR. Advantages of using this method include exclusive loop morphology, high grafting density, controlled tethering sites and tunable loop size.

  12. Torsional oscillations of strange stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannarelli Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strange stars are one of the hypothetical compact stellar objects that can be formed after a supernova explosion. The existence of these objects relies on the absolute stability of strange collapsed quark matter with respect to standard nuclear matter. We discuss simple models of strange stars with a bare quark matter surface, thus standard nuclear matter is completely absent. In these models an electric dipole layer a few hundreds Fermi thick should exist close to the star surface. Studying the torsional oscillations of the electrically charged layer we estimate the emitted power, finding that it is of the order of 1045 erg/s, meaning that these objects would be among the brightest compact sources in the heavens. The associated relaxation times are very uncertain, with values ranging between microseconds and minutes, depending on the crust thickness. Although part of the radiated power should be absorbed by the electrosphere surrounding the strange star, a sizable fraction of photons should escape and be detectable.

  13. Nearby regions of massive star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, John; Cunningham, Nathaniel; Moeckel, Nickolas; Smith, Nathan

    Observations of the nearest regions of massive star formation such as Orion are reviewed. Early-type stars in the local OB associations, as well as their superbubbles and supershells provide a fossil record of massive star birth in the Solar vicinity over about the last 40 Myr. This record shows that most massive stars are born from dense, high-pressure, hot cores which spawn transient clusters that dissipate into the field soon after formation. A large fraction (15 to 30%) of massive stars are high-velocity runaways moving at more than 20 km s^{-1}. High-mass stars have a larger companion fraction than their lower-mass siblings. The Orion star forming complex contains the nearest site of on-going massive star formation. Studies of the Orion Nebula and the dense molecular cloud core located immediately behind the HII region provide our sharpest view of massive star birth. This region has formed a hierarchy of clusters within clusters. The Trapezium, OMC-1S, and OMC-1 regions represent three closely spaced sub-clusters within the more extended Orion Nebula Cluster. The oldest of these sub-clusters, which consists of the Trapezium stars, has completely emerged from its natal core. The OMC-1S and OMC-1 regions, are still highly embedded and forming clusters of additional moderate and high mass stars. Over a dozen YSOs embedded in OMC-1S are driving jets and outflows, many of which are injecting energy and momentum into the Orion Nebula. Recent proper motion measurements indicate that the Becklin-Neugebauer object is a high-velocity star moving away from the OMC1 core with a velocity of 30 km s^{-1}, making it the youngest high-velocity star known. Source I may be moving in the opposite direction with a velocity of about 12 km s^{-1}. The projected separation between source I and BN was less than few hundred AU about 500 years ago. The spectacular bipolar molecular outflow and system of shock-excited H_2 fingers emerging from OMC-1 has a dynamical age of about 1100

  14. Study on the rheological measurement method of hydrophobic associating polymer solution Ⅰ:steadystate shear viscosity%疏水缔合聚合物流变学测量方法研究Ⅰ:稳态剪切黏度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯茹森; 郭拥军; 周薇; 杨爱武

    2011-01-01

    为了获得准确和具有重复性的疏水缔合聚合物溶液稳态剪切黏度测试结果,分析了溶液的结构流体特征对于流变测试结果的影响,讨论了HAWSP溶液结构的破坏/恢复动态平衡与稳态剪切黏度测试结果的关系.用RS600流变仪和Brookfield DV-Ⅲ流变仪分别研究了预剪切段对于稳态剪切黏度的影响规律,实验结果表明:在两种流变仪上,通过合理优化预剪切段都可以获得重复性较好的稳态剪切黏度测试结果,实验平均误差小于3%.%In order to obtain accurate and repeatable steadystate shear viscosity of hydrophobic associating polymer solution, the influence of solution structure properties on theological measurement result were analyzed firstly, then the relationship between dynamic equilibrium of destroying/rebuilding reversible process for hydrophobic associating water-soluble polymer (HAWSP) solution and the measurement result of steadystate shear viscosity has been discussed. The effect of pre-shearing stage on steady shear viscosity carried out on both RS600 and Brookfield DV-Ⅲ rheometers respectively. The results showed that well repeatable steadystate shear viscosity testing results could reached by rationally optimizing pre-shearing stage on the both theometers, and test errors of steady shear viscosity were smaller than 3%.

  15. Interactions, star formation and AGN activity

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Cheng; Heckman, Timothy M; White, Simon D M; Jing, Y P

    2007-01-01

    It has long been known that galaxy interactions are associated with enhanced star formation. In a companion paper, we explored this connection by applying a variety of statistics to SDSS data. In particular, we showed that specific star formation rates of galaxies are higher if they have close neighbours. Here we apply exactly the same techniques to AGN in the survey, showing that close neighbours are not associated with any similar enhancement of nuclear activity. Star formation is enhanced in AGN with close neighbours in exactly the same way as in inactive galaxies, but the accretion rate onto the black hole, as estimated from the extinction-corrected [O III] luminosity, is not influenced by the presence or absence of companions. Previous work has shown that galaxies with more strongly accreting black holes contain more young stars in their inner regions. This leads us to conclude that star formation induced by a close companion and star formation associated with black hole accretion are distinct events. Th...

  16. Supramolecular structure of electroactive polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, V. M.; Lachinov, A. N.; Karamov, D. D.; Nabiullin, I. R.; Kul'velis, Yu. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the supramolecular structure of polydiphenylenephthalide thin films that exhibit effects of resistive switching. The supramolecular structure of the polymer has been investigated using small-angle neutron scattering in conjunction with atomic force microscopy. It has been found that the internal structure of polymer films consists of structural elements in the form of spheroids. The sizes of the structural elements, which were obtained from the neutron scattering data and analysis of the atomic force microscopy images, correlate well with each other. A model of the formation of polymer layers has been proposed. The observed structural elements in polymer films are formed due to the association of macromolecules in the initial polymer solution.

  17. Low energy Lorentz violation from polymer quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Husain, Viqar

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the response of an inertial two-level Unruh-DeWitt particle detector coupled to a polymer quantized scalar field in four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, within first-order perturbation theory. Above a critical rapidity $\\beta_c \\approx 1.3675$, independent of the polymer mass scale $M_\\star$, two drastic changes occur: (i) the detector's excitation rate becomes nonvanishing; (ii) the excitation and de-excitation rates are of order $M_\\star$, for arbitrarily small detector energy gap. We argue that qualitatively similar results hold for any Lorentz violating theory in which field modes with spatial momentum $k$ have excitation energy of the form $|k|\\ f(|k|/M_\\star)$ where the function $f$ dips below unity.

  18. Destruction of star clusters due to the radial migration in spiral galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, M. S.; Baba, J.

    2012-01-01

    Most stars in galactic disks are believed to be born as a member of star clusters or associations. Star clusters formed in disks are disrupted due to the tidal stripping and the evolution of star clusters themselves, and as a results new stars are supplied to the galactic disks. We performed $N$-body simulations of star clusters in galactic disks, in which both star clusters and galactic disks are modeled as $N$-body ("live") systems, and as a consequence the disks form transient and recurren...

  19. Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The abundance patterns of metal-poor stars provide us a wealth of chemical information about various stages of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. In particular, these stars allow us to study the formation and evolution of the elements and the involved nucleosynthesis processes. This knowledge is invaluable for our understanding of the cosmic chemical evolution and the onset of star- and galaxy formation. Metal-poor stars are the local equivalent of the high-redshift Universe, and offer crucial observational constraints on the nature of the first stars. This review presents the history of the first discoveries of metal-poor stars that laid the foundation to this field. Observed abundance trends at the lowest metallicities are described, as well as particular classes of metal-poor stars such as r-process and C-rich stars. Scenarios on the origins of the abundances of metal-poor stars and the application of large samples of metal-poor stars to cosmological questions are discussed.

  20. The Second Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, Falk

    2005-01-01

    The ejecta of the first probably very massive stars polluted the Big Bang primordial element mix with the first heavier elements. The resulting ultra metal-poor abundance distribution provided the initial conditions for the second stars of a wide range of initial masses reaching down to intermediate and low masses. The importance of these second stars for understanding the origin of the elements in the early universe are manifold. While the massive first stars have long vanished the second stars are still around and currently observed. They are the carriers of the information about the first stars, but they are also capable of nuclear production themselves. For example, in order to use ultra or extremely metal-poor stars as a probe for the r-process in the early universe a reliable model of the s-process in the second stars is needed. Eventually, the second stars may provide us with important clues on questions ranging from structure formation to how the stars actually make the elements, not only in the early...

  1. Dark stars: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼1{{M}ȯ} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}ȯ} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}ȯ} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  2. Dark stars: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars. PMID:27214049

  3. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A dense globular star cluster near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy holds a buzzing beehive of rapidly-spinning millisecond pulsars, according to astronomers who discovered 21 new pulsars in the cluster using the National Science Foundation's 100-meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The cluster, called Terzan 5, now holds the record for pulsars, with 24, including three known before the GBT observations. Pulsar Diagram Pulsar Diagram: Click on image for more detail. "We hit the jackpot when we looked at this cluster," said Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA. "Not only does this cluster have a lot of pulsars -- and we still expect to find more in it -- but the pulsars in it are very interesting. They include at least 13 in binary systems, two of which are eclipsing, and the four fastest-rotating pulsars known in any globular cluster, with the fastest two rotating nearly 600 times per second, roughly as fast as a household blender," Ransom added. Ransom and his colleagues reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA, and in the online journal Science Express. The star cluster's numerous pulsars are expected to yield a bonanza of new information about not only the pulsars themselves, but also about the dense stellar environment in which they reside and probably even about nuclear physics, according to the scientists. For example, preliminary measurements indicate that two of the pulsars are more massive than some theoretical models would allow. "All these exotic pulsars will keep us busy for years to come," said Jason Hessels, a Ph.D student at McGill University in Montreal. Globular clusters are dense agglomerations of up to millions of stars, all of which formed at about the same time. Pulsars are spinning, superdense neutron stars that whirl "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is

  4. Characterization of the polymer energy landscape in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions with pure and mixed phases

    KAUST Repository

    Sweetnam, Sean

    2014-10-08

    Theoretical and experimental studies suggest that energetic offsets between the charge transport energy levels in different morphological phases of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions may improve charge separation and reduce recombination in polymer solar cells (PSCs). In this work, we use cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis absorption, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to characterize hole energy levels in the polymer phases of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions. We observe an energetic offset of up to 150 meV between amorphous and crystalline polymer due to bandgap widening associated primarily with changes in polymer conjugation length. We also observe an energetic offset of up to 350 meV associated with polymer:fullerene intermolecular interactions. The first effect has been widely observed, but the second effect is not always considered despite being larger in magnitude for some systems. These energy level shifts may play a major role in PSC performance and must be thoroughly characterized for a complete understanding of PSC function.

  5. Two-dimensional polymers: concepts and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payamyar, Payam; King, Benjamin T; Öttinger, Hans Christian; Schlüter, A Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Creation of polymers comprised of repeat units that can create topologically planar macromolecules (rather than linear) has been the topic of several recent studies in the field of synthetic polymer chemistry. Such novel macromolecules, known as 2D polymers, are the result of advanced synthetic methodology which allows creation of monolayer sheets with a periodic internal structure and functional groups placed at predetermined sites under mild conditions. Given the promising potentials of 2D polymers, this feature paper aims at discussing the concept of these novel macromolecules from a topological viewpoint in Section 1. This is followed by spotlighting the expected behavior of 2D polymers in the context of polymer physics (entropy elasticity, strength, percolation, and persistence) and polymer chemistry (copolymers and growth kinetics) in Section 2. Section 3 delineates synthetic and analytical matters associated with 2D polymers followed by a brief final section highlighting the potential of these sheet-like macromolecules for application purposes. We hope this article will trigger the interest of chemists, physicists and engineers to help develop this encouraging new class of materials further such that societally relevant applications will be accessible in the market soon. PMID:26522010

  6. Nanostructured conductive polymers for advanced energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ye; Peng, Lele; Ding, Yu; Zhao, Yu; Yu, Guihua

    2015-10-01

    Conductive polymers combine the attractive properties associated with conventional polymers and unique electronic properties of metals or semiconductors. Recently, nanostructured conductive polymers have aroused considerable research interest owing to their unique properties over their bulk counterparts, such as large surface areas and shortened pathways for charge/mass transport, which make them promising candidates for broad applications in energy conversion and storage, sensors, actuators, and biomedical devices. Numerous synthetic strategies have been developed to obtain various conductive polymer nanostructures, and high-performance devices based on these nanostructured conductive polymers have been realized. This Tutorial review describes the synthesis and characteristics of different conductive polymer nanostructures; presents the representative applications of nanostructured conductive polymers as active electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors and lithium-ion batteries and new perspectives of functional materials for next-generation high-energy batteries, meanwhile discusses the general design rules, advantages, and limitations of nanostructured conductive polymers in the energy storage field; and provides new insights into future directions. PMID:26119242

  7. Star Formation Relations in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Heyer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The relations between star formation and properties of molecular clouds are studied based on a sample of star forming regions in the Galactic Plane. Sources were selected by having radio recombination lines to provide identification of associated molecular clouds and dense clumps. Radio continuum and mid-infrared emission were used to determine star formation rates, while 13CO and submillimeter dust continuum emission were used to obtain masses of molecular and dense gas, respectively. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of star formation rate. We also test two specific theoretical models, one relying on the molecular mass divided by the free-fall time, the other using the free-fall time divided by the crossing time. Neither is supported by the data. The data are also compared to those from nearby star forming regions and extragalactic data. The star formation "efficiency," defined as star formation rate divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers ...

  8. Abundances in Stars with Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchey, Adam M; Stone, Myra; Wallerstein, George

    2013-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a detailed chemical abundance analysis for a sample of solar-type stars known to exhibit excess infrared emission associated with dusty debris disks. Our sample of 28 stars was selected based on results from the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems (FEPS) Spitzer Legacy Program, for the purpose of investigating whether the stellar atmospheres have been polluted with planetary material, which could indicate that the metallicity enhancement in stars with planets is due to metal-rich infall in the later stages of star and planet formation. The preliminary results presented here consist of precise abundances for 15 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni) for half of the stars in our sample. We find that none of the stars investigated so far exhibit the expected trend of increasing elemental abundance with increasing condensation temperature, which would result from the stars having accreted planetary debris. Rather, the slopes of linear least...

  9. The GALEX Nearby Young-Star Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, David R; Kastner, Joel H; Bessel, M S; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Murphy, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method that exploits data from the GALEX ultraviolet and WISE and 2MASS infrared source catalogs, combined with proper motions and empirical pre-main sequence isochrones, to identify candidate nearby, young, low-mass stars. Applying our method across the full GALEX- covered sky, we identify 2031 mostly M-type stars that, for an assumed age of 10 (100) Myr, all lie within ~150 (~90) pc of Earth. The distribution of M spectral subclasses among these ~2000 candidate young stars peaks sharply in the range M3-M4; these subtypes constitute 50% of the sample, consistent with studies of the M star population in the immediate solar neighborhood. We focus on a subset of 58 of these candidate young M stars in the vicinity of the Tucana-Horologium Association. Only 20 of these 58 candidates were detected in the ROSAT All-Sky X-ray Survey -- reflecting the greater sensitivity of GALEX for purposes of identifying active nearby, young stars, particularly for stars of type M4 and later. Based on statistical ana...

  10. The birthline for intermediate-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protostar mass-radius relation is combined with standard premain-sequence evolutionary tracks to construct the birthline for stars of intermediate mass. This theoretical birthline is in good agreement with the observed upper envelope of the distribution of Herbig Ae and Be stars in the H-R diagram. From the intersection of the birthline with the ZAMS, it is predicted that stars with more than 10 solar masses should never exhibit an optical premain-sequence phase; this prediction also agrees with existing observations. These findings show that stars of intermediate mass are first optically visible quite close to the main sequence. Hence, their contraction ages are less than the traditional ones derived assuming large initial radii. The birthline is also well delineated by the locus in the diagram of optically visible stars with associated molecular outflows. The underlying protostar theory predicts that newly formed stars of intermediate mass burn deuterium in a subsurface shell. An outer convection zone maintained by this shell burning is proposed to be the cause of the winds and surface activity commonly observed in these stars. 23 refs

  11. The complex lives of star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, David

    2015-01-01

    As with the author’s recent books Extreme Explosions and Under a Crimson Sun, the complex topic of star clusters is broken down and made accessible with clear links to other areas of astronomy in a language which the non-specialist can easily read and enjoy. The full range of a star cluster's lifespan is depicted, as both globular and open clusters are tracked from birth to eventual death. Why is it some are dense conglomerates of stars while others are looser associations? Are the young, brilliant clusters seen in neighboring galaxies such as the Large Magellanic Cloud, M33 or M82 analogous to the ancient globulars seen in the Milky Way? How will these clusters change as their stars wane and die? More interestingly, how does living in a dense star cluster affect the fates of the stars and any attendant planets that accompany them?   Star clusters form many of the most dazzling objects in the astronomers’ catalogs. Many amateur astronomers are interested in exploring how these objects are created and wh...

  12. Stellar Archaeology: New Science with Old Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frebel, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The early chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the Universe is vital to our understanding of a host of astrophysical phenomena. Since the most metal-poor Galactic stars are relics from the high-redshift Universe, they probe the chemical and dynamical conditions as the Milky Way began to form, the origin and evolution of the elements, and the physics of nucleosynthesis. They also provide constraints on the nature of the first stars, their associated supernovae and initial mass function, and early star and galaxy formation. I will present exemplary metal-poor stars with which these different topics can be addressed. Those are the most metal-poor stars in the Galaxy ([Fe/H] thorium, which can be used to radioactively date the stars to be 13 Gyr old. I will then transition to recent discoveries of metal-poor ([Fe/H] -3.0) stars in the least luminous dwarf satellites orbiting the Milky Way. Their stellar chemical signatures support the concept that small systems, analogous to the surviving dwarf galaxies, were the building blocks of the Milky Way's low-metallicity halo. This opens a new window for studying galaxy formation through stellar chemistry.

  13. Beryllium abundances in stars hosting giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N C; Israelian, G; Mayor, M; Rebolo, R; García-Gíl, A; Pérez de Taoro, M R; Randich, S

    2002-01-01

    We have derived beryllium abundances in a wide sample of stars hosting planets, with spectral types in the range F7V-K0V, aimed at studying in detail the effects of the presence of planets on the structure and evolution of the associated stars. Predictions from current models are compared with the derived abundances and suggestions are provided to explain the observed inconsistencies. We show that while still not clear, the results suggest that theoretical models may have to be revised for stars with Teff<5500K. On the other hand, a comparison between planet host and non-planet host stars shows no clear difference between both populations. Although preliminary, this result favors a ``primordial'' origin for the metallicity ``excess'' observed for the planetary host stars. Under this assumption, i.e. that there would be no differences between stars with and without giant planets, the light element depletion pattern of our sample of stars may also be used to further investigate and constraint Li and Be deple...

  14. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  15. Polymer-Surfactant Mono and Bilayers Monocouches et bicouches de polymères et de tensioactifs

    OpenAIRE

    Langevin D.

    2006-01-01

    Although there are many studies of association of polymers and surfactants in solution, much less is known about their association at surfaces. In this paper, several examples will be presented : water insoluble polymers spread at the surface of surfactant aqueous solutions, water soluble polymers adsorbed with the surfactant at the surface of the solution. Examples of the first case will be given with PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) spread onto monolayers of surfactants of different chain length...

  16. Exploring the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars: II. New magnetic field measurements in cluster and field stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Kharchenko, N V; Oskinova, L M; Langer, N; Gonzalez, J F; Kholtygin, A F; Briquet, M

    2013-01-01

    Theories on the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars remain poorly developed, because the properties of their magnetic field as function of stellar parameters could not yet be investigated. To investigate whether magnetic fields in massive stars are ubiquitous or appear only in stars with a specific spectral classification, certain ages, or in a special environment, we acquired 67 new spectropolarimetric observations for 30 massive stars. Among the observed sample, roughly one third of the stars are probable members of clusters at different ages, whereas the remaining stars are field stars not known to belong to any cluster or association. Spectropolarimetric observations were obtained during four different nights using the low-resolution spectropolarimetric mode of FORS2 (FOcal Reducer low dispersion Spectrograph) mounted on the 8-m Antu telescope of the VLT. Furthermore, we present a number of follow-up observations carried out with the high-resolution spectropolarimeters SOFIN mounted at the Nordic O...

  17. Quaking Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, L M; Epstein, R I; Franco, Lucia M.; Link, Bennett; Epstein, Richard I.

    1999-01-01

    Gravitational, magnetic and superfluid forces can stress the crust of an evolving neutron star. Fracture of the crust under these stresses could affect the star's spin evolution and generate high-energy emission. We study the growth of strain in the crust of a spinning down, magnetized neutron star and examine the initiation of crust cracking (a {\\em starquake}). In preliminary work (Link, Franco & Epstein 1998), we studied a homogeneous model of a neutron star. Here we extend this work by considering a more realistic model of a solid, homogeneous crust afloat on a liquid core. In the limits of astrophysical interest, our new results qualitatively agree with those from the simpler model: the stellar crust fractures under shear stress at the rotational equator, matter moves to higher latitudes and the star's oblateness is reduced. Magnetic stresses favor faults directed toward the magnetic poles. Thus our previous conclusions concerning the star's spin response still hold; namely, asymmetric redistribution...

  18. Why Stars Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay K. Agrawal; John McHale; Alex Oettl

    2014-01-01

    The growing peer effects literature pays particular attention to the role of stars. We decompose the causal effect of hiring a star in terms of the productivity impact on: 1) co-located incumbents and 2) new recruits. Using longitudinal university department-level data we report that hiring a star does not increase overall incumbent productivity, although this aggregate effect hides offsetting effects on related (positive) versus unrelated (negative) colleagues. However, the primary impact co...

  19. Evolution of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of stars with masses larger than 15 sun masses is reviewed. These stars have large convective cores and lose a substantial fraction of their matter by stellar wind. The treatment of convection and the parameterisation of the stellar wind mass loss are analysed within the context of existing disagreements between theory and observation. The evolution of massive close binaries and the origin of Wolf-Rayet Stars and X-ray binaries is also sketched. (author)

  20. Intelligent Star Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Natalie; Furth, Paul; Horan, Steven

    2000-01-01

    We describe our Intelligent Star Tracker System. Our Intelligent Star Tracker System incorporates an adaptive optic catadioptric telescope in a silicon carbide housing. Leveraging off of our active optic technologies, the novel active pixel position sensors (APPS) enable wide dynamic range and allows simultaneous imagery of faint and bright stars in a single image. Moreover, the APPS, in conjunction with the adaptive optics technologies, offer unprecedented accuracy in altitude and navigation...

  1. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  2. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  3. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  4. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  5. Massive soliton stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  6. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith C.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE) will be a Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of neutron stars, the only places in the universe where all four fundamental forces of nature are simultaneously in play. NICE will explore the exotic states of matter within neutron stars, revealing their interior and surface compositions through rotation resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Absolute time-referenced data will allow NICE to probe the extreme physical environments associated with neutron stars, leveraging observations across the electromagnetic spectrum to answer decades-old questions about one of the most powerful cosmic accelerators known. Finally, NICE will definitively measure stabilities of pulsars as clocks, with implications for navigation, a pulsar-based timescale, and gravitational-wave detection. NICE will fly on the International Space Station, while GLAST is on orbit and post-RXTE, and will allow for the discovery of new high-energy pulsars and provide continuity in X-ray timing astrophysics.

  7. Close Double Stars from Occultation Video Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring Dunham, David; George, Anthony; Loader, Brian; Herald, David Russell

    2015-08-01

    Astronomers around the world, both amateur and professional, have been recording lunar and asteroidal occultations of close double stars during the past several years using inexpensive but quite sensitive video cameras that are now available. Several new double stars have been discovered, and the parameters of many close systems have been determined. Besides rather good measurements of the relative magnitudes of the components, the actual separations and position angles can be measured if observations of the same event are made from two or more separate stations. These observations collected by the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA) are published in the Journal of Double Star Observations. Recently, IOTA has encouraged the observation of occultations of stars in the Kepler 2 program, which is interested in data about close duplicity that affects their analyses for exoplanet transits.

  8. Polymer architectures via mass spectrometry and hyphenated techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Sarah; Gerişlioğlu, Selim; Endres, Kevin J; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2016-08-17

    This review covers the application of mass spectrometry (MS) and its hyphenated techniques to synthetic polymers of varying architectural complexities. The synthetic polymers are discussed as according to their architectural complexity from linear homopolymers and copolymers to stars, dendrimers, cyclic copolymers and other polymers. MS and tandem MS (MS/MS) has been extensively used for the analysis of synthetic polymers. However, the increase in structural or architectural complexity can result in analytical challenges that MS or MS/MS cannot overcome alone. Hyphenation to MS with different chromatographic techniques (2D × LC, SEC, HPLC etc.), utilization of other ionization methods (APCI, DESI etc.) and various mass analyzers (FT-ICR, quadrupole, time-of-flight, ion trap etc.) are applied to overcome these challenges and achieve more detailed structural characterizations of complex polymeric systems. In addition, computational methods (software: MassChrom2D, COCONUT, 2D maps etc.) have also reached polymer science to facilitate and accelerate data interpretation. Developments in technology and the comprehension of different polymer classes with diverse architectures have significantly improved, which allow for smart polymer designs to be examined and advanced. We present specific examples covering diverse analytical aspects as well as forthcoming prospects in polymer science. PMID:27286765

  9. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  10. Combinations of 148 navigation stars and the star tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R.

    1980-01-01

    The angular separation of all star combinations for 148 nav star on the onboard software for space transportation system-3 flight and following missions is presented as well as the separation of each pair that satisfies the viewing constraints of using both star trackers simultaneously. Tables show (1) shuttle star catalog 1980 star position in M 1950 coordinates; (2) two star combination of 148 nav stars; and (3) summary of two star-combinations of the star tracker 5 deg filter. These 148 stars present 10,875 combinations. For the star tracker filters of plus or minus 5 deg, there are 875 combinations. Formalhaut (nav star 26) has the best number of combinations, which is 33.

  11. Star product realizations of kappa-Minkowski space

    OpenAIRE

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Sitarz, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    We define a family of star products and involutions associated with $\\kappa$-Minkowski space. Applying corresponding quantization maps we show that these star products restricted to a certain space of Schwartz functions have isomorphic Banach algebra completions. For two particular star products it is demonstrated that they can be extended to a class of polynomially bounded smooth functions allowing a realization of the full Hopf algebra structure on $\\kappa$-Minkowski space. Furthermore, we ...

  12. Star Position Estimation Improvements for Accurate Star Tracker Attitude Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Delabie, Tjorven

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents several methods to improve the estimation of the star positions in a star tracker, using a Kalman Filter. The accuracy with which the star positions can be estimated greatly influences the accuracy of the star tracker attitude estimate. In this paper, a Kalman Filter with low computational complexity, that can be used to estimate the star positions based on star tracker centroiding data and gyroscope data is discussed. The performance of this Kalman Filter can be increased...

  13. 疏水缔合聚合物溶液性质的耗散颗粒动力学模拟%Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulation of Hydrophobically Associating Polymer Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靖波; 张健; 谭业邦

    2013-01-01

    Using dissipative particle dynamics simulation, the viscosity of hydrophobically associating polymer (HAP) solution was studied with different concentrations, temperatures and shear strengths respectively, and the assembly behavior was also simulated in water-oil system. It was found that the assembly behavior of HAP was similar to surfactant. The change of viscosity was attributed to different assembly structure. Lower viscosity was due to intramolecular associating of HAP, and higher value derived from lower diffusivity of water beads was for the spatial network forming by intermolecular associating with the increase of polymer concentration. Also, the structures of system changed from columned assemblies to spherical ones when the temperature increased, which exhibited lower viscosity and higher diffusivity of water particles. With increasing shearing rate, the macromolecules were realigned along the shear stress and the associated degree of polymer fell sharply, and the viscosity thus decreased. Meanwhile, HAP could easily absorb at water-oil interface, and influence their emulsification and phase transition.%本文利用耗散颗粒动力学模拟方法,研究了疏水缔合聚合物溶液黏度随浓度、温度、剪切程度等条件的变化,并模拟了聚合物在油水体系中的聚集行为.研究发现,疏水缔合聚合物在溶液中表现出类似表面活性剂的聚集行为,其黏度随外界影响因素变化主要是由于溶液中聚合物聚集结构的转变.聚合物浓度较低时,聚合物主要以分子内缔合作用为主;随着浓度的增加,产生分子间缔合,并逐步形成相互交联的空间网络,水珠子的扩散率逐渐变小,体系黏度增加.当温度较低时,体系呈现较多柱状聚集结构,黏度较高;随着模拟温度升高,尺寸较大的棒状聚集体转变为球状聚集体,水珠子扩散率不断增加,体系黏度逐渐降低.随着体系剪切速率的提高,聚合物分子在受力方向上

  14. Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force....

  15. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian; Nguyen, Vinh

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  16. Relativistic simulations of eccentric binary neutron star mergers: One-arm spiral instability and effects of neutron star spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, William E.; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    We perform general-relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of dynamical capture binary neutron star mergers, emphasizing the role played by the neutron star spin. Dynamical capture mergers may take place in globular clusters, as well as other dense stellar systems, where most neutron stars have large spins. We find significant variability in the merger outcome as a function of initial neutron star spin. For cases where the spin is aligned with the orbital angular momentum, the additional centrifugal support in the remnant hypermassive neutron star can prevent the prompt collapse to a black hole, while for antialigned cases the decreased total angular momentum can facilitate the collapse to a black hole. We show that even moderate spins can significantly increase the amount of ejected material, including the amount unbound with velocities greater than half the speed of light, leading to brighter electromagnetic signatures associated with kilonovae and interaction of the ejecta with the interstellar medium. Furthermore, we find that the initial neutron star spin can strongly affect the already rich phenomenology in the postmerger gravitational wave signatures that arise from the oscillation modes of the hypermassive neutron star. In several of our simulations, the resulting hypermassive neutron star develops the one-arm (m =1 ) spiral instability, the most pronounced cases being those with small but non-negligible neutron star spins. For long-lived hypermassive neutron stars, the presence of this instability leads to improved prospects for detecting these events through gravitational waves, and thus may give information about the neutron star equation of state.

  17. GLOBAL STAR FORMATION REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general treatment of disk star formation is developed from a dissipative multiphase model, with the dominant dissipation due to cloud collisions. The Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law emerges naturally for star-forming disks and starbursts. We predict that there should be an inverse correlation between Tully-Fisher law and SK law residuals. The model is extended to include a multiphase treatment of supernova feedback that leads to a turbulent pressure-regulated generalization of the star formation law and is applicable to gas-rich starbursts. Enhanced pressure, as expected in merger-induced star formation, enhances star formation efficiency. An upper limit is derived for the disk star formation rate in starbursts that depends on the ratio of global ISM to cloud pressures. We extend these considerations to the case where the interstellar gas pressure in the inner galaxy is dominated by outflows from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN). During massive spheroid formation, AGN-driven winds trigger star formation, resulting in enhanced supernova feedback and outflows. The outflows are comparable to the AGN-boosted star formation rate and saturate in the super-Eddington limit. Downsizing of both SMBH and spheroids is a consequence of AGN-driven positive feedback. Bondi accretion feeds the central black hole with a specific accretion rate that is proportional to the black hole mass. AGN-enhanced star formation is mediated by turbulent pressure and relates spheroid star formation rate to black hole accretion rate. The relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion has a coefficient (Salpeter time to gas consumption time ratio) that provides an arrow of time. Highly efficient, AGN-boosted star formation can occur at high redshift.

  18. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  19. Limits on Radioactive-Powered Emission Associated With a Short-Hard GRB 070724A in a Star-Forming Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Kocevski, Daniel; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Bloom, Joshua S; Granot, Jonathan; Butler, Nathaniel R; Perley, Daniel A; Modjaz, Maryam; Lee, William H; Cobb, Bethany E; Levan, Andrew J; Tanvir, Nial; Covino, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We present results of an extensive observing campaign of the short duration, hard spectrum gamma-ray burst (GRB) 070724A, aimed at detecting the radioactively-powered emission that might follow from a binary merger or collapse involving compact objects. Our multi-band observations span the range in time over which this so-called Li-Paczynski mini-supernova could be active, beginning within 3 hours of the GRB trigger, and represent some of the deepest and most comprehensive searches for such emission. We find no evidence for such activity and place limits on the abundances and the lifetimes of the possible radioactive nuclides that could form in the rapid decompression of nuclear-density matter. Furthermore, our limits are significantly fainter than the peak magnitude of any previously detected broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN) associated with other GRBs, effectively ruling out a long GRB-like SN for with this event. Given the unambiguous redshift of the host galaxy (z=0.456), GRB 070724A represents one of a ...

  20. Neutron Stars: Formation and Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kutschera, Marek

    1998-01-01

    A short introduction is given to astrophysics of neutron stars and to physics of dense matter in neutron stars. Observed properties of astrophysical objects containing neutron stars are discussed. Current scenarios regarding formation and evolution of neutron stars in those objects are presented. Physical principles governing the internal structure of neutron stars are considered with special emphasis on the possible spin ordering in the neutron star matter.

  1. Quark Neutron Layer Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carinhas, P A

    1993-01-01

    Typical nuclear equations of state and a quark bag model, surprisingly, allow compact stars with alternate layers of neutrons and quarks. One can determine on the basis of the Gibbs free energy which phase, nuclear or quark, is energetically favorable. Using the nuclear equation of state of Wiringa, and a quark equation of state given by Freedman and McLerran, the allowed quark parameter space for such layer stars is searched. This paper differs from past work in that configurations are found in which quark matter is located exterior and interior to shells of nuclear matter, i.e., dependent on quark parameters, a star may contain several alternating layers of quark and nuclear matter. Given the uncertainty in the quark parameter space, one can estimate the probability for finding pure neutron stars, pure quark stars (strange stars), stars with a quark core and a nucleon exterior, or layer stars. Several layer models are presented. The physical characteristics, stability, and results of a thorough search of th...

  2. Neutrostriction in Neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatovich, V. K.

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that not only gravity, but also neutrostriction forces due to optical potential created by coherent elastic neutron-neutron scattering can hold a neutron star together. The latter forces can be stronger than gravitational ones. The effect of these forces on mass, radius and structure of the neutron star is estimated.

  3. Computerized Star Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooman, Andrew

    1982-01-01

    A program written for the 16K Level II TRS-80 computer that prints a star map, using various mathematical formulas to compute positions of the stars and the moon and displays them on terminals, is discussed. Some relevant astronomical background and terminology are covered in order to aid understanding. (MP)

  4. The violent neutron star

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Anna L.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron stars enable us to study both the highest densities and the highest magnetic fields in the known Universe. In this article I review what can be learned about such fundamental physics using magnetar bursts. Both the instability mechanisms that trigger the bursts, and the subsequent dynamical and radiative response of the star, can be used to explore stellar and magnetospheric structure and composition.

  5. Stress Relaxation in Entangled Melts of Unlinked Ring Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Scott T.; Newhall, Jillian D.

    2010-11-01

    Stress relaxation in unlinked ring polymer melts poses an important challenge to our theoretical understanding of entangled polymer dynamics. Recent experiments on entangled unlinked ring melts show power-law stress relaxation with no hint of a rubbery plateau, usually the hallmark of entangled polymers. Here we present a theory for stress relaxation in rings analogous to the successful approach for star polymers. We augment our theory with mesoscale Monte Carlo dynamics simulations of equivalent “lattice animal” configurations. We find a stress relaxation function G(t)˜t-α with α≈1/2 consistent with experiment, emerging ultimately from the disparate relaxation times of more- and less-central portions of ring conformations.

  6. Revised Anatomy of Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dubin, M; Dubin, Maurice; Soberman, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    Stars accrete near invisible hydrogen dominated agglomerates. This population, the `dark matter,' effects the nature of stars. Measurements show plasma streams impacting Earth, planets, Sun and stars. This mass-energy source contradicts nebula collapse model for stars. The visual derived model, to which later discoveries (e.g., fusion) were appended, is confounded and contradicted by new observations. Discovery of a quantity of beryllium 7 (53 day half-life) in the Earth's upper atmosphere, fusion produced, hence from the solar outer zone, proves core fusion wrong. Magnetically pinched plasmas from aggregates impact stars at hundreds of km/s, create impulsive conditions for nuclear explosions below the surface. Disks with planets aid cluster capture. Planets modulate the influx varying fusion, hence luminosity (e.g., solar cycle). This population, with no assumptions or ad hoc physics, explains mysterious phenomena, e.g., luminosity/wind variation, sunspots, high temperature corona, CMEs, etc. Standard explan...

  7. Producing Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  8. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  9. Star spot location estimation using Kalman filter for star tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jian-kun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Tan, Ji-chun; Li, Xiu-jian

    2011-04-20

    Star pattern recognition and attitude determination accuracy is highly dependent on star spot location accuracy for the star tracker. A star spot location estimation approach with the Kalman filter for a star tracker has been proposed, which consists of three steps. In the proposed approach, the approximate locations of the star spots in successive frames are predicted first; then the measurement star spot locations are achieved by defining a series of small windows around each predictive star spot location. Finally, the star spot locations are updated by the designed Kalman filter. To confirm the proposed star spot location estimation approach, the simulations based on the orbit data of the CHAMP satellite and the real guide star catalog are performed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can filter out noises from the measurements remarkably if the sampling frequency is sufficient. PMID:21509065

  10. The chemical composition of the Orion star forming region: stars, gas and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Simón-Díaz, S; Przybilla, N; Stasińska, G

    2010-01-01

    We present a summary of main results from the studies performed in the series of papers "The chemical composition of the Orion star forming region". We reinvestigate the chemical composition of B-type stars in the Orion OB1 association by means of state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere codes, atomic models and techniques, and compare the resulting abundances with those obtained from the emission line spectra of the Orion nebula (M42), and recent determinations of the Solar chemical composition.

  11. “Controlled” and “Living” Cationic Polymerizations:Another Way Towards Well Defined Polymer Architectures and Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Pierre; Vairon; Michel; Moreau; Rudolf; Faust

    2007-01-01

    1 Results No doubt that one of the major breakthroughs in polymer chemistry was the discovery and the progressive implementation of the "living" and "controlled" polymerizations.These now widely used techniques allow not only to control with an extreme precision the molar masses and their distributions but also to synthesise easily a broad variety of architectures from block and graft copolymers,miktoarms stars,to polymer brushes,hyperbranched polymers,dendrimers,etc....They opened an immense domain of ...

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, P E [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Avgeropoulos, A [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kosmas, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vlahos, C [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-11-21

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  14. Boundary-induced segregation in nanoscale thin films of athermal polymer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Chih-Yu; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2016-05-18

    The surface segregation of binary athermal polymer blends confined in a nanoscale thin film was investigated by dissipative particle dynamics. The polymer blend included linear/linear, star/linear, bottlebrush/linear, and rod-like/linear polymer systems. The segregation was driven by purely entropic effects and two different mechanisms were found. For the linear/linear and star/linear polymer blends, the smaller sized polymers were preferentially segregated to the boundary because their excluded volumes were smaller than those of the matrix polymers. For the bottlebrush/linear and rod-like/linear polymer blends, the polymers with a larger persistent length were preferentially segregated to the boundary because they favored staying in the depletion zone by alignment with the wall. Our simulation outcome was consistent with experimental results and also agreed with theoretical predictions - that is, a surface excess dictated by the chain ends for the branch/linear system. These consequences are of great importance in controlling the homogeneity and surface properties of polymer blend thin films. PMID:27108653

  15. Review on Rare Earth/Polymer Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘力; 张立群; 赵素合; 金日光; 刘美琳

    2002-01-01

    The special properties of rare earth/polymer composite were described. More emph asis was put on the radiation shielding and magnetic properties. In the applicat ion to X-ray shielding, rare earth/polymer composite can make up the feeble abs o rbing area. If the rare earth content is high enough, it can demonstrate strong ability for thermal neutron absorption; The composite has strong paramagnetism. The feasibility of preparing magnetic rare earth/polymer composite was discussed . In addition, three preparation methods were introduced: simple polymerization, mixing and reaction processing. The effect of the rare earth/polymer composites pre -sturcture and the coordinate number of rare earth ions on the light property w as a nalyzed. Rare earth/polymer composite may have the structure and property simlar to those of the ionomer. The feasibility of the in-situ preparation of the rare earth/polymer nano structure is indicated. Besides, the relationship betwe en structure and properties of the rare earth/polymer composite was discussed. T he problems associated with such composite materials were also presented.

  16. Wetting of star-shaped macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynos, Emmanouil; Frieberg, Bradley; Sakellariou, Georgios; Green, Peter

    2013-03-01

    We show that the equilibrium contact angles and line tensions of macroscopic droplets of star-shaped polystyrene (PS) macromolecules of functionality, f, and degree of polymerization per arm, Narm, on oxidized silicon substrates, may be as much as one and two orders of magnitude, respectively, smaller than their linear analogs, depending on f and Narm. The dewetting characteristics of the linear and star polymers also differ. Thin film of LPS and SPS dewet SiOx substrates due to destabilizing long-range intermolecular forces. However, while macroscopic droplets surrounded by droplets of nanoscale dimensions characterize the late-stage dewetting morphology of the LPS system, the macroscopic droplets of the SPS molecules reside on a stable layer of molecules adsorbed to the substrate. The thickness of the adsorbed layer depends on both f and Narm. We provide evidence that the wetting/dewetting characteristics of the SPS macromolecules are largely determined by the competition between interfacially attractive conformational entropic effects and steric repulsion effects, for molecules of sufficiently large f and small Narm. National Science Foundation (NSF), Division of Material Research, Polymer Program No. 0906425

  17. Massive runaway stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Gvaramadze, V V; Kroupa, P

    2010-01-01

    Using archival Spitzer Space Telescope data, we identified for the first time a dozen runaway OB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) via detection of their bow shocks. The geometry of detected bow shocks allows us to infer the direction of motion of the associated stars and to determine their possible parent clusters and associations. One of the identified runaway stars, AzV 471, was already known as a high-velocity star on the basis of its high peculiar radial velocity, which is offset by ~40 km/s from the local systemic velocity. We discuss implications of our findings for the problem of the origin of field OB stars. Several of the bow shock-producing stars are found in the confines of associations suggesting that these may be "alien" stars contributing to the observed age spread in such associations. We also report the discovery of a kidney-shaped nebula attached to the early WN-type star SMC-WR3 (AzV 60a). We interpreted this nebula as an interstellar structure created owing to the interaction betwe...

  18. Polymer dynamics from synthetic polymers to proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Richter; R Biehl; M Monkenbush; B Hoffmann; R Merkel

    2008-10-01

    Starting from the standard model of polymer motion - the Rouse model - we briefly present some key experimental results on the mesoscopic dynamics of polymer systems. We touch the role of topological confinement as expressed in the reptation model and discuss in some more detail processes limiting the confinement. In the second part we relate to some new developments concerning the measurement of large-scale internal dynamics of proteins by neutron spin echo.

  19. The Production of HMXBs in Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Paula; Chandar, Rupali; Rangelov, Blagoy

    2016-01-01

    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), where a black hole or neutron star accretes material from a massive donor star, often dominate the high-energy output from nearby galaxies. Most massive stars, the progenitors of HMXBs, form in star clusters, and therefore it follows that there should be a link between the production of HMXBs and clusters. We use a catalog of HMXBs based on Chandra X-ray Observatory observations and a catalog of star clusters based on Hubble Space Telescope observations to study the production of HMXBs in star clusters in the Antennae, the closest pair of actively merging galaxies. We find the highest number of HMXBs associated with very young, ~3-6 Myr clusters, but also find clear evidence that they form in older stellar systems. We test whether HMXBs are more likely to form in the most massive or most dense clusters (at any age), or if their production is simply governed by statistics, i.e. whether more massive clusters produce a HMXB at the same rate as a grouping of less massive clusters that have the same total mass.

  20. Statistical Studies of Long - Period Variable Stars in Odessa

    CERN Document Server

    Kudashkina, Larisa S; Marsakova, Vladislava I; Chinarova, Lidia L

    2014-01-01

    The studies of pulsating variable stars are traditional subjects of astronomers in Odessa. In the last half of the 20th century, the studies of the physical variable stars were the topics of 15 PhD theses of the collaborators of the Odessa State (now National) University. Continuing the tradition of studies of long-period variable stars in the Astronomical Observatory of Odessa University, we try to conduct a detailed classification of the Mira-type stars, semi-regular variable stars and also find out the location of symbiotic stars among other long-period variables in their evolution to the planetary nebulae, using the compiled material from own observations and that of other authors. For the research, we have used observations from the databases of the French Association of Variable Stars Observers (AFOEV) and Variable Stars Observers League of Japan (VSOLJ), which allow study of the variability of these stars during the time interval of about 100 years. Some stars were studied using the observations of the...

  1. Making star teams out of star players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, Michael; Bird, Alan; Root, James

    2013-01-01

    Top talent is an invaluable asset: In highly specialized or creative work, for instance, "A" players are likely to be six times as productive as "B" players. So when your company has a crucial strategic project, why not multiply all that firepower and have a team of your best performers tackle it? Yet many companies hesitate to do this, believing that all-star teams don't work: Big egos will get in the way. The stars won't be able to work with one another. They'll drive the team Leader crazy. Mankins, Bird, and Root of Bain & Company believe it's time to set aside that thinking. They have seen all-star teams do extraordinary work. But there is a right way and a wrong way to organize them. Before you can even begin to assemble such a team, you need to have the right talent management practices, so you hire and develop the best people and know what they're capable of. You have to give the team appropriate incentives and leaders and support staffers who are stars in their own right. And projects that are ill-defined or small scale are not for all-star teams. Use them only for critical missions, and make sure their objectives are clear. Even with the right setup, things can still go wrong. The wise executive will take steps to manage egos, prune non-team-players, and prevent average coworkers from feeling completely undervalued. She will also invest a lot of time in choosing the right team Leader and will ask members for lots of feedback to monitor how that leader is doing. PMID:23390743

  2. O(He) Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Werner, K; Kruk, J W

    2008-01-01

    Spectral analyses of H-deficient post-AGB stars have shown that a small group of four extremely hot objects exists which have almost pure He absorption-line spectra in the optical. These are classified as O(He) stars. For their evolution there are two scenarios: They could be the long-sought hot successors of RCrB stars, which have not been identified up to now. If this turns out to be true, then a third post-AGB evolutionary sequence is revealed, which is probably the result of a double-degenerate merging process. An alternative explanation might be that O(He) stars are post early-AGB stars. These depart from the AGB just before they experience their first thermal pulse (TP) which will then occur as a late thermal pulse (LTP). This would be a link to the low-mass He-enriched sdO stars and low-mass, particularly He-rich PG1159 stars.

  3. Dense Axion Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure.If the axion mass energy is $mc^2= 10^{-4}$ eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about $10^{-14} M_\\odot$. We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If $mc^2 = 10^{-4}$ eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mas...

  4. Mass loss from stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the different mass-loss processes of stars and how mass-loss rates determine the fate of stars in advanced stages of stellar evolution. Main sequence stars have their atmospheric structure dominated by radiation pressure. The pressure exerted by energetic photons is sufficient to drive gases off into space. This process can impact enormous turbulence to the local interstellar medium. Evolutionary effects keep these stars from fully evaporating, but the very course of their evolution is determined by this mass shedding process. Lower main sequence stars, like the sun, have a turbulent atmosphere enveloped in hot, thin coronal gas, blowing off a light stellar breeze. As the main sequence star evolves to a giant, its corona dissipates and the breeze turns into a strong stellar wind. Intermitten sputters combined with pulsational instabilities can lead to partial ejection of the atmosphere and envelope of a red giant, i.e. a planetary nebula results. The mass-loss from stars through planetary nebule combined with other mass-loss processes such as stellar winds returns a substantial amount of material to the interstellar environment. Mass-loss in binary systems is also discussed

  5. The Massive Star Population of Cygnus OB2

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Mohr-Smith, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We have compiled a significantly updated and comprehensive census of massive stars in the nearby Cygnus OB2 association by gathering and homogenising data from across the literature. The census contains 169 primary OB stars, including 52 O-type stars and 3 Wolf-Rayet stars. Spectral types and photometry are used to place the stars in a Hertzprung-Russell diagram, which is compared to both non-rotating and rotating stellar evolution models, from which stellar masses and ages are calculated. The star formation history and mass function of the association are assessed, and both are found to be heavily influenced by the evolution of the most massive stars to their end states. We find that the mass function of the most massive stars is consistent with a `universal' power-law slope of Gamma = 1.3. The age distribution inferred from stellar evolutionary models with rotation and the mass function suggest the majority of star formation occurred more or less continuously between 1 and 7 Myr ago, in agreement with studi...

  6. Differential Radial Velocities and Stellar Parameters of Nearby Young Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yelda, D P S

    2006-01-01

    Radial velocity searches for substellar mass companions have focused primarily on stars older than 1 Gyr. Increased levels of stellar activity in young stars hinders the detection of solar system analogs and therefore there has been a prejudice against inclusion of young stars in radial velocity surveys until recently. Adaptive optics surveys of young stars have given us insight into the multiplicity of young stars but only for massive, distant companions. Understanding the limit of the radial velocity technique, restricted to high-mass, close-orbiting planets and brown dwarfs, we began a survey of young stars of various ages. While the number of stars needed to carry out full analysis of the problems of planetary and brown dwarf population and evolution is large, the beginning of such a sample is included here. We report on 61 young stars ranging in age from beta Pic association (~12 Myr) to the Ursa Majoris association (~300 Myr). This initial search resulted in no stars showing evidence for companions grea...

  7. ACID-BASE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN POLYMERS AND FILLERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingguo; CHEN Fute; HUANG Yuanfu; ZHOU Qingli

    1987-01-01

    Inverse gas chromatography(IGC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques were applied to determining the relative acid-base strength of polymers and coupling agents. The acid-base characteristics of fillers such as CaCO3 could be altered by treatment with different coupling agents. It was shown that some mechanical properties of filled polymers were obviously associated with acid-base interactions between polymers and fillers.

  8. A Review of Monte Carlo Simulations of Polymers with PERM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Grassberger, Peter

    2011-08-01

    In this review, we describe applications of the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM), a sequential Monte Carlo algorithm with resampling, to various problems in polymer physics. PERM produces samples according to any given prescribed weight distribution, by growing configurations step by step with controlled bias, and correcting "bad" configurations by "population control". The latter is implemented, in contrast to other population based algorithms like e.g. genetic algorithms, by depth-first recursion which avoids storing all members of the population at the same time in computer memory. The problems we discuss all concern single polymers (with one exception), but under various conditions: Homopolymers in good solvents and at the Θ point, semi-stiff polymers, polymers in confining geometries, stretched polymers undergoing a forced globule-linear transition, star polymers, bottle brushes, lattice animals as a model for randomly branched polymers, DNA melting, and finally—as the only system at low temperatures, lattice heteropolymers as simple models for protein folding. PERM is for some of these problems the method of choice, but it can also fail. We discuss how to recognize when a result is reliable, and we discuss also some types of bias that can be crucial in guiding the growth into the right directions.

  9. A Novel Approach for Star Extraction from Star Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGSheng; LIUJian; TIANJinwen; YANGRuijuan

    2005-01-01

    Star acquisition is one of the most timeconsuming routines in star tracker operation. One star Point spread function (PSF) forms a near Gaussian distribution in the star image, the star image can be regarded as 2-D intensity surface, and every pixel is the sampled point. The star cluster grouping is to find the highes tintensity pixel among the PSFs and collect the adjacent pixels and group them. The possible highest intensity pixels are the maximum extremum points of the 2-D intensity surface. To efficiently extract star from the star image, a novel star acquisition approach, which uses the simplified least squares support vector machines regression algorithm to find the optimal intensity surface function and predictthe maximum extremum points, is proposed. Comput erexperiments are carried out for the simulated star images.The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has a lot of advantages, including the high efficiency and good robustness over a wide range of sensor noise.

  10. Hyperons in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Katayama

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the Dirac–Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach, the properties of neutron-star matter including hyperons are investigated. In the calculation, we consider both time and space components of the vector self-energies of baryons as well as the scalar ones. Furthermore, the effect of negative-energy states of baryons is partly taken into account. We obtain the maximum neutron-star mass of 2.08M⊙, which is consistent with the recently observed, massive neutron stars. We discuss a universal, repulsive three-body force for hyperons in matter.

  11. Hyperons in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Katayama, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Using the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach, the properties of neutron-star matter including hyperons are investigated. In the calculation, we consider both time and space components of the vector self-energies of baryons as well as the scalar ones. Furthermore, the effect of negative-energy states of baryons is partly taken into account. We obtain the maximum neutron-star mass of $2.08\\,M_{\\odot}$, which is consistent with the recently observed, massive neutron stars. We discuss a universal, repulsive three-body force for hyperons in matter.

  12. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  13. Neutrinos and the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Raffelt, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The role of neutrinos in stars is introduced for students with little prior astrophysical exposure. We begin with neutrinos as an energy-loss channel in ordinary stars and conversely, how stars provide information on neutrinos and possible other low-mass particles. Next we turn to the Sun as a measurable source of neutrinos and other particles. Finally we discuss supernova (SN) neutrinos, the SN 1987A measurements, and the quest for a high-statistics neutrino measurement from the next nearby SN. We also touch on the subject of neutrino oscillations in the high-density SN context.

  14. Vidicon star tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, W H

    1966-04-01

    In many applications of star trackers, extremely short acquisition times, as well as accuracy and sensitivity, are required. Tracking systems employing the vidicon as a radiation sensor have been shown to provide the necessary speed of acquisition for such applications. This paper discusses the various theoretical and practical considerations involved in using the vidicon as a sensor in a star tracking system. A typical system configuration including telescope, sensor, and processing electronics is presented. The various optical and sensor parametric relationships required in the design of a vidicon star tracker are fully discussed and analyzed. PMID:20048884

  15. How plausible are the proposed formation scenarios of CEMP-r/s stars?

    OpenAIRE

    Abate, Carlo; Stancliffe, Richard J.; Liu, Zheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    CEMP-$r/s$ stars are metal-poor stars with enhanced abundances of carbon and heavy elements associated with the slow ($s$-) and rapid ($r$-) neutron-capture process. It is believed that carbon and $s$-elements were accreted from the wind of an AGB primary star, a scenario that is generally accepted to explain the formation of CEMP stars that are only enhanced in $s$-elements (CEMP-$s$ stars). The origin of $r$-element-enrichment in CEMP-$r/s$ stars is debated and many formation scenarios have...

  16. Polymer radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews some of the work carried out in the Polymer and Radiation Group at the University of Queensland over the past ten years. The objective of the work has been to investigate the relationships between polymer structure and sensitivity towards high energy radiation, including 60Co gamma radiation, electron beams and UV radiation. A range of synthetic polymers containing carboxyl groups, acrylate groups, sulfone groups, amide linkages and aromatic residues have been investigated. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Degradation effects in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extremely long molecular chains of polymers can be broken easily by the absorption of a quantum of energy above the energy of the covalent bond of the main carbon chain, which typically is in the range of 5-10 eV. The energy of beta and gamma photons of 1 to 10 MeV surpasses by many orders of magnitude this minimum value, representing a high risk of degradation to all kind of polymers, naturals and synthetics alike. The protection of polymers against high doses (20 - 1000 kGy) requires efficient additives preventing and/or stopping chain reaction type oxidative degradation. Primary and secondary antioxidants work well here in synergy. Commercial raw materials are available for radiation-sterilizable medical devices made out of polyolefins and other thermoplastics. Similarly, polymer compounds of suitable formulae are offered commercially for high-dose applications of polymers in nuclear installations. The controlled degradation of polymers of large molecular mass - or even of cross-linked molecular structures - is a promising field of radiation application. One area here is related to recycling non-accessible polymers such as fluorinated plastics of cross-linked rubber products. Another large possible area is the controlled radiation degradation of natural polymer systems. Radiation may facilitate the access to cross-linked natural polymer systems, such as wood, plant cellulose and biomass in general, decreasing to use of aggressive chemicals. The result is energetically favorable, environmentally friendly new procedures and raw materials of natural origin. A limited dose applied to polymers - although may cause some degradation - however may initiate new bonds on the 'wounded' chain. The popular graft-copolymerization technique can be applied in new, up-coming polymer processing technologies such as alloying, composite processing and reconstitutive recycling. By this way, even those polymers described earlier as radiation-degrading types, can be cross

  18. Nanostructured polymers for photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal Paquet; Eugenia Kumacheva

    2008-01-01

    We review recent progress in the development of polymer nanostructured materials with periodic structures and compositions having applications in photonics and optical data storage. This review provides a brief description of the microfabrication and self-assembly methods used for the production of polymer materials with periodic structures, and highlights the properties and applications of photonic materials derived from block copolymers, colloid crystals, and microfabricated polymers. We co...

  19. Multilayer polymer microspot targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year the authors reported on the development of a seeded microspot x-ray diagnostic target. This target consisted of a 300-μm-diam, 2-μm-thick disk of silicon or sulfur-seeded hydrocarbon polymer nested tightly in a hole in a 2-μm-thick film of pure hydrocarbon polymer. This year they extended our work on the microspot target, fully encapsulating the microspot in what they call the multilayer polymer microspot target

  20. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  1. All Polymer Micropump

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Larsen, Niels Bent; Hassager, Ole

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis an all polymer micropump, and the fabrication method required to fabricate this, are examined. Polymer microfluidic. devices are of major scientific interest because they can combine complicated chemical and biological analys~s in cheap and disposable devices. The electrode system in the micropump is based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The majority of the work conducted was therefore aimed at developing methods for patterning and processing...

  2. Triclosan antimicrobial polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan antimicrobial molecular fluctuating energies of nonbonding electron pairs for the oxygen atom by ether bond rotations are reviewed with conformational computational chemistry analyses. Subsequent understanding of triclosan alternating ether bond rotations is able to help explain several material properties in Polymer Science. Unique bond rotation entanglements between triclosan and the polymer chains increase both the mechanical properties of polymer toughness and strength that are ...

  3. Thermally conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, N. R.; Jenkins, R. K.; Lister, J. L. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A thermally conductive polymer is provided having physical and chemical properties suited to use as a medium for potting electrical components. The polymer is prepared from hydroquinone, phenol, and formaldehyde, by conventional procedures employed for the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. While the proportions of the monomers can be varied, a preferred polymer is formed from the monomers in a 1:1:2.4 molar or ratio of hydroquinone:phenol:formaldehyde.

  4. 疏水缔合水溶性聚合物的合成与应用研究进展%Research Progress in Preparation and Application of Water-Soluble Hydrophobic Associating Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕大勇; 牛心蕙; 徐俊英

    2014-01-01

    The research progress on preparation and application of water-soluble hydrophobic associating polymers was introduced. The main synthetic methods included macromolecular reactions, copolymerization method (heterogeneous process, homo-generous process, micellar copolymerization), emulsion polymerization(micro emulsion polymerization, inverse microemultion polymeriza-tion, soap-free emulsion polymerization), living anion polymerization, living controlled free-radical polymerization, ultrasonic meth-od, polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide. The application fields included oil industry, coating industry, sewage treatment, biomedical materials, engineering materials, etc. At last, new synthetic direction and application prospect were discussed.%综述了疏水缔合水溶性聚合物的合成和应用的研究进展。合成方法包括大分子反应法、共聚法、乳液聚合法、阴离子聚合法、活性可控自由基聚合、超声波法、超临界二氧化碳介质法等,应用领域包括石油工业、涂料工业、污水处理、生物医药材料、工程材料等,并且展望了新的合成方向和应用前景。

  5. On the conversion of neutron stars into quark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliara, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The possible existence of two families of compact stars, neutron stars and quark stars, naturally leads to a scenario in which a conversion process between the two stellar objects occurs with a consequent release of energy of the order of $10^{53}$ erg. We discuss recent hydrodynamical simulations of the burning process and neutrino diffusion simulations of cooling of a newly formed strange star. We also briefly discuss this scenario in connection with recent measurements of masses and radii of compact stars.

  6. Blurred Star Image Processing for Star Sensors under Dynamic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Guo; Weina Zhang; Wei Quan

    2012-01-01

    The precision of star point location is significant to identify the star map and to acquire the aircraft attitude for star sensors. Under dynamic conditions, star images are not only corrupted by various noises, but also blurred due to the angular rate of the star sensor. According to different angular rates under dynamic conditions, a novel method is proposed in this article, which includes a denoising method based on adaptive wavelet threshold and a restoration method based on the large ang...

  7. Characterisation of polymers, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Crompton, Roy

    2008-01-01

    This essential guide to Polymer Characterisation is a complete compendium of methodologies that have evolved for the determination of the chemical composition of polymers. This 478-page book gives an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the state-of-the-art theories and availability of instrumentation needed to effect chemical and physical analysis of polymers. This is supported by approximately 1200 references. Volume 1 covers the methodology used for the determination of metals, non-metals and organic functional groups in polymers, and for the determination of the ratio in which different m

  8. Antioxidant Stabilisation of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyapnikov, Yurii A.

    1981-06-01

    Physicochemical aspects of the stabilisation of polymers are discussed. Attention is paid mainly to the aging and stabilisation of polymers under processing conditions. Topics considered are the kinetics and mechanism of the high-temperature oxidation of polymers, critical phenomena in the inhibited oxidation of polymers, the theory of synergism and antagonism among antioxidants, the reasons for differences in efficiency of antioxidants, and certain aspects of the relation between the efficiency of antioxidants and their molecular structure. A list of 132 references is included.

  9. Nanostructured polymers for photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Paquet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in the development of polymer nanostructured materials with periodic structures and compositions having applications in photonics and optical data storage. This review provides a brief description of the microfabrication and self-assembly methods used for the production of polymer materials with periodic structures, and highlights the properties and applications of photonic materials derived from block copolymers, colloid crystals, and microfabricated polymers. We conclude with a summary of current and future research efforts and opportunities in the development of polymer materials for photonic applications.

  10. Dance of the double stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theokas, A.

    1985-09-19

    The paper concerns pairs of stars orbiting one another. The evolutionary path model for close binary stars, involving a mass transfer of gases between the stars, is described. The life history of a single star; cataclysmic variables; the algol paradox, matter and lagranges' point; x-ray binaries and bursters; and pulsars; are all briefly discussed.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Well-Defined Regular Star Polyisoprenes with 3, 4, 6 and 8 Arms

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar R.

    2013-01-01

    Three series of regular well-defined star polyisoprenes (PIs) with 3, 4 and 6 arms (each series: same arm molecular weight) have been synthesized by anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and chlorosilane chemistry. In addition, three linear PIs with practically the double arm molecular weight of the corresponding series (2-arm star PIs) have been synthesized, as well as one 8-arm star PI. All intermediate (arms) and final (stars) products have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), SEC-multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Tg of the star PIs was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. These model polymeric materials are essential for polymer physics and polymer physical chemistry in order to establish the structure/property relationships.

  12. Neutrino Processes in Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomeitsev E.E.

    2010-10-01

    interaction effects can be included within the Green’s function formalism. Softening of the pion mode with an baryon density increase is explicitly incorporated. We show examples of inconsistencies in calculations without inclusion of medium effects. Then we demonstrate calculations of different reaction rates in non-superfluid nuclear matter with taking into account medium effects. Many new reaction channels are open up in the medium and should be analyzed. Part IV: We discuss the neutrino production reactions in superfluid nuclear systems. The reaction rates of processes associated with the pair breaking and formation are calculated. Special attention is focused on the gauge invariance and the exact fulfillment of the Ward identities for the vector current. Finally we present comparison of calculations of neutron star cooling performed within nuclear medium cooling scenario with the available data.

  13. Osmotic pressure and polymer size in semidilute polymer solutions under good-solvent conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissetto, Andrea

    2008-07-28

    We consider the lattice Domb-Joyce model at a value of the coupling for which scaling corrections approximately vanish and determine the universal scaling functions associated with the osmotic pressure and the polymer size for semidilute polymer solutions (c/c( *)self-avoiding walks. We show that for c/c( *) greater than or approximately equal 6 simulations of lattice self-avoiding walks give results that are affected by strong scaling corrections even for chain lengths as large as 1000: The self-avoiding walk model is therefore unsuitable for the determination of universal properties of polymer solutions deep in the semidilute regime. PMID:18681672

  14. Molecules in star formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, F. H.

    The author reviews current ideas and models in the problem of star formation from molecular cloud cores that are relatively isolated from the influences of other forming stars. He discusses the time scales, flow dynamics, and density and temperature structures applicable to each of the four stages of the entire process: (1) formation of a magnetized cloud core by ambipolar diffusion and evolution to a pivotal state of gravomagneto catastrophe; (2) self-similar collapse of the pivotal configuration and the formation of protostars, disks, and pseudo-disks; (3) onset of a magnetocentrifugally driven, lightly ionized wind from the interaction of an accretion disk and the magnetosphere of the central star, and the driving of bipolar molecular outflows; (4) evolution of pre-main-sequence stars surrounded by dusty accretion disks. For each of these stages and processes, he considers the characteristics of the molecular diagnostics needed to investigate the crucial aspects of the observational problem.

  15. Superbursts from Strange Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Page, D; Page, Dany; Cumming, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Recent models of carbon ignition on accreting neutron stars predict superburst ignition depths that are an order of magnitude larger than observed. We explore a possible solution to this problem, that the compact stars in low mass X-ray binaries that have shown superbursts are in fact strange stars with a crust of normal matter. We calculate the properties of superbursts on strange stars, and the resulting constraints on the properties of strange quark matter. We show that the observed ignition conditions exclude fast neutrino emission in the quark core, for example by the direct Urca process, which implies that strange quark matter at stellar densities should be in a color superconducting state. For slow neutrino emission in the quark matter core, we find that reproducing superburst properties requires a definite relation between three poorly constrained properties of strange quark matter: its thermal conductivity, its slow neutrino emissivity and the energy released by converting a nucleon into strange quar...

  16. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaler, Steven; Dahlstrom, Michael

    2000-12-01

    A white dwarf is a very dense star: The earth-sized remains of a Sun-like star that has burned all of its nuclear fuel. Although it's unable to carry out the workaday activities of a living star, a white dwarf is still an interesting object to astronomers. For one thing, white dwarfs experience "starquakes"—gentle pulsations that allow astronomers to deduce certain physical qualities of the star, such as its mass, rate of rotation, its structure and the strength of its magnetic field. The authors have been studying the starquakes with a global network of instruments, collectively called the Whole Earth Telescope, which provide around-the-clock observations of a white dwarf's seismic activity. Kawaler and Dahlstrom discuss what we know about white dwarfs and their significance for questions concerning the age of our Galaxy and the composition of dark matter.

  17. Interferometric star tracker Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical Physics Company (OPC) proposes to develop a high accuracy version of its interferometric star tracker capable of meeting the milli-arcsecond-level pointing...

  18. Star-Planet Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Shkolnik, Evgenya; Cranmer, Steven; Fares, Rim; Fridlund, Malcolm; Pont, Frederic; Schmitt, Juergen; Smith, Alexis; Suzuki, Takeru

    2008-01-01

    Much effort has been invested in recent years, both observationally and theoretically, to understand the interacting processes taking place in planetary systems consisting of a hot Jupiter orbiting its star within 10 stellar radii. Several independent studies have converged on the same scenario: that a short-period planet can induce activity on the photosphere and upper atmosphere of its host star. The growing body of evidence for such magnetic star-planet interactions includes a diverse array of photometric, spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric studies. The nature of which is modeled to be strongly affected by both the stellar and planetary magnetic fields, possibly influencing the magnetic activity of both bodies, as well as affecting irradiation and non-thermal and dynamical processes. Tidal interactions are responsible for the circularization of the planet orbit, for the synchronization of the planet rotation with the orbital period, and may also synchronize the outer convective envelope of the star with...

  19. Sports Stars Shine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Alive and exciting award ceremony drew the attention of numerous Chinese households on the night of January 15.The most popular Chinese sports stars attended the 2011 CCTV Sports Personality Award Ceremony at the National Indoor Stadium in Beijing.

  20. Notes on Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Krumholz, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the field of star formation at a level suitable for graduate students or advanced undergraduates in astronomy or physics. The structure of the book is as follows. The first two chapters begin with a discussion of observational techniques, and the basic phenomenology they reveal. The goal is to familiarize students with the basic techniques that will be used throughout, and to provide a common vocabulary for the rest of the book. The next five chapters provide a similar review of the basic physical processes that are important for star formation. Again, the goal is to provide a basis for what follows. The remaining chapters discuss star formation over a variety of scales, starting with the galactic scale and working down to the scales of individual stars and their disks. The book concludes with a brief discussion of the clearing of disks and the transition to planet formation. The book includes five problem sets, complete with solutions.

  1. Young massive star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwart, Simon Portegies; Gieles, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Young massive clusters are dense aggregates of young stars that form the fundamental building blocks of galaxies. Several examples exist in the Milky Way Galaxy and the Local Group, but they are particularly abundant in starburst and interacting galaxies. The few young massive clusters that are close enough to resolve are of prime interest for studying the stellar mass function and the ecological interplay between stellar evolution and stellar dynamics. The distant unresolved clusters may be effectively used to study the star-cluster mass function, and they provide excellent constraints on the formation mechanisms of young cluster populations. Young massive clusters are expected to be the nurseries for many unusual objects, including a wide range of exotic stars and binaries. So far only a few such objects have been found in young massive clusters, although their older cousins, the globular clusters, are unusually rich in stellar exotica. In this review we focus on star clusters younger than $\\sim100$\\,Myr, m...

  2. Star Formation Rate Indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Calzetti, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    What else can be said about star formation rate indicators that has not been said already many times over? The `coming of age' of large ground-based surveys and the unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and/or field-of-view of infrared and ultraviolet space missions have provided extensive, homogeneous data on both nearby and distant galaxies, which have been used to further our understanding of the strengths and pitfalls of many common star formation rate indicators. The synergy between these surveys has also enabled the calibration of indicators for use on scales that are comparable to those of star-forming regions, thus much smaller than an entire galaxy. These are being used to investigate star formation processes at the sub-galactic scale. I review progress in the field over the past decade or so.

  3. Hierarchical Star-Formation in M33: Fundamental properties of the star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Bastian, N; Gieles, M; Rosolowsky, E; Scheepmaker, R A; Gutermuth, R; Efremov, Yu N

    2007-01-01

    Star-formation within galaxies appears on multiple scales, from spiral structure, to OB associations, to individual star clusters, and often sub-structure within these clusters. This multitude of scales calls for objective methods to find and classify star-forming regions, regardless of spatial size. To this end, we present an analysis of star-forming groups in the local group spiral galaxy M33, based on a new implementation of the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) method. Unlike previous studies which limited themselves to a single spatial scale, we study star-forming structures from the effective resolution limit (~20pc) to kpc scales. We find evidence for a continuum of star-forming group sizes, from pc to kpc scales. We do not find a characteristic scale for OB associations, unlike that found in previous studies, and we suggest that the appearance of such a scale was caused by spatial resolution and selection effects. The luminosity function of the groups is found to be well represented by a power-law with an i...

  4. Young low mass stars in the vicinity of Sigma Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael R.; Wilking, Bruce A.; Zinnecker, Hans

    1993-01-01

    The region near Sigma Scorpii, a member of the Sco-Cen OB association, is examined for signs of recent star formation. Thirteen candidate young stellar objects are identified over an 80 x 80 arcmin region centered on Sigma Sco using the Point source Catalog and a recent survey for H-alpha emission-line stars. Near-infrared photometry, improved IRAS fluxes, and optical spectra are used to determine the nature of these objects. Four definite young stars are revealed, as well as one additional such object that fell just outside of the present target region. These stars, all of spectral type K or M, are argued to have formed in the vicinity of the B1 giant star Sigma Scorpii and to represent a subsample of the low-mass members of the association.

  5. Alkaline broadening in Stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Kertanguy, A

    2015-01-01

    Giving new insight for line broadening theory for atoms with more structure than hydrogen in most stars. Using symbolic software to build precise wave functions corrected for ds;dp quantum defects. The profiles obtained with that approach, have peculiar trends, narrower than hydrogen, all quantum defects used are taken from atomic database topbase. Illustration of stronger effects of ions and electrons on the alkaline profiles, than neutral-neutral collision mechanism. Keywords : Stars: fundamental parameters - Atomic processes - Line: profiles.

  6. Mimetic Compact Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Momeni, D; Gholizade, H; Myrzakulov, R

    2015-01-01

    Modified gravity models have been constantly proposed with the purpose of evading some standard gravity shortcomings. Recently proposed by A.H. Chamseddine and V. Mukhanov, the Mimetic Gravity arises as an optimistic alternative. Our purpose in this work is to derive Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations and solutions for such a gravity theory. We solve them numerically for quark star and neutron star cases. The results are carefully discussed.

  7. Traces for Star Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutt, S.

    In this paper, I describe about a direct elementary proof of the existence of an essentially unique trace for an arbitrary star product on a symplectic manifold and about the construction of traces for some star products on the dual of a Lie algebra. The first topic is a joint work with J. Rawnsley and will appear in [J. Geom. Phys.] the second topic is part of a joint project with P. Bieliavsky, M. Bordemann and S. Waldmann [math. QA/0202126].

  8. Star Algebra Projectors

    OpenAIRE

    Gaiotto, Davide; Rastelli, Leonardo; Sen, Ashoke; Zwiebach, Barton

    2002-01-01

    Surface states are open string field configurations which arise from Riemann surfaces with a boundary and form a subalgebra of the star algebra. We find that a general class of star algebra projectors arise from surface states where the open string midpoint reaches the boundary of the surface. The projector property of the state and the split nature of its wave-functional arise because of a nontrivial feature of conformal maps of nearly degenerate surfaces. Moreover, all such projectors are i...

  9. FEROS Finds a Strange Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    responsible for the overall design and construction, as well as the data reduction software; this institution was also involved in the construction of the first major instrument for the VLT, FORS. The Copenhagen University Observatory provided the detector controller and took care of the associated installation and tests. ESO supplied the first concept for the new spectrograph, its infrastructure, the fibre link between the telescope and the instrument, and the CCD detector by means of which the spectra are recorded. FEROS is a rather unique instrument. It combines a very large spectral coverage from the near-ultraviolet to the infrared region of the spectrum (360 to 920 nm, altogether 560 nm in one exposure) and a high resolving power. The full spectral range is divided into about 100,000 separate pixels, each of which corresponds to a velocity interval of about 3 km/sec. Moreover, FEROS is extremely light-efficient for an instrument of this complex type. Despite the large number of optical elements needed to produce exceedingly detailed spectra of very high quality, 46% of the light entering the spectrograph is actually recorded by the detector. FEROS is mounted on an optical bench in an isolated and thermally controlled room next to the telescope and is an extremely stable instrument. It is operated in a very user-friendly way, and the observing astronomer can obtain quick-look results directly at the telescope using the FEROS on-line data reduction pipeline that is integrated into the ESO-MIDAS image processing system. Notes: [1]: In addition to very young stars that have not yet destroyed their "original" Lithium, this element is also found in the upper atmospheres of some peculiar stars of the so-called Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) type. It is believed that this is the result of nuclear burning of the Helium isotope 3 He that has been produced inside such stars during an earlier evolutionary phase. The Lithium is then brought to the surface by means of "convection", i

  10. Water sorption and diffusion in glassy polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric Mikel

    Water sorption and diffusion in glassy polymers is important in many fields, including drug delivery, desalination, energy storage and delivery, and packaging. Accurately measuring and understanding the underlying transport mechanisms of water in these glassy polymers is often complex due to both the nonequilibrium state of the polymer and the self-associating nature of water (e.g., hydrogen bonding). In this work, water sorption and diffusion in a number of glassy polymers were measured using gravimetric and spectroscopic techniques, including quartz spring microbalance, quartz crystal microbalance, and in situ time-resolved Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. Non-Fickian diffusion was observed in all polymers studied, indicated by an initial stage of water uptake, followed by a second stage of continuous, gradual uptake of water at later experimental times. These phenomena were attributed to diffusion driven by a concentration gradient, as well as diffusion driven by slow polymer relaxation resulting in additional water ingress over time. In order to gain additional insight into these phenomena, which are a product of nonequilibrium state of the polymers, diffusion-relaxation models were developed and employed to determine the time scales for both diffusion and polymer relaxation, where the ratio of these values (Deborah number) confirmed the observed non-Fickian water diffusion. In addition, the solubility of water in these polymers was predicted using two nonequilibrium thermodynamic models: the nonequilibrium lattice fluid (NELF) model and the nonequilibrium statistical associating fluid theory (NE-SAFT), where excellent agreement between the NE-SAFT predictions and experimental data was obtained over the entire water vapor activity range explored. Furthermore, the states of water were analyzed using the Zimm-Lundberg clustering theory, as well as in situ FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, where the latter technique provides a

  11. Potential drug delivery system: study of the association of a model nitroimidazole drug with aggregates of amphiphilic polymers on aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constain Hugo Salamanca Mejia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the association of N-hexyl-2-methyl-4-nitroimidazol, a model drug, to aggregates formed by anionic polyelectrolytes on aqueous solution. The alternating copolymers of maleic anhydride and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone were synthesized and then modified by reaction of the anhydride groups with aliphatic amines and alcohols of varying length of the alkyl chain. The partition of the model drug between water and the hydrophobic microdomains provided by the copolymers was studied using the pseudo-phase model to determinate the distribution coefficient K S, and the standard free energy of transfer ∆µ°t. The results indicate that all copolymers assessed are potential pharmaceutical reservoirs of the model drug. Nevertheless, the solubility of N-hexyl-2-methyl-4-nitroimidazol on the polymeric solutions is independent from the length of the alkyl chain of the copolymer.Realizou-se estudo sobre a associação da N-hexil-2-metil-4-nitroimidazol, fármaco modelo, aos agregados formados por polieletrólitos aniônicos em solução aquosa. Os copolímeros alternados de anidrido maléico e N-vinil-2-pirrolidona foram sintetizados e, em seguida, modificados pela reação dos grupos de anidrido com aminas e álcoois alifáticos de duração variável da cadeia alquílica. A partição do fármaco modelo entre a água e os microdomínios hidrofóbicos fornecido pelos copolímeros foi estudada usando o modelo de pseudo-fase, a fim de determinar a distribuição do coeficiente K S e a energia livre padrão de transferência ∆µ°t. Os resultados indicam que todos os copolímeros avaliados são potenciais reservatórios farmacêuticos do fármaco. No entanto, a solubilidade do N-hexil-2-metil-4-nitroimidazol sobre as soluções poliméricas é independente do comprimento da cadeia alquílica do copolímero.

  12. Triclosan antimicrobial polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Petersen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Triclosan antimicrobial molecular fluctuating energies of nonbonding electron pairs for the oxygen atom by ether bond rotations are reviewed with conformational computational chemistry analyses. Subsequent understanding of triclosan alternating ether bond rotations is able to help explain several material properties in Polymer Science. Unique bond rotation entanglements between triclosan and the polymer chains increase both the mechanical properties of polymer toughness and strength that are enhanced even better through secondary bonding relationships. Further, polymer blend compatibilization is considered due to similar molecular relationships and polarities. With compatibilization of triclosan in polymers a more uniform stability for nonpolar triclosan in the polymer solid state is retained by the antimicrobial for extremely low release with minimum solubility into aqueous solution. As a result, triclosan is projected for long extended lifetimes as an antimicrobial polymer additive. Further, triclosan rapid alternating ether bond rotations disrupt secondary bonding between chain monomers in the resin state to reduce viscosity and enhance polymer blending. Thus, triclosan is considered for a polymer additive with multiple properties to be an antimicrobial with additional benefits as a nonpolar toughening agent and a hydrophobic wetting agent. The triclosan material relationships with alternating ether bond rotations are described through a complete different form of medium by comparisons with known antimicrobial properties that upset bacterial cell membranes through rapid fluctuating mechanomolecular energies. Also, triclosan bond entanglements with secondary bonding can produce structural defects in weak bacterial lipid membranes requiring pliability that can then interfere with cell division. Regarding applications with polymers, triclosan can be incorporated by mixing into a resin system before cure, melt mixed with thermoplastic polymers

  13. Star trackers for attitude determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian

    1995-01-01

    CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The instruments are called star trackers and they are capable of determining the attitude with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond. The concept of the star tracker is explained. The obtainable accuracy is calculated, the numbers of stars to be included in the...... star catalogue are discussed and the acquisition of the initial attitude is explained. Finally the commercial market for star trackers is discussed...

  14. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Ruisi Zhang; Yuanfen Chen; Reza Montazami

    2015-01-01

    Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol %) were characterized for their electrochemi...

  15. The onset of cluster formation around Herbig Ae/Be stars

    OpenAIRE

    Testi, L.; Palla, F.; Natta, A.

    1998-01-01

    The large body of near infrared observations presented in Testi et al. (1997; 1998) are analysed with the aim of characterizing the young stellar clusters surrounding Herbig Ae/Be stars. The results confirm the tendency of early Be stars to be surrounded by dense clusters of lower mass "companions", while Ae stars are never found to be associated with conspicuous groups. The transition between the different environments appears to occur smoothly from Ae to Be stars without a sharp threshold. ...

  16. Astrophysical problems of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Due to the recent discovery of 2 solar mass neutron stars in a neutron star - white dwarf binary, many soft neutron star equations of states are ruled out. On the other hand, all well-measured neutron star masses in double neutron star binaries are still below 1.5 solar mass. In this review talk, we would like to summarize the current status of neutron star mass observations and discuss the possibility of supercritical accretion during the neutron star binary evolution. We argue that the fate of the supercritical accretion strongly depends on the type of neutron star companion. The first-born neutron star in neutron star-white dwarf binaries can accrete significant amount of matter after its formation. Consequently, neutron star masses in neutron star-white dwarf binaries can be significantly higher than those of fresh neutron stars. On the other hand, neutron stars in double neutron star binaries that are observed don't have enough time to accrete and remain more or less the same as they are born. (author)

  17. Captured older stars as the reason for apparently prolonged star formation in young star clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    The existence of older stars within a young star cluster can be interpreted to imply that star formation occurs on time scales longer than a free-fall time of a pre-cluster cloud core. Here the idea is explored that these older stars are not related to the star formation process forming the young star cluster but rather that the orbits of older field stars are focused by the collapsing pre-cluster cloud core. Two effects appear: The focussing of stellar orbits leads to an enhancement of the d...

  18. Pre-main sequence stars, emission stars and recent star formation in the Cygnus Region

    OpenAIRE

    B, Bhavya; Mathew, Blesson; Subramaniam, Annapurni

    2008-01-01

    The recent star formation history in the Cygnus region is studied using 5 clusters (IC 4996, NGC 6910, Berkeley 87, Biurakan 2 and Berkeley 86). The optical data from the literature are combined with the 2MASS data to identify the pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars as stars with near IR excess. We identified 93 pre-MS stars and 9 stars with H$_\\alpha$ emission spectra. The identified pre-MS stars are used to estimate the turn-on age of the clusters. The duration of star formation was estimated ...

  19. Convergence of the Gutt Star Product

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Chiara; Stapor, Paul; Waldmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider the Gutt star product viewed as an associative deformation of the symmetric algebra S^\\bullet(g) over a Lie algebra g and discuss its continuity properties: we establish a locally convex topology on S^\\bullet(g) such that the Gutt star product becomes continuous. Here we have to assume a mild technical condition on g: it has to be an Asymptotic Estimate Lie algebra. This condition is e.g. fulfilled automatically for all finite-dimensional Lie algebras. The resulting c...

  20. Gravitational Wave Generation in Rotating Compact Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Endler, Ana Maria; Rodrigues, Hilário; Chiapparini, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    We present a simplified description of a rotating neutron star emitting gravitational waves. We describe the system by an uniformly rotating triaxial homogeneous ellipsoid to catch the main aspects of the evolution. We construct an effective Lagrangian model, in which the kinetic energy associated to the breath mode and rotation are explicitly determined. The rate of gravitational waves radiation is determined in the framework of the weak field limit approximation of Einstein equations. We then solve numerically the equations of motion for the nascent neutron star, incorporating the diffusion of neutrinos in the calculation.

  1. Hot Subluminous Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most hot subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion processes that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. Hot subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW

  2. A Literature Review on the Study of Moisture in Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautschold, Olivia Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-25

    This literature review covers the main chemical and physical interactions between moisture and the polymer matrix. Fickian versus Non-Fickian diffusion behaviors are discussed in approximating the characteristics of moisture sorption. Also, bound water and free water sorbed in polymers are distinguished. Methods to distinguish between bound and free water include differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The difference between moisture sorption and water sorption is considered, as well as the difficulties associated with preventing moisture sorption. Furthermore, specific examples of how moisture sorption influences polymers include natural fiber-polymer composites, starch-based biodegradable thermoplastics, and thermoset polyurethane and epoxies.

  3. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically...... invisible polymer coatings....

  4. Polymer light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study sandwich type semiconducting polymer light emitting diodes; anode/polymer/cathode. ITO is selected as anode, this polymer is a blend of a commercially available polymer with a high hole transport ability: polyvinyl-carbazole and a laser dye: coumarin-515. Magnesium covered with silver is chosen for the anode. We study the influence of polymer thickness and coumarin doping ratio on electroluminescence spectrum, electric characteristics and quantum efficiency. An important drawback is that diodes lifetime remains low. In the second part of our study we determine degradations causes with X-Ray reflectivity experiments. It may be due to ITO very high roughness. We realize a new type of planar electroluminescent device: a channel type electroluminescent device in which polymer layer is inserted into an aluminium channel. Such a device is by far more stable than using classical sandwich structures with the same polymer composition: indeed, charges are generated by internal-field ionization and there is no injection from the electrode to the polymer. This avoids electrochemical reactions at electrodes, thus reducing degradations routes. (author)

  5. Polymer bank notes

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Lang; John Barry

    1999-01-01

    On 3 May 1999 the Bank issued a new $20 bank note into circulation that had been printed on a polymer substrate. This article traces the history of polymer, briefly describes the process of production, and highlights the benefits of the substrate and the implications for the future of bank note handling within the country.

  6. Polymers in Waveguide Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyi Zhang; G. Z.Xiao; Jiaren Liu; C. P. Grover

    2003-01-01

    Polymers were successfully used in the packaging of waveguide-based photonic components in the area of fiber-to-waveguide coupling, waveguide die attachment, strain relief, and waveguide encapsulation. The application results of these polymers were described in this paper.

  7. Stiff Quantum Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinert, H

    2007-01-01

    At ultralow temperatures, polymers exhibit quantum behavior, which is calculated here for the second and fourth moments of the end-to-end distribution in the large-stiffness regime. The result should be measurable for polymers in wide optical traps.

  8. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials (DCPM) with tunable resonance frequencies have been developed by adding plasmonic inclusions into chiral polymers with variable...

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Polymers for Functional and Stimuli Responsive Silicon Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Kalpana

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of a variety of novel functionalized polymers using living polymerization techniques to achieve functional and stimuli responsive coatings on silica surfaces are described. Since microscopic features on a surface influence the overall wetting properties of the surface, a systematic investigation of the influence of polymer architecture on the microscopic characteristics of the modified surfaces was studied using silane-functionalized linear and novel star-branched polystyrene (...

  10. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  11. Polymer wear evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerbon, Mikkel; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2012-01-01

    Polymer wear plays an increasing role in manufacturing of machine parts for e.g. medical devices. Some of these have an expected lifetime of five to eight years during which very little wear of the components is acceptable. Too much wear compromises the dosage accuracy of the device and thereby the...... safety of the patients. Prediction of the wear of polymers is complicated by the low thermal conductivity of this kind of material. It implies that any acceleration of testing conditions by increased contact pressure and/or sliding velocity will make the polymer fail due to exaggerated heat buildup. This...... is not the kind of wear observed in medical devices. In the present work a method was developed capable of evaluating the wear progression in polymer-polymer contacts. The configuration of the setup is injection moulded specimens consisting of an upper part having a toroid shape and a lower flat part...

  12. Theory of polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently developed a new theoretical approach to the study of polymer liquids. The theory is based on the ''reference interaction site model'' (RISM theory) of Chandler and Andersen, which has been successful in describing the structure of small molecule liquids. We have recently extended our polymer RISM theory to the case of polymer blends. In the present investigation we have applied this theory to two special binary blends: (1) the athermal mixture where we isolate structural effects, and (2) the isotopic mixture in which structurally identical polymer chains interact with dissimilar attractive interactions. By studying these two special cases we are able to obtain insights into the molecular factors which control the miscibility in polymer mixtures. 18 refs., 2 figs

  13. Semiconducting polymer LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Braun

    2002-06-01

    The field of semiconducting polymers has its root in the 1977 discovery of the semiconducting properties of polyacetylene1. This breakthrough earned Alan Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for ‘the discovery and development of conductive polymers’2–5. Other review articles capture how more than two decades of developments in the physical and chemical understanding of these novel materials has led to new device applications as active and passive electronic and optoelectronic devices ranging from diodes and transistors to polymer LEDs, photodiodes, lasers, and solar cells6–11. Much interest in plastic devices derives from the opportunities to use clever control of polymer structure combined with relatively economical polymer synthesis and processing techniques to obtain simultaneous control over electronic, optical, chemical, and mechanical features5. This article focuses on the advances leading to polymer LEDs12–14.

  14. Electroactive polymers for sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiesheng; Farajollahi, Meisam; Choi, Yeon Sik; Lin, I-Ting; Marshall, Jean E; Thompson, Noel M; Kar-Narayan, Sohini; Madden, John D W; Smoukov, Stoyan K

    2016-08-01

    Electromechanical coupling in electroactive polymers (EAPs) has been widely applied for actuation and is also being increasingly investigated for sensing chemical and mechanical stimuli. EAPs are a unique class of materials, with low-moduli high-strain capabilities and the ability to conform to surfaces of different shapes. These features make them attractive for applications such as wearable sensors and interfacing with soft tissues. Here, we review the major types of EAPs and their sensing mechanisms. These are divided into two classes depending on the main type of charge carrier: ionic EAPs (such as conducting polymers and ionic polymer-metal composites) and electronic EAPs (such as dielectric elastomers, liquid-crystal polymers and piezoelectric polymers). This review is intended to serve as an introduction to the mechanisms of these materials and as a first step in material selection for both researchers and designers of flexible/bendable devices, biocompatible sensors or even robotic tactile sensing units. PMID:27499846

  15. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents a state-of-the-art review in the field of ion implantation of polymers. Numerous published studies of polymers modified by ion beams are analysed. General aspects of ion stopping, latent track formation and changes of structure and composition of organic materials...... are discussed. Related to that, the effects of radiothermolysis, degassing and carbonisation are considered. Specificity of depth distributions of implanted into polymers impurities is analysed and the case of high-fluence implantation is emphasised. Within rather broad topic of ion bombardment, the focus...... is put on the low-energy implantation of metal ions causing the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in the shallow polymer layers. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of metal/polymer composites are under the discussion and the approaches towards practical applications are overviewed....

  16. Carbon Stars in the Hamburg/ESO Survey: Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G; McWilliam, A; Melendez, J; Ramírez, S; Shectman, S; Swensson, A; Thompson, I; Zickgraf, F J; Christlieb, Norbert; Cohen, Judith G.; Melendez, Jorge; Ramirez, Solange; Shectman, Stephen; Swensson, Amber; Thompson, Ian; William, Andrew Mc; Zickgraf, Franz-Josef

    2006-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed abundance analysis for a sample of 16 carbon stars found among candidate extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. We find that the Fe-metallicities for the cooler C-stars (Teff ~ 5100K) have been underestimated by a factor of ~10 by the standard HES survey tools. The results presented here provided crucial supporting data used by Cohen et al (2006) to derive the frequency of C-stars among EMP stars. C-enhancement in these EMP C-stars appears to be independent of Fe-metallicity and approximately constant at ~1/5 the solar C/H. The mostly low C12/C13 ratios (~4) and the high N abundances in many of these stars suggest that material which has been through proton burning via the CN cycle comprises most of the stellar envelope. C-enhancement is associated with strong enrichment of heavy nuclei beyond the Fe-peak for 12 of the 16 stars. The remaining C-stars from the HES, which tend to be the most Fe-metal poor, show no evidence for enhancement of the heavy elemen...

  17. Review on Rare Earth/Polymer Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘力; 刘美琳; 等

    2002-01-01

    The epecial properties of rare earth/polymer composite were described.More emphasis was put on the radiation shielding and magnetic properties,In the application to X-ray shielding,rare earth/polymer composite can make up the feeble absorbing area.If the rare earth content is high enough,it can demonstrate strong ability for thermal neutron absorption,The composite has strong paramagnetism.The feasibility of preparing magnetic rare earth/polymer compostite was discussed,In addition,three preparation methods were introducde:simlle polymerization,mixing and reaction processing,The effect of the rare earth/polymer composties pre-sturcture and the coordinate number of rare eatrh ions on the light property was analyzed,Rare earth/polmer compostie may have the structure and property simlar to those of the ionomer,The feasibility of the in-situ preparation of the rare earth/polymer nano structure is indicated ,Besides,the relationship between struchture and properties of the rare earth/polymer composite was discussed,The problems associated with such composite materials were also presented.

  18. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  19. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  20. High mass star formation in the galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, N. Z.; Good, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Galactic distributions of HI, H2, and HII regions are reviewed in order to elucidate the high mass star formation occurring in galactic spiral arms and in active galactic nuclei. Comparison of the large scale distributions of H2 gas and radio HII regions reveals that the rate of formation of OB stars depends on (n sub H2) sup 1.9 where (n sub H2) is the local mean density of H2 averaged over 300 pc scale lengths. In addition the efficiency of high mass star formation is a decreasing function of cloud mass in the range 200,000 to 3,000,000 solar mass. These results suggest that high mass star formation in the galactic disk is initiated by cloud-cloud collisions which are more frequent in the spiral arms due to orbit crowding. Cloud-cloud collisions may also be responsible for high rates of OB star formation in interacting galaxies and galactic nuclei. Based on analysis of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) and CO data for selected GMCs in the Galaxy, the ratio L sub IR/M sub H2 can be as high as 30 solar luminosity/solar mass for GMCs associated with HII regions. The L sub IR/M sub H2 ratios and dust temperature obtained in many of the high luminosity IRAS galaxies are similar to those encountered in galactic GMCs with OB star formation. High mass star formation is therefore a viable explanation for the high infrared luminosity of these galaxies.