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Sample records for associative flow rule

  1. Cost efficiency of the non-associative flow rule simulation of an industrial component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, Lander; de Argandoña, Eneko Saenz; Mendiguren, Joseba

    2017-10-01

    In the last decade, metal forming industry is becoming more and more competitive. In this context, the FEM modeling has become a primary tool of information for the component and process design. Numerous researchers have been focused on improving the accuracy of the material models implemented on the FEM in order to improve the efficiency of the simulations. Aimed at increasing the efficiency of the anisotropic behavior modelling, in the last years the use of non-associative flow rule models (NAFR) has been presented as an alternative to the classic associative flow rule models (AFR). In this work, the cost efficiency of the used flow rule model has been numerically analyzed by simulating an industrial drawing operation with two different models of the same degree of flexibility: one AFR model and one NAFR model. From the present study, it has been concluded that the flow rule has a negligible influence on the final drawing prediction; this is mainly driven by the model parameter identification procedure. Even though the NAFR formulation is complex when compared to the AFR, the present study shows that the total simulation time while using explicit FE solvers has been reduced without loss of accuracy. Furthermore, NAFR formulations have an advantage over AFR formulations in parameter identification because the formulation decouples the yield stress and the Lankford coefficients.

  2. Split-Ring Springback Simulations with the Non-associated Flow Rule and Evolutionary Elastic-Plasticity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. J.; Choi, Y.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y.; Lee, M. G.

    2018-06-01

    Finite element simulations and experiments for the split-ring test were conducted to investigate the effect of anisotropic constitutive models on the predictive capability of sheet springback. As an alternative to the commonly employed associated flow rule, a non-associated flow rule for Hill1948 yield function was implemented in the simulations. Moreover, the evolution of anisotropy with plastic deformation was efficiently modeled by identifying equivalent plastic strain-dependent anisotropic coefficients. Comparative study with different yield surfaces and elasticity models showed that the split-ring springback could be best predicted when the anisotropy in both the R value and yield stress, their evolution and variable apparent elastic modulus were taken into account in the simulations. Detailed analyses based on deformation paths superimposed on the anisotropic yield functions predicted by different constitutive models were provided to understand the complex springback response in the split-ring test.

  3. Class Association Rule Pada Metode Associative Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Karyawati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequent patterns (itemsets discovery is an important problem in associative classification rule mining.  Differents approaches have been proposed such as the Apriori-like, Frequent Pattern (FP-growth, and Transaction Data Location (Tid-list Intersection algorithm. This paper focuses on surveying and comparing the state of the art associative classification techniques with regards to the rule generation phase of associative classification algorithms.  This phase includes frequent itemsets discovery and rules mining/extracting methods to generate the set of class association rules (CARs.  There are some techniques proposed to improve the rule generation method.  A technique by utilizing the concepts of discriminative power of itemsets can reduce the size of frequent itemset.  It can prune the useless frequent itemsets. The closed frequent itemset concept can be utilized to compress the rules to be compact rules.  This technique may reduce the size of generated rules.  Other technique is in determining the support threshold value of the itemset. Specifying not single but multiple support threshold values with regard to the class label frequencies can give more appropriate support threshold value.  This technique may generate more accurate rules. Alternative technique to generate rule is utilizing the vertical layout to represent dataset.  This method is very effective because it only needs one scan over dataset, compare with other techniques that need multiple scan over dataset.   However, one problem with these approaches is that the initial set of tid-lists may be too large to fit into main memory. It requires more sophisticated techniques to compress the tid-lists.

  4. Evolving temporal association rules with genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Stephen G.; Gongora, Mario A.; Hopgood, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel framework for mining temporal association rules by discovering itemsets with a genetic algorithm is introduced. Metaheuristics have been applied to association rule mining, we show the efficacy of extending this to another variant - temporal association rule mining. Our framework is an enhancement to existing temporal association rule mining methods as it employs a genetic algorithm to simultaneously search the rule space and temporal space. A methodology for validating the ability of...

  5. New probabilistic interest measures for association rules

    OpenAIRE

    Hahsler, Michael; Hornik, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Mining association rules is an important technique for discovering meaningful patterns in transaction databases. Many different measures of interestingness have been proposed for association rules. However, these measures fail to take the probabilistic properties of the mined data into account. In this paper, we start with presenting a simple probabilistic framework for transaction data which can be used to simulate transaction data when no associations are present. We use such data and a rea...

  6. Association-rule-based tuberculosis disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, T.; Natarajan, S.; Murthy, K. N. B.

    2010-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It usually spreads through the air and attacks low immune bodies such as patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This work focuses on finding close association rules, a promising technique in Data Mining, within TB data. The proposed method first normalizes of raw data from medical records which includes categorical, nominal and continuous attributes and then determines Association Rules from the normalized data with different support and confidence. Association rules are applied on a real data set containing medical records of patients with TB obtained from a state hospital. The rules determined describes close association between one symptom to another; as an example, likelihood that an occurrence of sputum is closely associated with blood cough and HIV.

  7. On construction of partial association rules

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail; Piliszczuk, Marcin; Zielosko, Beata Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of approximate algorithms for minimization of partial association rule length. It is shown that under some natural assumptions on the class NP, a greedy algorithm is close to the best polynomial approximate

  8. On construction of partial association rules

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of approximate algorithms for minimization of partial association rule length. It is shown that under some natural assumptions on the class NP, a greedy algorithm is close to the best polynomial approximate algorithms for solving of this NP-hard problem. The paper contains various bounds on precision of the greedy algorithm, bounds on minimal length of rules based on an information obtained during greedy algorithm work, and results of the study of association rules for the most part of binary information systems. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Support-Less Association Rule Mining Using Tuple Count Cube

    OpenAIRE

    Qin Ding; William Perrizo

    2007-01-01

    Association rule mining is one of the important tasks in data mining and knowledge discovery (KDD). The traditional task of association rule mining is to find all the rules with high support and high confidence. In some applications, we are interested in finding high confidence rules even though the support may be low. This type of problem differs from the traditional association rule mining problem; hence, it is called support-less association rule mining. Existing algorithms for association...

  10. A Collaborative Educational Association Rule Mining Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Enrique; Romero, Cristobal; Ventura, Sebastian; de Castro, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative educational data mining tool based on association rule mining for the ongoing improvement of e-learning courses and allowing teachers with similar course profiles to share and score the discovered information. The mining tool is oriented to be used by non-expert instructors in data mining so its internal…

  11. Dynamic Programming Approach for Construction of Association Rule Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2016-11-18

    In the paper, an application of dynamic programming approach for optimization of association rules from the point of view of knowledge representation is considered. The association rule set is optimized in two stages, first for minimum cardinality and then for minimum length of rules. Experimental results present cardinality of the set of association rules constructed for information system and lower bound on minimum possible cardinality of rule set based on the information obtained during algorithm work as well as obtained results for length.

  12. Dynamic Programming Approach for Construction of Association Rule Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz; Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, an application of dynamic programming approach for optimization of association rules from the point of view of knowledge representation is considered. The association rule set is optimized in two stages, first for minimum cardinality and then for minimum length of rules. Experimental results present cardinality of the set of association rules constructed for information system and lower bound on minimum possible cardinality of rule set based on the information obtained during algorithm work as well as obtained results for length.

  13. Gain ratio based fuzzy weighted association rule mining classifier for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    association rule mining algorithm for extracting both association rules and member- .... The disadvantage of this work is in considering the generalization at each ... If the new attribute is entered, the generalization process does not consider the ...

  14. Integrated Association Rules Complete Hiding Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Refaat Abdellah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents database security approach for complete hiding of sensitive association rules by using six novel algorithms. These algorithms utilize three new weights to reduce the needed database modifications and support complete hiding, as well as they reduce the knowledge distortion and the data distortions. Complete weighted hiding algorithms enhance the hiding failure by 100%; these algorithms have the advantage of performing only a single scan for the database to gather the required information to form the hiding process. These proposed algorithms are built within the database structure which enables the sanitized database to be generated on run time as needed.

  15. Mining Hesitation Information by Vague Association Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, An; Ng, Wilfred

    In many online shopping applications, such as Amazon and eBay, traditional Association Rule (AR) mining has limitations as it only deals with the items that are sold but ignores the items that are almost sold (for example, those items that are put into the basket but not checked out). We say that those almost sold items carry hesitation information, since customers are hesitating to buy them. The hesitation information of items is valuable knowledge for the design of good selling strategies. However, there is no conceptual model that is able to capture different statuses of hesitation information. Herein, we apply and extend vague set theory in the context of AR mining. We define the concepts of attractiveness and hesitation of an item, which represent the overall information of a customer's intent on an item. Based on the two concepts, we propose the notion of Vague Association Rules (VARs). We devise an efficient algorithm to mine the VARs. Our experiments show that our algorithm is efficient and the VARs capture more specific and richer information than do the traditional ARs.

  16. Greedy algorithms withweights for construction of partial association rules

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail; Piliszczu, Marcin; Zielosko, Beata Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of approximate algorithms for minimization of the total weight of attributes occurring in partial association rules. We consider mainly greedy algorithms with weights for construction of rules. The paper contains bounds on precision of these algorithms and bounds on the minimal weight of partial association rules based on an information obtained during the greedy algorithm run.

  17. Greedy algorithms withweights for construction of partial association rules

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2009-09-10

    This paper is devoted to the study of approximate algorithms for minimization of the total weight of attributes occurring in partial association rules. We consider mainly greedy algorithms with weights for construction of rules. The paper contains bounds on precision of these algorithms and bounds on the minimal weight of partial association rules based on an information obtained during the greedy algorithm run.

  18. Knowledge Flow Rules of Modern Design under Distributed Resource Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junning Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of modern design under the distributed resource environment is interpreted as the process of knowledge flow and integration. As the acquisition of new knowledge strongly depends on resources, knowledge flow can be influenced by technical, economic, and social relation factors, and so forth. In order to achieve greater efficiency of knowledge flow and make the product more competitive, the root causes of the above factors should be acquired first. In this paper, the authors attempt to reveal the nature of design knowledge flow from the perspectives of fluid dynamics and energy. The knowledge field effect and knowledge agglomeration effect are analyzed, respectively, in which the knowledge field effect model considering single task node and the single knowledge energy model in the knowledge flow are established, then the general expression of knowledge energy conservation with consideration of the kinetic energy and potential energy of knowledge is built. Then, the knowledge flow rules and their influential factors including complete transfer and incomplete transfer of design knowledge are studied. Finally, the coupling knowledge flows in the knowledge service platform for modern design are analyzed to certify the feasibility of the research work.

  19. Quantum algorithm for association rules mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao-Hua; Gao, Fei; Wang, Qing-Le; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Association rules mining (ARM) is one of the most important problems in knowledge discovery and data mining. Given a transaction database that has a large number of transactions and items, the task of ARM is to acquire consumption habits of customers by discovering the relationships between itemsets (sets of items). In this paper, we address ARM in the quantum settings and propose a quantum algorithm for the key part of ARM, finding frequent itemsets from the candidate itemsets and acquiring their supports. Specifically, for the case in which there are Mf(k ) frequent k -itemsets in the Mc(k ) candidate k -itemsets (Mf(k )≤Mc(k ) ), our algorithm can efficiently mine these frequent k -itemsets and estimate their supports by using parallel amplitude estimation and amplitude amplification with complexity O (k/√{Mc(k )Mf(k ) } ɛ ) , where ɛ is the error for estimating the supports. Compared with the classical counterpart, i.e., the classical sampling-based algorithm, whose complexity is O (k/Mc(k ) ɛ2) , our quantum algorithm quadratically improves the dependence on both ɛ and Mc(k ) in the best case when Mf(k )≪Mc(k ) and on ɛ alone in the worst case when Mf(k )≈Mc(k ) .

  20. A Novel Texture Classification Procedure by using Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jaba Sheela

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Texture can be defined as a local statistical pattern of texture primitives in observer’s domain of interest. Texture classification aims to assign texture labels to unknown textures, according to training samples and classification rules. Association rules have been used in various applications during the past decades. Association rules capture both structural and statistical information, and automatically identify the structures that occur most frequently and relationships that have significant discriminative power. So, association rules can be adapted to capture frequently occurring local structures in textures. This paper describes the usage of association rules for texture classification problem. The performed experimental studies show the effectiveness of the association rules. The overall success rate is about 98%.

  1. A Template Model for Multidimensional Inter-Transactional Association Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, L.; Yu, J.X.; Lu, H.J.; Han, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Multidimensional inter-transactional association rules extend the traditional association rules to describe more general associations among items with multiple properties across transactions. “After McDonald and Burger King open branches, KFC will open a branch two months later and one mile away��?

  2. Optimizing Environmental Flow Operation Rules based on Explicit IHA Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongnan, L.; Wan, W.; Zhao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-objective operation of reservoirs are increasingly asked to consider the environmental flow to support ecosystem health. Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) is widely used to describe environmental flow regimes, but few studies have explicitly formulated it into optimization models and thus is difficult to direct reservoir release. In an attempt to incorporate the benefit of environmental flow into economic achievement, a two-objective reservoir optimization model is developed and all 33 hydrologic parameters of IHA are explicitly formulated into constraints. The benefit of economic is defined by Hydropower Production (HP) while the benefit of environmental flow is transformed into Eco-Index (EI) that combined 5 of the 33 IHA parameters chosen by principal component analysis method. Five scenarios (A to E) with different constraints are tested and solved by nonlinear programming. The case study of Jing Hong reservoir, located in the upstream of Mekong basin, China, shows: 1. A Pareto frontier is formed by maximizing on only HP objective in scenario A and on only EI objective in scenario B. 2. Scenario D using IHA parameters as constraints obtains the optimal benefits of both economic and ecological. 3. A sensitive weight coefficient is found in scenario E, but the trade-offs between HP and EI objectives are not within the Pareto frontier. 4. When the fraction of reservoir utilizable capacity reaches 0.8, both HP and EI capture acceptable values. At last, to make this modelmore conveniently applied to everyday practice, a simplified operation rule curve is extracted.

  3. Finding Exception For Association Rules Via SQL Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita DUMITRIU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding association rules is mainly based on generating larger and larger frequent set candidates, starting from frequent attributes in the database. The frequent sets can be organised as a part of a lattice of concepts according to the Formal Concept Analysis approach. Since the lattice construction is database contents-dependent, the pseudo-intents (see Formal Concept Analysis are avoided. Association rules between concept intents (closed sets A=>B are partial implication rules, meaning that there is some data supporting A and (not B; fully explaining the data requires finding exceptions for the association rules. The approach applies to Oracle databases, via SQL queries.

  4. Class association rules mining from students’ test data (Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, C.; Ventura, S.; Vasilyeva, E.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Baker, de R.S.J.; Merceron, A.; Pavlik Jr., P.I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose the use of a special type of association rules mining for discovering interesting relationships from the students’ test data collected in our case with Moodle learning management system (LMS). Particularly, we apply Class Association Rule (CAR) mining to different data

  5. Sanitizing sensitive association rules using fuzzy correlation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, S.; Shahzad, F.; Asghar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Data mining is used to extract useful information hidden in the data. Sometimes this extraction of information leads to revealing sensitive information. Privacy preservation in Data Mining is a process of sanitizing sensitive information. This research focuses on sanitizing sensitive rules discovered in quantitative data. The proposed scheme, Privacy Preserving in Fuzzy Association Rules (PPFAR) is based on fuzzy correlation analysis. In this work, fuzzy set concept is integrated with fuzzy correlation analysis and Apriori algorithm to mark interesting fuzzy association rules. The identified rules are called sensitive. For sanitization, we use modification technique where we substitute maximum value of fuzzy items with zero, which occurs most frequently. Experiments demonstrate that PPFAR method hides sensitive rules with minimum modifications. The technique also maintains the modified data's quality. The PPFAR scheme has applications in various domains e.g. temperature control, medical analysis, travel time prediction, genetic behavior prediction etc. We have validated the results on medical dataset. (author)

  6. Using the interestingness measure lift to generate association rules

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Hussein; Abdallah Alashqur; Bilal Sowan

    2015-01-01

    In this digital age, organizations have to deal with huge amounts of data, sometimes called Big Data. In recent years, the volume of data has increased substantially. Consequently, finding efficient and automated techniques for discovering useful patterns and relationships in the data becomes very important. In data mining, patterns and relationships can be represented in the form of association rules. Current techniques for discovering association rules rely on measures such as support for f...

  7. Effective Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease by Means of Association Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, R.; Ramírez, J.; Górriz, J. M.; López, M.; Salas-Gonzalez, D.; Illán, I.; Segovia, F.; Padilla, P.

    In this paper we present a novel classification method of SPECT images for the early diagnosis of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). The proposed method is based on Association Rules (ARs) aiming to discover interesting associations between attributes contained in the database. The system uses firstly voxel-as-features (VAF) and Activation Estimation (AE) to find tridimensional activated brain regions of interest (ROIs) for each patient. These ROIs act as inputs to secondly mining ARs between activated blocks for controls, with a specified minimum support and minimum confidence. ARs are mined in supervised mode, using information previously extracted from the most discriminant rules for centering interest in the relevant brain areas, reducing the computational requirement of the system. Finally classification process is performed depending on the number of previously mined rules verified by each subject, yielding an up to 95.87% classification accuracy, thus outperforming recent developed methods for AD diagnosis.

  8. COLLABORATIVE NETWORK SECURITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON ASSOCIATION MINING RULE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Mariam Varughese

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Security is one of the major challenges in open network. There are so many types of attacks which follow fixed patterns or frequently change their patterns. It is difficult to find the malicious attack which does not have any fixed patterns. The Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks like Botnets are used to slow down the system performance. To address such problems Collaborative Network Security Management System (CNSMS is proposed along with the association mining rule. CNSMS system is consists of collaborative Unified Threat Management (UTM, cloud based security centre and traffic prober. The traffic prober captures the internet traffic and given to the collaborative UTM. Traffic is analysed by the Collaborative UTM, to determine whether it contains any malicious attack or not. If any security event occurs, it will reports to the cloud based security centre. The security centre generates security rules based on association mining rule and distributes to the network. The cloud based security centre is used to store the huge amount of tragic, their logs and the security rule generated. The feedback is evaluated and the invalid rules are eliminated to improve the system efficiency.

  9. Parental rules and communication: their association with adolescent smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakeh, Z.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Aims - To examine the association between parental rules and communication (also referred to as antismoking socialization) and adolescents’ smoking. Design and participants - A cross-sectional study including 428 Dutch two-parent families with at least two adolescent children (aged

  10. Set-Oriented Mining for Association Rules in Relational Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, M.A.W.; Houtsma, M.A.W.; Swami, A.

    1995-01-01

    Describe set-oriented algorithms for mining association rules. Such algorithms imply performing multiple joins and may appear to be inherently less efficient than special-purpose algorithms. We develop new algorithms that can be expressed as SQL queries, and discuss the optimization of these

  11. Interestingness of association rules in data mining: Issues relevant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    mental changes in many spheres of our daily life. .... concentrate on association rule mining since it features as one of the main data mining tech- ..... years, a lot of work has been done in defining and quantifying 'interestingness. .... a critical effect on both, selection of interesting events and variation of interestingness thresh-.

  12. New scheduling rules for a dynamic flexible flow line problem with sequence-dependent setup times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Hamidreza; Ghodsypour, Seyed Hassan; Davoudpour, Hamid

    2017-09-01

    In the literature, the application of multi-objective dynamic scheduling problem and simple priority rules are widely studied. Although these rules are not efficient enough due to simplicity and lack of general insight, composite dispatching rules have a very suitable performance because they result from experiments. In this paper, a dynamic flexible flow line problem with sequence-dependent setup times is studied. The objective of the problem is minimization of mean flow time and mean tardiness. A 0-1 mixed integer model of the problem is formulated. Since the problem is NP-hard, four new composite dispatching rules are proposed to solve it by applying genetic programming framework and choosing proper operators. Furthermore, a discrete-event simulation model is made to examine the performances of scheduling rules considering four new heuristic rules and the six adapted heuristic rules from the literature. It is clear from the experimental results that composite dispatching rules that are formed from genetic programming have a better performance in minimization of mean flow time and mean tardiness than others.

  13. Dynamic association rules for gene expression data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chung, Cheng-Han; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-10-14

    The purpose of gene expression analysis is to look for the association between regulation of gene expression levels and phenotypic variations. This association based on gene expression profile has been used to determine whether the induction/repression of genes correspond to phenotypic variations including cell regulations, clinical diagnoses and drug development. Statistical analyses on microarray data have been developed to resolve gene selection issue. However, these methods do not inform us of causality between genes and phenotypes. In this paper, we propose the dynamic association rule algorithm (DAR algorithm) which helps ones to efficiently select a subset of significant genes for subsequent analysis. The DAR algorithm is based on association rules from market basket analysis in marketing. We first propose a statistical way, based on constructing a one-sided confidence interval and hypothesis testing, to determine if an association rule is meaningful. Based on the proposed statistical method, we then developed the DAR algorithm for gene expression data analysis. The method was applied to analyze four microarray datasets and one Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) dataset: the Mice Apo A1 dataset, the whole genome expression dataset of mouse embryonic stem cells, expression profiling of the bone marrow of Leukemia patients, Microarray Quality Control (MAQC) data set and the RNA-seq dataset of a mouse genomic imprinting study. A comparison of the proposed method with the t-test on the expression profiling of the bone marrow of Leukemia patients was conducted. We developed a statistical way, based on the concept of confidence interval, to determine the minimum support and minimum confidence for mining association relationships among items. With the minimum support and minimum confidence, one can find significant rules in one single step. The DAR algorithm was then developed for gene expression data analysis. Four gene expression datasets showed that the proposed

  14. Profiling high frequency accident locations using associations rules

    OpenAIRE

    GEURTS, Karolien; WETS, Geert; BRIJS, Tom; VANHOOF, Koen

    2002-01-01

    In Belgium, traffic safety is currently one of the government’s highest priorities. Identifying and profiling black spots and black zones in terms of accident related data and location characteristics must provide new insights into the complexity and causes of road accidents which, in turn, provide valuable input for government actions. In this paper, association rules are used to identify accident circumstances that frequently occur together at high frequency accident locations. Furthermore,...

  15. Profiling high-frequency accident locations using association rules

    OpenAIRE

    GEURTS, Karolien; WETS, Geert; BRIJS, Tom; VANHOOF, Koen

    2003-01-01

    In Belgium, traffic safety is currently one of the government's highest priorities. Identifying and profiling black spots and black zones in terms of accident related data and location characteristics must provide new insights into the complexity and causes of road accidents, which, in ram, provide valuable input for government actions. In this paper, association rules are used to identify accident circumstances that frequently occur together at high frequency accident locations. Furthermore...

  16. Using fuzzy association rule mining in cancer classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoodian, Hamid; Marhaban, M.H.; Abdulrahim, Raha; Rosli, Rozita; Saripan, Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The classification of the cancer tumors based on gene expression profiles has been extensively studied in numbers of studies. A wide variety of cancer datasets have been implemented by the various methods of gene selec tion and classification to identify the behavior of the genes in tumors and find the relationships between them and outcome of diseases. Interpretability of the model, which is developed by fuzzy rules and linguistic variables in this study, has been rarely considered. In addition, creating a fuzzy classifier with high performance in classification that uses a subset of significant genes which have been selected by different types of gene selection methods is another goal of this study. A new algorithm has been developed to identify the fuzzy rules and significant genes based on fuzzy association rule mining. At first, different subset of genes which have been selected by different methods, were used to generate primary fuzzy classifiers separately and then proposed algorithm was implemented to mix the genes which have been associated in the primary classifiers and generate a new classifier. The results show that fuzzy classifier can classify the tumors with high performance while presenting the relationships between the genes by linguistic variables

  17. Association Rule Mining on Five Years of Motor Vehicle Crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daher Jean Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, road accidents kill more than a million people and injure more than 20 million worldwide. This paper aims to offer guidance on road safety and create awareness by pinpointing the major causes of traffic accidents. The study investigates motor vehicle crashes in the Genesee Finger Lakes Region of New York State. Frequency Pattern Growth algorithm is utilized to cultivate knowledge and create association rules to highlight the time and environment settings that cause the most catastrophic crashes. This knowledge can be used to warn drivers about the dangers of accidents, and how the consequences are worse given a specific context. For instance, a discovered rule from the data states that ‘most of the crashes occur between 12:00 pm and 6:00pm’; hence, it is suggested to modify existing navigation application to warn drivers about the increase in risk factor.

  18. Finding Influential Users in Social Media Using Association Rule Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Erlandsson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influential users play an important role in online social networks since users tend to have an impact on one other. Therefore, the proposed work analyzes users and their behavior in order to identify influential users and predict user participation. Normally, the success of a social media site is dependent on the activity level of the participating users. For both online social networking sites and individual users, it is of interest to find out if a topic will be interesting or not. In this article, we propose association learning to detect relationships between users. In order to verify the findings, several experiments were executed based on social network analysis, in which the most influential users identified from association rule learning were compared to the results from Degree Centrality and Page Rank Centrality. The results clearly indicate that it is possible to identify the most influential users using association rule learning. In addition, the results also indicate a lower execution time compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Parental rules and communication: their association with adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2005-06-01

    To examine the association between parental rules and communication (also referred to as antismoking socialization) and adolescents' smoking. A cross-sectional study including 428 Dutch two-parent families with at least two adolescent children (aged 13-17 years). Parents' and adolescents' reports on an agreement regarding smoking by adolescents, smoking house rules, parental confidence in preventing their child from smoking, frequency and quality of communication about smoking, and parent's reactions to smoking experimentation. Compared with fathers and adolescents, mothers reported being more involved in antismoking socialization. There were robust differences in antismoking socialization efforts between smoking and non-smoking parents. Perceived parental influence and frequency and quality of communication about smoking were associated with adolescents' smoking. The association between antismoking socialization practices and adolescents' smoking was not moderated by birth order, parents' smoking or gender of the adolescent. Encouraging parents, whether or not they themselves smoke, to discuss smoking-related issues with their children in a constructive and respectful manner is worth exploring as an intervention strategy to prevent young people taking up smoking.

  20. A Novel Algorithm for Flow-Rule Placement in SDN Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kentis, Angelos Mimidis; Pilimon, Artur; Soler, José

    2018-01-01

    power consumption and high silicon footprint. To counter this limitation, some commercial switches offer both, hardware and software flow table implementations, termed hybrid flow table architecture in this paper. The software-based tables are stored in non-TCAM memory modules, which offer higher...... flow rule should be placed in a hardware (expensive) or a software (cheap) table. The placement decisions are based on a number of criteria with the goal to increase the utilization of the software-based table, without introducing performance degradation in the network in terms of significant delay......The forwarding rules, used by the legacy and SDN network devices to perform routing/forwarding decisions, are generally stored in Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM) modules, which offer constant look-up times, but have limited capacity, due to their high capital and operational costs, high...

  1. Improving Intrusion Detection System Based on Snort Rules for Network Probe Attacks Detection with Association Rules Technique of Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawat Khamphakdee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The intrusion detection system (IDS is an important network security tool for securing computer and network systems. It is able to detect and monitor network traffic data. Snort IDS is an open-source network security tool. It can search and match rules with network traffic data in order to detect attacks, and generate an alert. However, the Snort IDS  can detect only known attacks. Therefore, we have proposed a procedure for improving Snort IDS rules, based on the association rules data mining technique for detection of network probe attacks.  We employed the MIT-DARPA 1999 data set for the experimental evaluation. Since behavior pattern traffic data are both normal and abnormal, the abnormal behavior data is detected by way of the Snort IDS. The experimental results showed that the proposed Snort IDS rules, based on data mining detection of network probe attacks, proved more efficient than the original Snort IDS rules, as well as icmp.rules and icmp-info.rules of Snort IDS.  The suitable parameters for the proposed Snort IDS rules are defined as follows: Min_sup set to 10%, and Min_conf set to 100%, and through the application of eight variable attributes. As more suitable parameters are applied, higher accuracy is achieved.

  2. Associations between rule-based parenting practices and child screen viewing: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Kesten

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Limit setting is associated with greater SV. Collaborative rule setting may be effective for managing boys' game-console use. More research is needed to understand rule-based parenting practices.

  3. Relative performance of priority rules for hybrid flow shop scheduling with setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with explicit and sequence-independent setup times. This production environment is a multistage system with unidirectional flow of jobs, wherein each stage may contain multiple machines available for processing. The optimized measure was the total time to complete the schedule (makespan. The aim was to propose new priority rules to support the schedule and to evaluate their relative performance at the production system considered by the percentage of success, relative deviation, standard deviation of relative deviation, and average CPU time. Computational experiments have indicated that the rules using ascending order of the sum of processing and setup times of the first stage (SPT1 and SPT1_ERD performed better, reaching together more than 56% of success.

  4. State Identification of Hoisting Motors Based on Association Rules for Quayside Container Crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q. Z.; Gang, T.; Pan, H. Y.; Xiong, H.

    2017-07-01

    Quay container crane hoisting motor is a complex system, and the characteristics of long-term evolution and change of running status of there is a rule, and use it. Through association rules analysis, this paper introduced the similarity in association rules, and quay container crane hoisting motor status identification. Finally validated by an example, some rules change amplitude is small, regular monitoring, not easy to find, but it is precisely because of these small changes led to mechanical failure. Therefore, using the association rules change in monitoring the motor status has the very strong practical significance.

  5. Formal and Computational Properties of the Confidence Boost of Association Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Balcázar, José L.

    2011-01-01

    Some existing notions of redundancy among association rules allow for a logical-style characterization and lead to irredundant bases of absolutely minimum size. One can push the intuition of redundancy further and find an intuitive notion of interest of an association rule, in terms of its "novelty" with respect to other rules. Namely: an irredundant rule is so because its confidence is higher than what the rest of the rules would suggest; then, one can ask: how much higher? We propose to mea...

  6. RANCANG BANGUN SISTEM INFORMASI INVENTORI MENGGUNAKAN METODE ASSOCIATION RULES DI CV. DAMAR LANGIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul Fanani

    2012-03-01

    Kata Kunci : Sistem informasi, Inventori, Sistem Pendukung Keputusan (Decisition Support System, Association Rule, Data Mining, OLAP (Online Analitic Processing, Algoritma Apriori, Support, Confidence, Lift Rasio.

  7. Interesting association rule mining with consistent and inconsistent rule detection from big sales data in distributed environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh J. Prajapati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing demand in mining interesting patterns from the big data. The process of analyzing such a huge amount of data is really computationally complex task when using traditional methods. The overall purpose of this paper is in twofold. First, this paper presents a novel approach to identify consistent and inconsistent association rules from sales data located in distributed environment. Secondly, the paper also overcomes the main memory bottleneck and computing time overhead of single computing system by applying computations to multi node cluster. The proposed method initially extracts frequent itemsets for each zone using existing distributed frequent pattern mining algorithms. The paper also compares the time efficiency of Mapreduce based frequent pattern mining algorithm with Count Distribution Algorithm (CDA and Fast Distributed Mining (FDM algorithms. The association generated from frequent itemsets are too large that it becomes complex to analyze it. Thus, Mapreduce based consistent and inconsistent rule detection (MR-CIRD algorithm is proposed to detect the consistent and inconsistent rules from big data and provide useful and actionable knowledge to the domain experts. These pruned interesting rules also give useful knowledge for better marketing strategy as well. The extracted consistent and inconsistent rules are evaluated and compared based on different interestingness measures presented together with experimental results that lead to the final conclusions.

  8. RANWAR: rank-based weighted association rule mining from gene expression and methylation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Saurav; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Maulik, Ujjwal

    2015-01-01

    Ranking of association rules is currently an interesting topic in data mining and bioinformatics. The huge number of evolved rules of items (or, genes) by association rule mining (ARM) algorithms makes confusion to the decision maker. In this article, we propose a weighted rule-mining technique (say, RANWAR or rank-based weighted association rule-mining) to rank the rules using two novel rule-interestingness measures, viz., rank-based weighted condensed support (wcs) and weighted condensed confidence (wcc) measures to bypass the problem. These measures are basically depended on the rank of items (genes). Using the rank, we assign weight to each item. RANWAR generates much less number of frequent itemsets than the state-of-the-art association rule mining algorithms. Thus, it saves time of execution of the algorithm. We run RANWAR on gene expression and methylation datasets. The genes of the top rules are biologically validated by Gene Ontologies (GOs) and KEGG pathway analyses. Many top ranked rules extracted from RANWAR that hold poor ranks in traditional Apriori, are highly biologically significant to the related diseases. Finally, the top rules evolved from RANWAR, that are not in Apriori, are reported.

  9. Critical state flow rules for CFD simulations of wet granular flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarze, R.; Gladkyy, A.; Luding, Stefan; E. Onate M. Bischoff, E. Ramm; P. Wriggers,

    2013-01-01

    First rheological investigation results of weakly wet granular media are presented. The materials have been examined experimentally and numerically in well- defined shear configurations in steady state, in the intermediate flow regime. For the experiments, a Searl-type ring shear cell with rotating

  10. Extracting Cross-Ontology Weighted Association Rules from Gene Ontology Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapito, Giuseppe; Milano, Marianna; Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Cannataro, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Gene Ontology (GO) is a structured repository of concepts (GO Terms) that are associated to one or more gene products through a process referred to as annotation. The analysis of annotated data is an important opportunity for bioinformatics. There are different approaches of analysis, among those, the use of association rules (AR) which provides useful knowledge, discovering biologically relevant associations between terms of GO, not previously known. In a previous work, we introduced GO-WAR (Gene Ontology-based Weighted Association Rules), a methodology for extracting weighted association rules from ontology-based annotated datasets. We here adapt the GO-WAR algorithm to mine cross-ontology association rules, i.e., rules that involve GO terms present in the three sub-ontologies of GO. We conduct a deep performance evaluation of GO-WAR by mining publicly available GO annotated datasets, showing how GO-WAR outperforms current state of the art approaches.

  11. Experimental study of the flow rules of a 316 stainless steel at high and low stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delobelle, P.; Oytana, C.

    1984-01-01

    Creep flow rules of 316L stainless steel are studied in tensile and axial-torsion experiments. Through tensile and biaxial proportional loadings it is shown that at low creep values of epsilonkT/DGb a single kinematical variable: the internal stress takes a part in these laws. This is confirmed in non-proportional experiments. The power law with the power of nsup(*)approx.=2 relates applied and internal stresses. At higher creep rates a second scalar internal variable must be introduced and the power law no longer applies. Limiting functions in steady creep are determined for hardening and recovery. (orig.)

  12. Numerical analysis of strain localization for transversely isotropic model with non-coaxial flow rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ding; Cong-cong, Yu; Chen-hui, Wu; Zheng-yi, Shu

    2018-03-01

    To analyse the strain localization behavior of geomaterials, the forward Euler schemes and the tangent modulus matrix are formulated based on the transversely isotropic yield criterion with non-coaxial flow rule developed by Lade, the program code is implemented based on the user subroutine (UMAT) of ABAQUS. The influence of the material principal direction on the strain localization and the bearing capacity of the structure are investigated and analyzed. Numerical results show the validity and performance of the proposed model in simulating the strain localization behavior of geostructures.

  13. Association Rule-based Predictive Model for Machine Failure in Industrial Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hyok; Lee, Sol-Bee; Park, Jaehoon; Kim, Eui-Jik

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes an association rule-based predictive model for machine failure in industrial Internet of things (IIoT), which can accurately predict the machine failure in real manufacturing environment by investigating the relationship between the cause and type of machine failure. To develop the predictive model, we consider three major steps: 1) binarization, 2) rule creation, 3) visualization. The binarization step translates item values in a dataset into one or zero, then the rule creation step creates association rules as IF-THEN structures using the Lattice model and Apriori algorithm. Finally, the created rules are visualized in various ways for users’ understanding. An experimental implementation was conducted using R Studio version 3.3.2. The results show that the proposed predictive model realistically predicts machine failure based on association rules.

  14. Sum rules and spectral density flow in QCD and in superconformal theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantini Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the signature of the anomalous breaking of the superconformal symmetry in N${\\cal N}$ = 1 super Yang Mills theory and its manifestation in the form of anomaly poles. Moreover, we describe the massive deformations of the N${\\cal N}$ = 1 theory and the spectral densities of the corresponding anomaly form factors. These are characterized by spectral densities which flow with the mass deformation and turn the continuum contributions from the two-particle cuts of the intermediate states into poles, with a single sum rule satisfied by each component. The poles can be interpreted as signaling the exchange of a composite axion/dilaton/dilatino (ADD multiplet in the effective Lagrangian. We conclude that global anomalous currents characterized by a single flow in the perturbative picture always predict the existence of composite interpolating fields.

  15. 17 CFR 240.17a-1 - Recordkeeping rule for national securities exchanges, national securities associations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... national securities exchanges, national securities associations, registered clearing agencies and the... Certain Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-1 Recordkeeping rule for national securities exchanges, national...) Every national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing agency and the...

  16. Study of the factors associated with substance use in adolescence using Association Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Elena Gervilla; Blasco, Berta Cajal; López, Rafael Jiménez; Pol, Alfonso Palmer

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the factors related to the use of addictive substances in adolescence using association rules, descriptive tools included in Data Mining. Thus, we have a database referring to the consumption of addictive substances in adolescence, and use the free distribution program in the R arules package (version 2.10.0). The sample was made up of 9,300 students between the ages of 14 and 18 (47.1% boys and 52.9% girls) with an average age of 15.6 (SE=1.2). The adolescents answered an anonymous questionnaire on personal, family and environmental risk factors related to substance use. The best rules obtained with regard to substance use relate the consumption of alcohol to perceived parenting style and peer consumption (confidence = 0.8528), the use of tobacco (smoking), cannabis and cocaine to perceived parental action and illegal behaviour (confidence = 0.8032, 0.8718 and 1.0000, respectively), and the use of ecstasy to peer consumption (confidence = 1.0000). In general, the association rules show in a simple manner the relationship between certain patterns of perceived parental action, behaviours that deviate from social behavioural norms, peer consumption and the use of different legal and illegal drugs of abuse in adolescence. The implications of the results obtained are described, together with the usefulness of this new methodology of analysis.

  17. Recommendation System Based On Association Rules For Distributed E-Learning Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Gabroveanu

    2015-09-01

    Traditional Learning Management Systems are installed on a single server where learning materials and user data are kept. To increase its performance, the Learning Management System can be installed on multiple servers; learning materials and user data could be distributed across these servers obtaining a Distributed Learning Management System. In this paper is proposed the prototype of a recommendation system based on association rules for Distributed Learning Management System. Information from LMS databases is analyzed using distributed data mining algorithms in order to extract the association rules. Then the extracted rules are used as inference rules to provide personalized recommendations. The quality of provided recommendations is improved because the rules used to make the inferences are more accurate, since these rules aggregate knowledge from all e-Learning systems included in Distributed Learning Management System.

  18. 9 CFR 201.4 - Bylaws, rules and regulations, and requirements of exchanges, associations, or other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bylaws, rules and regulations, and... 201.4 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND... of any exchange, association, or other organization, or any other valid law, rule or regulation, or...

  19. Olap and data mining technologies' integration in the construction of interdimensional associative rules in multidimensional data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Тихонович Фісун

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The features of associative rules in multidimensional data searching are presented in the article, specifically theoretical basis of association searching between different dimensions in OLAP cubes and formulas of their significance characteristics (support, confidence, lift, leverage calculation are shown. The method of interdimensional association rules generation is proposed. The implementation of this method as a component of operative and intellectual data analysis information system on database management system Caché platform is described.

  20. [Application of association rule in mental health test for employees in a petrochemical enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L F; Zhang, D N; Wang, Z P

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the occurrence ruleof common psychological abnormalities in petrochemical workers using association rule. Methods: From July to September,2014,the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90)was used for the general survey of mental healthamong all employees in a petrochemical enterprise.The association rule Apriori algorithm was used to analyze the data of SCL-90 and investigate the occurrence rule of psychological abnormalities in petrochemical workers with different sexes,ages,or nationalities. Results: A total of 8 248 usable questionnaires were collected. The SCL-90 analysis showed that 1623 petrochemical workers(19.68%) had positive results,among whom 567(34.94%)had one positive factor and 1056 (65.06%)had two or more positive factors. A total of 7 strong association rules were identified and all of them included obsessive-compulsive symptom and depression. Male({obsessive-compulsive symptom,anxiety}=>{depression}) and female workers ({somatization,depression}=>{obsessive-compulsive symptom}) had their own special association rules. The workers aged 35-44 years had 17 special association rules,and ethnic minorities had 5 special association rules. Conclusion: Employeesin the petrochemical enterprise have multiple positive factors in SCL-90, and employees aged 35-44 years and ethnic minorities have a rich combination of psychological symptoms and need special attention during mental health intervention.

  1. Using association rule mining to identify risk factors for early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivančević, Vladimir; Tušek, Ivan; Tušek, Jasmina; Knežević, Marko; Elheshk, Salaheddin; Luković, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a potentially severe disease affecting children all over the world. The available findings are mostly based on a logistic regression model, but data mining, in particular association rule mining, could be used to extract more information from the same data set. ECC data was collected in a cross-sectional analytical study of the 10% sample of preschool children in the South Bačka area (Vojvodina, Serbia). Association rules were extracted from the data by association rule mining. Risk factors were extracted from the highly ranked association rules. Discovered dominant risk factors include male gender, frequent breastfeeding (with other risk factors), high birth order, language, and low body weight at birth. Low health awareness of parents was significantly associated to ECC only in male children. The discovered risk factors are mostly confirmed by the literature, which corroborates the value of the methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attribute Index and Uniform Design Based Multiobjective Association Rule Mining with Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In association rule mining, evaluating an association rule needs to repeatedly scan database to compare the whole database with the antecedent, consequent of a rule and the whole rule. In order to decrease the number of comparisons and time consuming, we present an attribute index strategy. It only needs to scan database once to create the attribute index of each attribute. Then all metrics values to evaluate an association rule do not need to scan database any further, but acquire data only by means of the attribute indices. The paper visualizes association rule mining as a multiobjective problem rather than a single objective one. In order to make the acquired solutions scatter uniformly toward the Pareto frontier in the objective space, elitism policy and uniform design are introduced. The paper presents the algorithm of attribute index and uniform design based multiobjective association rule mining with evolutionary algorithm, abbreviated as IUARMMEA. It does not require the user-specified minimum support and minimum confidence anymore, but uses a simple attribute index. It uses a well-designed real encoding so as to extend its application scope. Experiments performed on several databases demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, and it can significantly reduce the number of comparisons and time consumption.

  3. Attribute index and uniform design based multiobjective association rule mining with evolutionary algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yuping; Feng, Junhong

    2013-01-01

    In association rule mining, evaluating an association rule needs to repeatedly scan database to compare the whole database with the antecedent, consequent of a rule and the whole rule. In order to decrease the number of comparisons and time consuming, we present an attribute index strategy. It only needs to scan database once to create the attribute index of each attribute. Then all metrics values to evaluate an association rule do not need to scan database any further, but acquire data only by means of the attribute indices. The paper visualizes association rule mining as a multiobjective problem rather than a single objective one. In order to make the acquired solutions scatter uniformly toward the Pareto frontier in the objective space, elitism policy and uniform design are introduced. The paper presents the algorithm of attribute index and uniform design based multiobjective association rule mining with evolutionary algorithm, abbreviated as IUARMMEA. It does not require the user-specified minimum support and minimum confidence anymore, but uses a simple attribute index. It uses a well-designed real encoding so as to extend its application scope. Experiments performed on several databases demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, and it can significantly reduce the number of comparisons and time consumption.

  4. Association between clean indoor air laws and voluntary smokefree rules in homes and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; McMillen, Robert; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the influence that smokefree workplaces, restaurants and bars have on the adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars, and whether there is an association with adopting smokefree rules in homes and cars. Bivariate probit models were used to jointly estimate the likelihood of living in a smokefree home and having a smokefree car as a function of law coverage and other variables. Household data were obtained from the nationally representative Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control 2001, 2002 and 2004-2009; clean indoor air law data were from the American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation Tobacco Control Laws Database. 'Full coverage' and 'partial coverage' smokefree legislation is associated with an increased likelihood of having voluntary home and car smokefree rules compared with 'no coverage'. The association between 'full coverage' and smokefree rule in homes and cars is 5% and 4%, respectively, and the association between 'partial coverage' and smokefree rules in homes and cars is 3% and 4%, respectively. There is a positive association between the adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars. Clean indoor air laws provide the additional benefit of encouraging voluntary adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Using GO-WAR for mining cross-ontology weighted association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapito, Giuseppe; Cannataro, Mario; Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Milano, Marianna

    2015-07-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) is a structured repository of concepts (GO terms) that are associated to one or more gene products. The process of association is referred to as annotation. The relevance and the specificity of both GO terms and annotations are evaluated by a measure defined as information content (IC). The analysis of annotated data is thus an important challenge for bioinformatics. There exist different approaches of analysis. From those, the use of association rules (AR) may provide useful knowledge, and it has been used in some applications, e.g. improving the quality of annotations. Nevertheless classical association rules algorithms do not take into account the source of annotation nor the importance yielding to the generation of candidate rules with low IC. This paper presents GO-WAR (Gene Ontology-based Weighted Association Rules) a methodology for extracting weighted association rules. GO-WAR can extract association rules with a high level of IC without loss of support and confidence from a dataset of annotated data. A case study on using of GO-WAR on publicly available GO annotation datasets is used to demonstrate that our method outperforms current state of the art approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. EOQ estimation for imperfect quality items using association rule mining with clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Mittal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Timely identification of newly emerging trends is needed in business process. Data mining techniques like clustering, association rule mining, classification, etc. are very important for business support and decision making. This paper presents a method for redesigning the ordering policy by including cross-selling effect. Initially, association rules are mined on the transactional database and EOQ is estimated with revenue earned. Then, transactions are clustered to obtain homogeneous clusters and association rules are mined in each cluster to estimate EOQ with revenue earned for each cluster. Further, this paper compares ordering policy for imperfect quality items which is developed by applying rules derived from apriori algorithm viz. a without clustering the transactions, and b after clustering the transactions. A numerical example is illustrated to validate the results.

  7. Association of rule of law and health outcomes: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Attaran, Amir; Botero, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Sternberg, Angela Maria

    2015-10-29

    To explore whether the rule of law is a foundational determinant of health that underlies other socioeconomic, political and cultural factors that have been associated with health outcomes. Global project. Data set of 96 countries, comprising 91% of the global population. The following health indicators, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, were included to explore their association with the rule of law. We used a novel Rule of Law Index, gathered from survey sources, in a cross-sectional and ecological design. The Index is based on eight subindices: (1) Constraints on Government Powers; (2) Absence of Corruption; (3) Order and Security; (4) Fundamental Rights; (5) Open Government; (6) Regulatory Enforcement, (7) Civil Justice; and (8) Criminal Justice. The rule of law showed an independent association with infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, after adjusting for the countries' level of per capita income, their expenditures in health, their level of political and civil freedom, their Gini measure of inequality and women's status (plaw remained significant in all the multivariate models, and the following adjustment for potential confounders remained robust for at least one or more of the health outcomes across all eight subindices of the rule of law. Findings show that the higher the country's level of adherence to the rule of law, the better the health of the population. It is necessary to start considering the country's adherence to the rule of law as a foundational determinant of health. Health advocates should consider the improvement of rule of law as a tool to improve population health. Conversely, lack of progress in rule of law may constitute a structural barrier to health improvement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  8. Association rule mining data for census tract chemical exposure analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical concentration, exposure, and health risk data for U.S. census tracts from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). This dataset is associated with the...

  9. Object-oriented spatial-temporal association rules mining on ocean remote sensing imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, C J; Dong, Q; Ma, W X

    2014-01-01

    Using the long term marine remote sensing imagery, we develop an object-oriented spatial-temporal association rules mining framework to explore the association rules mining among marine environmental elements. Within the framework, two key issues are addressed. They are how to effectively deal with the related lattices and how to reduce the related dimensions? To deal with the first key issues, this paper develops an object-oriented method for abstracting marine sensitive objects from raster pixels and for representing them with a quadruple. To deal with the second key issues, by embedding the mutual information theory, we construct the direct association pattern tree to reduce the related elements at the first step, and then the Apriori algorithm is used to discover the spatio-temporal associated rules. Finally, Pacific Ocean is taken as a research area and multi- marine remote sensing imagery in recent three decades is used as a case study. The results show that the object-oriented spatio-temporal association rules mining can acquire the associated relationships not only among marine environmental elements in same region, also among the different regions. In addition, the information from association rules mining is much more expressive and informative in space and time than traditional spatio-temporal analysis

  10. Using an improved association rules mining optimization algorithm in web-based mobile-learning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin; Chen, Jianhua; Xiong, Shaojun

    2009-07-01

    Mobile-Learning (M-learning) makes many learners get the advantages of both traditional learning and E-learning. Currently, Web-based Mobile-Learning Systems have created many new ways and defined new relationships between educators and learners. Association rule mining is one of the most important fields in data mining and knowledge discovery in databases. Rules explosion is a serious problem which causes great concerns, as conventional mining algorithms often produce too many rules for decision makers to digest. Since Web-based Mobile-Learning System collects vast amounts of student profile data, data mining and knowledge discovery techniques can be applied to find interesting relationships between attributes of learners, assessments, the solution strategies adopted by learners and so on. Therefore ,this paper focus on a new data-mining algorithm, combined with the advantages of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm , called ARGSA(Association rules based on an improved Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm), to mine the association rules. This paper first takes advantage of the Parallel Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Algorithm designed specifically for discovering association rules. Moreover, the analysis and experiment are also made to show the proposed method is superior to the Apriori algorithm in this Mobile-Learning system.

  11. 77 FR 74449 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Proposed Rule; Stay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Proposed Rule; Stay AGENCY... Protection Agency (EPA) proposes to temporarily stay our regulation the ``Water Quality Standards for the... Information Does this action apply to me? Citizens concerned with water quality in Florida may be interested...

  12. A comparative study of applying Mason’s Rule in the case of flow-graphs and bond-graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grava

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two methods to analyzethe electric circuits using the flow-graphs and thebond-graphs studying the differences between thesemethods.As it can be noticed, the two methods are totallydifferent; their common point being Mason’s rule thatis applied in both cases but it is applied differently foreach type of graphs.

  13. Exploring interdependencies in students' vacation portfolios using association rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigolon, A.B.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The transition into adulthood is usually associated with changes and events, accompanied by developments in young people’s social status and consequently, some changes in travel and transport use. This makes the students’ segment highly relevant for both marketing companies and policy-makers. The

  14. Multilevel Association Rule Mining for Bridge Resource Management Based on Immune Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of multilevel association rule mining for bridge resource management (BRM which is announced by IMO in 2010. The goal of this paper is to mine the association rules among the items of BRM and the vessel accidents. However, due to the indirect data that can be collected, which seems useless for the analysis of the relationship between items of BIM and the accidents, the cross level association rules need to be studied, which builds the relation between the indirect data and items of BRM. In this paper, firstly, a cross level coding scheme for mining the multilevel association rules is proposed. Secondly, we execute the immune genetic algorithm with the coding scheme for analyzing BRM. Thirdly, based on the basic maritime investigation reports, some important association rules of the items of BRM are mined and studied. Finally, according to the results of the analysis, we provide the suggestions for the work of seafarer training, assessment, and management.

  15. Analysis of correlation between pediatric asthma exacerbation and exposure to pollutant mixtures with association rule mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toti, Giulia; Vilalta, Ricardo; Lindner, Peggy; Lefer, Barry; Macias, Charles; Price, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Traditional studies on effects of outdoor pollution on asthma have been criticized for questionable statistical validity and inefficacy in exploring the effects of multiple air pollutants, alone and in combination. Association rule mining (ARM), a method easily interpretable and suitable for the analysis of the effects of multiple exposures, could be of use, but the traditional interest metrics of support and confidence need to be substituted with metrics that focus on risk variations caused by different exposures. We present an ARM-based methodology that produces rules associated with relevant odds ratios and limits the number of final rules even at very low support levels (0.5%), thanks to post-pruning criteria that limit rule redundancy and control for statistical significance. The methodology has been applied to a case-crossover study to explore the effects of multiple air pollutants on risk of asthma in pediatric subjects. We identified 27 rules with interesting odds ratio among more than 10,000 having the required support. The only rule including only one chemical is exposure to ozone on the previous day of the reported asthma attack (OR=1.14). 26 combinatory rules highlight the limitations of air quality policies based on single pollutant thresholds and suggest that exposure to mixtures of chemicals is more harmful, with odds ratio as high as 1.54 (associated with the combination day0 SO 2 , day0 NO, day0 NO 2 , day1 PM). The proposed method can be used to analyze risk variations caused by single and multiple exposures. The method is reliable and requires fewer assumptions on the data than parametric approaches. Rules including more than one pollutant highlight interactions that deserve further investigation, while helping to limit the search field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Association rule extraction from XML stream data for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Juryon; Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Ung Mo; Won, Dongho

    2014-07-18

    With the advances of wireless sensor networks, they yield massive volumes of disparate, dynamic and geographically-distributed and heterogeneous data. The data mining community has attempted to extract knowledge from the huge amount of data that they generate. However, previous mining work in WSNs has focused on supporting simple relational data structures, like one table per network, while there is a need for more complex data structures. This deficiency motivates XML, which is the current de facto format for the data exchange and modeling of a wide variety of data sources over the web, to be used in WSNs in order to encourage the interchangeability of heterogeneous types of sensors and systems. However, mining XML data for WSNs has two challenging issues: one is the endless data flow; and the other is the complex tree structure. In this paper, we present several new definitions and techniques related to association rule mining over XML data streams in WSNs. To the best of our knowledge, this work provides the first approach to mining XML stream data that generates frequent tree items without any redundancy.

  17. Association Rule Extraction from XML Stream Data for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Juryon; Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Ung Mo; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    With the advances of wireless sensor networks, they yield massive volumes of disparate, dynamic and geographically-distributed and heterogeneous data. The data mining community has attempted to extract knowledge from the huge amount of data that they generate. However, previous mining work in WSNs has focused on supporting simple relational data structures, like one table per network, while there is a need for more complex data structures. This deficiency motivates XML, which is the current de facto format for the data exchange and modeling of a wide variety of data sources over the web, to be used in WSNs in order to encourage the interchangeability of heterogeneous types of sensors and systems. However, mining XML data for WSNs has two challenging issues: one is the endless data flow; and the other is the complex tree structure. In this paper, we present several new definitions and techniques related to association rule mining over XML data streams in WSNs. To the best of our knowledge, this work provides the first approach to mining XML stream data that generates frequent tree items without any redundancy. PMID:25046017

  18. Impact of polymer film thickness and cavity size on polymer flow during embossing : towards process design rules for nanoimprint lithography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; King, William P. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Rowland, Harry D. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents continuum simulations of polymer flow during nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The simulations capture the underlying physics of polymer flow from the nanometer to millimeter length scale and examine geometry and thermophysical process quantities affecting cavity filling. Variations in embossing tool geometry and polymer film thickness during viscous flow distinguish different flow driving mechanisms. Three parameters can predict polymer deformation mode: cavity width to polymer thickness ratio, polymer supply ratio, and Capillary number. The ratio of cavity width to initial polymer film thickness determines vertically or laterally dominant deformation. The ratio of indenter width to residual film thickness measures polymer supply beneath the indenter which determines Stokes or squeeze flow. The local geometry ratios can predict a fill time based on laminar flow between plates, Stokes flow, or squeeze flow. Characteristic NIL capillary number based on geometry-dependent fill time distinguishes between capillary or viscous driven flows. The three parameters predict filling modes observed in published studies of NIL deformation over nanometer to millimeter length scales. The work seeks to establish process design rules for NIL and to provide tools for the rational design of NIL master templates, resist polymers, and process parameters.

  19. Improved Personalized Recommendation Based on Causal Association Rule and Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wu; Qing, Fang; Zhou, Jin

    2016-01-01

    There are usually limited user evaluation of resources on a recommender system, which caused an extremely sparse user rating matrix, and this greatly reduce the accuracy of personalized recommendation, especially for new users or new items. This paper presents a recommendation method based on rating prediction using causal association rules.…

  20. From Intra-transaction to Generalized Inter-transaction: Landscaping Multidimensional Contexts in Association Rule Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Q; Feng, L.; Wong, A.K.Y.

    The problem of mining multidimensional inter-transactional association rules was recently introduced in [ACM Trans. Inform. Syst. 18(4) (2000) 423; Proc. of the ACM SIGMOD Workshop on Research Issues on Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, Seattle, Washington, June 1998, p. 12:1]. It extends the

  1. Analysis of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in vitro using classification association rule mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiqi; Wang, Yanbo Justin; Bañares-Alcántara, René; Coenen, Frans; Cui, Zhanfeng

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, data mining is used to analyze the data on the differentiation of mammalian Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), aiming at discovering known and hidden rules governing MSC differentiation, following the establishment of a web-based public database containing experimental data on the MSC proliferation and differentiation. To this effect, a web-based public interactive database comprising the key parameters which influence the fate and destiny of mammalian MSCs has been constructed and analyzed using Classification Association Rule Mining (CARM) as a data-mining technique. The results show that the proposed approach is technically feasible and performs well with respect to the accuracy of (classification) prediction. Key rules mined from the constructed MSC database are consistent with experimental observations, indicating the validity of the method developed and the first step in the application of data mining to the study of MSCs.

  2. A partition enhanced mining algorithm for distributed association rule mining systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ogunde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of patterns and rules from large distributed databases through existing Distributed Association Rule Mining (DARM systems is still faced with enormous challenges such as high response times, high communication costs and inability to adapt to the constantly changing databases. In this work, a Partition Enhanced Mining Algorithm (PEMA is presented to address these problems. In PEMA, the Association Rule Mining Coordinating Agent receives a request and decides the appropriate data sites, partitioning strategy and mining agents to use. The mining process is divided into two stages. In the first stage, the data agents horizontally segment the databases with small average transaction length into relatively smaller partitions based on the number of available sites and the available memory. On the other hand, databases with relatively large average transaction length were vertically partitioned. After this, Mobile Agent-Based Association Rule Mining-Agents, which are the mining agents, carry out the discovery of the local frequent itemsets. At the second stage, the local frequent itemsets were incrementally integrated by the from one data site to another to get the global frequent itemsets. This reduced the response time and communication cost in the system. Results from experiments conducted on real datasets showed that the average response time of PEMA showed an improvement over existing algorithms. Similarly, PEMA incurred lower communication costs with average size of messages exchanged lower when compared with benchmark DARM systems. This result showed that PEMA could be efficiently deployed for efficient discovery of valuable knowledge in distributed databases.

  3. Association of rule of law and health outcomes: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Attaran, Amir; Botero, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Sternberg, Angela Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether the rule of law is a foundational determinant of health that underlies other socioeconomic, political and cultural factors that have been associated with health outcomes. Setting Global project. Participants Data set of 96 countries, comprising 91% of the global population. Primary and secondary outcome measures The following health indicators, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, were included to explore their association with the rule of law. We used a novel Rule of Law Index, gathered from survey sources, in a cross-sectional and ecological design. The Index is based on eight subindices: (1) Constraints on Government Powers; (2) Absence of Corruption; (3) Order and Security; (4) Fundamental Rights; (5) Open Government; (6) Regulatory Enforcement, (7) Civil Justice; and (8) Criminal Justice. Results The rule of law showed an independent association with infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, after adjusting for the countries’ level of per capita income, their expenditures in health, their level of political and civil freedom, their Gini measure of inequality and women's status (pconstitute a structural barrier to health improvement. PMID:26515684

  4. An Efficient Association Rule Hiding Algorithm for Privacy Preserving Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Yogendra Kumar Jain,; Vinod Kumar Yadav,; Geetika S. Panday

    2011-01-01

    The security of the large database that contains certain crucial information, it will become a serious issue when sharing data to the network against unauthorized access. Privacy preserving data mining is a new research trend in privacy data for data mining and statistical database. Association analysis is a powerful toolfor discovering relationships which are hidden in large database. Association rules hiding algorithms get strong and efficient performance for protecting confidential and cru...

  5. ASSOCIATION RULE ANALYSIS FOR TOUR ROUTE RECOMMENDATION AND APPLICATION TO WCTSNOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing E-tourism systems provide intelligent tour recommendation for tourists. In this sense, recommender system can make personalized suggestions and provide satisfied information associated with their tour cycle. Data mining is a proper tool that extracting potential information from large database for making strategic decisions. In the study, association rule analysis based on FP-growth algorithm is applied to find the association relationship among scenic spots in different cities as tour route recommendation. In order to figure out valuable rules, Kulczynski interestingness measure is adopted and imbalance ratio is computed. The proposed scheme was evaluated on Wangluzhe cultural tourism service network operation platform (WCTSNOP, where it could verify that it is able to quick recommend tour route and to rapidly enhance the recommendation quality.

  6. Association Rule Analysis for Tour Route Recommendation and Application to Wctsnop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H.; Chen, C.; Lin, J.; Liu, X.; Fang, D.

    2017-09-01

    The increasing E-tourism systems provide intelligent tour recommendation for tourists. In this sense, recommender system can make personalized suggestions and provide satisfied information associated with their tour cycle. Data mining is a proper tool that extracting potential information from large database for making strategic decisions. In the study, association rule analysis based on FP-growth algorithm is applied to find the association relationship among scenic spots in different cities as tour route recommendation. In order to figure out valuable rules, Kulczynski interestingness measure is adopted and imbalance ratio is computed. The proposed scheme was evaluated on Wangluzhe cultural tourism service network operation platform (WCTSNOP), where it could verify that it is able to quick recommend tour route and to rapidly enhance the recommendation quality.

  7. A rough set-based association rule approach implemented on a brand trust evaluation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Hsien; Chen, Yin-Ju

    2017-09-01

    In commerce, businesses use branding to differentiate their product and service offerings from those of their competitors. The brand incorporates a set of product or service features that are associated with that particular brand name and identifies the product/service segmentation in the market. This study proposes a new data mining approach, a rough set-based association rule induction, implemented on a brand trust evaluation model. In addition, it presents as one way to deal with data uncertainty to analyse ratio scale data, while creating predictive if-then rules that generalise data values to the retail region. As such, this study uses the analysis of algorithms to find alcoholic beverages brand trust recall. Finally, discussions and conclusion are presented for further managerial implications.

  8. Privacy Preserving Association Rule Mining Revisited: Privacy Enhancement and Resources Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaisen, Abedelaziz; Jho, Nam-Su; Hong, Dowon; Nyang, Daehun

    Privacy preserving association rule mining algorithms have been designed for discovering the relations between variables in data while maintaining the data privacy. In this article we revise one of the recently introduced schemes for association rule mining using fake transactions (FS). In particular, our analysis shows that the FS scheme has exhaustive storage and high computation requirements for guaranteeing a reasonable level of privacy. We introduce a realistic definition of privacy that benefits from the average case privacy and motivates the study of a weakness in the structure of FS by fake transactions filtering. In order to overcome this problem, we improve the FS scheme by presenting a hybrid scheme that considers both privacy and resources as two concurrent guidelines. Analytical and empirical results show the efficiency and applicability of our proposed scheme.

  9. Rules for Flight Paths and Time of Flight for Flows in Porous Media with Heterogeneous Permeability and Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Zuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous media like hydrocarbon reservoirs may be composed of a wide variety of rocks with different porosity and permeability. Our study shows in algorithms and in synthetic numerical simulations that the flow pattern of any particular porous medium, assuming constant fluid properties and standardized boundary and initial conditions, is not affected by any spatial porosity changes but will vary only according to spatial permeability changes. In contrast, the time of flight along the streamline will be affected by both the permeability and porosity, albeit in opposite directions. A theoretical framework is presented with evidence from flow visualizations. A series of strategically chosen streamline simulations, including systematic spatial variations of porosity and permeability, visualizes the respective effects on the flight path and time of flight. Two practical rules are formulated. Rule  1 states that an increase in permeability decreases the time of flight, whereas an increase in porosity increases the time of flight. Rule  2 states that the permeability uniquely controls the flight path of fluid flow in porous media; local porosity variations do not affect the streamline path. The two rules are essential for understanding fluid transport mechanisms, and their rigorous validation therefore is merited.

  10. PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM EVALUASI DESAIN PRODUK BERBASIS ROTAN DENGAN PENDEKATAN REKAYASA KANSEI DAN ASSOCIATION RULES SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Vonny Setiaries Johan; Sapta Rahardja; E Gumbira Said; Taufik Djatna

    2016-01-01

    In product development, it is very important for manufacturers to find out what the customer wants from the product. On the other hand, manufacturers do not know clearly about what the customer wants from the product. This study proposes an evaluation method of product design using Kansei engineering methods and association rules approach. Using rattan dining chair as the object, the chair design divided into five elements, which are backrest, seat, armrest, base and woven. In this study, Kan...

  11. Profiling of high-frequency accident locations by use of association rules

    OpenAIRE

    GEURTS, Karolien; WETS, Geert; BRIJS, Tom; VANHOOF, Koen

    2003-01-01

    In Belgium, traffic safety is one of the government's highest priorities. The identification and profiling of black spots and black zones (geographical locations with high concentrations of traffic accidents) in terms of accident-related data and location characteristics must provide new insights into the complexity and causes of road accidents, which, in turn, provide valuable input for governmental actions. Association rules were used to identify accident-related circumstances that frequent...

  12. Associations of Parental Rules and Socioeconomic Position With Preschool Children's Sedentary Behaviour and Screen Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine L; Hinkley, Trina; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2015-04-01

    There is little current understanding of the influences on sedentary behavior and screen time in preschool children. This study investigated socioeconomic position (SEP) and parental rules as potential correlates of preschool children's sedentary behavior and screen time. Data from the Healthy Active Preschool Years (HAPPY) Study were used. Participating parents reported their child's usual weekly screen time and their rules to regulate their child's screen time. Children wore accelerometers for 8 days to objectively measure sedentary time. Children whose parents limited television viewing spent significantly less time in that behavior and in total screen time; however, overall sedentary behavior was unaffected. An association between parents limiting computer/electronic game use and time spent on the computer was found for girls only. SEP was inversely associated with girls', but not boys', total screen time and television viewing. As parental rules were generally associated with lower levels of screen time, intervention strategies could potentially encourage parents to set limits on, and switch off, screen devices. Intervention strategies should target preschool children across all SEP areas, as there was no difference by SEP in overall sedentary behavior or screen time for boys.

  13. Mining association rule based on the diseases population for recommendation of medicine need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, M.; Husein, A. M.; Aisyah, S.; Lubis, F. R.; Wijaya, B. A.

    2018-04-01

    Selection of medicines that is inappropriate will lead to an empty result at medicines, this has an impact on medical services and economic value in hospital. The importance of an appropriate medicine selection process requires an automated way to select need based on the development of the patient's illness. In this study, we analyzed patient prescriptions to identify the relationship between the disease and the medicine used by the physician in treating the patient's illness. The analytical framework includes: (1) patient prescription data collection, (2) applying k-means clustering to classify the top 10 diseases, (3) applying Apriori algorithm to find association rules based on support, confidence and lift value. The results of the tests of patient prescription datasets in 2015-2016, the application of the k-means algorithm for the clustering of 10 dominant diseases significantly affects the value of trust and support of all association rules on the Apriori algorithm making it more consistent with finding association rules of disease and related medicine. The value of support, confidence and the lift value of disease and related medicine can be used as recommendations for appropriate medicine selection. Based on the conditions of disease progressions of the hospital, there is so more optimal medicine procurement.

  14. Debris flows associated with the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.; Martinez, J.

    2017-12-01

    Debris flows are a primary driver of erosion and a major geologic hazard in many steep landscapes, particularly near the headwaters of rivers, and are generated in large numbers by extreme events. The 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake triggered 25,000 coseismic landslides in central Nepal. During the ensuing monsoon, sediment delivered to channels by landslides was mobilized in the heavy rains, and new postseismic landslides were triggered in rock weakened by the shaking. These coseismic and postseismic landslide-generated debris flows form a useful dataset for studying the impact and behavior of debris flows on one of the most active landscapes on Earth. Debris flow-dominated channel reaches are generally understood to have a topographic signature recognizable in slope-area plots and distinct from fluvial channels, but in examining debris flows associated with the Gorkha earthquake we find they frequently extend into reaches with geometry typically associated with fluvial systems. We examine a dataset of these debris flows, considering whether they are generated by coseismic or postseismic landslides, whether they are likely to be driving active incision into bedrock, and whether their channels correspond with those typically associated with debris flows. Preliminary analysis of debris flow channels in Nepal suggests there may be systematic differences in the geometry of channels containing debris flows triggered by coseismic versus postseismic landslides, which potentially holds implications for hazard analyses and the mechanics behind the different debris flow types.

  15. Characteristics of cyclist crashes in Italy using latent class analysis and association rule mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Prati

    Full Text Available The factors associated with severity of the bicycle crashes may differ across different bicycle crash patterns. Therefore, it is important to identify distinct bicycle crash patterns with homogeneous attributes. The current study aimed at identifying subgroups of bicycle crashes in Italy and analyzing separately the different bicycle crash types. The present study focused on bicycle crashes that occurred in Italy during the period between 2011 and 2013. We analyzed categorical indicators corresponding to the characteristics of infrastructure (road type, road signage, and location type, road user (i.e., opponent vehicle and cyclist's maneuver, type of collision, age and gender of the cyclist, vehicle (type of opponent vehicle, and the environmental and time period variables (time of the day, day of the week, season, pavement condition, and weather. To identify homogenous subgroups of bicycle crashes, we used latent class analysis. Using latent class analysis, the bicycle crash data set was segmented into 19 classes, which represents 19 different bicycle crash types. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between class membership and severity of the bicycle crashes. Finally, association rules were conducted for each of the latent classes to uncover the factors associated with an increased likelihood of severity. Association rules highlighted different crash characteristics associated with an increased likelihood of severity for each of the 19 bicycle crash types.

  16. A Novel Method of Interestingness Measures for Association Rules Mining Based on Profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Association rules mining is an important topic in the domain of data mining and knowledge discovering. Some papers have presented several interestingness measure methods; the most typical are Support, Confidence, Lift, Improve, and so forth. But their limitations are obvious, like no objective criterion, lack of statistical base, disability of defining negative relationship, and so forth. This paper proposes three new methods, Bi-lift, Bi-improve, and Bi-confidence, for Lift, Improve, and Confidence, respectively. Then, on the basis of utility function and the executing cost of rules, we propose interestingness function based on profit (IFBP considering subjective preferences and characteristics of specific application object. Finally, a novel measure framework is proposed to improve the traditional one through experimental analysis. In conclusion, the new methods and measure framework are prior to the traditional ones in the aspects of objective criterion, comprehensive definition, and practical application.

  17. PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM EVALUASI DESAIN PRODUK BERBASIS ROTAN DENGAN PENDEKATAN REKAYASA KANSEI DAN ASSOCIATION RULES SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonny Setiaries Johan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In product development, it is very important for manufacturers to find out what the customer wants from the product. On the other hand, manufacturers do not know clearly about what the customer wants from the product. This study proposes an evaluation method of product design using Kansei engineering methods and association rules approach. Using rattan dining chair as the object, the chair design divided into five elements, which are backrest, seat, armrest, base and woven. In this study, Kansei words from customers such as beautiful, unique, innovative, comfortable, natural, modern, sturdy and simple can be translated in to element design.   Using the support and confidence values, if-then rules can be used as the basis for the assessment of rattan dining chairs

  18. Rule-Based Multidisciplinary Tool for Unsteady Reacting Real-Fluid Flows, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A design and analysis computational tool is proposed for simulating unsteady reacting flows in combustor devices used in reusable launch vehicles. Key aspects...

  19. Fuzzy OLAP association rules mining-based modular reinforcement learning approach for multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mehmet; Alhajj, Reda

    2005-04-01

    Multiagent systems and data mining have recently attracted considerable attention in the field of computing. Reinforcement learning is the most commonly used learning process for multiagent systems. However, it still has some drawbacks, including modeling other learning agents present in the domain as part of the state of the environment, and some states are experienced much less than others, or some state-action pairs are never visited during the learning phase. Further, before completing the learning process, an agent cannot exhibit a certain behavior in some states that may be experienced sufficiently. In this study, we propose a novel multiagent learning approach to handle these problems. Our approach is based on utilizing the mining process for modular cooperative learning systems. It incorporates fuzziness and online analytical processing (OLAP) based mining to effectively process the information reported by agents. First, we describe a fuzzy data cube OLAP architecture which facilitates effective storage and processing of the state information reported by agents. This way, the action of the other agent, not even in the visual environment. of the agent under consideration, can simply be predicted by extracting online association rules, a well-known data mining technique, from the constructed data cube. Second, we present a new action selection model, which is also based on association rules mining. Finally, we generalize not sufficiently experienced states, by mining multilevel association rules from the proposed fuzzy data cube. Experimental results obtained on two different versions of a well-known pursuit domain show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy OLAP mining based modular learning approach. Finally, we tested the scalability of the approach presented in this paper and compared it with our previous work on modular-fuzzy Q-learning and ordinary Q-learning.

  20. Associations between parental rules, style of communication and children's screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, Mona; Soenens, Bart; Bere, Elling; Kovács, Éva; Lien, Nanna; Maes, Lea; Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; te Velde, Saskia J

    2015-10-01

    Research suggests an inverse association between parental rules and screen time in pre-adolescents, and that parents' style of communication with their children is related to the children's time spent watching TV. The aims of this study were to examine associations of parental rules and parental style of communication with children's screen time and perceived excessive screen time in five European countries. UP4FUN was a multi-centre, cluster randomised controlled trial with pre- and post-test measurements in each of five countries; Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary and Norway. Questionnaires were completed by the children at school and the parent questionnaire was brought home. Three structural equation models were tested based on measures of screen time and parental style of communication from the pre-test questionnaires. Of the 152 schools invited, 62 (41 %) schools agreed to participate. In total 3325 children (average age 11.2 years and 51 % girls) and 3038 parents (81 % mothers) completed the pre-test questionnaire. The average TV/DVD times across the countries were between 1.5 and 1.8 h/day, while less time was used for computer/games console (0.9-1.4 h/day). The children's perceived parental style of communication was quite consistent for TV/DVD and computer/games console. The presence of rules was significantly associated with less time watching TV/DVD and use of computer/games console time. Moreover, the use of an autonomy-supportive style was negatively related to both time watching TV/DVD and use of computer/games console time. The use of a controlling style was related positively to perceived excessive time used on TV/DVD and excessive time used on computer/games console. With a few exceptions, results were similar across the five countries. This study suggests that an autonomy-supportive style of communicating rules for TV/DVD or computer/ games console use is negatively related to children's time watching TV/DVD and use of computer/games console time

  1. Mining algorithm for association rules in big data based on Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chunhua; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Lijun; Qiao, Liying

    2018-04-01

    In order to solve the problem that the traditional association rules mining algorithm has been unable to meet the mining needs of large amount of data in the aspect of efficiency and scalability, take FP-Growth as an example, the algorithm is realized in the parallelization based on Hadoop framework and Map Reduce model. On the basis, it is improved using the transaction reduce method for further enhancement of the algorithm's mining efficiency. The experiment, which consists of verification of parallel mining results, comparison on efficiency between serials and parallel, variable relationship between mining time and node number and between mining time and data amount, is carried out in the mining results and efficiency by Hadoop clustering. Experiments show that the paralleled FP-Growth algorithm implemented is able to accurately mine frequent item sets, with a better performance and scalability. It can be better to meet the requirements of big data mining and efficiently mine frequent item sets and association rules from large dataset.

  2. Efficient mining of association rules for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, R; Gorriz, J M; Ramirez, J; Illan, I A; Salas-Gonzalez, D; Gomez-RIo, M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel technique based on association rules (ARs) is presented in order to find relations among activated brain areas in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. In this sense, the aim of this work is to discover associations among attributes which characterize the perfusion patterns of normal subjects and to make use of them for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Firstly, voxel-as-feature-based activation estimation methods are used to find the tridimensional activated brain regions of interest (ROIs) for each patient. These ROIs serve as input to secondly mine ARs with a minimum support and confidence among activation blocks by using a set of controls. In this context, support and confidence measures are related to the proportion of functional areas which are singularly and mutually activated across the brain. Finally, we perform image classification by comparing the number of ARs verified by each subject under test to a given threshold that depends on the number of previously mined rules. Several classification experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the proposed methods using a SPECT database that consists of 41 controls (NOR) and 56 AD patients labeled by trained physicians. The proposed methods were validated by means of the leave-one-out cross validation strategy, yielding up to 94.87% classification accuracy, thus outperforming recent developed methods for computer aided diagnosis of AD.

  3. Efficient mining of association rules for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, R.; Górriz, J. M.; Ramírez, J.; Illán, I. A.; Salas-Gonzalez, D.; Gómez-Río, M.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a novel technique based on association rules (ARs) is presented in order to find relations among activated brain areas in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. In this sense, the aim of this work is to discover associations among attributes which characterize the perfusion patterns of normal subjects and to make use of them for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Firstly, voxel-as-feature-based activation estimation methods are used to find the tridimensional activated brain regions of interest (ROIs) for each patient. These ROIs serve as input to secondly mine ARs with a minimum support and confidence among activation blocks by using a set of controls. In this context, support and confidence measures are related to the proportion of functional areas which are singularly and mutually activated across the brain. Finally, we perform image classification by comparing the number of ARs verified by each subject under test to a given threshold that depends on the number of previously mined rules. Several classification experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the proposed methods using a SPECT database that consists of 41 controls (NOR) and 56 AD patients labeled by trained physicians. The proposed methods were validated by means of the leave-one-out cross validation strategy, yielding up to 94.87% classification accuracy, thus outperforming recent developed methods for computer aided diagnosis of AD.

  4. Optimal Power Flow Using Gbest-Guided Cuckoo Search Algorithm with Feedback Control Strategy and Constraint Domination Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonggui Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal power flow (OPF is well-known as a significant optimization tool for the security and economic operation of power system, and OPF problem is a complex nonlinear, nondifferentiable programming problem. Thus this paper proposes a Gbest-guided cuckoo search algorithm with the feedback control strategy and constraint domination rule which is named as FCGCS algorithm for solving OPF problem and getting optimal solution. This FCGCS algorithm is guided by the global best solution for strengthening exploitation ability. Feedback control strategy is devised to dynamically regulate the control parameters according to actual and specific feedback value in the simulation process. And the constraint domination rule can efficiently handle inequality constraints on state variables, which is superior to traditional penalty function method. The performance of FCGCS algorithm is tested and validated on the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 57-bus example systems, and simulation results are compared with different methods obtained from other literatures recently. The comparison results indicate that FCGCS algorithm can provide high-quality feasible solutions for different OPF problems.

  5. A new pattern associative memory model for image recognition based on Hebb rules and dot product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingyue; Deng, Limiao; Wang, Yanjiang

    2018-04-01

    A great number of associative memory models have been proposed to realize information storage and retrieval inspired by human brain in the last few years. However, there is still much room for improvement for those models. In this paper, we extend a binary pattern associative memory model to accomplish real-world image recognition. The learning process is based on the fundamental Hebb rules and the retrieval is implemented by a normalized dot product operation. Our proposed model can not only fulfill rapid memory storage and retrieval for visual information but also have the ability on incremental learning without destroying the previous learned information. Experimental results demonstrate that our model outperforms the existing Self-Organizing Incremental Neural Network (SOINN) and Back Propagation Neuron Network (BPNN) on recognition accuracy and time efficiency.

  6. Associations between general parenting, restrictive snacking rules, and adolescent's snack intake. The roles of fathers and mothers and interparental congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; van Assema, Patricia; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-04-01

    Little research has been done on the role of fathers and parenting congruence between mothers and fathers. This study aimed to clarify the roles of general parenting and restrictive snacking rules set by fathers and mothers, and to explore parenting congruence in explaining adolescents' snack intake. Adolescents aged 11 to 15 completed a questionnaire assessing their perception of general parenting constructs (i.e. nurturance, structure, behavioral control, coercive control, and overprotection), restrictive snacking rules set by their fathers and mothers, and their own energy-dense snack intakes between meals. Scores for mothers were significantly higher on all constructs than for fathers, except for coercive control. Generally, higher scores on general parenting constructs were associated with higher scores on restrictive snacking rules (most of the associations being significant). Most general parenting constructs were unrelated to the respondents' number of snacks consumed. The use of restrictive snacking rules by both fathers and mothers was significantly and negatively related to respondents' snack intake. Moderation analyses indicated that high levels of incongruence between parents attenuated the favorable impact of fathers' rules and nurturance on their children's snacking, but interactions of congruence with three other paternal scales and all maternal scales were absent. Our findings indicate that both paternal and maternal general parenting and restrictive snacking rules play important roles in adolescents' snacking, and that high parental incongruence regarding restrictive snacking rules and nurturance could be undesirable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mining Context-Aware Association Rules Using Grammar-Based Genetic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Jose Maria; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Del Jesus, Maria Jose; Ventura, Sebastian

    2017-09-25

    Real-world data usually comprise features whose interpretation depends on some contextual information. Such contextual-sensitive features and patterns are of high interest to be discovered and analyzed in order to obtain the right meaning. This paper formulates the problem of mining context-aware association rules, which refers to the search for associations between itemsets such that the strength of their implication depends on a contextual feature. For the discovery of this type of associations, a model that restricts the search space and includes syntax constraints by means of a grammar-based genetic programming methodology is proposed. Grammars can be considered as a useful way of introducing subjective knowledge to the pattern mining process as they are highly related to the background knowledge of the user. The performance and usefulness of the proposed approach is examined by considering synthetically generated datasets. A posteriori analysis on different domains is also carried out to demonstrate the utility of this kind of associations. For example, in educational domains, it is essential to identify and understand contextual and context-sensitive factors that affect overall and individual student behavior and performance. The results of the experiments suggest that the approach is feasible and it automatically identifies interesting context-aware associations from real-world datasets.

  8. A Stock Trading Recommender System Based on Temporal Association Rule Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy B. Nair

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems capable of discovering patterns in stock price movements and generating stock recommendations based on the patterns thus discovered can significantly supplement the decision-making process of a stock trader. Such recommender systems are of great significance to a layperson who wishes to profit by stock trading even while not possessing the skill or expertise of a seasoned trader. A genetic algorithm optimized Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX–Apriori based stock trading recommender system, which can mine temporal association rules from the stock price data set to generate stock trading recommendations, is presented in this article. The proposed system is validated on 12 different data sets. The results indicate that the proposed system significantly outperforms the passive buy-and-hold strategy, offering scope for a layperson to successfully invest in capital markets.

  9. An association rule mining-based framework for understanding lifestyle risk behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence and patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors in Korean adults. METHODS: We utilized data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 14,833 adults (>20 years of age. We used association rule mining to analyze patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors by characterizing non-adherence to public health recommendations related to the Alameda 7 health behaviors. The study variables were current smoking, heavy drinking, physical inactivity, obesity, inadequate sleep, breakfast skipping, and frequent snacking. RESULTS: Approximately 72% of Korean adults exhibited two or more lifestyle risk behaviors. Among women, current smoking, obesity, and breakfast skipping were associated with inadequate sleep. Among men, breakfast skipping with additional risk behaviors such as physical inactivity, obesity, and inadequate sleep was associated with current smoking. Current smoking with additional risk behaviors such as inadequate sleep or breakfast skipping was associated with physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle risk behaviors are intercorrelated in Korea. Information on patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors could assist in planning interventions targeted at multiple behaviors simultaneously.

  10. Effect of Temporal Relationships in Associative Rule Mining for Web Log Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Khairudin, Nazli; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    The advent of web-based applications and services has created such diverse and voluminous web log data stored in web servers, proxy servers, client machines, or organizational databases. This paper attempts to investigate the effect of temporal attribute in relational rule mining for web log data. We incorporated the characteristics of time in the rule mining process and analysed the effect of various temporal parameters. The rules generated from temporal relational rule mining are then compared against the rules generated from the classical rule mining approach such as the Apriori and FP-Growth algorithms. The results showed that by incorporating the temporal attribute via time, the number of rules generated is subsequently smaller but is comparable in terms of quality. PMID:24587757

  11. Study on the Method of Association Rules Mining Based on Genetic Algorithm and Application in Analysis of Seawater Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data mining research, the data mining based on genetic algorithm method, the genetic algorithm is briefly introduced, while the genetic algorithm based on two important theories and theoretical templates principle implicit parallelism is also discussed. Focuses on the application of genetic algorithms for association rule mining method based on association rule mining, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm fitness function structure, data encoding, such as the title of the improvement program, in particular through the early issues study, proposed the improved adaptive Pc, Pm algorithm is applied to the genetic algorithm, thereby improving efficiency of the algorithm. Finally, a genetic algorithm based association rule mining algorithm, and be applied in sea water samples database in data mining and prove its effective.

  12. The Usage of Association Rule Mining to Identify Influencing Factors on Deafness After Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Azimeh Danesh; Safdari, Reza; Gahfarokhi, Hamid Habibi; Tahmasebian, Shahram

    2015-12-01

    Providing complete and high quality health care services has very important role to enable people to understand the factors related to personal and social health and to make decision regarding choice of suitable healthy behaviors in order to achieve healthy life. For this reason, demographic and clinical data of person are collecting, this huge volume of data can be known as a valuable resource for analyzing, exploring and discovering valuable information and communication. This study using forum rules techniques in the data mining has tried to identify the affecting factors on hearing loss after birth in Iran. The survey is kind of data oriented study. The population of the study is contained questionnaires in several provinces of the country. First, all data of questionnaire was implemented in the form of information table in Software SQL Server and followed by Data Entry using written software of C # .Net, then algorithm Association in SQL Server Data Tools software and Clementine software was implemented to determine the rules and hidden patterns in the gathered data. Two factors of number of deaf brothers and the degree of consanguinity of the parents have a significant impact on severity of deafness of individuals. Also, when the severity of hearing loss is greater than or equal to moderately severe hearing loss, people use hearing aids and Men are also less interested in the use of hearing aids. In fact, it can be said that in families with consanguineous marriage of parents that are from first degree (girl/boy cousins) and 2(nd) degree relatives (girl/boy cousins) and especially from first degree, the number of people with severe hearing loss or deafness are more and in the use of hearing aids, gender of the patient is more important than the severity of the hearing loss.

  13. Hardware architecture and associated programming flow for the design of digital fault-tolerant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyret, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Whether in automotive with heat stress or in aerospace and nuclear field subjected to cosmic, neutron and gamma radiation, the environment can lead to the development of faults in electronic systems. These faults, which can be transient or permanent, will lead to erroneous results that are unacceptable in some application contexts. The use of so-called rad-hard components is sometimes compromised due to their high costs and supply problems associated with export rules. This thesis proposes a joint hardware and software approach independent of integration technology for using digital programmable devices in environments that generate faults. Our approach includes the definition of a Coarse Grained Re-configurable Architecture (CGRA) able to execute entire application code but also all the hardware and software mechanisms to make it tolerant to transient and permanent faults. This is achieved by the combination of redundancy and dynamic reconfiguration of the CGRA based on a library of configurations generated by a complete conception flow. This implemented flow relies on a flow to map a code represented as a Control and Data Flow Graph (CDFG) on the CGRA architecture by obtaining directly a large number of different configurations and allows to exploit the full potential of architecture. This work, which has been validated through experiments with applications in the field of signal and image processing, has been the subject of two publications in international conferences and of two patents. (author) [fr

  14. Demographic Variables of Corruption in the Chinese Construction Industry: Association Rule Analysis of Conviction Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao; Martek, Igor; Hosseini, M Reza; Chen, Chuan

    2018-05-02

    Corruption in the construction industry is a serious problem in China. As such, fighting this corruption has become a priority target of the Chinese government, with the main effort being to discover and prosecute its perpetrators. This study profiles the demographic characteristics of major incidences of corruption in construction. It draws on the database of the 83 complete recorded cases of construction related corruption held by the Chinese National Bureau of Corruption Prevention. Categorical variables were drawn from the database, and 'association rule mining analysis' was used to identify associations between variables as a means of profiling perpetrators. Such profiling may be used as predictors of future incidences of corruption, and consequently to inform policy makers in their fight against corruption. The results signal corruption within the Chinese construction industry to be correlated with age, with incidences rising as managers' approach retirement age. Moreover, a majority of perpetrators operate within government agencies, are department deputies in direct contact with projects, and extort the greatest amounts per case from second tier cities. The relatively lengthy average 6.4-year period before cases come to public attention corroborates the view that current efforts at fighting corruption remain inadequate.

  15. Data-flow Analysis of Programs with Associative Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hauzar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic programming languages, such as PHP, JavaScript, and Python, provide built-in data structures including associative arrays and objects with similar semantics—object properties can be created at run-time and accessed via arbitrary expressions. While a high level of security and safety of applications written in these languages can be of a particular importance (consider a web application storing sensitive data and providing its functionality worldwide, dynamic data structures pose significant challenges for data-flow analysis making traditional static verification methods both unsound and imprecise. In this paper, we propose a sound and precise approach for value and points-to analysis of programs with associative arrays-like data structures, upon which data-flow analyses can be built. We implemented our approach in a web-application domain—in an analyzer of PHP code.

  16. Quality prediction modeling for multistage manufacturing based on classification and association rule mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Hung-An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For manufacturing enterprises, product quality is a key factor to assess production capability and increase their core competence. To reduce external failure cost, many research and methodology have been introduced in order to improve process yield rate, such as TQC/TQM, Shewhart CycleDeming's 14 Points, etc. Nowadays, impressive progress has been made in process monitoring and industrial data analysis because of the Industry 4.0 trend. Industries start to utilize quality control (QC methodology to lower inspection overhead and internal failure cost. Currently, the focus of QC is mostly in the inspection of single workstation and final product, however, for multistage manufacturing, many factors (like equipment, operators, parameters, etc. can have cumulative and interactive effects to the final quality. When failure occurs, it is difficult to resume the original settings for cause analysis. To address these problems, this research proposes a combination of principal components analysis (PCA with classification and association rule mining algorithms to extract features representing relationship of multiple workstations, predict final product quality, and analyze the root-cause of product defect. The method is demonstrated on a semiconductor data set.

  17. Leveraging Bibliographic RDF Data for Keyword Prediction with Association Rule Mining (ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Kushwaha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Semantic Web (Web 3.0 has been proposed as an efficient way to access the increasingly large amounts of data on the internet. The Linked Open Data Cloud project at present is the major effort to implement the concepts of the Seamtic Web, addressing the problems of inhomogeneity and large data volumes. RKBExplorer is one of many repositories implementing Open Data and contains considerable bibliographic information. This paper discusses bibliographic data, an important part of cloud data. Effective searching of bibiographic datasets can be a challenge as many of the papers residing in these databases do not have sufficient or comprehensive keyword information. In these cases however, a search engine based on RKBExplorer is only able to use information to retrieve papers based on author names and title of papers without keywords. In this paper we attempt to address this problem by using the data mining algorithm Association Rule Mining (ARM to develop keywords based on features retrieved from Resource Description Framework (RDF data within a bibliographic citation. We have demonstrate the applicability of this method for predicting missing keywords for bibliographic entries in several typical databases. −−−−− Paper presented at 1st International Symposium on Big Data and Cloud Computing Challenges (ISBCC-2014 March 27-28, 2014. Organized by VIT University, Chennai, India. Sponsored by BRNS.

  18. Introducing a Simple Equation to Express Oxidation States as an Alternative to Using Rules Associated with Words Alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkiewicz, Piotr; Darewicz, Malgorzata; Iwaniak, Anna

    2018-01-01

    A simple equation to calculate the oxidation states (oxidation numbers) of individual atoms in molecules and ions may be introduced instead of rules associated with words alone. The equation includes two of three categories of bonds, classified as proposed by Goodstein: number of bonds with more electronegative atoms and number of bonds with less…

  19. Goal directed worry rules are associated with distinct patterns of amygdala functional connectivity and vagal modulation during perseverative cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Meeten, Frances; Davey, Graham C L; Makovac, Elena; Watson, David R.; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Critchley, Hugo D.; Ottaviani, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Excessive and uncontrollable worry is a defining feature of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). An important endeavor in the treatment of pathological worry is to understand why some people are unable to stop worrying once they have started. Worry perseveration is associated with a tendency to deploy goal-directed worry rules (known as “as many as can” worry rules; AMA). These require attention to the goal of the worry task and continuation of worry until the aims of the “worry bout” are achi...

  20. Central line-associated bloodstream infections and catheter dwell-time: A theoretical foundation for a rule of thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Philip J G M

    2018-05-14

    Many clinicians know from experience and medical epidemiological literature that the risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) increases rapidly with a prolonged catheter dwell-time, but how this infection risk increases over time remains obscure. In this manuscript, a clinically useful rule of thumb is derived, stating that the risk of CLABSI increases in a quadratic fashion with the increase in catheter dwell-time. The proposed rule of thumb could be considered a quick and effortless clinical tool to rationally predict the pattern of CLABSI risk with an increasing catheter dwell-time. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Habituation: a non-associative learning rule design for spiking neurons and an autonomous mobile robots implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyr, André; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bio-inspired habituation function for robots under control by an artificial spiking neural network. This non-associative learning rule is modelled at the synaptic level and validated through robotic behaviours in reaction to different stimuli patterns in a dynamical virtual 3D world. Habituation is minimally represented to show an attenuated response after exposure to and perception of persistent external stimuli. Based on current neurosciences research, the originality of this rule includes modulated response to variable frequencies of the captured stimuli. Filtering out repetitive data from the natural habituation mechanism has been demonstrated to be a key factor in the attention phenomenon, and inserting such a rule operating at multiple temporal dimensions of stimuli increases a robot's adaptive behaviours by ignoring broader contextual irrelevant information. (paper)

  2. Habituation: a non-associative learning rule design for spiking neurons and an autonomous mobile robots implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, André; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a novel bio-inspired habituation function for robots under control by an artificial spiking neural network. This non-associative learning rule is modelled at the synaptic level and validated through robotic behaviours in reaction to different stimuli patterns in a dynamical virtual 3D world. Habituation is minimally represented to show an attenuated response after exposure to and perception of persistent external stimuli. Based on current neurosciences research, the originality of this rule includes modulated response to variable frequencies of the captured stimuli. Filtering out repetitive data from the natural habituation mechanism has been demonstrated to be a key factor in the attention phenomenon, and inserting such a rule operating at multiple temporal dimensions of stimuli increases a robot's adaptive behaviours by ignoring broader contextual irrelevant information.

  3. Hierarchy-associated semantic-rule inference framework for classifying indoor scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Peng; Ye, Zhipeng; Tang, Xianglong; Zhao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Typically, the initial task of classifying indoor scenes is challenging, because the spatial layout and decoration of a scene can vary considerably. Recent efforts at classifying object relationships commonly depend on the results of scene annotation and predefined rules, making classification inflexible. Furthermore, annotation results are easily affected by external factors. Inspired by human cognition, a scene-classification framework was proposed using the empirically based annotation (EBA) and a match-over rule-based (MRB) inference system. The semantic hierarchy of images is exploited by EBA to construct rules empirically for MRB classification. The problem of scene classification is divided into low-level annotation and high-level inference from a macro perspective. Low-level annotation involves detecting the semantic hierarchy and annotating the scene with a deformable-parts model and a bag-of-visual-words model. In high-level inference, hierarchical rules are extracted to train the decision tree for classification. The categories of testing samples are generated from the parts to the whole. Compared with traditional classification strategies, the proposed semantic hierarchy and corresponding rules reduce the effect of a variable background and improve the classification performance. The proposed framework was evaluated on a popular indoor scene dataset, and the experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  4. The HIPAA privacy rule and HR/benefits outsourcing: does the business associate label belong on your recordkeeper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Denise D

    2004-01-01

    Employers that sponsor group health plans and serve as the plan administrator of those plans are required by the HIPAA Privacy Rule to execute business associate contracts with vendors that provide services on behalf of the plans. The business associate contracts must contain many specific provisions regarding the protection, use and disclosure of health information. This article looks at the implications of imposing business associate contract obligations on an integrated HR and benefits-outsourcing recordkeeper and cautions employers against an overly broad application of the requirements.

  5. 75 FR 1426 - National Futures Association; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ...) require that certain audio and video advertisements that appear on the Internet--like similar radio and... CPO/CTA Advisory Committees considered the growing use of social networking groups such as blogs, chat... advertisements, while participating in a chat room is a public appearance subject to FINRA rules. The guidance...

  6. Cerebral blood flow changes in Parkinson's disease associated with dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derejko, M.; Lass, P.; Slawek, J.; Nyka, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    Dementia is one of the main non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and it is diagnosed in about 30% of cases. Its aetiology remains unclear and contributing factors are controversial. Dementia may be more common in old patients with severe motor symptoms and mild cognitive impairment. Clinico-pathological studies show the association between dementia in PD and the age-related group of dementias, such as AD and VaD. A valuable aid in the assessment of dementia in PD is cerebral blood flow (CBF) brain SPECT scanning. It shows three different patterns of rCBF reduction, including frontal lobe hypoperfusion, iu Alzheimer-likel type of hypoperfusion and multiple, vascular defects. The heterogeneity of rCBF reduction may reflect the multifactorial pathophysiology of dementia in PD. It may result from concomitant AD pathology, cerebrovascular disease, destruction of nigro-striato-frontal projection or may be a distinct disease of different aetiology. (author)

  7. The spatial decision-supporting system combination of RBR & CBR based on artificial neural network and association rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yangge; Bian, Fuling

    2007-06-01

    The technology of artificial intelligence should be imported on the basis of the geographic information system to bring up the spatial decision-supporting system (SDSS). The paper discusses the structure of SDSS, after comparing the characteristics of RBR and CBR, the paper brings up the frame of a spatial decisional system that combines RBR and CBR, which has combined the advantages of them both. And the paper discusses the CBR in agriculture spatial decisions, the application of ANN (Artificial Neural Network) in CBR, and enriching the inference rule base based on association rules, etc. And the paper tests and verifies the design of this system with the examples of the evaluation of the crops' adaptability.

  8. Uncovering Hospitalists' Information Needs from Outside Healthcare Facilities in the Context of Health Information Exchange Using Association Rule Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D A; Mora, E; Gemmani, M; Zayas-Castro, J

    2015-01-01

    Important barriers to health information exchange (HIE) adoption are clinical workflow disruptions and troubles with the system interface. Prior research suggests that HIE interfaces providing faster access to useful information may stimulate use and reduce barriers for adoption; however, little is known about informational needs of hospitalists. To study the association between patient health problems and the type of information requested from outside healthcare providers by hospitalists of a tertiary care hospital. We searched operational data associated with fax-based exchange of patient information (previous HIE implementation) between hospitalists of an internal medicine department in a large urban tertiary care hospital in Florida, and any other affiliated and unaffiliated healthcare provider. All hospitalizations from October 2011 to March 2014 were included in the search. Strong association rules between health problems and types of information requested during each hospitalization were discovered using Apriori algorithm, which were then validated by a team of hospitalists of the same department. Only 13.7% (2 089 out of 15 230) of the hospitalizations generated at least one request of patient information to other providers. The transactional data showed 20 strong association rules between specific health problems and types of information exist. Among the 20 rules, for example, abdominal pain, chest pain, and anaemia patients are highly likely to have medical records and outside imaging results requested. Other health conditions, prone to have records requested, were lower urinary tract infection and back pain patients. The presented list of strong co-occurrence of health problems and types of information requested by hospitalists from outside healthcare providers not only informs the implementation and design of HIE, but also helps to target future research on the impact of having access to outside information for specific patient cohorts. Our data

  9. Altered Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vállez García

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of central hyperexcitability in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (cWAD. However, little is known about how an apparently simple cervical spine injury can induce changes in cerebral processes. The present study was designed (1 to validate previous results showing alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in cWAD, (2 to test if central hyperexcitability reflects changes in rCBF upon non-painful stimulation of the neck, and (3 to verify our hypothesis that the missing link in understanding the underlying pathophysiology could be the close interaction between the neck and midbrain structures. For this purpose, alterations of rCBF were explored in a case-control study using H215O positron emission tomography, where each group was exposed to four different conditions, including rest and different levels of non-painful electrical stimulation of the neck. rCBF was found to be elevated in patients with cWAD in the posterior cingulate and precuneus, and decreased in the superior temporal, parahippocampal, and inferior frontal gyri, the thalamus and the insular cortex when compared with rCBF in healthy controls. No differences in rCBF were observed between different levels of electrical stimulation. The alterations in regions directly involved with pain perception and interoceptive processing indicate that cWAD symptoms might be the consequence of a mismatch during the integration of information in brain regions involved in pain processing.

  10. Mining Research on Vibration Signal Association Rules of Quayside Container Crane Hoisting Motor Based on Apriori Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chencheng; Tang, Gang; Hu, Xiong

    2017-07-01

    Shore-hoisting motor in the daily work will produce a large number of vibration signal data,in order to analyze the correlation among the data and discover the fault and potential safety hazard of the motor, the data are discretized first, and then Apriori algorithm are used to mine the strong association rules among the data. The results show that the relationship between day 1 and day 16 is the most closely related, which can guide the staff to analyze the work of these two days of motor to find and solve the problem of fault and safety.

  11. Scattering rules in soliton cellular automata associated with Uq(D(1)n)-crystal Bn,1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, Mahathir bin

    2012-01-01

    By means of the crystal theory, we study a class of automata associated with U q (D (1) n )-crystal B n,1 . They have a commuting family of time evolutions, and solitons of length l are labeled by U q (A (1) n−1 )-crystal B 2,l A . The scattering rule of two solitons of lengths l 1 and l 2 (l 1 > l 2 ) including the phase shift is identified with the combinatorial R-matrix for the U q (A (1) n −1 )-crystal B 2,l 2 A ⊗B 2,l 1 A . (paper)

  12. A New Approach of Multi-robot Cooperative Pursuit Based on Association Rule Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An approach of cooperative hunting for multiple mobile targets by multi-robot is presented, which divides the pursuit process into forming the pursuit teams and capturing the targets. The data sets of attribute relationship is built by consulting all of factors about capturing evaders, then the interesting rules can be found by data mining from the data sets to build the pursuit teams. Through doping out the positions of targets, the pursuit game can be transformed into multi-robot path planning. Reinforcement learning is used to find the best path. The simulation results show that the mobile evaders can be captured effectively and efficiently, and prove the feasibility and validity of the given algorithm under a dynamic environment.

  13. A New Approach of Multi-Robot Cooperative Pursuit Based on Association Rule Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach of cooperative hunting for multiple mobile targets by multi-robot is presented, which divides the pursuit process into forming the pursuit teams and capturing the targets. The data sets of attribute relationship is built by consulting all of factors about capturing evaders, then the interesting rules can be found by data mining from the data sets to build the pursuit teams. Through doping out the positions of targets, the pursuit game can be transformed into multi-robot path planning. Reinforcement learning is used to find the best path. The simulation results show that the mobile evaders can be captured effectively and efficiently, and prove the feasibility and validity of the given algorithm under a dynamic environment.

  14. Associate editors' foreword: entrepreneurship in health education and health promotion: five cardinal rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Randall R; Cooper, Hanna

    2009-07-01

    A career in health education or health promotion (HE/HP) can be developed in many ways. In past editions of this department, career development has been discussed in relation to distance (Balonna, 2001), consulting (Bookbinder, 2001), certifications (Hayden, 2005), graduate school (Cottrell & Hayden, 2007), and many other topics. This article looks at a less traditional means of career development-entrepreneurship. Health education is a field ripe with opportunities for consulting and for selling health-related products and services. Entrepreneurship can not only create financial rewards but can also provide high visibility and networking contacts that can advance one's career. This article combines both theory and practical applications to assist readers in developing entrepreneurial activities. The authors are experienced in entrepreneurial development and use that expertise to provide relevant examples and develop a framework using "five cardinal rules" for establishing an entrepreneurial enterprise in HE/HP.

  15. Discovery of novel targets for multi-epitope vaccines: Screening of HIV-1 genomes using association rule mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piontkivska Helen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that in the genome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 regions responsible for interactions with the host's immune system, namely, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL epitopes tend to cluster together in relatively conserved regions. On the other hand, "epitope-less" regions or regions with relatively low density of epitopes tend to be more variable. However, very little is known about relationships among epitopes from different genes, in other words, whether particular epitopes from different genes would occur together in the same viral genome. To identify CTL epitopes in different genes that co-occur in HIV genomes, association rule mining was used. Results Using a set of 189 best-defined HIV-1 CTL/CD8+ epitopes from 9 different protein-coding genes, as described by Frahm, Linde & Brander (2007, we examined the complete genomic sequences of 62 reference HIV sequences (including 13 subtypes and sub-subtypes with approximately 4 representative sequences for each subtype or sub-subtype, and 18 circulating recombinant forms. The results showed that despite inclusion of recombinant sequences that would be expected to break-up associations of epitopes in different genes when two different genomes are recombined, there exist particular combinations of epitopes (epitope associations that occur repeatedly across the world-wide population of HIV-1. For example, Pol epitope LFLDGIDKA is found to be significantly associated with epitopes GHQAAMQML and FLKEKGGL from Gag and Nef, respectively, and this association rule is observed even among circulating recombinant forms. Conclusion We have identified CTL epitope combinations co-occurring in HIV-1 genomes including different subtypes and recombinant forms. Such co-occurrence has important implications for design of complex vaccines (multi-epitope vaccines and/or drugs that would target multiple HIV-1 regions at once and, thus, may be expected to overcome challenges

  16. An Association Rule Based Method to Integrate Metro-Public Bicycle Smart Card Data for Trip Chain Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart card data provide valuable insights and massive samples for enhancing the understanding of transfer behavior between metro and public bicycle. However, smart cards for metro and public bicycle are often issued and managed by independent companies and this results in the same commuter having different identity tags in the metro and public bicycle smart card systems. The primary objective of this study is to develop a data fusion methodology for matching metro and public bicycle smart cards for the same commuter using historical smart card data. A novel method with association rules to match the data derived from the two systems is proposed and validation was performed. The results showed that our proposed method successfully matched 573 pairs of smart cards with an accuracy of 100%. We also validated the association rules method through visualization of individual metro and public bicycle trips. Based on the matched cards, interesting findings of metro-bicycle transfer have been derived, including the spatial pattern of the public bicycle as first/last mile solution as well as the duration of a metro trip chain.

  17. In-Depth Analysis of Energy Efficiency Related Factors in Commercial Buildings Using Data Cube and Association Rule Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeongjoon Noh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Significant amounts of energy are consumed in the commercial building sector, resulting in various adverse environmental issues. To reduce energy consumption and improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings, it is necessary to develop effective methods for analyzing building energy use. In this study, we propose a data cube model combined with association rule mining for more flexible and detailed analysis of building energy consumption profiles using the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS dataset, which has accumulated over 6700 existing commercial buildings across the U.S.A. Based on the data cube model, a multidimensional commercial sector building energy analysis was performed based upon on-line analytical processing (OLAP operations to assess the energy efficiency according to building factors with various levels of abstraction. Furthermore, the proposed analysis system provided useful information that represented a set of energy efficient combinations by applying the association rule mining method. We validated the feasibility and applicability of the proposed analysis model by structuring a building energy analysis system and applying it to different building types, weather conditions, composite materials, and heating/cooling systems of the multitude of commercial buildings classified in the CBECS dataset.

  18. Determination of Relations between Systolic Blood Pressure and Heart Attack in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Payam Shariatpanahi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Today, the high prevalence of diabetes and its complications are one of the most important public health issues worldwide. For this reason, finding relations between diabetes risk factors is very effective in preventing and reducing complications. For discovering these relations, the data mining methods can be used. By extracting association rules, which is one of the data mining techniques, we can discover the relations between a large numbers of variables in a disease. Materials and Methods: The population of this study was 1046 patients with type 2 diabetes, whose data had recorded between 2011 and 2014 at the Special Clinic for Diabetes in Tehran's Imam Khomeini Hospital. After pre-processing step with SPSS19 software, 573 people entered the analysis phase. The FP-Growth algorithm was applied to the data set to discover the relations between heart attack and other risk factors using Rapid miner5 software. Relations, after extraction, were given to the doctor to confirm clinical validation. Results: The obtained results of studying these 573 people (Including 292 (51% women and 281 (49% men, with age range 27 to 82 years showed that the lack of blood pressure, creatinine and diastolic blood pressure at its normal level, despite higher systolic blood pressure level than normal, doesn't increase the probability of heart attack. Conclusion: Using association rules is a good way of identifying relations between the risk factors of a disease. Also, it can provide new hypotheses to do epidemiological studies for researchers.

  19. Altered Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vállez García, David; Doorduin, Janine; Willemsen, Antoon T M; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Otte, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of central hyperexcitability in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (cWAD). However, little is known about how an apparently simple cervical spine injury can induce changes in cerebral processes. The present study was designed (1) to validate previous results showing alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in cWAD, (2) to test if central hyperexcitability reflects changes in rCBF upon non-painful stimulation of the neck, and (3) to verify our hypothesis that the missing link in understanding the underlying pathophysiology could be the close interaction between the neck and midbrain structures. For this purpose, alterations of rCBF were explored in a case-control study using H2(15)O positron emission tomography, where each group was exposed to four different conditions, including rest and different levels of non-painful electrical stimulation of the neck. rCBF was found to be elevated in patients with cWAD in the posterior cingulate and precuneus, and decreased in the superior temporal, parahippocampal, and inferior frontal gyri, the thalamus and the insular cortex when compared with rCBF in healthy controls. No differences in rCBF were observed between different levels of electrical stimulation. The alterations in regions directly involved with pain perception and interoceptive processing indicate that cWAD symptoms might be the consequence of a mismatch during the integration of information in brain regions involved in pain processing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Solar wind flows associated with hot heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1980-05-01

    Solar wind heavy ion spectra measured with the Vela instrumentation have been studied with the goal of determining the solar origins of various solar wind structures which contain anomalously high ionization states. Since the ionization states freeze-in close to the sun they are good indicators of the plasma conditions in the low and intermediate corona. Heavy ion spectra from three different periods throughout the solar cycle have been analyzed. These data are consistent with freezing-in temperatures ranging from approx. 1.5 x 10 6 K to higher than 9 x 10 6 . The spectra indicating hot coronal conditions occur in roughly 1/7 of all measurements and almost exclusively in postshock flows (PSFs), nonshock related helium abundance enhancements (HAEs), or noncompressive density enhancements (NCDEs). The PSFs and HAEs are both probably interplanetary manifestations of solar flares. The observation of several flare-related HAEs which were not preceded by an interplanetary shock suggests that the flare-heated plasma can evolve into the solar wind without producing a noticeable shock at 1 AU. The NCDEs with hot heavy ions differ from the PSF-HAEs in several ways implying that they evolve from events or places with lower temperatures and less energy than those associated with the flares, but with higher temperatures and densities than the quiet corona. Active regions, coronal mass ejections, and equatorial streamers are possible sources for the NCDEs with spectra indicating hot coronal conditions. These events owe their enhanced densities to coronal processes as opposed to interplanetary dynamical processes. Models of the solar wind expansion demonstrate how some NCDEs can have extreme, nonequilibrium ionization distributions

  1. Prediction of Metabolic Pathway Involvement in Prokaryotic UniProtKB Data by Association Rule Mining

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene; Saidi, Rabie; Hoehndorf, Robert; Martin, Maria J.; Solovyev, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The widening gap between known proteins and their functions has encouraged the development of methods to automatically infer annotations. Automatic functional annotation of proteins is expected to meet the conflicting requirements of maximizing annotation coverage, while minimizing erroneous functional assignments. This trade-off imposes a great challenge in designing intelligent systems to tackle the problem of automatic protein annotation. In this work, we present a system that utilizes rule mining techniques to predict metabolic pathways in prokaryotes. The resulting knowledge represents predictive models that assign pathway involvement to UniProtKB entries. We carried out an evaluation study of our system performance using cross-validation technique. We found that it achieved very promising results in pathway identification with an F1-measure of 0.982 and an AUC of 0.987. Our prediction models were then successfully applied to 6.2 million UniProtKB/TrEMBL reference proteome entries of prokaryotes. As a result, 663,724 entries were covered, where 436,510 of them lacked any previous pathway annotations.

  2. Prediction of Metabolic Pathway Involvement in Prokaryotic UniProtKB Data by Association Rule Mining

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene

    2016-07-08

    The widening gap between known proteins and their functions has encouraged the development of methods to automatically infer annotations. Automatic functional annotation of proteins is expected to meet the conflicting requirements of maximizing annotation coverage, while minimizing erroneous functional assignments. This trade-off imposes a great challenge in designing intelligent systems to tackle the problem of automatic protein annotation. In this work, we present a system that utilizes rule mining techniques to predict metabolic pathways in prokaryotes. The resulting knowledge represents predictive models that assign pathway involvement to UniProtKB entries. We carried out an evaluation study of our system performance using cross-validation technique. We found that it achieved very promising results in pathway identification with an F1-measure of 0.982 and an AUC of 0.987. Our prediction models were then successfully applied to 6.2 million UniProtKB/TrEMBL reference proteome entries of prokaryotes. As a result, 663,724 entries were covered, where 436,510 of them lacked any previous pathway annotations.

  3. A Priority Rule-Based Heuristic for Resource Investment Project Scheduling Problem with Discounted Cash Flows and Tardiness Penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas Najafi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource investment problem with discounted cash flows (RIPDCFs is a class of project scheduling problem. In RIPDCF, the availability levels of the resources are considered decision variables, and the goal is to find a schedule such that the net present value of the project cash flows optimizes. In this paper, we consider a new RIPDCF in which tardiness of project is permitted with defined penalty. We mathematically formulated the problem and developed a heuristic method to solve it. The results of the performance analysis of the proposed method show an effective solution approach to the problem.

  4. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  5. Longitudinal associations in adolescence between cortisol and persistent aggressive or rule-breaking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platje, E.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Raine, A.; Branje, S.T.J.; Doreleijers, Th.A.H.; de Vries-Bouw, M.; Popma, A.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Vermeiren, R.

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies have associated antisocial behavior with decreased cortisol awakening responses (CAR), studies in adolescent samples yielded inconsistent results. In adolescence however, the CAR develops and antisocial behavior is heterogeneous in type and persistence. Therefore this

  6. Accuracy of Automated Flow Cytometry-Based Leukocyte Counts To Rule Out Urinary Tract Infection in Febrile Children: a Prospective Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hong Phuoc; Wissing, Karl Martin; Tram, Nathalie; Mascart, Georges; Lepage, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Automated flow cytometry of urine remains an incompletely validated method to rule out urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. This cross-sectional analytical study was performed to compare the predictive values of flow cytometry and a dipstick test as initial diagnostic tests for UTI in febrile children and prospectively included 1,106 children (1,247 episodes). Urine culture was used as the gold standard test for diagnosing UTI. The performance of screening tests to diagnose UTI were established using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Among these 1,247 febrile episodes, 221 UTIs were diagnosed (17.7% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 15.6 to 19.8%]). The area under the ROC curve for flow cytometry white blood cell (WBC) counts (0.99 [95% CI, 0.98 to 0.99]) was significantly superior to that for red blood cell (0.74 [95% CI, 0.70 to 0.78]) and bacterial counts (0.89 [95% CI, 0.87 to 0.92]) (P UTI in febrile children. PMID:27682127

  7. Stimulated bioluminescence by fluid shear stress associated with pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Jing; Wang Jiangan; Wu Ronghua, E-mail: caojing981@126.com [Col. of Electronic Eng., Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Dinoflagellate can be stimulated bioluminescence by hydrodynamic agitation. Two typical dinoflagellate (Lingulodinium polyedrum and Pyrocystis noctiluca) was choosed to research stimulated bioluminescence. The bioluminescence intensity and shear stress intensity were measured using fully developed pipe flow. There is shear stress threshold to agitate organism bioluminescence. From these experiment, the response thresholds of the stimulated bioluminscence always occurred in laminar flows at a shear stress level of 0.6-3 dyn/cm{sup 2}. At the same time, the spectral characteristc of dinoflagellate was recorded, the wavelength of them is about 470nm, and the full width at half maximum is approximate 30nm.

  8. Lack of parental rule-setting on eating is associated with a wide range of adolescent unhealthy eating behaviour both for boys and girls

    OpenAIRE

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Unhealthy eating habits in adolescence lead to a wide variety of health problems and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absence of parental rules on eating and unhealthy eating behaviour and to explore the relationships between parental rules on eating and a wide range of unhealthy eating habits of boys and girls. We also explored the association of sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, family affluence or parental education with ea...

  9. Use of Six Sigma Worksheets for assessment of internal and external failure costs associated with candidate quality control rules for an ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cian, Francesco; Villiers, Elisabeth; Archer, Joy; Pitorri, Francesca; Freeman, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    Quality control (QC) validation is an essential tool in total quality management of a veterinary clinical pathology laboratory. Cost-analysis can be a valuable technique to help identify an appropriate QC procedure for the laboratory, although this has never been reported in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of the Six Sigma Quality Cost Worksheets in the evaluation of possible candidate QC rules identified by QC validation. Three months of internal QC records were analyzed. EZ Rules 3 software was used to evaluate candidate QC procedures, and the costs associated with the application of different QC rules were calculated using the Six Sigma Quality Cost Worksheets. The costs associated with the current and the candidate QC rules were compared, and the amount of cost savings was calculated. There was a significant saving when the candidate 1-2.5s, n = 3 rule was applied instead of the currently utilized 1-2s, n = 3 rule. The savings were 75% per year (£ 8232.5) based on re-evaluating all of the patient samples in addition to the controls, and 72% per year (£ 822.4) based on re-analyzing only the control materials. The savings were also shown to change accordingly with the number of samples analyzed and with the number of daily QC procedures performed. These calculations demonstrated the importance of the selection of an appropriate QC procedure, and the usefulness of the Six Sigma Costs Worksheet in determining the most cost-effective rule(s) when several candidate rules are identified by QC validation. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Order Batching in Warehouses by Minimizing Total Tardiness: A Hybrid Approach of Weighted Association Rule Mining and Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Azadnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the cost-intensive issues in managing warehouses is the order picking problem which deals with the retrieval of items from their storage locations in order to meet customer requests. Many solution approaches have been proposed in order to minimize traveling distance in the process of order picking. However, in practice, customer orders have to be completed by certain due dates in order to avoid tardiness which is neglected in most of the related scientific papers. Consequently, we proposed a novel solution approach in order to minimize tardiness which consists of four phases. First of all, weighted association rule mining has been used to calculate associations between orders with respect to their due date. Next, a batching model based on binary integer programming has been formulated to maximize the associations between orders within each batch. Subsequently, the order picking phase will come up which used a Genetic Algorithm integrated with the Traveling Salesman Problem in order to identify the most suitable travel path. Finally, the Genetic Algorithm has been applied for sequencing the constructed batches in order to minimize tardiness. Illustrative examples and comparisons are presented to demonstrate the proficiency and solution quality of the proposed approach.

  11. Investigating the Relation Between Prevalence of Asthmatic Allergy with the Characteristics of the Environment Using Association Rule Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani Sadat, Y.; Karimipour, F.; Kanani Sadat, A.

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has highly increased in recent decades due to contamination of the environment with the allergy stimuli. A common treat is identifying the allergy stimulus and, then, avoiding the patient to be exposed with it. There are, however, many unknown allergic diseases stimuli that are related to the characteristics of the living environment. In this paper, we focus on the effect of air pollution on asthmatic allergies and investigate the association between prevalence of such allergies with those characteristics of the environment that may affect the air pollution. For this, spatial association rule mining has been deployed to mine the association between spatial distribution of allergy prevalence and the air pollution parameters such as CO, SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and O3 (compiled by the air pollution monitoring stations) as well as living distance to parks and roads. The results for the case study (i.e., Tehran metropolitan area) indicates that distance to parks and roads as well as CO, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 is related to the allergy prevalence in December (the most polluted month of the year in Tehran), while SO2 and O3 have no effect on that.

  12. Literature mining of protein-residue associations with graph rules learned through distant supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar KE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We propose a method for automatic extraction of protein-specific residue mentions from the biomedical literature. The method searches text for mentions of amino acids at specific sequence positions and attempts to correctly associate each mention with a protein also named in the text. The methods presented in this work will enable improved protein functional site extraction from articles, ultimately supporting protein function prediction. Our method made use of linguistic patterns for identifying the amino acid residue mentions in text. Further, we applied an automated graph-based method to learn syntactic patterns corresponding to protein-residue pairs mentioned in the text. We finally present an approach to automated construction of relevant training and test data using the distant supervision model. Results The performance of the method was assessed by extracting protein-residue relations from a new automatically generated test set of sentences containing high confidence examples found using distant supervision. It achieved a F-measure of 0.84 on automatically created silver corpus and 0.79 on a manually annotated gold data set for this task, outperforming previous methods. Conclusions The primary contributions of this work are to (1 demonstrate the effectiveness of distant supervision for automatic creation of training data for protein-residue relation extraction, substantially reducing the effort and time involved in manual annotation of a data set and (2 show that the graph-based relation extraction approach we used generalizes well to the problem of protein-residue association extraction. This work paves the way towards effective extraction of protein functional residues from the literature.

  13. Literature mining of protein-residue associations with graph rules learned through distant supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Ke; Liu, Haibin; Cohn, Judith D; Wall, Michael E; Verspoor, Karin

    2012-10-05

    We propose a method for automatic extraction of protein-specific residue mentions from the biomedical literature. The method searches text for mentions of amino acids at specific sequence positions and attempts to correctly associate each mention with a protein also named in the text. The methods presented in this work will enable improved protein functional site extraction from articles, ultimately supporting protein function prediction. Our method made use of linguistic patterns for identifying the amino acid residue mentions in text. Further, we applied an automated graph-based method to learn syntactic patterns corresponding to protein-residue pairs mentioned in the text. We finally present an approach to automated construction of relevant training and test data using the distant supervision model. The performance of the method was assessed by extracting protein-residue relations from a new automatically generated test set of sentences containing high confidence examples found using distant supervision. It achieved a F-measure of 0.84 on automatically created silver corpus and 0.79 on a manually annotated gold data set for this task, outperforming previous methods. The primary contributions of this work are to (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of distant supervision for automatic creation of training data for protein-residue relation extraction, substantially reducing the effort and time involved in manual annotation of a data set and (2) show that the graph-based relation extraction approach we used generalizes well to the problem of protein-residue association extraction. This work paves the way towards effective extraction of protein functional residues from the literature.

  14. Decolonisation of fractional calculus rules: Breaking commutativity and associativity to capture more natural phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.

    2018-04-01

    To answer some issues raised about the concept of fractional differentiation and integration based on the exponential and Mittag-Leffler laws, we present, in this paper, fundamental differences between the power law, exponential decay, Mittag-Leffler law and their possible applications in nature. We demonstrate the failure of the semi-group principle in modeling real-world problems. We use natural phenomena to illustrate the importance of non-commutative and non-associative operators under which the Caputo-Fabrizio and Atangana-Baleanu fractional operators fall. We present statistical properties of generator for each fractional derivative, including Riemann-Liouville, Caputo-Fabrizio and Atangana-Baleanu ones. The Atangana-Baleanu and Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives show crossover properties for the mean-square displacement, while the Riemann-Liouville is scale invariant. Their probability distributions are also a Gaussian to non-Gaussian crossover, with the difference that the Caputo Fabrizio kernel has a steady state between the transition. Only the Atangana-Baleanu kernel is a crossover for the waiting time distribution from stretched exponential to power law. A new criterion was suggested, namely the Atangana-Gómez fractional bracket, that helps describe the energy needed by a fractional derivative to characterize a 2-pletic manifold. Based on these properties, we classified fractional derivatives in three categories: weak, mild and strong fractional differential and integral operators. We presented some applications of fractional differential operators to describe real-world problems and we proved, with numerical simulations, that the Riemann-Liouville power-law derivative provides a description of real-world problems with much additional information, that can be seen as noise or error due to specific memory properties of its power-law kernel. The Caputo-Fabrizio derivative is less noisy while the Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivative provides an

  15. Integrability and symmetry algebra associated with N=2 KP flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sasanka; Sarma, Debojit

    2001-01-01

    We show the complete integrability of N=2 nonstandard KP flows establishing the bi-Hamiltonian structures. One of Hamiltonian structures is shown to be isomorphic to the nonlinear N=2 W ∞ algebra with the bosonic sector having W 1+∞ ·W ∞ structure. A consistent free field representation of the super conformal algebra is obtained. The bosonic generators are found to be an admixture of free fermions and free complex bosons, unlike the linear one. The fermionic generators become exponential in free fields, in general

  16. Lack of parental rule-setting on eating is associated with a wide range of adolescent unhealthy eating behaviour both for boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-04-27

    Unhealthy eating habits in adolescence lead to a wide variety of health problems and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absence of parental rules on eating and unhealthy eating behaviour and to explore the relationships between parental rules on eating and a wide range of unhealthy eating habits of boys and girls. We also explored the association of sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, family affluence or parental education with eating related parental rules and eating habits of adolescents. The data on 2765 adolescents aged 13-15 years (mean age: 14.4; 50.7 % boys) from the Slovak part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study 2014 were assessed. The associations between eating-related parental rules and unhealthy eating patterns using logistic regression were assessed using logistic regression. Unhealthy eating habits occurred frequently among adolescents (range: 18.0 % reported skipping breakfast during weekends vs. 75.8 % for low vegetables intake). Of all adolescents, 20.5 % reported a lack of any parental rules on eating (breakfast not mandatory, meal in front of TV allowed, no rules about sweets and soft drinks). These adolescents were more likely to eat unhealthily, i.e. to skip breakfast on weekdays (odds ratio/95 % confidence interval: 5.33/4.15-6.84) and on weekends (2.66/2.12-3.34), to report low consumption of fruits (1.63/1.30-2.04) and vegetables (1.32/1.04-1.68), and the frequent consumption of sweets (1.59/1.30-1.94), soft drinks (1.93/1.56-2.38) and energy drinks (2.15/1.72-2.70). Parental rule-setting on eating is associated with eating behaviours of adolescents. Further research is needed to disentangle causality in this relationship. If causal, parents may be targeted to modify the eating habits of adolescents.

  17. Identification of individual coherent sets associated with flow trajectories using coherent structure coloring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter-Kuck, Kristy L.; Dabiri, John O.

    2017-09-01

    We present a method for identifying the coherent structures associated with individual Lagrangian flow trajectories even where only sparse particle trajectory data are available. The method, based on techniques in spectral graph theory, uses the Coherent Structure Coloring vector and associated eigenvectors to analyze the distance in higher-dimensional eigenspace between a selected reference trajectory and other tracer trajectories in the flow. By analyzing this distance metric in a hierarchical clustering, the coherent structure of which the reference particle is a member can be identified. This algorithm is proven successful in identifying coherent structures of varying complexities in canonical unsteady flows. Additionally, the method is able to assess the relative coherence of the associated structure in comparison to the surrounding flow. Although the method is demonstrated here in the context of fluid flow kinematics, the generality of the approach allows for its potential application to other unsupervised clustering problems in dynamical systems such as neuronal activity, gene expression, or social networks.

  18. Mechanisms of rule acquisition and rule following in inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; De Pisapia, Nicola; Jovicich, Jorge; Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-05-25

    Despite the recent interest in the neuroanatomy of inductive reasoning processes, the regional specificity within prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the different mechanisms involved in induction tasks remains to be determined. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the contribution of PFC regions to rule acquisition (rule search and rule discovery) and rule following. Twenty-six healthy young adult participants were presented with a series of images of cards, each consisting of a set of circles numbered in sequence with one colored blue. Participants had to predict the position of the blue circle on the next card. The rules that had to be acquired pertained to the relationship among succeeding stimuli. Responses given by subjects were categorized in a series of phases either tapping rule acquisition (responses given up to and including rule discovery) or rule following (correct responses after rule acquisition). Mid-dorsolateral PFC (mid-DLPFC) was active during rule search and remained active until successful rule acquisition. By contrast, rule following was associated with activation in temporal, motor, and medial/anterior prefrontal cortex. Moreover, frontopolar cortex (FPC) was active throughout the rule acquisition and rule following phases before a rule became familiar. We attributed activation in mid-DLPFC to hypothesis generation and in FPC to integration of multiple separate inferences. The present study provides evidence that brain activation during inductive reasoning involves a complex network of frontal processes and that different subregions respond during rule acquisition and rule following phases.

  19. Element flows associated with marine shore mine tailings deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Bernhard

    2006-02-01

    From 1938 until 1975, flotation tailings from the Potrerillos--El Salvador mining district (porphyry copper deposits) were discharged into the El Salado valley and transported in suspension to the sea at Chaliaral Bay, Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Over 220 Mt of tailings, averaging 0.8 +/- 0.25 wt % of pyrite, were deposited into the bay, resulting in over a 1 kilometer seaward displacement of the shoreline and an estimated 10-15 m thick tailings accumulation covering a approximately 4 km2 surface area. The Chaniaral case was classified by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 1983 as one of the most serious cases of marine contamination in the Pacific area. Since 1975, the tailings have been exposed to oxidation, resulting in a 70-188 cm thick low-pH (2.6-4) oxidation zone at the top with liberation of divalent metal cations, such as Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ (up to 2265 mg/L, 18.1 mg/L, and 20.3 mg/ L, respectively). Evaporation-induced transport capillarity led to metal enrichment atthe tailings surface (e.g. up to 2.4% Cu) in the form of secondary chlorides and/or sulfates (dominated by eriochalcite [CuCl.H2O] and halite). These, mainly water-soluble, secondary minerals were exposed to eolian transport in the direction of the Village of Chañaral by the predominant W-SW winds. Two element-flow directions (toward the tailings surface, via capillarity, and toward the sea) and two element groups with different geochemical behaviors (cations such as Cu, Zn, Ni, and oxyanions such as As and Mo) could be distinguished. It can be postulated, that the sea is mainly affected by the following: As, Mo, Cu, and Zn contamination, which were liberated from the oxidation zone from the tailings and mobilized through the tidal cycle, and by Cu and Zn from the subsurface waters flowing in the El Salado valley (up to 19 mg/L and 12 mg/L Zn, respectively), transported as chloro complexes at neutral pH.

  20. Altered Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vállez García, David; Doorduin, Janine; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.j.o.; Otte, Andreas

    There is increasing evidence of central hyperexcitability in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (cWAD). However, little is known about how an apparently simple cervical spine injury can induce changes in cerebral processes. The present study was designed (1) to validate previous results showing

  1. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  2. Cubic Plus Association Equation of State for Flow Assurance Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Leticia Cotia; Abunahman, Samir Silva; Tavares, Frederico Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors such as methanol, ethanol, (mono) ethylene glycol (MEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG) are widely used in the oil and gas industry. On modeling these compounds, we show here how the CPA equation of state was implemented in an in-house process simulator as an in......-built model: To validate the implementation, we show calulations for binary systems containing hydrate inhibitors and water or hydrocarbons using the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of states, also comparing against experimental data. For streams containing natural gas...

  3. Interestingness measures and strategies for mining multi-ontology multi-level association rules from gene ontology annotations for the discovery of new GO relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Prashanti; McCarthy, Fiona; Bridges, Susan M

    2013-10-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO), a set of three sub-ontologies, is one of the most popular bio-ontologies used for describing gene product characteristics. GO annotation data containing terms from multiple sub-ontologies and at different levels in the ontologies is an important source of implicit relationships between terms from the three sub-ontologies. Data mining techniques such as association rule mining that are tailored to mine from multiple ontologies at multiple levels of abstraction are required for effective knowledge discovery from GO annotation data. We present a data mining approach, Multi-ontology data mining at All Levels (MOAL) that uses the structure and relationships of the GO to mine multi-ontology multi-level association rules. We introduce two interestingness measures: Multi-ontology Support (MOSupport) and Multi-ontology Confidence (MOConfidence) customized to evaluate multi-ontology multi-level association rules. We also describe a variety of post-processing strategies for pruning uninteresting rules. We use publicly available GO annotation data to demonstrate our methods with respect to two applications (1) the discovery of co-annotation suggestions and (2) the discovery of new cross-ontology relationships. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential Hydraulic Modelling Errors Associated with Rheological Data Extrapolation in Laminar Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadday, Martin A. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The potential errors associated with the modelling of flows of non-Newtonian slurries through pipes, due to inadequate rheological models and extrapolation outside of the ranges of data bases, are demonstrated. The behaviors of both dilatant and pseudoplastic fluids with yield stresses, and the errors associated with treating them as Bingham plastics, are investigated

  5. Association of cognitive judgment and shyness with frequency and quality of flow experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirao K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Hirao, Ryuji Kobayashi, Kenji YabuwakiDepartment of Occupational Therapy, School of Health Science and Social Welfare, Kibi International University, Takahashi City, Okayama, JapanObjective: To determine the association of cognitive judgment and shyness with frequency and quality of flow experience.Design and methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of the relationship between psychological tendency and frequency and quality of flow experience in 68 college students, undertaken in Hiroshima, Japan. The predictors were Shyness Scale scores, measure of ambiguity tolerance scores, and Life Orientation Test scores, and the outcome was the frequency and quality of flow experience.Results: The results of the binary logistic regression analysis indicated that only the measure of ambiguity tolerance (P = 0.02, odds ratio = 1.06, and 95% confidence interval = 1.01–1.11 was a predictor of the quality of flow experience, and only the Shyness Scale (P = 0.007, odds ratio = 0.95, and 95% confidence interval = 0.91–0.98 was a predictor of the frequency of flow experience.Conclusion: The findings suggest that ambiguity tolerance and shyness are associated with the frequency and quality of the flow experience.Keywords: Flow experience, positive psychology, shyness, ambiguity tolerance, life orientation

  6. Lack of parental rule-setting on eating is associated with a wide range of adolescent unhealthy eating behaviour both for boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Holubcikova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy eating habits in adolescence lead to a wide variety of health problems and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absence of parental rules on eating and unhealthy eating behaviour and to explore the relationships between parental rules on eating and a wide range of unhealthy eating habits of boys and girls. We also explored the association of sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, family affluence or parental education with eating related parental rules and eating habits of adolescents. Methods The data on 2765 adolescents aged 13–15 years (mean age: 14.4; 50.7 % boys from the Slovak part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC study 2014 were assessed. The associations between eating-related parental rules and unhealthy eating patterns using logistic regression were assessed using logistic regression. Results Unhealthy eating habits occurred frequently among adolescents (range: 18.0 % reported skipping breakfast during weekends vs. 75.8 % for low vegetables intake. Of all adolescents, 20.5 % reported a lack of any parental rules on eating (breakfast not mandatory, meal in front of TV allowed, no rules about sweets and soft drinks. These adolescents were more likely to eat unhealthily, i.e. to skip breakfast on weekdays (odds ratio/95 % confidence interval: 5.33/4.15–6.84 and on weekends (2.66/2.12–3.34, to report low consumption of fruits (1.63/1.30–2.04 and vegetables (1.32/1.04–1.68, and the frequent consumption of sweets (1.59/1.30–1.94, soft drinks (1.93/1.56–2.38 and energy drinks (2.15/1.72–2.70. Conclusions Parental rule-setting on eating is associated with eating behaviours of adolescents. Further research is needed to disentangle causality in this relationship. If causal, parents may be targeted to modify the eating habits of adolescents.

  7. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater hippocampal cerebral blood flow in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Chaddock-Heyman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is the first to investigate whether cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus relates to aerobic fitness in children. In particular, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL perfusion MRI to provide a quantitative measure of blood flow in the hippocampus in 73 7- to 9-year-old preadolescent children. Indeed, aerobic fitness was found to relate to greater perfusion in the hippocampus, independent of age, sex, and hippocampal volume. Such results suggest improved microcirculation and cerebral vasculature in preadolescent children with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Further, aerobic fitness may influence how the brain regulates its metabolic demands via blood flow in a region of the brain important for learning and memory. To add specificity to the relationship of fitness to the hippocampus, we demonstrate no significant association between aerobic fitness and cerebral blood flow in the brainstem. Our results reinforce the importance of aerobic fitness during a critical period of child development.

  8. Hepatic encephalopathy is associated with decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow, not increased ammonia uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2)) and blood flow (CBF) in patients with cirrhosis with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It remains unclear, however, whether these disturbances are associated with HE or with cirrhosis itself and how they may relate to arterial blood...... associated with HE rather than the liver disease as such. The changes in CMRO(2) and CBF could not be linked to blood ammonia concentration or CMRA....

  9. Explicit isospectral flows associated to the AKNS operator on the unit interval. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Laurent

    2012-10-01

    Explicit flows associated to any tangent vector fields on any isospectral manifold for the AKNS operator acting in L2 × L2 on the unit interval are written down. The manifolds are of infinite dimension (and infinite codimension). The flows are called isospectral and also are Hamiltonian flows. It is proven that they may be explicitly expressed in terms of regularized determinants of infinite matrix-valued functions with entries depending only on the spectral data at the starting point of the flow. The tangent vector fields are decomposed as ∑ξkTk where ξ ∈ ℓ2 and the Tk ∈ L2 × L2 form a particular basis of the tangent vector spaces of the infinite dimensional manifold. The paper here is a continuation of Amour ["Explicit isospectral flows for the AKNS operator on the unit interval," Inverse Probl. 25, 095008 (2009)], 10.1088/0266-5611/25/9/095008 where, except for a finite number, all the components of the sequence ξ are zero in order to obtain an explicit expression for the isospectral flows. The regularized determinants induce counter-terms allowing for the consideration of finite quantities when the sequences ξ run all over ℓ2.

  10. High Mach flow associated with plasma detachment in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatayama, A.; Hoshino, K.; Miyamoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Recent new results of the high Mach flows associated with plasma detachment are presented on the basis of numerical simulations by a 2-D edge simulation code (the B2-Eirene code) and their comparisons with experiments in JT-60U W-shaped divertor plasma. High Mach flows appear near the ionization front away from the target plate. The plasma static pressure rapidly drops, while the total pressure is kept almost constant near the ionization front, because the ionization front near the X-point is clearly separated from the momentum loss region near the target plate. Redistribution from static to dynamic pressure without a large momentum loss is confirmed to be a possible mechanism of the high Mach flows. It has been also shown that the radial structure of the high Mach flow near the X point away from the target plate has a strong correlation with the DOD (Degree of Detachment) at the target plate. Also, we have made systematic analyses on the high Mach flows for both the 'Open' geometry and the 'W-shaped' geometry of JT-60U in order to clarify the geometric effects on the flows. (author)

  11. Control of unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic pitching of airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sajeer

    1991-01-01

    Although studies have been done to understand the dependence of parameters for the occurrence of deep stall, studies to control the flow for sustaining lift for a longer time has been little. To sustain the lift for a longer time, an understanding of the development of the flow over the airfoil is essential. Studies at high speed are required to study how the flow behavior is dictated by the effects of compressibility. When the airfoil is pitched up in ramp motion or during the upstroke of an oscillatory cycle, the flow development on the upper surface of the airfoil and the formation of the vortex dictates the increase in lift behavior. Vortex shedding past the training edge decreases the lift. It is not clear what is the mechanism associated with the unsteady separation and vortex formation in present unsteady environment. To develop any flow control device, to suppress the vortex formation or delay separation, it is important that this mechanism be properly understood. The research activities directed toward understanding these questions are presented and the results are summarized.

  12. Optimal Experience and Optimal Identity: A Multinational Study of the Associations Between Flow and Social Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanhui; Roberts, Scott; Pagliaro, Stefano; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly; Bonaiuto, Marino

    2016-01-01

    Eudaimonistic identity theory posits a link between activity and identity, where a self-defining activity promotes the strength of a person's identity. An activity engaged in with high enjoyment, full involvement, and high concentration can facilitate the subjective experience of flow. In the present paper, we hypothesized in accordance with the theory of psychological selection that beyond the promotion of individual development and complexity at the personal level, the relationship between flow and identity at the social level is also positive through participation in self-defining activities. Three different samples (i.e., American, Chinese, and Spanish) filled in measures for flow and social identity, with reference to four previously self-reported activities, characterized by four different combinations of skills (low vs. high) and challenges (low vs. high). Findings indicated that flow was positively associated with social identity across each of the above samples, regardless of participants' gender and age. The results have implications for increasing social identity via participation in self-defining group activities that could facilitate flow.

  13. Optimal Experience and Optimal Identity: A Multinational Study of the Associations Between Flow and Social Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanhui; Roberts, Scott; Pagliaro, Stefano; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly; Bonaiuto, Marino

    2016-01-01

    Eudaimonistic identity theory posits a link between activity and identity, where a self-defining activity promotes the strength of a person’s identity. An activity engaged in with high enjoyment, full involvement, and high concentration can facilitate the subjective experience of flow. In the present paper, we hypothesized in accordance with the theory of psychological selection that beyond the promotion of individual development and complexity at the personal level, the relationship between flow and identity at the social level is also positive through participation in self-defining activities. Three different samples (i.e., American, Chinese, and Spanish) filled in measures for flow and social identity, with reference to four previously self-reported activities, characterized by four different combinations of skills (low vs. high) and challenges (low vs. high). Findings indicated that flow was positively associated with social identity across each of the above samples, regardless of participants’ gender and age. The results have implications for increasing social identity via participation in self-defining group activities that could facilitate flow. PMID:26924995

  14. [Changes of renal blood flow during organ-associated foot reflexology measured by color Doppler sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmeier, I; Bodner, G; Egger, I; Mur, E; Ulmer, H; Herold, M

    1999-06-01

    Using colour Doppler sonography blood flow changes of the right kidney during foot reflexology were determined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised study. 32 healthy young adults (17 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the verum or placebo group. The verum group received foot reflexology at zones corresponding to the right kidney, the placebo group was treated on other foot zones. Before, during and after foot reflexology the blood flow of three vessels of the right kidney was measured using colour Doppler sonography. Systolic peak velocity and end diastolic peak velocity were measured in cm/s, and the resistive index, a parameter of the vascular resistance, was calculated. The resistive index in the verum group showed a highly significant decrease (p foot reflexology. There was no difference between men and women and no difference between smokers and non-smokers. Verum and placebo group significantly differed concerning alterations of the resistive index both between the measuring points before versus during foot reflexology (p = 0.002) and those during versus after foot reflexology (p = 0.031). The significant decrease of the resistive index during foot reflexology in the verum group indicates a decrease of flow resistance in renal vessels and an increase of renal blood flow. These findings support the hypothesis that organ-associated foot reflexology is effective in changing renal blood flow during therapy.

  15. Global Hybrid Simulation of Alfvenic Waves Associated with Magnetotail Reconnection and Fast Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Lin, Y.; Wang, X.; Perez, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Alfvenic fluctuations have been observed near the magnetotail plasma sheet boundary layer associated with fast flows. In this presentation, we use the Auburn 3-D Global Hybrid code (ANGIE3D) to investigate the generation and propagation of Alfvenic waves in the magnetotail. Shear Alfven waves and kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) are found to be generated in magnetic reconnection in the plasma sheet as well as in the dipole-like field region of the magnetosphere, carrying Poynting flux along magnetic field lines toward the ionosphere, and the wave structure is strongly altered by the flow braking in the tail. The 3-D structure of the wave electromagnetic field and the associated parallel currents in reconnection and the dipole-like field region is presented. The Alfvenic waves exhibit a turbulence spectrum. The roles of these Alfvenic waves in ion heating is discussed.

  16. Evaluation of Aortic Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress in Aortic Stenosis and Its Association With Left Ventricular Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Karunaharamoorthy, Achudhan; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Barker, Alex J; Blaszczyk, Edyta; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Background Aortic stenosis (AS) leads to variable stress for the left ventricle (LV) and consequently a broad range of LV remodeling. Study aim was to describe blood flow patterns in the ascending aorta of AS patients and determine their association with remodeling. Methods and Results Thirty-seven patients with AS (14 mild, 8 moderate, 15 severe; age 63±13 years) and 37 healthy controls (age 60±10 years) underwent 4D-flow MRI. Helical and vortical flow formations and flow eccentricity were assessed in the ascending aorta. Normalized flow displacement from the vessel center and peak systolic wall shear stress (WSSpeak) in the ascending aorta were quantified. LV remodeling was assessed based on LV mass index (LVMI-I) and the ratio of LV mass to enddiastolic volume (relative wall mass; RWM). Marked helical and vortical flow formation and eccentricity were more prevalent in patients with AS than in healthy subjects, and AS patients exhibited an asymmetric and elevated distribution of WSSpeak. In AS, aortic orifice area was strongly negatively associated with vortical flow formation (p=0.0274), eccentricity (p=0.0070) and flow displacement (p=0.0021). Bicuspid aortic valve was associated with more intense helical (p=0.0098) and vortical flow formation (p=0.0536), higher flow displacement (p=0.11) and higher WSSpeak (p=0.0926). LVM-I and RWM were significantly associated with aortic orifice area (p=0.0611, p=0.0058) and flow displacement (p=0.0058, p=0.0283). Conclusions In this pilot study, AS leads to abnormal blood flow pattern and WSSpeak in the ascending aorta. In addition to aortic orifice area, normalized flow displacement was significantly associated with LV remodeling. PMID:26917824

  17. Identification of individual coherent sets associated with flow trajectories using Coherent Structure Coloring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter-Kuck, Kristy; Dabiri, John

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, there has been a proliferation of techniques that aim to characterize fluid flow kinematics on the basis of Lagrangian trajectories of collections of tracer particles. Most of these techniques depend on presence of tracer particles that are initially closely-spaced, in order to compute local gradients of their trajectories. In many applications, the requirement of close tracer spacing cannot be satisfied, especially when the tracers are naturally occurring and their distribution is dictated by the underlying flow. Moreover, current methods often focus on determination of the boundaries of coherent sets, whereas in practice it is often valuable to identify the complete set of trajectories that are coherent with an individual trajectory of interest. We extend the concept of Coherent Structure Coloring to achieve identification of the coherent set associated with individual Lagrangian trajectories. This algorithm is proven successful in identifying coherent structures of varying complexities in canonical unsteady flows. Importantly, although the method is demonstrated here in the context of fluid flow kinematics, the generality of the approach allows for its potential application to other unsupervised clustering problems in dynamical systems. This work was supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  18. The association between social stressors and home smoking rules among women with infants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Gurley-Calvez, Tami; Orth, Teresa A; Okah, Felix A

    2014-12-01

    We examined the role of social stressors on home-smoking rules (HSRs) among women with infants in the United States, with attention on the moderating role of smoking status and depression. We analyzed data for 118 062 women with recent births in the United States who participated in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (2004-2010), which is a population-based surveillance data set. We fit multinomial logistic models to predict the odds of partial or no HSRs by a cumulative index of prenatal social stressors. Compared with those with no stressors, mothers with high levels of social stressors had 2.5 times higher odds of partial or no HSRs. Smokers in the 1-2, 3-5, and ≥ 6 stressor categories were 9.0%, 9.6%, and 10.8% more likely to have partial or no HSRs, respectively. Under the highest levels of stress (≥ 6), nonsmokers were almost as likely as smokers to have partial or no HSRs. In addition, the effects of stress on HSRs were more pronounced for nonsmoker, nondepressed mothers. Increases in social stressors represented an important risk factor for partial or no HSRs and might have potential negative implications for infants.

  19. Collaboration rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  20. Robert's rules of order

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Henry M; Balch, Thomas J; Seabold, Daniel E; Gerber, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    The only authorized edition of the classic work on parliamentary procedure, with new and enhanced features, including how to conduct electronic meetings. Robert's Rules of Order is the book on parliamentary procedure for parliamentarians and anyone involved in an organization, association, club, or group and the authoritative guide to smooth, orderly, and fairly conducted meetings and assemblies. This newly revised edition is the only book on parliamentary procedure to have been updated since 1876 under the continuing program of review established by General Henry M. Robert himself, in cooperation with the official publisher of Robert's Rules. The eleventh edition has been thoroughly revised to address common inquiries and incorporate new rules, interpretations, and procedures made necessary by the evolution of parliamentary procedure, including new material relating to electronic communication and "electronic meetings."

  1. Association of Indicators of Dehydration and Haemoconcentration with the Coronary Slow Flow Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Hatipoğlu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP, characterized by decreased distal progression of dye to coronary arteries, is a distinct angiographic phenomenon and little is known about its pathophysiology. Although several hypotheses have been suggested, the underlying mechanism of CSFP has not been well established yet.The aim of this study was to determine the roles of indicators of dehydration and haemoconcentration in CSFP which have blood flow abnormality effects. Methods: The study consisted of 33 patients with CSFP (group 1, and 31 normal subjects as control group (group 2 detected by coronary angiography. CSFP was diagnosed by the TIMI frame count method. Serum electrolytes, osmolarity and haematological parameters were measured. Results: Compared with control subjects, patient with CSFP had increased levels of calculated osmolarity, tonicity, sodium, glucose and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. Significant differences were also observed in the haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, and calculated osmolarity but not in total cholesterol and albumin. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the markers of haemoconcentration and dehydration are significantly associated with CSFP. The markers may be important in the coronary blood flow anomaly.

  2. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced global propagation of transient phase resetting associated with directional information flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eKawasaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG phase synchronization analyses can reveal large-scale communication between distant brain areas. However, it is not possible to identify the directional information flow between distant areas using conventional phase synchronization analyses. In the present study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to the occipital area in subjects who were resting with their eyes closed, and analyzed the spatial propagation of transient TMS-induced phase resetting by using the transfer entropy (TE, to quantify the causal and directional flow of information. The time-frequency EEG analysis indicated that the theta (5 Hz phase locking factor (PLF reached its highest value at the distant area (the motor area in this study, with a time lag that followed the peak of the transient PLF enhancements of the TMS-targeted area at the TMS onset. PPI (phase-preservation index analyses demonstrated significant phase resetting at the TMS-targeted area and distant area. Moreover, the TE from the TMS-targeted area to the distant area increased clearly during the delay that followed TMS onset. Interestingly, the time lags were almost coincident between the PLF and TE results (152 vs. 165 ms, which provides strong evidence that the emergence of the delayed PLF reflects the causal information flow. Such tendencies were observed only in the higher-intensity TMS condition, and not in the lower-intensity or sham TMS conditions. Thus, TMS may manipulate large-scale causal relationships between brain areas in an intensity-dependent manner. We demonstrated that single-pulse TMS modulated global phase dynamics and directional information flow among synchronized brain networks. Therefore, our results suggest that single-pulse TMS can manipulate both incoming and outgoing information in the TMS-targeted area associated with functional changes.

  3. Australian road rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    *These are national-level rules. Australian Road Rules - 2009 Version, Part 18, Division 1, Rule 300 "Use of Mobile Phones" describes restrictions of mobile phone use while driving. The rule basically states that drivers cannot make or receive calls ...

  4. Transient flows of the solar wind associated with small-scale solar activity in solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Igor; Kuzin, Sergey; Gburek, Szymon; Ulyanov, Artyom; Kirichenko, Alexey; Shugay, Yulia; Goryaev, Farid

    The data obtained by the modern high sensitive EUV-XUV telescopes and photometers such as CORONAS-Photon/TESIS and SPHINX, STEREO/EUVI, PROBA2/SWAP, SDO/AIA provide good possibilities for studying small-scale solar activity (SSA), which is supposed to play an important role in heating of the corona and producing transient flows of the solar wind. During the recent unusually weak solar minimum, a large number of SSA events, such as week solar flares, small CMEs and CME-like flows were observed and recorded in the databases of flares (STEREO, SWAP, SPHINX) and CMEs (LASCO, CACTUS). On the other hand, the solar wind data obtained in this period by ACE, Wind, STEREO contain signatures of transient ICME-like structures which have shorter duration (<10h), weaker magnetic field strength (<10 nT) and lower proton temperature than usual ICMEs. To verify the assumption that ICME-like transients may be associated with the SSA events we investigated the number of weak flares of C-class and lower detected by SPHINX in 2009 and STEREO/EUVI in 2010. The flares were classified on temperature and emission measure using the diagnostic means of SPHINX and Hinode/EIS and were confronted with the parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density, ion composition and temperature, magnetic field, pitch angle distribution of the suprathermal electrons). The outflows of plasma associated with the flares were identified by their coronal signatures - CMEs (only in few cases) and dimmings. It was found that the mean parameters of the solar wind projected to the source surface for the times of the studied flares were typical for the ICME-like transients. The results support the suggestion that weak flares can be indicators of sources of transient plasma flows contributing to the slow solar wind at solar minimum, although these flows may be too weak to be considered as separate CMEs and ICMEs. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme

  5. EISCAT observations of unusual flows in the morning sector associated with weak substorm activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Fox

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available A discussion is given of plasma flows in the dawn and nightside high-latitude ionospheric regions during substorms occurring on a contracted auroral oval, as observed using the EISCAT CP-4-A experiment. Supporting data from the PACE radar, Greenland magnetometer chain, SAMNET magnetometers and geostationary satellites are compared to the EISCAT observations. On 4 October 1989 a weak substorm with initial expansion phase onset signatures at 0030 UT, resulted in the convection reversal boundary observed by EISCAT (at ~0415 MLT contracting rapidly poleward, causing a band of elevated ionospheric ion temperatures and a localised plasma density depletion. This polar cap contraction event is shown to be associated with various substorm signatures; Pi2 pulsations at mid-latitudes, magnetic bays in the midnight sector and particle injections at geosynchronous orbit. A similar event was observed on the following day around 0230 UT (~0515 MLT with the unusual and significant difference that two convection reversals were observed, both contracting poleward. We show that this feature is not an ionospheric signature of two active reconnection neutral lines as predicted by the near-Earth neutral model before the plasmoid is "pinched off", and present two alternative explanations in terms of (1 viscous and lobe circulation cells and (2 polar cap contraction during northward IMF. The voltage associated with the anti-sunward flow between the reversals reaches a maximum of 13 kV during the substorm expansion phase. This suggests it to be associated with the polar cap contraction and caused by the reconnection of open flux in the geomagnetic tail which has mimicked "viscous-like" momentum transfer across the magnetopause.

  6. EISCAT observations of unusual flows in the morning sector associated with weak substorm activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Fox

    Full Text Available A discussion is given of plasma flows in the dawn and nightside high-latitude ionospheric regions during substorms occurring on a contracted auroral oval, as observed using the EISCAT CP-4-A experiment. Supporting data from the PACE radar, Greenland magnetometer chain, SAMNET magnetometers and geostationary satellites are compared to the EISCAT observations. On 4 October 1989 a weak substorm with initial expansion phase onset signatures at 0030 UT, resulted in the convection reversal boundary observed by EISCAT (at ~0415 MLT contracting rapidly poleward, causing a band of elevated ionospheric ion temperatures and a localised plasma density depletion. This polar cap contraction event is shown to be associated with various substorm signatures; Pi2 pulsations at mid-latitudes, magnetic bays in the midnight sector and particle injections at geosynchronous orbit. A similar event was observed on the following day around 0230 UT (~0515 MLT with the unusual and significant difference that two convection reversals were observed, both contracting poleward. We show that this feature is not an ionospheric signature of two active reconnection neutral lines as predicted by the near-Earth neutral model before the plasmoid is "pinched off", and present two alternative explanations in terms of (1 viscous and lobe circulation cells and (2 polar cap contraction during northward IMF. The voltage associated with the anti-sunward flow between the reversals reaches a maximum of 13 kV during the substorm expansion phase. This suggests it to be associated with the polar cap contraction and caused by the reconnection of open flux in the geomagnetic tail which has mimicked "viscous-like" momentum transfer across the magnetopause.

  7. The 15 September 1991 pyroclastic flows at Unzen Volcano (Japan): a flow model for associated ash-cloud surges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshitsugu; Nakada, Setsuya

    1999-04-01

    Large-scale collapse of a dacite dome in the late afternoon of 15 September 1991 generated a series of pyroclastic-flow events at Unzen Volcano. Pyroclastic flows with a volume of 1×10 6 m 3 (as DRE) descended the northeastern slope of the volcano, changing their courses to the southeast due to topographic control. After they exited a narrow gorge, an ash-cloud surge rushed straight ahead, detaching the main body of the flow that turned and followed the topographic lows to the east. The surge swept the Kita-Kamikoba area, which had been devastated by the previous pyroclastic-flow events, and transported a car as far as 120 m. Following detachment, the surge lost its force after it moved several hundred meters, but maintained a high temperature. The deposits consist of a bottom layer of better-sorted ash (unit 1), a thick layer of block and ash (unit 2), and a thin top layer of fall-out ash (unit 3). Unit 2 overlies unit 1 with an erosional contact. The upper part of unit 2 grades into better-sorted ash. At distal block-and-ash flow deposits, the bottom part of unit 2 also consists of better-sorted ash, and the contact with the unit 1 deposits becomes ambiguous. Video footage of cascading pyroclastic flows during the 1991-1995 eruption, traveling over surfaces without any topographic barriers, revealed that lobes of ash cloud protruded intermittently from the moving head and sides, and that these lobes surged ahead on the ground surface. This fact, together with the inspection by helicopter shortly after the events, suggests that the protruded lobes consisted of better-sorted ash, and resulted in the deposits of unit 1. The highest ash-cloud plume at the Oshigadani valley exit, and the thickest deposition of fall-out ash over Kita-Kamikoba and Ohnokoba, indicate that abundant ash was also produced when the flow passed through a narrow gorge. In the model presented here, the ash clouds from the pyroclastic flows were composed of a basal turbulent current of high

  8. Association between hemodynamic modifications and clinical outcome of intracranial aneurysms treated using flow diverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Nikhil; Damiano, Robert J; Davies, Jason M; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Meng, Hui

    2017-02-11

    Treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) has been revolutionized by the advent of endovascular Flow Diverters (FDs), which disrupt blood flow within the aneurysm to induce pro-thrombotic conditions, and serves as a scaffold for endothelial ingrowth and arterial remodeling. Despite good clinical success of FDs, complications like incomplete occlusion and post-treatment rupture leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage have been reported. In silico computational fluid dynamic analysis of the pre- and post-treated geometries of IA patients can shed light on the contrasting blood hemodynamics associated with different clinical outcomes. In this study, we analyzed hemodynamic modifications in 15 IA patients treated using a single FD; 10 IAs were completely occluded (successful) and 5 were partially occluded (unsuccessful) at 12-month follow-up. An in-house virtual stenting workflow was used to recapitulate the clinical intervention on these cases, followed by CFD to obtain pre- and post-treatment hemodynamics. Bulk hemodynamic parameters showed comparable reductions in both groups with average inflow rate and aneurysmal velocity reduction of 40.3% and 52.4% in successful cases, and 34.4% and 49.2% in unsuccessful cases. There was a substantial reduction in localized parameter like vortex coreline length and Energy Loss for successful cases, 38.2% and 42.9% compared to 10.1% and 10.5% for unsuccessful cases. This suggest that for successfully treated IAs, the localized complex blood flow is disrupted more prominently by the FD as compared to unsuccessful cases. These localized hemodynamic parameters can be potentially used in prediction of treatment outcome, thus aiding the clinicians in a priori assessment of different treatment strategies.

  9. Risk of bacterial cross infection associated with inspiration through flow-based spirometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, Massimo; Strafella, Elisabetta; Croce, Nicola; Staffolani, Sara; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Valentino, Matteo; Santarelli, Lory

    2011-02-01

    Bacterial contamination of spirometers has been documented in water-sealed devices, mouthpieces, and connection tubes. Little information is available about bacterial contamination of flow-based apparatuses such as turbine-type spirometers and pneumotachographs. Inspiration through contaminated equipment is a potential source of cross infection. To investigate bacteria mobilization (ie, bacteria detachment and aerosolization from the instrument) during routine spirometric testing, 2 types of flow-based spirometers were used. Bacteria mobilization during artificial inspiration through in-line filters or cardboard mouthpieces was evaluated. Nine hundred workers undergoing periodic spirometric testing were enrolled at the occupational physician office in 30 sessions of 30 subjects each. The participants were asked to perform a forced vital capacity test in a turbine-type spirometer and in an unheated pneumotachograph fitted with disposable in-line filters or cardboard mouthpieces. To evaluate bacterial mobilization, an artificial inspiration was performed and bacterial growth determined. The bacterial growth analysis was assessed after the first and the thirtieth spirometric tests of each session without disinfecting the instruments between tests. In addition, instrument bacterial contamination was evaluated. No significant bacterial mobilization and instrument contamination were found in spirometric tests executed with in-line filters. Conversely, a significant bacterial mobilization and instrument contamination were observed in tests performed with cardboard mouthpieces. Differences between the 2 spirometers were not significant. In-line filters may effectively reduce the risk of bacterial cross infection. Inspiration through flow-based spirometers fitted with disposable cardboard mouthpieces is completely safe when combined with spirometer disinfection/sterilization between subjects. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and

  10. Fracturing of doleritic intrusions and associated contact zones: Implications for fluid flow in volcanic basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Kim; Buckley, Simon J.; Chevallier, Luc; Fagereng, Åke; Galland, Olivier; Kurz, Tobias H.; Ogata, Kei; Planke, Sverre; Tveranger, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Igneous intrusions act as both carriers and barriers to subsurface fluid flow and are therefore expected to significantly influence the distribution and migration of groundwater and hydrocarbons in volcanic basins. Given the low matrix permeability of igneous rocks, the effective permeability in- and around intrusions is intimately linked to the characteristics of their associated fracture networks. Natural fracturing is caused by numerous processes including magma cooling, thermal contraction, magma emplacement and mechanical disturbance of the host rock. Fracturing may be locally enhanced along intrusion-host rock interfaces, at dyke-sill junctions, or at the base of curving sills, thereby potentially enhancing permeability associated with these features. In order to improve our understanding of fractures associated with intrusive bodies emplaced in sedimentary host rocks, we have investigated a series of outcrops from the Karoo Basin of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, where the siliciclastic Burgersdorp Formation has been intruded by various intrusions (thin dykes, mid-sized sheet intrusions and thick sills) belonging to the Karoo dolerite. We present a quantified analysis of fracturing in- and around these igneous intrusions based on five outcrops at three individual study sites, utilizing a combination of field data, high-resolution lidar virtual outcrop models and image processing. Our results show a significant difference between the three sites in terms of fracture orientation. The observed differences can be attributed to contrasting intrusion geometries, outcrop geometry (for lidar data) and tectonic setting. Two main fracture sets were identified in the dolerite at two of the sites, oriented parallel and perpendicular to the contact respectively. Fracture spacing was consistent between the three sites, and exhibits a higher degree of variation in the dolerites compared to the host rock. At one of the study sites, fracture frequency in the

  11. Association rules for rat spatial learning: the importance of the hippocampus for binding item identity with item location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albasser, Mathieu M; Dumont, Julie R; Amin, Eman; Holmes, Joshua D; Horne, Murray R; Pearce, John M; Aggleton, John P

    2013-12-01

    Three cohorts of rats with extensive hippocampal lesions received multiple tests to examine the relationships between particular forms of associative learning and an influential account of hippocampal function (the cognitive map hypothesis). Hippocampal lesions spared both the ability to discriminate two different digging media and to discriminate two different room locations in a go/no-go task when each location was approached from a single direction. Hippocampal lesions had, however, differential effects on a more complex task (biconditional discrimination) where the correct response was signaled by the presence or absence of specific cues. For all biconditional tasks, digging in one medium (A) was rewarded in the presence of cue C, while digging in medium B was rewarded in the presences of cue D. Such biconditional tasks are "configural" as no individual cue or element predicts the solution (AC+, AD-, BD+, and BC-). When proximal context cues signaled the correct digging choice, biconditional learning was seemingly unaffected by hippocampal lesions. Severe deficits occurred, however, when the correct digging choice was signaled by distal room cues. Also, impaired was the ability to discriminate two locations when each location was approached from two directions. A task demand that predicted those tasks impaired by hippocampal damage was the need to combine specific cues with their relative spatial positions ("structural learning"). This ability makes it possible to distinguish the same cues set in different spatial arrays. Thus, the hippocampus appears necessary for configural discriminations involving structure, discriminations that potentially underlie the creation of cognitive maps. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Novel power flow problem solutions method’s based on genetic algorithm optimization for banks capacitor compensation using an fuzzy logic rule bases for critical nodal detections

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelfatah, Nasri; Brahim, Gasbaoui

    2011-01-01

    The Reactive power flow’s is one of the most electrical distribution systems problem wich have great of interset of the electrical network researchers, it’s  cause’s active power transmission reduction, power losses decreasing, and  the drop voltage’s increase. In this research we described the efficiency of the FLC-GAO approach to solve the optimal power flow (OPF) combinatorial problem. The proposed approach employ tow algorithms, Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) algorithm for critical nodal de...

  13. Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  15. The blood flow changes associated with idiopathic and secondary intracranial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The radiological diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is one of exclusion and as the MR venogram is prone to flow artefacts, the diagnosis of secondary intracranial hypertension (SIH) can also be problematic. The purpose of this paper is to define the blood flow characteristics, which are useful in the diagnosis of these conditions. Twelve patients with clinical findings suggestive of IIH and 12 control subjects were investigated with MR venography and MR flow quantification studies of the cerebral arteries and veins. Total cerebral blood flow, superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and straight sinus (ST) blood flows were measured. MR venography confirmed 7 of the 12 patients had venous outflow obstruction and thus SIH. The remaining 5 patients had IIH. The control patients mean total blood flow was 855 ml/min, the SSS flow was 400ml/min and the ST flow 117 ml/min. The total blood flow in the IIH patients was 46% higher (P = 0.0002) and the ST blood flow 38% higher (P = 0.05) than the control group, the SSS flow was 17% higher but this failed to reach significance. In SIH the SSS flow was reduced by 25% (P = 0.003) compared with the control group, the total and ST blood flow were not significantly altered. In IIH there is hyperaemia and the SSS appears limited in its ability to increase flow, therefore venous collaterals carry a greater load. In SIH, selective obstruction of the SSS reduces flow in this vessel but total blood flow is normal indicating there is also increased flow in collateral veins. Presumably the limited ability of the SSS to drain blood away from the brain in each condition raises venous sinus pressure and alters CSF resorption giving raised CSF pressure. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Onset of small intestinal atrophy is associated with reduced intestinal blood flow in TPN-fed neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niinikoski, Harri; Stoll, Barbara; Guan, Xinfu

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the speed of onset of total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-induced mucosal atrophy, and whether this is associated with changes in intestinal blood flow and tissue metabolism in neonatal piglets. Piglets were implanted with jugular venous and duodenal catheters and either......-phenylalanine to measure crypt cell proliferation and protein synthesis, respectively. After 8 h of TPN, portal and SMA blood flow decreased 30% compared with enteral feeding (P reduced jejunal inducible nitric oxide...

  17. Lack of parental rule-setting on eating is associated with a wide range of adolescent unhealthy eating behaviour both for boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy eating habits in adolescence lead to a wide variety of health problems and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absence of parental rules on eating and unhealthy eating behaviour and to explore the relationships between parental rules on eating and a

  18. Global and regional brain atrophy is associated with low or retrograde facial vein flow in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jakimovski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased collateral facial vein (FV flow may be associated with structural damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The objective was to assess differences in FV flow and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-derived outcomes in MS. The study included 136 MS patients who underwent neck and head vascular system examination by echo-color Doppler. Inflammatory MRI markers were assessed on a 3T MRI using a semi-automated edge detection and contouring/ thresholding technique. MRI volumetric outcomes of whole brain (WB, gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, cortex, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF, deep gray matter (DGM, thalamus, caudate nucleus (CN, putamen, globus pallidus (GP, and hippocampus were calculated. Independent t-test and ANCOVA, adjusted for age, were used to compare groups based on FV flow quartiles. Thirty-four MS patients with FV flow ≤327.8 mL/min (lowest quartile had significantly lower WB (P327.8 mL/min (higher quartiles. There were no differences in T1-, T2- and gadolinium- enhancing lesion volumes between the quartile groups. The lack of an association between FV blood flow and inflammatory MRI measures in MS patients, but an association with brain atrophy, suggests that the severity of neurodegenerative process may be related to hemodynamic alterations. MS patients with more advanced global and regional brain atrophy showed low or retrograde FV volume flow.

  19. Insulin resistance is associated with lower arterial blood flow and reduced cortical perfusion in cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Berman, Sara E; Rivera-Rivera, Leonardo A; Krause, Rachel A; Oh, Jennifer M; Beeri, Michal S; Rowley, Howard A; Wieben, Oliver; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C; Schrage, William G

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with poor cerebrovascular health and increased risk for dementia. Little is known about the unique effect of IR on both micro- and macrovascular flow particularly in midlife when interventions against dementia may be most effective. We examined the effect of IR as indexed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) on cerebral blood flow in macro- and microvessels utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. We hypothesized that higher HOMA-IR would be associated with reduced flow in macrovessels and lower cortical perfusion. One hundred and twenty cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults (57 ± 5 yrs) underwent fasting blood draw, phase contrast-vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction (PC VIPR) MRI, and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower arterial blood flow, particularly within the internal carotid arteries (ICAs), and lower cerebral perfusion in several brain regions including frontal and temporal lobe regions. Higher blood flow in bilateral ICAs predicted greater cortical perfusion in individuals with lower HOMA-IR, a relationship not observed among those with higher HOMA-IR. Findings provide novel evidence for an uncoupling of macrovascular blood flow and microvascular perfusion among individuals with higher IR in midlife. PMID:27488909

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with clitorally induced orgasm in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R; Kortekaas, Rudie; Kuipers, Rutger; Nieuwenburg, Arie; Pruim, Jan; Reinders, A A T Simone; Holstege, Gert

    2006-12-01

    There is a severe lack of knowledge regarding the brain regions involved in human sexual performance in general, and female orgasm in particular. We used [15O]-H2O positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy women during a nonsexual resting state, clitorally induced orgasm, sexual clitoral stimulation (sexual arousal control) and imitation of orgasm (motor output control). Extracerebral markers of sexual performance and orgasm were rectal pressure variability (RPstd) and perceived level of sexual arousal (PSA). Sexual stimulation of the clitoris (compared to rest) significantly increased rCBF in the left secondary and right dorsal primary somatosensory cortex, providing the first account of neocortical processing of sexual clitoral information. In contrast, orgasm was mainly associated with profound rCBF decreases in the neocortex when compared with the control conditions (clitoral stimulation and imitation of orgasm), particularly in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal gyrus and anterior temporal pole. Significant positive correlations were found between RPstd and rCBF in the left deep cerebellar nuclei, and between PSA and rCBF in the ventral midbrain and right caudate nucleus. We propose that decreased blood flow in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex signifies behavioural disinhibition during orgasm in women, and that deactivation of the temporal lobe is directly related to high sexual arousal. In addition, the deep cerebellar nuclei may be involved in orgasm-specific muscle contractions while the involvement of the ventral midbrain and right caudate nucleus suggests a role for dopamine in female sexual arousal and orgasm.

  1. Evaluation of bias associated with capture maps derived from nonlinear groundwater flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Cara; Allander, Kip K.; Pohll, Greg; Morway, Eric D.; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Huntington, Justin

    2018-01-01

    The impact of groundwater withdrawal on surface water is a concern of water users and water managers, particularly in the arid western United States. Capture maps are useful tools to spatially assess the impact of groundwater pumping on water sources (e.g., streamflow depletion) and are being used more frequently for conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater. Capture maps have been derived using linear groundwater flow models and rely on the principle of superposition to demonstrate the effects of pumping in various locations on resources of interest. However, nonlinear models are often necessary to simulate head-dependent boundary conditions and unconfined aquifers. Capture maps developed using nonlinear models with the principle of superposition may over- or underestimate capture magnitude and spatial extent. This paper presents new methods for generating capture difference maps, which assess spatial effects of model nonlinearity on capture fraction sensitivity to pumping rate, and for calculating the bias associated with capture maps. The sensitivity of capture map bias to selected parameters related to model design and conceptualization for the arid western United States is explored. This study finds that the simulation of stream continuity, pumping rates, stream incision, well proximity to capture sources, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and groundwater evapotranspiration extinction depth substantially affect capture map bias. Capture difference maps demonstrate that regions with large capture fraction differences are indicative of greater potential capture map bias. Understanding both spatial and temporal bias in capture maps derived from nonlinear groundwater flow models improves their utility and defensibility as conjunctive-use management tools.

  2. Mindset Changes Lead to Drastic Impairments in Rule Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ErEl, Hadas; Meiran, Nachshon

    2011-01-01

    Rule finding is an important aspect of human reasoning and flexibility. Previous studies associated rule finding "failure" with past experience with the test stimuli and stable personality traits. We additionally show that rule finding performance is severely impaired by a mindset associated with applying an instructed rule. The mindset was…

  3. Fractional flow reserve is not associated with inflammatory markers in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Willem E M Sels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory condition and increased blood levels of inflammatory biomarkers have been observed in acute coronary syndromes. In addition, high expression of inflammatory markers is associated with worse prognosis of coronary artery disease. The presence and extent of inducible ischemia in patients with stable angina has previously been shown to have strong prognostic value. We hypothesized that evidence of inducible myocardial ischemia by local lesions, as measured by fractional flow reserve (FFR, is associated with increased levels of blood based inflammatory biomarkers. METHODS: Whole blood samples of 89 patients with stable angina pectoris and 16 healthy controls were analyzed. The patients with stable angina pectoris underwent coronary angiography and FFR of all coronary lesions. We analyzed plasma levels of cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α and membrane expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4, CD11b, CD62L and CD14 on monocytes and granulocytes as markers of inflammation. Furthermore, we quantified the severity of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease by calculating Functional Syntax Score (FSS, an extension of the Syntax Score. RESULTS: For the majority of biomarkers, we observed lower levels in the healthy control group compared with patients with stable angina who underwent coronary catheterization. We found no difference for any of the selected biomarkers between patients with a positive FFR (≤ 0.75 and negative FFR (>0.80. We observed no relationship between the investigated biomarkers and FSS. CONCLUSION: The presence of local atherosclerotic lesions that result in inducible myocardial ischemia as measured by FFR in patients with stable coronary artery disease is not associated with increased plasma levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α or increased expression of TLR2 and TLR4, CD11b, CD62L and CD14 on circulating leukocytes.

  4. Cerebral Blood Flow during Rest Associates with General Intelligence and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Recently, much scientific attention has been focused on resting brain activity and its investigation through such methods as the analysis of functional connectivity during rest (the temporal correlation of brain activities in different regions). However, investigation of the magnitude of brain activity during rest has focused on the relative decrease of brain activity during a task, rather than on the absolute resting brain activity. It is thus necessary to investigate the association between cognitive factors and measures of absolute resting brain activity, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), during rest (rest-CBF). In this study, we examined this association using multiple regression analyses. Rest-CBF was the dependent variable and the independent variables included two essential components of cognitive functions, psychometric general intelligence and creativity. CBF was measured using arterial spin labeling and there were three analyses for rest-CBF; namely mean gray matter rest-CBF, mean white matter rest-CBF, and regional rest-CBF. The results showed that mean gray and white matter rest-CBF were significantly and positively correlated with individual psychometric intelligence. Furthermore, mean white matter rest-CBF was significantly and positively correlated with creativity. After correcting the effect of mean gray matter rest-CBF the significant and positive correlation between regional rest-CBF in the perisylvian anatomical cluster that includes the left superior temporal gyrus and insula and individual psychometric intelligence was found. Also, regional rest-CBF in the precuneus was significantly and negatively correlated with individual creativity. Significance of these results of regional rest-CBF did not change when the effect of regional gray matter density was corrected. The findings showed mean and regional rest-CBF in healthy young subjects to be correlated with cognitive functions. The findings also suggest that, even in young cognitively intact

  5. Assessing Lightning and Wildfire Hazard by Land Properties and Cloud to Ground Lightning Data with Association Rule Mining in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, DongHwan; Wang, Xin; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2017-10-23

    Hotspot analysis was implemented to find regions in the province of Alberta (Canada) with high frequency Cloud to Ground (CG) lightning strikes clustered together. Generally, hotspot regions are located in the central, central east, and south central regions of the study region. About 94% of annual lightning occurred during warm months (June to August) and the daily lightning frequency was influenced by the diurnal heating cycle. The association rule mining technique was used to investigate frequent CG lightning patterns, which were verified by similarity measurement to check the patterns' consistency. The similarity coefficient values indicated that there were high correlations throughout the entire study period. Most wildfires (about 93%) in Alberta occurred in forests, wetland forests, and wetland shrub areas. It was also found that lightning and wildfires occur in two distinct areas: frequent wildfire regions with a high frequency of lightning, and frequent wild-fire regions with a low frequency of lightning. Further, the preference index (PI) revealed locations where the wildfires occurred more frequently than in other class regions. The wildfire hazard area was estimated with the CG lightning hazard map and specific land use types.

  6. Novel Power Flow Problem Solutions Method’s Based on Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Banks Capacitor Compensation Using an Fuzzy Logic Rule Bases for Critical Nodal Detections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Abdelfatah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Reactive power flow’s is one of the most electrical distribution systems problem wich have great of interset of the electrical network researchers, it’s  cause’s active power transmission reduction, power losses decreasing, and  the drop voltage’s increase. In this research we described the efficiency of the FLC-GAO approach to solve the optimal power flow (OPF combinatorial problem. The proposed approach employ tow algorithms, Fuzzy logic controller (FLC algorithm for critical nodal detection and gentic algorithm  optimization (GAO algorithm for optimal seizing capacitor.GAO method is more efficient in combinatory problem solutions. The proposed approach has been examined and tested on the standard IEEE 57-bus the resulats show the power loss minimization denhancement, voltage profile, and stability improvement. The proposed approach results have been compared to those that reported in the literature recently. The results are promising and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach.

  7. Dialysis shunt-associated steal syndrome (DASS) following brachial accesses: the value of fistula banding under blood flow control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermann, Florian; Ukkat, Jörg; Wollert, Ulrich; Dralle, Henning; Brauckhoff, Michael

    2007-11-01

    Dialysis shunt-associated steal syndrome (DASS) is a rare complication of hemodialysis access (HA) which preferably occurs in brachial fistulas. Treatment options are discussed controversially. Aim of this study was to evaluate flow-controlled fistula banding. Patients treated between 2002 and 2006 were included in this prospective survey. According to a classification we established, patients were typed DASS I-III (I: short history, no dermal lesions; II: long history, skin lesions; III: long history, gangrene). Surgical therapy was HA banding including controlled reduction (about 50% of initial flow) of HA blood flow (patients type I and II). Patients with type III underwent closure of the HA. In 15 patients with relevant DASS, blood-flow-controlled banding was performed. In ten patients (all type I), banding led to restitution of the hand function while preserving the HA. In five patients (all type II), banding was not successful; in two patients, closure of the HA was performed eventually. In five patients (type III), primary closure of the HA was performed. Four patients with DASS type II but only two with DASS type I had diabetes mellitus (p = 0.006). Banding under blood flow control resulting in an approximately 50% reduction in the initial blood flow is an adequate therapeutic option in patients with brachial HA and type I-DASS. In type II-DASS, banding does not lead to satisfying results, more complex surgical options might be more successful. Diabetes is associated with poor HA outcome in case of DASS.

  8. Sum rules in classical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Osborn, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper derives sum rules associated with the classical scattering of two particles. These sum rules are the analogs of Levinson's theorem in quantum mechanics which provides a relationship between the number of bound-state wavefunctions and the energy integral of the time delay of the scattering process. The associated classical relation is an identity involving classical time delay and an integral over the classical bound-state density. We show that equalities between the Nth-order energy moment of the classical time delay and the Nth-order energy moment of the classical bound-state density hold in both a local and a global form. Local sum rules involve the time delay defined on a finite but otherwise arbitrary coordinate space volume S and the bound-state density associated with this same region. Global sum rules are those that obtain when S is the whole coordinate space. Both the local and global sum rules are derived for potentials of arbitrary shape and for scattering in any space dimension. Finally the set of classical sum rules, together with the known quantum mechanical analogs, are shown to provide a unified method of obtaining the high-temperature expansion of the classical, respectively the quantum-mechanical, virial coefficients

  9. Substrate and flow characteristics associated with White Sturgeon recruitment in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Parsley, Michael; Barton, Gary; Batt, Thomas; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2018-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify habitat characteristics associated with age 0+ White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1863) recruitment in three reaches of the Columbia River Basin: Skamania reach (consistent recruitment), John Day reach (intermittent/inconsistent recruitment), and Kootenai reach (no recruitment). Our modeling approach involved numerous steps. First, we collected information about substrate, embeddedness, and hydrodynamics in each reach. Second, we developed a set of spatially explicit predictor variables. Third, we built two habitat (probability) models with Skamania reach training data where White Sturgeon recruitment was consistent. Fourth, we created spawning maps of each reach by populating the habitat models with in-reach physical metrics (substrate, embeddedness, and hydrodynamics). Fifth, we examined model accuracy by overlaying spawning locations in Skamania and Kootenai reaches with habitat predictions obtained from probability models. Sixth, we simulated how predicted habitat changed in each reach after manipulating physical conditions to more closely match Skamania reach. Model verification confirmed White Sturgeon generally spawned in locations with higher model probabilities in Skamania and Kootenai reaches, indicating the utility of extrapolating the models. Model simulations revealed significant gains in White Sturgeon habitat in all reaches when spring flow increased, gravel/cobble composition increased, or embeddedness decreased. The habitat models appear well suited to assist managers when identifying reach-specific factors limiting White Sturgeon recruitment in the Columbia River Basin or throughout its range.

  10. Cerebral blood flow in hypothyroidism: Response to therapy and associated cognitive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgin, N.; Akdemir, U.O.; Yetkin, I.; Eroglu, A.

    2002-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is often associated with defective memory, psychomotor slowing and depression. However, the relationship between thyroid status, related cognitive state and associated cerebral circulatory and/or metabolic abnormalities have not been elucidated. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate pre-and post-therapy brain perfusion patterns in 9 hypothyroid patients presenting with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Method: Patients were referred on the basis of abnormal levels of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal antibodies, hypothyroidism and symptoms of cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive performance was tested using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and Bender Gestalt Test. Functional evaluation of the brain was also performed via the methods of electroencephalography (EEG) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT). An initial SPECT study was carried out after I.V. injection of Tc99m-HMPAO and semiquantitative rCBF analysis was performed by drawing irregular regions of interest (ROIs) in three slices. A total number of 12 sector regions of interest placed on the two hemispheres and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined using cortical region/cerebellum ratios obtained in each hemisphere. A repeat SPECT study was undertaken in 5 subjects 3-6 months after the initiation of medical therapy. Results: Pre-therapy perfusion data in four patients showed that the cortical ratios were globally depressed at the levels of 0.65-0.85 where these ratios improved quickly to the near normal-above normal levels (range of rCBF improvement as % difference from baseline 25%-45%) within 3-4 months of therapy. Conclusion: These results indicate that brain activity was globally decreased in severe hypothyroidism of short duration which normalized steadily as the hypothyroid state is corrected

  11. Association of HeartMate II left ventricular assist device flow estimate with thermodilution cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Tal; Huebner, Marianne; Li, Zhuo; Brown, Daniel; Stulak, John M; Boilson, Barry A; Joyce, Lyle; Pereira, Naveen L; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Park, Soon J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac output (CO) assessment is important in treating patients with heart failure. Durable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) provide essentially all CO. In currently used LVADs, estimated device flow is generated by a computerized algorithm. However, LVAD flow estimate may be inaccurate in tracking true CO. We correlated LVAD (HeartMate II) flow with thermodilution CO during postoperative care (day 2-10 after implant) in 81 patients (5,616 paired measurements). Left ventricular assist device flow and CO correlated with a low correlation coefficient (r = 0.42). Left ventricular assist device readings were lower than CO measurements by approximately 0.36 L/min, trending for larger difference with higher values. Left ventricular assist device flow measurements showed less temporal variability compared with CO. Grouping for simultaneous measured blood pressure (BP device flow generally trends with measured CO, but large variability exists, hence flow measures should not be assumed to equal with CO. Clinicians should take into account variables such as high CO, BP, and opening of the aortic valve when interpreting LVAD flow readout. Direct flow sensors incorporated in the LVAD system may allow for better estimation.

  12. Associations between labial and whole salivary flow rates, systemic diseases and medications in a sample of older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smidt, Dorte; Torpet, Lis Andersen; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Smidt D, Torpet LA, Nauntofte B, Heegaard KM, Pedersen AML. Associations between labial and whole salivary flow rates, systemic diseases and medications in a sample of older people. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010; 38: 422-435. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract - Objective: To investigate...... the associations between age, gender, systemic diseases, medications and labial and whole salivary flow rates in older people. Methods: Unstimulated labial (LS) and unstimulated (UWS) and chewing-stimulated (SWS) whole salivary flow rates were measured in 389 randomly selected community-dwelling Danish women...... and 279 men aged 65-97 years. Systemic diseases, medications (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System), tobacco and alcohol consumption were registered. Results: The number of diseases and medications was higher and UWS lower in the older age groups. On average...

  13. Competitive Association and Charge Transfer in the Reactions of NO + with some Ketones: a Select Ion Flow Drift Tube Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fairley, D. A.; Milligan, D. B.; Freeman, C. G.; McEwan, M. J.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 193, č. 1 (1999), s. 35-43 ISSN 1387-3806 Grant - others:Marsden Fund(NZ) - Institutional research plan: CEZ:A54/98:Z4-040-9-ii Keywords : ion-molecule reaction kinetics * selected ion flow drift tube * ternary association Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.086, year: 1999

  14. Velocity bias induced by flow patterns around ADCPs and associated deployment platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Velocity measurements near the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) are important for mapping surface currents, measuring velocity and discharge in shallow streams, and providing accurate estimates of discharge in the top unmeasured portion of the water column. Improvements to ADCP performance permit measurement of velocities much closer (5 cm) to the transducer than has been possible in the past (25 cm). Velocity profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with a 1200 kHz Rio Grande Zedhead ADCP in 2002 showed a negative bias in measured velocities near the transducers. On the basis of these results, the USGS initiated a study combining field, laboratory, and numerical modeling data to assess the effect of flow patterns caused by flow around the ADCP and deployment platforms on velocities measured near the transducers. This ongoing study has shown that the negative bias observed in the field is due to the flow pattern around the ADCP. The flow pattern around an ADCP violates the basic assumption of flow homogeneity required for an accurate three-dimensional velocity solution. Results, to date (2014), have indicated velocity biases within the measurable profile, due to flow disturbance, for the TRDI 1200 kHz Rio Grande Zedhead and the SonTek RiverSurveyor M9 ADCPs. The flow speed past the ADCP, the mount and the deployment platform have also been shown to play an important role in the magnitude and extent of the velocity bias.

  15. Monthly Variation of Taiwan Strait Through-flow Transports and Associated Water Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, S.; Sheu, D.; Kuo, H.

    2005-05-01

    Through-flow transports and associated water masses are analyzed using current data measured by bottom-mounted and ship-board ADCP (1999-2001) across the central Taiwan Strait and strait-wide hydrographic data acquired from 79 CTD survey cruises (1986-2003). The East Asian monsoon, from southwest in July to August and northeast in October to March, controls the transport fluctuation which peaks in August (2.34 Sv northward), is hampered by the northeast monsoon after September and diminishes to the minimum (0.26 Sv southward) in December. The standard deviation of the calculated transport ranges from 0.56 to 1.05 Sv during northeast monsoon months and is relatively small in other months. A cluster analysis together with conventional T-S diagrams identifies the saline and warm Kuroshio Branch Water (KBW), the less saline South China Sea Surface Water (SCSSW), the brackish and cold China Coastal Water (CCW), the saline Subsurface Water (SW) (depth > 100 m) and the Diluted Coastal Water (DCW). The majority of the northward transport in summer carries the SCSSW to the East China Sea. Meanwhile, the DCW appears off the northwest bank of the strait and the SW resides in the bottom layer of a deep trench in the southeastern strait. The onset of the northeast monsoon in September drives the CCW from the Yangtze river mouth to the northern strait. In the southern strait, the northward-moving KBW replaces the SCSSW and meets the southward-intruding CCW in the middle strait during November to April.

  16. FeynRules - Feynman rules made easy

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Neil D.; Duhr, Claude

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present FeynRules, a new Mathematica package that facilitates the implementation of new particle physics models. After the user implements the basic model information (e.g. particle content, parameters and Lagrangian), FeynRules derives the Feynman rules and stores them in a generic form suitable for translation to any Feynman diagram calculation program. The model can then be translated to the format specific to a particular Feynman diagram calculator via F...

  17. Delayed rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...

  18. Choosing the rules: distinct and overlapping frontoparietal representations of task rules for perceptual decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Carlin, Johan D; Rowe, James B

    2013-07-17

    Behavior is governed by rules that associate stimuli with responses and outcomes. Human and monkey studies have shown that rule-specific information is widely represented in the frontoparietal cortex. However, it is not known how establishing a rule under different contexts affects its neural representation. Here, we use event-related functional MRI (fMRI) and multivoxel pattern classification methods to investigate the human brain's mechanisms of establishing and maintaining rules for multiple perceptual decision tasks. Rules were either chosen by participants or specifically instructed to them, and the fMRI activation patterns representing rule-specific information were compared between these contexts. We show that frontoparietal regions differ in the properties of their rule representations during active maintenance before execution. First, rule-specific information maintained in the dorsolateral and medial frontal cortex depends on the context in which it was established (chosen vs specified). Second, rule representations maintained in the ventrolateral frontal and parietal cortex are independent of the context in which they were established. Furthermore, we found that the rule-specific coding maintained in anticipation of stimuli may change with execution of the rule: representations in context-independent regions remain invariant from maintenance to execution stages, whereas rule representations in context-dependent regions do not generalize to execution stage. The identification of distinct frontoparietal systems with context-independent and context-dependent task rule representations, and the distinction between anticipatory and executive rule representations, provide new insights into the functional architecture of goal-directed behavior.

  19. NAGWS Volleyball Rulebook, 1993. Official Rules & Interpretations/Officiating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993

    The National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS) Volleyball Rules are based on the United States Volleyball Rules, which in turn are adopted from the rules and interpretations of the International Volleyball Federation Rules. Following a foreword by Robertha Abney, NAGWS President, the publication is organized into six sections as…

  20. Visualization Measurement of Streaming Flows Associated with a Single-Acoustic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Koji; Abe, Yutaka; Kaneko, Akiko; Yamamoto, Yuji; Aoki, Kazuyoshi

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the study is to experimentally investigate flow fields generated by an acoustic levitator. This flow field has been observed using flow visualization, PIV method. In the absent of a drop, the flow field was strongly influenced by sound pressure level (SPL). In light of the interfacial stability of a levitated drop, SPL was set at 161-163 [dB] in our experiments. In the case of any levitated drop at a pressure node of a standing wave, the toroidal vortices were appeared around a drop and clearly observed the flow fields around the drop by PIV measurement. It is found that the toroidal vortices around a levitated drop were strongly affected by the viscosity of a drop. For more detailed research, experiments in the reduced gravity were conducted with aircraft parabolic flights. By comparison with experimental results in the earth and reduced gravity, it is also indicated that the configuration of the external flow field around a drop is most likely to be affected by a position of a drop as well.

  1. Variability in lateralised blood flow response to language is associated with language development in children aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, M; Keage, H A D; Spooner, R; Flitton, A; Hofmann, J; Churches, O F; Elliott, S; Badcock, N A

    2015-01-01

    The developmental trajectory of language lateralisation over the preschool years is unclear. We explored the relationship between lateralisation of cerebral blood flow velocity response to object naming and cognitive performance in children aged 1-5 years. Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to record blood flow velocity bilaterally from middle cerebral arteries during a naming task in 58 children (59% male). At group level, the Lateralisation Index (LI) revealed a greater relative increase in cerebral blood flow velocity within the left as compared to right middle cerebral artery. After controlling for maternal IQ, left-lateralised children displayed lower expressive language scores compared to right- and bi-lateralised children, and reduced variability in LI. Supporting this, greater variability in lateralised response, rather than mean response, was indicative of greater expressive language ability. Findings suggest that a delayed establishment of language specialisation is associated with better language ability in the preschool years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Remote sensing evidence of lava-ground ice interactions associated with the Lost Jim Lava Flow, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Emma C.; Hamilton, Christopher W.; Herrick, Robert R.

    2017-12-01

    Thermokarst terrains develop when ice-bearing permafrost melts and causes the overlying surface to subside or collapse. This process occurs widely throughout Arctic regions due to environmental and climatological factors, but can also be induced by localized melting of ground ice by active lava flows. The Lost Jim Lava Flow (LJLF) on the Seward Peninsula of Alaska provides evidence of former lava-ground ice interactions. Associated geomorphic features, on the scale of meters to tens of meters, were identified using satellite orthoimages and stereo-derived digital terrain models. The flow exhibits positive- and mixed-relief features, including tumuli ( N = 26) and shatter rings ( N = 4), as well as negative-relief features, such as lava tube skylights ( N = 100) and irregularly shaped topographic depressions ( N = 1188) that are interpreted to include lava-rise pits and lava-induced thermokarst terrain. Along the margins of the flow, there are also clusters of small peripheral pits that may be the products of meltwater or steam escape. On Mars, we observed morphologically similar pits near lava flow margins in northeastern Elysium Planitia, which suggests a common formation mechanism. Investigating the LJLF may therefore help to elucidate processes of lava-ground ice interaction on both Earth and Mars.

  3. Patterns of deformation and volcanic flows associated with lithospheric loading by large volcanoes on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1993-01-01

    Magellan radar imaging and topography data are now available for a number of volcanoes on Venus greater than 100 km in radius. These data can be examined to reveal evidence of the flexural response of the lithosphere to the volcanic load. On Venus, erosion and sediment deposition are negligible, so tectonic evidence of deformation around large volcanoes should be evident except where buried by very young flows. Radar images reveal that most tectonic features and flow units on the flanks of these volcanoes have predominantly radial orientations. However, both Tepev Mons in Bell Regio and Sapas Mons in Atla Regio exhibit circumferential graben on their flanks. In addition, images reveal several flow units with an annular character around the north and west flanks of Tepev Mons. This pattern most likely results from ponding of flows in an annular flexural moat. Maat Mons in Atla Regio and Sif Mons in Eistla Regio are examples of volcanoes that lack circumferential graben and annular flows; discernible flow units and fractures on these constructs appear to be predominantly radial. Altimetry data can also provide evidence of flexural response. Tepev Mons is partially encircled by depressions that may be sections of a flexural moat that has not been completely filled. The locations of these depressions generally coincide with the annular flows described above. There is weaker evidence for such depressions around Maat Mons as well. The lack of circumferential tectonic features around most volcanoes on Venus might be explained by gradual moat filling and coverage by radial flows. The depressions around Tepev (and possible Maat) may indicate that this process is currently continuing. We use analytic models of plate flexure in an axisymmetric geometry to constrain the elastic plate thickness supporting Tepev Mons. If we consider the outer radius of the ponded flows to be the edge of a moat, we find that models with elastic plate thickness of 10-20 km fit best. Finite element

  4. Large Eddy Simulation of Flows Associated with Offshore Oil and Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamani Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid structure interaction (FSI applications are of wide range from offshore fixed and floating structures to offshore pipelines. Reynolds Averaged Navier Stoke (RANS solution has limitation for unsteady and turbulent flow modelling. A possible approach is Large Eddy Simulation (LES and it is applied to flows past a circular cylinder located far above, near and on a flat seabed. The Reynolds number considered is based on the real situation off Malaysia Coast and is sub-critical around 105. Hydrodynamic quantities in terms of mean pressure are predicted and vortex shedding mechanism is evaluated. The results are validated by comparing the simulation and experimental previous studies.

  5. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  6. The ionospheric signature of transient dayside reconnection and the associated pulsed convection return flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available Three SuperDARN coherent HF radars are employed to investigate the excitation of convection in the dayside high-latitude ionosphere in response to transient reconnection occurring in the cusp region. This study demonstrates the existence of transient antisunward-propagating backscatter features at the expected location of the ionospheric footprint of the cusp region, which have a repetition rate near 10 min. These are interpreted as the ionospheric signature of flux transfer events. Moreover, transient sunward-propagating regions of backscatter are observed in the convection return flow regions of both the pre- and post-noon sectors. These patches are observed to propagate towards the noon sector from at least as far around the auroral zone as 07 MLT in the pre-noon sector and 17 MLT in the post-noon sector, travelling with a velocity of approximately 1.5 to 2 km s-1. These return flow patches have a repetition rate similar to that of the transient features observed at local noon. While providing supporting evidence for the impulsive nature of convection flow, the observation of sunward-propagating features in the return flow region is not consistent with current conceptual models of the excitation of convection.

    Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with clitorally induced orgasm in healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Kortekaas, Rudie; Kuipers, Rutger; Nieuwenburg, Arie; Pruim, Jan; Reinders, A. A. T. Simone; Holstege, Gert

    2006-01-01

    There is a severe lack of knowledge regarding the brain regions involved in human sexual performance in general, and female orgasm in particular. We used [(15)O]-H(2)O positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy women during a nonsexual resting state,

  8. Low cerebral blood flow after cardiac arrest is not associated with anaerobic cerebral metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Ainslie, Philip N.; Hinssen, S.; Aries, M.J.; Bisschops, Laurens L.; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; van der Hoeven, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study Estimation of cerebral anaerobic metabolism in survivors and non-survivors after cardiac arrest. Methods We performed an observational study in twenty comatose patients after cardiac arrest and 19 healthy control subjects. We measured mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery

  9. A case study of the development of nocturnal slope flows in a wide open valley and associated air quality implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardyjak, Eric R. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Fernando, Harindra Joseph S.; Anderson, James [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Center for Environmental Fluid Dynamics; Hunt, Julian C.R. [University Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Space and Climate Physics, and Earth Sciences; Grachev, Andrey A. [Colorado Univ./NOAA, Boulder, CO (US). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES)

    2009-07-01

    This paper documents the development of nocturnal flows in the wide open Phoenix, Arizona (U.S.A) valley (30 km x 100 km) that is bordered by a large nearly flat plain to the west and high mountains to the north and east. Local thermally driven winds concomitant with the absence of significant synoptic pressure gradients dominate typical winter conditions in the Phoenix valley. The purpose of the Phoenix Air Flow Experiment (PAFEX-1) was to study the development of thermally driven flows during the evening transition in a sloping valley and describe the general pattern of transport and dispersion of contaminants during transition periods and at night. Measurements were made using a tethered balloon, sonic anemometer, balloon-based aerosol sampler, radiation sensors, cup anemometers, thermistors and humidity sensors in conjunction with data collected from 44 standard meteorological stations located throughout the valley. Over the period of 15 days in January and February 1998 the general diurnal flow patterns were repeatable, but varied substantially around the valley. This paper focuses on a case study of the evening transition, nocturnal circulation and morning breakdown of the nocturnal circulation on the night of 31 January and morning of 1 February. Central valley measurements were consistent with the notion that the evening transition is associated with a moving front, followed by intense mixing and the movement of the front to establish down-valley winds. Flows originating from different slopes led to the arrival of fronts at the various measurement locations at different times. These flows intrude into the valley and interact with each other, often causing multi-layered vertical structure. The intrusions respond to the evolving stratification and cause striking variability of these layers, for example, periodic wind and temperature disturbances corresponding to the arrival of new intrusive fronts. The evolution of the boundary layer was found to have a

  10. A Better Budget Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  11. Material and Energy Flows Associated with Select Metals in GREET 2. Molybdenum, Platinum, Zinc, Nickel, Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyzed the material and energy consumption from mining to production of molybdenum, platinum, zinc, and nickel. We also analyzed the production of solar- and semiconductor-grade silicon. We described new additions to and expansions of the data in GREET 2. In some cases, we used operating permits and sustainability reports to estimate the material and energy flows for molybdenum, platinum, and nickel, while for zinc and silicon we relied on information provided in the literature.

  12. School children's reasoning about school rules

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberg, Robert

    2008-01-01

    School rules are usually associated with classroom management and school discipline. However, rules also define ways of thinking about oneself and the world. Rules are guidelines for actions and for the evaluation of actions in terms of good and bad, or right and wrong, and therefore a part of moral or values education in school. This study is a part of a larger ethnographic study on values education in the everyday life of school. Here the focus is on school rules and students' reasoning abo...

  13. An Historical Analysis of Monetary Policy Rules

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Taylor

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines several episodes in U.S. monetary history using the framework of an interest rate rule for monetary policy. The main finding is that a monetary policy rule in which the interest rate responds to inflation and real output more aggressively than it did in the 1960s and 1970s, or than during the time of the international gold standard, and more like the late 1980s and 1990s, is a good policy rule. Moreover, if one defines rule, then such mistakes have been associated with eit...

  14. New Games, New Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Kallinikos, Jannis

    2015-01-01

    Big data and the mechanisms by which it is produced and disseminated introduce important changes in the ways information is generated and made relevant for organizations. Big data often represents miscellaneous records of the whereabouts of large and shifting online crowds. It is frequently......, the usefulness of big data rests on their steady updatability, a condition that reduces the time span within which this data is useful or relevant. Jointly, these attributes challenge established rules of strategy making as these are manifested in the canons of procuring structured information of lasting value...... that addresses specific and long-term organizational objectives. The developments underlying big data thus seem to carry important implications for strategy making, and the data and information practices with which strategy has been associated. We conclude by placing the understanding of these changes within...

  15. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  16. When do ruling elites support productive sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    that the ruling elite initially supported the fishing industry because of industry pressure. They have failed to enforce fisheries management because there are big political costs associated with such enforcement. The dairy sector in the southwestern milk region was initially supported because the ruling elite......This paper explains the differences in ruling elite support for the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda. Although production in Uganda has not generally been promoted in any sustained way, ruling elites have to varying degrees supported the dairy and fisheries sectors. The paper shows...... wanted to build a coalition of support in this region. Coming from the region himself, the president had a keen interest in dairy cattle. The sector was subsequently regulated because the biggest processor put pressure on the ruling elite to do so. Even when the ruling coalition is fragmented, promoting...

  17. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent with its caption, the text of the rule controls. [Order 376, 49 FR 21705, May 23, 1984] ...

  18. Rotating flow

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, Peter R N

    2010-01-01

    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics titles offer the essential background but generally include very sparse coverage of rotating flows-which is where this book comes in. Beginning with an accessible introduction to rotating flow, recognized expert Peter Childs takes you through fundamental equations, vorticity and vortices, rotating disc flow, flow around rotating cylinders and flow in rotating cavities, with an introduction to atmospheric and oceanic circul...

  19. A flow-cytometric gram-staining technique for milk-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Claus; Jespersen, Lene

    2003-05-01

    A Gram-staining technique combining staining with two fluorescent stains, Oregon Green-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and hexidium iodide (HI) followed by flow-cytometric detection is described. WGA stains gram-positive bacteria while HI binds to the DNA of all bacteria after permeabilization by EDTA and incubation at 50 degrees C for 15 min. For WGA to bind to gram-positive bacteria, a 3 M potassium chloride solution was found to give the highest fluorescence intensity. A total of 12 strains representing some of the predominant bacterial species in bulk tank milk and mixtures of these were stained and analyzed by flow cytometry. Overall, the staining method showed a clear differentiation between gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial populations. For stationary-stage cultures of seven gram-positive bacteria and five gram-negative bacteria, an average of 99% of the cells were correctly interpreted. The method was only slightly influenced by the growth phase of the bacteria or conditions such as freezing at -18 degrees C for 24 h. For any of these conditions, an average of at least 95% of the cells were correctly interpreted. When stationary-stage cultures were stored at 5 degrees C for 14 days, an average of 86% of the cells were correctly interpreted. The Gram-staining technique was applied to the flow cytometry analysis of bulk tank milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. These results demonstrate that the technique is suitable for analyzing milk samples without precultivation.

  20. Dynamics of nuclear fuel assemblies in vertical flow channels: computer modelling and associated studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, V.A.; Pettigrew, M.J.; Lelli, G.; Kates, L.; Reimer, E.

    1978-10-01

    A computer model, designed to predict the dynamic behaviour of nuclear fuel assemblies in axial flow, is described in this report. The numerical methods used to construct and solve the matrix equations of motion in the model are discussed together with an outline of the method used to interpret the fuel assembly stability data. The mathematics developed for forced response calculations are described in detail. Certain structural and hydrodynamic modelling parameters must be determined by experiment. These parameters are identified and the methods used for their evaluation are briefly described. Examples of typical applications of the dynamic model are presented towards the end of the report. (author)

  1. Association of coronary ischemia estimated by fractional flow reserve and psychological characteristics of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Jovan Sreckovic

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Psychological characteristics of patients, depression, stress and anxiety are recognized as important confounding risk factors for ischemic heart disease. However, the impact of psychological characteristics on coronary ischemia and vice versa remain poorly understood. Aim: To demonstrate the interplay of psychological characteristics, depression, stress and anxiety with coronary ischemia estimated with fractional flow reserve (FFR. Material and methods : From 2014 to 2016, 147 patients who were planned for FFR measurement were included in this study. Psychological characteristics of patients were evaluated using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 items (DASS 21 self-report questionnaire. Results : Comparing the FFR ischemic vs. FFR non-ischemic groups, a significant difference was observed regarding results achieved for the depression, anxiety and stress scales. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the correlation between FFR and the DAS scale. It was clear, when controlling for previous myocardial infarction, that FFR was significant in all analyses. However, when the Canadian Cardiovascular Society grading of angina pectoris (CCS class was entered in the model, FFR was not a significant predictor of anxiety, but was significant in other analysis. Conclusions : Higher degrees of the psychological characteristics depression, stress and anxiety were observed in the group of patients with coronary ischemia, corresponding to lower fractional flow values.

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, George; Short, Baron; Spicer, Ken; Schmidt, Matthew; Burns, Carol; Atoui, Mia; George, Mark S; Sackeim, Harold A; Nahas, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is limited by cognitive disturbance. Focal electrically-administered seizure therapy (FEAST) is designed to initiate focal seizures in the prefrontal cortex. To date, no studies have documented the effects of FEAST on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). A 72 year old depressed man underwent three single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans to capture the onset and resolution of seizures triggered with right unilateral FEAST. We used Bioimage Suite for within-subject statistical analyses of perfusion differences ictally and post-ictally compared with the baseline scan. Early ictal increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were limited to the right prefrontal cortex. Post-ictally, perfusion was reduced in bilateral frontal and occipital cortices and increased in left motor and precuneus cortex. FEAST appears to triggers focal onsets of seizure activity in the right prefrontal cortex with subsequent generalization. Future studies are needed on a larger sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Facilitated stimulus-response associative learning and long-term memory in mice lacking the NTAN1 amidase of the N-end rule pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, S A; McDowell, C S; Tae Kwon, Y; Denenberg, V H

    2001-02-23

    The N-end rule relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. Inactivation of the NTAN1 gene encoding the asparagine-specific N-terminal amidase in mice results in impaired spatial memory [26]. The studies described here were designed to further characterize the effects upon learning and memory of inactivating the NTAN1 gene. NTAN1-deficient mice were found to be better than wild-type mice on black-white and horizontal-vertical discrimination learning. They were also better at 8-week Morris maze retention testing when a reversal trial was not included in the testing procedures. In all three tasks NTAN1-deficient mice appeared to use a strong win-stay strategy. It is concluded that inactivating the asparagine-specific branch of the N-end rule pathway in mice results in impaired spatial learning with concomitant compensatory restructuring of the nervous system in favor of non-spatial (stimulus-response) learning.

  4. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  5. Prediction of fluctuating pressure environments associated with plume-induced separated flow fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, K. J.

    1973-01-01

    The separated flow environment induced by underexpanded rocket plumes during boost phase of rocket vehicles has been investigated. A simple semi-empirical model for predicting the extent of separation was developed. This model offers considerable computational economy as compared to other schemes reported in the literature, and has been shown to be in good agreement with limited flight data. The unsteady pressure field in plume-induced separated regions was investigated. It was found that fluctuations differed from those for a rigid flare only at low frequencies. The major difference between plume-induced separation and flare-induced separation was shown to be an increase in shock oscillation distance for the plume case. The prediction schemes were applied to PRR shuttle launch configuration. It was found that fluctuating pressures from plume-induced separation are not as severe as for other fluctuating environments at the critical flight condition of maximum dynamic pressure.

  6. Forward $\\pi^{0}$ Production and Associated Transverse Energy Flow in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kueckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.

    2004-01-01

    Deep-inelastic positron-proton interactions at low values of Bjorken-x down to x \\approx 4.10^-5 which give rise to high transverse momentum pi^0 mesons are studied with the H1 experiment at HERA. The inclusive cross section for pi^0 mesons produced at small angles with respect to the proton remnant (the forward region) is presented as a function of the transverse momentum and energy of the pi^0 and of the four-momentum transfer Q^2 and Bjorken-x. Measurements are also presented of the transverse energy flow in events containing a forward pi^0 meson. Hadronic final state calculations based on QCD models implementing different parton evolution schemes are confronted with the data.

  7. Association between exercise intensity and renal blood flow evaluated using ultrasound echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shotaro; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Matsuda, Takuro; Fujimi, Kanta; Ito, Ai; Yoshimura, Saki; Uehara, Yoshinari; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Saito, Takao; Higaki, Yasuki

    2018-03-10

    High-intensity exercise reduces renal blood flow (RBF) and may transiently exacerbate renal dysfunction. RBF has previously been measured invasively by administration of an indicator material; however, non-invasive measurement is now possible with technological innovations. This study examined variations in RBF at different exercise intensities using ultrasound echo. Eight healthy men with normal renal function (eGFR cys 114 ± 19 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) participated in this study. Using a bicycle ergometer, participants underwent an incremental exercise test using a ramp protocol (20 W/min) until exhaustion in Study 1 and the lactate acid breaking point (LaBP) was calculated. Participants underwent a multi-stage test at exercise intensities of 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140% LaBP in Study 2. RBF was measured by ultrasound echo at rest and 5 min after exercise in Study 1 and at rest and immediately after each exercise in Study 2. To determine the mechanisms behind RBF decline, a catheter was placed into the antecubital vein to study vasoconstriction dynamics. RBF after maximum exercise decreased by 51% in Study 1. In Study 2, RBF showed no significant decrease until 80% LaBP, and showed a significant decrease (31%) at 100% LaBP compared with at rest (p blood lactate. Reduction in RBF with exercise above the intensity at LaBP was due to decreased cross-sectional area rather than time-averaged flow velocity.

  8. Investigation of two-phase flow phenomena associated with corrosion in an SF/HLW repository in Opalinus Clay, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senger, R.; Marschall, P.; Finsterle, S.

    2008-01-01

    Gas generation from corrosion of the waste canisters and gas accumulation in the backfilled emplacement tunnels is a key issue in the assessment of long-term radiological safety of the proposed repository for spent fuel and high-level waste (SF/HLW) sited in the Opalinus Clay formation of Northern Switzerland. Previous modeling studies indicated a significant pressure buildup in the backfilled emplacement tunnels for those sensitivity runs, where corrosion rates were high and the permeability of the Opalinus Clay was very low. As an extension to those studies, a refined process model of the canister corrosion phenomena has been developed, which accounts not only for the gas generation but also for the water consumption associated with the chemical reaction of corrosion of steel under anaerobic conditions. The simulations with the new process model indicate, that with increasing corrosion rates and decreasing host-rock permeability, pressure buildup increased, as expected. However, the simulations taking into account water consumption show that the pressure buildup is reduced compared to the simulation considering only gas generation. The pressure reduction is enhanced for lower permeability of the Opalinus Clay and for higher corrosion rates, which correspond to higher gas generations rates and higher water consumption rates. Moreover, the simulated two-phase flow patterns in the engineered barrier system (EBS) and surrounding Opalinus Clay show important differences at late time of the gas production phase as the generated gas continues to migrate outward into the surrounding host rock. For the case without water consumption, the water flow indicates overall downward flow due to a change in the overall density of the gas-fluid mixture from that based on the initially prescribed hydrostatic pressure gradient. For the case with water consumption, water flow converges toward the waste canister at a rate corresponding to the water consumption rate associated with the

  9. Technical rules in law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelius, J

    1978-08-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself.

  10. Technical rules in law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelius, J.

    1978-01-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.) [de

  11. Multiparametric flow cytometry in the diagnosis and characterization of low-grade pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaer, F S; Braylan, R C; Zander, D S; Iturraspe, J A; Almasri, N M

    1998-06-01

    Primary mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are rare neoplasms that seem to have a better prognosis than nodal lymphomas. Morphologic diagnosis of these lesions may be difficult because of features that overlap with those of benign lymphoid infiltrates. In this study, we assessed the contribution of multi-parametric flow cytometry in demonstrating clonality and further characterizing pulmonary MALT lymphomas. Based on a clinical or pathologic suspicion of MALT-lymphoma, 3 transbronchial biopsies, 4 fine needle aspirates, 1 core needle biopsy, and 13 wedge excisions of lung were submitted fresh (unfixed) to our laboratory for evaluation. Among the 13 cases diagnosed as MALT lymphomas, B-cell monoclonality was established by identifying expression of a single immunoglobulin light chain on CD20 or CD19-positive cells in 12 cases. One case lacked expression of both light chains on B-cells. Of 11 lymphoma cases in which CD5 and CD10 surface antigens were assessed, no cases expressed CD10, and 1 case demonstrated weak CD5 expression. Nine of 10 cases studied were diploid and 1 case was hyperdiploid. All of the lymphomas displayed low (< or = 3%) S-phase fractions consistent with low grade processes. In 10 patients with short follow-up, none died of their disease and the majority had no evidence of lymphoma dissemination. In seven of the remaining eight cases, B-cells were polyclonal consistent with reactive processes. In one morphologically reactive case, flow cytometric analysis was unsuccessful because of poor cell viability. The pulmonary MALT lymphomas in this study represent a group of B-cell tumors with distinctive morphologic, immunophenotypic, and cell kinetic characteristics. Multi-parametric flow cytometry is useful for confirming B-cell monoclonality and illustrating an antigenic profile compatible with this diagnosis. Flow cytometry can be particularly helpful when working with small biopsies and cytologic samples with limited diagnostic

  12. Sum rule approach to nuclear vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.

    1983-01-01

    Velocity field of various collective states is explored by using sum rules for the nuclear current. It is shown that an irrotational and incompressible flow model is applicable to giant resonance states. Structure of the hydrodynamical states is discussed according to Tomonaga's microscopic theory for collective motions. (author)

  13. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN DOGS IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED PLATELET LEUKOCYTE AGGREGATION MEASURED BY FLOW CYTOMETRY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Andreasen, Susanne SH; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2010-01-01

    Sciences, Faculty of Life Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) in humans is associated with abnormal hemostasis, and changes in hemostatic biomarkers carry a poor prognosis. CHF in dogs has been associated with plasma markers of hypercoagulability, however......CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN DOGS IS ASSOCIATED WITH ENHANCED PLATELET-LEUKOCYTE AGGREGATES - A MARKER FOR PLATELET ACTIVATION. I Tarnow1, LH Olsen2, SHS Andreasen2, SG Moesgaard2, CE Rasmussen2, AT Kristensen1, T Falk2. 1Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences and 2Animal and Veterinary Basic......, platelet activation markers have not been investigated in dogs with clinical signs of heart disease. We hypothesized that platelet surface activation markers are higher in dogs with CHF compared to age-matched controls without clinical signs of heart failure. Dogs with compensated congestive heart failure...

  14. Peripheral Endothelial Function and Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve Are Not Associated in Women with Angina and No Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flintholm Raft, Kristoffer; Frestad, Daria; Michelsen, Marie Mide

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated whether impaired flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma biomarkers reflecting endothelial dysfunction are associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in women with angina and no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Patients (n = 194) were rand...

  15. Quality control of the soil moisture probe response patterns from a green infrastructure site using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and association rule learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Bedig, A.; Quigley, M.; Montalto, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    In-situ field monitoring can help to improve the design and management of decentralized Green Infrastructure (GI) systems in urban areas. Because of the vast quantity of continuous data generated from multi-site sensor systems, cost-effective post-construction opportunities for real-time control are limited; and the physical processes that influence the observed phenomena (e.g. soil moisture) are hard to track and control. To derive knowledge efficiently from real-time monitoring data, there is currently a need to develop more efficient approaches to data quality control. In this paper, we employ dynamic time warping method to compare the similarity of two soil moisture patterns without ignoring the inherent autocorrelation. We also use a rule-based machine learning method to investigate the feasibility of detecting anomalous responses from soil moisture probes. The data was generated from both individual and clusters of probes, deployed in a GI site in Milwaukee, WI. In contrast to traditional QAQC methods, which seek to detect outliers at individual time steps, the new method presented here converts the continuous time series into event-based symbolic sequences from which unusual response patterns can be detected. Different Matching rules are developed on different physical characteristics for different seasons. The results suggest that this method could be used alternatively to detect sensor failure, to identify extreme events, and to call out abnormal change patterns, compared to intra-probe and inter-probe historical observations. Though this algorithm was developed for soil moisture probes, the same approach could easily be extended to advance QAQC efficiency for any continuous environmental datasets.

  16. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  17. Development of a simple extraction cell with bi-directional continuous flow coupled on-line to ICP-MS for assessment of elemental associations in solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Tiptanasup, Kasipa; Shiowatana, Juwadee

    2006-01-01

    A continuous-flow system comprising a novel, custom-built extraction module and hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection is proposed for assessing metal mobilities and geochemical associations in soil compartments as based on using the three step BCR (now...... the Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Commission) sequential extraction scheme. Employing a peristaltic pump as liquid driver, alternate directional flows of the extractants are used to overcome compression of the solid particles within the extraction unit to ensure a steady partitioning flow rate...... and thus to maintain constant operationally defined extraction conditions. The proposed flow set-up is proven to allow for trouble-free handling of soil samples up to 1 g and flow rates ≤ 10 mL min–1. The miniaturized extraction system was coupled to ICP-MS through a flow injection interface in order...

  18. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  19. Delayed rule following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D R

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.

  20. "Chaos Rules" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…

  1. Geology of proximal, small-volume trachyte-trachyandesite pyroclastic flows and associated surge deposits, Roccamonfina volcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, Bernardino

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the 232 ka B.P. MTTT trachyte-trachyandesite pyroclastic succession of Roccamonfina volcano. This small-volume, proximal sequence crops out along Mulino di Sotto, Paratone, and Pisciariello ravines in the southwest sector of the central caldera, and covers a minimum extent of 3.5 km 2 area. It is made up of seven pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic surge units consisting of trachytic ash matrix containing juvenile trachyandesitic scoria and dense lava fragments, pumice clasts of uncertain trachyandesite, and a foreign trachyandesitic lithic facies. Two stratigraphic markers allow correlation of the units. No paleosoils and Plinian fallout have been observed at the base and within the succession. Some lateral grading of scoria and lithic clasts suggests that MTTT derived from three distinct source vents. The sequence consists of a basal ash flow passing laterally to laminated surge deposits (Unit A). This is overlain by a reversely graded scoria and pumice lapilli flow (Unit B) which is in turn overlain by a thinly cross-stratified scoria lapilli surge (Unit C). Unit C is capped by a prominent ash-and-scoria flow (Unit D). A ground layer (Marker MK1) divides Unit D from a massive ignimbrite which grades upcurrent to sand-wave surge deposits (Unit E). Another ground layer (Marker MK2) separates Unit E from Unit F. This unit consists of a basal ignimbrite passing laterally to bedded surge deposits with convolute structures (subunit Fl), and grading upcurrent to a subhorizontally plane-laminated ash cloud (subunit F2) containing near the top a layer of millimetric lithic clasts embedded in fine ash. The succession is closed by the pyroclastic flow Unit G. Surge Unit C can be interpreted in terms of vertical gradients in turbulence, particle concentration, and velocity during flowage, whereas the bedded surge parts present in the massive deposits of Units A and E-F1 can be related to abrupt changes of velocity down the steep slopes of ravines. Reverse

  2. Electronuclear sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenhoevel, H.; Drechsel, D.; Weber, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Generalized sum rules are derived by integrating the electromagnetic structure functions along lines of constant ratio of momentum and energy transfer. For non-relativistic systems these sum rules are related to the conventional photonuclear sum rules by a scaling transformation. The generalized sum rules are connected with the absorptive part of the forward scattering amplitude of virtual photons. The analytic structure of the scattering amplitudes and the possible existence of dispersion relations have been investigated in schematic relativistic and non-relativistic models. While for the non-relativistic case analyticity does not hold, the relativistic scattering amplitude is analytical for time-like (but not for space-like) photons and relations similar to the Gell-Mann-Goldberger-Thirring sum rule exist. (Auth.)

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory depressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C. H.; Chung, Y. A.; Chae, J. H.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging studies by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) demonstrates biological activities of the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after a series of therapeutic rTMS sessions. Nine patients with refractory depression who had not been responsive to appropriate pharmacotherapy over 1 year were randomly assigned to daily 1 Hz right-sided rTMS or 20 Hz left-sided rTMS sessions for over 3 weeks. Baseline and 3-week post-rTMS treatment SPECT images were obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of approximately 740925 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a multi-detector scanner (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with a low-energy, fan-beam collimator. All patients showed a good clinical outcome. Statistically significant common increase in rCBF patterns was found in the fusiform gyrus of left temporal lobe, left hippocampus, left superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe, right lateral globus pallidus and cingulated gyrus of both limbic lobes. And in the fusiform gyrus of left occipital lobe and middle frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe decreased uptake was seen compared to controls. Low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal cortex and high-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks as an add-on regimen have increased activity in specific brain regions in patients with treatment refractory depression. Therapeutic TMS seems to influence distinct cortical regions, as well as different pathways, affecting rCBF in a homogeneous manner that is probably region dependent and illness related

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory depressed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. H.; Chung, Y. A.; Chae, J. H.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Imaging studies by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) demonstrates biological activities of the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after a series of therapeutic rTMS sessions. Nine patients with refractory depression who had not been responsive to appropriate pharmacotherapy over 1 year were randomly assigned to daily 1 Hz right-sided rTMS or 20 Hz left-sided rTMS sessions for over 3 weeks. Baseline and 3-week post-rTMS treatment SPECT images were obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of approximately 740925 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a multi-detector scanner (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with a low-energy, fan-beam collimator. All patients showed a good clinical outcome. Statistically significant common increase in rCBF patterns was found in the fusiform gyrus of left temporal lobe, left hippocampus, left superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe, right lateral globus pallidus and cingulated gyrus of both limbic lobes. And in the fusiform gyrus of left occipital lobe and middle frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe decreased uptake was seen compared to controls. Low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal cortex and high-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks as an add-on regimen have increased activity in specific brain regions in patients with treatment refractory depression. Therapeutic TMS seems to influence distinct cortical regions, as well as different pathways, affecting rCBF in a homogeneous manner that is probably region dependent and illness related.

  5. Nuclear power plant equipment design and construction rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiron, P.

    1983-03-01

    Presentation of the AFCEN (French association for nuclear power plant equipment design and construction rules) working, of its edition activity and of somes of its edited documents such as RCC-C (design and construction rules for PWR power plant fuel assemblies) and RCC-E (design and construction rules for nuclear facility electrical equipments) [fr

  6. Considerations for the Use of Rules in Academic Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Bonnie G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The article presents a working definition of rule-governed behavior, describes research regarding the insensitivity of rule-governed behavior to contingency changes, and provides guidelines for the effective use of academic and conduct rules and for preventing problems associated with insensitivity to changed contingencies. (Author/JDD)

  7. Optimized reaction mechanism rate rules for ignition of normal alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liming; Pitsch, Heinz; Mohamed, Samah; Raman, Venkat; Bugler, John; Curran, Henry; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    fidelity reacting flow simulations capable of improving combustor design and operation. The development of such models for many new fuel components and/or surrogate molecules is greatly facilitated by the application of reaction classes and rate rules

  8. International trade and Austria's livestock system: Direct and hidden carbon emission flows associated with production and consumption of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilova, Olga; Jonas, Matthias; Erb, Karlheinz; Haberl, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol created a framework of responsibilities and mechanisms to mitigate climate change by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. The Protocol stipulates accounting and reporting of GHG emissions and removals, such as energy use, industrial processes, agriculture, waste and net emissions resulting from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities. Emissions reported according to the rules set by the Kyoto Protocol do not include GHG emissions outside a country's boundaries resulting from the production of imported goods or services. As a result, GHG accounts constructed according to the Kyoto Protocol reflect the GHG emissions resulting from the production system of a country, but not all the emissions resulting from the consumption of goods and services within the country. However, as previous studies demonstrate, a country's emission balance changes remarkably if emissions related to goods or services imported and exported are taken into account. Here, we go beyond the aforementioned studies which mainly focus on GHG emissions from fossil fuel combustion. We assess, in a first-order approach, upstream emissions that result from LULUC activities outside a country while the produced goods are consumed within the country. In our study we focus on Austria's livestock system to elucidate the difference between production and consumption-related emissions accounting approaches. We study direct and 'hidden' (embodied) GHG emissions associated with Austria's bilateral trade in livestock and livestock-related products, based on the integration of full carbon accounting (FCA) and life cycle analysis (LCA). (author)

  9. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  10. Efficient ecologic and economic operational rules for dammed systems by means of nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    River impoundment by dams is known to strongly affect the natural flow regime and in turn the river attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Making hydropower sustainable implies to seek for innovative operational policies able to generate dynamic environmental flows while maintaining economic efficiency. For dammed systems, we build the ecological and economical efficiency plot for non-proportional flow redistribution operational rules compared to minimal flow operational. As for the case of small hydropower plants (e.g., see the companion paper by Gorla et al., this session), we use a four parameters Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to mathematically formulate non-proportional redistribution rules. These rules allocate a fraction of water to the riverine environment depending on current reservoir inflows and storage. Riverine ecological benefits associated to dynamic environmental flows are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, we apply nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) to an ensemble of non-proportional and minimal flow redistribution rules in order to generate the Pareto frontier showing the system performances in the ecologic and economic space. This fast and elitist multiobjective optimization method is eventually applied to a case study. It is found that non-proportional dynamic flow releases ensure maximal power production on the one hand, while conciliating ecological sustainability on the other hand. Much of the improvement in the environmental indicator is seen to arise from a better use of the reservoir storage dynamics, which allows to capture, and laminate flood events while recovering part of them for energy production. In conclusion, adopting such new operational policies would unravel a spectrum of globally-efficient performances of the dammed system when compared with those resulting from policies based on constant minimum flow releases.

  11. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin; Anderson, Bruce; Cheng, Shuiping

    2016-01-01

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L"−"1). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ_P_S_I_I) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos loads

  12. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Anderson, Bruce [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston K7L3N6 (Canada); Cheng, Shuiping, E-mail: shpcheng@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L{sup −1}). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ{sub PSII}) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos

  13. An improvement of tree-Rule firewall for a large network: supporting large rule size and low delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chomsiri, Thawatchai; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Tan, Zhiyuan

    Firewalls are important network devices which provide first hand defense against network threat. This level of defense is depended on firewall rules. Traditional firewalls, i.e., Cisco ACL, IPTABLES, Check Point and Juniper NetScreen firewall use listed rule to regulate packet flows. However, the

  14. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  15. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  16. Evidence of focused fluid flow associated to the gas hydrate wedge on the angolan margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casenave, Viviane; Imbert, Patrice; Gay, Aurélien

    2013-04-01

    The Lower Congo basin, offshore south west Africa, is a prolific petroleum province, which has been extensively investigated and exploited for more than 30 years. The study area is located above a producing oil and gas field, the hydrocarbons being trapped in turbidite channels on a tectonic horst. The work is based on the analysis of 3-D seismic and site survey data (2D AUV, grab samples and ROV photos) above a deeper oil and gas field called Moho. The analysis of this seismic data set reveals numerous evidence of focused fluid flow through the Mio-Pliocene interval, including present-day seafloor seep features and shallow buried paleo-seeps, indicating past activity of the system. The main fluid migration-related structures are the followings: 1. Stacked amplitude anomalies, interpreted as the result of vertical migrations of gas are pervasive. Most of these seep features seem to correspond to fossil events as they are interpreted as successive precipitation at the seafloor of patches of seep carbonates (MDAC, Methane Derived Authigenic Carbonates) stacked during the activity of a seep. 2. Another phenomenon of gas migration through the sediment pile is visible on the seismic data of the Moho area: it is the BSR (Bottom Simulating Reflector) located above a horst. The BSR is formed by 2 patches, which cover a small area about 1.5 km² for the largest and 0.5 km2 for the smallest. These two BSRs are located under a depth of water included between 600 and 700 m, into the BSR wedging area. 3. A 'spider morphology' is visible on the seafloor. It corresponds to depressions forming variable-sized furrows oriented slightly oblique to the slope dip direction, directly above the upslope limit of the BSR patches. ROV photos and movies from these furrows showed the presence of seep carbonates and of bacterial carpets, linked with methane leak at the seafloor. A similar 'spider morphology' was also identified in subsurface, at 20 ms under the seafloor, further down the slope

  17. Quantification of coronary flow reserve in patients with ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and its association with clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majmudar, Maulik D; Murthy, Venkatesh L; Shah, Ravi V; Kolli, Swathy; Mousavi, Negareh; Foster, Courtney R; Hainer, Jon; Blankstein, Ron; Dorbala, Sharmila; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Stevenson, Lynne W; Mehra, Mandeep R; Di Carli, Marcelo F

    2015-08-01

    Patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction frequently show abnormal coronary vascular function, even in the absence of overt coronary artery disease. Moreover, the severity of vascular dysfunction might be related to the aetiology of cardiomyopathy.We sought to determine the incremental value of assessing coronary vascular dysfunction among patients with ischaemic (ICM) and non-ischaemic (NICM) cardiomyopathy at risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Coronary flow reserve (CFR, stress/rest myocardial blood flow) was quantified in 510 consecutive patients with rest left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% referred for rest/stress myocardial perfusion PET imaging. The primary end point was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death, heart failure hospitalization, late revascularization, and aborted sudden cardiac death.Median follow-up was 8.2 months. Cox proportional hazards model was used to adjust for clinical variables. The annualized MACE rate was 26.3%. Patients in the lowest two tertiles of CFR (CFR ≤ 1.65) experienced higher MACE rates than those in the highest tertile (32.6 vs. 15.5% per year, respectively, P = 0.004), irrespective of aetiology of cardiomyopathy. Impaired coronary vascular function, as assessed by reduced CFR by PET imaging, is common in patients with both ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and is associated with MACE. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Following the Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Anne

    2016-05-01

    I am getting better at following the rules as I grow older, although I still bristle at many of them. I was a typical rebellious teenager; no one understood me, David Bowie was my idol, and, one day, my generation was going to change the world. Now I really want people to understand me: David Bowie remains one of my favorite singers and, yes, my generation has changed the world, and not necessarily for the better. Growing up means that you have to make the rules, not just follow those set by others, and, at times, having rules makes a lot of sense.
.

  19. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    , the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected......Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 1999...

  20. Association between chewing-stimulated salivary flow under the effects of atropine and mixing ability assessed using a color-changeable chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Chieko; Kanazawa, Manabu; Hama, Yohei; Komagamine, Yuriko; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2017-10-01

    To assess the time course of chewing-stimulated salivary flow after oral atropine administration, and determine the association between chewing-stimulated salivary flow and mixing ability using color-changeable chewing gum in dentate adults. Ten healthy dentate adults were administered 1mg oral atropine to induce mouth dryness. The subjects' chewing-stimulated salivary flow was assessed using the Saxon test. They were then asked to rinse their mouth with tap water for 15s, and to chew on color-changeable chewing gum for 60s at a constant rate of 60 cycles per min. This procedure was performed before, and at 10-min intervals for up to 120min after the atropine administration. The experiment was repeated after 1 week. Steel's test was used to compare the chewing-stimulated salivary flow rates at each time point after atropine administration with the baseline value. The effect of the stimulated salivary flow rates on the degree of color change was analyzed using linear mixed effects models, with the stimulated salivary flow rates as fixed factors and subjects as the random factor. Chewing-stimulated salivary flow showed a significant decrease from 50 to 120min after oral atropine administration (Pchewing-stimulated salivary flow had a significant effect on the color change of the color-changeable chewing gum (Pchewing gum and chewing-stimulated salivary flow in dentate subjects. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on the association between earnings management and value relevance based on the reporting method used for operating cash flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Mironiuc

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the association between earnings management and value relevance of accounting information, for a number of 556 observations from a sample of 65 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange during a 10 year period: 2006-2015. Sampled companies are classified according to the method used for the reporting of operating cash flows. Findings confirm that entities using the indirect method have a higher level of discretionary accruals and are more tempted to opportunistically increase their earnings. As far as value relevance is concerned, results show that participants on the Romanian capital market place more weight on the information reported by entities experiencing higher levels of discretionary accruals.

  2. Macrophyte decomposition in a surface-flow ammonia-dominated constructed wetland: Rates associated with environmental and biotic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, J.S.; Nelson, S.M.; Cade, B.S.; Sartoris, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Decomposition of senesced culm material of two bulrush species was studied in a surface-flow ammonia-dominated treatment wetland in southern California. Decomposition of the submerged culm material during summer months was relatively rapid (k = 0.037 day-1), but slowed under extended submergence (up to 245 days) and during fall and spring sampling periods (k = 0.009-0.014 day-1). Stepwise regression of seasonal data indicated that final water temperature and abundance of the culm-mining midge, Glyptotendipes, were significantly associated with culm decomposition. Glyptotendipes abundance, in turn, was correlated with water quality parameters such as conductivity and dissolved oxygen and ammonia concentrations. No differences were detected in decomposition rates between the bulrush species, Schoenoplectus californicus and Schoenoplectus acutus.

  3. Different Bleeding Patterns with the Use of Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System: Are They Associated with Changes in Uterine Artery Blood Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bastianelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate if different bleeding patterns associated with the use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS are associated with different uterine and endometrial vascularization patterns, as evidenced by ultrasound power Doppler analysis. Methodology. A longitudinal study, with each subject acting as its own control was conducted between January 2010 and December 2012. Healthy volunteers with a history of heavy but cyclic and regular menstrual cycles were enrolled in the study. Ultrasonographic examination was performed before and after six months of LNG-IUS placement: uterine volume, endometrial thickness, and subendometrial and myometrial Doppler blood flow patterns have been evaluated. Results. A total of 32 women were enrolled out of 186 initially screened. At six months of follow-up, all subjects showed a reduction in menstrual blood loss; for analysis, they were retrospectively divided into 3 groups: normal cycling women (Group I, amenorrheic women (Group II, and women with prolonged bleedings (Group III. Intergroup analysis documented a statistically significant difference in endometrial thickness among the three groups; in addition, mean pulsatility index (PI and resistance index (RI in the spiral arteries were significantly lower in Group I and Group III compared to Group II. This difference persisted also when comparing—within subjects of Group III—mean PI and RI mean values before and after insertion. Conclusions. The LNG-IUS not only altered endometrial thickness, but—in women with prolonged bleedings—also significantly changed uterine artery blood flow. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and enable gynecologists to properly counsel women, improving initial continuation rates.

  4. Numerical investigations of the fluid flows at deep oceanic and arctic permafrost-associated gas hydrate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Jennifer Mary

    older than the host sediment. Old pore fluid age may reflect complex flow patterns, such a fluid focusing, which can cause significant lateral migration as well as regions where downward flow reverses direction and returns toward the seafloor. Longer pathlines can produce pore fluid ages much older than that expected with a one-dimensional compaction model. For steady-state models with geometry representative of Blake Ridge (USA), a well-studied hydrate province, pore fluid ages beneath regions of topography and within fractured zones can be up to 70 Ma old. Results suggest that the measurements of 129-I/127-I reflect a mixture of new and old pore fluid. However, old pore fluid need not originate at great depths. Methane within pore fluids can travel laterally several kilometers, implying an extensive source region around the deposit. Iodine age measurements support the existence of fluid focusing beneath regions of seafloor topography at Blake Ridge, and suggest that the methane source at Blake Ridge is likely shallow. The response of methane hydrate reservoirs to warming is poorly understood. The great depths may protect deep oceanic hydrates from climate change for the time being because transfer of heat by conduction is slow, but warming will eventually be felt albeit in the far future. On the other hand, unique permafrost-associated methane hydrate deposits exist at shallow depths within the sediments of the circum-Arctic continental shelves. Arctic hydrates are thought to be a relict of cold glacial periods, aggrading when sea levels are much lower and shelf sediments are exposed to freezing air temperatures. During interglacial periods, rising sea levels flood the shelf, bringing dramatic warming to the permafrost- and hydrate-bearing sediments. Permafrost-associated methane hydrate deposits have been responding to warming since the last glacial maximum ~18 kaBP as a consequence of these natural glacial cycles. This `experiment,' set into motion by nature itself

  5. Development assistance for health: past trends, associations, and the future of international financial flows for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Joseph L; Schneider, Matthew T; Haakenstad, Annie; Singh, Lavanya; Sadat, Nafis; Birger, Maxwell; Reynolds, Alex; Templin, Tara; Hamavid, Hannah; Chapin, Abigail; Murray, Christopher J L

    2016-06-18

    Disbursements of development assistance for health (DAH) have risen substantially during the past several decades. More recently, the international community's attention has turned to other international challenges, introducing uncertainty about the future of disbursements for DAH. We collected audited budget statements, annual reports, and project-level records from the main international agencies that disbursed DAH from 1990 to the end of 2015. We standardised and combined records to provide a comprehensive set of annual disbursements. We tracked each dollar of DAH back to the source and forward to the recipient. We removed transfers between agencies to avoid double-counting and adjusted for inflation. We classified assistance into nine primary health focus areas: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, maternal health, newborn and child health, other infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, Ebola, and sector-wide approaches and health system strengthening. For our statistical analysis, we grouped these health focus areas into two categories: MDG-related focus areas (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, child and newborn health, and maternal health) and non-MDG-related focus areas (other infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, sector-wide approaches, and other). We used linear regression to test for structural shifts in disbursement patterns at the onset of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; ie, from 2000) and the global financial crisis (impact estimated to occur in 2010). We built on past trends and associations with an ensemble model to estimate DAH through the end of 2040. In 2015, US$36·4 billion of DAH was disbursed, marking the fifth consecutive year of little change in the amount of resources provided by global health development partners. Between 2000 and 2009, DAH increased at 11·3% per year, whereas between 2010 and 2015, annual growth was just 1·2%. In 2015, 29·7% of DAH was for HIV/AIDS, 17·9% was for child and newborn health, and 9·8

  6. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  7. Data breaches. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  8. Analysis on Medication Rules of Gastric Cancer Treatment Prescription Based on Association Analysis and Composition Network%基于关联分析和配伍网络的胃癌方剂用药规律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志滨; 樊巧玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:总结分析现代临床实践中胃癌中医药治疗组方配伍规律,探索数据挖掘技术在方剂配伍规律研究中的合理应用.方法:本研究以CNKI及万方文献引擎为数据源搜集整理现代文献资料,综合运用频次统计、关联分析以及配伍网络等技术方法,分析了目标方剂集上中药使用频次及配伍特点等规律.结果:经筛选与标准化处理后,共纳入方剂116首,含中药1 269味次,涉及17类212个中药.结论:中医治疗胃癌重视以扶正为本,随证常配伍活血化瘀、清热解毒、消痰散结、理气行滞之品.%This study was aimed to analyze the current prescription combination rules on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in gastric cancer treatment, in order to explore reasonable application of data mining technology in the study of prescription combination rules. Modern literatures were searched in CNKI and WanFang database. Frequency analysis, association analysis and composition network were used comprehensively. Rules such as herb application frequency and combination rules of the target prescription set were analyzed. The results showed that after screening and standardization, 116 prescriptions were included in the set which including 1 269 herbs and involving 17 types of 212 herbs. It was concluded that TCM paid attention to strengthen body resistance in gastric cancer treatment. It can also be combined with drugs for invigorating blood circulation and stasis, heat-clearing and detoxification, dispersing phlegm and stasis, as well as regulatingqi stagnation depending on the syndrome.

  9. Drifting while stepping in place in old adults: Association of self-motion perception with reference frame reliance and ground optic flow sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathos, Catherine P; Bernardin, Delphine; Baranton, Konogan; Assaiante, Christine; Isableu, Brice

    2017-04-07

    Optic flow provides visual self-motion information and is shown to modulate gait and provoke postural reactions. We have previously reported an increased reliance on the visual, as opposed to the somatosensory-based egocentric, frame of reference (FoR) for spatial orientation with age. In this study, we evaluated FoR reliance for self-motion perception with respect to the ground surface. We examined how effects of ground optic flow direction on posture may be enhanced by an intermittent podal contact with the ground, and reliance on the visual FoR and aging. Young, middle-aged and old adults stood quietly (QS) or stepped in place (SIP) for 30s under static stimulation, approaching and receding optic flow on the ground and a control condition. We calculated center of pressure (COP) translation and optic flow sensitivity was defined as the ratio of COP translation velocity over absolute optic flow velocity: the visual self-motion quotient (VSQ). COP translation was more influenced by receding flow during QS and by approaching flow during SIP. In addition, old adults drifted forward while SIP without any imposed visual stimulation. Approaching flow limited this natural drift and receding flow enhanced it, as indicated by the VSQ. The VSQ appears to be a motor index of reliance on the visual FoR during SIP and is associated with greater reliance on the visual and reduced reliance on the egocentric FoR. Exploitation of the egocentric FoR for self-motion perception with respect to the ground surface is compromised by age and associated with greater sensitivity to optic flow. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Observed tail current systems associated with bursty bulk flows and auroral streamers during a period of multiple substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Forsyth

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a multi-instrument study of a substorm bursty bulk flow (BBF and auroral streamer. During a substorm on 25 August 2003, which was one of a series of substorms that occurred between 00:00 and 05:00 UT, the Cluster spacecraft encountered a BBF event travelling Earthwards and duskwards with a velocity of ~500 km s−1 some nine minutes after the onset of the substorm. Coincident with this event the IMAGE spacecraft detected an auroral streamer in the substorm auroral bulge in the Southern Hemisphere near the footpoints of the Cluster spacecraft. Using FluxGate Magnetometer (FGM data from the four Cluster spacecraft, we determine the field-aligned currents in the BBF, using the curlometer technique, to have been ~5 mA km−2. When projected into the ionosphere, these currents give ionospheric field-aligned currents of ~18 A km−2, which is comparable with previously observed ionospheric field-aligned currents associated with BBFs and auroral streamers. The observations of the BBF are consistent with the plasma "bubble" model of Chen and Wolf (1993. Furthermore, we show that the observations of the BBF are consistent with the creation of the BBF by the reconnection of open field lines Earthward of a substorm associated near-Earth neutral line.

  11. Observed tail current systems associated with bursty bulk flows and auroral streamers during a period of multiple substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Forsyth

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a multi-instrument study of a substorm bursty bulk flow (BBF and auroral streamer. During a substorm on 25 August 2003, which was one of a series of substorms that occurred between 00:00 and 05:00 UT, the Cluster spacecraft encountered a BBF event travelling Earthwards and duskwards with a velocity of ~500 km s−1 some nine minutes after the onset of the substorm. Coincident with this event the IMAGE spacecraft detected an auroral streamer in the substorm auroral bulge in the Southern Hemisphere near the footpoints of the Cluster spacecraft. Using FluxGate Magnetometer (FGM data from the four Cluster spacecraft, we determine the field-aligned currents in the BBF, using the curlometer technique, to have been ~5 mA km−2. When projected into the ionosphere, these currents give ionospheric field-aligned currents of ~18 A km−2, which is comparable with previously observed ionospheric field-aligned currents associated with BBFs and auroral streamers. The observations of the BBF are consistent with the plasma "bubble" model of Chen and Wolf (1993. Furthermore, we show that the observations of the BBF are consistent with the creation of the BBF by the reconnection of open field lines Earthward of a substorm associated near-Earth neutral line.

  12. Association of aortic valve calcification to the presence, extent, and composition of coronary artery plaque burden: from the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction using Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabadi, Amir A; Bamberg, Fabian; Toepker, Michael; Schlett, Christopher L; Rogers, Ian S; Nagurney, John T; Brady, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Truong, Quynh A

    2009-10-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery calcification. We sought to determine whether AVC is associated with the presence and extent of overall plaque burden, as well as to plaque composition (calcified, mixed, and noncalcified). We examined 357 subjects (mean age 53 +/- 12 years, 61% male) who underwent contrast-enhanced electrocardiogram-gated 64-slice multidetector computed tomography from the ROMICAT trial for the assessment of presence and extent of coronary plaque burden according to the 17-coronary segment model and presence of AVC. Patients with AVC (n = 37, 10%) were more likely than those without AVC (n = 320, 90%) to have coexisting presence of any coronary plaque (89% vs 46%, P AVC had >3-fold increase odds of having any plaque (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.6, P = .047) and an increase of 2.5 segments of plaque (P AVC. When stratified by plaque composition, AVC was associated most with calcified plaque (OR 5.2, P = .004), then mixed plaque (OR 3.2, P = .02), but not with noncalcified plaque (P = .96). Aortic valve calcification is associated with the presence and greater extent of coronary artery plaque burden and may be part of the later stages of the atherosclerosis process, as its relation is strongest with calcified plaque, less with mixed plaque, and nonsignificant with noncalcified plaque. If AVC is present, consideration for aggressive medical therapy may be warranted.

  13. Accessible Modelling of Complexity in Health (AMoCH and associated data flows: asthma as an exemplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshana Liyanage

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Modelling is an important part of information science. Models are abstractions of reality. We use models in the following contexts: (1 to describe the data and information flows in clinical practice to information scientists, (2 to compare health systems and care pathways, (3 to understand how clinical cases are recorded in record systems and (4 to model health care business models. Asthma is an important condition associated with a substantial mortality and morbidity. However, there are difficulties in determining who has the condition, making both its incidence and prevalence uncertain. Objective To demonstrate an approach for modelling complexity in health using asthma prevalence and incidence as an exemplar. Method The four steps in our process are: 1. Drawing a rich picture, following Checkland’s soft systems methodology; 2. Constructing data flow diagrams (DFDs; 3. Creating Unified Modelling Language (UML use case diagrams to describe the interaction of the key actors with the system; 4. Activity diagrams, either UML activity diagram or business process modelling notation diagram. Results Our rich picture flagged the complexity of factors that might impact on asthma diagnosis. There was consensus that the principle issue was that there were undiagnosed and misdiagnosed cases as well as correctly diagnosed. Genetic predisposition to atopy; exposure to environmental triggers; impact of respiratory health on earnings or ability to attend education or participate in sport, charities, pressure groups and the pharmaceutical industry all increased the likelihood of a diagnosis of asthma. Stigma and some factors within the health system diminished the likelihood of a diagnosis. The DFDs and other elements focused on better case finding. Conclusions This approach flagged the factors that might impact on the reported prevalence or incidence of asthma. The models suggested that applying selection criteria may improve the specificity of

  14. Accessible Modelling of Complexity in Health (AMoCH) and associated data flows: asthma as an exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Harshana; Luzi, Daniela; De Lusignan, Simon; Pecoraro, Fabrizio; McNulty, Richard; Tamburis, Oscar; Krause, Paul; Rigby, Michael; Blair, Mitch

    2016-04-18

    Background Modelling is an important part of information science. Models are abstractions of reality. We use models in the following contexts: (1) to describe the data and information flows in clinical practice to information scientists, (2) to compare health systems and care pathways, (3) to understand how clinical cases are recorded in record systems and (4) to model health care business models.Asthma is an important condition associated with a substantial mortality and morbidity. However, there are difficulties in determining who has the condition, making both its incidence and prevalence uncertain.Objective To demonstrate an approach for modelling complexity in health using asthma prevalence and incidence as an exemplar.Method The four steps in our process are:1. Drawing a rich picture, following Checkland's soft systems methodology;2. Constructing data flow diagrams (DFDs);3. Creating Unified Modelling Language (UML) use case diagrams to describe the interaction of the key actors with the system;4. Activity diagrams, either UML activity diagram or business process modelling notation diagram.Results Our rich picture flagged the complexity of factors that might impact on asthma diagnosis. There was consensus that the principle issue was that there were undiagnosed and misdiagnosed cases as well as correctly diagnosed. Genetic predisposition to atopy; exposure to environmental triggers; impact of respiratory health on earnings or ability to attend education or participate in sport, charities, pressure groups and the pharmaceutical industry all increased the likelihood of a diagnosis of asthma. Stigma and some factors within the health system diminished the likelihood of a diagnosis. The DFDs and other elements focused on better case finding.Conclusions This approach flagged the factors that might impact on the reported prevalence or incidence of asthma. The models suggested that applying selection criteria may improve the specificity of new or confirmed diagnosis.

  15. Complications associated with the use of flow-diverting devices for cerebral aneurysms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Geng; Su, Ming; Yin, Yan-Ling; Li, Ming-Hua

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to review the literature on the use of flow-diverting devices (FDDs) to treat intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and to investigate the safety and complications related to FDD treatment for IAs by performing a meta-analysis of published studies. METHODS A systematic electronic database search was conducted using the Springer, EBSCO, PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane databases on all accessible articles published up to January 2016, with no restriction on the publication year. Abstracts, full-text manuscripts, and the reference lists of retrieved articles were analyzed. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool the complication rates across studies. RESULTS Sixty studies were included, which involved retrospectively collected data on 3125 patients. The use of FDDs was associated with an overall complication rate of 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.6%-20.5%) and a low mortality rate of 2.8% (95% CI 1.2%-4.4%). The neurological morbidity rate was 4.5% (95% CI 3.2%-5.8%). No significant difference in the complication or mortality rate was observed between 2 commonly used devices (the Pipeline embolization device and the Silk flow-diverter device). A significantly higher overall complication rate was found in the case of ruptured IAs than in unruptured IA (odds ratio 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.3). CONCLUSIONS The use of FDDs in the treatment of IAs yielded satisfactory results with regard to complications and the mortality rate. The risk of complications should be considered when deciding on treatment with FDDs. Further studies on the mechanism underlying the occurrence of adverse events are required.

  16. Obesity-related decrease in intraoperative blood flow is associated with maturation failure of radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Jeong, Jae Han; Song, Young Rim; Kim, Hyung Jik; Lee, Won Yong; Kim, Kun Il; Kim, Sung Gyun

    2015-10-01

    Successful arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation is often challenging in obese patients. Optimal initial intraoperative blood flow (IOBF) is essential for adequate AVF maturation. This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of obesity on IOBF and radiocephalic AVF maturation. Patients with a newly created radiocephalic AVF were included (N = 252). Obesity was defined as a baseline body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2), and primary maturation failure was defined as failure to use the AVF successfully by 3 months after its creation. IOBF was measured immediately after construction of the AVF with a VeriQ system (MediStim, Oslo, Norway). The mean BMI was 24.1 ± 3.9 kg/m(2), and the prevalence of obesity was 31.3%. Particularly, 8.3% (21 patients) had a BMI ≥30 kg/m(2). Primary maturation failure occurred in 100 patients (39.7%), and an IOBF <190 mL/min was closely associated with the risk of maturation failure (relative risk, 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-6.11). Compared with nonobese patients, obese subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, whereas diameters of vessels were similar. When the patients were further divided into three groups as BMI <25, 25 to 29.9, and ≥30 kg/m(2), patients in the higher BMI group showed significantly lower IOBF and higher maturation failure rate. According to multivariate analysis, the statistically significant variables that determined maturation failure were obesity, previous vascular disease, increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and IOBF <190 mL/min. Obese patients had a significantly lower IOBF, and both obesity and low IOBF contributed to the primary maturation failure of AVF. Obesity-associated inflammation and atherosclerosis might play roles in this association. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Life fraction rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maile, K.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluations for lifetime estimation of high temperature loaded HTR-components under creep fatigue load had been performed. The evaluations were carried out on the basis of experimental data of strain controlled fatigue tests with respectively without hold times performed on material NiCr 22 Co 12 Mo (Inconel 617). Life prediction was made by means of the linear damage accumulation rule. Due to the high temperatures no realistic estimates of creep damage can be obtained with this rule. Therefore the rule was modified. The modifications consist in a different analysis of the relaxation curve including different calculation of the creep damage estimate resp. in an extended rule, taking into consideration the interaction between creep and fatigue. In order to reach a better result transparency and to reduce data set dependent result scattering a round robin with a given data set was carried out. The round robin yielded that for a given test temperature of T = 950deg C realistic estimate of damage can be obtained with each modification. Furthermore a reduction of resulting scatterbands in the interaction diagram can be observed, i.e. the practicability of the rule has been increased. (orig.)

  18. Rule Optimization monthly reservoir operation Salvajina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Garcia, Maria Clemencia; Santacruz Salazar, Santiago; Ramirez Callejas, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    In the present study a model was designed for the optimization of the rule for monthly operation of the Salvajina dam (Colombia) based in the technology) of dynamic programming. The model maximizes the benefits for electric power generation, ensuring at the same time flood regulation in winter and pollution relief during the summer. For the optimization of the rule of operation, it was necessary to define the levels and volumes of reserve and holding required for the control of flood zones in the Cauca river and to provide an effluent minimal flow and assure a daily flow at the Juanchito station (located 141 km downstream from the dam) of the Cauca river, 90 % of the time during the most critical summer periods.

  19. Decision Analysis of Dynamic Spectrum Access Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton; Luiz A. DaSilva; Christian Wernz

    2011-12-01

    A current trend in spectrum regulation is to incorporate spectrum sharing through the design of spectrum access rules that support Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). This paper develops a decision-theoretic framework for regulators to assess the impacts of different decision rules on both primary and secondary operators. We analyze access rules based on sensing and exclusion areas, which in practice can be enforced through geolocation databases. Our results show that receiver-only sensing provides insufficient protection for primary and co-existing secondary users and overall low social welfare. On the other hand, using sensing information between the transmitter and receiver of a communication link, provides dramatic increases in system performance. The performance of using these link end points is relatively close to that of using many cooperative sensing nodes associated to the same access point and large link exclusion areas. These results are useful to regulators and network developers in understanding in developing rules for future DSA regulation.

  20. The role of traffic rules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Experienced road users seem to have their own set of traffic rules (including rules about when to violate the official rules). The number of violations is enormous, causing great concern for the authorities. The situation could be improved by separating a set of rules with the aim of deterring road

  1. Communicating rules in recreation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Ross; George H. Moeller

    1974-01-01

    Five hundred fifty-eight campers were surveyed on the Allegheny National Forest to determine their knowledge of rules governing recreation behavior. Most of them were uninformed about the rules. Results of the study suggest that previous camping experience, age, camping style, and residence significantly affect knowledge of rules. Campers who received rule brochures or...

  2. Increasing Lower Extremity Injury Rates Across the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 Seasons of National Collegiate Athletic Association Football: An Unintended Consequence of the "Targeting" Rule Used to Prevent Concussions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Robert W; Kerr, Zachary Y; Wehr, Peter; Amendola, Annuziato

    2016-12-01

    Sports-related concussions (SRCs) have gained increased societal interest in the past decade. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has implemented legislation and rule changes to decrease the incidence and risk of head injury impacts. The "targeting" rule forbids initiating contact with the crown of a helmet and targeting defenseless players in the head and neck area; however, there are concerns that this rule change has unintentionally led to an increased incidence of lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in lower extremity injury rates in NCAA football during the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons. We hypothesized that the lower extremity injury rate has increased across the time period. Descriptive epidemiology study. Sixty-eight NCAA football programs provided 153 team-seasons of data to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program. Lower extremity injuries (ie, hip/groin, upper leg/thigh, knee, lower leg/Achilles, foot/toes) and SRCs sustained during NCAA football games were examined. We calculated injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) for lower extremity injuries and SRCs. Rate ratios (RRs) compared injury rates between the 2009-2010 to 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 seasons. Overall, 2400 lower extremity injuries were reported during the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons; most were to the knee (33.6%) and ankle (28.5%) and caused by player contact (59.2%). The lower extremity injury rate increased in 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 compared with 2009-2010 to 2011-2012 (23.55 vs 20.45/1000 AEs, respectively; RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.25). This finding was retained when restricted to injuries due to player contact (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.32) but not for injuries due to noncontact/overuse (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.80-1.14). When examining player contact injury rates by anatomic site, only ankle injuries had an increase (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.64). The SRC rate also increased in 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 compared with

  3. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  4. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  5. Design Rules for Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

  6. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 July 2006: The modifications are listed below: Financial and social conditions for Paid Associates, Fellows and Students (introduction of a new payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme - reorganization of the Fellowship Programme - modification of the Student subsistence rates) Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability (clarification of the scope of the relevant provisions - new definition of disability and associated benefits - revised role of the Joint Advisory Rehabilitation and Disability Board - bringing together the relevant provisions). Copies of this update (modification# 16) are available in departmental secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Administrative Circular ...

  7. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1st January 1996 are modified as follows as of 1st July 2006: Financial and social conditions for Paid Associates, Fellows and Students (introduction of a new payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme-reorganisation of the Fellowship Programme-modification of Student subsistence rates) Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability (clarification of the scope of the relevant provisions-new definition of disability and associated benefits-revised role of the Joint Advisory Rehabilitation and Disability Board-bringing together of the relevant provisions). Copies of this update (modification No.16) are available from Departmental secretariats. In addition, the Staff Rules and Regulations can be consulted on the Web at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev. 2)-July 2006 Protection of members o...

  8. A study on PubMed search tag usage pattern: association rule mining of a full-day PubMed query log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Abu Saleh Mohammad; Yoo, Illhoi

    2013-01-09

    The practice of evidence-based medicine requires efficient biomedical literature search such as PubMed/MEDLINE. Retrieval performance relies highly on the efficient use of search field tags. The purpose of this study was to analyze PubMed log data in order to understand the usage pattern of search tags by the end user in PubMed/MEDLINE search. A PubMed query log file was obtained from the National Library of Medicine containing anonymous user identification, timestamp, and query text. Inconsistent records were removed from the dataset and the search tags were extracted from the query texts. A total of 2,917,159 queries were selected for this study issued by a total of 613,061 users. The analysis of frequent co-occurrences and usage patterns of the search tags was conducted using an association mining algorithm. The percentage of search tag usage was low (11.38% of the total queries) and only 2.95% of queries contained two or more tags. Three out of four users used no search tag and about two-third of them issued less than four queries. Among the queries containing at least one tagged search term, the average number of search tags was almost half of the number of total search terms. Navigational search tags are more frequently used than informational search tags. While no strong association was observed between informational and navigational tags, six (out of 19) informational tags and six (out of 29) navigational tags showed strong associations in PubMed searches. The low percentage of search tag usage implies that PubMed/MEDLINE users do not utilize the features of PubMed/MEDLINE widely or they are not aware of such features or solely depend on the high recall focused query translation by the PubMed's Automatic Term Mapping. The users need further education and interactive search application for effective use of the search tags in order to fulfill their biomedical information needs from PubMed/MEDLINE.

  9. Decreased in vitro mitochondrial function is associated with enhanced brain metabolism, blood flow, and memory in Surf1-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Pulliam, Daniel A; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Halloran, Jonathan J; Hussong, Stacy A; Burbank, Raquel R; Bresnen, Andrew; Liu, Yuhong; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Soundararajan, Anuradha; Muir, Eric; Duong, Timothy Q; Bokov, Alex F; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Richardson, Arlan G; Van Remmen, Holly; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain damage after excitotoxic insults. In the present study, we examined brain metabolism, brain hemodynamics, and memory of Surf1 KO mice using in vitro measures of mitochondrial function, in vivo neuroimaging, and behavioral testing. We show that decreased respiration and increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in isolated Surf1 KO brain mitochondria are associated with increased brain glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and lactate levels, and with enhanced memory in Surf1 KO mice. These metabolic and functional changes in Surf1 KO brains were accompanied by higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, and by increases in the activated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding factor, which is integral to memory formation. These findings suggest that Surf1 deficiency-induced metabolic alterations may have positive effects on brain function. Exploring the relationship between mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and brain function will enhance our understanding of cognitive aging and of age-related neurologic disorders. PMID:23838831

  10. Spatiotemporal and species variations in prokaryotic communities associated with sediments from surface-flow constructed wetlands for treating swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fen; Lai, Cui; Chen, Liang; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Liu, Feng; Li, Xi; Luo, Pei; Wu, Jinshui; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min; Xu, Piao

    2017-10-01

    Microorganisms are the main mechanisms of pollutants removals in constructed wetlands (CWs) used for wastewater treatment. However, the different biological processes and variations of prokaryotic community in CWs remain poorly understood. In this study, we applied a high-throughput sequencing technique to investigate the prokaryotic communities associated with sediments from pilot-scale surface-flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) treating swine wastewater (SW) of varying strengths. Our results revealed that highly diverse prokaryotic communities were present in the SFCWs, with Proteobacteria (16.44-44.44%), Acidobacteria (3.25-24.40%), and Chloroflexi (5.77-14.43%) being the major phyla, and Nitrospira (4.14-12.02%), the most dominant genus. The prokaryotic communities in the sediments varied greatly with location and season, which markedly altered the microenvironmental conditions. Principal co-ordinates analysis indicated that SW strength significantly influenced the community structure in sediments of the SFCWs, and canonical correspondence analysis illustrated that the shifts in prokaryotic communities were strongly related to NO 3 - -N and TN in winter; and in summer with NH 4 + N, NO 3 - -N, NO 2 - -N, TN, TP, SOM, and pH. In conclusion, the use of high-throughput sequencing greatly enhanced our understanding of prokaryotic communities with different functional groups in SFCWs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. COPATH - a spreadsheet model for the estimation of carbon flows associated with the use of forest resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Ketoff, A.

    1995-01-01

    The forest sector plays a key role in the global climate change process. A significant amount of net greenhouse gas emissions emanate from land use changes, and the sector offers a unique opportunity to sequester carbon in vegetation, detritus, soils and forest products. However, the estimates of carbon flows associated with the use of forest resources have been quite imprecise. This paper describes a methodological framework-COPATH-which is a spreadsheet model for estimating carbon emissions and sequestration from deforestation and harvesting of forests. The model has two parts, the first estimates carbon stocks, emissions and uptake in the base year, while the second part forecasts future emissions and the uptake under various scenarios. The forecast module is structured after the main modes of forest conversion, i.e. agriculture, pasture, forest harvesting and other land uses. The model can be used by countries which may not possess an abundance of pertinent data, and allows for the use of forest inventory data to estimate carbon stocks. The choice of the most likely scenario provides the country with a carbon flux profile necessary to formulate GHG mitigation strategies. (Author)

  12. Multiphase flows of N immiscible incompressible fluids: A reduction-consistent and thermodynamically-consistent formulation and associated algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present a reduction-consistent and thermodynamically consistent formulation and an associated numerical algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an isothermal mixture consisting of N (N ⩾ 2) immiscible incompressible fluids with different physical properties (densities, viscosities, and pair-wise surface tensions). By reduction consistency we refer to the property that if only a set of M (1 ⩽ M ⩽ N - 1) fluids are present in the system then the N-phase governing equations and boundary conditions will exactly reduce to those for the corresponding M-phase system. By thermodynamic consistency we refer to the property that the formulation honors the thermodynamic principles. Our N-phase formulation is developed based on a more general method that allows for the systematic construction of reduction-consistent formulations, and the method suggests the existence of many possible forms of reduction-consistent and thermodynamically consistent N-phase formulations. Extensive numerical experiments have been presented for flow problems involving multiple fluid components and large density ratios and large viscosity ratios, and the simulation results are compared with the physical theories or the available physical solutions. The comparisons demonstrate that our method produces physically accurate results for this class of problems.

  13. Phytoextraction, phytotransformation and rhizodegradation of ibuprofen associated with Typha angustifolia in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifei; Zhang, Jiefeng; Zhu, Guibing; Liu, Yu; Wu, Bing; Ng, Wun Jern; Appan, Adhityan; Tan, Soon Keat

    2016-10-01

    Widespread occurrence of trace pharmaceutical residues in aquatic environments is of great concerns due to the potential chronic toxicity of certain pharmaceuticals including ibuprofen on aquatic organisms even at environmental levels. In this study, the phytoextraction, phytotransformation and rhizodegradation of ibuprofen associated with Typha angustifolia were investigated in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system. The experimental wetland system consisted of a planted bed with Typha angustifolia and an unplanted bed (control) to treat ibuprofen-loaded wastewater (∼107.2 μg L(-1)). Over a period of 342 days, ibuprofen was accumulated in leaf sheath and lamina tissues at a mean concentration of 160.7 ng g(-1), indicating the occurrence of the phytoextraction of ibuprofen. Root-uptake ibuprofen was partially transformed to ibuprofen carboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy ibuprofen and 1-hydroxy ibuprofen which were found to be 1374.9, 235.6 and 301.5 ng g(-1) in the sheath, respectively, while they were 1051.1, 693.6 and 178.7 ng g(-1) in the lamina. The findings from pyrosequencing analysis of the rhizosphere bacteria suggest that the Dechloromonas sp., the Clostridium sp. (e.g. Clostridium saccharobutylicum), the order Sphingobacteriales, and the Cytophaga sp. in the order Cytophagales were most probably responsible for the rhizodegradation of ibuprofen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Greenhouse gas footprint and the carbon flow associated with different solid waste management strategy for urban metabolism in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, K M Nazmul

    2017-02-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) and associated climate change consequences are gripping attention globally, while MSW management as a vital subsystem of urban metabolism significantly influences the urban carbon cycles. This study evaluates the GHG emissions and carbon flow of existing and proposed MSW management in Bangladesh through scenario analysis, including landfill with landfill gas (LFG) recovery, waste to energy (WtE), and material recovery facility (MRF). The analysis indicates that, scenario H 2 and H 5 emitted net GHGs -152.20kg CO 2 eq. and -140.32kg CO 2 eq., respectively, in comparison with 420.88kg CO 2 eq. of scenario H 1 for managing per ton of wastes during the reference year 2015. The annual horizontal carbon flux of the waste input was 319Gg and 158Gg during 2015 in Dhaka and Chittagong, respectively. An integrated strategy of managing the wastes in the urban areas of Bangladesh involving WtE incineration plant and LFG recovery to generate electricity as well as MRF could reverse back 209.46Gg carbon and 422.29Gg carbon to the Chittagong and Dhaka urban system, respectively. This study provides valuable insights for the MSW policy framework and revamp of existing MSW management practices with regards to reduction of GHGs emissions from the waste sector in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of resting-state fMRI functional connectivity with flow-BOLD coupling and regional vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sungho; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Wang, Danny J J; Yan, Lirong; Chen, J Jean

    2015-04-01

    There has been tremendous interest in applying functional magnetic resonance imaging-based resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI) measurements to the study of brain function. However, a lack of understanding of the physiological mechanisms of rs-fcMRI limits their ability to interpret rs-fcMRI findings. In this work, the authors examine the regional associations between rs-fcMRI estimates and dynamic coupling between the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF), as well as resting macrovascular volume. Resting-state BOLD and CBF data were simultaneously acquired using a dual-echo pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) technique, whereas macrovascular volume fraction was estimated using time-of-flight MR angiography. Functional connectivity within well-known functional networks—including the default mode, frontoparietal, and primary sensory-motor networks—was calculated using a conventional seed-based correlation approach. They found the functional connectivity strength to be significantly correlated with the regional increase in CBF-BOLD coupling strength and inversely proportional to macrovascular volume fraction. These relationships were consistently observed within all functional networks considered. Their findings suggest that highly connected networks observed using rs-fcMRI are not likely to be mediated by common vascular drainage linking distal cortical areas. Instead, high BOLD functional connectivity is more likely to reflect tighter neurovascular connections, attributable to neuronal pathways.

  16. NAGWS Softball Guide 1991: Official Rules/Officiating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Janis

    This softball guide presents information on: the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS), rule modifications, softball playing rules, and officiating. Section 1 explains the purpose, beliefs, and services of the NAGWS; provides information on the association's committees and membership application; and explains use of the…

  17. Cramer's Rule Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2005-01-01

    In 1750, the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer published a well-written algebra book entitled "Introduction a l'Analyse des Lignes Courbes Algebriques." In the appendix to this book, Cramer gave, without proof, the rule named after him for solving a linear system of equations using determinants (Kosinki, 2001). Since then several derivations of…

  18. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  19. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  20. Rules of (Student) Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskist, William; Busler, Jessica N.; Kirby, Lauren A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Teachers often think of student engagement in terms of hands-on activities that get students involved in their courses. They seldom consider the larger aspects of the teaching--learning environment that often influence the extent to which students are willing to become engaged in their coursework. In this chapter, we describe five "rules of…

  1. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail; Pottmann, Helmut; Grohs, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ

  2. Ten-day rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W.; Gilman, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors argue against R.H. Mole's paper (Lancet, Dec. 12 1987), supporting the relaxation of ICRP recommendations and the DHSS decision to withdraw the 10 day rule in relation to diagnostic radiography for menstruating women, and draw attention to the recent refinement of estimates of the enhanced risk of childhood cancers, following diagnostic radiography during pregnancy. (U.K.)

  3. TEDXCERN BREAKS THE RULES

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.

  4. Factors associated with anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies in patients supported with continuous-flow devices and effect on probability of transplant and post-transplant outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, Ana C; Tinckam, Kathryn; Foroutan, Farid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One major disadvantage of ventricular assist device (VAD) therapy is the development of human-leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. We aimed to identify factors associated with HLA antibodies during continuous flow (CF)-VAD support and assess the effect on transplant probability...

  5. Debris-flow and flooding hazards associated with the December 1999 storm in coastal Venezuela and strategies for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Larsen, M.C.; Eaton, L.S.; Morgan, B.A.; Blair, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy rainfall from the storm of December 14-16, 1999 triggered thousands of landslides on steep slopes of the Sierra de Avila north of Caracas, Venezuela. In addition to landslides, heavy rainfall caused flooding and massive debris flows that damaged coastal communities in the State of Vargas along the Caribbean Sea. Examination of the rainfall pattern obtained from the GOES-8 satellite showed that the pattern of damage was generally consistent with the area of heaviest rainfall. Field observations of the severely affected drainage basins and historical records indicate that previous flooding and massive debris-flow events of similar magnitude to that of December 1999 have occurred throughout this region. The volume of debris-flow deposits and the large boulders that the flows transported qualifies the 1999 event amongst the largest historical rainfall-induced debris flows documented worldwide.

  6. Metal/nonmetal diesel particulate matter rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomko, D.M. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Safety and Health Technology Center; Stackpole, R.P. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Triadelphia, WV (United States). Approval and Certification Center; Findlay, C.D. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Arlington, VA (United States). Metal/Nonmetal Safety and Health; Pomroy, W.H. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Duluth, MN (United States). Metal/Nonmetal North Central District

    2010-07-01

    The American Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) issued a health standard in January 2001 designed to reduce exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) in underground metal and nonmetal mines. The rule established an interim concentration limit for DPM of 400 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon, to be followed in 2004 by a final limit of 160 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon. The 2001 rule was challenged in federal court by various mining trade associations and mining companies. The rule was subsequently amended. This paper highlighted the major provisions of the 2006 final rule and summarized MSHAs current compliance sampling procedures. The concentration limit was changed to a permissible exposure limit and the sampling surrogate was changed from total carbon to elemental carbon. The MSHA published a new rule in 2006 which based the final limit on a miner's personal exposure rather than a concentration limit. The final limit was phased in using 3 steps over 2 years. This paper also discussed engineering controls and a recent MSHA report on organic carbon, elemental carbon and total carbon emissions from a diesel engine fueled with various blends of standard diesel and biodiesel. In May 2008, about two-thirds of all underground metal/nonmetal mines achieved and maintained compliance with the rule. 20 refs.

  7. Verification of business rules programs

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Bruno Berstel-Da

    2013-01-01

    Rules represent a simplified means of programming, congruent with our understanding of human brain constructs. With the advent of business rules management systems, it has been possible to introduce rule-based programming to nonprogrammers, allowing them to map expert intent into code in applications such as fraud detection, financial transactions, healthcare, retail, and marketing. However, a remaining concern is the quality, safety, and reliability of the resulting programs.  This book is on business rules programs, that is, rule programs as handled in business rules management systems. Its

  8. High Flow Nasal Cannula Use Is Associated with Increased Morbidity and Length of Hospitalization in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Dalal K; Kornhauser, Michael; Greenspan, Jay S; Dysart, Kevin C; Aghai, Zubair H

    2016-06-01

    To determine differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death in extremely low birth weight infants managed on high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) vs continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This is a retrospective data analysis from the Alere Neonatal Database for infants born between January 2008 and July 2013, weighing ≤1000 g at birth, and received HFNC or CPAP. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were compared between the infants who received CPAP and HFNC, or HFNC ± CPAP. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to control for the variables that differ in bivariate analysis. A total of 2487 infants met the inclusion criteria (941 CPAP group, 333 HFNC group, and 1546 HFNC ± CPAP group). The primary outcome of BPD or death was significantly higher in the HFNC group (56.8%) compared with the CPAP group (50.4%, P CPAP group compared with the CPAP group (OR 1.085, 95% CI 1.035-1.137, P = .001). The number of ventilator days, postnatal steroid use, days to room air, days to initiate or reach full oral feeds, and length of hospitalization were significantly higher in the HFNC and HFNC ± CPAP groups compared with the CPAP group. In this retrospective study, use of HFNC in extremely low birth weight infants is associated with a higher risk of death or BPD, increased respiratory morbidities, delayed oral feeding, and prolonged hospitalization. A large clinical trial is needed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of HFNC in preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High Flow Nasal Cannula Use Is Associated with Increased Morbidity and Length of Hospitalization in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Dalal K.; Kornhauser, Michael; Greenspan, Jay S.; Dysart, Kevin C.; Aghai, Zubair H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death in extremely low birth weight infants managed on high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) vs continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Study design This is aretrospective data analysis from the Alere Neonatal Database for infants born between January 2008 and July 2013, weighing ≤ 1000 g at birth, and received HFNC or CPAP. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were compared between the infants who received CPAP and HFNC, or HFNC ± CPAP. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to control for the variables that differ in bivariate analysis. Results A total of 2487 infants met the inclusion criteria (941 CPAP group, 333 HFNC group, and 1546 HFNC ± CPAP group). The primary outcome of BPD or death was significantly higher in the HFNC group (56.8%) compared with the CPAP group (50.4%, P < .05). Similarly, adjusted odds of developing BPD or death was greater in the HFNC ± CPAP group compared with the CPAP group (OR 1.085, 95% CI 1.035–1.137, P = .001). The number of ventilator days, postnatal steroid use, days to room air, days to initiate or reach full oral feeds, and length of hospitalization were significantly higher in the HFNC and HFNC ± CPAP groups compared with the CPAP group. Conclusions In this retrospective study, use of HFNC in extremely low birth weight infants is associated with a higher risk of death or BPD, increased respiratory morbidities, delayed oral feeding, and prolonged hospitalization. A large clinical trial is needed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of HFNC in preterm infants. PMID:27004673

  10. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document presents the Rules of Procedure and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/449) convened in accordance with Chapter 3 of the Convention. It includes four parts: General provisions, Preparatory process for review meetings, Review meetings, and Amendment and interpretation of rules

  11. Feynman rules for fermion-number-violating interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denner, A.; Eck, H.; Hahn, O.; Kueblbeck, J.

    1992-01-01

    We present simple algorithmic Feynman rules for fermion-number-violating interactions. They do not involve explicit charge-conjugation matrices and resemble closely the familiar rules for Dirac fermions. We insist on a fermion flow through the graphs along fermion lines and get the correct relative signs between different interfering Feynman graphs as in the case of Dirac fermions. We only need the familiar Dirac propagator and fewer vertices than in the usual treatment of fermion-number-violating interactions. (orig.)

  12. Rules of Deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas

    In all wars, deception has been an important element for the military planners, on both the tactical level and the operational level. The good, effective deception operation is of great risk of conflicting with the current Laws of Armed Conflicts, which will be of great concern for the deception ......, the paper will discuss how the inclusion of mission specific rules of deception can greatly help define the boundaries, and give necessary guide lines for conducting deception operations within the laws of armed conflict....

  13. Local fractional variational iteration algorithm II for non-homogeneous model associated with the non-differentiable heat flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we begin with the non-homogeneous model for the non-differentiable heat flow, which is described using the local fractional vector calculus, from the first law of thermodynamics in fractal media point view. We employ the local fractional variational iteration algorithm II to solve the fractal heat equations. The obtained results show the non-differentiable behaviors of temperature fields of fractal heat flow defined on Cantor sets.

  14. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  15. New Rules on Consumer Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Lando, Henrik; Kristensen, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The project described in this report was carried out with support from The Ministry of Justice's Research Pool. The aim of the project is to examine the effects of Amending Act no. 213/2002, amending the rules on consumer sales in the Danish Sale of Goods Act. The amendments were part of Denmark......'s implementation of Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. The Amending Act came into force on 24 April 2002, having effect on consumer sales made on and after 1 January 2002. At the time of completion...... of this report, the Amending Act had been in force for more than two and a half years. In the planning of this project, we assumed that at this point in time sufficient experience with the new rules would be available, enabling us to get an impression of its practical consequences for businesses. Also, we...

  16. Rule-Based Event Processing and Reaction Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Adrian; Kozlenkov, Alexander

    Reaction rules and event processing technologies play a key role in making business and IT / Internet infrastructures more agile and active. While event processing is concerned with detecting events from large event clouds or streams in almost real-time, reaction rules are concerned with the invocation of actions in response to events and actionable situations. They state the conditions under which actions must be taken. In the last decades various reaction rule and event processing approaches have been developed, which for the most part have been advanced separately. In this paper we survey reaction rule approaches and rule-based event processing systems and languages.

  17. Proof Rules for Recursive Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    1993-01-01

    Four proof rules for recursive procedures in a Pascal-like language are presented. The main rule deals with total correctness and is based on results of Gries and Martin. The rule is easier to apply than Martin's. It is introduced as an extension of a specification format for Pascal-procedures, with

  18. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  19. Knowledge base rule partitioning design for CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Joseph D.; Szatkowski, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    This describes a knowledge base (KB) partitioning approach to solve the problem of real-time performance using the CLIPS AI shell when containing large numbers of rules and facts. This work is funded under the joint USAF/NASA Advanced Launch System (ALS) Program as applied research in expert systems to perform vehicle checkout for real-time controller and diagnostic monitoring tasks. The Expert System advanced development project (ADP-2302) main objective is to provide robust systems responding to new data frames of 0.1 to 1.0 second intervals. The intelligent system control must be performed within the specified real-time window, in order to meet the demands of the given application. Partitioning the KB reduces the complexity of the inferencing Rete net at any given time. This reduced complexity improves performance but without undo impacts during load and unload cycles. The second objective is to produce highly reliable intelligent systems. This requires simple and automated approaches to the KB verification & validation task. Partitioning the KB reduces rule interaction complexity overall. Reduced interaction simplifies the V&V testing necessary by focusing attention only on individual areas of interest. Many systems require a robustness that involves a large number of rules, most of which are mutually exclusive under different phases or conditions. The ideal solution is to control the knowledge base by loading rules that directly apply for that condition, while stripping out all rules and facts that are not used during that cycle. The practical approach is to cluster rules and facts into associated 'blocks'. A simple approach has been designed to control the addition and deletion of 'blocks' of rules and facts, while allowing real-time operations to run freely. Timing tests for real-time performance for specific machines under R/T operating systems have not been completed but are planned as part of the analysis process to validate the design.

  20. NAGWS Softball Guide 1989. Official Rules/Officiating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Janis

    This booklet, written for coaches of women's softball teams, contains the official National Association for Girls and Women in Sports (NAGWS) rules for the game. Recent rule modifications are included. Statements of philosophy and standards for NAGWS officials are also included. (JD)

  1. Vacuum structure and QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifman, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The method of the QCD sum rules was and still is one of the most productive tools in a wide range of problems associated with the hadronic phenomenology. Many heuristic ideas, computational devices, specific formulae which are useful to theorists working not only in hadronic physics, have been accumulated in this method. Some of the results and approaches which have originally been developed in connection with the QCD sum rules can be and are successfully applied in related fields, as supersymmetric gauge theories, nontraditional schemes of quarks and leptons, etc. The amount of literature on these and other more basic problems in hadronic physics has grown enormously in recent years. This volume presents a collection of papers which provide an overview of all basic elements of the sum rule approach and priority has been given to the works which seemed most useful from a pedagogical point of view

  2. A "Sweet 16" of Rules About Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The following "Sweet 16" rules included in this paper derive from a longer paper by APPL Director Dr. Edward Hoffman and myself entitled " 99 Rules for Managing Faster, Better, Cheaper Projects." Our sources consisted mainly of "war stories" told by master project managers in my book Simultaneous Management: Managing Projects in a Dynamic Environment (AMACOM, The American Management Association, 1996). The Simultaneous Management model was a result of 10 years of intensive research and testing conducted with the active participation of master project managers from leading private organizations such as AT&T, DuPont, Exxon, General Motors, IBM, Motorola and Procter & Gamble. In a more recent study, led by Dr. Hoffman, we learned that master project managers in leading public organizations employ most of these rules as well. Both studies, in private and public organizations, found that a dynamic environment calls for dynamic management, and that is especially clear in how successful project managers think about their teams.

  3. Vacuum structure and QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifman, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The method of the QCD sum rules was and still is one of the most productive tools in a wide range of problems associated with the hadronic phenomenology. Many heuristic ideas, computational devices, specific formulae which are useful to theorists working not only in hadronic physics, have been accumulated in this method. Some of the results and approaches which have been originally developed in connection with the QCD sum rules can be and are successfully applied in related fields, such as supersymmetric gauge theories, nontraditional schemes of quarks and leptons, etc. The amount of literature on these and other more basic problems in hadronic physics has grown enormously in recent years. This collection of papers provides an overview of all basic elements of the sum rule approach. Priority has been given to those works which seemed most useful from a pedagogical point of view

  4. Business rules for creating process flexibility : Mapping RIF rules and BDI rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Overbeek, S.J.; Janssen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Business rules and software agents can be used for creating flexible business processes. The Rule Interchange Format (RIF) is a new W3C recommendation standard for exchanging rules among disparate systems. Yet, the impact that the introduction of RIF has on the design of flexible business processes

  5. Fusion rules of chiral algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, M.

    1994-01-01

    Recently we showed that for the case of the WZW and the minimal models fusion can be understood as a certain ring-like tensor product of the symmetry algebra. In this paper we generalize this analysis to arbitrary chiral algebras. We define the tensor product of conformal field theory in the general case and prove that it is associative and symmetric up to equivalence. We also determine explicitly the action of the chiral algebra on this tensor product. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate that this framework provides a powerful tool for calculating restrictions for the fusion rules of chiral algebras. We exhibit this for the case of the W 3 algebra and the N=1 and N=2 NS superconformal algebras. (orig.)

  6. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    The value of developing hybrid international criminal procedure (ICP) is that it is arguably inclusive (representing two major legal traditions) and distinct from any domestic system, thus creating a separate, sui generis realm for international criminal law (ICL) jurists to meet. Since its...... addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  7. OZI rule and instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, M.A.; Zahed, I.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the effects of strangeness mixing in the QCD vacuum described as a quantum disordered phase of instantons and anti-instantons. We find that the constituent mass of the light quarks is a decreasing function of the current quark masses, and that its mass is almost insensitive to the value of the strange quark mass. Our results cannot account for a breach in the OZI rule in the vacuum. The relevance of this result for the amount of santi s pairs in the nucleon and the pion-nucleon sigma term is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  9. Associations between oral and ocular dryness, labial and whole salivary flow rates, systemic diseases and medications in a sample of older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smidt, Dorte; Torpet, Lis Andersen; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Abstract – Objective: To investigate the associations between age, gender, systemic diseases, medications, labial and whole salivary flow rates and oral and ocular dryness in older people. Methods: Symptoms of oral and ocular dryness, systemic diseases, medications (coded according...... number of diseases and medications, but neither with age and gender per se nor with tobacco and alcohol consumption. New detailed information concerning associations between medications and oral and ocular dryness has been obtained using the ATC classification system....... to the Anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system), tobacco and alcohol consumption were registered, and unstimulated labial (LS) and unstimulated (UWS) and chewing-stimulated (SWS) whole salivary flow rates were measured in 668 randomly selected community-dwelling elderly aged 65–95. Results...

  10. Nitroglycerin-mediated, but not flow-mediated vasodilation, is associated with blunted nocturnal blood pressure fall in patients with resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes-Guerra, Priscila C A; Cardoso, Claudia R L; Muxfeldt, Elizabeth S; Salles, Gil F

    2015-08-01

    Endothelial function by flow-mediated (FMD) and nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilations (NMD) was scarcely investigated in resistant hypertension. We aimed to assess the independent correlates of FMD and NMD in resistant hypertensive patients, particularly their associations with ambulatory blood pressures (BP) and nocturnal BP fall patterns. In a cross-sectional study, 280 resistant hypertensive patients performed 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, polysomnography, and brachial artery FMD and NMD by high-resolution ultrasonography. Independent correlates of FMD, NMD, and brachial artery diameter (BAD) were assessed by multiple linear and logistic regressions. Median (interquartile range) FMD was 0.75% (-0.6 to +4.4%) and NMD was 11.8% (7.1-18.4%). Baseline BAD and diabetes were independently associated with both FMD and NMD. Older age and prior cardiovascular diseases were associated with altered FMD, whereas higher night-time SBP and lower nocturnal SBP fall were associated with impaired NMD. Moreover, there was a significant gradient of impaired NMD according to blunted nocturnal BP decline patterns. BAD was independently associated with age, sex, BMI, albuminuria, and nocturnal SBP fall. Further adjustments to blood flow velocity, aortic stiffness, plasma aldosterone concentration, and sleep apnea did not change these relationships. NMD, but not FMD, is independently associated with unfavorable night-time BP levels and nondipping patterns, and may be a better cardiovascular risk marker in patients with resistant hypertension. BAD also may provide additional prognostic information.

  11. Association of salivary calcium, phosphate, pH and flow rate on oral health: A study on 90 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiyaz, Mohamed; Ramesh, Amitha; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Thomas, Biju; Shetty, Sucheta; Prakash, Prashanth

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, flow rate and pH of un-stimulated saliva and oral hygiene of healthy subjects, patients with periodontitis and dental caries and to correlate salivary calcium level with the number of intact teeth. The present study consisted of 90 patients aged between 18 and 55 years and were divided into three groups, periodontitis, dental caries and controls. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and number of teeth present, teeth with active carious lesions were recorded. Salivary flow rate and pH was recorded and subjected to biochemical investigation. Estimation of inorganic calcium and phosphate was performed by colorimetric method. Results showed statistically significant increase in salivary inorganic calcium and phosphate levels, poor oral hygiene status, pH and salivary flow rate in patients with periodontitis when compared with dental caries group and controls. Individuals who have increased salivary inorganic calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate and maintain poor oral hygiene could be at a higher risk for developing periodontitis and may have less dental caries and more number of intact teeth.

  12. Experimental Assessment of Flow Fields Associated with Heart Valve Prostheses Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV): Recommendations for Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Vrishank; Sastry, Sudeep; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan

    2018-03-12

    Experimental flow field characterization is a critical component of the assessment of the hemolytic and thrombogenic potential of heart valve substitutes, thus it is important to identify best practices for these experimental techniques. This paper presents a brief review of commonly used flow assessment techniques such as Particle image velocimetry (PIV), Laser doppler velocimetry, and Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging and a comparison of these methodologies. In particular, recommendations for setting up planar PIV experiments such as recommended imaging instrumentation, acquisition and data processing are discussed in the context of heart valve flows. Multiple metrics such as residence time, local velocity and shear stress that have been identified in the literature as being relevant to hemolysis and thrombosis in heart valves are discussed. Additionally, a framework for uncertainty analysis and data reporting for PIV studies of heart valves is presented in this paper. It is anticipated that this paper will provide useful information for heart valve device manufacturers and researchers to assess heart valve flow fields for the potential for hemolysis and thrombosis.

  13. Forward Modeling and validation of a new formulation to compute self-potential signals associated with ground water flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bolève

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical formulation of the coupled hydroelectrical flow in porous media is based on a linear formulation of two coupled constitutive equations for the electrical current density and the seepage velocity of the water phase and obeying Onsager's reciprocity. This formulation shows that the streaming current density is controlled by the gradient of the fluid pressure of the water phase and a streaming current coupling coefficient that depends on the so-called zeta potential. Recently a new formulation has been introduced in which the streaming current density is directly connected to the seepage velocity of the water phase and to the excess of electrical charge per unit pore volume in the porous material. The advantages of this formulation are numerous. First this new formulation is more intuitive not only in terms of establishing a constitutive equation for the generalized Ohm's law but also in specifying boundary conditions for the influence of the flow field upon the streaming potential. With the new formulation, the streaming potential coupling coefficient shows a decrease of its magnitude with permeability in agreement with published results. The new formulation has been extended in the inertial laminar flow regime and to unsaturated conditions with applications to the vadose zone. This formulation is suitable to model self-potential signals in the field. We investigate infiltration of water from an agricultural ditch, vertical infiltration of water into a sinkhole, and preferential horizontal flow of ground water in a paleochannel. For the three cases reported in the present study, a good match is obtained between finite element simulations performed and field observations. Thus, this formulation could be useful for the inverse mapping of the geometry of groundwater flow from self-potential field measurements.

  14. I-domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 mediates rolling of polystyrene particles on ICAM-1 under flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eniola, A Omolola; Krasik, Ellen F; Smith, Lee A; Song, Gang; Hammer, Daniel A

    2005-11-01

    In their active state, beta(2)-integrins, such as LFA-1, mediate the firm arrest of leukocytes by binding intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) expressed on endothelium. Although the primary function of LFA-1 is assumed to be the ability to mediate firm adhesion, recent work has shown that LFA-1 can contribute to cell tethering and rolling under hydrodynamic flow, a role previously largely attributed to the selectins. The inserted (I) domain of LFA-1 has recently been crystallized in the wild-type (wt) and locked-open conformations and has been shown to, respectively, support rolling and firm adhesion under flow when expressed in alpha(L)beta(2) heterodimers or as isolated domains on cells. Here, we report results from cell-free adhesion assays where wt I-domain-coated polystyrene particles were allowed to interact with ICAM-1-coated surfaces in shear flow. We show that wt I-domain can independently mediate the capture of particles from flow and support their rolling on ICAM-1 surfaces in a manner similar to how carbohydrate-selectin interactions mediate rolling. Adhesion is specific and blocked by appropriate antibodies. We also show that the rolling velocity of I-domain-coated particles depends on the wall shear stress in flow chamber, I-domain site density on microsphere surfaces, and ICAM-1 site density on substrate surfaces. Furthermore, we show that rolling is less sensitive to wall shear stress and ICAM-1 substrate density at high density of I-domain on the microsphere surface. Computer simulations using adhesive dynamics can recreate bead rolling dynamics and show that the mechanochemical properties of ICAM-1-I-domain interactions are similar to those of carbohydrate-selectin interactions. Understanding the biophysics of adhesion mediated by the I-domain of LFA-1 can elucidate the complex roles this integrin plays in leukocyte adhesion in inflammation.

  15. Developing Novel Reservoir Rule Curves Using Seasonal Inflow Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsin-yi; Tung, Ching-pin

    2015-04-01

    Due to significant seasonal rainfall variations, reservoirs and their flexible operational rules are indispensable to Taiwan. Furthermore, with the intensifying impacts of climate change on extreme climate, the frequency of droughts in Taiwan has been increasing in recent years. Drought is a creeping phenomenon, the slow onset character of drought makes it difficult to detect at an early stage, and causes delays on making the best decision of allocating water. For these reasons, novel reservoir rule curves using projected seasonal streamflow are proposed in this study, which can potentially reduce the adverse effects of drought. This study dedicated establishing new rule curves which consider both current available storage and anticipated monthly inflows with leading time of two months to reduce the risk of water shortage. The monthly inflows are projected based on the seasonal climate forecasts from Central Weather Bureau (CWB), which a weather generation model is used to produce daily weather data for the hydrological component of the GWLF. To incorporate future monthly inflow projections into rule curves, this study designs a decision flow index which is a linear combination of current available storage and inflow projections with leading time of 2 months. By optimizing linear relationship coefficients of decision flow index, the shape of rule curves and the percent of water supply in each zone, the best rule curves to decrease water shortage risk and impacts can be developed. The Shimen Reservoir in the northern Taiwan is used as a case study to demonstrate the proposed method. Existing rule curves (M5 curves) of Shimen Reservoir are compared with two cases of new rule curves, including hindcast simulations and historic seasonal forecasts. The results show new rule curves can decrease the total water shortage ratio, and in addition, it can also allocate shortage amount to preceding months to avoid extreme shortage events. Even though some uncertainties in

  16. Exploring the feasibility of multi-site flow cytometric processing of gut associated lymphoid tissue with centralized data analysis for multi-site clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian McGowan

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the development of a standardized approach to the collection of intestinal tissue from healthy volunteers, isolation of gut associated lymphoid tissue mucosal mononuclear cells (MMC, and characterization of mucosal T cell phenotypes by flow cytometry was sufficient to minimize differences in the normative ranges of flow parameters generated at two trial sites. Forty healthy male study participants were enrolled in Pittsburgh and Los Angeles. MMC were isolated from rectal biopsies using the same biopsy acquisition and enzymatic digestion protocols. As an additional comparator, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected from the study participants. For quality control, cryopreserved PBMC from a single donor were supplied to both sites from a central repository (qPBMC. Using a jointly optimized standard operating procedure, cells were isolated from tissue and blood and stained with monoclonal antibodies targeted to T cell phenotypic markers. Site-specific flow data were analyzed by an independent center which analyzed all data from both sites. Ranges for frequencies for overall CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, derived from the qPBMC samples, were equivalent at both UCLA and MWRI. However, there were significant differences across sites for the majority of T cell activation and memory subsets in qPBMC as well as PBMC and MMC. Standardized protocols to collect, stain, and analyze MMC and PBMC, including centralized analysis, can reduce but not exclude variability in reporting flow data within multi-site studies. Based on these data, centralized processing, flow cytometry, and analysis of samples may provide more robust data across multi-site studies. Centralized processing requires either shipping of fresh samples or cryopreservation and the decision to perform centralized versus site processing needs to take into account the drawbacks and restrictions associated with each method.

  17. Exploring the feasibility of multi-site flow cytometric processing of gut associated lymphoid tissue with centralized data analysis for multi-site clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Ian; Anton, Peter A; Elliott, Julie; Cranston, Ross D; Duffill, Kathryn; Althouse, Andrew D; Hawkins, Kevin L; De Rosa, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the development of a standardized approach to the collection of intestinal tissue from healthy volunteers, isolation of gut associated lymphoid tissue mucosal mononuclear cells (MMC), and characterization of mucosal T cell phenotypes by flow cytometry was sufficient to minimize differences in the normative ranges of flow parameters generated at two trial sites. Forty healthy male study participants were enrolled in Pittsburgh and Los Angeles. MMC were isolated from rectal biopsies using the same biopsy acquisition and enzymatic digestion protocols. As an additional comparator, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from the study participants. For quality control, cryopreserved PBMC from a single donor were supplied to both sites from a central repository (qPBMC). Using a jointly optimized standard operating procedure, cells were isolated from tissue and blood and stained with monoclonal antibodies targeted to T cell phenotypic markers. Site-specific flow data were analyzed by an independent center which analyzed all data from both sites. Ranges for frequencies for overall CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, derived from the qPBMC samples, were equivalent at both UCLA and MWRI. However, there were significant differences across sites for the majority of T cell activation and memory subsets in qPBMC as well as PBMC and MMC. Standardized protocols to collect, stain, and analyze MMC and PBMC, including centralized analysis, can reduce but not exclude variability in reporting flow data within multi-site studies. Based on these data, centralized processing, flow cytometry, and analysis of samples may provide more robust data across multi-site studies. Centralized processing requires either shipping of fresh samples or cryopreservation and the decision to perform centralized versus site processing needs to take into account the drawbacks and restrictions associated with each method.

  18. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  19. Analysis of virtual water flows associated with the trade of maize in the SADC region: importance of scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dabrowski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of virtual water encourages a country to view agricultural crops in terms of the amount of water required to produce those crops, with a view to implementing trading policies that promote the saving of scarce water resources. Recently, increased attention has focussed on partitioning the virtual water content of crops into green and blue water (derived from rainfall and irrigation, respectively as the latter has higher opportunity costs associated with its use and therefore impacts directly on scarcity. Maize is the most important crop traded within the SADC region. South Africa is the largest producer and exporter of maize, with the majority of its exports destined for other SADC countries. In comparison to other SADC countries, South Africa produces maize relatively efficiently, with a low virtual water content and a high green (868 m3 t−1 to blue (117 m3 t−1 water ratio. The blue water content is however higher than for maize produced in all other SADC countries, with the exception of Namibia (211 m3 t−1. Current trade patterns therefore result in a net expenditure of blue water (66×106 m3, almost all of which is exported by South Africa (65×106 m3. South Africa is one of the most water scarce countries in the region and analysis of virtual water flows indicates that current SADC maize trading patterns are influenced by national productivity as opposed to water scarcity. The virtual water content of maize was estimated for each of South Africa's nineteen Water Management Area's (WMA and used as a proxy to represent water use efficiency for maize production. The virtual water content varied widely across all of the WMAs, ranging from 360 m3 t−1 in the Ustutu Mhlatuze to 1000 m3 t−1 in the Limpopo. A comparison of the virtual water content and production of maize

  20. Hamburg rules V Hague Visby rules an English perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tozaj Dorian; Xhelilaj Ermal

    2010-01-01

    It has often been argued for the effect of defences provided to carriers under Art IV (2) of Hague Visby Rules to almost nullify the protection guaranteed to shippers in other provisions of this convention. Therefore an all embracing universal shipper friendly convention, merely the Hamburg Rules, need be incorporated in all countries in order to address this issue and fully satisfy the intentions of the parties for the establishment of international rules in international trade

  1. Investigations of subsurface flow constructed wetlands and associated geomaterial resources in the Akumal and Reforma regions, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Mark P. S.; Probst, Pete; Samsonov, Misha; Tselepis, Cynthia M.; Bates, William; Kearns, Lance E.; Maynard, J. Barry

    2007-12-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the village of Akumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico were surveyed to determine the general status of the wetland systems and provide baseline information for long term monitoring and further study. Twenty subsurface flow wetlands were surveyed and common problems observed in the systems were overloading, poor plant cover, odor, and no secondary containment. Bulk mineral composition of aggregate from two subsurface flow constructed wetlands was determined to consist solely of calcite using bulk powder X-ray diffraction. Some soil structure is developed in the aggregate and aggregate levels in wetlands drop at an estimated rate between 3 and 10 cm/year for overloaded wetlands owing to dissolution. Mineral composition from fresh aggregate samples commonly is a mixture of calcite and aragonite. Trace amounts of Pb, Zn, Co, and Cr were observed in fresh aggregate. Coefficients of permeability ( k) varied from 0.006 to 0.027 cm/s with an average values being 0.016 cm/s. Grain size analysis of fresh aggregate samples indicates there are unimodal and multimodal size distributions in the samples with modes in the coarse and fine sand being common. Investigations of other geologic media from the Reforma region indicate that a dolomite with minor amounts of Fe-oxide and palygorskite is abundant and may be a better aggregate source that the current materials used. A Ca-montmorillonite bed was identified in the Reforma region as well and this unit is suitable to serve as a clay liner to prevent leaks for new and existing wetland systems. These newly discovered geologic resources should aid in the improvement of subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the region. Although problems do exist in these wetlands with respect to design, these systems represent a successful implementation of constructed wetlands at a community level in developing regions.

  2. Neuronal differentiation is associated with a redox-regulated increase of copper flow to the secretory pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Hatori, Yuta; Yan, Ye; Schmidt, Katharina; Furukawa, Eri; Hasan, Nesrin M.; Yang, Nan; Liu, Chin-Nung; Sockanathan, Shanthini; Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Brain development requires a fine-tuned copper homoeostasis. Copper deficiency or excess results in severe neuro-pathologies. We demonstrate that upon neuronal differentiation, cellular demand for copper increases, especially within the secretory pathway. Copper flow to this compartment is facilitated through transcriptional and metabolic regulation. Quantitative real-time imaging revealed a gradual change in the oxidation state of cytosolic glutathione upon neuronal differentiation. Transiti...

  3. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  4. The biosphere rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  5. A High Ductal Flow Velocity Is Associated with Successful Pharmacological Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Infants 22–27 Weeks Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Karl Wilhelm; Jonzon, Anders; Sindelar, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To identify factors affecting closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in newborn infants born at 22–27 weeks gestational age (GA) during pharmacological treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Method. Infants born at 22–27 weeks of GA between January 2006 and December 2009 who had been treated pharmacologically for PDA were identified retrospectively. Medical records were assessed for clinical, ventilatory, and outcome parameters. Echocardiographic examinations during treatment were reviewed. Results. Fifty-six infants were included in the study. Overall success rate of ductal closure with pharmacological treatment was 52%. Infants whose PDA was successfully closed had a higher GA (25 + 4 weeks versus 24 + 3 weeks; P = 0.047), and a higher pretreatment left to right maximal ductal flow velocity (1.6 m/s versus 1.1 m/s; P = 0.023). Correcting for GA, preeclampsia, antenatal steroids, and age at start of treatment, a higher maximal ductal flow velocity was still associated with successful ductal closure (OR 3.04; P = 0.049). Conclusion. Maximal ductal flow velocity was independently associated with success of PDA treatment. PMID:23316351

  6. A High Ductal Flow Velocity Is Associated with Successful Pharmacological Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Infants 22–27 Weeks Gestational Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Wilhelm Olsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify factors affecting closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in newborn infants born at 22–27 weeks gestational age (GA during pharmacological treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Method. Infants born at 22–27 weeks of GA between January 2006 and December 2009 who had been treated pharmacologically for PDA were identified retrospectively. Medical records were assessed for clinical, ventilatory, and outcome parameters. Echocardiographic examinations during treatment were reviewed. Results. Fifty-six infants were included in the study. Overall success rate of ductal closure with pharmacological treatment was 52%. Infants whose PDA was successfully closed had a higher GA (25+4 weeks versus 24+3 weeks; P=0.047, and a higher pretreatment left to right maximal ductal flow velocity (1.6 m/s versus 1.1 m/s; P=0.023. Correcting for GA, preeclampsia, antenatal steroids, and age at start of treatment, a higher maximal ductal flow velocity was still associated with successful ductal closure (OR 3.04; P=0.049. Conclusion. Maximal ductal flow velocity was independently associated with success of PDA treatment.

  7. Food rules in the Koran

    OpenAIRE

    Kocturk, Tahire O.

    2002-01-01

    Islam is now the second largest religion in Scandinavia and has a high representation among immigrant groups. Knowledge of food rules in Islam is a necessity for nutritionists in multicultural settings. Food rules as they appear in the Koran are contained within the concepts of halal and haram. Halal means lawful, permitted and recommended by the Islamic law. Haram is the opposite, meaning unlawful, prohibited. Food rules are meant to be observed by postpubertal people in good physical and me...

  8. Atomic Energy (factories) rules: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These rules are made by the Central Government under the Factories Act, 1948 and extend to all factories engaged in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The rules cover the requirements of inspecting staff, health aspects, personnel safety, personnel welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, special provisions in case of dangerous manufacturing processes or operations, supplemental rules for administrative aspects and special powers of competent authority. (M.G.B.)

  9. MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD FLOW IN ARTERIA MENINGEA MEDIA OF PATIENTS WITH FREQUENT EPISODIC TENSION-TYPE HEADACHE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH PERICRANIAL TENDERNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Skoromets

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven patients with frequent episodic tension-type headache not associated with pericrania! tenderness (TTH aged from 18 to 69 years old were examined. Arteria meningea media (AMM and brachiocephalic arteries (BCA were examined by supersonic power Doppler scanning during the paroxysm of headache and without the paroxysm of headache. Results: Blood flow in AMM of patients with TTH was significantly different during the paroxysm of headache and without the paroxysm of headache (p<0.01. Blood flow in arteria carotid external did not change (p>0.05. The pattern of hypoperfusion in AMM was displayed in two groups during the paroxysm of headache. The increase of average blood velocity (TAmx in groups of patients with TTH in comparison with the control group.

  10. Challenges for Rule Systems on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuh-Jong; Yeh, Ching-Long; Laun, Wolfgang

    The RuleML Challenge started in 2007 with the objective of inspiring the issues of implementation for management, integration, interoperation and interchange of rules in an open distributed environment, such as the Web. Rules are usually classified as three types: deductive rules, normative rules, and reactive rules. The reactive rules are further classified as ECA rules and production rules. The study of combination rule and ontology is traced back to an earlier active rule system for relational and object-oriented (OO) databases. Recently, this issue has become one of the most important research problems in the Semantic Web. Once we consider a computer executable policy as a declarative set of rules and ontologies that guides the behavior of entities within a system, we have a flexible way to implement real world policies without rewriting the computer code, as we did before. Fortunately, we have de facto rule markup languages, such as RuleML or RIF to achieve the portability and interchange of rules for different rule systems. Otherwise, executing real-life rule-based applications on the Web is almost impossible. Several commercial or open source rule engines are available for the rule-based applications. However, we still need a standard rule language and benchmark for not only to compare the rule systems but also to measure the progress in the field. Finally, a number of real-life rule-based use cases will be investigated to demonstrate the applicability of current rule systems on the Web.

  11. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is the first revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  12. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The document is the second revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  13. New HIPAA rules: a guide for radiology providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresevic, Adrienne; Mikel, Clinton

    2013-01-01

    The Office for Civil Rights issued its long awaited final regulations modifying the HIPAA privacy, security, enforcement, and breach notification rules--the HIPAA Megarule. The new HIPAA rules will require revisions to Notice of Privacy Practices, changes to business associate agreements, revisions to HIPAA privacy and security policies and procedures, and an overall assessment of HIPAA compliance. The HIPAA Megarule formalizes the HITECH Act requirements, and makes it clear that the OCRs ramp up of HIPAA enforcement is not merely a passing trend. The new rules underscore that both covered entities and business associates must reassess and strengthen HIPAA compliance.

  14. An Experimental Investigation of the Flow Physics Associated With End Wall Losses and Large Rotor Tip Clearances as Found in the Rear Stages of a High Pressure Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Reid A.; Key, Nicole L.

    2015-01-01

    measurements have also been used to calculate streamwise vorticity. Time-resolved static pressure measurements have been collected over the rotor tips for all rotors with each of the three tip clearance configurations for up to five loading conditions along the 100% corrected speedline using fast-response piezoresistive pressure sensors. These time-resolved static pressure measurements, as well as the time-resolved total pressures and velocities have helped to reveal a profound influence of the upstream stator vane on the size and shape of the rotor tip leakage flow. Finally, a novel particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique has been developed as a proof-of- concept. In contrast to PIV methods that have been typically been utilized for turbomachinery applications in the past, the method used for this study introduced the laser light through the same access window that was also used to image the flow. This new method addresses potential concerns related to the intrusive laser-introducing techniques that have typically been utilized by other authors in the past. Ultimately, the data collected for this project represent a unique data set which contributes to build a better understanding of the tip leakage flow field and its associated loss mechanisms. These data will facilitate future engine design goals leading to small blade heights in the rear stages of high pressure compressors and aid in the development of new blade designs which are desensitized to the performance penalties attributed to rotor tip leakage flows.

  15. A New Classification Approach Based on Multiple Classification Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongmei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A good classifier can correctly predict new data for which the class label is unknown, so it is important to construct a high accuracy classifier. Hence, classification techniques are much useful in ubiquitous computing. Associative classification achieves higher classification accuracy than some traditional rule-based classification approaches. However, the approach also has two major deficiencies. First, it generates a very large number of association classification rules, especially when t...

  16. Optimized reaction mechanism rate rules for ignition of normal alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liming

    2016-08-11

    The increasing demand for cleaner combustion and reduced greenhouse gas emissions motivates research on the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and their surrogates. Accurate detailed chemical kinetic models are an important prerequisite for high fidelity reacting flow simulations capable of improving combustor design and operation. The development of such models for many new fuel components and/or surrogate molecules is greatly facilitated by the application of reaction classes and rate rules. Accurate and versatile rate rules are desirable to improve the predictive accuracy of kinetic models. A major contribution in the literature is the recent work by Bugler et al. (2015), which has significantly improved rate rules and thermochemical parameters used in kinetic modeling of alkanes. In the present study, it is demonstrated that rate rules can be used and consistently optimized for a set of normal alkanes including n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, n-decane, and n-undecane, thereby improving the predictive accuracy for all the considered fuels. A Bayesian framework is applied in the calibration of the rate rules. The optimized rate rules are subsequently applied to generate a mechanism for n-dodecane, which was not part of the training set for the optimized rate rules. The developed mechanism shows accurate predictions compared with published well-validated mechanisms for a wide range of conditions.

  17. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    When the Buyer of insurance has negligently kept silent or misrepresented a (material) fact to the Seller, one of two rules will determine the extent to which cover will consequently be reduced. The pro-rata rule lowers cover in proportion to how much the Seller would have increased the premium had...... he been correctly informed; the causality rule provides either zero cover if the omitted fact has caused the insurance event, or full cover if the event would have occurred regardless of the fact. This article explores which rule is more efficient. Using the framework proposed by Picard and Dixit...... it subjects the risk averse Buyer of insurance to less variance. This implies that the pro rata rule should apply when there is significant risk for a Buyer of unintentional misrepresentation, and when the incentive to intentionally misrepresent can be curtailed through frequent verification of the Buyer...

  18. Dislocation-Disclination Substructures Formed in FCC Polycrystals Under Large Plastic Deformations: Evolution and Association with Flow Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, É. V.; Koneva, N. A.; Trishkina, L. I.

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of dislocation substructures formed in polycrystalline Cu-Al and Cu-Mn alloys undergoing large plastic deformations is studied, using transmission electron microscopy. Microband and fragmented substructures are examined. The Al and Mn alloying element concentrations for which the substructures are formed have been found. The mechanisms involved in the formation of the substructures during the substructural evolution in the alloys subjected to deformation have been revealed. Parameters describing the substructures under study have been measured. The dependence of the parameters on the flow stress has been established.

  19. The use of the acute Pd/Pa drop after intracoronary nitroglycerin infusion to rule out significant FFR: CANICA (Can intracoronary nitroglycerin predict fractional flow reserve without adenosine?) multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Reyes, R; de la Torre Hernandez, J M; Franco-Pelaez, J; Lopez-Palop, R; Telleria Arrieta, M; Amat Santos, I J; Carrillo Saez, P; Sanchez-Recalde, A; Sanmartin Pena, J C; Garcia Camarero, T; Brugaletta, S; Gimeno de Carlos, F; Pinero, A; Sorto Sanchez, D C; Frutos, A; Lasa Larraya, G; Navarro, F; Farre, J

    2016-02-01

    Functional assessment of coronary artery stenosis is performed by measuring the fractional flow reserve (FFR) under hyperemic conditions (Adenosine). However, the use of adenosine portends limitations. We sought to investigate the relationship and correlation between FFR and the Pd/Pa value obtained just after the intracoronary infusion (acute drop) of nitroglycerin (Pd/Pa-NTG) and if this parameter enhances diagnostic accuracy for FFR prediction compared to the resting baseline Pd/Pa. We conducted a multicenter study including prospectively patients presenting intermediate coronary artery stenosis (30-70%) evaluated with pressure wire. Resting baseline Pd/Pa, Pd/Pa-NTG and FFR were measured. 283 patients (335 lesions) were included. Resting baseline Pd/Pa value was 0.72 to 1.0 (0.93 ± 0.04), Pd/Pa-NTG was 0.60 to 1.0 (0.87 ± 0.07) and FFR 0.55 to 1.0 (0.83 ± 0.08). The ROC curves for resting baseline Pd/Pa and for Pd/Pa-NTG, using a FFR ≤ 0.80 showed an AUC of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.84-0.92, P values of resting baseline Pd/Pa and Pd/Pa-NTG for an FFR > 0.80, were >0.96 and >0.88, respectively. These values were present in a 29.8% (n = 100) and a 47.1% (n = 158), of the total lesions. Scatter plots showed a better correlation and agreement points with Pd/Pa-NTG than resting baseline Pd/Pa. The cutoff value of Pd/Pa-NTG > 0.88 showed an excellent NPV (96.2% for FFR > 0.8 and 100% for FFR > 0.75) and sensitivity (95% for FFR > 0.8 and 100% for FFR > 0.75) which were consistently high across all the subgroups analysis. The cutoff value of acute Pd/Pa-NTG > 0.88 has a high NPV meaning adenosine-FFR can be avoided in almost half of lesions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Desorption of hydrocarbon chains by association with ionic and nonionic surfactants under flow as a mechanism for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrón-Mejía, Ketzasmin A; López-Rendón, Roberto; Goicochea, Armando Gama

    2017-08-29

    The need to extract oil from wells where it is embedded on the surfaces of rocks has led to the development of new and improved enhanced oil recovery techniques. One of those is the injection of surfactants with water vapor, which promotes desorption of oil that can then be extracted using pumps, as the surfactants encapsulate the oil in foams. However, the mechanisms that lead to the optimal desorption of oil and the best type of surfactants to carry out desorption are not well known yet, which warrants the need to carry out basic research on this topic. In this work, we report non equilibrium dissipative particle dynamics simulations of model surfactants and oil molecules adsorbed on surfaces, with the purpose of studying the efficiency of the surfactants to desorb hydrocarbon chains, that are found adsorbed over flat surfaces. The model surfactants studied correspond to nonionic and cationic surfactants, and the hydrocarbon desorption is studied as a function of surfactant concentration under increasing Poiseuille flow. We obtain various hydrocarbon desorption isotherms for every model of surfactant proposed, under flow. Nonionic surfactants are found to be the most effective to desorb oil and the mechanisms that lead to this phenomenon are presented and discussed.

  1. New developments in FeynRules

    CERN Document Server

    Alloul, Adam; Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The program FeynRules is a Mathematica package developed to facilitate the implementation of new physics theories into high-energy physics tools. Starting from a minimal set of information such as the model gauge symmetries, its particle content, parameters and Lagrangian, FeynRules provides all necessary routines to extract automatically from the Lagrangian (that can also be computed semi-automatically for supersymmetric theories) the associated Feynman rules. These can be further exported to several Monte Carlo event generators through dedicated interfaces, as well as translated into a Python library, under the so-called UFO model format, agnostic of the model complexity, especially in terms of Lorentz and/or color structures appearing in the vertices or of number of external legs. In this work, we briefly report on the most recent new features that have been added to FeynRules, including full support for spin-3/2 fermions, a new module allowing for the automated diagonalization of the particle spectrum and...

  2. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  3. Business model for business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eline Haan; Martin Zoet; Koen Smit

    2014-01-01

    Business rule models are widely applied, standalone and embedded in smart objects. They have become segregated from information technology and they are now a valuable asset in their own right. As more business rule models are becoming assets, business models to monetize these assets are designed.

  4. Statistical Rules-of-Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, James K.

    1988-01-01

    Six best-selling introductory behavioral statistics textbooks that were published in 1982 and two well-known sampling theory textbooks were reviewed to determine the presence of rules-of-thumb--useful principles with wide application that are not intended to be strictly accurate. The relative frequency and type of rules are reported along with a…

  5. Low-flow venovenous CO₂ removal in association with lung protective ventilation strategy in patients who develop severe progressive respiratory acidosis after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberto, F; Bergantino, B; Testa, M C; D'Arena, C; Zullino, V; Congi, P; Paglialunga, S G; Diso, D; Venuta, F; Pugliese, F

    2013-09-01

    Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) might occur after lung transplantation. In some severe cases, conventional therapies like ventilatory support, administration of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), and intravenous prostacyclins are not sufficient to provide an adequate gas exchange. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of a lung protective ventilation strategy associated with a low-flow venovenous CO2 removal treatment to reduce ventilator-associated injury in patients that develop severe PGD after lung transplantation. From January 2009 to January 2011, 3 patients developed PGD within 24 hours after lung transplantation. In addition to conventional medical treatment, including hemodynamic support, iNO and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), we initiated a ventilatory protective strategy associated with low-flow venovenous CO2 removal treatment (LFVVECCO2R). Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were assessed at baseline as well as after 3, 12, 24, and 48 hours. No adverse events were registered. Despite decreased baseline elevated pulmonary positive pressures, application of a protective ventilation strategy with LFVVECCO2R reduced PaCO2 and pulmonary infiltrates as well as increased pH values and PaO2/FiO2 ratios. Every patient showed simultaneous improvement of clinical and hemodynamic conditions. They were weaned from mechanical ventilation and extubated after 24 hours after the use of the low-flow venovenous CO2 removal device. The use of LFVVECCO2R together with a protective lung ventilation strategy during the perioperative period of lung transplantation may be a valid clinical strategy for patients with PGD and severe respiratory acidosis occured despite adequate mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Diagnosis of Gastric Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization of Biopsy Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Katsunori; Omote, Sizuma; Sakata, Masahiro; Fujita, Isao; Horii, Jouichiro; Toyokawa, Tatsuya

    2018-04-15

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and reactive inflammatory lymphoid changes are frequently difficult to distinguish based on a routine histological differential diagnosis. We were unable to diagnose gastric MALT lymphoma histologically using specimens obtained by endoscopy, although a flow cytometry (FCM) analysis demonstrated clonality of neoplastic cells by separating cells by CD45 gating. Furthermore, a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed trisomy 18. We therefore diagnosed gastric MALT lymphoma with trisomy 18. We recommend that FCM and FISH analyses of biopsy specimens be considered for diagnosing gastric MALT lymphoma if this diagnosis is suspected based on endoscopic findings.

  7. Association between optic nerve blood flow and objective examinations in glaucoma patients with generalized enlargement disc type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakazawa T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Naoki Chiba, Kazuko Omodaka, Yu Yokoyama, Naoko Aizawa, Satoru Tsuda, Masayuki Yasuda, Takaaki Otomo, Shunji Yokokura, Nobuo Fuse, Toru Nakazawa Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between microcirculation in the optic disc, average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness cupping parameters, and visual field defects in glaucoma patients with the generalized enlargement disc type. Methods: A total of 38 eyes from 38 glaucoma patients with the generalized enlargement disc type were included. The microcirculation of the optic nerve head was examined with laser speckle flow graphy, and the mean blur rate in all areas, in vessel area, and in tissue area were calculated using the laser speckle flow graphy analyzer software. Average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was measured using Stratus optical coherence tomography, and cupping parameters were accessed using the Heidelberg retina tomograph. The mean deviation in the Humphrey field analyzer (30-2 SITA standard was analyzed. The correlation between these parameters was evaluated using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results: The correlation coefficient of mean blur rate in all optic disc area to the average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, vertical C/D, and mean deviation were r = 0.7546 (P < 0.0001, r = –0.6208 (P < 0.0001, and r = 0.6010 (P = 0.0001, respectively. The mean blur rate in tissue area of the optic disc showed r = 0.7305 (P < 0.0001, r = –0.6438 (P < 0.0001, and r = 0.6338 (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: We found that the mean blur rate in the optic disc was significantly correlated with the average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, vertical C/D, and mean deviation in patients with the generalized enlargement disc type of glaucoma. In particular, the mean blur rate in tissue area was more

  8. Design rules for RCA self-aligned silicon-gate CMOS/SOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The CMOS/SOS design rules prepared by the RCA Solid State Technology Center (SSTC) are described. These rules specify the spacing and width requirements for each of the six design levels, the seventh level being used to define openings in the passivation level. An associated report, entitled Silicon-Gate CMOS/SOS Processing, provides further insight into the usage of these rules.

  9. Association of circulating endothelial cells with flow mediated vasodilation and disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Gaber

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: CEC is associated with endothelial dysfunction, disease activity and increased VCAM-1 levels in patients with SLE. These findings suggest a potential role of CEC in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in these patients.

  10. Systematic generation of rules for nuclear power plant diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Lee, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The knowledge base of an expert system is generally represented by a set of heuristic rules derived from the expert's own experience and judgmental knowledge. These heuristic or production rules are cast as if (condition), then (consequence) statements, and represent, for nuclear power plant diagnostic systems, information connecting symptoms to failures. In this paper, the authors apply an entropy minimax pattern recognition algorithm to automate the process of extracting and encoding knowledge into a set of rules. Knowledge is extracted by recognizing patterns in plant parameters or symptoms associated with failures or transient events, and is encoded by casting the discovered patterns as production rules. The paper discusses how the proposed method can systematically generate rules that characterize failure of pressurizer components based on transient events analyzed with a pressurizer components based on transient events analyzed with a pressurizer water reactor simulator program

  11. Effectiveness of cross-flow microfiltration for removal of microorganisms associated with unpasteurized liquid egg white from process plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Tomasula, P M; Van Hekken, D; Luchansky, J B; Call, J E; Porto-Fett, A

    2009-08-01

    Thermal preservation is used by the egg industry to ensure the microbiological safety of liquid egg white (LEW); however, it does not eliminate all microorganisms and impairs some of the delicate functional properties of LEW. In this study, a pilot-scale cross-flow microfiltration (MF) process was designed to remove the natural microflora present in commercial LEW, obtained from a local egg-breaking plant, while maintaining the nutritional and functional properties of the LEW. LEW, containing approximately 10(6 +/- 1.7) colony forming units (CFU) per milliliter of total aerobic bacteria, was microfiltered using a ceramic membrane with a nominal pore size of 1.4 microm, at a cross-flow velocity of 6 m/s. To facilitate MF, LEW was screened, homogenized, and then diluted (1 : 2, w/w) with distilled water containing 0.5% sodium chloride. Homogenized LEW was found to have a threefold lower viscosity than unhomogenized LEW. Influence of MF temperature (25 and 40 degrees C) and pH (6 and 9) on permeate flux, transmission of egg white nutrients across the membrane, and microbial removal efficiency were evaluated. The pH had a significantly greater influence on permeate flux than temperature. Permeate flux increased by almost 148% when pH of LEW was adjusted from pH 9 to pH 6 at 40 degrees C. Influence of temperature on permeate flux, at a constant pH, however, was found to be inconclusive. Microbial removal efficiency was at least 5 log(10) CFU/mL. Total protein and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that this MF process did not alter the protein composition of the permeate, compared to that of the feed LEW, and that the foaming properties of LEW were retained in the postfiltered samples.

  12. Efficient Reservoir Simulation with Cubic Plus Association and Cross-Association Equation of State for Multicomponent Three-Phase Compressible Flow with Applications in CO2 Storage and Methane Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present novel simulation tools to model multiphase multicomponent flow and transport in porous media for mixtures that contain non-polar hydrocarbons, self-associating polar water, and cross-associating molecules like methane, ethane, unsaturated hydrocarbons, CO2 and H2S. Such mixtures often occur when CO2 is injected and stored in saline aquifers, or when methane is leaking into groundwater. To accurately predict the species transfer between aqueous, gaseous and oleic phases, and the subsequent change in phase properties, the self- and cross-associating behavior of molecules needs to be taken into account, particularly at the typical temperatures and pressures in deep formations. The Cubic-Plus-Association equation-of-state (EOS) has been demonstrated to be highly accurate for such problems but its excessive computational cost has prevented widespread use in reservoir simulators. We discuss the thermodynamical framework and develop sophisticated numerical algorithms that allow reservoir simulations with efficiencies comparable to a simple cubic EOS. This approach improves our predictive powers for highly nonlinear fluid behavior related to geological carbon sequestration, such as density driven flow and natural convection (solubility trapping), evaporation of water into the CO2-rich gas phase, and competitive dissolution-evaporation when CO2 is injected in, e.g., methane saturated aquifers. Several examples demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of this EOS framework for complex applications.

  13. Relationship between Cough-Associated Changes in CSF Flow and Disease Severity in Chiari I Malformation: An Exploratory Study Using Real-Time MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, A F; Khatami, D; Heilman, C B; Kasper, E M; Patz, S; Madan, N; Zhao, Y; Bhadelia, R A

    2018-05-10

    Currently no quantitative objective test exists to determine disease severity in a patient with Chiari I malformation. Our aim was to correlate disease severity in symptomatic patients with Chiari I malformation with cough-associated changes in CSF flow as measured with real-time MR imaging. Thirteen symptomatic patients with Chiari I malformation (tonsillar herniation of ≥5 mm) were prospectively studied. A real-time, flow-sensitized pencil-beam MR imaging scan was used to measure CSF stroke volume during rest and immediately following coughing and relaxation periods (total scan time, 90 seconds). Multiple posterior fossa and craniocervical anatomic measurements were also obtained. Patients were classified into 2 groups by neurosurgeons blinded to MR imaging measurements: 1) nonspecific Chiari I malformation (5/13)-Chiari I malformation with nonspecific symptoms like non-cough-related or mild occasional cough-related headache, neck pain, dizziness, paresthesias, and/or trouble swallowing; 2) specific Chiari I malformation (8/13)-patients with Chiari I malformation with specific symptoms and/or objective findings like severe cough-related headache, myelopathy, syringomyelia, and muscle atrophy. The Spearman correlation was used to determine correlations between MR imaging measurements and disease severity, and both groups were also compared using a Mann-Whitney U test. There was a significant negative correlation between the percentage change in CSF stroke volume (resting to postcoughing) and Chiari I malformation disease severity ( R = 0.59; P = .03). Mann-Whitney comparisons showed the percentage change in CSF stroke volume (resting to postcoughing) to be significantly different between patient groups ( P = .04). No other CSF flow measurement or anatomic measure was significantly different between the groups. Our exploratory study suggests that assessment of CSF flow response to a coughing challenge has the potential to become a valuable objective noninvasive

  14. The rule of rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination.

  15. Strategy-Driven Exploration for Rule-Based Models of Biochemical Systems with Porgy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei , Oana; Fernández , Maribel; Kirchner , Hélène; Pinaud , Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Porgy – an interactive visual environment for rule-based modelling of biochemical systems. We model molecules and molecule interactions as port graphs and port graph rewrite rules, respectively. We use rewriting strategies to control which rules to apply, and where and when to apply them. Our main contributions to rule-based modelling of biochemical systems lie in the strategy language and the associated visual and interactive features offered by Porgy. These features faci...

  16. Rule-based model of vein graft remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minki Hwang

    Full Text Available When vein segments are implanted into the arterial system for use in arterial bypass grafting, adaptation to the higher pressure and flow of the arterial system is accomplished thorough wall thickening and expansion. These early remodeling events have been found to be closely coupled to the local hemodynamic forces, such as shear stress and wall tension, and are believed to be the foundation for later vein graft failure. To further our mechanistic understanding of the cellular and extracellular interactions that lead to global changes in tissue architecture, a rule-based modeling method is developed through the application of basic rules of behaviors for these molecular and cellular activities. In the current method, smooth muscle cell (SMC, extracellular matrix (ECM, and monocytes are selected as the three components that occupy the elements of a grid system that comprise the developing vein graft intima. The probabilities of the cellular behaviors are developed based on data extracted from in vivo experiments. At each time step, the various probabilities are computed and applied to the SMC and ECM elements to determine their next physical state and behavior. One- and two-dimensional models are developed to test and validate the computational approach. The importance of monocyte infiltration, and the associated effect in augmenting extracellular matrix deposition, was evaluated and found to be an important component in model development. Final model validation is performed using an independent set of experiments, where model predictions of intimal growth are evaluated against experimental data obtained from the complex geometry and shear stress patterns offered by a mid-graft focal stenosis, where simulation results show good agreements with the experimental data.

  17. Association between maternal vascular murmur and the small-for-gestational-age fetus with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riknagel, Diana; Farlie, Richard; Hedegaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal vascular murmurs (MVMs) and fetal growth restriction (defined as small-for-gestational-age [SGA] fetus) and abnormal Doppler pulsatility index (PI) of the uterine and/or umbilical arteries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of women aged 1...

  18. Firm heterogeneity, Rules of Origin and Rules of Cumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bombarda , Pamela; Gamberoni , Elisa

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the impact of relaxing rules of origin (ROOs) in a simple setting with heterogeneous firms that buy intermediate inputs from domestic and foreign sources. In particular, we consider the impact of switching from bilateral to diagonal cumulation when using preferences (instead of paying the MFN tariff) involving the respect of rules of origin. We find that relaxing the restrictiveness of the ROOs leads the least productive exporters to stop exporting. The empirical part confirms thes...

  19. Operator algebra from fusion rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1989-03-01

    It is described how the fusion rules of a conformal field theory can be employed to derive differential equations for the four-point functions of the theory, and thus to determine eventually the operator product coeffients for primary fields. The results are applied to the Ising fusion rules. A set of theories possessing these function rules is found which is labelled by two discrete parameters. For a specific value of one of the parameters, these are the level one Spin(2m+1) Wess-Zusimo-Witten theories; it is shown that they represent an infinite number of inequivalent theories. (author). 38 refs

  20. Pseudomembranous Type of Oral Candidiasis is Associated with Decreased Salivary Flow Rate and Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Bela; Bagul, Neeta; Desai, Rajiv; Reddy, Mamatha; Mahajan, Amit; Shete, Ashwini; Risbud, Arun; Mane, Arati

    2015-08-01

    Saliva plays an important role in maintaining microbial homeostasis in the oral cavity, while salivary gland hypofunction predisposes the oral mucosa to pathologic alteration and increases the risk for oral candidiasis. This study sought to determine the salivary flow rate (SFR) and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals and evaluate their relationship with the determinants of oral candidiasis. Sixty HIV-positive (30 with and 30 without oral candidiasis) and 30 healthy HIV-negative individuals were enrolled. Cotton pellet was weighed pre- and post-saliva collection for the assessment of SFR, while SIgA levels were estimated by commercial ELISA (Diametra, Italy) kit. The mean ± SD, SFR and SIgA levels in HIV-positive individuals with candidiasis, without candidiasis and HIV-negative controls were 0.396 ± 0.290, 0.546 ± 0.355 and 0.534 ± 0.214 ml/min and 115.891 ± 37.621, 136.024 ± 51.075 and 149.418 ± 31.765 µg/ml, respectively. A positive correlation between low CD4 counts (indicator of immunodeficiency) and SIgA was observed in HIV-positive individuals with candidiasis (r = 0.373, p = 0.045). We also report here for the first time the significant decrease in SFR and SIgA levels in individuals presenting with pseudomembranous type of oral candidiasis and Candida albicans infection.

  1. Neuronal differentiation is associated with a redox-regulated increase of copper flow to the secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Yuta; Yan, Ye; Schmidt, Katharina; Furukawa, Eri; Hasan, Nesrin M; Yang, Nan; Liu, Chin-Nung; Sockanathan, Shanthini; Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2016-02-16

    Brain development requires a fine-tuned copper homoeostasis. Copper deficiency or excess results in severe neuro-pathologies. We demonstrate that upon neuronal differentiation, cellular demand for copper increases, especially within the secretory pathway. Copper flow to this compartment is facilitated through transcriptional and metabolic regulation. Quantitative real-time imaging revealed a gradual change in the oxidation state of cytosolic glutathione upon neuronal differentiation. Transition from a broad range of redox states to a uniformly reducing cytosol facilitates reduction of the copper chaperone Atox1, liberating its metal-binding site. Concomitantly, expression of Atox1 and its partner, a copper transporter ATP7A, is upregulated. These events produce a higher flux of copper through the secretory pathway that balances copper in the cytosol and increases supply of the cofactor to copper-dependent enzymes, expression of which is elevated in differentiated neurons. Direct link between glutathione oxidation and copper compartmentalization allows for rapid metabolic adjustments essential for normal neuronal function.

  2. Convergence analysis of the nonlinear iterative method for two-phase flow in porous media associated with nanoparticle injection

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2017-08-29

    Purpose In this paper, we introduce modeling, numerical simulation, and convergence analysis of the problem nanoparticles transport carried by a two-phase flow in a porous medium. The model consists of equations of pressure, saturation, nanoparticles concentration, deposited nanoparticles concentration on the pore-walls, and entrapped nanoparticles concentration in pore-throats. Design/methodology/approach Nonlinear iterative IMPES-IMC (IMplicit Pressure Explicit Saturation–IMplicit Concentration) scheme is used to solve the problem under consideration. The governing equations are discretized using the cell-centered finite difference (CCFD) method. The pressure and saturation equations are coupled to calculate the pressure, then the saturation is updated explicitly. Therefore, the equations of nanoparticles concentration, the deposited nanoparticles concentration on the pore walls and the entrapped nanoparticles concentration in pore throats are computed implicitly. Then, the porosity and the permeability variations are updated. Findings We stated and proved three lemmas and one theorem for the convergence of the iterative method under the natural conditions and some continuity and boundedness assumptions. The theorem is proved by induction states that after a number of iterations the sequences of the dependent variables such as saturation and concentrations approach solutions on the next time step. Moreover, two numerical examples are introduced with convergence test in terms of Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) condition and a relaxation factor. Dependent variables such as pressure, saturation, concentration, deposited concentrations, porosity and permeability are plotted as contours in graphs, while the error estimations are presented in table for different values of number of time steps, number of iterations and mesh size. Research limitations/implications The domain of the computations is relatively small however, it is straightforward to extend this method

  3. Differentially Severe Cognitive Effects of Compromised Cerebral Blood Flow in Aged Mice: Association with Myelin Degradation and Microglia Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly Wolf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS models the effects of compromised cerebral blood flow on brain structure and function in mice. We compared the effects of BCAS in aged (21 month and young adult (3 month female mice, anticipating a differentially more severe effect in the older mice. Four weeks after surgery there was a significant age by time by treatment interaction on the radial-arm water maze (RAWM; p = 0.014: on the first day of the test, latencies of old mice were longer compared to the latencies of young adult mice, independent of BCAS. However, on the second day of the test, latencies of old BCAS mice were significantly longer than old control mice (p = 0.049, while latencies of old controls were similar to those of the young adult mice, indicating more severe impairment of hippocampal dependent learning and working memory by BCAS in the older mice. Fluorescence staining of myelin basic protein (MBP showed that old age and BCAS both induced a significant decrease in fluorescence intensity. Evaluation of the number oligodendrocyte precursor cells demonstrated augmented myelin replacement in old BCAS mice (p < 0.05 compared with young adult BCAS and old control mice. While microglia morphology was assessed as normal in young adult control and young adult BCAS mice, microglia of old BCAS mice exhibited striking activation in the area of degraded myelin compared to young adult BCAS (p < 0.01 and old control mice (p < 0.05. These findings show a differentially more severe effect of cerebral hypoperfusion on cognitive function, myelin integrity and inflammatory processes in aged mice. Hypoperfusion may exacerbate degradation initiated by aging, which may induce more severe neuronal and cognitive phenotypes.

  4. Decision Mining Revisited – Discovering Overlapping Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, F.; de Leoni, M.; Reijers, H.A.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  5. Decision Mining Revisited - Discovering Overlapping Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, F.; De Leoni, M.; Reijers, H.A.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Nurcan, S.; Soffer, P.; Bajec, M.; Eder, J.

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  6. Decision mining revisited - Discovering overlapping rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, Felix; De Leoni, Massimiliano; Reijers, Hajo A.; Van Der Aalst, Wil M P

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  7. Choice Rules and Accumulator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a preference accumulation model that can be used to implement a number of different multi-attribute heuristic choice rules, including the lexicographic rule, the majority of confirming dimensions (tallying) rule and the equal weights rule. The proposed model differs from existing accumulators in terms of attribute representation: Leakage and competition, typically applied only to preference accumulation, are also assumed to be involved in processing attribute values. This allows the model to perform a range of sophisticated attribute-wise comparisons, including comparisons that compute relative rank. The ability of a preference accumulation model composed of leaky competitive networks to mimic symbolic models of heuristic choice suggests that these 2 approaches are not incompatible, and that a unitary cognitive model of preferential choice, based on insights from both these approaches, may be feasible. PMID:28670592

  8. 'Sum rules' for preequilibrium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    1981-03-01

    Evidence that suggests a correct relationship between the optical transmission matrix, P, and the several correlation widths, gamma sub(n), found in nsmission matrix, P, and the several correlation widths, n, found in multistep compound (preequilibrium) nuclear reactions, is presented. A second sum rule is also derived within the shell model approach to nuclear reactions. Indications of the potential usefulness of the sum rules in preequilibrium studies are given. (Author) [pt

  9. Cellular automata with voting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiec, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chosen local interaction - the voting (majority) rule applied to the square lattice is known to cause the non ergodic cellular automata behaviour. Presented computer simulation results verify two cases of non ergodicity. The first one is implicated by the noise introduced to the local interactions and the second one follows properties of the initial lattice configuration selected at random. For the simplified voting rule - non symmetric voting, the critical behaviour has been explained rigorously. (author)

  10. Rules of international law applicable to transfrontier pollution. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    During the 1982 conference of the International Law Association (ILA) in Montreal the ILA discussed and adopted a draft of rules of international law applicable to transfrontier pollution. The draft presents criteria for the definition of transfrontier pollution and sets out rules for the prevention of such pollution and recommendations for a system of multilateral information, consultation, and co-operation in case of energy. (HP) [de

  11. Natural flows of H2-rich fluids in the ophiolites of Oman and the Philippines: Tectonic control of migration pathways and associated diagenetic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, E. P.; Prinzhofer, A.; Vacquand, C.; Chavagnac, V.; Monnin, C.; Ceuleneer, G.; Arcilla, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    We compare the geological environments of sites of emission of natural hydrogen in the Oman ophiolite and the Zambales ophiolite (Luzon, Philippines). The genesis of natural H2 results from the interaction between ultrabasic rocks and aqueous solutions circulating in deep fracture networks, by oxidation of metals (Fe2+, Mn2+) and reduction of water, probably under high temperature conditions. This process generates very reducing conditions capable of destabilizing other molecules (notably reduction of deep CO2 being transformed into CH4 by Fisher-Tropsch type reactions). Nitrogen is also commonly associated to the H2-rich fluids. H2 flows are associated with the expulsion of hyperalkaline waters rich in ions OH- and Ca2+ and characterized by high pH (between 11 and 12). Most alkaline springs are found in the vicinity of major faults and/or lithological discontinuities like the basal thrust plane of the ophiolites and the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). Within the fracture networks, gas and water separate probably at shallow depth, i.e. close to the top of the upper aquifer level. Locally high flows of gas migrate vertically through fracture pathways and they are able to inflame spontaneously on the surface. Aqueous fluids tends to migrate laterally in the fracture network toward the creeks where most of the hyperalkaline springs are found. This water circulation induces a chain of diagenetic reactions starting in the fracture systems and continuing at the surface where it leads to the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, brucite and more rarely portlandite. This chain of diagenetic reactions is associated with the capture of the atmospheric CO2 during the precipitation of carbonates.

  12. Using the Chain Rule as the Key Link in Deriving the General Rules for Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprows, David

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to the general rules for differentiation is to first derive the power, product, and quotient rules and then derive the chain rule. In this short article we give an approach to these rules which uses the chain rule as the main tool in deriving the power, product, and quotient rules in a manner which is more student-friendly…

  13. Structural alterations of the coronary arterial wall are associated with myocardial flow heterogeneity in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Thomas H.; Facta, Alvaro D.; Prior, John O.; Cadenas, Jerson; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Sayre, James; Goldin, Jonathan; Schelbert, Heinrich R.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), coronary artery calcification (CAC), and myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and during vasomotor stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In 68 individuals, carotid IMT was measured using high-resolution vascular ultrasound, while the presence of CAC was determined with electron beam tomography (EBT). Global and regional MBF was determined in milliliters per gram per minute with 13 N-ammonia and positron emission tomography (PET) at rest, during cold pressor testing (CPT), and during adenosine (ADO) stimulation. There was neither a relationship between carotid IMT and CAC (r = 0.10, p = 0.32) nor between carotid IMT and coronary circulatory function in response to CPT and during ADO (r = -0.18, p = 0.25 and r = 0.10, p = 0.54, respectively). In 33 individuals, EBT detected CAC with a mean Agatston-derived calcium score of 44 ± 18. There was a significant difference in regional MBFs between territories with and without CAC at rest and during ADO-stimulated hyperemia (0.69 ± 0.24 vs. 0.74 ± 0.23 and 1.82 ± 0.50 vs. 1.95 ± 0.51 ml/g/min; p ≤ 0.05, respectively) and also during CPT in DM but less pronounced (0.81 ± 0.24 vs. 0.83 ± 0.23 ml/g/min; p = ns). The increase in CAC was paralleled with a progressive regional decrease in resting as well as in CPT- and ADO-related MBFs (r = -0.36, p ≤ 0.014; r = -0.46, p ≤ 0.007; and r = -0.33, p ≤ 0.041, respectively). The absence of any correlation between carotid IMT and coronary circulatory function in type 2 DM suggests different features and stages of early atherosclerosis in the peripheral and coronary circulation. PET-measured MBF heterogeneity at rest and during vasomotor stress may reflect downstream fluid dynamic effects of coronary artery disease (CAD)-related early structural alterations of the arterial wall. (orig.)

  14. Emotional display rules as work unit norms: a multilevel analysis of emotional labor among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorff, James M; Erickson, Rebecca J; Grandey, Alicia A; Dahling, Jason J

    2011-04-01

    Emotional labor theory has conceptualized emotional display rules as shared norms governing the expression of emotions at work. Using a sample of registered nurses working in different units of a hospital system, we provided the first empirical evidence that display rules can be represented as shared, unit-level beliefs. Additionally, controlling for the influence of dispositional affectivity, individual-level display rule perceptions, and emotion regulation, we found that unit-level display rules are associated with individual-level job satisfaction. We also showed that unit-level display rules relate to burnout indirectly through individual-level display rule perceptions and emotion regulation strategies. Finally, unit-level display rules also interacted with individual-level dispositional affectivity to predict employee use of emotion regulation strategies. We discuss how future research on emotional labor and display rules, particularly in the health care setting, can build on these findings.

  15. Distribution and disinfection of bacterial loadings associated with particulate matter fractions transported in urban wet weather flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Joshua A; Sansalone, John J

    2012-12-15

    Urban runoff is a resource for reuse water. However, runoff transports indicator and pathogenic organisms which are mobilized from sources of fecal contamination. These organisms are entrained with particulate matter (PM) that can serve as a mobile substrate for these organisms. Within a framework of additional treatment for reuse of treated runoff which requires the management of PM inventories in unit operations and drainage systems there is a need to characterize organism distributions on PM and the disinfection potential thereof. This study quantifies total coliform, Escherichia coli, fecal streptococcus, and enterococcus generated from 25 runoff events. With the ubiquity and hetero-dispersivity of PM in urban runoff this study examines organism distributions for suspended, settleable and sediment PM fractions differentiated based on PM size and transport functionality. Hypochlorite is applied in batch to elaborate inactivation of PM-associated organisms for each PM fraction. Results indicate that urban runoff bacterial loadings of indicator organisms exceed U.S. wastewater reuse, recreational contact, and Australian runoff reuse criteria as comparative metrics. All monitored events exceeded the Australian runoff reuse criteria for E. coli in non-potable residential and unrestricted access systems. In PM-differentiated events, bacteriological mobilization primarily occurred in the suspended PM fraction. However, sediment PM shielded PM-associated coliforms at all hypochlorite doses, whereas suspended and settleable PM fractions provide less shielding resulting in higher inactivation by hypochlorite. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FLOW MEDIATED DILATION AND CAROTID INTIMA MEDIA THICKNESS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC GASTRITIS ASSOCIATED WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judaki, Arezo; Norozi, Siros; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi; Ghavam, Samira Mis; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Rahmani, Asghar

    2017-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is one of the early stages of vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial dysfunction markers in patients with chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. By a cross sectional study, basic and clinical information of 120 participants (40 patients with positive H. pylori infection, 40 patients with negative H. pylori infection and 40 healthy people) were analyzed. Carotid intima media thickness and flow-mediated dilation levels were measured in all patients and controls. Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured with Elisa for all subjects. IgG level was assessed in chronic gastritis patients. The flow-mediated dilation level in patients with positive H. pylori infection (0.17%±0.09) was significantly lower than those with negative H. pylori infection (0.21% ±0.10, Pgastritis. The levels of flow-mediated dilation, carotid intima media thickness and sICAM-1 were higher among patients with positive H. pylori infection. Patients with chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori infection are at risk of endothelial dysfunction due to flow-mediated dilation and carotid intima media thickness abnormalities and increased level of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1.

  17. β-Cyclodextrin associated polymeric systems: Rheology, flow behavior in porous media and enhanced heavy oil recovery performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bing

    2015-12-10

    This proof of concept research evaluates an approach to improve the enhanced heavy oil recovery performance of conventional polymers. Three associated polymeric systems, based on hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, xanthan gum, and a novel hydrophobic copolymer, were proposed in this work. The results of the theoretically rheology study indicate that these systems offer superior viscoelasticity and pronounced shear-thinning behavior due to the "interlocking effect". As a result of the surfactant collaboration, the dynamic interfacial tension between oil and polymer solution can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. Sandpack flooding tests demonstrated the capacity of the developed systems in mobility control during propagating in porous media, and the adsorption behavior was represented by the thickness of the adsorbed layer. The relationship between microscopic efficiency and capillary number indicated that the associated systems can significantly reduce the residual oil saturation due to the synergistic effect of the mobility reduction and surface activity, and the overall recovery efficiency was raised by 2-20% OOIP compared to the baseline polymers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On cost benefit rules for green taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper concerns the welfare effects of a green tax reform in a dynamic general equilibrium model with preexisting taxes on labor income and capital income. In comparison with previous studies on green taxes in dynamic models, which have focused their main attention on long run effects of such reforms, I derive cost benefit rules for a change in the tax mix by using the properties of the value function in optimal control theory. This enables me to relate the welfare effect of a change in the tax mic to responses in employment, the capital stock, (flow) emissions and the stock of pollution along the whole general equilibrium path. Another contribution of the paper is to examine under what conditions an emission tax, which is set permanently below the marginal damage of pollution, is welfare superior to an emission tax path that fully internalizes the external effect. 22 refs

  19. Flow in bedrock canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Jeremy G; Rennie, Colin D; Bomhof, James; Bradley, Ryan W; Little, Malcolm; Church, Michael

    2014-09-25

    Bedrock erosion in rivers sets the pace of landscape evolution, influences the evolution of orogens and determines the size, shape and relief of mountains. A variety of models link fluid flow and sediment transport processes to bedrock incision in canyons. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are increasingly well developed. In contrast, the model components being used to represent fluid flow are largely untested because there are no observations of the flow structure in bedrock canyons. Here we present a 524-kilometre, continuous centreline, acoustic Doppler current profiler survey of the Fraser Canyon in western Canada, which includes 42 individual bedrock canyons. Our observations of three-dimensional flow structure reveal that, as water enters the canyons, a high-velocity core follows the bed surface, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities near the bed and low velocities at the surface). The plunging water then upwells along the canyon walls, resulting in counter-rotating, along-stream coherent flow structures that diverge near the bed. The resulting flow structure promotes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor and undercutting of the canyon walls. This provides a mechanism for channel widening and ensures that the base of the walls is swept clear of the debris that is often deposited there, keeping the walls nearly vertical. These observations reveal that the flow structure in bedrock canyons is more complex than assumed in the models presently used. Fluid flow models that capture the essence of the three-dimensional flow field, using simple phenomenological rules that are computationally tractable, are required to capture the dynamic coupling between flow, bedrock erosion and solid-Earth dynamics.

  20. Effects of lung protective mechanical ventilation associated with permissive respiratory acidosis on regional extra-pulmonary blood flow in experimental ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Rudolf; Kreyer, Stefan; Putensen, Christian

    2017-10-27

    Lung protective mechanical ventilation with limited peak inspiratory pressure has been shown to affect cardiac output in patients with ARDS. However, little is known about the impact of lung protective mechanical ventilation on regional perfusion, especially when associated with moderate permissive respiratory acidosis. We hypothesized that lung protective mechanical ventilation with limited peak inspiratory pressure and moderate respiratory acidosis results in an increased cardiac output but unequal distribution of blood flow to the different organs of pigs with oleic-acid induced ARDS. Twelve pigs were enrolled, 3 died during instrumentation and induction of lung injury. Thus, 9 animals received pressure controlled mechanical ventilation with a PEEP of 5 cmH 2 O and limited peak inspiratory pressure (17 ± 4 cmH 2 O) versus increased peak inspiratory pressure (23 ± 6 cmH 2 O) in a crossover-randomized design and were analyzed. The sequence of limited versus increased peak inspiratory pressure was randomized using sealed envelopes. Systemic and regional hemodynamics were determined by double indicator dilution technique and colored microspheres, respectively. The paired student t-test and the Wilcoxon test were used to compare normally and not normally distributed data, respectively. Mechanical ventilation with limited inspiratory pressure resulted in moderate hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis (PaCO 2 71 ± 12 vs. 46 ± 9 mmHg, and pH 7.27 ± 0.05 vs. 7.38 ± 0.04, p respiratory acidosis was associated with an increase in cardiac output. However, the better systemic blood flow was not uniformly directed to the different organs. This observation may be of clinical interest in patients, e.g. with cardiac, renal and cerebral pathologies.

  1. Unstimulated whole salivary flow rate and anxiolytics intake are independently associated with oral Candida infection in patients with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor-Bratic, Marija; Cankovic, Milos; Dragnic, Natasa

    2013-10-01

    Many factors have been proposed to influence oral infection with yeast. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral yeasts in oral lichen planus (OLP) patients and control subjects, and to perform a multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors that influence oral Candida infection in OLP patients. In this cross-sectional study, 90 new patients with OLP and 90 sex- and age-matched control subjects with no mucosal lesions were interviewed about their health status, use of medication, and smoking and alcohol habits. Swab and unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected and salivary pH was measured. A positive Candida culture was more prevalent among OLP patients (48.9%) than among control subjects (26.7%). Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species in both groups. By logistic regression analysis, unstimulated whole salivary flow rates of 0.11-0.24 ml min(-1) (OR = 5.90) and 0.25-0.32 ml min(-1) (OR = 3.51) and benzodiazepine anxiolytics intake (OR = 8.30) were independently associated with the presence of Candida among OLP patients. Age, denture wearing, levels of dentition, decreased salivary pH, antihypertensive drugs, and alcohol consumption were not associated with oral Candida infection in OLP patients. The results indicate that data on benzodiazepine anxiolytics intake and evaluation of unstimulated whole salivary flow rate should be considered as part of the clinical evaluation to identify OLP patients at risk for Candida infection. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  2. Impairment of cognitive function and synaptic plasticity associated with alteration of information flow in theta and gamma oscillations in melamine-treated rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaxia Xu

    Full Text Available Changes of neural oscillations at a variety of physiological rhythms are effectively associated with cognitive performance. The present study investigated whether the directional indices of neural information flow (NIF could be used to symbolize the synaptic plasticity impairment in hippocampal CA3-CA1 network in a rat model of melamine. Male Wistar rats were employed while melamine was administered at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Behavior was measured by the Morris water maze(MWMtest. Local field potentials (LFPs were recorded before long-term potentiation (LTP induction. Generalized partial directed coherence (gPDC and phase-amplitude coupling conditional mutual information (PAC_CMI were used to measure the unidirectional indices in both theta and low gamma oscillations (LG, ~ 30-50 Hz. Our results showed that melamine induced the cognition deficits consistent with the reduced LTP in CA1 area. Phase locking values (PLVs showed that the synchronization between CA3 and CA1 in both theta and LG rhythms was reduced by melamine. In both theta and LG rhythms, unidirectional indices were significantly decreased in melamine treated rats while a similar variation trend was observed in LTP reduction, implying that the effects of melamine on cognitive impairment were possibly mediated via profound alterations of NIF on CA3-CA1 pathway in hippocampus. The results suggested that LFPs activities at these rhythms were most likely involved in determining the alterations of information flow in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 network, which might be associated with the alteration of synaptic transmission to some extent.

  3. Dynamic flow-through sequential extraction for assessment of fractional transformation and inter-element associations of arsenic in stabilized soil and sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buanuam, Janya; Wennrich, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic flow-through extraction system was applied for the first time to ascertain the fractional transformation and inter-element associations of arsenic in stabilized environmental solids, as exemplified by the partitioning of soil and sludge stabilized with three additives, namely MnO 2 , Ca(OH) 2 and FeSO 4 . The extraction system used not only gave fractionation data, but also the extraction profiles (extractograms) which were used for investigation of the breaking down of phases, kinetic releasing of As and elemental association between As and inorganic additives. Five geochemical fractions of As were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of a modified Wenzel's sequential extraction scheme, well established for fractionation of arsenic. The results revealed that MnO 2 and FeSO 4 have a slight effect on As phase transformation for soil and sludge samples amended for one week whereas the addition of Ca(OH) 2 increases As mobility due to the desorption of As from the solid Fe-oxides phase. The significant change in fractional transformation after 8 weeks of incubation can be seen in MnO 2 -treated soil. There was an increase of 17% in the non-mobilizable As fraction in MnO 2 -treated soil. From extractograms, arsenic in untreated soil was found to be rapidly leached and concurrently released with Fe. This may be evidence that the release of As is dependent on the dissolution of amorphous Fe oxides. In MnO 2 -treated soil, a strong affinity was observed between Mn and As in the amorphous Fe/Al oxides fraction, and this plays an important role in slowing down the kinetics of As releasing.

  4. Sum rules for collisional processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.

    1991-01-01

    We derive level-to-configuration sum rules for dielectronic capture and for collisional excitation and ionization. These sum rules give the total transition rate from a detailed atomic level to an atomic configuration. For each process, we show that it is possible to factor out the dependence on continuum-electron wave functions. The remaining explicit level dependence of each rate is then obtained from the matrix element of an effective operator acting on the bound orbitals only. In a large class of cases, the effective operator reduces to a one-electron monopole whose matrix element is proportional to the statistical weight of the level. We show that even in these cases, nonstatistical level dependence enters through the dependence of radial integrals on continuum orbitals. For each process, explicit analytic expressions for the level-to-configuration sum rules are given for all possible cases. Together with the well-known J-file sum rule for radiative rates [E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University Press, Cambridge, 1935)], the sum rules offer a systematic and efficient procedure for collapsing high-multiplicity configurations into ''effective'' levels for the purpose of modeling the population kinetics of ionized heavy atoms in plasma

  5. Rule Mining Techniques to Predict Prokaryotic Metabolic Pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Saidi, Rabie

    2017-08-28

    It is becoming more evident that computational methods are needed for the identification and the mapping of pathways in new genomes. We introduce an automatic annotation system (ARBA4Path Association Rule-Based Annotator for Pathways) that utilizes rule mining techniques to predict metabolic pathways across wide range of prokaryotes. It was demonstrated that specific combinations of protein domains (recorded in our rules) strongly determine pathways in which proteins are involved and thus provide information that let us very accurately assign pathway membership (with precision of 0.999 and recall of 0.966) to proteins of a given prokaryotic taxon. Our system can be used to enhance the quality of automatically generated annotations as well as annotating proteins with unknown function. The prediction models are represented in the form of human-readable rules, and they can be used effectively to add absent pathway information to many proteins in UniProtKB/TrEMBL database.

  6. Rule Mining Techniques to Predict Prokaryotic Metabolic Pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Saidi, Rabie; Boudellioua, Imene; Martin, Maria J.; Solovyev, Victor

    2017-01-01

    It is becoming more evident that computational methods are needed for the identification and the mapping of pathways in new genomes. We introduce an automatic annotation system (ARBA4Path Association Rule-Based Annotator for Pathways) that utilizes rule mining techniques to predict metabolic pathways across wide range of prokaryotes. It was demonstrated that specific combinations of protein domains (recorded in our rules) strongly determine pathways in which proteins are involved and thus provide information that let us very accurately assign pathway membership (with precision of 0.999 and recall of 0.966) to proteins of a given prokaryotic taxon. Our system can be used to enhance the quality of automatically generated annotations as well as annotating proteins with unknown function. The prediction models are represented in the form of human-readable rules, and they can be used effectively to add absent pathway information to many proteins in UniProtKB/TrEMBL database.

  7. 75 FR 51934 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission (``Commission'') published a final rule on August 10, 2010, adopting amendments to the Telemarketing Sales Rule that address the...

  8. Integration rules for scattering equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-01-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  9. Atypical Rulings of the Indonesian Constitutional Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisariyadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In deciding judicial review cases, the Court may issue rulings that is not in accordance to what is stipulated in the Constitutional Court Law (Law Number 8 Year 2011. Atypical rulings means that the court may reconstruct a provision, delay the legislation/rulings enactment or give instruction to lawmakers. In addition, the court also introduce the “conditionally (unconstitutional” concept. This essay attempts to identify and classify these atypical rulings, including conditionally (un constitutional rulings, by examined the constitutional court judicial review rulings from 2003 to 2015. This study will provide a ground work for advance research on typical rulings by the Indonesian constitutional court.

  10. Environmental flows and life cycle assessment of associated petroleum gas utilization via combined heat and power plants and heat boilers at oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajović, Vuk; Kiss, Ferenc; Maravić, Nikola; Bera, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental impact of associated petroleum gas flaring is discussed. • A modern trend of introducing cogeneration systems to the oil fields is presented. • Three alternative utilization options evaluated with life cycle assessment method. • Producing electricity and/or heat instead of flaring would reduce impacts. - Abstract: Flaring of associated petroleum gas is a major resource waste and causes considerable emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. New environmental regulations are forcing oil industry to implement innovative and sustainable technologies in order to compete in growing energy market. A modern trend of introducing energy-effective cogeneration systems to the oil fields by replacing flaring and existing heat generation technologies powered by associated petroleum gas is discussed through material flow analysis and environmental impact assessment. The environmental assessment is based on the consequential life cycle assessment method and mainly primary data compiled directly from measurements on Serbian oil-fields or company-supplied information. The obtained results confirm that the utilization of associated petroleum gas via combined heat and power plants and heat boilers can provide a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and resource depletion by displacing marginal production of heat and electricity. At the base case scenario, which assumes a 100% heat realization rate, the global warming potential of the combined heat and power plant and heat boiler scenarios were estimated at −4.94 and −0.54 kg CO_2_e_q Sm"−"3, whereas the cumulative fossil energy requirements of these scenarios were −48.7 and −2.1 MJ Sm"−"3, respectively. This is a significant reduction compared to the global warming potential (2.25 kg CO_2_e_q Sm"−"3) and cumulative fossil energy requirements (35.36 MJ Sm"−"3) of flaring. Nevertheless, sensitivity analyses have shown that life cycle assessment results are sensitive

  11. Association of Odor Thresholds and Responses in Cerebral Blood Flow of the Prefrontal Area during Olfactory Stimulation in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is a disorder characterized by nonspecific and recurrent symptoms from various organ systems associated with exposure to low levels of chemicals. Patients with MCS process odors differently than controls do. Previously, we suggested that this odor processing was associated with increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the prefrontal area during olfactory stimulation using near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of odor thresholds and changes in rCBF during olfactory stimulation at odor threshold levels in patients with MCS. We investigated changes in the prefrontal area using NIRS imaging and a T&T olfactometer during olfactory stimulation with two different odorants (sweet and fecal at three concentrations (zero, odor recognition threshold, and normal perceived odor level in 10 patients with MCS and six controls. The T&T olfactometer threshold test and subjective assessment of irritating and hedonic odors were also performed. The results indicated that the scores for both unpleasant and pungent odors were significantly higher for those for sweet odors at the normal perceived level in patients with MCS than in controls. The brain responses at the recognition threshold (fecal odor and normal perceived levels (sweet and fecal odors were stronger in patients with MCS than in controls. However, significant differences in the odor detection and recognition thresholds and odor intensity score between the two groups were not observed. These brain responses may involve cognitive and memory processing systems during past exposure to chemicals. Further research regarding the cognitive features of sensory perception and memory due to past exposure to chemicals and their associations with MCS symptoms is needed.

  12. Gaming the system. Dodging the rules, ruling the dodgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreim, E H

    1991-03-01

    Although traditional obligations of fidelity require physicians to deliver quality care to their patients, including to utilize costly technologies, physicians are steadily losing their accustomed control over the necessary resources. The "economic agents" who own the medical and monetary resources of care now impose a wide array of rules and restrictions in order to contain their costs of operation. However, physicians can still control resources indirectly through "gaming the system," employing tactics such as "fudging" that exploit resource rules' ambiguity and flexibility to bypass the rules while ostensibly honoring them. Physicians may be especially inclined to game the system where resource rules seriously underserve patients' needs, where economic agents seem to be "gaming the patient," with needless obstacles to care, or where others, such as hospitals or even physicians themselves, may be denied needed reimbursements. Though tempting, gaming is morally and medically hazardous. It can harm patients and society, offend honesty, and violate basic principles of contractual and distributive justice. It is also, in fact, usually unnecessary in securing needed resources for patients. More fundamentally, we must reconsider what physicians owe their patients. They owe what is theirs to give: their competence, care and loyalty. In light of medicine's changing economics, two new duties emerge: economic advising, whereby physicians explicitly discuss the economic as well as medical aspects of each treatment option; and economic advocacy, whereby physicians intercede actively on their patients' behalf with the economic agents who control the resources.

  13. Methodological approaches based on business rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Business rules and business processes are essential artifacts in defining the requirements of a software system. Business processes capture business behavior, while rules connect processes and thus control processes and business behavior. Traditionally, rules are scattered inside application code. This approach makes it very difficult to change rules and shorten the life cycle of the software system. Because rules change more quickly than the application itself, it is desirable to externalize the rules and move them outside the application. This paper analyzes and evaluates three well-known business rules approaches. It also outlines some critical factors that have to be taken into account in the decision to introduce business rules facilities in a software system. Based on the concept of explicit manipulation of business rules in a software system, the need for a general approach based on business rules is discussed.

  14. Methodological approaches based on business rules

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU; Adina UTA

    2008-01-01

    Business rules and business processes are essential artifacts in defining the requirements of a software system. Business processes capture business behavior, while rules connect processes and thus control processes and business behavior. Traditionally, rules are scattered inside application code. This approach makes it very difficult to change rules and shorten the life cycle of the software system. Because rules change more quickly than the application itself, it is desirable to externalize...

  15. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  16. Joint two-dimensional observations of ground magnetic and ionospheric electric fields associated with auroral zone currents 1. Three-dimensional current flows associated with a substorm-intensified eastward electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumjohann, W.; Untiedt, J.; Greenwald, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Two-dimensional distributions of ground magnetic and ionospheric electric fields in the evening sector auroral oval have been simultaneously observed by the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array and the Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (Stare) radars, respectively, on February 15, 1977. They were associated with varying, substorm-intensified, eastward electrojet current systems of the western, middle, and eastern segment of the eastward electrojet. We conclude that the substorm-intensified eastward electroject was a nearly pure Hall current driven by northward electric fields. The observed eastward increase of the current in the western segment of the electrojet was due to a gradual enhancement of the Hall conductivity. Here, the electrojet was fed by a broad sheet of net downward field-aligned current. During one period, the eastern-terminating part of the eastward electrojet diverged up the field lines in a rather local area because of a strong longitudinal decrease in the northward-directed electric field. On another occasion, it diverged northward within the ionosphere and joined the westward-flowing current because of a rotation of the northward electric field with increasing latitude through west- to southward. These two observed mechanisms of current divergence in the region where eastward and westward electrojects coexist may shed some new light on the controversy over the existence of upward field-aligned current flow in the Harang discontinuity

  17. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is associated with elevated cell cycle arrest markers related to reduced renal blood flow and postcontrast hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Ahmed; Wang, Wei; Herrmann, Sandra M S; Glockner, James F; Mckusick, Michael A; Misra, Sanjay; Bjarnason, Haraldur; Lerman, Lilach O; Textor, Stephen C

    2016-11-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) reduces renal blood flow (RBF), ultimately leading to kidney hypoxia and inflammation. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP-7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) are biomarkers of cell cycle arrest, often increased in ischemic conditions and predictive of acute kidney injury (AKI). This study sought to examine the relationships between renal vein levels of IGFBP-7, TIMP-2, reductions in RBF and postcontrast hypoxia as measured by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging. Renal vein levels of IGFBP-7 and TIMP-2 were obtained in an ARAS cohort (n= 29) scheduled for renal artery stenting and essential hypertensive (EH) healthy controls (n = 32). Cortical and medullary RBFs were measured by multidetector computed tomography (CT) immediately before renal artery stenting and 3 months later. BOLD imaging was performed before and 3 months after stenting in all patients, and a subgroup (N = 12) underwent repeat BOLD imaging 24 h after CT/stenting to examine postcontrast/procedure levels of hypoxia. Preintervention IGFBP-7 and TIMP-2 levels were elevated in ARAS compared with EH (18.5 ± 2.0 versus 15.7 ± 1.5 and 97.4 ± 23.1 versus 62.7 ± 9.2 ng/mL, respectively; Pblood flow (r = -0.59, P= 0.004). These data demonstrate elevated IGFBP-7 and TIMP-2 levels in ARAS as a function of the degree of reduced RBF. Elevated baseline IGFBP-7 levels were associated with protection against postimaging hypoxia, consistent with 'ischemic preconditioning'. Despite contrast injection and stenting, AKI in these high-risk ARAS subjects with elevated IGFBP-7/TIMP-2 was rare and did not affect long-term kidney function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  18. Bisphenol A; Final Test Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is issuing a final rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requiring manufacturers and processors of bisphenol A, hereinafter BPA, (4.4’-isopropylidenediphenol, CAS No. 80-05—7) to conduct a 90-day inhalation study.

  19. Polarizability sum rules in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llanta, E.; Tarrach, R.

    1978-01-01

    The well founded total photoproduction and the, assumed subtraction free, longitudinal photoproduction polarizability sum rules are checked in QED at the lowest non-trivial order. The first one is shown to hold, whereas the second one turns out to need a subtraction, which makes its usefulness for determining the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons quite doubtful. (Auth.)

  20. Rules and Acts of Considerateness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2015), s. 395-418 ISSN 1370-0049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-20785S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : normativity, moral rules * Wittgensteinian ethics * particularity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2015

  1. Phase space quark counting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-gin, C.; Lo, S.

    1980-01-01

    A simple quark counting rule based on phase space consideration suggested before is used to fit all 39 recent experimental data points on inclusive reactions. Parameter free relations are found to agree with experiments. Excellent detail fits are obtained for 11 inclusive reactions

  2. Selection rules for splitting strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Gregory, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been pointed out that Nielsen-Olesen vortices may be able to decay by pair production of black holes. We show that when the Abelian-Higgs model is embedded in a larger theory, the additional fields mau lead to selection rules for this process-even in the absence of fermions-due to the failure

  3. Cosmic-ray sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays; we show how they can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments, and to constrain specific models.

  4. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard

  5. Rule-based Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we show the process of information integration. We specifically discuss the language used for integration. We show that integration consists of two phases, the schema mapping phase and the data integration phase. We formally define transformation rules, conversion, evolution and

  6. Following the Rules of Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 118-128 ISSN 1877-3095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : rule * normativity * speech acts * evolution Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. Neutrino mass sum-rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Asan

    2018-03-01

    Neutrino mass sum-rele is a very important research subject from theoretical side because neutrino oscillation experiment only gave us two squared-mass differences and three mixing angles. We review neutrino mass sum-rule in literature that have been reported by many authors and discuss its phenomenological implications.

  8. Persistent blood stream infection in patients supported with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device is associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Barry H; Cordero-Reyes, Andrea M; Aldeiri, Molham; Alvarez, Paulino; Bhimaraj, Arvind; Ashrith, Guha; Elias, Barbara; Suarez, Erik E; Bruckner, Brian; Loebe, Matthias; Harris, Richard L; Zhang, J Yi; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; Estep, Jerry D

    2015-02-01

    Common adverse events in patients supported with Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVAD) include infections and cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). Some studies have suggested a possible association between blood stream infection (BSI) and CVA. Medical records of patients who received Heartmate II (HMII) CF-LVADs in 2008-2012 at a single center were reviewed. CVA was categorized as either hemorrhagic (HCVA) or ischemic (ICVA). BSI was divided into persistent (pBSI) and nonpersistent (non-pBSI). pBSI was defined as BSI with the same organism on repeated blood culture >72 hours from initial blood culture despite antibiotics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine predictors. A total of 149 patients had HMII implanted; 76% were male, and the overall mean age was 55.4 ± 13 years. There were a total of 19 (13%) patients who had CVA (7 HCVA and 12 ICVA) at a median of 295 days (range 5-1,096 days) after implantation. There were a total of 28 (19%) patients with pBSI and 17 (11%) patients with non-pBSI. Patients with pBSI had a trend toward greater BMI (31 kg/m(2) vs 27 kg/m(2); P = .09), and longer duration of support (1,019 d vs 371 d; P < .001) compared with those with non-pBSI. Persistent BSI was associated with an increased risk of mortality and with all-cause CVA on multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR] 5.97; P = .003) as well as persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection (OR 4.54; P = .048). Persistent BSI is not uncommon in patients supported by CF-LVAD and is highly associated with all-cause CVA and increased all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pressure Driven Poiseuille Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotz, Ingo Leonardo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Davies, D. Rhodri

    2018-01-01

    The Pacific plate is thought to be driven mainly by slab pull, associated with subduction along the Aleutians–Japan, Marianas–Izu–Bonin and Tonga–Kermadec trenches. This implies that viscous flow within the sub–Pacific asthenosphere is mainly generated by overlying plate motion (i.e. Couette flow...

  10. Evaluation of anisotropic effective stress-strain criteria for the biaxial yield and flow of 2024 aluminum tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, M.G.; Hecker, S.S.; Bourcier, R.

    1983-01-01

    2024 aluminum tubes, heat treated to a T6 and T8 temper, were tested in combinations of tension-internal pressure and tension-torsion loading. Yield loci and flow behavior were determined for both modes of loading and compared to theoretical predictions. Both tempers of 2024 aluminum exhibited crystallographic textures and anisotropic yield and flow. Hill's quadratic yield criterion and the associated flow rule under-estimate balanced biaxial yield and flow, which is consistent with hydraulic bulge data on other face-centered cubic metals. Hill's nonquadratic criterion, which adds one additional parameter, and Bassani's criterion, which adds two parameters, predict the anisotropic yield behavior much more accurately. Predictions of the complete flow behavior, including strain paths, with these anisotropic criteria could be improved markedly by including provisions for planar anisotropy

  11. When weight management lasts. Lower perceived rule complexity increases adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jutta; Todd, Peter M; Lippke, Sonia

    2010-02-01

    Maintaining behavior change is one of the major challenges in weight management and long-term weight loss. We investigated the impact of the cognitive complexity of eating rules on adherence to weight management programs. We studied whether popular weight management programs can fail if participants find the rules too complicated from a cognitive perspective, meaning that individuals are not able to recall or process all required information for deciding what to eat. The impact on program adherence of participants' perceptions of eating rule complexity and other behavioral factors known to influence adherence (including previous weight management, self-efficacy, and planning) was assessed via a longitudinal online questionnaire given to 390 participants on two different popular weight management regimens. As we show, the regimens, Weight Watchers and a popular German recipe diet (Brigitte), strongly differ in objective rule complexity and thus their cognitive demands on the dieter. Perceived rule complexity was the strongest factor associated with increased risk of quitting the cognitively demanding weight management program (Weight Watchers); it was not related to adherence length for the low cognitive demand program (Brigitte). Higher self-efficacy generally helped in maintaining a program. The results emphasize the importance of considering rule complexity to promote long-term weight management. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chiral corrections to the Adler-Weisberger sum rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, Silas R.; Klco, Natalie

    2016-12-01

    The Adler-Weisberger sum rule for the nucleon axial-vector charge, gA , offers a unique signature of chiral symmetry and its breaking in QCD. Its derivation relies on both algebraic aspects of chiral symmetry, which guarantee the convergence of the sum rule, and dynamical aspects of chiral symmetry breaking—as exploited using chiral perturbation theory—which allow the rigorous inclusion of explicit chiral symmetry breaking effects due to light-quark masses. The original derivations obtained the sum rule in the chiral limit and, without the benefit of chiral perturbation theory, made various attempts at extrapolating to nonvanishing pion masses. In this paper, the leading, universal, chiral corrections to the chiral-limit sum rule are obtained. Using PDG data, a recent parametrization of the pion-nucleon total cross sections in the resonance region given by the SAID group, as well as recent Roy-Steiner equation determinations of subthreshold amplitudes, threshold parameters, and correlated low-energy constants, the Adler-Weisberger sum rule is confronted with experimental data. With uncertainty estimates associated with the cross-section parametrization, the Goldberger-Treimann discrepancy, and the truncation of the sum rule at O (Mπ4) in the chiral expansion, this work finds gA=1.248 ±0.010 ±0.007 ±0.013 .

  13. Exploration of SWRL Rule Bases through Visualization, Paraphrasing, and Categorization of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    Rule bases are increasingly being used as repositories of knowledge content on the Semantic Web. As the size and complexity of these rule bases increases, developers and end users need methods of rule abstraction to facilitate rule management. In this paper, we describe a rule abstraction method for Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules that is based on lexical analysis and a set of heuristics. Our method results in a tree data structure that we exploit in creating techniques to visualize, paraphrase, and categorize SWRL rules. We evaluate our approach by applying it to several biomedical ontologies that contain SWRL rules, and show how the results reveal rule patterns within the rule base. We have implemented our method as a plug-in tool for Protégé-OWL, the most widely used ontology modeling software for the Semantic Web. Our tool can allow users to rapidly explore content and patterns in SWRL rule bases, enabling their acquisition and management.

  14. 77 FR 76121 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... well as other factors that influence exchange rates such as flows, market technical trends, and... Foreign Currency Strategy Exchange-Traded Fund Under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600 December 19, 2012... following under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600 (``Managed Fund Shares''): PIMCO Foreign Currency Strategy...

  15. 77 FR 73711 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... 240.17d-2. I. Introduction Section 19(g)(1) of the Act,\\3\\ among other things, requires every self... associated persons; (c) Discharge of its duties and obligations as a DEA; and (d) Evaluation of advertising... Customer Communications (Advertising) NYSE MKT [Amex] Rules 991 and 1106 BATS Rule 26.16 BOX Rule 4170 CBOE...

  16. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Richard P. [NRR/DOTS/TQMP, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, M/S OWFN 10A19, Washington, D.C. 20555 (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  17. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  18. The quantitative visualisation of the flow in a 1/10th scale model thrust reverser at the Aircraft Research Association, Bedford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryanston-Cross, P.; Sale, R.

    1992-06-01

    A series of laser visualization measurements has been made to both visualize and map the velocity and direction of the transonic flow from a 1/10th scale model of a thrust reverser. The measurements which have been made by injecting micron sized water droplets into the flow, used two techniques to provide a quantitative measurement of the flow field. The first technique LLS (laser light sheet) provided a general view of the flow, whereas a second pulse laser technique PIV (particle image velocimetry) made a specific measurement in the vicinity of the thrust reverser's 'kicker' plate to map the velocity and direction of the exit flow. This successful study is, to the best of the author's knowledge, the first example of a whole field quantitative visualization being achieved in such a turbulent transonic flow.

  19. Cerebral blood flow of patients with age-associated memory impairment and the early stage of Alzheimer`s disease. A study by SPECT using the ARG method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Akiko; Kitamura, Shin; Nagazumi, Atushi; Terashi, Akiro [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    In order to further understand the pathology of Alzheimer`s disease (AD), we have utilized image analysis in diagnosing the early stages of AD in patients with cognitive disorders. CT and MRI, however, have not been feasible since only atrophy is seen and it is difficult to differentiate the changes in AD from age associated changes. In this study we tried to determine whether regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements using single photon emission CT (SPECT) are feasible for the early diagnosis of AD. Regional CBF (rCBF) was measured using SPECT in three subject groups: Age-associated memory impairment (AAMI, n=9), mild AD (n=16), and normal aged patients (mean age=68.3; n=20). The subjects were then observed for three years. The region of interest (ROI) for the medial temporal lobe was set at OM-30deg to cover the maximum area of the hippocampus. The absolute values of rCBF in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes and the cerebellum were significantly lower in the mild AD subjects than in the normal aged subjects. A significant decrease in rCBF was also seen in the medial temporal lobe in both the AD and the AAMI subjects compared to the normal controls. During the three years of follow up, no cases of dementia were seen in the AAMI subjects. However, there were two patients who appeared to have difficulty in adapting to daily life due to amnesia, one with a decrease in rCBF of the medial temporal lobe on the second SPECT, and the other showing a low rCBF the first time. This study suggests that AAMI subjects may comprise both AD and normal subjects. Therefore a more prospective study is needed. (author)

  20. Cerebral blood flow of patients with age-associated memory impairment and the early stage of Alzheimer's disease. A study by SPECT using the ARG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, Akiko; Kitamura, Shin; Nagazumi, Atushi; Terashi, Akiro

    1998-01-01

    In order to further understand the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have utilized image analysis in diagnosing the early stages of AD in patients with cognitive disorders. CT and MRI, however, have not been feasible since only atrophy is seen and it is difficult to differentiate the changes in AD from age associated changes. In this study we tried to determine whether regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements using single photon emission CT (SPECT) are feasible for the early diagnosis of AD. Regional CBF (rCBF) was measured using SPECT in three subject groups: Age-associated memory impairment (AAMI, n=9), mild AD (n=16), and normal aged patients (mean age=68.3; n=20). The subjects were then observed for three years. The region of interest (ROI) for the medial temporal lobe was set at OM-30deg to cover the maximum area of the hippocampus. The absolute values of rCBF in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes and the cerebellum were significantly lower in the mild AD subjects than in the normal aged subjects. A significant decrease in rCBF was also seen in the medial temporal lobe in both the AD and the AAMI subjects compared to the normal controls. During the three years of follow up, no cases of dementia were seen in the AAMI subjects. However, there were two patients who appeared to have difficulty in adapting to daily life due to amnesia, one with a decrease in rCBF of the medial temporal lobe on the second SPECT, and the other showing a low rCBF the first time. This study suggests that AAMI subjects may comprise both AD and normal subjects. Therefore a more prospective study is needed. (author)

  1. The Malnutrition-Related Increase in Early Visceralization of Leishmania donovani Is Associated with a Reduced Number of Lymph Node Phagocytes and Altered Conduit System Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa K.; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Anstead, Gregory M.; Jimenez, Fabio; Travi, Bruno L.; Peniche, Alex G.; Osorio, E. Yaneth; Ahuja, Seema S.; Melby, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    In a murine model of moderate childhood malnutrition we found that polynutrient deficiency led to a 4–5-fold increase in early visceralization of L. donovani (3 days post-infection) following cutaneous infection and a 16-fold decrease in lymph node barrier function (pmalnutrition-related parasite dissemination we analyzed the cellularity, architecture, and function of the skin-draining lymph node. There was no difference in the localization of multiple cell populations in the lymph node of polynutrient deficient (PND) mice, but there was reduced cellularity with fewer CD11c+dendritic cells (DCs), fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), MOMA-2+ macrophages, and CD169+ subcapsular sinus macrophage (p<0.05 for all) compared to the well-nourished (WN) mice. The parasites were equally co-localized with DCs associated with the lymph node conduit network in the WN and PND mice, and were found in the high endothelial venule into which the conduits drain. When a fluorescent low molecular weight (10 kD) dextran was delivered in the skin, there was greater efflux of the marker from the lymph node conduit system to the spleens of PND mice (p<0.04), indicating that flow through the conduit system was altered. There was no evidence of disruption of the conduit or subcapsular sinus architecture, indicating that the movement of parasites into the subcortical conduit region was due to an active process and not from passive movement through a leaking barrier. These results indicate that the impaired capacity of the lymph node to act as a barrier to dissemination of L. donovani infection is associated with a reduced number of lymph node phagocytes, which most likely leads to reduced capture of parasites as they transit through the sinuses and conduit system. PMID:23967356

  2. The Impact of Family Rules on Children's Eating Habits, Sedentary Behaviors, and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M; King, Mindy H; Sovinski, Danielle; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-08-01

    Family rules may be influential in helping children to modify their dietary and sedentary behaviors, which are important modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity. However, data examining family rules in relation to children's health behaviors and weight status are limited. This cross-sectional study examined differences in family rules by demographic characteristics of students enrolled in the HEROES (Healthy, Energetic, Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic Schools) Initiative, a school-based childhood obesity prevention program. It also investigated the relationship between eating and screen time family rules and six eating and screen time behaviors: fast food consumption; soft drink consumption; fruit and vegetable intake; television viewing; computer use; and video game use, in addition to the association between family rules and children's weight status. Measures included self-reported behavioral data and anthropometric data from students in fourth to eighth grade at 16 schools (N=2819) in a tri-state area of the United States in spring 2012. Approximately one-third of students had each of the family rules examined. Whereas the profile of students who had specific rules varied, in general, younger, female, white, and low socioeconomic status students were more likely to have rules than their counterparts. Family rules were associated with healthier outcomes for each of the six behaviors examined (pchildren's weight status. This study demonstrates that family rules are an underutilized strategy to promote healthier eating habits and reduce children's screen time hours and may serve as an intermediary mechanism to curb childhood obesity.

  3. 2008 High-Flow Experiment at Glen Canyon Dam-Morphologic Response of Eddy-Deposited Sandbars and Associated Aquatic Backwater Habitats along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Andersen, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    The March 2008 high-flow experiment (HFE) at Glen Canyon Dam resulted in sandbar deposition and sandbar reshaping such that the area and volume of associated backwater aquatic habitat in Grand Canyon National Park was greater following the HFE. Analysis of backwater habitat area and volume for 116 locations at 86 study sites, comparing one month before and one month after the HFE, shows that total habitat area increased by 30 percent to as much as a factor of 3 and that volume increased by 80 percent to as much as a factor of 15. These changes resulted from an increase in the area and elevation of sandbars, which isolate backwaters from the main channel, and the scour of eddy return-current channels along the bank where the habitat occurs. Because of this greater relief on the sandbars, backwaters were present across a broader range of flows following the HFE than before the experiment. Reworking of sandbars during diurnal fluctuating flow operations in the first 6 months following the HFE caused sandbar erosion and a reduction of backwater size and abundance to conditions that were 5 to 14 percent greater than existed before the HFE. In the months following the HFE, erosion of sandbars and deposition in eddy return-current channels caused reductions of backwater area and volume. However, sandbar relief was still greater in October 2008 such that backwaters were present across a broader range of discharges than in February 2008. Topographic analyses of the sandbar and backwater morphologic data collected in this study demonstrate that steady flows are associated with a greater amount of continuously available backwater habitat than fluctuating flows, which result in a greater amount of intermittently available habitat. With the exception of the period immediately following the HFE, backwater habitat in 2008 was greater for steady flows associated with dam operations of relatively lower monthly volume (about 227 m3/s) than steady flows associated with dam operations

  4. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  5. The Rule of Metaphor commented.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Begué

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the exposure provided by Marie-France Begué to SIPLET (Permanent Interdisciplinary Seminar Literature, Aesthetics and Theology around The Rule of Methaphor of Paul Ricoeur. In it, after a general introduction, are addressed in detail four of the studies in the book: the first, “Between Rhetoric and Poetics: Aristotle,”; the sixth, “The work of the likeness,”; the seventh, “Metaphor and reference”; and the eighth,” Metaphor and philosophical discourse”. The main objective of the paper was to provide an introduction to the thought of Ricoeur in this book, to the seminar participants according to the work they have been doing on the dialogue between poetry and mysticism.Key words: Paul Ricoeur, Rule Methaphor, Theology and Literature, Philosophy of Language.

  6. Parental monitoring and rule-breaking behaviour in secondary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević-Lepojević Marina

    2017-01-01

    Parental monitoring is recognised as one of the most important family factors that are associated with rule-breaking behaviour. The objective of this paper is to determine the nature of correlations between parental monitoring and its key components (parents’ knowledge, child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control) and rule-breaking behaviour. Additionally, the prediction of the rule-breaking behaviour by parental monitoring variables, age a...

  7. Rules for resolving Mendelian inconsistencies in nuclear pedigrees typed for two-allele markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmad Khan

    Full Text Available Gene-mapping studies, regularly, rely on examination for Mendelian transmission of marker alleles in a pedigree as a way of screening for genotyping errors and mutations. For analysis of family data sets, it is, usually, necessary to resolve or remove the genotyping errors prior to consideration. At the Center of Inherited Disease Research (CIDR, to deal with their large-scale data flow, they formalized their data cleaning approach in a set of rules based on PedCheck output. We scrutinize via carefully designed simulations that how well CIDR's data cleaning rules work in practice. We found that genotype errors in siblings are detected more often than in parents for less polymorphic SNPs and vice versa for more polymorphic SNPs. Through computer simulations, we conclude that some of the CIDR's rules work poorly in some circumstances, and we suggest a set of modified data cleaning rules that may work better than CIDR's rules.

  8. Sum rules for neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.; Martemyanov, B.V.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Sum rules for neutrino oscillations are obtained. The derivation of the general form of the s matrix for two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) (where lsub(i)sup(-)e, μ, tau, ... are initial leptons with flavor i and lsub(k)sup(+-) is final lepton) is presented. The consideration of two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) gives the possibility to take into account neutrino masses and to obtain the expressions for the oscillating cross sections. In the case of Dirac and left-handed Majorana neutrino is obtained the sum rule for the quantities 1/Vsub(K)σ(lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+-)), (where Vsub(K) is a velocity of lsub(K)). In the left-handed Majorana neutrino case there is an additional antineutrino admixture leading to lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+) process. Both components (neutrino and antineutrino) oscillate independently. The sums Σsub(K)1/Vsub(k)σ(lsub(i)sup(-) - lsub(K)sup(+-) then oscillate due to the presence of left-handed antineutrinos and right-handed neutrinos which do not take part in weak interactions. If right-handed currents are added sum rules analogous to considered above may be obtained. All conclusions are valid in the general case when CP is not conserved [ru

  9. The OZI rule and nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1991-11-01

    The title of this lecture series raises two questions: (1) what is the OZI rule? (2) what is a nucleon. In the lectures both questions were addressed in parallel and the material moved back and forth between them. In a written version it seems more appropriate to treat the two question separately, begining with trying to understand the structure of the nucleon. Experimental evidence for the symmetry and quark structure of hadrons is reviewed with a historical introduction and updated by presenting constituent quark model relation for hadron masses and magnetic moments.Three definitions of the OZI rule are presented, all which forbid decay like φ->ρπ but making different selection rules for more complicate reactions. All suffer from the higer order paradox that a forbidden process can take place via two-step transition in which each step is allowed; e.g. φ-> KK-bar -> ρπ. No prescription is given for estimating the strength of forbidden processes. The role of cancellations between different higer order diagrams is discussed. (author)

  10. Optimization of European call options considering physical delivery network and reservoir operation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Chen; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2011-10-01

    This paper develops alternative strategies for European call options for water purchase under hydrological uncertainties that can be used by water resources managers for decision making. Each alternative strategy maximizes its own objective over a selected sequence of future hydrology that is characterized by exceedance probability. Water trade provides flexibility and enhances water distribution system reliability. However, water trade between two parties in a regional water distribution system involves many issues, such as delivery network, reservoir operation rules, storage space, demand, water availability, uncertainty, and any existing contracts. An option is a security giving the right to buy or sell an asset; in our case, the asset is water. We extend a flow path-based water distribution model to include reservoir operation rules. The model simultaneously considers both the physical distribution network as well as the relationships between water sellers and buyers. We first test the model extension. Then we apply the proposed optimization model for European call options to the Tainan water distribution system in southern Taiwan. The formulation lends itself to a mixed integer linear programming model. We use the weighing method to formulate a composite function for a multiobjective problem. The proposed methodology provides water resources managers with an overall picture of water trade strategies and the consequence of each strategy. The results from the case study indicate that the strategy associated with a streamflow exceedence probability of 50% or smaller should be adopted as the reference strategy for the Tainan water distribution system.

  11. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  12. Performance Indicators for Business Rule Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eline de Haan; dr. Martijn Zoet; Koen Smit

    2016-01-01

    From the article: With increasing investments in business rules management (BRM), organizations are searching for ways to value and benchmark their processes to elicitate, design, accept, deploy and execute business rules. To realize valuation and benchmarking of previously mentioned processes,

  13. Simple cellular automaton model for traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple cellular automaton (CA) model for two-lane roads explaining the physics of traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow. The model consists of the rules “acceleration,” “deceleration,” “randomization,” and “motion” of the Nagel-Schreckenberg CA model as well as “overacceleration through lane changing to the faster lane,” “comparison of vehicle gap with the synchronization gap,” and “speed adaptation within the synchronization gap” of Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. We show that these few rules of the CA model can appropriately simulate fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity found in traffic data measured over years in different countries, like characteristics of synchronized flow, the existence of the spontaneous and induced breakdowns at the same bottleneck, and associated probabilistic features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity. Single-vehicle data derived in model simulations show that synchronized flow first occurs and then self-maintains due to a spatiotemporal competition between speed adaptation to a slower speed of the preceding vehicle and passing of this slower vehicle. We find that the application of simple dependences of randomization probability and synchronization gap on driving situation allows us to explain the physics of moving synchronized flow patterns and the pinch effect in synchronized flow as observed in real traffic data.

  14. Inequality in military expenditures and the Samuelson rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.; van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that standard measures used in the income inequality literature, the Lorenz curve and the associated Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the distribution of defence spending across countries. Secondly, we use the Samuelson rule to explain the distribution of military

  15. Softball Guide with Official Rules. January 1972 - January 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Connie, Ed.

    This guide, published by the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER) presents a statement of DGWS beliefs, standards in sports, sources of information and international committee rules. It details various affiliated boards of officials and presents the…

  16. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kh'yuitt, G.

    1980-01-01

    An introduction into the problem of two-phase flows is presented. Flow regimes arizing in two-phase flows are described, and classification of these regimes is given. Structures of vertical and horizontal two-phase flows and a method of their identification using regime maps are considered. The limits of this method application are discussed. The flooding phenomena and phenomena of direction change (flow reversal) of the flow and interrelation of these phenomena as well as transitions from slug regime to churn one and from churn one to annular one in vertical flows are described. Problems of phase transitions and equilibrium are discussed. Flow regimes in tubes where evaporating liquid is running, are described [ru

  17. A new methodology for the study of FAC phenomenon based on a fuzzy rule system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Guimaraes, Antonio Cesar

    2003-01-01

    This work consists of the representation of the corrosion problem, FAC - 'Flow-Accelerated Corrosion' in components, structures and passive systems in a nuclear power plant with aging, through a fuzzy rules system, in substitution to the conventional modeling and experimental analyses. Using data characteristic of the nature of the problem to be analyzed, a reduced number of rules can be establish to represent the actual problem. The results can be visualized in a very satisfactory way thus providing the engineer with the knowledge to work in the space of solution of rules to do the necessary inferences

  18. Process Materialization Using Templates and Rules to Design Flexible Process Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhil; Yao, Wen

    The main idea in this paper is to show how flexible processes can be designed by combining generic process templates and business rules. We instantiate a process by applying rules to specific case data, and running a materialization algorithm. The customized process instance is then executed in an existing workflow engine. We present an architecture and also give an algorithm for process materialization. The rules are written in a logic-based language like Prolog. Our focus is on capturing deeper process knowledge and achieving a holistic approach to robust process design that encompasses control flow, resources and data, as well as makes it easier to accommodate changes to business policy.

  19. An Efficient Compiler for Weighted Rewrite Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Mohri, Mehryar; Sproat, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Context-dependent rewrite rules are used in many areas of natural language and speech processing. Work in computational phonology has demonstrated that, given certain conditions, such rewrite rules can be represented as finite-state transducers (FSTs). We describe a new algorithm for compiling rewrite rules into FSTs. We show the algorithm to be simpler and more efficient than existing algorithms. Further, many of our applications demand the ability to compile weighted rules into weighted FST...

  20. Religionsfrihed i Kina & The Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law......Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law...

  1. The efficiency of the negligence rules

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Ljubica; Mojašević, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    This study comparatively analizes economic effects of different negligence rules, contained in American law on the one hand, and Serbian law on the other. It is important to establish economic implications of the different negligence rules, based on the incentives for tortfeasor’s and victim’s precaution under the different negligence rules. Study of the efficiency of several different forms of negligence rules: simple negligence, negligence with a defense of contributory negligence, comparat...

  2. WINE ADVISOR EXPERT SYSTEM USING DECISION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinuca Elena Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I focus on developing an expert system for advising the choice of wine that best matches a specific occasion. An expert system is a computer application that performs a task that would be performed by a human expert. The implementation is done using Delphi programming language. I used to represent the knowledge bases a set of rules. The rules are of type IF THEN ELSE rules, decision rules based on different important wine features.

  3. A rule of thumb in mammalian herbivores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner; Provenza; Villalba

    1998-08-01

    In two experiments on appetitive learning we conditioned lambs, Ovis aries, to particular concentrations of a flavour by mixing the flavour with an energy-rich food that complemented their energy-poor diet. The lambs were subsequently offered energy-rich food with five different concentrations of the flavour (the concentration to which they were conditioned, two higher concentrations, and two lower concentrations). At these tests, the lambs consistently preferred the weaker flavours. This finding stands in contrast to earlier results on generalization gradients. In a third experiment, similarly designed to the other two, we tested for effects of a strong flavour on the behaviour of lambs when they were offered a novel nutritious food. Half of the lambs were offered unadulterated wheat, and the others strongly flavoured wheat. We found that the flavour in itself was initially aversive. We propose that the lambs' avoidance of foods with strong flavours may be an expression of a rule of thumb of the type 'given a choice, avoid food with strong flavours'. Such a rule could be part of a risk-averse foraging strategy displayed by mammalian herbivores, and which could be of particular importance when they encounter unfamiliar foods. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  4. Transfer pricing rules in EU member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important area of international taxes is transfer pricing. Transfer price is a price set by a taxpayer when selling to, buying from, or sharing resources with a related (associated person. The tran­sac­tions between these persons should be assessed at their arm’s length price in according the arm’s length principle – international accepted standard – as the price which would have been agreed between unrelated parties in free market conditions. This paper is focused on the tranfer pricing rules used in particular EU Member States so as if EU Member States apply the arm’s length principle, define the related persons, apply recommendations of the OECD Guidelines, use the transfer pricing methods, require TP Documentation, exercise specific transfer pricing audit or impose specific penalties and apply APAs. Transfer pricing rules should prevent taxpayers from shifting income to related person organized in tax havens or in countries where they enjoy some special tax benefit.

  5. Cost and resource utilization associated with use of computed tomography to evaluate chest pain in the emergency department: the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction using Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulten, Edward; Goehler, Alexander; Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer; Bamberg, Fabian; Schlett, Christopher L; Truong, Quynh A; Nichols, John; Nasir, Khurram; Rogers, Ian S; Gazelle, Scott G; Nagurney, John T; Hoffmann, Udo; Blankstein, Ron

    2013-09-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (cCTA) allows rapid, noninvasive exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). However, concern exists whether implementation of cCTA in the assessment of patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain will lead to increased downstream testing and costs compared with alternative strategies. Our aim was to compare observed actual costs of usual care (UC) with projected costs of a strategy including early cCTA in the evaluation of patients with acute chest pain in the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction Using Computer Assisted Tomography I (ROMICAT I) study. We compared cost and hospital length of stay of UC observed among 368 patients enrolled in the ROMICAT I study with projected costs of management based on cCTA. Costs of UC were determined by an electronic cost accounting system. Notably, UC was not influenced by cCTA results because patients and caregivers were blinded to the cCTA results. Costs after early implementation of cCTA were estimated assuming changes in management based on cCTA findings of the presence and severity of CAD. Sensitivity analysis was used to test the influence of key variables on both outcomes and costs. We determined that in comparison with UC, cCTA-guided triage, whereby patients with no CAD are discharged, could reduce total hospital costs by 23% (Pcost increases such that when the prevalence of ≥ 50% stenosis is >28% to 33%, the use of cCTA becomes more costly than UC. cCTA may be a cost-saving tool in acute chest pain populations that have a prevalence of potentially obstructive CAD cost would be anticipated in populations with higher prevalence of disease.

  6. ON THE STRENGTH OF THE HEMISPHERIC RULE AND THE ORIGIN OF ACTIVE-REGION HELICITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Vector magnetograph and morphological observations have shown that the solar magnetic field tends to have negative (positive) helicity in the northern (southern) hemisphere, although only ∼60%-70% of active regions appear to obey this 'hemispheric rule'. In contrast, at least ∼80% of quiescent filaments and filament channels that form during the decay of active regions follow the rule. We attribute this discrepancy to the difficulty in determining the helicity sign of newly emerged active regions, which are dominated by their current-free component; as the transverse field is canceled at the polarity inversion lines, however, the axial component becomes dominant there, allowing a more reliable determination of the original active-region chirality. We thus deduce that the hemispheric rule is far stronger than generally assumed, and cannot be explained by stochastic processes. Earlier studies have shown that the twist associated with the axial tilt of active regions is too small to account for the observed helicity; here, both tilt and twist are induced by the Coriolis force acting on the diverging flow in the emerging flux tube. However, in addition to this east-west expansion about the apex of the loop, each of its legs must expand continually in cross section during its rise through the convection zone, thereby acquiring a further twist through the Coriolis force. Since this transverse pressure effect is not limited by drag or tension forces, the final twist depends mainly on the rise time, and may be large enough to explain the observed active-region helicity

  7. The Rule-Assessment Approach and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the rule-assessment approach to cognitive development. The basic question that motivated the rule-assessment approach is how people's existing knowledge influences their ability to learn. Research using the rule-assessment approach is summarized in terms of eight conclusions, each illustrated with empirical examples.…

  8. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  9. Safe reduction rules for weighted treewidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkhof, F. van den; Bodlaender, H.L.; Koster, A.M.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Several sets of reductions rules are known for preprocessing a graph when computing its treewidth. In this paper, we give reduction rules for a weighted variant of treewidth, motivated by the analysis of algorithms for probabilistic networks. We present two general reduction rules that are safe for

  10. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-11-06

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency.

  11. 76 FR 76815 - Business Opportunity Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Used Throughout This Statement of Basis and Purpose ``Amended Franchise Rule'' refers to the amended Franchise Rule published at 72 FR 15444 (Mar. 30, 2007) and codified at 16 CFR 436. ``ANPR'' refers to the.../bcp/workshops/bizopps/disclosure-form-report.pdf . ``Original Franchise Rule'' refers to the original...

  12. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced: 1. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities (adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 1989); 2. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency (approved by the General Conference on 29 September 1989)

  13. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency

  14. Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, S.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.

    2010-01-01

    Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schaefer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model.

  15. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R Smit (Rob)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThis thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible

  16. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  17. Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo

    2012-01-01

    A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts. The…

  18. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  19. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  20. FUZZY MODELING BY SUCCESSIVE ESTIMATION OF RULES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an algorithm for automatically deriving fuzzy rules directly from a set of input-output data of a process for the purpose of modeling. The rules are extracted by a method termed successive estimation. This method is used to generate a model without truncating the number of fired rules, to within user ...