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Sample records for associative conditioning tunes

  1. New Tuning Conditions for Semiglobal Exponential Stability of the Classical PID Regulator for Rigid Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Orrante-Sakanassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel tuning procedure to ensure semi-global exponential stability for the classical PID control of rigid robots. This tuning procedure is expressed in terms of conditions which are more relaxed than those proposed previously in the literature. This allows us to perform, for the first time, experimental tests with a classical PID controller ensuring semi-global exponential stability. Finally, we show numerically that previous formal tuning procedures in the literature result in very large controller gains which prohibit the performance of any experimental test.

  2. A Tuning Approach for Oset-free MPC with Conditional Reference Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waschl, Harald; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2014-01-01

    or model plant mismatch have to be taken into account the tuning eort to achieve oset-free tracking increases. In this work a novel approach for oset-free MPC is presented, which divides the tuning in two steps, the setup of a nominal MPC loop and an external reference adaptation. The inner nominal loop...... addresses the performance targets in the nominal case, decouples the system and essentially leads to a rst order response. The second outer loop enables oset-free tracking in case of unknown disturbances and consists of feedback controllers adapting the reference. Due to the mentioned properties...... these controllers can be tuned separate and by known guidelines. To address conditions with active input constraints, additionally a conditional reference adaptation scheme is introduced. The tuning strategy is evaluated on a simulated linear Wood-Berry binary distillation column example....

  3. A quenched study of the Schroedinger functional with chirally rotated boundary conditions. Non-preturbative tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J. Gonzalez [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Renner, D.B. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Shindler, A. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2012-08-23

    The use of chirally rotated boundary conditions provides a formulation of the Schroedinger functional that is compatible with automatic O(a) improvement of Wilson fermions up to O(a) boundary contributions. The elimination of bulk O(a) effects requires the non-perturbative tuning of the critical mass and one additional boundary counterterm. We present the results of such a tuning in a quenched setup for several values of the renormalized gauge coupling, from perturbative to nonperturbative regimes, and for a range of lattice spacings. We also check that the correct boundary conditions and symmetries are restored in the continuum limit. (orig.)

  4. IC Associated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connected with certain other chronic conditions, such as panic attacks and pelvic floor dysfunction. Learn More about Common Related Conditions Allergies and Sensitivities Celiac Disease Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic Prostatitis Constipation Endometriosis Fibromyalgia Irritable Bowel Syndrome ...

  5. Precocious puberty: associated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Junior Wanderley Cavalcante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the characteristics of children with central precocious puberty (CPP, identifying both their clinical and epidemiological characteristics, as well as the determinants for receiving timely specialized health care. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective study with analytical approach of 342 medical records of children aged 1 to 11 years with CPP, from the Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic of a reference hospital. Biological, socio-economic, family and nutritional data of the 1994 to 2010 period was submitted to univariate and bivariate analysis, using the chi-square test for the statistical evaluation of the associations. Results: The main features of children with CPP were: being adopted, 25 (7.3%; being overweight, 92 (27.1%; being obese, 85 (25.1%; initiating puberty before six years of age, 205 (60.3%. Children with PPC who received late specialized care were the ones who most precociously presented signs of puberty (p<0.001, and belonged to families with lower income (p<0.002. Conclusion: High proportions of children with CPP were adopted and presented overweight/obesity. Children with excessively early onset of puberty signs, and belonging to low income families, suffered significant delay in obtaining specialized care. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p153

  6. A tuning approach for offset-free MPC with conditional reference adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waschl, Harald; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2014-01-01

    or model plant mismatch have to be taken into account the tuning effort to achieve offset-free tracking increases. In this work a novel approach for offset-free MPC is presented, which divides the tuning in two steps, the setup of a nominal MPC loop and an external reference adaptation. The inner nominal...

  7. A PSO Procedure for a Coordinated Tuning of Power System Stabilizers for Multiple Operating Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Amin

    2013-01-01

    The problem of coordinated tuning stabilizers in multi-machine power systems is formulated here as a sequence of optimization problems. The design problem of stabilizers is converted to a nonlinear optimization problem with a multi-objective fitness function. The proposed method employs particle swarm optimization (PSO), an algorithm to search for optimal parameter settings of a widely used conventional fixed-structure lead-lag power system stabilizers (CPSSs). One of the main advantages of t...

  8. Tuning the carbon nanotube photoluminescence enhancement at addition of cysteine through the change of external conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnosov, N.V.; Karachevtsev, M.V.; Leontiev, V.S.; Karachevtsev, V.A., E-mail: karachevtsev@ilt.kharkov.ua

    2017-01-15

    The enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) from the semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes suspended with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in water observed after amino acids doping is the largest at cysteine addition. The PL intensity increased through the passivation of p-defects on the carbon nanotube sidewall by the cysteine molecules due to thiol group. The effect of several external factors on the cysteine-induced enhancement of PL from carbon nanotubes covered with ssDNA was studied: UV irradiation, tip or bath sonication treatment of the suspension, the ionic strength and pH of aqueous suspension. It turned out that all these factors have an essential influence on the dependence of the PL enhancement on the cysteine concentration through inducing of additional defects on nanotube as well as a change of the nanotube surface coverage with polymer. The obtained experimental results demonstrated that PL from carbon nanotubes can be exploited successfully for the monitoring of cysteine concentration in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Cysteine doping enhances carbon nanotube emission more than other amino acids do. • SWNT emission dependence on cysteine concentration is tuned by UV irradiation and pH. • Type of sonication treatment influences SWNT PL dependence on cysteine concentration. • Polymer coverage and defectiveness of nanotubes effect on nanotube emission. • Graphic abstract.

  9. Distinct roles of a tyrosine-associated hydrogen-bond network in fine-tuning the structure and function of heme proteins: two cases designed for myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fei; Yuan, Hong; Du, Ke-Jie; You, Yong; Gao, Shu-Qin; Wen, Ge-Bo; Lin, Ying-Wu; Tan, Xiangshi

    2016-10-20

    A hydrogen-bond (H-bond) network, specifically a Tyr-associated H-bond network, plays key roles in regulating the structure and function of proteins, as exemplified by abundant heme proteins in nature. To explore an approach for fine-tuning the structure and function of artificial heme proteins, we herein used myoglobin (Mb) as a model protein and introduced a Tyr residue in the secondary sphere of the heme active site at two different positions (107 and 138). We performed X-ray crystallography, UV-Vis spectroscopy, stopped-flow kinetics, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies for the two single mutants, I107Y Mb and F138Y Mb, and compared to that of wild-type Mb under the same conditions. The results showed that both Tyr107 and Tyr138 form a distinct H-bond network involving water molecules and neighboring residues, which fine-tunes ligand binding to the heme iron and enhances the protein stability, respectively. Moreover, the Tyr107-associated H-bond network was shown to fine-tune both H2O2 binding and activation. With two cases demonstrated for Mb, this study suggests that the Tyr-associated H-bond network has distinct roles in regulating the protein structure, properties and functions, depending on its location in the protein scaffold. Therefore, it is possible to design a Tyr-associated H-bond network in general to create other artificial heme proteins with improved properties and functions.

  10. Design and Tuning of a Modified Power-Based PLL for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Power Conditioning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Monfared, Mohammad; D. Freijedo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    they present. Typically, the single-phase PLLs use a sinusoidal multiplier as the phase detector (PD). These PLLs are generally referred to as the power-based PLL (pPLL). In this paper, the drawbacks associated with the pPLL technique (i.e., the sensitivity to the grid voltage variations, and the double...... frequency oscillations which appear in the estimated phase/frequency) are discussed in detail, and some of the previously reported solutions are examined. Then, to overcome these drawbacks, a simple and effective technique, called the double-frequency and amplitude compensation (DFAC) method is proposed....... The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated through a detailed mathematical analysis. A systematic design method to fine-tune the PLL parameters is then suggested, which guarantees a fast transient response, a high disturbance rejection capability, and a robust performance. Finally, the simulation...

  11. Personalized blood flow computations: A hierarchical parameter estimation framework for tuning boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itu, Lucian; Sharma, Puneet; Suciu, Constantin; Moldoveanu, Florin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2017-03-01

    We propose a hierarchical parameter estimation framework for performing patient-specific hemodynamic computations in arterial models, which use structured tree boundary conditions. A calibration problem is formulated at each stage of the hierarchical framework, which seeks the fixed point solution of a nonlinear system of equations. Common hemodynamic properties, like resistance and compliance, are estimated at the first stage in order to match the objectives given by clinical measurements of pressure and/or flow rate. The second stage estimates the parameters of the structured trees so as to match the values of the hemodynamic properties determined at the first stage. A key feature of the proposed method is that to ensure a large range of variation, two different structured tree parameters are personalized for each hemodynamic property. First, the second stage of the parameter estimation framework is evaluated based on the properties of the outlet boundary conditions in a full body arterial model: the calibration method converges for all structured trees in less than 10 iterations. Next, the proposed framework is successfully evaluated on a patient-specific aortic model with coarctation: only six iterations are required for the computational model to be in close agreement with the clinical measurements used as objectives, and overall, there is a good agreement between the measured and computed quantities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Planck-LFI radiometers tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttaia, F; Stringhetti, L; Terenzi, L; Villa, F; Butler, R C; Franceschi, E [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, INAF, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mennella, A; Tomasi, M; Bersanelli, M; Cappellini, B; Franceschet, C; Hoyland, R [Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Maris, M; Frailis, M [INAF / OATS, via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste (Italy); Cuevas, L P [Research and Scientific Support Department of ESA, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); D' Arcangelo, O [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20013 Milano (Italy); Davis, R; Lowe, S [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gregorio, A [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Leonardi, R, E-mail: cuttaia@iasfbo.inaf.i [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    This paper describes the Planck Low Frequency Instrument tuning activities performed through the ground test campaigns, from Unit to Satellite Levels. Tuning is key to achieve the best possible instrument performance and tuning parameters strongly depend on thermal and electrical conditions. For this reason tuning has been repeated several times during ground tests and it has been repeated in flight before starting nominal operations. The paper discusses the tuning philosophy, the activities and the obtained results, highlighting developments and changes occurred during test campaigns. The paper concludes with an overview of tuning performed during the satellite cryogenic test campaign (Summer 2008) and of the plans for the just started in-flight calibration.

  13. Asperger Syndrome: Associated Psychiatric and Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the association of medical and psychiatric conditions with Asperger syndrome, based mainly on publications from the last two decades. It examines comorbidity of Asperger syndrome with mood disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, violence and aggression,…

  14. Temporal context and conditional associative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Jochen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated how temporal context affects the learning of arbitrary visuo-motor associations. Human observers viewed highly distinguishable, fractal objects and learned to choose for each object the one motor response (of four that was rewarded. Some objects were consistently preceded by specific other objects, while other objects lacked this task-irrelevant but predictive context. Results The results of five experiments showed that predictive context consistently and significantly accelerated associative learning. A simple model of reinforcement learning, in which three successive objects informed response selection, reproduced our behavioral results. Conclusions Our results imply that not just the representation of a current event, but also the representations of past events, are reinforced during conditional associative learning. In addition, these findings are broadly consistent with the prediction of attractor network models of associative learning and their prophecy of a persistent representation of past objects.

  15. Inflammatory Skin Conditions Associated With Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Aragüés, I; Pulido Pérez, A; Suárez Fernández, R

    2017-04-01

    Radiotherapy for cancer is used increasingly. Because skin cells undergo rapid turnover, the ionizing radiation of radiotherapy has collateral effects that are often expressed in inflammatory reactions. Some of these reactions-radiodermatitis and recall phenomenon, for example-are very familiar to dermatologists. Other, less common radiotherapy-associated skin conditions are often underdiagnosed but must also be recognized. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Prediction of miRNA-disease Associations using an Evolutionary Tuned Latent Semantic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pallez, Denis; Gardès, Julien; Pasquier, Claude

    2017-01-01

    International audience; MicroRNAs, small non-coding elements implied in gene regulation, are very interesting biomarkers for various diseases such as cancers. They represent potential prodigious biotechnologies for early diagnosis and gene therapies. However, experimental verification of microRNA-disease associations are time-consuming and costly, so that computational modeling is a proper solution. Previously, we designed MiRAI, a predictive method based on distributional semantics, to ident...

  17. Conditions for the Formation of P3 HT Organogels During Spin-Coating: Tuning Electrical Properties in Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cameron S.; Yen, Wen; Holt, Adam; Sangoro, Joshua; Sokolov, Alexei; Dadmun, Mark D.

    2015-03-01

    Poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) is widely studied as a model conjugated polymer in many electrical and photovoltaic applications, and has become the benchmark polymer when studying the physics of these devices. The assembly and growth of P3HT as organogels offers a structure that can bridge the electrodes, providing more efficient transport throughout the active layer. In this work, we identify and discuss a novel set of conditions for P3HT organogel network formation by controlling the spin-coating process from various solvents. The onset of organogel formation was monitored by in situ static light scattering, which measured both the thinning rate and off-specular scattering during film formation. Optical microscopy and thermal annealing experiments provide ex situ confirmation of organogel fabrication. The role of solution characteristics, including solvent boiling point, P3HT solubility, and initial P3HT solution concentration are examined to correlate these parameters to the rate of film formation, organogel-onset concentration, and overall network size. The properties of the film and their correlation to the fabrication parameters were also analyzed within the context of the hole mobility and density-of-states of the organogel, as measured from impedance spectroscopy.

  18. Tuning, via counter anions, the morphology and catalytic activity of CeO2 prepared under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Sumanta Kumar; Rao, Gangavarapu Ranga

    2012-05-01

    Advanced synthetic methods under mild and controlled conditions for the synthesis of nanocrystals with specific shapes and exposed surfaces are very important for understanding the surface related properties and to explore their structure-property relationship for various potential applications. Here, we report the synthesis of highly uniform CeO(2) nanorods and nanoflowers in large scale using non-hydrothermal homogeneous precipitation method with urea as a precipitating agent and CTAB as a shape directing agent. Uniform microstructures of CeO(2) samples were selectively synthesized using chloride and nitrate as the counter anions. The samples were characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis-DRS, and Raman spectroscopy, and temperature programmed reduction as well as desorption methods. The results show that the physicochemical and optical properties of CeO(2) samples significantly differ with their surface microstructure and morphology. They also strongly influence the redox property, oxygen storage capacity, and surface acidity of the CeO(2) samples. The CeO(2) samples with different morphologies were tested for their soot oxidation activity. The CeO(2) sample with nanorod morphology was found to be more active due to larger CeO(2)/soot interface than the CeO(2) sample with nanoflower morphology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional disability and associated chronic conditions among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Association between different risk factors and disability was found with age, sex, anaemia, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases(C.O.P.D), scabies, hypertrophy of prostate, ischaemic heart disease, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and acid peptic disorder were the risk factors of disability. These data suggest the ...

  20. Celiac Disease and Autoimmune-Associated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Lauret

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is frequently accompanied by a variety of extradigestive manifestations, thus making it a systemic disease rather than a disease limited to the gastrointestinal tract. This is primarily explained by the fact that CD belongs to the group of autoimmune diseases. The only one with a known etiology is related to a permanent intolerance to gluten. Remarkable breakthroughs have been achieved in the last decades, due to a greater interest in the diagnosis of atypical and asymptomatic patients, which are more frequent in adults. The known presence of several associated diseases provides guidance in the search of oligosymptomatic cases as well as studies performed in relatives of patients with CD. The causes for the onset and manifestation of associated diseases are diverse; some share a similar genetic base, like type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D; others share pathogenic mechanisms, and yet, others are of unknown nature. General practitioners and other specialists must remember that CD may debut with extraintestinal manifestations, and associated illnesses may appear both at the time of diagnosis and throughout the evolution of the disease. The implementation of a gluten-free diet (GFD improves the overall clinical course and influences the evolution of the associated diseases. In some cases, such as iron deficiency anemia, the GFD contributes to its disappearance. In other disorders, like T1D, this allows a better control of the disease. In several other complications and/or associated diseases, an adequate adherence to a GFD may slow down their evolution, especially if implemented during an early stage.

  1. Adaptive Self Tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-02

    The AST software includes numeric methods to 1) adjust STA/LTA signal detector trigger level (TL) values and 2) filter detections for a network of sensors. AST adapts TL values to the current state of the environment by leveraging cooperation within a neighborhood of sensors. The key metric that guides the dynamic tuning is consistency of each sensor with its nearest neighbors: TL values are automatically adjusted on a per station basis to be more or less sensitive to produce consistent agreement of detections in its neighborhood. The AST algorithm adapts in near real-time to changing conditions in an attempt to automatically self-tune a signal detector to identify (detect) only signals from events of interest.

  2. Association of Maternal Working Condition with Low Birth Weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of Maternal Working Condition with Low Birth Weight: The Social Determinants of Health Approach. ... Unfavorable work conditions such as humid environment, contact with detergents, and being in one standing or sitting position for long hours were significantly associated with LBW (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The ...

  3. Oracle SQL tuning with Oracle SQLTXPLAIN

    CERN Document Server

    Charalambides, Stelios

    2013-01-01

    Oracle SQL Tuning with SQLTXPLAIN is a practical guide to SQL tuning the way Oracle's own experts do it, using a freely downloadable tool called SQLTXPLAIN. Using this simple tool you'll learn how to tune even the most complex SQL, and you'll learn to do it quickly, without the huge learning curve usually associated with tuning as a whole.  Firmly based in real world problems, this book helps you reclaim system resources and avoid the most common bottleneck in overall performance, badly tuned SQL.  You'll learn how the optimizer works, how to take advantage of its latest features, and when it'

  4. Fear conditioning with film clips: a complex associative learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Anna E; Arntz, Arnoud; Kindt, Merel

    2015-06-01

    We argue that the stimuli used in traditional fear conditioning paradigms are too simple to model the learning and unlearning of complex fear memories. We therefore developed and tested an adapted fear conditioning paradigm, specifically designed for the study of complex associative memories. Second, we explored whether manipulating the meaning and complexity of the CS-UCS association strengthened the learned fear association. In a two-day differential fear conditioning study, participants were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions. All participants were subjected to the same CSs (i.e., pictures) and UCS (i.e., 3 s film clip) during fear conditioning. However, in one of the conditions (negative-relevant context), the reinforced CS and UCS were meaningfully connected to each other by a 12 min aversive film clip presented prior to fear acquisition. Participants in the other condition (neutral context) were not able to make such meaningful connection between these stimuli, as they viewed a neutral film clip. Fear learning and unlearning were observed on fear-potentiated startle data and distress ratings within the adapted paradigm. Moreover, several group differences on these measures indicated increased UCS valence and enhanced associative memory strength in the negative-relevant context condition compared to the neutral context condition. Due to technical equipment failure, skin conductance data could not be interpreted. The fear conditioning paradigm as presented in the negative-relevant context condition holds considerable promise for the study of complex associative fear memories and therapeutic interventions for such memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Association Between Pitch Conditions and the Incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Environmental conditions have been shown to influence incidence of rugby injuries. Harsh weather conditions and detrimental effect on poor Kenyan rugby pitches create a unique environment for injury exposure. We conducted a whole population prospective cohort study to determine the association of pitch ...

  6. Association of Maternal Working Condition with Low Birth Weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and being in one standing or sitting position for long hours were significantly associated with. LBW (P < 0.001). ... Keywords: Low birth weight, Pregnancy, Socioeconomic factors, Working conditions. Original Article. Access this article .... who were in a good condition and willing to participate in the study were asked to fill out ...

  7. Specialization on pollen or nectar in bumblebee foragers is not associated with ovary size, lipid reserves or sensory tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Foraging specialization allows social insects to more efficiently exploit resources in their environment. Recent research on honeybees suggests that specialization on pollen or nectar among foragers is linked to reproductive physiology and sensory tuning (the Reproductive Ground-Plan Hypothesis; RGPH. However, our understanding of the underlying physiological relationships in non-Apis bees is still limited. Here we show that the bumblebee Bombus terrestris has specialist pollen and nectar foragers, and test whether foraging specialization in B. terrestris is linked to reproductive physiology, measured as ovarian activation. We show that neither ovary size, sensory sensitivity, measured through proboscis extension response (PER, or whole-body lipid stores differed between pollen foragers, nectar foragers, or generalist foragers. Body size also did not differ between any of these three forager groups. Non-foragers had significantly larger ovaries than foragers. This suggests that potentially reproductive individuals avoid foraging.

  8. Target Organ Damage And Associated Clinical Conditions In Newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Failure to detect and make a diagnosis of hypertension leads to late presentation and institution of treatment with consequent development of target organ damage (TOD) and associated clinical conditions (ACC) which in turn are associated with increased cost of treatment, morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was ...

  9. The prevalence of chronic conditions associated with modifiable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sunday Times Discovery Healthiest Company Index Survey collected a dataset of 13 578 responses from corporate employees in 101 companies. This dataset has been used to assess the prevalence of self-reported modifiable health-risk factors and the association with chronic conditions. The analysis indicates that ...

  10. Association of Mental Disorders With Subsequent Chronic Physical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kate M.; Lim, Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Kawakami, Norito; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O’Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE It is clear that mental disorders in treatment settings are associated with a higher incidence of chronic physical conditions, but whether this is true of mental disorders in the community, and how generalized (across a range of physical health outcomes) these associations are, is less clear. This information has important implications for mental health care and the primary prevention of chronic physical disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate associations of 16 temporally prior DSM-IV mental disorders with the subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 chronic physical conditions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Eighteen face-to-face, cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults were conducted in 17 countries (47 609 individuals; 2 032 942 person-years) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2011. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to retrospectively assess the lifetime prevalence and age at onset of DSM-IV–identified mental disorders. Data analysis was performed from January 3, 2012, to September 30, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Lifetime history of physical conditions was ascertained via self-report of physician’s diagnosis and year of onset or diagnosis. Survival analyses estimated the associations of temporally prior first onset of mental disorders with subsequent onset or diagnosis of physical conditions. RESULTS Most associations between 16 mental disorders and subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 physical conditions were statistically significant, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) ranging from 1.2 (1.0–1.5) to 3.6 (2.0–6.6). The associations were attenuated after adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity, but mood, anxiety, substance use, and impulse control disorders remained significantly associated with onset of between 7 and all 10 of the physical conditions (ORs [95% CIs] from 1.2 [1.1–1.3] to 2.0 [1.4–2.8]). An increasing number of mental disorders experienced over the life course was significantly

  11. Neurological and Neurosurgical Conditions Associated with Aviation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    Laboratory of Neuro- Oncology New York, New York *Robert L. Stockton, MD Member, Aerospace Medical Association Waco, Texas Jack P. Whisnant, MD (FAAN) Professor...is only rarely reported following selective removal of the primary tumor and a single cerebral metastasis. The gliomas are oncologically unique, and...of the condition. Therapy There is no effective pharmacological treatment. Physiotherapy may help patients overcome some disability. Surgical therapy

  12. Classical Conditioning Differences Associated With Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Daniel S; Moseley, G Lorimer; Hillier, Susan L; Meulders, Ann

    2017-08-01

    Prominent clinical models of chronic pain propose a fundamental role of classical conditioning in the development of pain-related disability. If classical conditioning is key to this process, then people with chronic pain may show a different response to pain-related conditioned stimuli than healthy control subjects. We set out to determine whether this is the case by undertaking a comprehensive and systematic review of the literature. To identify studies comparing classical conditioning between people with chronic pain and healthy control subjects, the databases MEDLINE, PsychINFO, PsychARTICLES, Scopus, and CINAHL were searched using key words and medical subject headings consistent with 'classical conditioning' and 'pain.' Articles were included when: 1) pain-free control and chronic pain groups were included, and 2) a differential classical conditioning design was used. The systematic search revealed 7 studies investigating differences in classical conditioning between people with chronic pain and healthy control participants. The included studies involved a total of 129 people with chronic pain (fibromyalgia syndrome, spinal pain, hand pain, irritable bowel syndrome), and 104 healthy control participants. Outcomes included indices of pain-related conditioning such as unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy and contingency awareness, self-report and physiological measures of pain-related fear, evaluative judgements of conditioned stimulus pleasantness, and muscular and cortical responses. Because of variability in outcomes, meta-analyses included a maximum of 4 studies. People with chronic pain tended to show reduced differential learning and flatter generalization gradients with respect to US expectancy and fear-potentiated eyeblink startle responses. Some studies showed a propensity for greater muscular responses and perceptions of unpleasantness in response to pain-associated cues, relative to control cues. The review revealed preliminary evidence that people

  13. Clinical conditions associated withintestinal strongyloidiasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Caryna Cabral

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth that produces an infection that can persist for decades. The relationships between certain clinical conditions and strongyloidiasis remains controversial. This study aims to identify the clinical conditions associated with intestinal strongyloidiasis at a reference center for infectious diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: The clinical conditions that were assessed included HIV/AIDS, HTLV infection, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obstructive respiratory diseases, viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, cancer, chronic renal disease, nutritional/metabolic disorders, psychiatric conditions, rheumatic diseases and dermatologic diseases. We compared 167 S. stercoralis-positive and 133 S. stercoralis-negative patients. RESULTS: After controlling for sex (male/female OR = 2.29; 95% (CI: (1.42 - 3.70, rheumatic diseases remained significantly associated with intestinal strongyloidiasis (OR: 4.96; 95% CI: 1.34-18.37 in a multiple logistic regression model. With respect to leukocyte counts, patients with strongyloidiasis presented with significantly higher relative eosinophil (10.32% ± 7.2 vs. 4.23% ± 2.92 and monocyte (8.49% ± 7.25 vs. 5.39% ± 4.31 counts and lower segmented neutrophil (52.85% ± 15.31 vs. 61.32% ± 11.4 and lymphocyte counts (28.11% ± 9.72 vs. 30.90% ± 9.51 than S. stercoralis-negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: Strongyloidiasis should be routinely investigated in hospitalized patients with complex conditions facilitate the treatment of patients who will undergo immunosuppressive therapy. Diagnoses should be determined through the use of appropriate parasitological methods, such as the Baermann-Moraes technique.

  14. Immune activity, body condition and human-associated environmental impacts in a wild marine mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Brock

    Full Text Available Within individuals, immunity may compete with other life history traits for resources, such as energy and protein, and the damage caused by immunopathology can sometimes outweigh the protective benefits that immune responses confer. However, our understanding of the costs of immunity in the wild and how they relate to the myriad energetic demands on free-ranging organisms is limited. The endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki is threatened simultaneously by disease from domestic animals and rapid changes in food availability driven by unpredictable environmental variation. We made use of this unique ecology to investigate the relationship between changes in immune activity and changes in body condition. We found that during the first three months of life, changes in antibody concentration were negatively correlated with changes in mass per unit length, skinfold thickness and serum albumin concentration, but only in a sea lion colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts. It has previously been shown that changes in antibody concentration during early Galapagos sea lion development were higher in a colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts than in a control colony. This study allows for the possibility that these relatively large changes in antibody concentration are associated with negative impacts on fitness through an effect on body condition. Our findings suggest that energy availability and the degree of plasticity in immune investment may influence disease risk in natural populations synergistically, through a trade-off between investment in immunity and resistance to starvation. The relative benefits of such investments may change quickly and unpredictably, which allows for the possibility that individuals fine-tune their investment strategies in response to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, our results suggest that anthropogenic environmental impacts may impose subtle energetic costs on

  15. The Tuning Song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    Provides the song "Can't Get in Tune Blues" to help orchestra string students determine whether their instruments are in tune. Explains that the song teaches students the pitch relationships among strings and gives them valuable open-string bowing practice. Includes the music and one variation. (CMK)

  16. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  17. Synthesis of pure-silica ZSM-48 zeolite under mild hydrothermal condition with conventional amphiphilic cation by tuning the reactant gel composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MOTEKI, Takahiko; KEOH, Sye Hoe; OHMURA, Takafumi; IYOKI, Kenta; WAKIHARA, Toru; OKUBO, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    .... Although severe hydrothermal conditions are usually required to utilize organics possessing anisotropic charge distribution, by controlling the water content of the reactant gel, the crystallization...

  18. Associative structure of second-order conditioning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Paul; Wasserman, Jessica S; Polack, Cody W; Kosinski, Thierry; Renaux, Charlotte; Miller, Ralph R

    2017-11-03

    Second-order conditioning (SOC; i.e., conditioned responding to S2 as a result of S1-US pairings followed by S2-S1 pairings) is generally explained by either a direct S2→US association or by an associative chain (i.e., S2→S1→US). Previous research found that differences in responses to S2 after S1 was extinguished often depended on the nature of the S2-S1 pairings (i.e., sequential or simultaneous). In two experiments with human participants, we examined the possibility that such differences result from S1 evoking S2 during extinction of S1 following simultaneous but not sequential S2-S1 pairings. This evocation of S2 by S1 following simultaneous pairings may have paired the evoked representation of S2 with absence of the outcome, thereby facilitating mediated extinction of S2. Using sequential S2-S1 pairings, both Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support this account of how extinction of S1 reduced responding to S2. Experiment 1 found that extinguishing S1 reduced responding to S2, while extinguishing S2 had little effect on responses to S1, although forward evocation of S1 during extinction of S2 paired the evoked representation of S1 with absence of the outcome. In Experiment 2, evocation of S2 during S1 nonreinforced trials was prevented because S2-S1 pairings followed (rather than proceeded) S1-alone exposures. Nevertheless, responding to S2 at test mimicked S1 responding. Responding to S2 was high in the context in which S1 had been reinforced and low in the context in which S1 had been nonreinforced. Collectively, these experiments provide additional support for the associative-chain account of SOC.

  19. Java performance tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Shirazi, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Performance has been an important issue for Java developers ever since the first version hit the streets. Over the years, Java performance has improved dramatically, but tuning is essential to get the best results, especially for J2EE applications. You can never have code that runs too fast. Java Peformance Tuning, 2nd edition provides a comprehensive and indispensable guide to eliminating all types of performance problems. Using many real-life examples to work through the tuning process in detail, JPT shows how tricks such as minimizing object creation and replacing strings with arrays can

  20. iTunes music

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Apple's exciting new Mastered for iTunes (MFiT) initiative, introduced in early 2012, introduces new possibilities for delivering high-quality audio. For the first time, record labels and program producers are encouraged to deliver audio materials to iTunes in a high resolution format, which can produce better-sounding masters. In iTunes Music, author and world-class mastering engineer Bob Katz starts out with the basics, surveys the recent past, and brings you quickly up to the present-where the current state of digital audio is bleak. Katz explains the evolution of

  1. Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Associated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mack

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Probiotics offer a method to potentially alter the intestinal microbiome exogenously or may provide an option to deliver microbial metabolic products to alter the chronicity of intestinal mucosal inflammation characterizing IBD. At present, there is little evidence for the benefit of currently used probiotic microbes in Crohn’s disease or associated conditions affecting extra-intestinal organs. However, clinical practice guidelines are now including a probiotic as an option for recurrent and relapsing antibiotic sensitive pouchitis and the use of probiotics in mild ulcerative colitis is provocative and suggests potential for benefit in select patients but concerns remain about proof from trials.

  2. Tuning Monte Carlo Generators: The Perugia Tunes

    CERN Document Server

    Skands, Peter Zeiler

    2010-01-01

    We present 9 new tunes of the pT-ordered shower and underlying-event model in PYTHIA 6.4. These "Perugia" tunes update and supersede the older "S0" family. The data sets used to constrain the models include hadronic Z0 decays at LEP, Tevatron minimum-bias data at 630, 1800, and 1960 GeV, Tevatron Drell-Yan data at 1800 and 1960 GeV, and SPS min-bias data at 200, 546, and 900 GeV. In addition to the central parameter set, called "Perugia 0", we introduce a set of 8 related "Perugia Variations" that attempt to systematically explore soft, hard, parton density, and colour structure variations in the theoretical parameters. Based on these variations, a best-guess prediction of the charged track multiplicity in inelastic, nondiffractive minimum-bias events at the LHC is made. Note that these tunes can only be used with PYTHIA 6, not with PYTHIA 8. Note: this report was updated in March 2011 with a new set of variations, collectively labeled "Perugia 2011", that are optimized for matching applications and which als...

  3. TUNE: Compiler-Directed Automatic Performance Tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Mary [University of Utah

    2014-09-18

    This project has developed compiler-directed performance tuning technology targeting the Cray XT4 Jaguar system at Oak Ridge, which has multi-core Opteron nodes with SSE-3 SIMD extensions, and the Cray XE6 Hopper system at NERSC. To achieve this goal, we combined compiler technology for model-guided empirical optimization for memory hierarchies with SIMD code generation, which have been developed by the PIs over the past several years. We examined DOE Office of Science applications to identify performance bottlenecks and apply our system to computational kernels that operate on dense arrays. Our goal for this performance-tuning technology has been to yield hand-tuned levels of performance on DOE Office of Science computational kernels, while allowing application programmers to specify their computations at a high level without requiring manual optimization. Overall, we aim to make our technology for SIMD code generation and memory hierarchy optimization a crucial component of high-productivity Petaflops computing through a close collaboration with the scientists in national laboratories.

  4. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  5. Neurodynamics of the prefrontal cortex during conditional visuomotor associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Marco; Pasupathy, Anitha; Miller, Earl K; Deco, Gustavo

    2008-03-01

    The prefrontal cortex is believed to be important for cognitive control, working memory, and learning. It is known to play an important role in the learning and execution of conditional visuomotor associations, a cognitive task in which stimuli have to be associated with actions by trial-and-error learning. In our modeling study, we sought to integrate several hypotheses on the function of the prefrontal cortex using a computational model, and compare the results to experimental data. We constructed a module of prefrontal cortex neurons exposed to two different inputs, which we envision to originate from the inferotemporal cortex and the basal ganglia. We found that working memory properties do not describe the dominant dynamics in the prefrontal cortex, but the activation seems to be transient, probably progressing along a pathway from sensory to motor areas. During the presentation of the cue, the dynamics of the prefrontal cortex is bistable, yielding a distinct activation for correct and error trails. We find that a linear change in network parameters relates to the changes in neural activity in consecutive correct trials during learning, which is important evidence for the underlying learning mechanisms.

  6. Paracas dust storms: Sources, trajectories and associated meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño-Zuluaga, F.; Castagna, A.; Rutllant, J. A.; Flores-Aqueveque, V.; Caquineau, S.; Sifeddine, A.; Velazco, F.; Gutierrez, D.; Cardich, J.

    2017-09-01

    Dust storms that develop along the Pisco-Ica desert in Southern Peru, locally known as ;Paracas; winds have ecological, health and economic repercussions. Here we identify dust sources through MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery and analyze HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particles Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model trajectories and dispersion patterns, along with concomitant synoptic-scale meteorological conditions from National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis (NCEP/NCAR). Additionally, surface pressure data from the hourly METeorological Aerodrome Report (METAR) at Arica (18.5°S, 70.3°W) and Pisco (13.7°S, 76.2°W) were used to calculate Alongshore (sea-level) Pressure Gradient (APG) anomalies during Paracas dust storms, their duration and associated wind-speeds and wind directions. This study provides a review on the occurrence and strength of the Paracas dust storms as reported in the Pisco airfield for five-year period and their correspondence with MODIS true-color imagery in terms of dust-emission source areas. Our results show that most of the particle fluxes moving into the Ica-Pisco desert area during Paracas wind events originate over the coastal zone, where strong winds forced by steep APGs develop as the axis of a deep mid-troposphere trough sets in along north-central Chile. Direct relationships between Paracas wind intensity, number of active dust-emission sources and APGs are also documented, although the scarcity of simultaneous METAR/MODIS data for clearly observed MODIS dust plumes prevents any significant statistical inference. Synoptic-scale meteorological composites from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data show that Paracas wind events (steep APGs) are mostly associated with the strengthening of anticyclonic conditions in northern Chile, that can be attributed to cold air advection associated with the incoming trough. Compared to the MODIS images, HYSPLIT outputs were able

  7. Robust Self Tuning Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...... has several operation modes and a detector for controlling the mode. A special self tuning controller has been developed to regulate plant with changing time delay....

  8. Review of common conditions associated with periodontal ligament widening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam [Dept. of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this article is to review a group of lesions associated with periodontal ligament (PDL) widening. An electronic search was performed using specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, and Scopus to find relevant studies by using keywords such as “periodontium”, “periodontal ligament”, “periodontal ligament space”, “widened periodontal ligament”, and “periodontal ligament widening”. Out of nearly 200 articles, about 60 were broadly relevant to the topic. Ultimately, 47 articles closely related to the topic of interest were reviewed. When the relevant data were compiled, the following 10 entities were identified: occlusal/orthodontic trauma, periodontal disease/periodontitis, pulpo-periapical lesions, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, progressive systemic sclerosis, radiation-induced bone defect, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, and osteomyelitis. Although PDL widening may be encountered by many dentists during their routine daily procedures, the clinician should consider some serious related conditions as well.

  9. The association between weather conditions and stroke admissions in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çevik, Yunsur; Doğan, Nurettin Özgür; Daş, Murat; Ahmedali, Asliddin; Kul, Seval; Bayram, Hasan

    2015-07-01

    Although several factors such as cigarette smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, physical inactivity and dietary factors have been well documented to increase the risk for stroke, there are conflicting data about the role of meteorological variables in the etiology of stroke. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the association between weather patterns, including daily temperature, humidity, wind speed, and air pressure, and stroke admissions to the Emergency Department of Atatürk Training and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey, between January 2009 and April 2010. Generalized additive models with logistic link function were used to investigate the relationship between predictors and days with and without stroke admission at lags 0-4. A total of 373 stroke patients were admitted to the emergency department (ED) between January 2009 and April 2010. Of patients, 297 had ischemic stroke (IS), 34 hemorrhagic stroke (HS), and 42 subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH). Although we did not find any association between overall admissions due to stroke and meteorological parameters, univariable analysis indicated that there were significantly more SAH cases on days with lower daily mean temperatures of 8.79 ± 8.75 °C as compared to relatively mild days with higher temperatures (mean temperature = 11.89 ± 7.94 °C, p = 0.021). The multivariable analysis demonstrated that admissions due to SAH increased on days with lower daily mean temperatures for the same day (lag 0; odds ratio (OR) [95 % confidence interval (95 % CI)] = 0.93 [0.89-0.98], p = 0.004) and lag 1 (OR [95 % CI] =0.76 [0.67-0.86], p = 0.001). Furthermore, the wind speed at both lag 1 (OR [95 % CI] = 1.63 [1.27-2.09], p = 0.001) and lag 3 (OR [95 % CI] = 1.43 [1.12-1.81], p = 0.004) increased admissions due to HS, respectively. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that there was an association between ED admissions due to SAH and HS and weather conditions suggesting that

  10. The association between weather conditions and stroke admissions in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çevik, Yunsur; Doğan, Nurettin Özgür; Daş, Murat; Ahmedali, Asliddin; Kul, Seval; Bayram, Hasan

    2015-07-01

    Although several factors such as cigarette smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, physical inactivity and dietary factors have been well documented to increase the risk for stroke, there are conflicting data about the role of meteorological variables in the etiology of stroke. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the association between weather patterns, including daily temperature, humidity, wind speed, and air pressure, and stroke admissions to the Emergency Department of Atatürk Training and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey, between January 2009 and April 2010. Generalized additive models with logistic link function were used to investigate the relationship between predictors and days with and without stroke admission at lags 0-4. A total of 373 stroke patients were admitted to the emergency department (ED) between January 2009 and April 2010. Of patients, 297 had ischemic stroke (IS), 34 hemorrhagic stroke (HS), and 42 subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH). Although we did not find any association between overall admissions due to stroke and meteorological parameters, univariable analysis indicated that there were significantly more SAH cases on days with lower daily mean temperatures of 8.79 ± 8.75 °C as compared to relatively mild days with higher temperatures (mean temperature = 11.89 ± 7.94 °C, p = 0.021). The multivariable analysis demonstrated that admissions due to SAH increased on days with lower daily mean temperatures for the same day (lag 0; odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] = 0.93 [0.89-0.98], p = 0.004) and lag 1 (OR [95% CI] =0.76 [0.67-0.86], p = 0.001). Furthermore, the wind speed at both lag 1 (OR [95% CI] = 1.63 [1.27-2.09], p = 0.001) and lag 3 (OR [95% CI] = 1.43 [1.12-1.81], p = 0.004) increased admissions due to HS, respectively. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that there was an association between ED admissions due to SAH and HS

  11. Tuning the formation of a covalent haem-protein link by selection of reductive or oxidative conditions as exemplified by ascorbate peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Clive L; Daltrop, Oliver; Ferguson, Stuart J; Raven, Emma Lloyd

    2007-12-15

    Previous work [Metcalfe, Ott, Patel, Singh, Mistry, Goff and Raven (2004) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 16242-16248] has shown that the introduction of a methionine residue (S160M variant) close to the 2-vinyl group of the haem in ascorbate peroxidase leads to the formation of a covalent haem-methionine linkage under oxidative conditions (i.e. on reaction with H2O2). In the present study, spectroscopic, HPLC and mass spectrometric evidence is presented to show that covalent attachment of the haem to an engineered cysteine residue can also occur in the S160C variant, but, in this case, under reducing conditions analogous to those used in the formation of covalent links in cytochrome c. The data add an extra dimension to our understanding of haem to protein covalent bond formation because they show that different types of covalent attachment (one requiring an oxidative mechanism, the other a reductive pathway) are both accessible within same protein architecture.

  12. Auto-tuning for NMR probe using LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quen, Carmen; Pham, Stephanie; Bernal, Oscar

    2014-03-01

    Typical manual NMR-tuning method is not suitable for broadband spectra spanning several megahertz linewidths. Among the main problems encountered during manual tuning are pulse-power reproducibility, baselines, and transmission line reflections, to name a few. We present a design of an auto-tuning system using graphic programming language, LabVIEW, to minimize these problems. The program uses a simplified model of the NMR probe conditions near perfect tuning to mimic the tuning process and predict the position of the capacitor shafts needed to achieve the desirable impedance. The tuning capacitors of the probe are controlled by stepper motors through a LabVIEW/computer interface. Our program calculates the effective capacitance needed to tune the probe and provides controlling parameters to advance the motors in the right direction. The impedance reading of a network analyzer can be used to correct the model parameters in real time for feedback control.

  13. Long-term consolidation and retention of learning-induced tuning plasticity in the auditory cortex of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Veronica V; Weinberger, Norman M

    2002-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to determine whether classical conditioning produces long-term neural consolidation of frequency tuning plasticity in the auditory cortex. Local field potentials (LFPs) were obtained from chronically implanted adult male Hartley guinea pigs that were divided into conditioning (n = 4) and sensitization control (n = 3) groups. Tuning functions were determined in awake subjects for average LFPs (approximately 0.4 to 36.0 kHz, -20 to 80 dB) immediately before training as well as 1 h and 1, 3, 7, and 10 days after training; sensitization subjects did not have a 10-day retention test. Conditioning consisted of a single session of 30 to 45 trials of a 6-s tone (CS, 70 dB) that was not the best frequency (BF, peak of a tuning curve), followed by a brief leg shock (US) at CS offset. Sensitization control animals received the same density of CS and US presentations unpaired. Heart rate recordings showed that the conditioning group developed conditioned bradycardia, whereas the sensitization control group did not. Local field potentials in the conditioning group, but not in the sensitization group, developed tuning plasticity. The ratio of responses to the CS frequency versus the BF were increased 1 h after training, and this increase was retained for the 10-day period of the study. Both tuning plasticity and retention were observed across stimulus levels (10-80 dB). Most noteworthy, tuning plasticity exhibited consolidation (i.e., developed greater CS-specific effects across retention periods), attaining asymptote at 3 days. The findings indicate that LFPs in the auditory cortex have three cardinal features of behavioral memory: associative tuning plasticity, long-term retention, and long-term consolidation. Potential cellular and subcellular mechanisms of LFP tuning plasticity and long-term consolidation are discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science.

  14. Associative learning phenomena in the snail (Helix aspersa): conditioned inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acebes, Félix; Solar, Patricia; Moris, Joaquín; Loy, Ignacio

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments using garden snails (Helix aspersa) showed conditioned inhibition using both retardation and summation tests. Conditioned inhibition is a procedure by which a stimulus becomes a predictor of the absence of a relevant event--the unconditioned stimulus (US). Typically, conditioned inhibition consists of pairings between an initially neutral conditioned stimulus, CS(2), and an effective excitatory conditioned stimulus, CS(1), in the absence of the US. Retardation and summation tests are required in order to confirm that CS(2) has acquired inhibitory properties. Conditioned inhibition has previously been found in invertebrates; however, these demonstrations did not use the retardation and summation tests required for an unambiguous demonstration of inhibition, allowing for alternative explanations. The implications of our results for the fields of comparative cognition and invertebrate physiological models of learning are discussed.

  15. A Refined Self-Tuning Filter-Based Instantaneous Power Theory Algorithm for Indirect Current Controlled Three-Level Inverter-Based Shunt Active Power Filters under Non-sinusoidal Source Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Hoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a refined reference current generation algorithm based on instantaneous power (pq theory is proposed, for operation of an indirect current controlled (ICC three-level neutral-point diode clamped (NPC inverter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF under non-sinusoidal source voltage conditions. SAPF is recognized as one of the most effective solutions to current harmonics due to its flexibility in dealing with various power system conditions. As for its controller, pq theory has widely been applied to generate the desired reference current due to its simple implementation features. However, the conventional dependency on self-tuning filter (STF in generating reference current has significantly limited mitigation performance of SAPF. Besides, the conventional STF-based pq theory algorithm is still considered to possess needless features which increase computational complexity. Furthermore, the conventional algorithm is mostly designed to suit operation of direct current controlled (DCC SAPF which is incapable of handling switching ripples problems, thereby leading to inefficient mitigation performance. Therefore, three main improvements are performed which include replacement of STF with mathematical-based fundamental real power identifier, removal of redundant features, and generation of sinusoidal reference current. To validate effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm, simulation work in MATLAB-Simulink and laboratory test utilizing a TMS320F28335 digital signal processor (DSP are performed. Both simulation and experimental findings demonstrate superiority of the proposed algorithm over the conventional algorithm.

  16. Fear conditioning with film clips: a complex associative learning paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunze, A.E.; Arntz, A.; Kindt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: We argue that the stimuli used in traditional fear conditioning paradigms are too simple to model the learning and unlearning of complex fear memories. We therefore developed and tested an adapted fear conditioning paradigm, specifically designed for the study of complex

  17. Complier-Directed Automatic Performance Tuning (TUNE) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chame, Jacqueline [USC-ISI

    2013-06-07

    TUNE was created to develop compiler-directed performance tuning technology targeting the Cray XT4 system at Oak Ridge. TUNE combines compiler technology for model-guided empirical optimization for memory hierarchies with SIMD code generation. The goal of this performance-tuning technology is to yield hand-tuned levels of performance on DOE Office of Science computational kernels, while allowing application programmers to specify their computations at a high level without requiring manual optimization. Overall, TUNE aims to make compiler technology for SIMD code generation and memory hierarchy optimization a crucial component of high-productivity Petaflops computing through a close collaboration with the scientists in national laboratories.

  18. SC tuning fork

    CERN Multimedia

    The tuning fork used to modulate the radiofrequency system of the synchro cyclotron (SC) from 1957 to 1973. This piece is an unused spare part. The SC was the 1st accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990. In the SC the magnetic field did not change with time, and the particles were accelerated in successive pulses by a radiofrequency voltage of some 20kV which varied in frequency as they spiraled outwards towards the extraction radius. The frequency varied from 30MHz to about 17Mz in each pulse. The tuning fork vibrated at 55MHz in vacuum in an enclosure which formed a variable capacitor in the tuning circuit of the RF system, allowing the RF to vary over the appropriate range to accelerate protons from the centre of the macine up to 600Mev at extraction radius. In operation the tips of the tuning fork blade had an amplitude of movement of over 1 cm. The SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements from 1973 to 1975, including the installation of a...

  19. Tuning with Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkleroad, Leon

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines three historical geometric constructions for handcrafting stringed instruments. Using elementary geometry--in particular, triangles--these methods can provide quite good rational approximations to the irrationals that arise from tuning instruments in equal temperament. Interestingly, continued fractions help explain the…

  20. Professions and Working Conditions Associated With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Bolíbar, Ignasi; Palomera, Elisabet; Roig, Jordi; Boixeda, Ramon; Bartolomé, Maria; de la Torre, Mari; Parra, Olga; Torres, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not considered a professional disease, and the effect of different occupations and working conditions on susceptibility to CAP is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine whether different jobs and certain working conditions are risk factors for CAP. Over a 1-year period, all radiologically confirmed cases of CAP (n=1,336) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=1,326) were enrolled in a population-based case-control study. A questionnaire on CAP risk factors, including work-related questions, was administered to all participants during an in-person interview. The bivariate analysis showed that office work is a protective factor against CAP, while building work, contact with dust and sudden changes of temperature in the workplace were risk factors for CAP. The occupational factor disappeared when the multivariate analysis was adjusted for working conditions. Contact with dust (previous month) and sudden changes of temperature (previous 3 months) were risk factors for CAP, irrespective of the number of years spent working in these conditions, suggesting reversibility. Some recent working conditions such as exposure to dust and sudden changes of temperature in the workplace are risk factors for CAP. Both factors are reversible and preventable. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Sufficient conditions for starlikeness associated with parabolic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ravichandran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic function f(z=z+a n+1 z n+1+⋯, defined on the unit disk △={z:|z||w−1|. This class is closely related to the class of uniformly convex functions. Sufficient conditions for function to be in S p are obtained. In particular, we find condition on λ such that the function f(z, satisfying (1−α(f(z/z μ+αf′(z(f(z/z μ−1≺1+λz, is in S p.

  2. Tuning the target composition of amine-grafted CPO-27-Mg for capture of CO2 under post-combustion and air filtering conditions: a combined experimental and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, M C; García Blanco, A A; Villarroel-Rocha, J; Fairen-Jimenez, D; Sapag, K; Ramirez-Pastor, A J; Narda, G E

    2015-11-21

    A computational and experimental screening of hypothetical and real compounds exhibiting different degrees of ethylenediamine grafted to the CPO-27-Mg or Mg-DOBDC skeleton is performed in order to determine the target composition that optimizes the CO2 adsorption properties under flue gas and air filtering conditions. On the basis of the [Mg2(dobdc)] formula, eighteen hypothetical models involving 15-100% of functionalization of the coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUS) were considered by means of Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the CO2 adsorption at 298 K. In addition, post-synthesis modification was applied to CPO-27-Mg leading to three kinds of samples exhibiting 15, 50, and 60% of CUS functionalization with ethylenediamine, named CPO-27-Mg-a, CPO-27-Mg-b and CPO-27-Mg-c. Compounds were characterized using elemental analysis, TGA, FTIR spectroscopy, PXRD and DSC. Finally, bare and functionalized CPO-27-Mg materials were evaluated using gas adsorption and microcalorimetry in the 0.001-1 bar range, which is pertinent for the mentioned applications. Valuable information related to design criteria for synthesis of tuned CO2 adsorbents is derived through this computational and experimental investigation.

  3. Human Q fever incidence is associated to spatiotemporal environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G. Van Leuken

    2016-12-01

    We conclude that environmental conditions are correlated to human Q fever incidence rate. Similar research with data from other outbreaks would be needed to more firmly establish our findings. This could lead to better estimations of the public health risk of a C. burnetii outbreak, and to more detailed and accurate hazard maps that could be used for spatial planning of livestock operations.

  4. On M-stationarity conditions in MPECs and the associated qualification conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Lukáš; Henrion, R.; Outrata, Jiří

    (2017) ISSN 0025-5610 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints * Optimality conditions * Constraint qualification * Calmness * Perturbation mapping Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.446, year: 2016 http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/adam-0474227.pdf

  5. Periodontal conditions during the pregnancy associated with periodontal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usin, Maria Matilde; Tabares, Sandra M; Parodi, Ricardo J; Sembaj, Adela

    2013-02-01

    To describe the bacterial associations in the periodontal pockets of pregnant women and to correlate the presence of Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia (T. forsythia), Treponema denticola (T. denticola), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromona gingivalis (P. gingivalis) with periodontal parameters of severity. The analysis was performed with 150 pregnant women. The examination consisted of an evaluation of bleeding, suppuration, probing depths, clinical attachment levels, hypermobility scores, the Silness and Löe Plaque Index, and the Löe and the Silness Gingival Index. Each periodontal pathogen was identified by polymerase chain reaction. A statistically-significant association was observed (P < 0.01) between P. gingivalis and T. forsythia, between P. gingivalis and T. denticola, and between T. forsythia and T. denticola. Age was observed to be a risk factor in the development of moderate periodontitis (odds ratio [OR] = 4.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-21.3, P = 0.0328). Age was significantly associated with increased pocket depth and plaque index (OR = 6.36, 95% CI = 1.8-22.2, P = 0.0037). In pregnant women, the presence of P. gingivalis was found to increase the risk of developing a clinical attachment level ≥ 5 mm. A high prevalence of P. gingivalis in pregnant women, especially in combination with T. forsythia and T. denticola, was associated with an increased risk of developing moderate periodontitis, and that association was more marked in pregnant women aged 30 years or older. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Tuning History: The French Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboley, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    The paper shows that Tuning Project has generated indifference more than resistance within the French academic community. It proposes an analysis of the reasons of this situation: difficulties arising from Tuning itself, the resistance of the French academic tradition, the institutional inhibitors and facilitators. The impact of Tuning on French…

  7. Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease: A Potentially Reversible Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Correia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune thyroid disease may occasionally associate with unspecific neurological symptoms, which are more commonly insidious, include cognitive or behavioural symptoms, and may associate with tremor, myoclonus, or ataxia. We report a 61-year-old female patient who presented with chronic headache, insidious mood, and cognitive disturbance which evolved in a few months to dementia associated with exuberant limb myoclonus. Diagnostic workup revealed high anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody titers and an inflammatory CSF profile, and it was negative for other possible etiologies. Treatment with steroids induced significant improvement. The diagnosis of encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease is still controversial given the fact that the clinical presentation and diagnostic workup are unspecific, the pathophysiology is still undetermined, and the diagnosis is mostly of exclusion. No direct correlation is found between anti-thyroid antibody titers and clinical presentation, and it is currently speculated that other still unrecognized antibodies may be responsible for this clinical entity. It is extremely important to recognize this entity because it is potentially treatable with immunotherapies. It is also increasingly recognized that clinical improvement with first-line treatment with steroids may be absent or incomplete, and other immunotherapies as immunosuppressants, intravenous immunoglobulin, or plasma exchange must be attempted in the clinical suspicion of EEAT.

  8. Weather Features Associated with Aircraft Icing Conditions: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Fernández-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of aviation weather hazards, the study of aircraft icing is very important because of several accidents attributed to it over recent decades. On February 1, 2012, an unusual meteorological situation caused severe icing of a C-212-200, an aircraft used during winter 2011-2012 to study winter cloud systems in the Guadarrama Mountains of the central Iberian Peninsula. Observations in this case were from a MP-3000A microwave radiometric profiler, which acquired atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles continuously every 2.5 minutes. A Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS was also used to study cloud hydrometeors. Finally, ice nuclei concentration was measured in an isothermal cloud chamber, with the goal of calculating concentrations in the study area. Synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions were analysed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. It was demonstrated that topography influenced generation of a mesolow and gravity waves on the lee side of the orographic barrier, in the region where the aircraft experienced icing. Other factors such as moisture, wind direction, temperature, atmospheric stability, and wind shear were decisive in the appearance of icing. This study indicates that icing conditions may arise locally, even when the synoptic situation does not indicate any risk.

  9. Weather features associated with aircraft icing conditions: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, Sergio; Sánchez, José Luis; Gascón, Estíbaliz; López, Laura; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Merino, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    In the context of aviation weather hazards, the study of aircraft icing is very important because of several accidents attributed to it over recent decades. On February 1, 2012, an unusual meteorological situation caused severe icing of a C-212-200, an aircraft used during winter 2011-2012 to study winter cloud systems in the Guadarrama Mountains of the central Iberian Peninsula. Observations in this case were from a MP-3000A microwave radiometric profiler, which acquired atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles continuously every 2.5 minutes. A Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) was also used to study cloud hydrometeors. Finally, ice nuclei concentration was measured in an isothermal cloud chamber, with the goal of calculating concentrations in the study area. Synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions were analysed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. It was demonstrated that topography influenced generation of a mesolow and gravity waves on the lee side of the orographic barrier, in the region where the aircraft experienced icing. Other factors such as moisture, wind direction, temperature, atmospheric stability, and wind shear were decisive in the appearance of icing. This study indicates that icing conditions may arise locally, even when the synoptic situation does not indicate any risk.

  10. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meaningfulness of the job, collaboration among colleagues, trustworthiness of the closest superior and bullying have previously been shown to be major covariates of intention to quit the job. AIMS: To test if these elements of the psychosocial work environment are also the most......'s salary database. RESULTS: A total of 1809 hospital employees took part with a response rate of 65%. The mean age was 43 (range: 20-69) and 75% were female. Totally, 363 study participants (20%) had at least 14 days sickness absence (defined as high absence) during the preceding year. Associations between...... high sickness absence and 29 psychosocial work elements were analysed, adjusting for relevant confounders. Following multiple logistic regression analysis, three elements had an independent statistically significant association with high sickness absence: no exposure to bullying (odds ratio (95...

  11. Anterior process calcaneal fractures: a systematic evaluation of associated conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrover, David [NYU Hospital for Joint Disease, Radiology Department, New York, NY (United States); Hopital Beaujon, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Schweitzer, Mark E. [NYU Hospital for Joint Disease, Radiology Department, New York, NY (United States); Laredo, J.D. [Hopital Lariboisiere, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France)

    2007-07-15

    The objective was to evaluate the association, by MRI, of anterior calcaneal process fractures with tarsal coalitions, ankle sprains, and bifurcate ligament abnormalities. A retrospective review of 1,479 foot and ankle MR images was performed, over a period of 5 years, for isolated anterior process fractures of the calcaneus. Fifteen 1.5-T MR examinations were systematically evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. Marrow edema patterns, presence of a calcaneonavicular coalition, as well as bifurcate and anterior talofibular ligaments, were evaluated. There were 15 fractures of the anterior calcaneal process with an incidence of 1%. The average patient age was 51 years (range 25-82). Twelve patients were women and 3 were men. The majority of the fractures (14 out of 15) presented as an edema pattern on T2-weighted images, either diffuse (9 out of 15), or vertical (5 out of 15). One case did not show marrow edema, but rather a hypointense line. Nine patients (60%) demonstrated calcaneonavicular coalition and anterior calcaneal process fracture. In 6 patients (50%) the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) was thickened. Three patients did not have axial images, and were classified as non-conclusive for the ATFL evaluation. The bifurcate ligament was thickened with hyperintense signal demonstrating a sprain in 9 out of 13 (69%). Only 2 patients (16.5%) had an anterior calcaneal process fracture without any associated abnormality. We believe that there is a probable association of anterior process fractures and calcaneonavicular coalitions. We also feel, based on our results and the prior literature that there is likely also an association with both ATFL injuries and bifurcate ligament injuries. (orig.)

  12. Antioxidant Therapeutic Strategies for Cardiovascular Conditions Associated with Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Farías

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS refers to the imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the ability to scavenge these ROS by endogenous antioxidant systems, where ROS overwhelms the antioxidant capacity. Excessive presence of ROS results in irreversible damage to cell membranes, DNA, and other cellular structures by oxidizing lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases related to hypoxia, cardiotoxicity and ischemia–reperfusion. Here, we describe the participation of OS in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular conditions such as myocardial infarction, anthracycline cardiotoxicity and congenital heart disease. This review focuses on the different clinical events where redox factors and OS are related to cardiovascular pathophysiology, giving to support for novel pharmacological therapies such as omega 3 fatty acids, non-selective betablockers and microRNAs.

  13. Antioxidant Therapeutic Strategies for Cardiovascular Conditions Associated with Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías, Jorge G; Molina, Víctor M; Carrasco, Rodrigo A; Zepeda, Andrea B; Figueroa, Elías; Letelier, Pablo; Castillo, Rodrigo L

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) refers to the imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to scavenge these ROS by endogenous antioxidant systems, where ROS overwhelms the antioxidant capacity. Excessive presence of ROS results in irreversible damage to cell membranes, DNA, and other cellular structures by oxidizing lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases related to hypoxia, cardiotoxicity and ischemia-reperfusion. Here, we describe the participation of OS in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular conditions such as myocardial infarction, anthracycline cardiotoxicity and congenital heart disease. This review focuses on the different clinical events where redox factors and OS are related to cardiovascular pathophysiology, giving to support for novel pharmacological therapies such as omega 3 fatty acids, non-selective betablockers and microRNAs.

  14. Antioxidant Therapeutic Strategies for Cardiovascular Conditions Associated with Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Víctor M.; Carrasco, Rodrigo A.; Figueroa, Elías; Letelier, Pablo; Castillo, Rodrigo L.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) refers to the imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to scavenge these ROS by endogenous antioxidant systems, where ROS overwhelms the antioxidant capacity. Excessive presence of ROS results in irreversible damage to cell membranes, DNA, and other cellular structures by oxidizing lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases related to hypoxia, cardiotoxicity and ischemia–reperfusion. Here, we describe the participation of OS in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular conditions such as myocardial infarction, anthracycline cardiotoxicity and congenital heart disease. This review focuses on the different clinical events where redox factors and OS are related to cardiovascular pathophysiology, giving to support for novel pharmacological therapies such as omega 3 fatty acids, non-selective betablockers and microRNAs. PMID:28862654

  15. Seeing the world through target-tinted glasses: Positive mood broadens perceptual tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddenberg, Stefan; Shim, Won Mok

    2015-06-01

    Research shows that positive mood can serve to broaden the scope of attention at both the perceptual and conceptual level (e.g., increasing the size of spatial attentional focus and semantic access to remote associates). We investigated whether this relaxation of attentional filters by positive affect reduces their selectivity for basic visual features. We induced positive, neutral, or negative affect and asked observers to identify a target motion direction in a series of rapid random moving dot displays. Using a reverse correlation method, we examined the differential effects of emotion on observers' perceptual tuning curves for motion direction. Here we find that positive affect reduces selectivity for motion direction by broadening observers' perceptual tuning relative to both neutral and negative affect conditions. These findings provide the first behavioral evidence that positive emotion influences selectivity for basic visual features through modulation of tuning properties. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. FEATURES OF IMMUNE REACTIONS IN STRESS CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED ASSOCIATED WITH EXAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shirolapov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. It has been widely accepted that routine psychophysiological stressors may influence immune functioning via their close interactions between nervous, autonomic, endocrine and immune regulatory systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate immune reactions to acute psychophysiological stress in 203 medical students before and after academic exams. The results showed significant decrease of absolute and relative contents CD3+ T cells, natural killer (NK cell subpopulations and T-NK cells (CD3-CD16+CD56+ and CD3+CD16+CD56+, as well as declined NK cell activity were revealed immediately after exams, as compared to initial values for these indices. Moreover, a significant decrease in CD19+ B cells, CD4+ T-helpers and CD8+ T-cytotoxic lymphocyte counts was found after exams, in comparison with parameters assessed under stress-free conditions, but no differences were observed, when compared with pre-examination values. Serum concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgG were within normal physiological limits. Changes in immunological parameters during acute examination-associated stress depend on characteristics of autonomous and hormonal reactions in humans, and, under particular extreme conditions, such psycho-emotional stress may cause general disturbances of immune reactions. We conclude that acute psycho-physiological stress during the exams causes significant changes in some lymphocyte subpopulations, in particular, natural killers.

  17. Luminescence detection of DNA-[Ru(bpy) 2tatp] 2+ conjugates on a polyaniline/ITO electrode associated with in situ electrochemical tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jiangyang; Sun, Ting; Ji, Shibo; Li, Hong; Lan, Sheng; Xu, Zhenghe

    2010-05-01

    A new method for luminescence detection of [Ru(bpy) 2tatp] 2+-based thin layer (where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, tatp = 1,4,8,9-tetra-aza-triphenylene) on a polyaniline (PANI)/ITO electrode in the absence and presence of herring sperm DNA tuned by applied electrode potentials has been developed under the excitation of CW green laser. It is found that the DNA-[Ru(bpy) 2tatp] 2+ conjugates are formed either in solution or on the PANI/ITO surface, exhibiting an effective enhancement in the luminescence by DNA. More interestingly, the application of anodic potentials significantly enhances the emission intensities of both [Ru(bpy) 2tatp] 2+ and DNA-[Ru(bpy) 2tatp] 2+ conjugates on the PANI/ITO surface excited with green laser.

  18. Medical Conditions in the First Years of Life Associated with Future Diagnosis of ASD in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, Stacey E.; Yau, Vincent; Qian, Yinge; Davignon, Meghan; Lynch, Frances; Crawford, Phillip; Davis, Robert; Croen, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines medical conditions diagnosed prior to the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a matched case control design with 3911 ASD cases and 38,609 controls, we found that 38 out of 79 medical conditions were associated with increased ASD risk. Developmental delay, mental health, and neurology conditions had the strongest…

  19. Tuning the beam: a physics perspective on beam diagnostic instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In a nutshell, the role of a beam diagnostic measurement is to provide information needed to get a particle beam from Point A (injection point) to Point B (a target) in a useable condition, with 'useable' meaning the right energy and size and with acceptable losses. Specifications and performance requirements of diagnostics are based on the physics of the particle beam to be measured, with typical customers of beam parameter measurements being the accelerator operators and accelerator physicists. This tutorial will be a physics-oriented discussion of the interplay between tuning evolutions and the beam diagnostics systems that support the machine tune. This will include the differences between developing a tune and maintaining a tune, among other things. Practical longitudinal and transverse tuning issues and techniques from a variety of proton and electron machines will also be discussed.

  20. Neural correlates of subjective CS/UCS association in appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia León, Isabell; Kruse, Onno; Stalder, Tobias; Stark, Rudolf; Klucken, Tim

    2018-01-03

    Explicit knowledge of conditioned stimulus (CS)/unconditioned stimulus (UCS) associations is proposed as important factor in classical conditioning. However, while previous studies have focused on its roles in fear conditioning, it has been neglected in the context of appetitive conditioning. The present functional magnetic resonance study aimed to investigate neural activation and functional connectivity linked to subjective CS/UCS association in appetitive conditioning. In total, 85 subjects participated in an appetitive acquisition procedure in which a neutral stimulus (CS+) was paired with a monetary reward, while another neutral stimulus (CS-) was never paired with the reward. Directly afterwards, subjective CS/UCS association was assessed by measuring the extent to which the CS+ was thought to be associated with the UCS compared to the CS-. Close relationships were established between subjective CS/UCS association and activations in the primary visual cortex (V1) during the early phase of conditioning and in the striatum during the late conditioning phase. In addition, we observed inverse relationships between subjective CS/UCS association and both V1/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and striatal/vmPFC connectivity. The results suggest the involvement of decoupling vmPFC connectivity in reward learning in general and the roles of attentional processes in the formation of the subjective CS/UCS association during the early phase and reward prediction during the late phase of appetitive conditioning. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus associated conditions of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Ivan J; Woo, Sook-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections of the oral mucosa may present as both benign and malignant conditions. Squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris, and condyloma acuminatum are benign, HPV-associated growths treated with simple excision while multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) usually occurs in children and adolescents and resolves over time. HPV-associated oral dysplasia is uncommon and HPV-carcinoma comprises 6% of oral squamous cell carcinomas. EBV is responsible for oral hairy leukoplakia, a benign condition seen in immunocompromised patients, while the EBV-associated mucocutaneous ulcer is a recently-described, indolent condition associated with an atypical lymphoid proliferation seen immunocompromised patients as well as older adults, the latter likely because of immunosenescence. Awareness of these conditions is important for the practicing pathologist because some of these conditions may represent the first sign of underlying immunocompromise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High precision tune and coupling measurements and tune/coupling feedback in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, M.; Curcio, A.; Dawson, C.; Degen, C.; Luo, Y.; Marr, G.; Martin, B.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Oddo, P.; Russo, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schroeder, R.; Schulthiess, C.; Wilinski, M.

    2010-08-01

    Precision measurement and control of the betatron tunes and betatron coupling in RHIC are required for establishing and maintaining both good operating conditions and, particularly during the ramp to high beam energies, high proton beam polarization. While the proof-of-principle for simultaneous tune and coupling feedback was successfully demonstrated earlier, routine application of these systems has only become possible recently. Following numerous modifications for improved measurement resolution and feedback control, the time required to establish full-energy beams with the betatron tunes and coupling regulated by feedback was reduced from several weeks to a few hours. A summary of these improvements, select measurements benefitting from the improved resolution and a review of system performance are the subject of this report.

  3. Simultaneous gains tuning in boiler/turbine PID-based controller clusters using iterative feedback tuning methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Taft, Cyrus W; Bentsman, Joseph; Hussey, Aaron; Petrus, Bryan

    2012-09-01

    Tuning a complex multi-loop PID based control system requires considerable experience. In today's power industry the number of available qualified tuners is dwindling and there is a great need for better tuning tools to maintain and improve the performance of complex multivariable processes. Multi-loop PID tuning is the procedure for the online tuning of a cluster of PID controllers operating in a closed loop with a multivariable process. This paper presents the first application of the simultaneous tuning technique to the multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) PID based nonlinear controller in the power plant control context, with the closed-loop system consisting of a MIMO nonlinear boiler/turbine model and a nonlinear cluster of six PID-type controllers. Although simplified, the dynamics and cross-coupling of the process and the PID cluster are similar to those used in a real power plant. The particular technique selected, iterative feedback tuning (IFT), utilizes the linearized version of the PID cluster for signal conditioning, but the data collection and tuning is carried out on the full nonlinear closed-loop system. Based on the figure of merit for the control system performance, the IFT is shown to deliver performance favorably comparable to that attained through the empirical tuning carried out by an experienced control engineer. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The wave equation for stiff strings and piano tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Gràcia, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    We study the wave equation for a string with stiffness. We solve the equation and provide a uniqueness theorem with suitable boundary conditions. For a pinned string we compute the spectrum, which is slightly inharmonic. Therefore, the widespread scale of 12 equal divisions of the just octave is not the best choice to tune instruments like the piano. Basing in the theory of dissonance, we provide a way to tune the piano in order to improve its consonance. A good solution is obtained by tuning a note and its fifth by minimizing their beats.

  5. Tuning The Laser Heater Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zackary

    2010-12-03

    The laser heater undulator for the LCLS requires different tuning techniques than the main undulators. It is a pure permanent magnet (PPM) undulator, rather than the hybrid design of the main undulators. The PPM design allows analytic calculation of the undulator fields. The calculations let errors be introduced and correction techniques be derived. This note describes how the undulator was modelled, and the methods which were found to correct potential errors in the undulator. The laser heater undulator for the LCLS is a pure permanent magnet device requiring different tuning techniques than the main undulators. In this note, the laser heater undulator is modelled and tuning techniques to compensate various errors are derived.

  6. Habitat conditions associated with lynx hunting behavior during winter in northern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin T. Maletzke; Gary M. Koehler; Robert B. Wielgus; Keith B. Aubry; Marc A. Evans

    2008-01-01

    Effectively managing habitat for threatened populations of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) requires knowledge of habitat conditions that provide for the ecological needs of lynx. We snow-tracked lynx to identify habitat conditions associated with hunting behavior and predation during winters of 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 in the northern Cascade Range in...

  7. Association of Mental Disorders With Subsequent Chronic Physical Conditions : World Mental Health Surveys From 17 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Kate M.; Lim, Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Kawakami, Norito; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C.

    IMPORTANCE It is clear that mental disorders in treatment settings are associated with a higher incidence of chronic physical conditions, but whether this is true of mental disorders in the community, and how generalized (across a range of physical health outcomes) these associations are, is less

  8. Trace Conditioning in Drosophila Induces Associative Plasticity in Mushroom Body Kenyon Cells and Dopaminergic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina V. Dylla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dopaminergic neurons (DANs signal punishment and reward during associative learning. In mammals, DANs show associative plasticity that correlates with the discrepancy between predicted and actual reinforcement (prediction error during classical conditioning. Also in insects, such as Drosophila, DANs show associative plasticity that is, however, less understood. Here, we study associative plasticity in DANs and their synaptic partners, the Kenyon cells (KCs in the mushroom bodies (MBs, while training Drosophila to associate an odorant with a temporally separated electric shock (trace conditioning. In most MB compartments DANs strengthened their responses to the conditioned odorant relative to untrained animals. This response plasticity preserved the initial degree of similarity between the odorant- and the shock-induced spatial response patterns, which decreased in untrained animals. Contrary to DANs, KCs (α'/β'-type decreased their responses to the conditioned odorant relative to untrained animals. We found no evidence for prediction error coding by DANs during conditioning. Rather, our data supports the hypothesis that DAN plasticity encodes conditioning-induced changes in the odorant's predictive power.

  9. How safe is tuning a radio?: using the radio tuning task as a benchmark for distracted driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja Young; Lee, John D; Bärgman, Jonas; Lee, Joonbum; Reimer, Bryan

    2018-01-01

    Drivers engage in non-driving tasks while driving, such as interactions entertainment systems. Studies have identified glance patterns related to such interactions, and manual radio tuning has been used as a reference task to set an upper bound on the acceptable demand of interactions. Consequently, some view the risk associated with radio tuning as defining the upper limit of glance measures associated with visual-manual in-vehicle activities. However, we have little knowledge about the actual degree of crash risk that radio tuning poses and, by extension, the risk of tasks that have similar glance patterns as the radio tuning task. In the current study, we use counterfactual simulation to take the glance patterns for manual radio tuning tasks from an on-road experiment and apply these patterns to lead-vehicle events observed in naturalistic driving studies. We then quantify how often the glance patterns from radio tuning are associated with rear-end crashes, compared to driving only situations. We used the pre-crash kinematics from 34 crash events from the SHRP2 naturalistic driving study to investigate the effect of radio tuning in crash-imminent situations, and we also investigated the effect of radio tuning on 2,475 routine braking events from the Safety Pilot project. The counterfactual simulation showed that off-road glances transform some near-crashes that could have been avoided into crashes, and glance patterns observed in on-road radio tuning experiment produced 2.85-5.00 times more crashes than baseline driving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal conditions and perinatal characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, Amanda T; Glasson, Emma J; Nassar, Natasha; Jacoby, Peter; Pennell, Craig; Hagan, Ronald; Bourke, Jenny; Leonard, Helen; Stanley, Fiona J

    2013-01-01

    As well as being highly comorbid conditions, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) share a number of clinically-relevant phenomena. This raises questions about similarities and overlap in diagnosis and aetiological pathways that may exist for both conditions. To examine maternal conditions and perinatal factors for children diagnosed with an ASD, with or without ID, and children with ID of unknown cause, compared with unaffected children. The study population comprised all live singleton births in Western Australia (WA) between January 1984 and December 1999 (N = 383,153). Univariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were applied using a blocked modelling approach to assess the effect of maternal conditions, sociodemographic factors, labour and delivery characteristics and neonatal outcomes. In univariate analyses mild-moderate ID was associated with pregnancy hypertension, asthma, urinary tract infection, some types of ante-partum haemorrhage, any type of preterm birth, elective C-sections, breech presentation, poor fetal growth and need for resuscitation at birth, with all factors showing an increased risk. Severe ID was positively associated with poor fetal growth and need for resuscitation, as well as any labour or delivery complication. In the multivariate analysis no maternal conditions or perinatal factors were associated with an increased risk of ASD without ID. However, pregnancy hypertension and small head circumference were associated with a reduced risk (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.94; OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.96, respectively). For ASD with ID, threatened abortion before 20 weeks gestation and poor fetal growth were associated with an increased risk. Findings show that indicators of a poor intrauterine environment are associated with an elevated risk of ID, while for ASD, and particularly ASD without ID, the associations are much weaker. As such, these findings highlight the importance of accounting for

  11. Association of multiple chronic conditions and pain among older black and white adults with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara A. Baker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is often associated with the challenge of navigating daily tasks with a painful chronic medical illness. Yet, there is concern of the number of older adults impacted with more than one chronic condition. Despite the increasing number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and comorbid chronic illnesses, there remains a lack of understanding in how multiple illnesses relate to experiences of pain. To assess the association between multiple chronic conditions and pain, this study aimed to identify clusters of chronic medical conditions and their association with pain among a sample of older Black and White adults diagnosed with diabetes. Methods Two hundred and thirty-six participants responded to a series of questions assessing pain frequency and severity, as well as health and social characteristics. A factor analysis was used to categorize clusters of medical conditions, and multiple regression models were used to examine predictors of pain. Results Seven of the assessed chronic medical conditions loaded on three factors, and accounted for 57.2% of the total variance, with heart disease (factor 1 accounting for 21.9%, musculoskeletal conditions (factor 2 for another 18.4%, and factor 3 (microvascular diseases accounting for a final 16.9% of the variability among the chronic medical conditions. Covariate-adjusted models showed that fewer years of education and higher scores on the microvascular and musculoskeletal conditions factors were associated with higher pain frequency, with the musculoskeletal conditions factor being the strongest predictor. Conclusions Findings from this study compliment existent literature underscoring the prevalence and importance of comorbid diagnoses in relation to pain. Examining health-related factors beyond a single disease diagnosis also provides an opportunity to explore underlying disease co-occurrences that may persist beyond organ system classifications.

  12. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part II: Non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States); Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R. [College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Steinbach, Lynne S. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (United States)

    2004-06-01

    This section of a two-part series on musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS reviews the non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions. In the first part, the infectious conditions were reviewed. The non-infectious conditions include polymyositis, drug-induced myopathy, myositis ossificans, adhesive capsulitis, avascular necrosis, bone marrow abnormalities, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Inflammatory and reactive arthropathies are more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals, and a separate section is dedicated to these conditions, including Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, HIV-associated arthritis, painful articular syndrome, and acute symmetric polyarthritis. Lastly, we include a discussion of HIV-related neoplastic processes that affect the musculoskeletal system, namely Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  13. Associations between pain conditions and borderline personality disorder symptoms: findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Higgins, Kristen S

    2013-06-01

    Associations between 4 forms of pain (ie, arthritis, severe/frequent headaches, chronic spinal pain, and other chronic pain) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms were investigated in the general population. Data from part II of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N=5692) were used. Pain conditions were assessed with self-reports. Arthritis was assessed on a lifetime basis. For the other pain conditions, variables were created to identify those with a remitted condition and those experiencing the condition in the past year. BPD symptoms were assessed with items from the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questionnaire. Axis I disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Multiple regression analyses adjusting for sociodemographic variables and past-year psychiatric disorders indicated that those with a history of each pain condition (either remitted or past-year) had higher levels of BPD symptoms relative to those with a lifetime absence of the condition. For each condition, follow-up analyses indicated that those experiencing the condition in the past year had higher levels of BPD symptoms than those reporting a remitted condition. After adjusting for axis I psychiatric disorders, only the difference between the remitted and past-year severe/frequent headache groups remained significant. This is the first study to demonstrate that BPD symptoms are positively associated with chronic spinal pain, severe/frequent headaches, and other chronic pain conditions in a sample representative of the general population. The findings also suggest that relationships between remitted pain conditions and BPD symptoms warrant additional study.

  14. Treatment practice for IBD-associated anaemia remains out of tune with recommendations - A two year follow-up survey in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Jürgen; Bager, Palle; Befrits, Ragnar

    treatment options and assessed haematological parameters are summarised and compared to the results of the 2009 survey in table 1. Conclusions: Treatment of IBD-associated anaemia in clinical practice did hardly change over the last two years despite new clinical data on the effectiveness of i.v. iron......Background: In 2009, a survey on anaemia management in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) revealed that treatment practice is not in line with treatment recommendations. Despite a high prevalence of severe anaemia and absolute iron deficiency, most patients received oral instead...... of intravenous (i.v.) iron. Since additional data on effective correction of anaemia with i.v. iron emerged in the meantime (FERGIcor), a new survey was performed in 2011 to evaluate whether treatment practice changed. Methods: Gastroenterologists in France, Germany, Spain, UK and Switzerland completed...

  15. Design and analysis choices for safety surveillance evaluations need to be tuned to the specifics of the hypothesized drug-outcome association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Susan; Chakravarty, Aloka; Heckbert, Susan R; Levenson, Mark; Martin, David; Nelson, Jennifer C; Psaty, Bruce M; Pinheiro, Simone; Reich, Christian G; Toh, Sengwee; Walker, Alexander M

    2016-09-01

    We reviewed the results of the Observational Medical Outcomes Research Partnership (OMOP) 2010 Experiment in hopes of finding examples where apparently well-designed drug studies repeatedly produce anomalous findings. OMOP had applied thousands of designs and design parameters to 53 drug-outcome pairs across 10 electronic data resources. Our intent was to use this repository to elucidate some sources of error in observational studies. From the 2010 OMOP Experiment, we sought drug-outcome-method combinations (DOMCs) that met consensus design criteria, yet repeatedly produced results contrary to expectation. We set aside DOMCs for which we could not agree on the suitability of the designs, then selected for an in-depth scrutiny one drug-outcome pair analyzed by a seemingly plausible methodological approach, whose results consistently disagreed with the a priori expectation. The OMOP "all-by-all" assessment of possible DOMCs yielded many combinations that would not be chosen by researchers as actual study options. Among those that passed a first level of scrutiny, two of seven drug-outcome pairs for which there were plausible research designs had anomalous results. The use of benzodiazepines was unexpectedly associated with acute renal failure and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We chose the latter as an example for in-depth study. The factitious appearance of a bleeding risk may have been partly driven by an excess of procedures on the first day of treatment. A risk window definition that excluded the first day largely removed the spurious association. One cause of reproducible "error" may be repeated failure to tie design choices closely enough to the research question at hand. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Private prayer associations with depression, anxiety and other health conditions: an analytical review of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James W; Nunnelley, Paige A

    2016-09-01

    To critically analyze appropriate clinical studies to assess the relationship between health conditions and the frequency of private prayer. Private prayer is defined as individuals praying for themselves. Using PubMed and other search engines, we identified over 300 articles reporting relationships between prayer and health conditions. We identified 41 observational clinical studies that evaluated the relationship between private prayer and health conditions. Prayer scores of 5 to 1 were assigned to studies, with 5 being private prayer for health and 1 being prayer in combination with meditation or Bible study. Frequency scores ranged from 3 to 1 with 3 being twice daily or more and 0 when frequency was not assessed. Studies were ranked from 8 to 1 based on the sum of Prayer and Frequency Scores. Twenty-one studies had Prayer-Frequency scores of 5 to 8, indicating that they evaluated private prayer (praying for one's own health) of suitable frequency in association with health conditions. Nine of 11 studies indicated that private prayer was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of depression (P value, studies (P value, P studies of mental health conditions-including anxiety and confusion-there was a significant benefit associated with prayer (P studies, prayer did not have a significant effect on physical health or blood pressure. The reported observational studies suggest that frequent private prayer is associated with a significant benefit for depression, optimism, coping, and other mental health conditions such as anxiety. Controlled clinical trials are required to critically assess the associations of private prayer and health conditions.

  17. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acqui...

  18. Factors Associated with Parental Adaptation to Children with an Undiagnosed Medical Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Tatiane; Humphreys, Linda; McInerney-Leo, Aideen; Biesecker, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the adaptive process and experiences of parents raising a child with an undiagnosed medical condition. The present study aims to assess how uncertainty, hope, social support, and coping efficacy contributes to adaptation among parents of children with an undiagnosed medical condition. Sixty-two parents of child affected by an undiagnosed medical condition for at least two years completed an electronically self-administered survey. Descriptive analysis suggested parents in this population had significantly lower adaptation scores when compared to other parents of children with undiagnosed medical conditions, and parents of children with a diagnosed intellectual and/or physical disability. Similarly, parents in this population had significantly lower hope, perceived social support and coping efficacy when compared to parents of children with a diagnosed medical condition. Multiple linear regression was used to identify relationships between independent variables and domains of adaptation. Positive stress response was negatively associated with emotional support (B = −0.045, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with coping efficacy (B = 0.009, p ≤ 0.05). Adaptive self-esteem was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's social support (B = −0.248, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with coping efficacy (B = 0.007, p ≤ 0.05). Adaptive social integration was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's social support (B-0.273, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with uncertainty towards child's health (B = 0.323, p ≤ 0.001), and affectionate support (B = 0.110, p ≤ 0.001). Finally, adaptive spiritual wellbeing was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's family (B = −0.221, p ≤ 0.05). Findings from this study have highlighted the areas where parents believed additional support was required, and provided insight into factors that contribute to parental adaptation. PMID:28039658

  19. Atmospheric conditions and weather regimes associated with extreme winter dry spells over the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Florian; Ullmann, Albin; Camberlin, Pierre; Oueslati, Boutheina; Drobinski, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Very long dry spell events occurring during winter are natural hazards to which the Mediterranean region is extremely vulnerable, because they can lead numerous impacts for environment and society. Four dry spell patterns have been identified in a previous work. Identifying the main associated atmospheric conditions controlling the dry spell patterns is key to better understand their dynamics and their evolution in a changing climate. Except for the Levant region, the dry spells are generally associated with anticyclonic blocking conditions located about 1000 km to the Northwest of the affected area. These anticyclonic conditions are favourable to dry spell occurrence as they are associated with subsidence of cold and dry air coming from boreal latitudes which bring low amount of water vapour and non saturated air masses, leading to clear sky and absence of precipitation. These extreme dry spells are also partly related to the classical four Euro-Atlantic weather regimes are: the two phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Scandinavian "blocking" or "East-Atlantic", and the "Atlantic ridge". Only the The "East-Atlantic", "Atlantic ridge" and the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation are frequently associated with extremes dry spells over the Mediterranean basin but they do not impact the four dry spell patterns equally. Finally long sequences of those weather regimes are more favourable to extreme dry spells than short sequences. These long sequences are associated with the favourable prolonged and reinforced anticyclonic conditions

  20. Extinction of Conditioned Responses to Methamphetamine-Associated Stimuli in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Joel S; Ruiz, Nicholas A; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Contextual stimuli present during drug experiences become associated with the drug through Pavlovian conditioning and are thought to sustain drug-seeking behavior. Thus, extinction of conditioned responses is an important target for treatment. To date, acquisition and extinction to drug-paired cues have been studied in animal models or drug-dependent individuals, but rarely in non-drug users. We have recently developed a procedure to study acquisition of conditioned responses after single doses of methamphetamine (MA) in healthy volunteers. Here, we examined extinction of these responses and their persistence after conditioning. Healthy adults (18-35 years; N = 20) received two pairings of audio-visual stimuli with MA (20 mg oral) or placebo. Responses to stimuli were assessed before and after conditioning, using three tasks: behavioral preference, attentional bias, and subjective "liking." Subjects exhibited behavioral preference for the drug-paired stimuli at the first post-conditioning test, but this declined rapidly on subsequent extinction tests. They also exhibited a bias to initially look towards the drug-paired stimuli at the first post-test session, but not thereafter. Subjects who experienced more positive subjective drug effects during conditioning exhibited a smaller decline in preference during the extinction phase. Further, longer inter-session intervals during the extinction phase were associated with less extinction of the behavioral preference measure. Conditioned responses after two pairings with MA extinguish quickly, and are influenced by both subjective drug effects and the extinction interval. Characterizing and refining this conditioning procedure will aid in understanding the acquisition and extinction processes of drug-related conditioned responses in humans.

  1. Integrated unaligned resonant modulator tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortman, William A.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    2017-10-03

    Methods and systems for tuning a resonant modulator are disclosed. One method includes receiving a carrier signal modulated by the resonant modulator with a stream of data having an approximately equal number of high and low bits, determining an average power of the modulated carrier signal, comparing the average power to a predetermined threshold, and operating a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the comparison of the average power and the predetermined threshold. One system includes an input structure, a plurality of processing elements, and a digital control element. The input structure is configured to receive, from the resonant modulator, a modulated carrier signal. The plurality of processing elements are configured to determine an average power of the modulated carrier signal. The digital control element is configured to operate a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the average power of the modulated carrier signal.

  2. Onset aging conditions of adults with an intellectual disability associated with primary caregiver depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Kuo, Meng-Ting; Wu, Jia-Lin; Chu, Cordia; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2014-03-01

    Caregivers of adults with an intellectual disability experience depressive symptoms, but the aging factors of the care recipients associated with the depressive symptoms are unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze the onset aging conditions of adults with an intellectual disability that associated with the depression scores of their primary caregivers. A cross-sectional survey was administered to gather information from 455 caregivers of adults with an intellectual disability about their symptoms of depression which assessed by a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The 12 aging conditions of adults with an intellectual disability include physical and mental health. The results indicate that 78% of adults with an intellectual disability demonstrate aging conditions. Physical conditions associated with aging include hearing decline (66.3%), vision decline (63.6%), incontinence (44%), articulation and bone degeneration (57.9%), teeth loss (80.4), physical strength decline (81.2%), sense of taste and smell decline (52.8%), and accompanied chronic illnesses (74.6%). Mental conditions associated with aging include memory loss (77%), language ability deterioration (74.4%), poor sleep quality (74.2%), and easy onset of depression and sadness (50.3%). Aging conditions of adults with an intellectual disability (pdepressive symptom among caregivers after controlling demographic characteristics. Particularly, poor sleep quality of adults with an intellectual disability (yes vs. no, OR=3.807, p=0.002) was statistically correlated to the occurrence of significant depressive symptoms among their caregivers. This study suggests that the authorities should reorient community services and future policies toward the needs of family caregivers to decrease the burdens associated with caregiving. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of conditions potentially associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gades, Naomi M; Jacobson, Debra J; Girman, Cynthia J; Roberts, Rosebud O; Lieber, Michael M; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2005-03-01

    To estimate the frequency of conditions associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, typically included when assessing benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH), as other causes of LUTS should be excluded when diagnosing BPH, using data from the Olmsted County Study of Urinary Symptoms and Health Status among Men. During 1989-91, Caucasian men aged 40-79 years were randomly selected from the Olmsted County population. Before contact, eligibility was determined by reviewing the community medical records. Baseline exclusion criteria included comorbid pre-existing conditions or treatments, e.g. prostate, bladder or lower back surgery, bladder neck contracture or cancer, diabetes with lower extremity amputation, and neurological diseases, including Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, tabes dorsalis and stroke. Men with these conditions were excluded from the Olmsted County Study at baseline, because these conditions are potentially associated with LUTS. Of the 5100 randomly sampled men, 13.4% met at least one of the pre-existing exclusion criteria. Individually, the frequency of exclusions was 7.8% for prostate cancer or surgery, 4.8% for back surgery, 1.3% for bladder surgery and 1.4% for neurological conditions. All other conditions represented Older men were more likely to meet at least one of the exclusion criteria, with men in their fifth to eighth decade having a total exclusion frequency of 1.4%, 5.4%, 8.5% and 32.8%, respectively. The most common reason for men in their fifth decade to be excluded was lower back surgery (0.9%), whereas the most common reason in the eighth was prostate surgery (21.8%). In men, conditions that may contribute to LUTS, other than BPH, are prevalent in the community and increase in frequency with age. It is important that other conditions associated with LUTS be excluded before a definitive diagnosis of BPH. Any oversight in this initial evaluation can potentially result in misclassification bias

  4. Socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with chronic conditions among older adults in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Pilar Egüez; Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond

    2015-09-01

    To explore socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with the prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions among older adults in Ecuador. The sample was drawn from the nationally representative observational cross-sectional data of the Health, Well-Being, and Aging survey conducted in Ecuador in 2009. Logistic regression models were used to explore the association between socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and the prevalence of selected chronic conditions. Older women in Ecuador are more likely than men to have been previously diagnosed with diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and arthritis. Results suggest no difference by education or health insurance on number and type of self-reported chronic conditions. However, older adults who resided in the coastal area were more likely to report having diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke than those in the highlands. Living in rural areas was associated with lower odds of having diabetes and high blood pressure. Compared to white older adults, indigenous older adults were less likely to report having high blood pressure, but more likely to report having arthritis. Older age in Ecuador is marked by low educational levels and poverty. Female gender and living in coastal areas were associated with higher risks of self-reported chronic conditions.

  5. Prevalence of tanning addiction and associations with behavioral health conditions among multiethnic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kimberly A; Piombo, Sarah E; Cho, Junhan; Higgins, Shauna; Wysong, Ashley; Sussman, Steve; Cockburn, Myles G; Leventhal, Adam M

    2018-02-23

    Evidence indicates that tanning may be addictive and is associated with other behavioral health conditions. Few studies have examined tanning addiction among adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional study to explore the relationship between tanning addiction, substance use, and psychological conditions among ethnoracially diverse 16-17 year-olds. Tanning addiction was assessed using the modified (m) CAGE measure among 11 th grade students in Los Angeles (N=2,637; response rate 78%). Overall, 7.02% of the sample met tanning addiction criteria. Tanning addiction was significantly associated with past 30-day smoking and marijuana use, problem substance use, depression, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and bipolar disorder in regression models. After controlling for all significant substance use and psychological variables, problem marijuana use and OCD remained significantly associated with tanning addiction (odds ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.03-4.09; and 2.54, 1.73-3.72, respectively.) Tanning addiction was also significantly associated with multiple problem substance use and behavioral health conditions. Our findings indicate an appreciable prevalence of tanning addiction among multiethnic adolescents, and suggest the importance of addressing tanning addiction in the context of comorbid behavioral conditions to reduce this high-risk behavior among diverse youth. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Joint Stiffness Is Heritable and Associated with Fibrotic Conditions and Joint Replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances M Williams

    Full Text Available Joint stiffness is a common, debilitating, age-related symptom, which may be seen after total joint replacement (TJR. Stiffness also occurs in fibrotic conditions such as shoulder capsulitis and Dupuytren's contracture. We speculated that the two traits (TJR and fibrotic disease are linked pathogenically.Using the TwinsUK NIHR BRC BioResource we tested the hypotheses that 1 joint (hip and knee stiffness, TJR (hip and knee, and fibrotic conditions are associated and 2 genetic factors contribute to them.Participating twins (n = 9718 had completed self-reported questionnaires on the traits of interest. All three traits were significantly associated with increasing age and body mass index (BMI, as well as female sex, on univariate analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed a significant association between TJR and joint stiffness (OR = 3.96, 95% confidence interval, CI 2.77-5.68 and between fibrotic conditions and joint stiffness (OR = 2.39, 1.74-3.29, adjusting for age, sex, BMI and twin relatedness. Monozygotic versus dizygotic intraclass correlations gave heritability estimates for TJR = 46% and joint stiffness = 32%.That fibrotic conditions, joint stiffness and TJR are significantly associated suggests a common disease process, possibly fibrosis, which is genetically mediated.

  7. Tourette Syndrome: School-Based Interventions for Tics and Associated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoklenis, Athanasios; Theodoridou, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics that follow a fluctuating pattern of severity, intensity and frequency. TS is often associated with other conditions such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and learning difficulties. This complex phenotype affects the…

  8. Tuning and backreaction in F-term axion monodromy inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Hebecker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We continue the development of axion monodromy inflation, focusing in particular on the backreaction of complex structure moduli. In our setting, the shift symmetry comes from a partial large complex structure limit of the underlying type IIB orientifold or F-theory fourfold. The coefficient of the inflaton term in the superpotential has to be tuned small to avoid conflict with Kähler moduli stabilisation. To allow such a tuning, this coefficient necessarily depends on further complex structure moduli. At large values of the inflaton field, these moduli are then in danger of backreacting too strongly. To avoid this, further tunings are necessary. In weakly coupled type IIB theory at the orientifold point, implementing these tunings appears to be difficult if not impossible. However, fourfolds or models with mobile D7-branes provide enough structural freedom. We calculate the resulting inflaton potential and study the feasibility of the overall tuning given the limited freedom of the flux landscape. Our preliminary investigations suggest that, even imposing all tuning conditions, the remaining choice of flux vacua can still be large enough for such models to provide a promising path to large-field inflation in string theory.

  9. Apparatuses and methods for tuning center frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Olsson, Roy H.

    2016-02-23

    Apparatuses and methods for tuning center frequencies are described herein. Examples of tuning described herein including tuning using feedback from the resonator. Variable gain feedback for tuning of acoustic wave resonators is provided in some examples. An example apparatus may include a resonator and a feedback loop. The resonator may be configured to receive a tuning signal and to provide a feedback signal. The feedback signal may be based on the tuning signal. The feedback loop may be configured to receive the feedback signal from the resonator. The feedback loop further may be configured to provide the tuning signal to actively tune a center frequency of the resonator. The tuning signal may be based on the feedback signal.

  10. Maternal conditions and perinatal characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda T Langridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As well as being highly comorbid conditions, autism spectrum disorders (ASD and intellectual disability (ID share a number of clinically-relevant phenomena. This raises questions about similarities and overlap in diagnosis and aetiological pathways that may exist for both conditions. AIMS: To examine maternal conditions and perinatal factors for children diagnosed with an ASD, with or without ID, and children with ID of unknown cause, compared with unaffected children. METHODS: The study population comprised all live singleton births in Western Australia (WA between January 1984 and December 1999 (N = 383,153. Univariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were applied using a blocked modelling approach to assess the effect of maternal conditions, sociodemographic factors, labour and delivery characteristics and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: In univariate analyses mild-moderate ID was associated with pregnancy hypertension, asthma, urinary tract infection, some types of ante-partum haemorrhage, any type of preterm birth, elective C-sections, breech presentation, poor fetal growth and need for resuscitation at birth, with all factors showing an increased risk. Severe ID was positively associated with poor fetal growth and need for resuscitation, as well as any labour or delivery complication. In the multivariate analysis no maternal conditions or perinatal factors were associated with an increased risk of ASD without ID. However, pregnancy hypertension and small head circumference were associated with a reduced risk (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.94; OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.96, respectively. For ASD with ID, threatened abortion before 20 weeks gestation and poor fetal growth were associated with an increased risk. CONCLUSION: Findings show that indicators of a poor intrauterine environment are associated with an elevated risk of ID, while for ASD, and particularly ASD without ID, the associations are much weaker. As

  11. Effect of lighting conditions on brain network complexity associated with response learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida M; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge L

    2013-10-25

    Several studies have reported the brain regions involved in response learning. However, there is discrepancy regarding the lighting conditions in the experimental setting (i.e. under dark or light conditions). In this regard, it would be relevant to know if the presence/absence of visual cues in the environment has any effect in the brain networks involved in a response learning task. Animals were trained in a water T-maze under two different lighting conditions (light versus dark). All subjects reached the learning criterion of 80% correct arm choices. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry was used as a metabolic brain mapping technique. Our results show that the ventral hippocampus and the parietal cortex are associated with the acquisition of a response learning task regardless of lighting conditions. In addition, when the same task is run in the dark, widespread recruitment of structures involving cortical, limbic and striatal regions was found. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Discovering medical conditions associated with periodontitis using linked electronic health records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Mary Regina; Hripcsak, George; Albers, David J.; Wei, Ying; Wilcox, Adam B.; Wei, Jin; Li, Jianhua; Lin, Steven; Breene, Michael; Myers, Ronnie; Zimmerman, John; Papapanou, Panos N.; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Aim To use linked electronic medical and dental records to discover associations between periodontitis and medical conditions independent of a priori hypotheses. Materials and Methods This case-control study included 2475 patients who underwent dental treatment at the College of Dental Medicine at Columbia University and medical treatment at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital. Our cases are patients who received periodontal treatment and our controls are patients who received dental maintenance but no periodontal treatment. Chi-square analysis was performed for medical treatment codes and logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. Results Our method replicated several important periodontitis associations in a largely Hispanic population, including diabetes mellitus type I (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.30–1.99, p diabetes, obesity, lipid and circulatory system conditions, alcohol and tobacco abuse. Conclusions This study contributes a high-throughput method for associating periodontitis with systemic diseases using linked electronic records. PMID:23495669

  13. Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwember, Andrés R.; Bradford, Kent J.

    2010-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ∼25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled deterioration (CD) or accelerated ageing storage conditions (i.e. elevated temperature and relative humidity) are used to study seed longevity and to predict potential seed lifetimes under conventional storage conditions. Seeds produced in 2002 and 2006 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas×L. serriola accession UC96US23 were utilized to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed longevity under CD and conventional storage conditions. Multiple longevity-associated QTLs were identified under both conventional and CD storage conditions for control (non-primed) and primed seeds. However, seed longevity was poorly correlated between the two storage conditions, suggesting that deterioration processes under CD conditions are not predictive of ageing in conventional storage conditions. Additionally, the same QTLs were not identified when RIL populations were grown in different years, indicating that lettuce seed longevity is strongly affected by production environment. Nonetheless, a major QTL on chromosome 4 [Seed longevity 4.1 (Slg4.1)] was responsible for almost 23% of the phenotypic variation in viability of the conventionally stored control seeds of the 2006 RIL population, with improved longevity conferred by the Salinas allele. QTL analyses may enable identification of mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of primed seeds to CD conditions and breeding for improved seed longevity. PMID:20693410

  14. Tuning History in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Albo, Marco

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the development and achievements of the area of History in the Tuning-Latin America Project from its launch in 2004 to its completion in 2013. Through two phases and nine general meetings, academics from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru, along with academics from Spain, Portugal…

  15. Association of Mental Disorders With Subsequent Chronic Physical Conditions: World Mental Health Surveys From 17 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kate M; Lim, Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Kawakami, Norito; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C

    2016-02-01

    It is clear that mental disorders in treatment settings are associated with a higher incidence of chronic physical conditions, but whether this is true of mental disorders in the community, and how generalized (across a range of physical health outcomes) these associations are, is less clear. This information has important implications for mental health care and the primary prevention of chronic physical disease. To investigate associations of 16 temporally prior DSM-IV mental disorders with the subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 chronic physical conditions. Eighteen face-to-face, cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults were conducted in 17 countries (47,609 individuals; 2,032,942 person-years) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2011. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to retrospectively assess the lifetime prevalence and age at onset of DSM-IV-identified mental disorders. Data analysis was performed from January 3, 2012, to September 30, 2015. Lifetime history of physical conditions was ascertained via self-report of physician's diagnosis and year of onset or diagnosis. Survival analyses estimated the associations of temporally prior first onset of mental disorders with subsequent onset or diagnosis of physical conditions. Most associations between 16 mental disorders and subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 physical conditions were statistically significant, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) ranging from 1.2 (1.0-1.5) to 3.6 (2.0-6.6). The associations were attenuated after adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity, but mood, anxiety, substance use, and impulse control disorders remained significantly associated with onset of between 7 and all 10 of the physical conditions (ORs [95% CIs] from 1.2 [1.1-1.3] to 2.0 [1.4-2.8]). An increasing number of mental disorders experienced over the life course was significantly associated with increasing odds of onset or diagnosis of all 10 types of physical conditions, with

  16. Bacterial Contamination on Household Toys and Association with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Stauber

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions (access to latrines, improved sanitation, improved water and the plastic biosand filter on the levels of total coliforms and E. coli on existing and introduced toys during an on-going randomized controlled trial of the plastic biosand filter (plastic BSF. The following conditions were associated with decreased bacterial contamination on children’s toys: access to a latrine, access to improved sanitation and access to the plastic BSF. Overall, compared to existing toys, introduced toys had significantly lower levels of both E. coli and total coliforms. Results suggest that levels of fecal indicator bacteria contamination on children’s toys may be associated with access to improved water and sanitation conditions in the home. In addition, the fecal indicator bacteria levels on toys probably vary with duration in the household. Additional information on how these toys become contaminated is needed to determine the usefulness of toys as indicators or sentinels of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, behaviors and risks.

  17. Bacterial contamination on household toys and association with water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Christine E; Walters, Adam; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2013-04-18

    There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions (access to latrines, improved sanitation, improved water and the plastic biosand filter) on the levels of total coliforms and E. coli on existing and introduced toys during an on-going randomized controlled trial of the plastic biosand filter (plastic BSF). The following conditions were associated with decreased bacterial contamination on children's toys: access to a latrine, access to improved sanitation and access to the plastic BSF. Overall, compared to existing toys, introduced toys had significantly lower levels of both E. coli and total coliforms. Results suggest that levels of fecal indicator bacteria contamination on children's toys may be associated with access to improved water and sanitation conditions in the home. In addition, the fecal indicator bacteria levels on toys probably vary with duration in the household. Additional information on how these toys become contaminated is needed to determine the usefulness of toys as indicators or sentinels of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, behaviors and risks.

  18. Definitions and factors associated with subthreshold depressive conditions: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Mar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subthreshold depressive disorders (minor and subthrehold depression have been defined in a wide range of forms, varying on the number of symptoms and duration required. Disability associated with these conditions has also been reported. Our aim was to review the different definitions and to determine factors associated with these conditions in order to clarify the nosological implications of these disorders. Methods A Medline search was conducted of the published literature between January 2001 and September 2011. Bibliographies of the retrieved papers were also analysed. Results There is a wide heterogeneity in the definition and diagnostic criteria of minor and subthreshold depression. Minor depression was defined according to DSM-IV criteria. Regarding subthreshold depression, also called subclinical depression or subsyndromal symptomatic depression, between 2 and 5 depressive symptoms were required for the diagnosis, and a minimum duration of 2 weeks. Significant impairment associated with subthreshold depressive conditions, as well as comorbidity with other mental disorders, has been described. Conclusions Depression as a disorder is better explained as a spectrum rather than as a collection of discrete categories. Minor and subthreshold depression are common conditions and patients falling below the diagnostic threshold experience significant difficulties in functioning and a negative impact on their quality of life. Current diagnostic systems need to reexamine the thresholds for depressive disorders and distinguish them from ordinary feelings of sadness.

  19. Conditional associative memory for musical stimuli in nonmusicians: implications for absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Patrick; Zatorre, Robert J

    2005-08-24

    A previous positron emission tomography (PET) study of musicians with and without absolute pitch put forth the hypothesis that the posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in the conditional associative aspect of the identification of a pitch. In the work presented here, we tested this hypothesis by training eight nonmusicians to associate each of four different complex musical sounds (triad chords) with an arbitrary number in a task designed to have limited analogy to absolute-pitch identification. Each subject under-went a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning procedure both before and after training. Active condition (identification of chords)-control condition (amplitude-matched noise bursts) comparisons for the pretraining scan showed no significant activation maxima. The same comparison for the posttraining scan revealed significant peaks of activation in posterior dorsolateral prefrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal, and parietal areas. A conjunction analysis was performed to show that the posterior dorsolateral prefrontal activity in this study is similar to that observed in the aforementioned PET study. We conclude that the posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is selectively involved in the conditional association aspect of our task, as it is in the attribution of a verbal label to a note by absolute-pitch musicians.

  20. Mirror syndrome: a systematic review of fetal associated conditions, maternal presentation and perinatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Thorsten; Brauer, Martin; Fuchs, Ilka; Czernik, Christoph; Dudenhausen, Joachim Wolfram; Henrich, Wolfgang; Sarioglu, Nanette

    2010-01-01

    Mirror syndrome, also referred to as Ballantyne's syndrome, is normally defined as the development of maternal edema in association with fetal hydrops. The incidence of mirror syndrome is low and few cases have been published. We describe a case report in association with fetal Ebstein anomaly and provide a systematic review on the fetal associated conditions, maternal presentation and perinatal outcome reported for mirror syndrome. A PubMed database search was done until December 2008 (English, French or German) without any restriction of publication date or journal, using the following key words: Ballantyne syndrome, Mirror syndrome, Triple edema, Pseudotoxemia, Maternal hydrops syndrome, Pregnancy toxemia, Acute second trimester gestosis, and Early onset preeclampsia. Reported cases were considered eligible when fetal associated conditions, maternal symptoms and fetal outcome were clearly described. Among 151 publications a total of 56 reported cases satisfying all inclusion criteria were identified. Mirror syndrome was associated with rhesus isoimmunization (29%), twin-twin transfusion syndrome (18%), viral infection (16%) and fetal malformations, fetal or placental tumors (37.5%). Gestational age at diagnosis ranged from 22.5 to 27.8 weeks of gestation. Maternal key signs were edema (80-100%), hypertension (57-78%) and proteinuria (20-56%). The overall rate of intrauterine death was 56%. Severe maternal complications including pulmonary edema occurred in 21.4%. Maternal symptoms disappeared 4.8-13.5 days after delivery. Mirror syndrome is associated with a substantial increase in fetal mortality and maternal morbidity. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Analysis of tuning methods in semiconductor frequency-selective surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemelya, Corey; Palm, Dominic; Fip, Tassilo; Rahm, Marco

    2017-02-01

    Advanced technology, such as sensing and communication equipment, has recently begun to combine optically sensitive nano-scale structures with customizable semiconductor material systems. Included within this broad field of study is the aptly named frequency-selective surface; which is unique in that it can be artificially designed to produce a specific electromagnetic or optical response. With the inherent utility of a frequency-selective surface, there has been an increased interest in the area of dynamic frequency-selective surfaces, which can be altered through optical or electrical tuning. This area has had exciting break throughs as tuning methods have evolved; however, these methods are typically energy intensive (optical tuning) or have met with limited success (electrical tuning). As such, this work investigates multiple structures and processes which implement semiconductor electrical biasing and/or optical tuning. Within this study are surfaces ranging from transmission meta-structures to metamaterial surface-waves and the associated coupling schemes. This work shows the utility of each design, while highlighting potential methods for optimizing dynamic meta-surfaces. As an added constraint, the structures were also designed to operate in unison with a state-of-the-art Ti:Sapphire Spitfire Ace and Spitfire Ace PA dual system (12 Watt) with pulse front matching THz generation and an EOS detection system. Additionally, the Ti:Sapphire laser system would provide the means for optical tunablity, while electrical tuning can be obtained through external power supplies.

  2. Neurosurgical conditions and procedures in infancy are associated with mortality and academic performances in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom G; Pedersen, Jacob K; Henneberg, Steen W

    2015-01-01

    at assessing the impact of specific neurosurgical conditions and procedures in infancy on mortality and academic achievements in adolescence. METHODS: A nationwide unselected register-based follow-up study of the Danish birth cohorts 1986-1990 compared academic performances of all children having undergone.......00001, P = 0.000077, and P = 0.000064). CONCLUSION: Neurosurgery in infancy was associated with high mortality and significantly impaired academic achievements in adolescence. When studying anesthesia-related neurotoxicity and the developing brain, focus on specific surgeries/conditions is important...

  3. Hearing loss and associated medical conditions among individuals 65 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Michael M; Stransky, Michelle L; Reichard, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Hearing loss is prevalent, but few studies have investigated its associations with common medical conditions. The objective was to assess the prevalence of medical conditions among individuals with hearing loss, compared to those without hearing loss, in people aged 65 years and older. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) collects data on a variety of health-related topics, including disability. Three years of NHIS data (2011-2013; unweighted n = 53,111) were pooled to examine subpopulations of individuals with hearing loss. Comparisons were made between adults aged 65 and older with, and without, self-reported hearing loss. Statistical analysis included descriptive frequencies, Chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regressions. The outcomes of interest included self-reported diagnosis of arthritis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, emphysema, stroke, cancer, asthma, multiple chronic conditions, health status, and obesity. Hearing loss prevalence was nearly 37%. After adjusting for sociodemographics, smoking status, and disability, hearing loss was independently associated with the following conditions: arthritis (OR 1.41; 1.27-1.57), cancer (OR 1.35; 1.21-1.5), cardiovascular disease (OR 1.48; 1.33-1.66), diabetes (OR 1.16; 1.03-1.31), emphysema (OR 1.41; 1.14-1.74), high blood pressure (OR 1.29; 1.17-1.43), and stroke (OR 1.39; 1.12-1.66). There was an association with worse health status over the past year (OR 1.5 (1.3-1.73). Hearing loss among older individuals is independently associated with increased disease burden and poorer self-reported health. Future studies are needed to investigate the mechanistic nature of these associations, and whether improved access to hearing healthcare surveillance can reduce the overall health burden among these individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Genotypes for Their Trait Associations under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bashiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate sugar-beet genotypes for their trait associations, two separate RCBD experiments with three replications were conducted both under non-saline (normal and saline conditions at the Agricultural Research of Miandoab. Analysis of variance of the data collected showed that there were significant differences among genotypes for all traits studied under non-saline condition. But, differences of genotypes under saline condition were significant only for root yield, root potassium content, sugar extraction coefficient, impure and pure (white sugar yields. Salinity stress, in this study, reduced root potassium content, root yield, sugar extraction coefficient, impure and pure (white sugar yields. Mean comparisons of genotypes indicated that root yield of all genotypes, under non-saline condition, were higher than those of under saline one. As whole, genotypes number 1 and 2 produced higher root yields, impure and pure sugar yields respectively, under both saline and non-saline conditions. Based on the results obtained it was revealed that regression coefficients for the traits under study were significant. Step-wise regression and path coefficient analyses also indicated that traits like root yield, pure sugar and root nitrogen contents highly affected white sugar yield under non-saline conditions.

  5. Associations between U.S. Adult Obesity and State and County Economic Conditions in the Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the association between state and county unemployment rates and individuals’ body weight status during the latest recession in the U.S. We used the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data in 2007, 2009 and 2011, which were collected from 722,692 American adults aged 18 or older. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index (BMI ≥25, and ≥30, respectively. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were applied to assess the association between BMI, risks of overweight and obesity, and state and county unemployment rates. State unemployment rates were negatively associated with individual BMI across years, while county unemployment rates were significantly positively associated with BMI and obesity rates in all years (p < 0.05. However, the scale of the positive relationship was reduced in 2009 and 2011. Stratified analyses were conducted among adults with employment and without employment. The unemployed group’s body weight status was not related to state- and county-level economic conditions in most times. In the pooled analyses with all three years’ data, the relationship between unemployment rates and body weight status were consistently reduced after the recession of 2008–2009. Our results indicated that macroeconomic conditions at different levels can have different associations with individuals’ obesity risk across time.

  6. Cardiac MRI and CT features of inheritable and congenital conditions associated with sudden cardiac death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparrow, Patrick; Merchant, Naeem; Provost, Yves; Doyle, Deirdre; Nguyen, Elsie; Paul, Narinder [University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Cardiac MRI (CMR) and electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) are increasingly important tools in the identification and assessment of cardiac-related disease processes, including those associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD). While the commonest cause of SCD is coronary artery disease (CAD), in patients under 35 years inheritable cardiomyopathies such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy are important aetiologies. CMR in particular offers both accurate delineation of the morphological abnormalities associated with these and other conditions and the possibility for risk stratification for development of ventricular arrhythmias with demonstration of macroscopic scar by delayed enhancement imaging with intravenous gadolinium. (orig.)

  7. Determination of asphaltene onset conditions using the cubic plus association equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Alay; von Solms, Nicolas; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2015-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state (EoS) has already been proven to be a successful model for phase equilibrium calculations for systems containing associating components and has already been applied for asphaltene modeling by few researchers. In the present work, we apply the CPA...... EoS to determine asphaltene precipitation onset conditions for various reservoir fluids but with a different modeling approach than literature approaches. A simple oil characterization technique, based on SARA analysis, is adopted which divides the C6+ fraction of the oil into “heavy component...

  8. Joint association of sleep problems and psychosocial working conditions with registered long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E. H.; Larsen, Ann D.; Thorsen, Sannie V.

    2016-01-01

    questionnaire response. We defined sleep problems by self-reported symptoms and/or register data on hypnotics purchases of hypnotics. Psychosocial working conditions included quantitative and emotional demands, influence, supervisor recognition and social support, leadership quality, and social support from...... problems and psychosocial working conditions interact in their associations with long-term sickness absence. Methods: We linked questionnaire data from participants to two surveys of random samples of the Danish working population (N=10 752) with registries on long-term sick leave during five years after...... of long-term sickness absence [HR 1.54, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.38–1.73]. This association was statistically significantly stronger among participants with high quantitative demands and weaker among those with high supervisor recognition (P

  9. Electrophysiological correlates of associative learning in smokers: a higher-order conditioning experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littel Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical conditioning has been suggested to play an important role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of tobacco smoking. Several studies have shown that initially neutral stimuli that are directly paired with smoking are able to elicit conditioned responses. However, there have been few human studies that demonstrate the contribution of higher-order conditioning to smoking addiction, although it is assumed that higher-order conditioning predominates learning in the outside world. In the present study a higher-order conditioning task was designed in which brain responses of smokers and non-smokers were conditioned by pairing smoking-related and neutral stimuli (CS1smoke and CS1neutral with two geometrical figures (CS2smoke and CS2neutral. ERPs were recorded to all CSs. Results Data showed that the geometrical figure that was paired with smoking stimuli elicited significantly larger P2 and P3 waves than the geometrical figure that was paired with neutral stimuli. During the first half of the experiment this effect was only present in smokers whereas non-smokers displayed no significant differences between both stimuli, indicating that neutral cues paired with motivationally relevant smoking-related stimuli gain more motivational significance even though they were never paired directly with smoking. These conclusions are underscored by self-reported evidence of enhanced second-order conditioning in smokers. Conclusions It can be concluded that smokers show associative learning for higher-order smoking-related stimuli. The present study directly shows the contribution of higher-order conditioning to smoking addiction and is the first to reveal its electrophysiological correlates. Although results are preliminary, they may help in understanding the etiology of smoking addiction and its persistence.

  10. Electrophysiological correlates of associative learning in smokers: a higher-order conditioning experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littel, Marianne; Franken, Ingmar Ha

    2012-01-11

    Classical conditioning has been suggested to play an important role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of tobacco smoking. Several studies have shown that initially neutral stimuli that are directly paired with smoking are able to elicit conditioned responses. However, there have been few human studies that demonstrate the contribution of higher-order conditioning to smoking addiction, although it is assumed that higher-order conditioning predominates learning in the outside world. In the present study a higher-order conditioning task was designed in which brain responses of smokers and non-smokers were conditioned by pairing smoking-related and neutral stimuli (CS1smoke and CS1neutral) with two geometrical figures (CS2smoke and CS2neutral). ERPs were recorded to all CSs. Data showed that the geometrical figure that was paired with smoking stimuli elicited significantly larger P2 and P3 waves than the geometrical figure that was paired with neutral stimuli. During the first half of the experiment this effect was only present in smokers whereas non-smokers displayed no significant differences between both stimuli, indicating that neutral cues paired with motivationally relevant smoking-related stimuli gain more motivational significance even though they were never paired directly with smoking. These conclusions are underscored by self-reported evidence of enhanced second-order conditioning in smokers. It can be concluded that smokers show associative learning for higher-order smoking-related stimuli. The present study directly shows the contribution of higher-order conditioning to smoking addiction and is the first to reveal its electrophysiological correlates. Although results are preliminary, they may help in understanding the etiology of smoking addiction and its persistence.

  11. Association between periodontal and peri-implant conditions: a 10-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoussis, Ioannis K; Müller, Samuel; Salvi, Giovanni E; Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa J A; Brägger, Urs; Lang, Niklaus P

    2004-02-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) compare prospectively the clinical and radiographic changes in periodontal and peri-implant conditions, (2) investigate the association of changes in periodontal parameters and peri-implant conditions over a mean observation period of 10 years (8-12 years) after implant installation, and (3) evaluate patient risk factors known to aggravate the periodontal conditions for their potential influence on the peri-implant tissue status. Eighty-nine partially edentulous patients with a mean age of 58.9 years (28-88 years) were examined at 1 and 10 years after implant placement. The patients contributed with 179 implants that were placed after comprehensive periodontal treatment and restored with crowns or fixed partial dentures. One hundred and seventy-nine matching control teeth were chosen as controls. Also, the remaining teeth (n=1770) in the dentitions were evaluated. Data on smoking habits and general health aspects were collected at 1 and 10 years as well. At 10 years, statistically significant differences existed between implants and matching control teeth with regard to most of the clinical and radiographic parameters (Pperiodontal diagnostic parameters to the peri-implant conditions: probing attachment level (PAL) at implants at 10 years was associated with implant location, full-mouth probing pocket depth (PPD) and full-mouth PAL (P=0.0001, r2=0.36). PPD at implants at 10 years correlated to implant location, full-mouth PPD and full-mouth PAL (Psmoking, general health condition, implant location, full-mouth PAL and change over time in full-mouth PPD (Pperiodontal and peri-implant conditions and the changes in these tissues over 10 years in partially edentulous patients.

  12. Minor mental disorders in Taiwanese healthcare workers and the associations with psychosocial work conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen

    2017-04-01

    Healthcare workers face multiple psychosocial work hazards intrinsic to their work, including heavy workloads and shift work. However, how contemporary adverse psychosocial work conditions, such as workplace justice and insecurity, may contribute to increased mental health risks has rarely been studied. This study aimed to search for modifiable psychosocial work factors associated with mental health disorders in Taiwanese healthcare workers. A total of 349 healthcare workers were identified from 19,641 employees who participated in a national survey of Taiwan. Minor mental disorder was assessed using the five-item brief symptom rating scale. We compared psychosocial work characteristics and the prevalence of minor mental disorder in healthcare workers with that in a sociodemographically matched sample, and examined the associations of psychosocial work conditions with mental health status. Healthcare workers were found to have a higher prevalence of minor mental disorder than general workers, and they were more likely to have longer working hours, heavier psychological job demands, higher job control, more workplace violence, and a higher prevalence of shift work. Among healthcare workers, experiences of workplace violence, lower workplace justice, heavier psychological job demands, and job insecurity were associated with a higher risk for minor mental disorder, even after controlling for working hours and shift work. Despite the fact that healthcare workers work longer hours and shift work, there were several modifiable psychosocial work conditions that should be targeted to improve their mental health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: a comparison of associated conditions, treatments and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Audrey; Patenaude, Valerie; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2014-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare condition in pregnancy. The aim of this study is to compare associated conditions, treatments and complications of pancreatitis in pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant controls. We carried out a population-based retrospective cohort study using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) from 2003 to 2010. A cohort of pregnant women with acute pancreatitis was created and compared to a created age-matched cohort of non-pregnant women with acute pancreatitis at a 1:4 ratio. Comparisons of associated conditions, treatment types, and complications were carried out using unconditional logistic regression. We identified 7725 cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. As compared to non-pregnant controls, pancreatitis in pregnancy was more likely to be associated with cholelithiasis and less likely with hyperlipidemia and alcohol abuse. Pancreatitis in pregnancy was more likely to be treated with parenteral nutrition and less likely to undergo endoscopic sphincterotomy. As compared to non-pregnant controls, pregnant women with pancreatitis were less likely to have pancreatic pseudocysts/hemorrhage/necrosis, generalized peritonitis, adult respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and death. Pancreatitis in pregnancy is predominantly caused by cholelithiasis, and unlike in the non-pregnant state, usually has a milder course.

  14. Data Driven Tuning of Inventory Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Santacoloma, Paloma Andrade; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2007-01-01

    A systematic method for criterion based tuning of inventory controllers based on data-driven iterative feedback tuning is presented. This tuning method circumvent problems with modeling bias. The process model used for the design of the inventory control is utilized in the tuning...... as an approximation to reduce time required on experiments. The method is illustrated in an application with a multivariable inventory control implementation on a four tank system....

  15. Tuning Properties in Silver Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Joshi, Chakra Prasad

    2015-07-09

    The properties of Ag nanoclusters are not as well understood as those of their more precious Au cousins. However, a recent surge in the exploration of strategies to tune the physicochemical characteristics of Ag clusters addresses this imbalance, leading to new insights into their optical, luminescence, crystal habit, metal-core, ligand-shell and environmental properties. In this Perspective, we provide an overview of the latest strategies along with a brief introduction of the theoretical framework necessary to understand the properties of silver nanoclusters and the basis for their tuning. The advances in cluster research and the future prospects presented in this Perspective will eventually guide the next large systematic study of nanoclusters, resulting in a single collection of data similar to the periodic table of elements.

  16. Distributed Tuning of Boundary Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eaton, Ben; Elaluf-Calderwood, Silvia; Sørensen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    in the context of a paradoxical tension between the logic of generative and democratic innovations and the logic of infrastructural control. Boundary resources play a critical role in managing the tension as a firm that owns the infrastructure can secure its control over the service system while independent...... firms can participate in the service system. In this study, we explore the evolution of boundary resources. Drawing on Pickering’s (1993) and Barrett et al.’s (2012) conceptualizations of tuning, the paper seeks to forward our understanding of how heterogeneous actors engage in the tuning of boundary...... resources within Apple’s iOS service system. We conduct an embedded case study of Apple’s iOS service system with an in-depth analysis of 4,664 blog articles concerned with 30 boundary resources covering 6 distinct themes. Our analysis reveals that boundary resources of service systems enabled by digital...

  17. Tuned mass absorber on a flexible structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2014-01-01

    The classic design of a tuned mass absorber is based on a simple two-mass analogy in which the tuned mass is connected to the structural mass with a spring and a viscous damper. In a flexible multi-degree-of-freedom structure the tuned mass absorber is typically introduced to provide damping of a...

  18. Lichens as a model-system for survival of eukaryotic symbiotic associations to simulated space conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vera, J.-P.; Horneck, G.; Rettberg, P.; Ott, S.

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms associated by a fungus (mycobiont) and a a photosynthetic biont. As a consequence of the symbiotic state both the bionts are able to colonise habitats where the separate bionts would not be able to survive. The symbiosis of lichens reflects a high degree of complexity and plasticity. The combination of the different bionts enables these organisms to colonise most extreme habitats worldwide as polar regions, deserts and alpine zones. Besides the well investigated microorganisms lichens are good modelsystems to examine adaptation strategies to most extreme environmental conditions. They clearly demonstrate a high resistence to simulated space conditions concerning UV spectra (λ ≥ 160 nm) and vacuum (p = 10-5 Pa). Lichens are poikilohydric organisms. They are physiologically active if they are wet but if dry they are in the state of anabiosis. Lichens are highly resistant to simulated space conditions if they are in the dry state as has been examined in the lichen and the respective bionts of Xanthoria elegans. We performed experiments to test the resistence of wet lichens while they are physiologically active for comparison. Buellia frigida from sites on the Antarctic continent and Peltigera aphthosa colonising shady habitats in Norway have been used. The influence of different doses of UV-C on the viability of both lichen species has been studied. The analysis of the results has been done by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) using fluorescent LIVE/DEAD-substances. While B. frigida shows a very high resistence combined with a high viability to UV-C during the whole experiment the viability of the shady lichen P. aphthosadecreases immediately. The results clearly show a graded resistence in the lichen symbiosis depending on the adaptation mechanisms to the respective environmental conditions. These results will be discussed and compared with results achieved in former investigations with lichen species. The adaptation

  19. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part I: Infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Rt. 140, 101 The City Drive ZC 5005, CA 92868-3298, Orange (United States); Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R. [College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California (United States); Steinbach, Lynne S. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The musculoskeletal system can be affected by a variety of abnormalities in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although not as common as complications involving other organ systems, such as the pulmonary and the central nervous systems, HIV-associated musculoskeletal disorders are sometimes the initial presentation of the viral illness. Knowledge of the existence and the characteristic appearance of the conditions affecting bone, joint, and muscle in HIV-infected patients is valuable to radiologists for diagnosis and to clinicians for detection and appropriate treatment. We reviewed recent literature to provide a comprehensive assessment of the HIV-associated musculoskeletal disorders, and present radiologic examples from our own collection. This article is divided into two parts. In the first part we review the infectious musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV illness and AIDS, including cellulitis, abscesses, pyomyositis, septic bursitis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and bacillary angiomatosis. We also present a comprehensive spectrum of mycobacterial infections, consisting of tuberculous spondylitis and spondylodiskitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and tenosynovitis, as well as infections caused by atypical mycobacteria. Part II of this review will concentrate on non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions, including rheumatic disorders and neoplasms. (orig.)

  20. Association of house dust allergen concentrations with residential conditions in city and in rural houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardzyńska, Aleksandra; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara; Pełka, Jolanta; Korzon, Leszek; Kaczała, Magdalena; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Gwardys, Tomasz; Kowalski, Marek L

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between house dust mite, cat and dog allergen levels with household characteristics in the houses of children living in urban and rural areas in central Poland. Dust samples were collected from 141 urban and 191 rural houses. Der f1 + Der p1, Can f 1, and Fel d1 levels were measured and associated with residential conditions and atopy-related health outcomes assessed by clinical examination and skin prick testing. Concentrations of mite allergens were lower, and cat and dog allergen levels were higher in urban houses. Fel d1 and Can f1 levels depended on the presence of a respective animal in the house. In urban houses, Der p1 + Der f1 concentration was lower in households with central heating, whereas Can f1 concentration was related to building age. Multivariate analyses revealed that the concentrations of house dust mite and dog allergens were associated with relative humidity, number of people in the household, and the presence of a dog at home. There was no significant association between allergen level and sensitization or atopic diseases. Concentrations of indoor allergens in urban and rural houses differ significantly, and residential conditions associated with allergen levels seem to be different in both environments.

  1. Associations between body condition, rumen fill, diarrhoea and lameness and ruminal acidosis in Australian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, E; Costa, N D; Fulkerson, W J; Lean, I J

    2013-11-01

    To investigate associations between ruminal acidosis and body condition score (BCS), prevalence of poor rumen fill, diarrhoea and lameness in dairy cows in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 100 dairy herds in five regions of Australia. Feeding practices, diets and management practices of herds were assessed. Lactating cows within herds were sampled for rumen biochemistry (n = 8 per herd) and scored for body condition, rumen fill and locomotion (n = 15 per herd). The consistency of faecal pats (n = 20 per herd) from the lactating herd was also scored. A perineal faecal staining score was given to each herd. Herds were classified as subclinically acidotic (ACID), suboptimal (SO) and non-acidotic (Normal) when ≥3/8 cows per herd were allocated to previously defined categories based on rumen biochemical measures. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the prevalence of conditions within a herd and explanatory variables. Median BCS and perineal staining score were not associated with herd category (p >0.05). In the multivariate models, herds with a high prevalence of low rumen fill scores (≤2/5) were more likely to be categorised Normal than SO with an associated increased risk of 69% (p = 0.05). Herds that had a greater prevalence of lame cows (locomotion scores ≥3/5), had 103% higher risk of being categorised as ACID than SO (p = 0.034). In a multivariate logistic regression model, with herd modelled as a random effect, an increase of 1% of pasture in the diet was associated with a 5.5% increase in risk of high faecal scores (≥4/5) indicating diarrhoea (p = 0.001). This study confirmed that herd categories based on rumen function are associated with biological outcomes consistent with acidosis. Herds that had a higher risk of lameness also had a much higher risk of being categorised ACID than SO. Herds with a high prevalence of low rumen scores were more likely to

  2. Goldenhar-associated conditions (hemifacial microsomia) and congenital deformities of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirikos, Athanasios I; McMaster, Michael J

    2006-06-01

    We performed a retrospective study of 668 consecutive patients with congenital spine deformities. To determine the prevalence of Goldenhar conditions in patients with congenital spine deformities, and describe the types of vertebral abnormalities and their treatment. The craniofacial malformations described by Goldenhar can be associated with congenital vertebral anomalies. This nonrandom association represents unilateral errors in the morphogenesis of the spine, the first and second branchial arches. The medical records were reviewed, and patients with Goldenhar conditions were identified. The vertebral anomalies causing spine deformity were detected on radiographs. The type and site of the craniofacial abnormalities, other musculoskeletal deformities, and systemic anomalies were recorded. There were 14 patients, including 7 males and 7 females, who had Goldenhar conditions. Thoracic scoliosis was the most common deformity, occurring in 10 patients (71.5%). Of these patients, 8 had an isolated hemivertebra, and the remaining 2 had a unilateral unsegmented bar with contralateral hemivertebra at the same level. There was only 1 patient with lumbar scoliosis caused by a hemivertebra. The side of vertebral anomaly correlated with that of hemifacial microsomia in 5 of 11 patients with scoliosis or kyphoscoliosis. Thoracolumbar kyphosis occurred in 4 patients, including 2 who had posterior hemivertebrae, 1 who had wedge vertebrae, and the remaining who had an anterior unsegmented bar. Thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis occurred in only 1 patient because of a posterolateral quadrant vertebra. Klippel-Feil syndrome occurred in 6 patients (42.8%). There were 8 patients (57%) who underwent surgical treatment at a mean age of 9.8 years (range 2.9-19). Four patients had undergone a combined anterior-posterior, and 4 had a posterior-only spine arthrodesis. The prevalence of Goldenhar-associated conditions in patients with congenital spine deformities was 2%. Failures of vertebral

  3. Stereotypes Associated With Age-related Conditions and Assistive Device Use in Canadian Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah Anne; Kenyon, Virginia; Lagacé, Martine; Wittich, Walter; Southall, Kenneth Edmund

    2016-12-01

    Newspapers are an important source of information. The discourses within the media can influence public attitudes and support or discourage stereotypical portrayals of older individuals. This study critically examined discourses within a Canadian newspaper in terms of stereotypical depictions of age-related health conditions and assistive technology devices (ATDs). Four years (2009-2013) of Globe and Mail articles were searched for terms relevant to the research question. A total of 65 articles were retained, and a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the texts was conducted. The articles were coded for stereotypes associated with age-related health conditions and ATDs, consequences of the stereotyping, and context (overall setting or background) of the discourse. The primary code list included 4 contexts, 13 stereotypes, and 9 consequences of stereotyping. CDA revealed discourses relating to (a) maintaining autonomy in a stereotypical world, (b) ATDs as obstacles in employment, (c) barriers to help seeking for age-related conditions, and (d) people in power setting the stage for discrimination. Our findings indicate that discourses in the Canadian media include stereotypes associated with age-related health conditions. Further, depictions of health conditions and ATDs may exacerbate existing stereotypes about older individuals, limit the options available to them, lead to a reduction in help seeking, and lower ATD use. Education about the realities of age-related health changes and ATDs is needed in order to diminish stereotypes and encourage ATD uptake and use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Cortisol and DHEA-S are associated with startle potentiation during aversive conditioning in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Christian; Pine, Daniel S.; Baas, Johanna M. P.; Lawley, Megan; Ellis, Valerie; Charney, Dennis S.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Fear conditioning reliably increases the startle reflex and stress hormones, yet very little is known about the effect of stress hormones on fear-potentiated startle. Cortisol and the sulfate ester of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S) are involved in stress and anxiety. Evidence suggests that low cortisol/DHEA-S ratio has a buffering effect on stress and anxiety in preclinical and clinical studies, suggesting that there may be a relationship between fear-potentiated startle and cortisol and DHEA-S activity. Objective The aim of the study was to examine whether there is a relationship between cortisol/DHEA-S ratio and fear-potentiated startle. Methods Thirty healthy subjects participated in a differential aversive conditioning experiment during which one of two stimuli (CS+) was paired with a shock, and the other was not (CS-). Conditioned responses were assessed with the startle reflex, defined as startle potentiation during CS+ compared to CS-. DHEA-S and cortisol levels were assayed from blood samples collected in both a baseline and an aversive conditioning session. Subjective state anxiety, arousal, and valence were assessed at various times during testing. Results Fear-potentiated startle was larger in individuals with high compared to low cortisol/DHEA-S ratio. Multiple regression analyses revealed that fear-potentiated startle was positively associated with cortisol and negatively associated with DHEA-S. There was no significant correlation between DHEA-S and cortisol levels. Conclusion These data suggest that cortisol and DHEA-S are involved in fear conditioning. PMID:16052364

  5. Oral and non oral diseases and conditions associated with bad breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliario, M; Rimondini, L

    2011-03-01

    The causes of bad breath are numerous and related to conditions dependent or not on oral and general health. The aim of our observational study is the assessment of the simultaneous relationships between halitosis, oral and/or nonoral diseases, and lifestyles using the principal components analysis of categorical data (CATPCA) to identify the main components involved in the detection of the symptom. A sample of 192 patients, who requested general dental examination at the Dental Clinic, participated at the study. Alimentary and voluptuary habits, general health information, drugs assumption, the status of teeth and intraoral medical devices including fillers, lesions of the oral mucosa, tongue coating score (TCS), plaque index (PI), probing bleeding index (PBI) and organoleptic tests were all evaluated. Data were analysed using CATPCA model. A strong relationship between halitosis and plaque, probing bleeding and tongue coating indexes was observed, whereas incongruous fillers, prostheses, systemic pathologies or diet were not clearly associated with halitosis probably because their effects on breath were clinically sheltered by the periodontal condition. The data of our observational study confirm that halitosis is more indicative of tongue coating and periodontal disease, rather than other oral and non oral associated conditions, like systemic pathologies or specific habits of life.

  6. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acquired infections – HAI – as the air can be a potential source of infection, as well as assess the exposure of professionals and patients to different pollutants. Material and Methods: A literature review was performed in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT databases, CAPES thesis database and Ministry of Health – Brazil, including studies published between 1982 and 2008. The literature search was grouped according to the thematic focus, as follows: ventilation, maintenance and cleaning of systems that comprehend the environmental quality standard. Discussion and Conclusion: Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections associated with Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Legionella, and other genera such as Clostridium and Nocardia, which were found in air conditioners, were observed, thus indicating the need for air-conditioning quality control in these environments.

  7. Factors associated with perceived uncertainty among parents of children with undiagnosed medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, Anne C; O'Brien, Kathleen E; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2012-08-01

    Uncertainty is a pervasive characteristic of illness. Yet little is known about the individual or situational factors that contribute to perceptions of uncertainty. The present study aims to examine the factors that contribute to perceived uncertainty among parents of a child with an undiagnosed condition. Two hundred sixty-six parents of a child, or children, affected by an undiagnosed medical condition for at least 2 years completed an electronically administered mixed-methods survey assessing theoretical predictors of perceived uncertainty. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify the relationship of key variables to perceived uncertainty. Parents' perceived control and optimism were negatively associated with uncertainty (B=-4.044, P≤0.001, B=-0.477, P≤0.05). Subjective disease severity was positively associated with perceived uncertainty (B=1.797, P≤0.05). Our findings suggest that parents who experience greater uncertainty feel less control over their child's medical condition, which may lead to less effective coping and poorer adaptation. Parents who are less optimistic or who perceive their child's disease as more severe may benefit most from interventions that target situations where parents perceive the least control, thereby enhancing coping and ultimately, adaptation. Published 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Gender Preference? National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Student-Athletes and Strength and Conditioning Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Kristin M; Appleby, Karen M

    2016-10-01

    Shuman, KM and Appleby, KM. Gender Preference? National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Student-Athletes and Strength and Conditioning Coaches. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2924-2933, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine the preferences and attitudes of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I (DI) junior and senior class student-athletes toward the gender of their strength and conditioning coach (SCC). This study contributes to the empirical body of literature regarding student-athlete and strength and conditioning coach interaction specific to gender-related information and extends the efforts to increase student-athlete success. A qualitative framework was used for this study. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 NCAA DI junior or senior class student-athletes who had been exposed to and coached by both a male and a female SCC. The results of this study concluded that, in general, participants did not have a specific gender preference for their SCC. However, participants indicated a preference for a coaching leadership style, which conveyed (a) leadership ability, (b) professionalism, (c) trust and respect, (d) support, (e) dependability, (f) positive relationship, and (g) personality.

  9. Disruption of bradycardia associated with discriminative conditioning in combat veterans with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P Ginsberg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Jay P Ginsberg1,2, Edwin Ayers3, Louisa Burriss1, Donald A Powell1,41Shirley L. Buchanan Neuroscience Laboratory, Dorn VA Medical Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Neuroscience, School of Medicine, 4Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, South Carolina State University, Orangeburg, SC, USAAbstract: The effects of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on heart rate (HR responding associated with a discriminative delay eyeblink (EB conditioning paradigm are reported. Combat PTSD+, Combat PTSD−, and Noncombat PTSD− veterans were assessed with psychometric self-report measures, and baseline heart rate variability (HRV was measured before receiving a 72-trial session of discriminative EB classical conditioning. Two types (red or green light of conditioned stimuli (CS were used: one (CS+ predicted a tone, followed immediately by an aversive stimulus (corneal airpuff; the other (CS− predicted a tone alone, not followed by the airpuff. The light signal was presented for 5 seconds, during which HR was measured. On all psychometric measures, the PTSD+ subgroup was significantly different from the PTSD− subgroups (Combat + Noncombat, and the PTSD− subgroups did not significantly differ from each other. A linear deceleration in HR to CS+ and CS− signals was found in the combined PTSD− subgroup and on CS− trials in the PTSD+ subgroup, but was not present on CS+ trials in the PTSD+ subgroup. Results are interpreted with respect to a behavioral stages model of conditioned bradycardia and in terms of neural substrates which are both critical to HR conditioning and known to be abnormal in PTSD.Keywords: bradycardia, PTSD, combat veterans, classical conditioning

  10. Sleep America: managing the crisis of adult chronic insomnia and associated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Stefanie S; Rabin, Laura A

    2012-05-01

    Chronic insomnia, a public health crisis affecting 10-15% of the U.S. population and costing billions of dollars annually, typically presents with one or more comorbid psychiatric or organic conditions. Historical classification of chronic insomnia as "secondary" to a presenting comorbid condition has resulted in under-recognition and under-treatment of both the insomnia and comorbid condition(s). Though critical in any model of comorbid disease management, chronic insomnia receives little, if any, public policy attention. We conducted a systematic review of recent empirical studies, review papers, books, government documents, press releases, advertisements, and articles pertaining to the classification, epidemiology, treatment, and physiology of sleep, insomnia, and comorbid conditions. Data were located primarily through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and PUBMED databases. Our goal was to provide an overview of the systems for classifying insomnia and available epidemiological data, and to review theoretical models regarding the etiology and maintaining factors of chronic insomnia along with research on the complex, bidirectional associations between chronic insomnia and various affective (and other) conditions. After thorough review of the literature, we propose several public policy measures as an initial step in managing chronic insomnia in the United States. These include introducing a nation-wide multi-modal educational and awareness campaign titled "Sleep America;" increasing the availability and demand for behavioral sleep medicine - the initially preferred treatment approach; and increasing the use of monitoring and enforcement activities by regulatory authorities to curtail false and misleading claims by sponsors of supplements or treatments for insomnia. Through the adoption of such measures, we hope to galvanize a national interest in healthy sleep and the evidence-based treatment of chronic insomnia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Tevatron tune tracker pll - theory, implementation and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The Tevatron tune tracker is based on the idea that the transverse phase response of the beam can be measured quickly and accurately enough to allow us to track the betatron tune with a phase locked loop (PLL). The goal of this paper is to show the progress of the PLL project at Fermilab. We will divide this paper into three parts: theory, implementation and measurements. In the theory section, we will use a simple linear model to show that our design will track the betatron tune under conditions that occur in the Tevatron. In the implementation section we will break down and examine each part of the PLL and in some cases calculate the actual PLL parameters used in our system from beam measurements. And finally in the measurements section we will show the results of the PLL performance.

  12. A New Hybrid Gyroscope with Electrostatic Negative Stiffness Tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Chu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A variety of gyroscopes have been extensively studied due to their capability of precision detection of rotation rates and extensive applications in navigation, guidance and motion control. In this work, a new Hybrid Gyroscope (HG which combines the traditional Dynamically Tuned Gyroscope (DTG with silicon micromachined technology is investigated. The HG not only has the potentiality of achieving the same high precision as the traditional DTG, but also features a small size and low cost. The theoretical mechanism of the HG with a capacitance transducer and an electrostatic torquer is derived and the influence of the installation errors from the capacitance plate and the disc rotor module is investigated. A new tuning mechanism based on negative stiffness rather than the traditional dynamic tuning is proposed. The experimental results prove that the negative stiffness tuning is practicable and a tuning voltage of as high as 63 V is demonstrated. Due to the decreased installation error, the non-linearity of the scale factor is reduced significantly from 11.78% to 0.64%, as well as the asymmetry from 93.3% to 1.56% in the open loop condition. The rebalancing close-loop control is simulated and achieved experimentally, which proves that the fundamental principle of the HG is feasible.

  13. A new hybrid gyroscope with electrostatic negative stiffness tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Guan, Yumei; Wang, Shourong; Zou, Qi; Chu, Xian; Xue, Haiyan

    2013-05-30

    A variety of gyroscopes have been extensively studied due to their capability of precision detection of rotation rates and extensive applications in navigation, guidance and motion control. In this work, a new Hybrid Gyroscope (HG) which combines the traditional Dynamically Tuned Gyroscope (DTG) with silicon micromachined technology is investigated. The HG not only has the potentiality of achieving the same high precision as the traditional DTG, but also features a small size and low cost. The theoretical mechanism of the HG with a capacitance transducer and an electrostatic torquer is derived and the influence of the installation errors from the capacitance plate and the disc rotor module is investigated. A new tuning mechanism based on negative stiffness rather than the traditional dynamic tuning is proposed. The experimental results prove that the negative stiffness tuning is practicable and a tuning voltage of as high as 63 V is demonstrated. Due to the decreased installation error, the non-linearity of the scale factor is reduced significantly from 11.78% to 0.64%, as well as the asymmetry from 93.3% to 1.56% in the open loop condition. The rebalancing close-loop control is simulated and achieved experimentally, which proves that the fundamental principle of the HG is feasible.

  14. The Association between Depression and Climatic Conditions in the Iran Way to Preventive of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Mirzakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin, play an undeniable role in the incidence of mental illnesses. Almost all humans will experience depression. Furthermore, most humans lack the ability to control and reduce depression, the disorder can lead to physical damage. The main goal of this study was to determine the association between distribution of depression and the climatic conditions in the Iran country. Methods: Spatial distribution maps of depression were plotted by using data recorded during 2010 year in the Iran health center registry. The geographical mapping of depression and climatic conditions were then incorporated into a geographic information system to create a spatial distribution model and in this study we used neural network to model the trend of depression and climatic conditions. Results: The spatial distributions of depression diseases in the country, followed by were scattered based on climatic conditions. In fact, common depression was more prevalent in the parts of the country where cold and rainy weather was more abundant. Conclusions: The findings of this study can be useful for psychologists and controlling of this disease, because lack the ability to control and reduce depression, the disorder can lead to physical damage. Data are also important to establish further effects modeling for depression. Moreover, psychologists and health professionals should consider the impact of environmental factors on their patients′ health.

  15. Chronic Pain, Comorbid Medical Conditions, and Associated Risk Factors in Kuwait: Gender and Nationality Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeny, Maureen C; Al Hamdan, Elham; Ross, Edgar L; Edwards, Robert R; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Jamison, Robert N

    2015-11-01

    Chronic pain is an international health problem that imposes enormous costs on societies around the world. There is good reason to suspect that chronic pain is a serious health issue in Kuwait and is associated with comorbid medical conditions like diabetes. The aim of this study is to examine the report of pain and incidence of medical comorbidities among a large convenience sample of patients treated at a private rehabilitation center in Kuwait and to examine differences in patient groups based on age, gender, and Kuwaiti nationality. This study examined intake data from 2,103 patients treated at a rehabilitation center in Kuwait. Most of the subjects were female (55.4%) and averaged 43.3 years of age (±14.5, range 18-88). Sixty nine percent were Kuwaiti citizens and 57.9% were employed. Marked differences in pain and health-related conditions were found between Kuwaiti nationals and non-Kuwaitis, with significantly increased incidences of hypertension, osteoarthritis, diabetes, asthma, osteoporosis, and cardiac and respiratory problems among the Kuwaitis (P gender differences were also identified with women reporting more intense, widespread pain, and reporting more comorbid medical problems compared with men (P role of cultural factors in contributing to pain and comorbid medical conditions. This information is critical in organizing resources to implement adequate healthcare services and behavioral interventions in Kuwait and other Arab countries to improve pain and health-related conditions. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Weather conditions associated with autumn migration by mule deer in Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining ecological integrity necessitates a proactive approach of identifying and acquiring lands to conserve unfragmented landscapes, as well as evaluating existing mitigation strategies to increase connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The increased use of highway underpasses and overpasses to restore connectivity for wildlife species offers clear conservation benefits, yet also presents a unique opportunity to understand how weather conditions may impact movement of wildlife species. We used remote camera observations (19,480 from an existing wildlife highway underpass in Wyoming and daily meteorological observations to quantify weather conditions associated with autumn migration of mule deer in 2009 and 2010. We identified minimal daily temperature and snow depth as proximate cues associated with mule deer migration to winter range. These weather cues were consistent across does and bucks, but differed slightly by year. Additionally, extreme early season snow depth or cold temperature events appear to be associated with onset of migration. This information will assist wildlife managers and transportation officials as they plan future projects to maintain and enhance migration routes for mule deer.

  17. Climate conditions associated with the occurrence of antimicrobial and macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.A. Picinin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to identify the climate condition parameters that are associated with the occurrence of antimicrobial and macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk using a multivariate principal components analysis (PCA. A total of 132 raw milk samples were collected at dairy farms in Minas Gerais State in Brazil and analyzed for 35 analytes, comprising macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode spectrometry. Of the 132 samples, 34 (25.76% bulk tank milk samples were positive for at least one analyte. PCA showed that antimicrobial residues in bulk tank milk occurred less frequently on days with a higher average temperature, maximum temperature and temperature-humidity index. In contrast, relative humidity was inversely associated with antimicrobial residues in raw milk. The PCA showed that daily milk production was also related to macrocyclic lactone residues, while rainfall showed an inverse association. Thus, some climate conditions, such as average temperature, maximum temperature and temperature-humidity index, can predict the moments with lower risk of occurrence of antimicrobial residues in bulk tank milk, in contrast to relative humidity. Furthermore, the risk of macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk was higher in months with less rainfall.

  18. Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics Are Associated with Disability Independently of Vascular Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Devulapalli

    Full Text Available Vascular risk factors may be associated with disability independently of vascular events. We examined whether the American Heart Association's 7 ideal cardiovascular health (CVH metrics were independently associated with disability in a nationally representative cohort.Adults age ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012 were included. Ideal CVH was calculated as a composite of 7 measures, each scored 0-2. Primary predictors were number of ideal CVH metrics and score of CVH metrics. The outcome was a dichotomous score from 20 activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental ADLs. Unadjusted and adjusted weighted logistic models estimated associations between ideal CVH and disability. The data were analyzed in 2015.Among 22692 participants, mean age was 46.9 years. Cardiac disease and stroke were present in 6.6% and 2.8%; 90.3% had poor physical activity and 89.9% poor diet. Among 3975 individuals with full CVH data, in fully adjusted models, OR for disability was 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.98 per point increase in ideal CVH score, and 0.84 (0.73-0.97 per additional number of ideal CVH metrics.CVH metrics were strongly and significantly associated with reduced odds of disability independently of vascular and non-vascular conditions. Poorer CVH may cause subclinical vascular disease resulting in disability.

  19. The association between pre-morbid conditions and respiratory tract manifestations amongst Malaysian Hajj pilgrims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deris, Zakuan Zainy; Hasan, Habsah; Ab Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2010-08-01

    In a very closed and overcrowding environment, influenza transmission during Hajj season is almost inevitable. The aim of this study was to determine the association between pre-morbid conditions and influenza-like illness (ILI) amongst Hajj pilgrims. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst Malaysian Hajj pilgrims in year 2007. Survey forms were distributed at Madinatul-Hujjaj, Jeddah and Tabung Haji Clinic, Medina, Saudi Arabia where pilgrims stay on transit before returning to Malaysia. Allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with sore throat (p=0.047), longer duration of cough (p=0.017) and runny nose (p=0.016). Pilgrims who suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) had significant association with longer duration of cough (p=0.041) and those with diabetes mellitus had significant association with longer duration of sore throat (p=0.048). Underlying asthma was significantly associated with severe influenza like illness requiring admission to hospital for further treatment of respiratory symptoms (p=0.016). Based on these findings, we suggest those with underlying asthma should be discouraged from participating in the hajj and they should seek early treatment if they develop respiratory symptoms.

  20. New tuning method for PID controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing-Chung

    2002-10-01

    In this paper, a tuning method for proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and the performance assessment formulas for this method are proposed. This tuning method is based on a genetic algorithm based PID controller design method. For deriving the tuning formula, the genetic algorithm based design method is applied to design PID controllers for a variety of processes. The relationship between the controller parameters and the parameters that characterize the process dynamics are determined and the tuning formula is then derived. Using simulation studies, the rules for assessing the performance of a PID controller tuned by the proposed method are also given. This makes it possible to incorporate the capability to determine if the PID controller is well tuned or not into an autotuner. An autotuner based on this new tuning method and the corresponding performance assessment rules is also established. Simulations and real-time experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of these formulas.

  1. Tuning the Magnetic Properties of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Randall Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous interest in magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs is reflected in published research that ranges from novel methods of synthesis of unique nanoparticle shapes and composite structures to a large number of MNP characterization techniques, and finally to their use in many biomedical and nanotechnology-based applications. The knowledge gained from this vast body of research can be made more useful if we organize the associated results to correlate key magnetic properties with the parameters that influence them. Tuning these properties of MNPs will allow us to tailor nanoparticles for specific applications, thus increasing their effectiveness. The complex magnetic behavior exhibited by MNPs is governed by many factors; these factors can either improve or adversely affect the desired magnetic properties. In this report, we have outlined a matrix of parameters that can be varied to tune the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. For practical utility, this review focuses on the effect of size, shape, composition, and shell-core structure on saturation magnetization, coercivity, blocking temperature, and relaxation time.

  2. Tuning the Magnetic Properties of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhatkar, Arati G.; Jamison, Andrew C.; Litvinov, Dmitri; Willson, Richard C.; Lee, T. Randall

    2013-01-01

    The tremendous interest in magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is reflected in published research that ranges from novel methods of synthesis of unique nanoparticle shapes and composite structures to a large number of MNP characterization techniques, and finally to their use in many biomedical and nanotechnology-based applications. The knowledge gained from this vast body of research can be made more useful if we organize the associated results to correlate key magnetic properties with the parameters that influence them. Tuning these properties of MNPs will allow us to tailor nanoparticles for specific applications, thus increasing their effectiveness. The complex magnetic behavior exhibited by MNPs is governed by many factors; these factors can either improve or adversely affect the desired magnetic properties. In this report, we have outlined a matrix of parameters that can be varied to tune the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. For practical utility, this review focuses on the effect of size, shape, composition, and shell-core structure on saturation magnetization, coercivity, blocking temperature, and relaxation time. PMID:23912237

  3. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.

  4. Skin conditions in a South African tuberculosis hospital: Prevalence, description, and possible associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Iréne; Visser, Willem I; Jordaan, H Francois

    2016-11-01

    The current pandemic of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, the modern era of antiretroviral therapy, and the rising incidence of multidrug-resistant TB have led to a broader spectrum of skin conditions in patients hospitalized with TB. These factors also influence investigations into possible causal relationships with TB. The aim of this study was to describe mucocutaneous conditions found in patients hospitalized with TB and to report associated factors. A cross-sectional observational study examining the spectrum of skin manifestations found in 105 patients hospitalized with TB was conducted. All relevant demographic and clinical data were collected. Possible associations were evaluated by making use of statistical analysis. Seventy-four (70%) of the investigated population were HIV-positive, and 46 (44%) patients were being treated for drug-resistant TB. The most prevalent dermatosis was xerosis (n = 83, 79%), followed by oral candidiasis (n = 33, 31%) and scars (n = 33, 31%), finger clubbing (n = 31, 29%), leukonychia (n = 29, 28%), striae (n = 25, 24%), and facial hyperpigmentation (n = 22, 21%). Anemia was detected in 90 (86%) patients, and 75 (71%) were classified as being underweight. Three patients were diagnosed with cutaneous TB. Patients hospitalized with TB have on average four different dermatoses, but xerosis remains the leading dermatological finding, irrespective of HIV status or TB drug sensitivity. Anemia and malnutrition are associated with numerous skin conditions found in this population. The prevalence of cutaneous TB among patients hospitalized with TB remains low, despite the high rate of TB and HIV co-infection. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Human thermal bioclimatic conditions associated with acute cardiovascular syndromes in Crete Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleta, Anastasia G.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the association between bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of admissions for non-fatal acute cardiovascular (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, decompensation of heart failure) syndromes (ACS) registered by the two main hospitals in Heraklion, Crete Island, during a five-year period 2008-2012. The bioclimatic conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Mean daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness, were acquired from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service). These parameters were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the use of the radiation and bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Generalized linear models (GLM) were applied to time series of daily numbers of outpatients with ACS against bioclimatic variations, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased coronary heart disease incidence, especially in the elderly and males. Additionally, heat stress plays an important role in the configuration of daily ACS outpatients, even in temperate climate, as that in Crete Island. In this point it is worth mentioning that Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks, which are associated in many cases with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). Taking into consideration the projected increased ambient temperature in the future, ACS

  6. Occult urinary incontinence in elderly women and its association with geriatric condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silay, K; Akinci, S; Ulas, A; Yalcin, A; Silay, Y S; Akinci, M B; Dilek, I; Yalcin, B

    2016-01-01

    Many older women are hesitated to initiate discussions about urinary symptoms and their incontinence. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of occult urinary incontinence in outpatient older women and to evaluate its association with other geriatric conditions. 100 female patients 65 years and older were assessed at the geriatric outpatient clinic. The validated form of the Turkish version of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form was used to evaluate urinary incontinence and quality of life. Comprehensive geriatric assessment including activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, mini mental state examination and geriatrics depression scale was performed. The number of falls, comorbid conditions and number of medications were noted. The association between urinary incontinence and geriatric domains were evaluated with logistic regression analysis. A total of 100 patients were evaluated, 64 of them included in the study. The median age of patients was 72.5. The rate of urinary incontinence was found 40.6%. The association between urinary incontinence and quality of life, performance status and comorbidity was found statistically significant with logistic regression (p = 0.033, p = 0.005, p = 0.031 respectively). Half of the patients with UI believe that it is part of normal aging and no definite treatment is available. Occult urinary incontinence is a significant problem in older women that inversely affecting the quality of life. The study suggests that awareness and education regarding incontinence should be increased among elderly patients and screening of urinary incontinence is an important part of the geriatric assessment. The evaluation and management of functional status and comorbid conditions should be the initial step during incontinence management in elderly patients.

  7. Overcoming horizontal depolarizing resonances with multiple tune jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a medium energy proton synchrotron, strong enough partial Siberian snakes can be used to avoid both imperfection and vertical intrinsic depolarizing resonances. However, partial snakes tilt the stable spin direction away from vertical, which generates depolarizing resonances associated with horizontal tune. The relatively weak but numerous horizontal intrinsic resonances are the main source of the residual polarization losses. A pair of horizontal tune jump quads have been used in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron to overcome these weak resonances. The locations of the two quads have to be chosen such that the disturbance to the beam optics is minimum. The emittance growth has to be mitigated for this method to work. In addition, this technique needs very accurate jump timing. Using two partial Siberian snakes, with vertical tune inside the spin tune gap and 80% polarization at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron injection, polarized proton beam had reached 1.5×10^{11} proton per bunch with 65% polarization. With the tune jump timing optimized and emittance preserved, more than 70% polarization with 2×10^{11} protons per bunch has been achieved. The polarization transport efficiency is close to 90%.

  8. Distinguishing attentional gain and tuning in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Taylor W; Dixon, Matthew L; Anderson, Adam K; De Rosa, Eve

    2014-11-01

    Here we examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) whether advanced age affects 2 mechanisms of attention that are widely thought to enhance signal processing in the sensory neocortex: gain and tuning. Healthy young and older adults discriminated faces under varying levels of object competition while fMRI was acquired. In young adults, cortical response magnitude to attended faces was maintained despite increasing competition, consistent with gain. Cortical response selectivity, indexed from repetition suppression, also increased only for attended faces despite increasing competition, consistent with tuning. Older adults exhibited intact gain, but altered tuning, with extrastriate cortical tuning determined by object salience rather than attention. Moreover, the magnitude of this susceptibility to stimulus-driven processing was associated with a redistribution of attention-driven competitive processes to the frontal cortices. These data indicate that although both gain and tuning are modulated by increased perceptual competition, they are functionally dissociable in the extrastriate cortices, exhibit differential susceptibility to advanced aging, and spare the frontal cortices a considerable processing burden through early selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Condition Dependent and Infection Dependent Mate Preferences in Women: Preferences for Healthy Appearing Men are Associated with General Condition and Measures of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Little

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Condition dependent mate choice in females, whereby condition or attractiveness influences preferences for markers of male quality, is seen both in non-humans and humans. There are several possible explanations for such effects. For example, in previous studies of fish it has been postulated that females in poor condition have energetic constraints limiting their choosiness. In this article, preferences for healthy facial appearance were measured in women and related to measures of condition. Questions were associated with two factors: a factor reflecting general health and condition (related to self-ratings of attractiveness, health, and physical fitness and a factor reflecting experience of and current state of infection (colds per year and current cold. General health and condition were positively related to preferences for healthy appearance in male faces, in line with previously seen condition dependent preferences. However, the measure of current and previous infection was also positively related to preferences for healthy appearance in male faces. While these two findings appear to conflict, in fact, they may reflect different mechanisms at work. Previous explanations, such as competitiveness for mates and/or energetic constraints may explain general condition dependent preferences. In terms of avoiding contagion, however, those most at risk may benefit most from increased attraction to healthy partners: “infection dependent” mate preferences. In this way, general condition may be positively related to preferences for male quality but infection or experience of infection, while associated with a lowering of condition, may also be positively associated with preferences for male quality.

  10. Shallow Water Tuned Liquid Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Jørgen

    The use of sloshing liquid as a passive means of suppressing the rolling motion of ships was proposed already in the late 19th century. Some hundred years later the use of liquid sloshing devices, often termed Tuned Liquid Dampers (TLD), began to find use in the civil engineering community...... that for realistic roughness parameters the bottom friction has very limited effect on the liquid sloshing behavior and can be neglected. Herby the postulate is verified. Based on the mathematical model three dimensionless parameters are derived showing that the response of the damper depends solely on ratio...

  11. Prevalence of taurodontism and its association with various oral conditions in an Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Saxena, Payal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the prevalence of taurodont molars among an Indian population. The goal was also to determine sexual dimorphism, distribution of taurodontism as well as any association between taurodontism and simultaneously occurring syndromes and anomalies. Full-mouth periapical radiographs of a total of 1360 patients were screened. A total of 9792 molars (including third molars) were evaluated. The relative incidence and the correlations regarding the location of taurodonts (right versus left side and maxillary versus mandibular) were analysed using the Z test. The overall incidence of subjects with taurodont molars among this Indian population was 2.5% (34/1360). Sexual distribution showed female dominance (21 females, 13 males), but this was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Maxillary second molars (35/118) were the most commonly involved teeth, followed by mandibular second molars (32/118). No significant differences were obtained for distribution by side (right vs left; P > 0.05) or interarch distribution (maxillary vs mandibular; P > 0.05). Out of 34 subjects with taurodonts, 50% (17/34) were associated with pyramidal molars and 32.35% (11/34) had impacted molars. Taurodontism is not uncommon in the Indian population and it might be associated with other conditions, such as pyramidal molars and impaction. Further larger scale studies are required to assess its prevalence in the general population and to establish any associations.

  12. On the Tuning and the Mass of the Composite Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Panico, Giuliano; Tesi, Andrea; Wulzer, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We analyze quantitatively the tuning of composite Higgs models with partial compositeness and its interplay with the predicted Higgs mass. In this respect we identify three classes of models, characterized by different quantum numbers of the fermionic colored resonances associated with the top quark, the so-called top partners. The main result of this classification is that in all models with moderate tuning a light Higgs, of 125 GeV mass, requires the presence of light top partners, around 1 TeV. The minimal tuning is comparable to the one of the most attractive supersymmetric models in particular the ones realizing Natural SUSY. This gives further support to an extensive program of top partners searches at the LHC that can already probe the natural region of composite Higgs models.

  13. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for estimating biochemical changes associated with different pathological conditions of cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Amuthachelvi; Prakasarao, Aruna; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2018-02-01

    The molecular level changes associated with oncogenesis precede the morphological changes in cells and tissues. Hence molecular level diagnosis would promote early diagnosis of the disease. Raman spectroscopy is capable of providing specific spectral signature of various biomolecules present in the cells and tissues under various pathological conditions. The aim of this work is to develop a non-linear multi-class statistical methodology for discrimination of normal, neoplastic and malignant cells/tissues. The tissues were classified as normal, pre-malignant and malignant by employing Principal Component Analysis followed by Artificial Neural Network (PC-ANN). The overall accuracy achieved was 99%. Further, to get an insight into the quantitative biochemical composition of the normal, neoplastic and malignant tissues, a linear combination of the major biochemicals by non-negative least squares technique was fit to the measured Raman spectra of the tissues. This technique confirms the changes in the major biomolecules such as lipids, nucleic acids, actin, glycogen and collagen associated with the different pathological conditions. To study the efficacy of this technique in comparison with histopathology, we have utilized Principal Component followed by Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA) to discriminate the well differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with an accuracy of 94.0%. And the results demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to complement the good old technique of histopathology.

  14. Environmental conditions associated with lesions in introduced free-ranging sheep in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jenny G.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Spraker, Terry R.; Schuler, Bridget A.; Hess, Steven C.; Faford, Jonathan K.J.; Sin, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife species which have been translocated between temperate and tropical regions of the world provide unique opportunities to understand how disease processes may be affected by environmental conditions. European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon) from the Mediterranean Islands were introduced to the Hawaiian Islands for sport hunting beginning in 1954 and were subsequently hybridized with feral domestic sheep (O. aries), which had been introduced in 1793. Three isolated mouflon populations have become established in the Hawaiian Islands but diseases in these populations have been little studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare gross and histologic lesions in respiratory, renal, and hepatic systems of free-ranging sheep in two isolated volcanic environments on Hawai‘i Island. Tissue and fecal samples were collected in conjunction with population reductions during February 2011. We found gross or histologic evidence of lungworm infection in 44/49 sheep from Mauna Loa which were exposed to gaseous emissions from Kīlauea Volcano. In contrast, only 7/50 sheep from Mauna Kea had lesions consistent with lungworm, but Mauna Kea sheep had significantly more upper respiratory tract inflammation and hyperplasia consistent with chronic antigenic stimulation, possibly associated with exposure to fine airborne particulates during extended drought conditions. We hypothesize that gasses from Kīlauea Volcano contributed to severity of respiratory disease principally associated with chronic lungworm infections at Mauna Loa; however, there were numerous other potentially confounding environmental factors and interactions that merit further investigation.

  15. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-09-15

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI.

  16. Identification of the factors associated with outcomes in a Condition Management Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demou Evangelia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A requirement of the Government’s Pathways to Work (PtW agenda was to introduce a Condition Management Programme (CMP. The aim of the present study was to identify the differences between those who engaged and made progress in this telephone-based biopsychosocial intervention, in terms of their health, and those who did not and to determine the client and practitioner characteristics and programme elements associated with success in a programme aimed at improving health. Methods Data were obtained from the CMP electronic spreadsheets and clients paper-based case records. CMP standard practice was that questionnaires were administered during the pre- and post-assessment phases over the telephone. Each client’s record contains their socio-demographic data, their primary health condition, as well as the pre- and post-intervention scores of the health assessment tool administered. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the database variables. Clients were included in the study if their records were available for analysis from July 2006 to December 2007. Results On average there were 112 referrals per month, totalling 2016 referrals during the evaluation period. The majority (62.8% of clients had a mental-health condition. Successful completion of the programme was 28.5% (575 “completers”; 144 “discharges”. Several factors, such as age, health condition, mode of contact, and practitioner characteristics, were significant determinants of participation and completion of the programme. The results showed that completion of the CMP was associated with a better mental-health status, by reducing the number of clients that were either anxious, depressed or both, before undertaking the programme, from 74% to 32.5%. Conclusions Our findings showed that an individual's characteristics are associated with success in the programme, defined as completing the intervention

  17. Betel nut chewing behaviour and its association with oral mucosal lesions and conditions in Ghaziabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sumanth; Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    To assess the practices and behaviour among Betel nut users in Ghaziabad and to detect the clinically associated oral mucosal lesions and conditions. A community-based survey was conducted in Ghaziabad among 332 betel nut users. Data on betel nut use was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Oral mucosal lesions and conditions were recorded using WHO criteria. Out of 332 betel nut users, 32.8% consumed Gutkha. 62.3% users used betel nut with tobacco. Most of the study population started chewing betel nut because of peer pressure and the habit started at the workplace or school. A majority found that there was no physical discomfort due to the habit. The significant oral diseases detected were oral leukoplakia in 11.7% and oral submucous fibrosis in 6.1% of individuals. The findings of the present study revealed that 74.7% of the participants were current chewers. 30.4% of all participants had oral mucosal lesions and conditions.

  18. Rare association between two genetic conditions: turner syndrome and beta thalassemia minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina STOICANESCU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Rare disorders are defined as diseases, including those of genetic origin, which are life-threatening or chronically debilitating, which are of such low prevalence that special combined efforts are needed to address them. We present a case with a rare association between two genetic conditions: Turner phenotype and beta thalassemia minor. Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that is characterized by the absence of all or part of a second sex chromosome in some or all cells. This condition occurs in 1 in 2,500 to 3,000 girls. The physical features include webbing of the neck, short stature, delayed growth of the skeleton, broad chest, cardivascular abnormalities and gonadal dysgenesis. Women with this disorder are usually infertile due to ovarian failure. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the cytogenetic and by FISH analysis, which revealed the presence of only one X chromosome. Treatment may include human growth hormone and estrogen replacement therapy. On the other hand, thalassemias are genetic conditions that result from imbalance in the normal coordinated synthesis of the globin subunits that make up the hemoglobin tetramer, leading to decreased and defective production of hemoglobin. Beta thalassemia syndromes are hereditary disorders characterized by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of beta-globin chains. Beta thalassemia is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Thalassemia minor usually presents as an asymptomatic mild microcytic anemia, but our case also had splenomegaly and required splenectomy.

  19. Brazil's conditional cash transfer program associated with declines in infant mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shei, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Conditional cash transfer programs are innovative social safety-net programs that aim to relieve poverty. They provide a regular source of income to poor families and are "conditional" in that they require poor families to invest in the health and education of their children through greater use of educational and preventive health services. Brazil's Bolsa Família conditional cash transfer program, created in 2003, is the world's largest program of its kind. During the first five years of the program, it was associated with a significant 9.3 percent reduction in overall infant mortality rates, with greater declines in postneonatal mortality rates than in mortality rates at an earlier age and in municipalities with many users of Brazil's Family Health Program than in those with lower use rates. There were also larger effects in municipalities with higher infant mortality rates at baseline. Programs like Bolsa Família can improve child health and reduce long-standing health inequalities. Policy makers should review the adequacy of basic health services to ensure that the services can respond to the increased demand created by such programs. Programs should also target vulnerable groups at greatest risk and include careful monitoring and evaluation.

  20. Spirituality and Religiousness are Associated With Fewer Depressive Symptoms in Individuals With Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucette, Aurelie; Ironson, Gail; Pargament, Kenneth I; Krause, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The increased prevalence of depressive symptoms among adults diagnosed with chronic health issues has been largely documented. Research is needed to clarify the effect of religiousness/spirituality in relation to chronic health conditions and depression, to establish whether these variables can serve as protective factors. Self-report data from a nationwide study of spirituality and health were used. Individuals with at least 1 chronic illness (N = 1696) formed the subsample for this study. Religiousness/spirituality variables included frequency of church attendance, prayer, religious meaning, religious hope, general meaning, general hope, peace, and view of God. Other variables included depressive symptoms and demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, and education). A series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that chronic conditions were consistently associated with more depressive symptoms. Greater religiousness/spirituality was significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, contributing 16% of the variance above demographics and the number of chronic illnesses. The religiousness/spirituality variables conferring the greatest protection against depression were psychospiritual variables (general meaning and general hope, followed by peace). Also significant but making a smaller contribution to less depression were church attendance, religious meaning, religious hope, and positive view of God. Only prayer did not relate significantly to less depression. Maintaining a sense of spirituality or religiousness can benefit well-being of individuals diagnosed with a chronic health condition, especially having meaning, maintaining hope, and having a sense of peace. Patients could potentially benefit from being offered the resources that support their spiritual/religious practices and beliefs as they cope with chronic illness. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Differential Transcriptional Response to Nonassociative and Associative Components of Classical Fear Conditioning in the Amygdala and Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiegas, Carolina; Stein, Joel; Hellman, Kevin; Hannenhalli, Sridhar; Abel, Ted; Keeley, Michael B.; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2006-01-01

    Classical fear conditioning requires the recognition of conditioned stimuli (CS) and the association of the CS with an aversive stimulus. We used Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays to characterize changes in gene expression compared to naive mice in both the amygdala and the hippocampus 30 min after classical fear conditioning and 30 min after…

  2. Tuning across Universalities with a Driven Open Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zamora

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Driven-dissipative systems in two dimensions can differ substantially from their equilibrium counterparts. In particular, a dramatic loss of off-diagonal algebraic order and superfluidity has been predicted to occur because of the interplay between coherent dynamics and external drive and dissipation in the thermodynamic limit. We show here that the order adopted by the system can be substantially altered by a simple, experimentally viable tuning of the driving process. More precisely, by considering the long-wavelength phase dynamics of a polariton quantum fluid in the optical parametric oscillator regime, we demonstrate that simply changing the strength of the pumping mechanism in an appropriate parameter range can substantially alter the level of effective spatial anisotropy induced by the driving laser and move the system into distinct scaling regimes. These include (i the classic algebraically ordered superfluid below the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT transition, as in equilibrium; (ii the nonequilibrium, long-wavelength-fluctuation-dominated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ phase; and the two associated topological-defect-dominated disordered phases caused by proliferation of (iii entropic BKT vortex-antivortex pairs or (iv repelling vortices in the KPZ phase. Furthermore, by analyzing the renormalization group flow in a finite system, we examine the length scales associated with these phases and assess their observability in current experimental conditions.

  3. Tuning across Universalities with a Driven Open Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, A.; Sieberer, L. M.; Dunnett, K.; Diehl, S.; Szymańska, M. H.

    2017-10-01

    Driven-dissipative systems in two dimensions can differ substantially from their equilibrium counterparts. In particular, a dramatic loss of off-diagonal algebraic order and superfluidity has been predicted to occur because of the interplay between coherent dynamics and external drive and dissipation in the thermodynamic limit. We show here that the order adopted by the system can be substantially altered by a simple, experimentally viable tuning of the driving process. More precisely, by considering the long-wavelength phase dynamics of a polariton quantum fluid in the optical parametric oscillator regime, we demonstrate that simply changing the strength of the pumping mechanism in an appropriate parameter range can substantially alter the level of effective spatial anisotropy induced by the driving laser and move the system into distinct scaling regimes. These include (i) the classic algebraically ordered superfluid below the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition, as in equilibrium; (ii) the nonequilibrium, long-wavelength-fluctuation-dominated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) phase; and the two associated topological-defect-dominated disordered phases caused by proliferation of (iii) entropic BKT vortex-antivortex pairs or (iv) repelling vortices in the KPZ phase. Furthermore, by analyzing the renormalization group flow in a finite system, we examine the length scales associated with these phases and assess their observability in current experimental conditions.

  4. What Does Tympanostomy Tube Placement in Children Teach Us About the Association Between Atopic Conditions and Otitis Media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhn, Young J.; Wi, Chung-Il

    2014-01-01

    Otitis media is the most common infection second only to viral upper respiratory infection in the outpatient setting. Tympanostomy tube insertion (TTI) is the most common ambulatory surgical procedure in the United States. While many risk factors for otitis media have been identified, atopic conditions have been under-recognized as risk factors for recurrent and persistent otitis media. Given that asthma and other atopic conditions are the most common chronic conditions during childhood, it is worth examining the association between atopic conditions and risk of otitis media, which can provide insight into how atopic conditions influence the risk of microbial infections. This paper focuses its discussion on otitis media, however it is important that the association between atopic conditions and risk of otitis media be interpreted in the context of the association of atopic conditions with increased risks of various microbial infections. PMID:24816652

  5. Safety conditions of steam boilers in companies associated with a professional risk administration company in Antioquia, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Diego L. Sepúlveda M; Jairo Ramírez G

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to determine the safety conditions of steam boilers in companies associated with a professional risk administra-tion company in Antioquia, Colombia. To this end, their op-eration conditions shall be characterized, the associated risks identified, and their safety level assessed. Methodology:. a descriptive crosssectional study was carried out in twenty companies whose production processes involve boilers. A survey on the conditions for operation was applied on both the maintena...

  6. Association between severe eczema in children and multiple comorbid conditions and increased healthcare utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Simpson, Eric L

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with multiple comorbid conditions, such as asthma and food allergy. We sought to determine the impact of eczema severity on the development of these disorders and other non-atopic comorbidities in AD. We used the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a prospective questionnaire-based study of a nationally representative sample of 91,642 children aged 0-17 yr. Prevalence and severity of eczema, asthma, hay fever and food allergy, sleep impairment, healthcare utilization, recurrent ear infections, and visual and dental problems were determined. In general, more severe eczema is correlated with poorer overall health, impaired sleep, and increased healthcare utilization, including seeing a specialist, compared with children with mild or moderate disease (Rao-Scott chi-squared test, p tooth decay (p = 0.13). These data indicate that severe eczema is associated with multiple comorbid chronic health disorders, impaired overall health, and increased healthcare utilization. Further, these data suggest that children with eczema are at risk of decreased oral health. Future studies are warranted to verify this novel association. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Chemical and biological sensing using tuning forks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Nongjian; Boussaad, Salah

    2012-07-10

    A device for sensing a chemical analyte is disclosed. The device is comprised of a vibrating structure having first and second surfaces and having an associated resonant frequency and a wire coupled between the first and second surfaces of the vibrating structure, wherein the analyte interacts with the wire and causes a change in the resonant frequency of the vibrating structure. The vibrating structure can include a tuning fork. The vibrating structure can be comprised of quartz. The wire can be comprised of polymer. A plurality of vibrating structures are arranged in an array to increase confidence by promoting a redundancy of measurement or to detect a plurality of chemical analytes. A method of making a device for sensing a chemical analyte is also disclosed.

  8. Psychiatric consultations and the management of associated comorbid medical conditions in a regional referral hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkokone S Z Tema

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychiatrists are often called upon to evaluate patients with a medical condition and psychiatric symptoms, either as a complication thereof or initial presenting symptoms. There are often grey areas with regard to neuropsychiatric disorders in which psychiatrists and specialists from other clinical disciplines would need to co-manage or share ideas on the comprehensive treatment of a presenting patient. Objectives. This study was undertaken to provide a demographic and clinical profile of all patients consulted by the consultation-liaison psychiatry (CLP service at the Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH in Johannesburg, and to describe the clinical management of patients admitted with a diagnosis of a mental disorder associated with a comorbid medical condition, including delirium, dementia and a mood or psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition. Methods. A retrospective record review of all patients referred to the HJH CLP team over a 6-month period. Results. A total of 884 routine and emergency consultations were done for 662 patients (males n=305; females n=357 between the ages of 13 and 90 years who were referred from various other clinical departments. The most common documented reason for referral was a request for assessment (n=182; 27.5%, which consisted of mental state assessment, reconsultation and assessing capacity. A total of 63 patients (10.0% of cases consulted were admitted to either the medical or psychiatric wards with a confirmed diagnosis of delirium, dementia and/or a mood or psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition (although admission wards were identified in 55 files only. The medical wards admitted the majority (n=37; 67.3% mostly for delirium (n=28; 50.9%. HIV was identified as the most common systemic aetiological factor (n=23; 67.7%. Conclusion. In this study, a female patient between 31 and 45 years of age was slightly more likely to be referred to the HJH CLP service for assessment, and

  9. POET: Parameterized Optimization for Empirical Tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Q; Seymour, K; You, H; Vuduc, R; Quinlan, D

    2007-01-29

    The excessive complexity of both machine architectures and applications have made it difficult for compilers to statically model and predict application behavior. This observation motivates the recent interest in performance tuning using empirical techniques. We present a new embedded scripting language, POET (Parameterized Optimization for Empirical Tuning), for parameterizing complex code transformations so that they can be empirically tuned. The POET language aims to significantly improve the generality, flexibility, and efficiency of existing empirical tuning systems. We have used the language to parameterize and to empirically tune three loop optimizations-interchange, blocking, and unrolling-for two linear algebra kernels. We show experimentally that the time required to tune these optimizations using POET, which does not require any program analysis, is significantly shorter than that when using a full compiler-based source-code optimizer which performs sophisticated program analysis and optimizations.

  10. Coral thermal tolerance: tuning gene expression to resist thermal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Bellantuono

    Full Text Available The acclimatization capacity of corals is a critical consideration in the persistence of coral reefs under stresses imposed by global climate change. The stress history of corals plays a role in subsequent response to heat stress, but the transcriptomic changes associated with these plastic changes have not been previously explored. In order to identify host transcriptomic changes associated with acquired thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub-lethal temperature of 3°C below bleaching threshold temperature were compared to both non-preconditioned corals and untreated controls using a cDNA microarray platform. After eight days of hyperthermal challenge, conditions under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant maintained Symbiodinium density, a clear differentiation in the transcriptional profiles was revealed among the condition examined. Among these changes, nine differentially expressed genes separated preconditioned corals from non-preconditioned corals, with 42 genes differentially expressed between control and preconditioned treatments, and 70 genes between non-preconditioned corals and controls. Differentially expressed genes included components of an apoptotic signaling cascade, which suggest the inhibition of apoptosis in preconditioned corals. Additionally, lectins and genes involved in response to oxidative stress were also detected. One dominant pattern was the apparent tuning of gene expression observed between preconditioned and non-preconditioned treatments; that is, differences in expression magnitude were more apparent than differences in the identity of genes differentially expressed. Our work revealed a transcriptomic signature underlying the tolerance associated with coral thermal history, and suggests that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind physiological acclimatization would be critical for the modeling of reefs

  11. Specific Medical Conditions are Associated with Unique Behavioral Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Ditza A. Zachor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a heterogeneous group of disorders which occurs with numerous medical conditions. In previous research, subtyping in ASD has been based mostly on cognitive ability and ASD symptom severity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether specific medical conditions in ASD are associated with unique behavioral profiles. The medical conditions included in the study were macrocephaly, microcephaly, developmental regression, food selectivity, and sleep problems. The behavioral profile was composed of cognitive ability, adaptive skills, and autism severity, and was examined in each of the aforementioned medical conditions.The study population included 1224 participants, 1043 males and 181 females (M:F ratio=5.8:1 with a mean age of 49.9m (SD=29.4 diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests. Groups with and without the specific medical conditions were compared on the behavioral measures. Developmental regression was present in 19% of the population and showed a more severe clinical presentation, with lower cognitive abilities, more severe ASD symptoms, and more impaired adaptive functioning. Microcephaly was observed in 6.3% of the population and was characterized by a lower cognitive ability and more impaired adaptive functioning in comparison to the normative head circumference (HC group. Severe food selectivity was found in 9.8% and severe sleep problems in 5.1% of the ASD population. The food selectivity and sleep problem subgroups, both showed more severe autism symptoms only as described by the parents, but not per the professional assessment, and more impaired adaptive skills. Macrocephaly was observed in 7.9% of the ASD population and did not differ from the normative HC group in any of the examined behavioral measures. Based on these findings, two unique medical-behavioral subtypes in ASD that affect inherited traits of cognition and/or autism severity were suggested. The microcephaly phenotype

  12. HbQ-India associated with microcytosis: An uncommon hemoglobin variant associated with a common hematologic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Yadav, Amit; Rusia, Usha

    2010-09-05

    HbQ-India is a rare alpha chain variant that usually presents in the heterozygous state. Normally, HbQ-India is clinically silent. It becomes symptomatic when present in association with other conditions. We report a case of HbQ-India with concomitant presence of iron deficiency anemia. A 16-year-old female presented with weakness and pallor intermittently for six years. Complete blood count showed severe microcytic hypochromic anemia. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed a prominent band in the S,D,G region. Tests for sickling were negative. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed a peak in the unknown window (4.70-4.90 min) suggestive of HbQ-India. Serum iron profile was suggestive of iron deficiency anemia. Based on the above findings, a diagnosis of coexistent HbQ-India-iron deficiency anemia was made. A family study revealed the father as having moderate anemia with similar findings while the mother was normal. Abnormal hemoglobin in the patient was confirmed by molecular diagnosis. HbQ variants are the alpha globin chain variants due to structural mutations (α64 Asp→His) inherited in autosomal dominant fashion. Three molecular variant types have been documented, namely HbQ-India, HbQ-Thailand and HbQ-Iran. Normally, HbQ is clinically silent. Therefore, careful screening of the samples using routine techniques like Hb electrophoresis and HPLC are needed for identification of such abnormal hemoglobin variants like HbQ-India.

  13. The association of poor economic condition and family relations in childhood with late-life depression.

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    Krsteska, Roza; Pejoska, Vesna Gerazova

    2013-09-01

    Late-life depression encompasses both patients with late-life onset of depression (>60 years) and older adults with a prior and current history of depression. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of the economic condition and family relations in childhood as risk factors for late-life depression. This was an analytical cross-sectional study comprising 120 subjects, 60 patients with unipolar depression and 60 subjects without depressive disorders, diagnosed in accordance with the 10-th International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. All participants in the study were above the age of 60 and there was no significant statistical difference in the sex proportion in both groups (p>0.05). Data for the examination were taken from a self-reported questionnaire designed for our aim. The Geriatric Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. Our results have shown that severe financial difficulties are important events in childhood and are risk factors for depression in the elderly (Chi-square=12.68, df=2, p=0.0018). Our investigation has found the association of family relations with late-life depression. In fact, conflictual relations in the family were more common in the experimental group than in the control group (Chi-square=14.32, df=3, p=0.0025). Furthermore, father's addiction to alcohol in childhood was associated with depression in later life (p=0.013). The difference in childhood emotional neglect and unequal treatment between siblings in both groups was insufficient to be confirmed statistically, but the examinees with this trauma had a threefold higher chance of having depression later in life (Odds ratio=3.04, 95% CL0.92 family conflicts during childhood are associated with late-life depression. Father's addiction to alcohol and parents' negative personal character traits are associated with depression in the elderly.

  14. Autoimmune Cytopenias and Associated Conditions in CVID: a Report From the USIDNET Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuille, Elizabeth J; Anooshiravani, Niloofar; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Fuleihan, Ramsay L; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    Autoimmune cytopenia is frequently a presenting manifestation of common variable immune deficiency (CVID). Studies characterizing the CVID phenotype associated with autoimmune cytopenias have mostly been limited to large referral centers. Here, we report prevalence of autoimmune cytopenias in CVID from the USIDNET Registry and compare the demographics and clinical features of patients with and without this complication. Investigators obtained demographic, laboratory, and clinical data on CVID patients within the USIDNET Registry. Patients were considered to have autoimmune cytopenia if they had a diagnosis of hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), or autoimmune neutropenia. Baseline characteristics and associated complications of those with autoimmune cytopenia (+AC) and those without (-AC) were compared. Of 990 CVID patients included in the analysis, 10.2% (N = 101) had a diagnosis consistent with autoimmune cytopenia: ITP was diagnosed in 7.4% (N = 73), hemolytic anemia in 4.5% (N = 45), and autoimmune neutropenia in 1% (N = 10). Age at diagnosis, gender, and baseline Ig values did not differ between the +AC and -AC groups. The +AC group was significantly more likely to have one or more other CVID-associated non-infectious complications (OR = 2.9; 95%-CI: 1.9-4.6, P < 0.001), including lymphoproliferation, granulomatous disease, lymphomas, hepatic disease, interstitial lung diseases, enteropathy, and organ-specific autoimmunity. Autoimmune cytopenias are a common manifestation in CVID and are likely to be associated with other non-infectious CVID-related conditions. In light of prior studies showing increased morbidity and mortality in CVID patients with such complications, a diagnosis of autoimmune cytopenia may have prognostic significance in CVID.

  15. (7)Be behaviour and meteorological conditions associated with (7)Be peak events in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Brattich, E; Lozano, R L; Cinelli, G

    2017-01-01

    This work regards a comprehensive analysis of the overall distribution of (7)Be activity concentrations in Spain and the synoptic meteorological conditions associated with the highest (7)Be peaks (>8 mBq/m(3)). The use of four sampling stations (Barcelona, Bilbao, Madrid, and Sevilla) included in REMdb, with different latitudinal location, as well as the relatively long time period used in this study (2001-2010), allowed to improve the understanding of (7)Be spatio-temporal distribution in Spain. The comparison of the (7)Be activity concentrations mean values indicated a north-south gradient (from 3.1 ± 1.1 mBq/m(3) in Bilbao to 4.0 ± 1.8 mBq/m(3) in Sevilla), even though not statistically significant (as indicated by the t-test). However, the analysis of frequency distributions and temporal evolutions of (7)Be activity concentrations have suggested the presence of two main areas, namely northern (Bilbao and Barcelona) and southern (Sevilla) Spain. The identification and analysis of periods associated with the highest values of (7)Be have allowed studying the different synoptic patterns associated with stratospheric-tropospheric transport (STT). In particular, three episodes (one in the north and two in the south) potentially associated with vigorous STT have been identified and analysed in detail. The results displayed that the omega block configuration, extending either over western Russia and Scandinavia or into the Atlantic Ocean, forced the prevailing jet stream to the northeast and south of Spain respectively with subsequent subsidence. In summer, this blocking configuration at high latitudes was combined with the presence of the Azores high pressure system to the west of Spain, affecting the (7)Be activity concentration recorded in the south. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Circulating TRAIL shows a significant post-partum decline associated to stressful conditions.

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    Giorgio Zauli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since circulating levels of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL may be important in the physiopathology of pregnancy, we tested the hypothesis that TRAIL levels change at delivery in response to stressful conditions. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a longitudinal study in a cohort of 73 women examined at week 12, week 16, delivery and in the corresponding cord blood (CB. Serum TRAIL was assessed in relationship with maternal characteristics and to biochemical parameters. TRAIL did not vary between 12 (67.6±27.6 pg/ml, means±SD and 16 (64.0±16.2 pg/ml weeks' gestation, while displaying a significant decline after partum (49.3±26.4 pg/ml. Using a cut-off decline >20 pg/ml between week 12 and delivery, the subset of women with the higher decline of circulating TRAIL (41.7% showed the following characteristics: i nullipara, ii higher age, iii operational vaginal delivery or urgent CS, iv did not receive analgesia during labor, v induced labor. CB TRAIL was significantly higher (131.6±52 pg/ml with respect to the corresponding maternal TRAIL, and the variables significantly associated with the first quartile of CB TRAIL (<90 pg/ml were higher pre-pregnancy BMI, induction of labor and fetal distress. With respect to the biochemical parameters, maternal TRAIL at delivery showed an inverse correlation with C-reactive protein (CRP, total cortisol, glycemia and insulin at bivariate analysis, but only with CRP at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Stressful partum conditions and elevated CRP levels are associated with a decrease of circulating TRAIL.

  17. Individual features, working conditions and work injuries are associated with work ability among nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Frida Marina; Martinez, Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    To investigate factors associated with work ability among nursing professionals. They comprised 514 nursing professionals (83.8% of the total number of workers) from a hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. In 2009, we conducted a cross-sectional study that was a part of a 5-year planned cohort study initiated in 2008. We administered a comprehensive questionnaire to the participants in order to obtain data on their sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyles, and working conditions. The questionnaire also contained the Brazilian versions of the following: the Job Stress Scale (JSS), Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire, Work-Related Activities That May Contribute To Job-Related Pain and/or Injury (WRAPI), and Work Ability Index (WAI). The results were analyzed using descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate linear regression analyses. On the WAI, 74.9% of the workers obtained a score of over 40 points (score range 7-49); the mean score was 42.3 points (SD=4.5). The final multivariate model showed that lower WAI scores were related to the work-related outcome, which was work injury, and the following individual characteristics and working conditions: body mass index (p=0.001), sex (female; p=0.002), sedentariness (p social support at work (p=0.003), effort-reward ratio (p=0.001), violence at work (p=0.005), WRAPI score (p work injuries (yes; p=0.001). Various factors were associated with work ability. The results showed that a number of variables should be considered when planning and implementing actions to maintain or improve work ability among nursing professionals.

  18. Water Quality Conditions Associated with Cattle Grazing and Recreation on National Forest Lands.

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    Leslie M Roche

    Full Text Available There is substantial concern that microbial and nutrient pollution by cattle on public lands degrades water quality, threatening human and ecological health. Given the importance of clean water on multiple-use landscapes, additional research is required to document and examine potential water quality issues across common resource use activities. During the 2011 grazing-recreation season, we conducted a cross sectional survey of water quality conditions associated with cattle grazing and/or recreation on 12 public lands grazing allotments in California. Our specific study objectives were to 1 quantify fecal indicator bacteria (FIB; fecal coliform and E. coli, total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations in surface waters; 2 compare results to a water quality regulatory benchmarks, b recommended maximum nutrient concentrations, and c estimates of nutrient background concentrations; and 3 examine relationships between water quality, environmental conditions, cattle grazing, and recreation. Nutrient concentrations observed throughout the grazing-recreation season were at least one order of magnitude below levels of ecological concern, and were similar to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA estimates for background water quality conditions in the region. The relative percentage of FIB regulatory benchmark exceedances widely varied under individual regional and national water quality standards. Relative to USEPA's national E. coli FIB benchmarks-the most contemporary and relevant standards for this study-over 90% of the 743 samples collected were below recommended criteria values. FIB concentrations were significantly greater when stream flow was low or stagnant, water was turbid, and when cattle were actively observed at sampling. Recreation sites had the lowest mean FIB, total nitrogen, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations, and there were no significant differences in FIB and

  19. The survival–reproduction association becomes stronger when conditions are good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Bolton, Mark; Jiguet, Frédéric; Bried, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Positive covariations between survival and reproductive performance (S–R covariation) are generally interpreted in the context of fixed or dynamic demographic heterogeneity (i.e. persistent differences between individuals, or dynamic variation in resource acquisition), but the processes underlying covariations are still unknown. We used multi-event modelling to investigate how environmental and individual features influence S–R covariation patterns in a long-lived seabird, the Monteiro's storm petrel (Oceanodroma monteiroi). Our analysis reveals that a strong positive association between individual breeding success and subsequent survival occurs only when conditions are favourable to reproduction (in favourable years, in high-quality nests and in nest-faithful breeders). This finding reflects differences in the main causes of breeding failure and mortality under favourable and unfavourable conditions, which in turn lead to distinct patterns of S–R covariation. We suggest, in particular, that resource-related sources of demographic heterogeneity do not generate a strong S–R covariation, in contrast with hidden and unpredictable sources of variation. PMID:26511053

  20. The association between number and type of traumatic life experiences and physical conditions in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husarewycz, M Natalie; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is significantly and positively associated with several physical conditions. We aimed to examine whether the nature and number of trauma(s) experienced may be related to physical conditions using a population-based sample. Data came from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=34,653; age 20 years and older). Participants indicated lifetime trauma experiences and physical conditions experienced over the past year. Multiple logistic regressions examined the association between type and number of trauma(s) and physical conditions. After adjusting for sociodemographics, Axis I and II mental disorders, and all other trauma, injurious and witnessing trauma were significantly associated with all the assessed physical conditions. Psychological trauma was associated with cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, diabetes and arthritis. Natural disaster/terrorism was associated with cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease and arthritis only. Finally, combat-related trauma and other trauma were not positively associated with any physical condition. Our results also suggested a dose-response relationship between number of traumatic events and physical conditions. These data suggest that the impact of certain types and number of traumas may differ with respect to their relationship with physical health problems independent of PTSD. © 2013.

  1. Living and Health Conditions Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Jacinto de Souza, B F; Marín-Leon, L

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological and nutritional transition processes in the last decades underlie the rising trend of obesity in the elderly and is related to increased risk of chronic non-communicable diseases and decreased functional status. To analyze the association of demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and health-related factors with overweight and obesity in elderly. Cross-sectional study. Carried out in Campinas-São Paulo, Brazil, in 2011. 452 non-institutionalized elderly (aged ≥60 years), half were users of a government-run soup kitchen and the other half were neighbors of the same sex. Overweight frequency (BMI ≥25 and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) was 21.7%. In the multiple multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for sex, age group and economic class, there was greater chance of overweight among those that reported dyslipidemia; those that reported arthritis/ arthrosis/rheumatism and that once or more per week replaced supper by a snack were more likely to be obese. Elderly who did not leave home daily and reported diabetes had higher chance of overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity are associated with worse living and health-related conditions, such as physical inactivity, changes in eating behaviors, and chronic diseases. Public health policies should encourage regular physical activity and healthy eating behaviors, focusing on traditional diet, through nutritional education, in order to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity and chronic diseases.

  2. The influence of coral reef benthic condition on associated fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Chong-Seng

    Full Text Available Accumulative disturbances can erode a coral reef's resilience, often leading to replacement of scleractinian corals by macroalgae or other non-coral organisms. These degraded reef systems have been mostly described based on changes in the composition of the reef benthos, and there is little understanding of how such changes are influenced by, and in turn influence, other components of the reef ecosystem. This study investigated the spatial variation in benthic communities on fringing reefs around the inner Seychelles islands. Specifically, relationships between benthic composition and the underlying substrata, as well as the associated fish assemblages were assessed. High variability in benthic composition was found among reefs, with a gradient from high coral cover (up to 58% and high structural complexity to high macroalgae cover (up to 95% and low structural complexity at the extremes. This gradient was associated with declining species richness of fishes, reduced diversity of fish functional groups, and lower abundance of corallivorous fishes. There were no reciprocal increases in herbivorous fish abundances, and relationships with other fish functional groups and total fish abundance were weak. Reefs grouping at the extremes of complex coral habitats or low-complexity macroalgal habitats displayed markedly different fish communities, with only two species of benthic invertebrate feeding fishes in greater abundance in the macroalgal habitat. These results have negative implications for the continuation of many coral reef ecosystem processes and services if more reefs shift to extreme degraded conditions dominated by macroalgae.

  3. The influence of coral reef benthic condition on associated fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Seng, Karen M; Mannering, Thomas D; Pratchett, Morgan S; Bellwood, David R; Graham, Nicholas A J

    2012-01-01

    Accumulative disturbances can erode a coral reef's resilience, often leading to replacement of scleractinian corals by macroalgae or other non-coral organisms. These degraded reef systems have been mostly described based on changes in the composition of the reef benthos, and there is little understanding of how such changes are influenced by, and in turn influence, other components of the reef ecosystem. This study investigated the spatial variation in benthic communities on fringing reefs around the inner Seychelles islands. Specifically, relationships between benthic composition and the underlying substrata, as well as the associated fish assemblages were assessed. High variability in benthic composition was found among reefs, with a gradient from high coral cover (up to 58%) and high structural complexity to high macroalgae cover (up to 95%) and low structural complexity at the extremes. This gradient was associated with declining species richness of fishes, reduced diversity of fish functional groups, and lower abundance of corallivorous fishes. There were no reciprocal increases in herbivorous fish abundances, and relationships with other fish functional groups and total fish abundance were weak. Reefs grouping at the extremes of complex coral habitats or low-complexity macroalgal habitats displayed markedly different fish communities, with only two species of benthic invertebrate feeding fishes in greater abundance in the macroalgal habitat. These results have negative implications for the continuation of many coral reef ecosystem processes and services if more reefs shift to extreme degraded conditions dominated by macroalgae.

  4. Typical meteorological conditions associated with extreme nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollution events over Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing typical meteorological conditions associated with extreme pollution events helps to better understand the role of local meteorology in governing the transport and distribution of pollutants in the atmosphere. The knowledge of their co-variability could further help to evaluate and constrain chemistry transport models. Hence, in this study, we investigate the statistical linkages between extreme nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollution events and meteorology over Scandinavia using observational and reanalysis data. It is observed that the south-westerly winds dominated during extreme events, accounting for 50–65 % of the total events depending on the season, while the second largest annual occurrence was from south-easterly winds, accounting for 17 % of total events. The specific humidity anomalies showed an influx of warmer and moisture-laden air masses over Scandinavia in the free troposphere. Two distinct modes in the persistency of circulation patterns are observed. The first mode lasts for 1–2 days, dominated by south-easterly winds that prevailed during 78 % of total extreme events in that mode, while the second mode lasted for 3–5 days, dominated by south-westerly winds that prevailed during 86 % of the events. The combined analysis of circulation patterns, their persistency, and associated changes in humidity and clouds suggests that NO2 extreme events over Scandinavia occur mainly due to long-range transport from the southern latitudes.

  5. Beneficial properties of natural phenols: highlight on protection against pathological conditions associated with amyloid aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Massimo; Rigacci, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean and Asian diets are currently considered as the most healthy traditional feeding habits effective against risk of age-associated, particularly cardiovascular and neurodegenerative, diseases. A common feature of these two regimens is the abundance of foods and beverages of plant origin (green tea, extra virgin olive oil, red wine, spices, berries, and aromatic herbs) that are considered responsible for the observed beneficial effects. Epidemiological data suggest that the phenolic component remarkably enriched in these foods plays an important role in reducing the incidence of amyloid diseases, pathological conditions associated to tissue deposition of toxic protein aggregates responsible for progressive functional deterioration. Great effort is being spent to provide knowledge on the effects of several natural phenols in this context, moving from the test tube to animal models and, more slowly, to the patient's bed. An emerging feature that makes these molecules increasingly attractive for amyloid disease prevention and therapy is their wide spectrum of activity: recent pieces of evidence suggest that they can inhibit the production of amyloidogenic peptides from precursors, increase antioxidant enzyme activity, activate autophagy and reduce inflammation. Our concept should than shift from considering natural phenols simply as antioxidants or, at the best, as amyloid aggregation inhibitors, to describing them as potentially multitargeting drugs. A main concern is the low bioavailability of such compounds and efforts aimed at improving it are underway, with encapsulation strategies being the most promising ones. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Early Controversies over Athetosis: I. Clinical Features, Differentiation from other Movement Disorders, Associated Conditions, and Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2013-01-01

    Since the description of athetosis in 1871 by American neurologist William Alexander Hammond (1828-1900) the disorder has been a source of controversy, as were many aspects of Hammond's career. Primary sources have been used to review controversies in the 50-year period since the initial description of athetosis, in particular those concerning clinical features, differentiation from other movement disorders, associated conditions, and pathology. Controversies concerning treatment will be addressed in a subsequent article. Hammond struggled to establish athetosis as a distinct clinical-pathological entity, and had successfully predicted the striatal pathology in his initial case (albeit somewhat serendipitously). Athetosis was, nevertheless, considered by many neurologists to be a form of post-hemiplegic chorea or part of a continuum between chorea and dystonia. European neurologists, and particularly the French, initially ignored or discounted the concept. Additional controversies arose over whether the movements persisted during sleep, whether athetosis was, or could be, associated with imbecility or insanity, and how it should be treated. Some controversies concerning athetosis served to identify areas where knowledge was insufficient to make accurate statements, despite prior self-assured or even dogmatic statements to the contrary. Other controversies illustrated established prejudices, even if these biases were often only apparent with the greater detachment of hindsight.

  7. Typical meteorological conditions associated with extreme nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution events over Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Manu Anna; Devasthale, Abhay

    2017-10-01

    Characterizing typical meteorological conditions associated with extreme pollution events helps to better understand the role of local meteorology in governing the transport and distribution of pollutants in the atmosphere. The knowledge of their co-variability could further help to evaluate and constrain chemistry transport models. Hence, in this study, we investigate the statistical linkages between extreme nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution events and meteorology over Scandinavia using observational and reanalysis data. It is observed that the south-westerly winds dominated during extreme events, accounting for 50-65 % of the total events depending on the season, while the second largest annual occurrence was from south-easterly winds, accounting for 17 % of total events. The specific humidity anomalies showed an influx of warmer and moisture-laden air masses over Scandinavia in the free troposphere. Two distinct modes in the persistency of circulation patterns are observed. The first mode lasts for 1-2 days, dominated by south-easterly winds that prevailed during 78 % of total extreme events in that mode, while the second mode lasted for 3-5 days, dominated by south-westerly winds that prevailed during 86 % of the events. The combined analysis of circulation patterns, their persistency, and associated changes in humidity and clouds suggests that NO2 extreme events over Scandinavia occur mainly due to long-range transport from the southern latitudes.

  8. Rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azospirillum sp. association enhances growth of Lactuca sativa L. under tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amael APONTE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The selection of microorganisms that enhance plant growth and confer biotic and abiotic tolerance to crops constitutes a biotechnology currently gaining importance on a global scale. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of inoculating rhizobacteria to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. on seed germination and vegetative development in order to use isolates as potential biofertilizers under tropical conditions. Five isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf and one of Azospirillum sp. (Az were inoculated to seeds using a bacterial suspension of 1.5*108 CFU*mL-1. In vitro, none of the isolates promoted germination. In vivo, isolates promoted growth and acted as stress alleviators by conferring tolerance to high temperatures (≥ 30 °C. The highest seedling emergence percentages were induced by the association of P.fluorescens with Azospirillum. This association also promoted the highest leaf-area in 25 d seedlings and exhibited a significantly higher dry-weight in 40 d plants compared to the control (P≤0.05 supporting the advantages of bio-consortiums over individual strains. The strains were able to produce dependent L-tryptophan indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, to solubilize phosphorous in vitro and tolerated at least 5%-salt stress. The results indicate that isolate Pf (26 and Az possess plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR traits and should be further assessed. This study suggests that P. fluorescens and Azospirillum act synergically and are able to trigger an induced-tolerance mechanism in lettuce under abiotic stress.

  9. Plant lipid-associated fibrillin proteins condition jasmonate production under photosynthetic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Abir; Laizet, Yec'han; Block, Maryse A; Maréchal, Eric; Alcaraz, Jean-Pierre; Larson, Tony R; Pontier, Dominique; Gaffé, Joël; Kuntz, Marcel

    2010-02-01

    The role of a subfamily of lipid globule-associated proteins, referred to as plant fibrillins (FIB1a, -1b, -2), was determined using a RNA interference (RNAi) strategy. We show that Arabidopsis plants with reduced levels of these plastid structural proteins are impaired in long-term acclimation to environmental constraint, namely photooxidative stress imposed by high light combined with cold. As a result, their photosynthetic apparatus is inefficiently protected. This leads to the prevalence of an abnormal granal and stromal membrane arrangement, as well as higher photosystem II photoinhibition under stress. The visible phenotype of FIB1-2 RNAi lines also includes retarded shoot growth and a deficit in anthocyanin accumulation under stress. All examined phenotypic effects of lower FIB levels are abolished by jasmonate (JA) treatment. An atypical expression pattern of several JA-induced genes was observed in RNAi plants. A JA-deficient mutant was found to share similar stress phenotypic characteristics with FIB RNAi plants. We conclude a new physiological role for JA, namely acclimation of chloroplasts, and that light/cold stress-related JA biosynthesis is conditioned by the accumulation of plastoglobule-associated FIB1-2 proteins. Consistent correlative data suggest that this FIB effect is mediated by plastoglobule (and triacylglycerol) accumulation as the potential site for initiating the chloroplast stress-related JA biosynthesis.

  10. Detection of early stage changes associated with adipogenesis using Raman spectroscopy under aseptic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Adam; Ashton, Lorna; Yang, Xuebin B; Goodacre, Royston; Smith, Alistair; Kirkham, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    There is growing interest in the development of methods capable of non-invasive characterization of stem cells prior to their use in cell-based therapies. Raman spectroscopy has previously been used to detect biochemical changes commensurate with the osteogenic, cardiogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of stem cells. The aim of this study was to characterize the adipogenic differentiation of live adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) under aseptic conditions. ASCs were cultured in adipogenic or basal culture medium for 14 days in customized culture flasks containing quartz windows. Raman spectra were acquired every 3 days. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify spectral changes in the cultures over time. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the marker genes PPARγ and ADIPOQ and Oil red O staining performed. PCA demonstrated that lipid associated spectral features varied throughout ASC differentiation with the earliest detection of the lipid associated peak at 1,438 cm(-1) after 3 days of induction. After 7 days of culture there were clear differences between the spectra acquired from ASCs in adipogenic or basal culture medium. No changes were observed in the spectra acquired from undifferentiated ASCs. Significant up-regulation in the expression of both PPARγ and ADIPOQ genes (P Raman sampling process resulted in weaker gene expression compared with ASCs that had not undergone Raman analysis. This study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect biochemical changes associated with adipogenic differentiation in a non-invasive and aseptic manner and that this can be achieved as early as three days into the differentiation process. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  11. The Fine-Tuning of the Universe for Intelligent Life

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Luke A

    2011-01-01

    The fine-tuning of the universe for intelligent life has received a great deal of attention in recent years, both in the philosophical and scientific literature. The claim is that in the space of possible physical laws, parameters and initial conditions, the set that permits the evolution of intelligent life is very small. I present here a review of the scientific literature, outlining cases of fine-tuning in the classic works of Carter, Carr and Rees, and Barrow and Tipler, as well as more recent work. To sharpen the discussion, the role of the antagonist will be played by Victor Stenger's recent book The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed for Us. Stenger claims that all known fine-tuning cases can be explained without the need for a multiverse. Many of Stenger's claims will be found to be highly problematic. We will touch on such issues as the logical necessity of the laws of nature; objectivity, invariance and symmetry; theoretical physics and possible universes; entropy in cosmology;...

  12. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  13. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest. A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40% and 5 (34% categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2. The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  14. Fine Tuning of a Type 1 Interferon Antagonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Urin

    Full Text Available Type I interferons are multi-potent cytokines that serve as first line of defense against viruses and other pathogens, posses immunomudolatory functions and elicit a growth inhibitory response. In recent years it has been shown that interferons are also detrimental, for example in lupus, AIDS, tuberculosis and cognitive decline, highlighted the need to develop interferon antagonists. We have previously developed the antagonist IFN-1ant, with much reduced binding to the IFNAR1 receptor and enhanced binding to IFNAR2. Here, we further tune the IFN-1ant by producing three additional antagonists based on IFN-1ant but with altered activity profiles. We show that in all three cases the antiproliferative activity of interferons is blocked and the induction of gene transcription of immunomudolatory and antiproliferative associated genes are substantially decreased. Conversely, each of the new antagonists elicits a different degree of antiviral response, STAT phosphorylation and related gene induction. Two of the new antagonists promote decreased activity in relation to the original IFN-1ant, while one of them promotes increased activity. As we do not know the exact causes of the detrimental effects of IFNs, the four antagonists that were produced and analyzed provide the opportunity to investigate the extent of antagonistic and agonistic activity optimal for a given condition.

  15. Longitudinal associations between mental health conditions and overactive bladder in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Catherine S; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Hillis, Stephen L; Torner, James C; Sadler, Anne G

    2017-10-01

    One in 5 recently deployed US women veterans report overactive bladder symptoms. Mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety commonly co-occur in women with overactive bladder, but temporal relationships between these outcomes have not been well studied, and the mechanism behind this association is unknown. The Women Veterans Urinary Health Study, a nationwide longitudinal study in recently deployed women veterans, was designed to better understand relationships between overactive bladder and mental health conditions. We sought to estimate the 1-year incidence and remission of overactive bladder and to identify the impact of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and prior sexual assault on 1-year overactive bladder incidence and remission rates. Participants of this 1-year prospective cohort study were female veterans separated from military service who had returned from Iraq or Afghanistan deployment within the previous 2 years. Eligible women were identified through the Defense Manpower Data Center and recruited by mail and telephone. Telephone screening confirmed participants were ambulatory, community-dwelling veterans and excluded those with urinary tract fistula, congenital abnormality, or cancer; pelvic radiation; spinal cord injury; multiple sclerosis; Parkinson disease; stroke; or current/recent pregnancy. Data collection included computer-assisted telephone interviews performed at enrollment and 1 year later. The interview assessed demographic and military service characteristics; urinary symptoms and treatment; depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and treatment; and a lifetime history of sexual assault. Overactive bladder was identified if at least moderately bothersome urgency urinary incontinence and/or urinary frequency symptoms were reported on Urogenital Distress Inventory items. Exposures included depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and lifetime sexual assault, assessed at

  16. Tuning and History: A Personal Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Ann Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The text places Tuning History in the context of the rapidly developing international collaboration among historians which began in Europe in 1989, with the ECTS Pilot project, and continued, from 2000 on, with the European History Networks (for research and for curriculum development) working in parallel and in collaboration with Tuning, in…

  17. Efficient tuning in supervised machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The tuning of learning algorithm parameters has become more and more important during the last years. With the fast growth of computational power and available memory databases have grown dramatically. This is very challenging for the tuning of parameters arising in machine learning, since the

  18. Bayesian networks: a combined tuning heuristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    One of the issues in tuning an output probability of a Bayesian network by changing multiple parameters is the relative amount of the individual parameter changes. In an existing heuristic parameters are tied such that their changes induce locally a maximal change of the tuned probability. This

  19. Land surface and atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves in the South Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eungul; Bieda, Rahama; Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Richter, Heather

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to extreme heat was reconstructed based on regional land-atmosphere processes from 1979 to 2010 in the South Central U.S. The study region surrounds the Chickasaw Nation (CN), a predominantly Native American population with a highly prevalent burden of climate-sensitive chronic diseases. Land surface and atmospheric conditions for summer heat waves were analyzed during spring (March-April-May, MAM) and summer (June-July-August, JJA) based on the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability, and Change maximum temperature definition for heat wave frequency (HWF). The spatial-temporal pattern of HWF was determined using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the corresponding principle component time series of the first EOF of HWF. Statistically significant analyses of observed conditions indicated that sensible heat increased and latent heat fluxes decreased with high HWF in the South Central U.S. The largest positive correlations of sensible heat flux to HWF and the largest negative correlations of latent heat flux to HWF were specifically observed over the CN. This is a significantly different energy transfer regime due to less available soil moisture during the antecedent MAM and JJA. The higher sensible heat from dry soil could cause significant warming from the near surface (> 2.0°C) to the lower troposphere (> 1.5°C), and accumulated boundary layer heat could induce the significant patterns of higher geopotential height and enhance anticyclonic circulations (negative vorticity anomaly) at the midtroposphere. Results suggested a positive land-atmosphere feedback associated with heat waves and called attention to the need for region-specific climate adaptation planning.

  20. Structure of mangrove meiofaunal assemblages associated with local sediment conditions in subtropical eastern australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maizah M.; Lee, S. Y.

    2017-11-01

    Meiofauna are ubiquitous but poorly-studied components of soft-bottom marine habitats around the world, including mangroves. The dynamic environmental conditions and heterogeneous sediments of mangroves present challenges to understanding the structure of mangrove meiofaunal assemblages at various spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we investigated the meiofaunal assemblage structure of sediments colonised by three mangrove species, namely, Avicennia marina, Rhizophora stylosa and Aegiceras corniculatum, at three locations in subtropical eastern Australia. Spatial and temporal variations were tested by sampling at the three mangrove locations (i.e. Tallebudgera, Currumbin and Terranora) in autumn, with samplings repeated at Tallebudgera at two other times broadly representing during dry/cool winter and wet/hot summer seasons. We examined the variability of the sediment environments within each of the different mangrove species, and investigated how meiofaunal assemblages would respond to the particular changes in their habitats to result in differences in assemblage structure between and within sites. Total meiofaunal density was highest in Tallebudgera and Currumbin and lowest in Terranora (mean density of 424, 393 and 239 ind.10 cm-2, respectively). In Tallebudgera, the density was higher in winter and summer (mean density of 546 and 530 ind.10 cm-2, respectively). The meiofaunal assemblage in this study shows a trend and association with the environmental variables. High availability of food proxies such phaeopigments, Chl a or TOC, with moderate tannin content and appropriate habitat structure (sediment particle size, belowground root biomass and/or moisture content provide the best condition for the meiofauna to achieve the highest density. However, given the complex dynamic habitats and the spatial heterogeneity of the mangrove environments across different locations and seasons, no clear generalization could be made regarding the key environmental

  1. Youth resistance training: updated position statement paper from the national strength and conditioning association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kraemer, William J; Blimkie, Cameron J R; Jeffreys, Ian; Micheli, Lyle J; Nitka, Mike; Rowland, Thomas W

    2009-08-01

    Faigenbaum, AD, Kraemer, WJ, Blimkie, CJR, Jeffreys, I, Micheli, LJ, Nitka, M, and Rowland, TW. Youth resistance training: Updated position statement paper from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. J Strength Cond Res 23(5): S60-S79, 2009-Current recommendations suggest that school-aged youth should participate daily in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is developmentally appropriate and enjoyable and involves a variety of activities (). Not only is regular physical activity essential for normal growth and development, but also a physically active lifestyle during the pediatric years may help to reduce the risk of developing some chronic diseases later in life (). In addition to aerobic activities such as swimming and bicycling, research increasingly indicates that resistance training can offer unique benefits for children and adolescents when appropriately prescribed and supervised (). The qualified acceptance of youth resistance training by medical, fitness, and sport organizations is becoming universal ().Nowadays, comprehensive school-based programs are specifically designed to enhance health-related components of physical fitness, which include muscular strength (). In addition, the health club and sport conditioning industry is getting more involved in the youth fitness market. In the U.S.A., the number of health club members between the ages of 6 and 17 years continues to increase () and a growing number of private sport conditioning centers now cater to young athletes. Thus, as more children and adolescents resistance train in schools, health clubs, and sport training centers, it is imperative to determine safe, effective, and enjoyable practices by which resistance training can improve the health, fitness, and sports performance of younger populations.The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) recognizes and supports the premise that many of the benefits associated with adult resistance training

  2. ACTIVATION MECHANISMS OF GUT-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE UNDER CHRONIC SOCIAL STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kamyshnyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced immune disregulation is a risk factor of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but, so far, the mechanisms for this effect are not fully known. Expression levels of specific mRNAs were assessed in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT from Wistar rats subjected to chronic social stress (CSS. Gene expression was evaluated for NR3C1, Adrβ2, as well as IL-1β, IL-17α pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Nlrp, an inflammasome gene. Under the CSS conditions, we have shown altered distribution of RORγt +, FoxP3+, LMP2+, XBP1+ lymphocytes in GALT.The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats aged 5–6 months. Specific mRNA expression for the target genes was determined by means of real-time PCR performed in a CFX96™ thermocycler («BioRadLaboratories, Inc»,USA. Relative levels of a target gene expression were quantified by the ΔΔCt method, being compared with rat GAPDH reference gene expression. Statistical analysis was performed with available «BioRad СFX Manager 3.1» software. Specific monoclonal rat antibodes were used for detection of immunopositive lymphocytes by means of indirect immunofluorescence technique.CSS development leads to decreased levels of mRNA expression for Nr3c1 and Adrβ2-genes in the GALT cells, being accompanied with unidirectional changes, i.e., increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-17α and Nlrp3-inflammasome genes. These changes are accompanied by decreased FoxP3+/RORγt + cell ratio and predominant Th17 differentiation accompanied by suppressor failure. In addition, CSS development was characterized by unidirectional tendency for increasing total number of LMP2+ lymphocytes and reduced ХВР1+ cell population density in lymphoid structures of rat ileum.The events observed in GALT cell populations under CSS conditions are opposing classical paradigm of the stress response. The CSS-associated effects do not promote immunosuppression, however, are able to cause

  3. Two-level tuning of fuzzy PID controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G I; Hu, B G; Gosine, R G

    2001-01-01

    Fuzzy PID tuning requires two stages of tuning; low level tuning followed by high level tuning. At the higher level, a nonlinear tuning is performed to determine the nonlinear characteristics of the fuzzy output. At the lower level, a linear tuning is performed to determine the linear characteristics of the fuzzy output for achieving overall performance of fuzzy control. First, different fuzzy systems are defined and then simplified for two-point control. Non-linearity tuning diagrams are constructed for fuzzy systems in order to perform high level tuning. The linear tuning parameters are deduced from the conventional PID tuning knowledge. Using the tuning diagrams, high level tuning heuristics are developed. Finally, different applications are demonstrated to show the validity of the proposed tuning method.

  4. Trends, Productivity Losses, and Associated Medical Conditions Among Toxoplasmosis Deaths in the United States, 2000–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Patricia L.; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000–2010. A matched case–control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxo...

  5. Saharan dust intrusions in Spain: Health impacts and associated synoptic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Carmona, Rocío; Russo, Ana; Ortiz, Cristina; Salvador, Pedro; Trigo, Ricardo Machado

    2017-07-01

    A lot of papers have been published about the impact on mortality of Sahara dust intrusions in individual cities. However, there is a lack of studies that analyse the impact on a country and scarcer if in addition the analysis takes into account the meteorological conditions that favour these intrusions. The main aim is to examine the effect of Saharan dust intrusions on daily mortality in different Spanish regions and to characterize the large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with such dust intrusions. For determination of days with Saharan dust intrusions, we used information supplied by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food & Environment, it divides Spain into 9 main areas. In each of these regions, a representative province was selected. A time series analysis has been performed to analyse the relationship between daily mortality and PM10 levels in the period from 01.01.04 to 31.12.09, using Poisson regression and stratifying the analysis by the presence or absence of Saharan dust advections. The proportion of days on which there are Saharan dust intrusions rises to 30% of days. The synoptic pattern is characterised by an anticyclonic ridge extending from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula. Particulate matter (PM) on days with intrusions are associated with daily mortality, something that does not occur on days without intrusions, indicating that Saharan dust may be a risk factor for daily mortality. In other cases, what Saharan dust intrusions do is to change the PM-related mortality behaviour pattern, going from PM2.5. A study such as the one conducted here, in which meteorological analysis of synoptic situations which favour Saharan dust intrusions, is combined with the effect on health at a city level, would seem to be crucial when it comes to analysing the differentiated mortality pattern in situations of Saharan dust intrusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensorimotor difficulties are associated with the severity of autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Hannant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Present diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC include social communication and interaction difficulties, repetitive behaviour and movement, and atypical sensory responsivity. Few studies have explored the influence of motor coordination and sensory responsivity on severity of ASC symptoms. In the current study, we explore whether sensory responsivity and motor coordination differences can account for the severity of autistic behaviours in children with ASC. 36 children took part: 18 (13 male, 5 female with ASC (ages 7-16: mean age 9.93 years and 18 (7 male, 11 female typically developing (TD children (ages 6-12; mean age 9.16 years. Both groups completed a battery of assessments that included motor coordination, sensory responsivity, receptive language, non-verbal reasoning and social communication measures Children with ASC also completed the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised.. Results showed that children with ASC scored significantly lower on receptive language, coordination and sensory responsivity and a sensorimotor subscale, Modulation of Activity (MoA compared to the TD group. In the ASC group, MoA significantly predicted ASC severity across all ASC measures; receptive language and sensory responsivity significantly predicted parental reported autism measures; and coordination significantly predicted examiner observed reported scores. Additionally, specific associations were found between the somatosensory perceptive modalities and ASC severity. The results show that sensorimotor skills are associated with severity of ASC symptoms; furthering the need to research sensorimotor integration in ASC and also implying that diagnosis of ASC should also include the assessment of both coordination deficit and atypical sensory responsivity.

  7. Does Life Seem Better on a Sunny Day? Examining the Association between Daily Weather Conditions and Life Satisfaction Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Richard E.; Lawless, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Weather conditions have been shown to affect a broad range of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The current study examines whether these effects extend to life satisfaction judgments. We examine the association between daily weather conditions and life satisfaction in a representative sample of over 1 million Americans from all 50 states who were assessed (in a cross-sectional design) over a 5-year period. Most daily weather conditions were unrelated to life satisfaction judgments, and those...

  8. Chronic respiratory conditions in a cohort of metropolitan fire-fighters: associations with occupational exposure and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermer, T.R.; Malbon, W.; Morgan, M.; Smith, M.; Crockett, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of chronic respiratory conditions in metropolitan fire-fighters and to study associations between occupational exposure, use of respiratory protection and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in fire-fighters with and without chronic respiratory conditions.

  9. An automatically tuning intrusion detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenwei; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Weigert, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a security layer used to detect ongoing intrusive activities in information systems. Traditionally, intrusion detection relies on extensive knowledge of security experts, in particular, on their familiarity with the computer system to be protected. To reduce this dependence, various data-mining and machine learning techniques have been deployed for intrusion detection. An IDS is usually working in a dynamically changing environment, which forces continuous tuning of the intrusion detection model, in order to maintain sufficient performance. The manual tuning process required by current systems depends on the system operators in working out the tuning solution and in integrating it into the detection model. In this paper, an automatically tuning IDS (ATIDS) is presented. The proposed system will automatically tune the detection model on-the-fly according to the feedback provided by the system operator when false predictions are encountered. The system is evaluated using the KDDCup'99 intrusion detection dataset. Experimental results show that the system achieves up to 35% improvement in terms of misclassification cost when compared with a system lacking the tuning feature. If only 10% false predictions are used to tune the model, the system still achieves about 30% improvement. Moreover, when tuning is not delayed too long, the system can achieve about 20% improvement, with only 1.3% of the false predictions used to tune the model. The results of the experiments show that a practical system can be built based on ATIDS: system operators can focus on verification of predictions with low confidence, as only those predictions determined to be false will be used to tune the detection model.

  10. Algorithms to Automate LCLS Undulator Tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-03

    Automation of the LCLS undulator tuning offers many advantages to the project. Automation can make a substantial reduction in the amount of time the tuning takes. Undulator tuning is fairly complex and automation can make the final tuning less dependent on the skill of the operator. Also, algorithms are fixed and can be scrutinized and reviewed, as opposed to an individual doing the tuning by hand. This note presents algorithms implemented in a computer program written for LCLS undulator tuning. The LCLS undulators must meet the following specifications. The maximum trajectory walkoff must be less than 5 {micro}m over 10 m. The first field integral must be below 40 x 10{sup -6} Tm. The second field integral must be below 50 x 10{sup -6} Tm{sup 2}. The phase error between the electron motion and the radiation field must be less than 10 degrees in an undulator. The K parameter must have the value of 3.5000 {+-} 0.0005. The phase matching from the break regions into the undulator must be accurate to better than 10 degrees. A phase change of 113 x 2{pi} must take place over a distance of 3.656 m centered on the undulator. Achieving these requirements is the goal of the tuning process. Most of the tuning is done with Hall probe measurements. The field integrals are checked using long coil measurements. An analysis program written in Matlab takes the Hall probe measurements and computes the trajectories, phase errors, K value, etc. The analysis program and its calculation techniques were described in a previous note. In this note, a second Matlab program containing tuning algorithms is described. The algorithms to determine the required number and placement of the shims are discussed in detail. This note describes the operation of a computer program which was written to automate LCLS undulator tuning. The algorithms used to compute the shim sizes and locations are discussed.

  11. Surgical site infections in women and their association with clinical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zélia de Araújo Madeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Surgical site infections (SSIs can affect body tissues, cavities, or organs manipulated in surgery and constitute 14% to 16% of all infections. This study aimed to determine the incidence of SSIs in women following their discharge from a gynecology outpatient clinic, to survey different types of SSIs among women, and to verify the association of SSIs with comorbidities and clinical conditions. Methods Data were collected via analytical observation with a cross-sectional design, and the study was conducted in 1,026 women who underwent gynecological surgery in a teaching hospital in the municipality of Teresina, in the northeast Brazilian State of Piauí, from June 2011 to March 2013. Results The incidence of SSIs after discharge was 5.8% among the women in the outpatient clinic. The most prevalent surgery among the patients was hysterectomy, while the most prevalent type of SSI was superficial incisional. Comorbidities in women with SSIs included cancer, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Conclusions Surveillance of SSIs during the post-discharge period is critical for infection prevention and control. It is worth reflecting on the planning of surgical procedures for patients who have risk factors for the development of SSIs.

  12. Bacterial Contamination of Blood DNA Samples is Associated with Donor's Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Hong, Eun-Jung; Shim, Sung-Mi; Kim, Jun-Woo; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Cho, Yoon Shin; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Han, Bok-Ghee

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial contamination often occurs in human blood DNA samples, possibly due to bacteremia or an inappropriate procedure during sample preparation. This study aimed at analyzing the clinical significance of bacterial DNA contamination in human blood DNA samples and to assess its influence on experimental data. DNA samples (N = 1359) were randomly selected from population-based cohort samples to determine bacterial DNA contamination by polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. Bacterial DNA contaminated samples (N = 150) were then assessed for experimental quality of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip data, compared with uncontaminated DNA samples (N = 1209). DNA sequencing data showed that a major source of bacterial contaminants was derived from Alcaligenes species. The occurrence of bacterial DNA contaminations was significantly associated with some clinical variables including a postprandial glucose level at 60 min, % body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio. It was also found that there was no difference of SNP call rates between bacterial DNA contaminated samples and uncontaminated DNA samples. This study showed that bacterial DNA contamination in human blood samples was related to donor's health condition, suggesting that the occurrence of bacterial DNA contamination may provide useful health information of blood donors and a potential tool for human disease genomics.

  13. "APEC Blue" association with emission control and meteorological conditions detected by multi-scale statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Dai, Xin-Gang

    2016-09-01

    The term "APEC Blue" has been created to describe the clear sky days since the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit held in Beijing during November 5-11, 2014. The duration of the APEC Blue is detected from November 1 to November 14 (hereafter Blue Window) by moving t test in statistics. Observations show that APEC Blue corresponds to low air pollution with respect to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 under strict emission-control measures (ECMs) implemented in Beijing and surrounding areas. Quantitative assessment shows that ECM is more effective on reducing aerosols than the chemical constituents. Statistical investigation has revealed that the window also resulted from intensified wind variability, as well as weakened static stability of atmosphere (SSA). The wind and ECMs played key roles in reducing air pollution during November 1-7 and 11-13, and strict ECMs and weak SSA become dominant during November 7-10 under weak wind environment. Moving correlation manifests that the emission reduction for aerosols can increase the apparent wind cleanup effect, leading to significant negative correlations of them, and the period-wise changes in emission rate can be well identified by multi-scale correlations basing on wavelet decomposition. In short, this case study manifests statistically how human interference modified air quality in the mega city through controlling local and surrounding emissions in association with meteorological condition.

  14. Soil properties, nutrient dynamics, and soil enzyme activities associated with garlic stalk decomposition under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2012-01-01

    The garlic stalk is a byproduct of garlic production and normally abandoned or burned, both of which cause environmental pollution. It is therefore appropriate to determine the conditions of efficient decomposition, and equally appropriate to determine the impact of this decomposition on soil properties. In this study, the soil properties, enzyme activities and nutrient dynamics associated with the decomposition of garlic stalk at different temperatures, concentrations and durations were investigated. Stalk decomposition significantly increased the values of soil pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, total nitrogen and organic carbon concentration were significantly increased by decomposing stalks at 40°C, with a 5:100 ratio and for 10 or 60 days. The highest activities of sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase in soil were detected when stalk decomposition was performed at the lowest temperature (10°C), highest concentration (5:100), and shortest duration (10 or 20 days). The evidence presented here suggests that garlic stalk decomposition improves the quality of soil by altering the value of soil pH and electrical conductivity and by changing nutrient dynamics and soil enzyme activity, compared to the soil decomposition without garlic stalks.

  15. Soil properties, nutrient dynamics, and soil enzyme activities associated with garlic stalk decomposition under various conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Han

    Full Text Available The garlic stalk is a byproduct of garlic production and normally abandoned or burned, both of which cause environmental pollution. It is therefore appropriate to determine the conditions of efficient decomposition, and equally appropriate to determine the impact of this decomposition on soil properties. In this study, the soil properties, enzyme activities and nutrient dynamics associated with the decomposition of garlic stalk at different temperatures, concentrations and durations were investigated. Stalk decomposition significantly increased the values of soil pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, total nitrogen and organic carbon concentration were significantly increased by decomposing stalks at 40°C, with a 5:100 ratio and for 10 or 60 days. The highest activities of sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase in soil were detected when stalk decomposition was performed at the lowest temperature (10°C, highest concentration (5:100, and shortest duration (10 or 20 days. The evidence presented here suggests that garlic stalk decomposition improves the quality of soil by altering the value of soil pH and electrical conductivity and by changing nutrient dynamics and soil enzyme activity, compared to the soil decomposition without garlic stalks.

  16. Tune measurement at GSI SIS-18. Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rahul

    2014-05-15

    Two parallel tune measurement systems are installed at GSI SIS-18 based on different principles. The first is called the Tune, Orbit and POSition measurement system TOPOS. Its working principle involves direct digitization of BPM signals at 125 MSa/s, which is used for online bunch-by-bunch position calculation in FPGAs. In the course of this work, position calculation algorithms were developed and studied for real time implementation in the TOPOS FPGAs. The regression fit algorithm is found to be more efficient and robust in comparison to previously used weighted mean algorithm with the baseline restoration procedure. The second system is the Baseband Tune measurement system referred to as BBQ system. The operational principle of this system was conceived at the CERN Beam Instrumentation group and is based on direct diode detection. In the framework of this work, this system was optimized and brought into operation at GSI SIS-18. Front-end data from both systems are used to calculate the tune spectrum every 250-5000 beam revolutions or turns within SIS-18 based on the resolution requirement and the mode of operation. Advanced non-parametric spectrum estimation method like amplitude Capon estimator is compared to the conventional DFT based methods in terms of resolving power and computational requirements for the calculated spectrum. Further the TOPOS and BBQ systems are compared and characterized in terms of sensitivity, reliability and operational usage. The results from both systems are found to be consistent with each other and have their favoured regimes of operation. The effects on tune spectra obtained from both systems were studied with different types of excitations with excitation power levels up to 6 mW/Hz. These systems in association with other beam diagnostic devices at SIS-18 were used to conduct extensive experiments to understand the effect of high intensity beams on the tune spectrum. These careful measurements recorded all the relevant beam

  17. Eye-Blink Conditioning Is Associated with Changes in Synaptic Ultrastructure in the Rabbit Interpositus Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Andrew C. W.; Connor, Steve; Hinchcliff, Richard; LeBoutillier, Janelle C.; Thompson, Richard F.; Petit, Ted L.

    2007-01-01

    Eye-blink conditioning involves the pairing of a conditioned stimulus (usually a tone) to an unconditioned stimulus (air puff), and it is well established that an intact cerebellum and interpositus nucleus, in particular, are required for this form of classical conditioning. Changes in synaptic number or structure have long been proposed as a…

  18. National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement on Long-Term Athletic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Rhodri S; Cronin, John B; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Haff, G Gregory; Howard, Rick; Kraemer, William J; Micheli, Lyle J; Myer, Gregory D; Oliver, Jon L

    2016-06-01

    There has recently been a growing interest in long-term athletic development for youth. Because of their unique physical, psychological, and social differences, children and adolescents should engage in appropriately prescribed exercise programs that promote physical development to prevent injury and enhance fitness behaviors that can be retained later in life. Irrespective of whether a child is involved in organized sport or engages in recreational physical activity, there remains a need to adopt a structured, logical, and evidence-based approach to the long-term development of athleticism. This is of particular importance considering the alarmingly high number of youth who fail to meet global physical activity recommendations and consequently present with negative health profiles. However, appropriate exercise prescription is also crucial for those young athletes who are physically underprepared and at risk of overuse injury because of high volumes of competition and an absence of preparatory conditioning. Whether the child accumulates insufficient or excessive amounts of exercise, or falls somewhere between these opposing ends of the spectrum, it is generally accepted that the young bodies of modern day youth are often ill-prepared to tolerate the rigors of sports or physical activity. All youth should engage in regular physical activity and thus should be viewed as "athletes" and afforded the opportunity to enhance athleticism in an individualized, holistic, and child-centered manner. Because of emerging interest in long-term athletic development, an authorship team was tasked on behalf of the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) to critically synthesize existing literature and current practices within the field and to compose a relevant position statement. This document was subsequently reviewed and formally ratified by the NSCA Board of Directors. A list of 10 pillars of successful long-term athletic development are presented, which summarize

  19. Tune variations in the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, N.; Giovannozzi, M.; Lamont, M.; Sammut, N.; Steinhagen, R.; Todesco, E.; Wenninger, J.

    2015-04-01

    The horizontal and vertical betatron tunes of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) mainly depend on the strength of the quadrupole magnets, but are also affected by the quadrupole component in the main dipoles. In case of systematic misalignments, the sextupole component from the main dipoles and sextupole corrector magnets also affect the tunes due to the feed down effect. During the first years of operation of the LHC, the tunes have been routinely measured and corrected through either a feedback or a feed forward system. In this paper, the evolution of the tunes during injection, ramp and flat top are reconstructed from the beam measurements and the settings of the tune feedback loop and of the feed forward corrections. This gives the obtained precision of the magnetic model of the machine with respect to quadrupole and sextupole components. Measurements at the injection plateau show an unexpected large decay whose origin is not understood. This data is discussed together with the time constants and the dependence on previous cycles. We present results of dedicated experiments that show that this effect does not originate from the decay of the main dipole component. During the ramp, the tunes drift by about 0.022. It is shown that this is related to the precision of tracking the quadrupole field in the machine and this effect is reduced to about 0.01 tune units during flat top.

  20. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García-Herrera

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal and Madrid (Spain. Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid. The impact of most intense heat events is very similar for both cities, with significant mortality values occurring up to 3 days after the temperature threshold has been surpassed. This impact is measured as the percentual increase of mortality associated to a 1°C increase above the threshold temperature. In this respect, Lisbon shows a higher impact, 31%, as compared with Madrid at 21%. The difference can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, the longer life span of Iberian women is critical to explain why, in both cities, females are more susceptible than males to heat effects, with an almost double mortality impact value.

    The analysis of Sea Level Pressure (SLP, 500hPa geopotential height and temperature fields reveals that, despite being relatively close to each other, Lisbon and Madrid have relatively different synoptic circulation anomalies associated with their respective extreme summer temperature days. The SLP field reveals higher anomalies for Lisbon, but extending over a smaller area. Extreme values in Madrid seem to require a more western location of the Azores High, embracing a greater area over Europe, even if it is not as deep as for Lisbon. The origin of the hot and dry air masses that usually lead to extreme heat days in both cities is located in Northern Africa. However, while Madrid maxima require wind blowing directly from the south, transporting heat from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, Lisbon maxima occur under more easterly

  1. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García-Herrera

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal and Madrid (Spain. Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid. The impact of most intense heat events is very similar for both cities, with significant mortality values occurring up to 3 days after the temperature threshold has been surpassed. This impact is measured as the percentual increase of mortality associated to a 1°C increase above the threshold temperature. In this respect, Lisbon shows a higher impact, 31%, as compared with Madrid at 21%. The difference can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, the longer life span of Iberian women is critical to explain why, in both cities, females are more susceptible than males to heat effects, with an almost double mortality impact value. The analysis of Sea Level Pressure (SLP, 500hPa geopotential height and temperature fields reveals that, despite being relatively close to each other, Lisbon and Madrid have relatively different synoptic circulation anomalies associated with their respective extreme summer temperature days. The SLP field reveals higher anomalies for Lisbon, but extending over a smaller area. Extreme values in Madrid seem to require a more western location of the Azores High, embracing a greater area over Europe, even if it is not as deep as for Lisbon. The origin of the hot and dry air masses that usually lead to extreme heat days in both cities is located in Northern Africa. However, while Madrid maxima require wind blowing directly from the south, transporting heat from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, Lisbon maxima occur under more easterly conditions, when Northern African air

  2. Cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms in non-associative conditioning: implications for pain and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Elizabeth J; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C; David Sweatt, J

    2013-10-01

    Sensitization is a form of non-associative conditioning in which amplification of behavioral responses can occur following presentation of an aversive or noxious stimulus. Understanding the cellular and molecular underpinnings of sensitization has been an overarching theme spanning the field of learning and memory as well as that of pain research. In this review we examine how sensitization, both in the context of learning as well as pain processing, shares evolutionarily conserved behavioral, cellular/synaptic, and epigenetic mechanisms across phyla. First, we characterize the behavioral phenomenon of sensitization both in invertebrates and vertebrates. Particular emphasis is placed on long-term sensitization (LTS) of withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia following aversive stimulation or injury, although additional invertebrate models are also covered. In the context of vertebrates, sensitization of mammalian hyperarousal in a model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as mammalian models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain is characterized. Second, we investigate the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying these behaviors. We focus our discussion on serotonin-mediated long-term facilitation (LTF) and axotomy-mediated long-term hyperexcitability (LTH) in reduced Aplysia systems, as well as mammalian spinal plasticity mechanisms of central sensitization. Third, we explore recent evidence implicating epigenetic mechanisms in learning- and pain-related sensitization. This review illustrates the fundamental and functional overlay of the learning and memory field with the pain field which argues for homologous persistent plasticity mechanisms in response to sensitizing stimuli or injury across phyla. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Basic controller tuning for large offshore wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Merz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When a wind turbine operates above the rated wind speed, the blade pitch may be governed by a basic single-input–single-output PI controller, with the shaft speed as input. The performance of the wind turbine depends upon the tuning of the gains and filters of this controller. Rules of thumb, based upon pole placement, with a rigid model of the rotor, are inadequate for tuning the controller of large, flexible, offshore wind turbines. It is shown that the appropriate controller tuning is highly dependent upon the characteristics of the aeroelastic model: no single reference controller can be defined for use with all models. As an example, the ubiquitous National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL 5 MW wind turbine controller is unstable when paired with a fully flexible aeroelastic model. A methodical search is conducted, in order to find models with a minimum number of degrees of freedom, which can be used to tune the controller for a fully flexible aeroelastic model; this can be accomplished with a model containing 16–20 states. Transient aerodynamic effects, representing rotor-average properties, account for five of these states. A simple method is proposed to reduce the full transient aerodynamic model, and the associated turbulent wind spectra, to the rotor average. Ocean waves are also an important source of loading; it is recommended that the shaft speed signal be filtered such that wave-driven tower side-to-side vibrations do not appear in the PI controller output. An updated tuning for the NREL 5 MW controller is developed using a Pareto front technique. This fixes the instability and gives good performance with fully flexible aeroelastic models.

  4. Frequency Tuning for a DQW Crab Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Verdú-Andrés, Silvia; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Calaga, Rama; Capatina, Ofelia; Leuxe, Raphael; Skaritka, John; Wu, Qiong; Xiao, Binping; Zanoni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The nominal operating frequency for the HL-LHC crab cavities is 400.79 MHz within a bandwidth of ±60kHz. Attaining the required cavity tune implies a good understanding of all the processes that influence the cavity frequency from the moment when the cavity parts are being fabricated until the cavity is installed and under operation. Different tuning options will be available for the DQW crab cavity of LHC. This paper details the different steps in the cavity fabrication and preparation that may introduce a shift in the cavity frequency and introduces the different tuning methods foreseen to bring the cavity frequency to meet the specifications.

  5. Improved Detection of Common Variants Associated with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Using Pleiotropy-Informed Conditional False Discovery Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Ole A.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Schork, Andrew J.; Ripke, Stephan; Mattingsdal, Morten; Kelsoe, John R.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Rujescu, Dan; Werge, Thomas; Sklar, Pamela; Roddey, J. Cooper; Chen, Chi-Hua; McEvoy, Linda; Desikan, Rahul S.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Dale, Anders M.

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have the potential to explain more of the “missing heritability” of common complex phenotypes. However, reliable methods to identify a larger proportion of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that impact disease risk are currently lacking. Here, we use a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate (FDR) method on GWAS summary statistics data to identify new loci associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BD), two highly heritable disorders with significant missing heritability. Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggest similar disease characteristics and overlapping genes between SCZ and BD. Here, we computed conditional Q–Q curves of data from the Psychiatric Genome Consortium (SCZ; n = 9,379 cases and n = 7,736 controls; BD: n = 6,990 cases and n = 4,820 controls) to show enrichment of SNPs associated with SCZ as a function of association with BD and vice versa with a corresponding reduction in FDR. Applying the conditional FDR method, we identified 58 loci associated with SCZ and 35 loci associated with BD below the conditional FDR level of 0.05. Of these, 14 loci were associated with both SCZ and BD (conjunction FDR). Together, these findings show the feasibility of genetic pleiotropy-informed methods to improve gene discovery in SCZ and BD and indicate overlapping genetic mechanisms between these two disorders. PMID:23637625

  6. Spiders Tune Glue Viscosity to Maximize Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Zhang, Ci; Diaz, Candido; Opell, Brent D; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Adhesion in humid conditions is a fundamental challenge to both natural and synthetic adhesives. Yet, glue from most spider species becomes stickier as humidity increases. We find the adhesion of spider glue, from five diverse spider species, maximizes at very different humidities that matches their foraging habitats. By using high-speed imaging and spreading power law, we find that the glue viscosity varies over 5 orders of magnitude with humidity for each species, yet the viscosity at maximal adhesion for each species is nearly identical, 10(5)-10(6) cP. Many natural systems take advantage of viscosity to improve functional response, but spider glue's humidity responsiveness is a novel adaptation that makes the glue stickiest in each species' preferred habitat. This tuning is achieved by a combination of proteins and hygroscopic organic salts that determines water uptake in the glue. We therefore anticipate that manipulation of polymer-salts interaction to control viscosity can provide a simple mechanism to design humidity responsive smart adhesives.

  7. Wetland environmental conditions associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks and the abundance of Pasteurella multocida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, Michael D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Shadduck, Daniel J.; Creekmore, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera is a significant infectious disease affecting waterfowl across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Despite the importance of this disease, little is known about the factors that cause avian cholera outbreaks and what management strategies might be used to reduce disease mortality. Previous studies indicated that wetland water conditions may affect survival and transmission of Pasteurella multocida, the agent that causes avian cholera. These studies hypothesized that water conditions affect the likelihood that avian cholera outbreaks will occur in specific wetlands. To test these predictions, we collected data from avian cholera outbreak and non-outbreak (control) wetlands throughout North America (wintera??spring 1995a??1996 to 1998a??1999) to evaluate whether water conditions were associated with outbreaks. Conditional logistic regression analysis on paired outbreak and non-outbreak wetlands indicated no significant association between water conditions and the risk of avian cholera outbreaks. For wetlands where avian cholera outbreaks occurred, linear regression showed that increased eutrophic nutrient concentrations (Potassium [K], nitrate [NO3], phosphorus [P], and phosphate [PO3]) were positively related to the abundance of P. multocida recovered from water and sediment samples. Wetland protein concentration and an El Ni??o event were also associated with P. multocida abundance. Our results indicate that wetland water conditions are not strongly associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks; however, some variables may play a role in the abundance of P. multocida bacteria and might be important in reducing the severity of avian cholera outbreaks.

  8. The Magnetically-Tuned Transition-Edge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, John E.; Lee, Sang-Jun; Smith, Stephen J.; Busch, Sarah E.; Bandler, Simon R.; Adams, Joseph S.; Eckart, Megan E.; Chevenak, James A.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the first measurements on the proposed magnetically-tuned superconducting transition-edge sensor (MTES) and compare the modified resistive transition with the theoretical prediction. A TES's resistive transition is customarily characterized in terms of the unit less device parameters alpha and beta corresponding to the resistive response to changes in temperature and current respectively. We present a new relationship between measured IV quantities and the parameters alpha and beta and use these relations to confirm we have stably biased a TES with negative beta parameter with magnetic tuning. Motivated by access to this new unexplored parameter space, we investigate the conditions for bias stability of a TES taking into account both self and externally applied magnetic fields.

  9. Discovery of temporal and disease association patterns in condition-specific hospital utilization rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian S Haimovich

    Full Text Available Identifying temporal variation in hospitalization rates may provide insights about disease patterns and thereby inform research, policy, and clinical care. However, the majority of medical conditions have not been studied for their potential seasonal variation. The objective of this study was to apply a data-driven approach to characterize temporal variation in condition-specific hospitalizations. Using a dataset of 34 million inpatient discharges gathered from hospitals in New York State from 2008-2011, we grouped all discharges into 263 clinical conditions based on the principal discharge diagnosis using Clinical Classification Software in order to mitigate the limitation that administrative claims data reflect clinical conditions to varying specificity. After applying Seasonal-Trend Decomposition by LOESS, we estimated the periodicity of the seasonal component using spectral analysis and applied harmonic regression to calculate the amplitude and phase of the condition's seasonal utilization pattern. We also introduced four new indices of temporal variation: mean oscillation width, seasonal coefficient, trend coefficient, and linearity of the trend. Finally, K-means clustering was used to group conditions across these four indices to identify common temporal variation patterns. Of all 263 clinical conditions considered, 164 demonstrated statistically significant seasonality. Notably, we identified conditions for which seasonal variation has not been previously described such as ovarian cancer, tuberculosis, and schizophrenia. Clustering analysis yielded three distinct groups of conditions based on multiple measures of seasonal variation. Our study was limited to New York State and results may not directly apply to other regions with distinct climates and health burden. A substantial proportion of medical conditions, larger than previously described, exhibit seasonal variation in hospital utilization. Moreover, the application of clustering

  10. Electrophysiological correlates of associative learning in smokers: A higher-order conditioning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Littel (Marianne); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Classical conditioning has been suggested to play an important role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of tobacco smoking. Several studies have shown that initially neutral stimuli that are directly paired with smoking are able to elicit conditioned responses.

  11. Association of Income Inequality With Pediatric Hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care-Sensitive Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettenhausen, Jessica L; Colvin, Jeffrey D; Berry, Jay G; Puls, Henry T; Markham, Jessica L; Plencner, Laura M; Krager, Molly K; Johnson, Matthew B; Queen, Mary Ann; Walker, Jacqueline M; Latta, Grant M; Riss, Robert R; Hall, Matt

    2017-06-05

    The level of income inequality (ie, the variation in median household income among households within a geographic area), in addition to family-level income, is associated with worsened health outcomes in children. To determine the influence of income inequality on pediatric hospitalization rates for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) and whether income inequality affects use of resources per hospitalization for ACSCs. This retrospective, cross-sectional analysis used the 2014 State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of 14 states to evaluate all hospital discharges for patients aged 0 to 17 years (hereafter referred to as children) from January 1 through December 31, 2014. Using the 2014 American Community Survey (US Census), income inequality (Gini index; range, 0 [perfect equality] to 1.00 [perfect inequality]), median household income, and total population of children aged 0 to 17 years for each zip code in the 14 states were measured. The Gini index for zip codes was divided into quartiles for low, low-middle, high-middle, and high income inequality. Rate, length of stay, and charges for pediatric hospitalizations for ACSCs. A total of 79 275 hospitalizations for ACSCs occurred among the 21 737 661 children living in the 8375 zip codes in the 14 included states. After adjustment for median household income and state of residence, ACSC hospitalization rates per 10 000 children increased significantly as income inequality increased from low (27.2; 95% CI, 26.5-27.9) to low-middle (27.9; 95% CI, 27.4-28.5), high-middle (29.2; 95% CI, 28.6-29.7), and high (31.8; 95% CI, 31.2-32.3) categories (P income inequality have higher rates of hospitalizations for ACSCs. Consideration of income inequality, in addition to income level, may provide a better understanding of the complex relationship between socioeconomic status and pediatric health outcomes for ACSCs. Efforts aimed at reducing rates of hospitalizations for ACSCs

  12. Heavy vehicle pitch dynamics and suspension tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The influence of suspension tuning of passenger cars on bounce and pitch ride performance has been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for establishing similar rules for heavy vehicles. This study aims to explore pitch dynamics and suspension tunings of a two-axle heavy vehicle with unconnected suspension, which could also provide valuable information for heavy vehicles with coupled suspensions. Based on a generalised pitch-plane model of a two-axle heav...

  13. Tuning Leaky Nanocavity Resonances - Perturbation Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shlafman, Michael; Bayn, Igal; Salzman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Adiabatic frequency tuning of finite-lifetime-nanocavity electromagnetic modes affects also their quality-factor (Q). Perturbative Q change resulting from (real) frequency tuning, is a controllable parameter. Here, the influence of dielectric constant modulation (DCM) on cavity resonances is presented, by first order perturbation analysis for a 3D cavity with radiation losses. Semi-analytical expressions for DCM induced cavity mode frequency and Q changes are derived. The obtained results are...

  14. Non-linear dendrites can tune neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Daniel Cazé

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A signature of visual, auditory, and motor cortices is the presence of neurons tuned to distinct features of the environment. While neuronal tuning can be observed in most brain areas, its origin remains enigmatic, and new calcium imaging data complicate this problem. Dendritic calcium signals, in a L2/3 neuron from the mouse visual cortex, display a wide range of tunings that could be different from the neuronal tuning (Jia et al 2010. To elucidate this observation we use multi-compartmental models of increasing complexity, from a binary to a realistic biophysical model of L2/3 neuron. These models possess non-linear dendritic subunits inside which the result of multiple excitatory inputs is smaller than their arithmetic sum. While dendritic non-linear subunits are ad-hoc in the binary model, non-linearities in the realistic model come from the passive saturation of synaptic currents. Because of these non-linearities our neuron models are scatter sensitive: the somatic membrane voltage is higher when presynaptic inputs target different dendrites than when they target a single dendrite. This spatial bias in synaptic integration is, in our models, the origin of neuronal tuning. Indeed, assemblies of presynaptic inputs encode the stimulus property through an increase in correlation or activity, and only the assembly that encodes the preferred stimulus targets different dendrites. Assemblies coding for the non-preferred stimuli target single dendrites, explaining the wide range of observed tunings and the possible difference between dendritic and somatic tuning. We thus propose, in accordance with the latest experimental observations, that non-linear integration in dendrites can generate neuronal tuning independently of the coding regime.

  15. Tuning Leaky Nanocavity Resonances - Perturbation Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Shlafman, Michael; Salzman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Adiabatic frequency tuning of finite-lifetime-nanocavity electromagnetic modes affects also their quality-factor (Q). Perturbative Q change resulting from (real) frequency tuning, is a controllable parameter. Here, the influence of dielectric constant modulation (DCM) on cavity resonances is presented, by first order perturbation analysis for a 3D cavity with radiation losses. Semi-analytical expressions for DCM induced cavity mode frequency and Q changes are derived. The obtained results are in good agreement with numerical calculations.

  16. Measuring the tuning accuracy of thousands singing in unison: an English Premier Football League table of fans' singing tunefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M

    2004-01-01

    Tunefulness in singing is well understood in the context of solo stage performance, singing in small groups and singing in choirs, with or without accompaniment, and it can be readily measured under laboratory conditions. When thousands of people are singing outside in support of their football team, however, the singing is impromptu; there is no conductor, no starting note, and generally no accompaniment. This paper describes the measurement of the tunefulness of the singing of fans of the twenty clubs in the 2001-2002 English Premier League. The technique adopted is unusual in that it makes direct reference to the formal definition of pitch as a subjective phenomenon. The results are presented in the form of a 2001-2002 English Premier League football fans singing league table.

  17. Pain by Association? Experimental Modulation of Human Pain Thresholds Using Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Victoria J; Bellan, Valeria; Russek, Leslie N; Camfferman, Danny; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2016-10-01

    A classical conditioning framework is often used for clinical reasoning about pain that persists after tissue healing. However, experimental studies demonstrating classically conditioned pain in humans are lacking. The current study tested whether non-nociceptive somatosensory stimuli can come to modulate pain thresholds after being paired with painful nociceptive stimuli in healthy humans. We used a differential simultaneous conditioning paradigm in which one nonpainful vibrotactile conditioned stimulus (CS(+)) was simultaneously paired with an unconditioned painful laser stimulus, and another vibrotactile stimulus (CS(-)) was paired with a nonpainful laser stimulus. After acquisition, at-pain-threshold laser stimuli were delivered simultaneously with a CS(+) or CS(-) vibrotactile stimulus. The primary outcome was the percentage of at-threshold laser stimuli that were reported as painful. The results were as expected: after conditioning, at-threshold laser trials paired with the CS(+) were reported as painful more often, as more intense, and as more unpleasant than those paired with the CS(-). This study provides new evidence that pain thresholds can be modulated via classical conditioning, even when the stimulus used to test the threshold cannot be anticipated. As such, it lays a critical foundation for further investigations of classical conditioning as a possible driver of persistent pain. This study provides new evidence that human pain thresholds can be influenced by non-nociceptive somatosensory stimuli, via a classical conditioning effect. As such, it lays a critical foundation for further investigations of classical conditioning as a possible driver of persistent pain. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Trends, Productivity Losses, and Associated Medical Conditions Among Toxoplasmosis Deaths in the United States, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patricia L.; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000–2010. A matched case–control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups. PMID:25200264

  19. Minor mental disorders in Taiwanese healthcare workers and the associations with psychosocial work conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ju Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Despite the fact that healthcare workers work longer hours and shift work, there were several modifiable psychosocial work conditions that should be targeted to improve their mental health.

  20. Chaotic living conditions and sleep problems associated with children's responses to academic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D; Low, Christine M

    2008-12-01

    The ecology of economic disadvantage includes chaotic living conditions that may disrupt children's regulatory functioning and undermine mastery oriented responses to challenge. The present study examined chaotic living conditions, sleep problems, and responses to academic challenge for 96 economically disadvantaged children enrolled in a Head Start preschool. Caregiver interviews provided information regarding chaotic living conditions of residential crowding, noise, and family instability, as well as child sleep problems. Tasks individually administered to children provided measures of responses to academic challenge. Chaotic living conditions statistically predicted helpless/hopeless responses to academic challenge, and sleep problems partially mediated this relationship. Implications concern pathways of ecological risk and diversity in the school functioning of economically disadvantaged children. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Stress, Health Behavior, and Sleep as Mediators of the Association between Loneliness and Adverse Health Conditions among Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Julie

    affect the development of adverse health conditions. The present study was designed to test the explanation proposed by the Loneliness Model. The sample consisted of 8.593 elderly ranging from 65 to 103 years participating in the 2013 Public Health Survey; “How are you?”. Results showed that loneliness...... was significantly associated with poor self-rated health, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and migraine. In addition, high perceived stress, physical inactivity, problems with alcohol, and poor sleep demonstrated an indirect effect on the association between loneliness and adverse health conditions. The findings...

  2. Associations between lifetime traumatic events and subsequent chronic physical conditions: a cross-national, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kate M; Koenen, Karestan C; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Iwata, Noboru; Levinson, Daphna; Lim, Carmen C W; Murphy, Sam; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Kessler, Ronald C

    2013-01-01

    Associations between lifetime traumatic event (LTE) exposures and subsequent physical ill-health are well established but it has remained unclear whether these are explained by PTSD or other mental disorders. This study examined this question and investigated whether associations varied by type and number of LTEs, across physical condition outcomes, or across countries. Cross-sectional, face-to-face household surveys of adults (18+) were conducted in 14 countries (n = 38, 051). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed lifetime LTEs and DSM-IV mental disorders. Chronic physical conditions were ascertained by self-report of physician's diagnosis and year of diagnosis or onset. Survival analyses estimated associations between the number and type of LTEs with the subsequent onset of 11 physical conditions, with and without adjustment for mental disorders. A dose-response association was found between increasing number of LTEs and odds of any physical condition onset (OR 1.5 [95% CI: 1.4-1.5] for 1 LTE; 2.1 [2.0-2.3] for 5+ LTEs), independent of all mental disorders. Associations did not vary greatly by type of LTE (except for combat and other war experience), nor across countries. A history of 1 LTE was associated with 7/11 of the physical conditions (ORs 1.3 [1.2-1.5] to 1.7 [1.4-2.0]) and a history of 5+ LTEs was associated with 9/11 physical conditions (ORs 1.8 [1.3-2.4] to 3.6 [2.0-6.5]), the exceptions being cancer and stroke. Traumatic events are associated with adverse downstream effects on physical health, independent of PTSD and other mental disorders. Although the associations are modest they have public health implications due to the high prevalence of traumatic events and the range of common physical conditions affected. The effects of traumatic stress are a concern for all medical professionals and researchers, not just mental health specialists.

  3. Associations between lifetime traumatic events and subsequent chronic physical conditions: a cross-national, cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M Scott

    Full Text Available Associations between lifetime traumatic event (LTE exposures and subsequent physical ill-health are well established but it has remained unclear whether these are explained by PTSD or other mental disorders. This study examined this question and investigated whether associations varied by type and number of LTEs, across physical condition outcomes, or across countries.Cross-sectional, face-to-face household surveys of adults (18+ were conducted in 14 countries (n = 38, 051. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed lifetime LTEs and DSM-IV mental disorders. Chronic physical conditions were ascertained by self-report of physician's diagnosis and year of diagnosis or onset. Survival analyses estimated associations between the number and type of LTEs with the subsequent onset of 11 physical conditions, with and without adjustment for mental disorders.A dose-response association was found between increasing number of LTEs and odds of any physical condition onset (OR 1.5 [95% CI: 1.4-1.5] for 1 LTE; 2.1 [2.0-2.3] for 5+ LTEs, independent of all mental disorders. Associations did not vary greatly by type of LTE (except for combat and other war experience, nor across countries. A history of 1 LTE was associated with 7/11 of the physical conditions (ORs 1.3 [1.2-1.5] to 1.7 [1.4-2.0] and a history of 5+ LTEs was associated with 9/11 physical conditions (ORs 1.8 [1.3-2.4] to 3.6 [2.0-6.5], the exceptions being cancer and stroke.Traumatic events are associated with adverse downstream effects on physical health, independent of PTSD and other mental disorders. Although the associations are modest they have public health implications due to the high prevalence of traumatic events and the range of common physical conditions affected. The effects of traumatic stress are a concern for all medical professionals and researchers, not just mental health specialists.

  4. Associations of Self-Reported Periodontal Disease With Metabolic Syndrome and Number of Self-Reported Chronic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bensley, Lillian; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Ossiander, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence supports associations between periodontal disease and various chronic conditions. Possible explanations include chronic inflammatory processes, shared pathogens, and shared risk factors, such as smoking and psychosocial stress. The objective of this study was to assess associations of periodontal disease with metabolic syndrome and number of chronic diseases. Methods As part of the Washington Adult Health Survey, a household-based cross-sectional study conduct...

  5. Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac – a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Catherine

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose a classification system that could serve all these needs, and be applicable in both developing and developed countries. It is developed to adhere to basic concepts of underlying cause in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, although gaps in ICD prevent classification of perinatal deaths solely on existing ICD codes. We tested the Causes of Death and Associated Conditions (Codac classification for perinatal deaths in seven populations, including two developing country settings. We identified areas of potential improvements in the ability to retain existing information, ease of use and inter-rater agreement. After revisions to address these issues we propose Version II of Codac with detailed coding instructions. The ten main categories of Codac consist of three key contributors to global perinatal mortality (intrapartum events, infections and congenital anomalies, two crucial aspects of perinatal mortality (unknown causes of death and termination of pregnancy, a clear distinction of conditions relevant only to the neonatal period and the remaining conditions are arranged in the four anatomical compartments (fetal, cord, placental and maternal. For more detail there are 94 subcategories, further specified in 577 categories in the full version. Codac is designed to accommodate both the main cause of death as well as two associated conditions. We suggest reporting not only the main cause of death, but also the associated relevant conditions so that scenarios of combined conditions and events are captured. The appropriately applied Codac system promises to better manage information on causes of perinatal deaths, the conditions

  6. Training Grapheme-Colour Associations Produces a Synaesthetic Stroop Effect, but Not a Conditioned Synaesthetic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Rothen, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether behavioural and physiological consequences of synaesthesia can be elicited by training specific letter-colour associations. Towards this goal 20 non-synaesthetic individuals were trained for 10 min on 7 consecutive days to associate four different letters with four specific colours. After training,…

  7. Role of Protein Carbonylation in Skeletal Muscle Mass Loss Associated with Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Barreiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle dysfunction, characterized by a reductive remodeling of muscle fibers, is a common systemic manifestation in highly prevalent conditions such as chronic heart failure (CHF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cancer cachexia, and critically ill patients. Skeletal muscle dysfunction and impaired muscle mass may predict morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic diseases, regardless of the underlying condition. High levels of oxidants may alter function and structure of key cellular molecules such as proteins, DNA, and lipids, leading to cellular injury and death. Protein oxidation including protein carbonylation was demonstrated to modify enzyme activity and DNA binding of transcription factors, while also rendering proteins more prone to proteolytic degradation. Given the relevance of protein oxidation in the pathophysiology of many chronic conditions and their comorbidities, the current review focuses on the analysis of different studies in which the biological and clinical significance of the modifications induced by reactive carbonyls on proteins have been explored so far in skeletal muscles of patients and animal models of chronic conditions such as COPD, disuse muscle atrophy, cancer cachexia, sepsis, and physiological aging. Future research will elucidate the specific impact and sites of reactive carbonyls on muscle protein content and function in human conditions.

  8. Generalized signal-tuned Gabor approach for signal representation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreão, José R. A.

    The signal-tuned Gabor approach is based on spatial or spectral Gabor functions whose parameters are determined, respectively, by the Fourier and inverse Fourier transforms of a given “tuning” signal. The sets of spatial and spectral signal-tuned functions, for all possible frequencies and positions, yield exact representations of the tuning signal. Moreover, such functions can be used as kernels for space-frequency transforms which are tuned to the specific features of their inputs, thus allowing analysis with high conjoint spatio-spectral resolution. Based on the signal-tuned Gabor functions and the associated transforms, a plausible model for the receptive fields and responses of cells in the primary visual cortex has been proposed. Here, we present a generalization of the signal-tuned Gabor approach which extends it to the representation and analysis of the tuning signal’s fractional Fourier transform of any order. This significantly broadens the scope and the potential applications of the approach.

  9. Association between allergic conditions and colorectal cancer risk/mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wangqian; Yang, Jia; Li, Peiwei; Lu, Xinliang; Cai, Jianting

    2017-07-17

    We aimed to assess the association between allergic conditions and risk/mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC). A systematic literature search was conducted using Pubmed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Prospective studies assessing the association between allergic conditions and risk/mortality of CRC were included. Risk ratios (RRs) were pooled with either a fixed- or a random-effects model according to heterogeneity. A total of 515379 participants and 10345 CRC cases from 12 studies were included in the analysis of CRC risk, while four studies with 1484741 individuals and 30040 CRC deaths were included in the analysis of CRC mortality. The pooled RR for the association between allergic conditions and CRC risk was 0.88 (95% CI 0.83-0.92). The inverse association was observed both in colon cancer (pooled RR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.97) and rectal cancer (pooled RR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.93). Moreover, no gender difference was observed in the analysis of CRC risk (for males, pooled RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.96; for females, pooled RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.95). And allergic conditions were also found to be inversely associated with CRC mortality (pooled RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.92). In conclusion, the current meta-analysis provides further evidence that allergic conditions were inversely associated with CRC risk and mortality.

  10. Embryonic Stem Cell Culture Conditions Support Distinct States Associated with Different Developmental Stages and Potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin Gonzalez, Javier; Morgani, Sophie M; Bone, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are cell lines derived from the mammalian pre-implantation embryo. Here we assess the impact of derivation and culture conditions on both functional potency and ESC transcriptional identity. Individual ESCs cultured in either two small-molecule inhibitors (2i) or with ......Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are cell lines derived from the mammalian pre-implantation embryo. Here we assess the impact of derivation and culture conditions on both functional potency and ESC transcriptional identity. Individual ESCs cultured in either two small-molecule inhibitors (2i...

  11. Changing Hearts and Minds: The Importance of Formal Education in Reducing Stigma Associated with Mental Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Margaret E.; Watt, Bruce D.; Hicks, Richard E.; Bode, Andrew; Hampson, Elizabeth J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The expansion of user-friendly mental health services for young people is an important goal of mental health reform in Australia; however, stigma and discrimination associated with mental health conditions constitute major deterrents to help-seeking among young people. Objective: This paper reports on a qualitative study conducted in…

  12. Chronic respiratory conditions in a cohort of metropolitan fire-fighters: associations with occupational exposure and quality of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermer, T.R.; Malbon, W.; Morgan, M.; Smith, M.; Crockett, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of chronic respiratory conditions in metropolitan fire-fighters and to study associations between occupational exposure, use of respiratory protection and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in fire-fighters with and without chronic respiratory

  13. Associations of Caregiver Stress with Working Conditions, Caregiving Practices, and Child Behaviour in Home-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C.; Jones, Laura Backen; Crowley, Ryann; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Home-based child caregivers face unique stressors related to the nature of their work. One hundred and fifty-five home-based child care providers in Oregon, USA, participated in this cross-sectional correlational study. We investigated associations between indicators of caregiver stress and child care working conditions, the quality of caregiver…

  14. Tuning SERS for living erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda; Parshina, E.Y.; Khabanova, V.V.

    2013-01-01

    NP) properties. We demonstrate that the enhancement factor for 4/A1g, 10/B1g and A2g Raman bands of Hbsm varies from 105 to 107 under proposed experimental conditions with 473 nm laser excitation. For the first time we show that the enhancement of Raman scattering increases with the increase in the relative...

  15. Mechanical tuning of molecular machines for nucleotide recognition at the air-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinoda Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular machines embedded in a Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface can be operated by application of lateral pressure. As part of the challenge associated with versatile sensing of biologically important substances, we here demonstrate discrimination of nucleotides by applying a cholesterol-armed-triazacyclononane host molecule. This molecular machine can discriminate ribonucleotides based on a twofold to tenfold difference in binding constants under optimized conditions including accompanying ions in the subphase and lateral surface pressures of its Langmuir monolayer. The concept of mechanical tuning of the host structure for optimization of molecular recognition should become a novel methodology in bio-related nanotechnology as an alternative to traditional strategies based on increasingly complex and inconvenient molecular design strategies.

  16. Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Roza, L.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Nutritional factors exert promising actions on the skin, but only scant information is available on the modulating effects of physiologic concentrations of nutrients on the skin condition of humans. Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether nutrient concentrations in serum and

  17. Parasympathetic involvement in rapid meal-associated conditioned insulin secretion in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, J.H.

    Blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured in blood sampled via a cardiac catheter in freely moving rats. To obtain a rapid conditioned cephalic phase of insulin secretion, rats were habituated to one of two feeding schedules. Clock-activated opening of doors in front of the food

  18. [Hypernatremia - common condition in critical illness associated with high mortality. But the treatment arsenal is inadequate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Karin; Barle, Hans

    2016-11-14

    Hypernatremia in ICU is common, both as a preexisting condition and acquired during intensive care. Hypernatremia increases mortality and morbidity as an increased length of a stay and increased risk of complications. Current treatment options of manifest hypernatremia are limited, but there are opportunities for prevention that should not be overlooked.

  19. Preexisting Chronic Health Conditions and Health Insurance Status Associated With Vaccine Receipt Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Katherine; Underwood, Natasha L; Gargano, Lisa M; Sales, Jessica M; Morfaw, Christopher; Weiss, Paul; Murray, Dennis; Vogt, Tara M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M

    2016-02-01

    Four vaccines are routinely recommended for adolescents: tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap); human papillomavirus (HPV); meningococcal-conjugate (MCV4); and a yearly seasonal influenza vaccine. Vaccination promotion and outreach approaches may need to be tailored to certain populations, such as those with chronic health conditions or without health insurance. In a controlled trial among middle and high school students in Georgia, 11 schools were randomized to one of three arms: no intervention, parent education brochure, or parent education brochure plus a student curriculum on the four recommended vaccines. Parents in all arms were surveyed regarding their adolescent's vaccine receipt, chronic health conditions, and health insurance status. Of the 686 parents, most (91%) reported their adolescent had received at least one of the four vaccines: Tdap (82%), MCV4 (59%), current influenza vaccine (53%) and HPV (48%). Twenty-three percent of parents reported that their adolescent had asthma. Most parents reported that their adolescent's insurance was Medicaid (60%) or private insurance (34%), and 6% reported no insurance. More adolescents with a chronic health condition received any adolescent vaccine than adolescents without a chronic health condition (p insurance, fewer had received any adolescent vaccine than those with Medicaid or private insurance (p health insurance). Our findings suggest that parents may not be aware of this program or eligibility for it, thus revealing a need for education or other fixes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Academic and Family Conditions Associated with Intrinsic Academic Motivation in Japanese Medical Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabea, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Intrinsic academic motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education, and it is related to academic outcomes in medical students. This study examined the relationships between academic and family conditions and intrinsic academic motivation. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of…

  1. Is risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index and parity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene

    Background Obesity among women may influence the risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions (MSCs) and contribute to poor quality of life. Parity, which constitutes a sudden natural increase in weight as well it affects long-term body mass index (BMI), may put strain on the musculoskeletal s...

  2. Individual Differences in the Expression of Conditioned Fear Are Associated with Endogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    These experiments examined the relationship between the neurotrophic factor fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and individual differences in the expression of conditioned fear. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that rats naturally expressing low levels of contextual or cued fear have higher levels of hippocampal FGF2 relative to rats that express…

  3. Association between Markers of Classroom Environmental Conditions and Teachers' Respiratory Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Luz; Rivera, Glory A.; Ramirez, Olivia F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have assessed health in schoolchildren. Less is known about the environmental and occupational health of teachers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of teachers was conducted in 24 randomly selected public elementary schools. Questionnaire included sociodemographic information, healthcare, school conditions, and health…

  4. Brain regions associated with the acquisition of conditioned place preference for cocaine vs. social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rawas, Rana; Klement, Sabine; Kummer, Kai K; Fritz, Michael; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Positive social interaction could play an essential role in switching the preference of the substance dependent individual away from drug related activities. We have previously shown that conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine at the dose of 15 mg/kg and CPP for four 15-min episodes of social interaction were equally strong when rats were concurrently conditioned for place preference by pairing cocaine with one compartment and social interaction with the other. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential activation of brain regions related to the reward circuitry after acquisition/expression of cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP. Our findings indicate that cocaine CPP and social interaction CPP activated almost the same brain regions. However, the granular insular cortex and the dorsal part of the agranular insular cortex were more activated after cocaine CPP, whereas the prelimbic cortex and the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens were more activated after social interaction CPP. These results suggest that the insular cortex appears to be potently activated after drug conditioning learning while activation of the prelimbic cortex-nucleus accumbens core projection seems to be preferentially involved in the conditioning to non-drug stimuli such as social interaction.

  5. Transgenic Expression of ZBP1 in Neurons Suppresses Cocaine-Associated Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, Kyle A. B.; Nwokafor, Chiso; Scott, Daniel; Baroni, Timothy E.; Tenenbaum, Scott A.; Hiroi, Noboru; Singer, Robert H.; Czaplinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    To directly address whether regulating mRNA localization can influence animal behavior, we created transgenic mice that conditionally express Zipcode Binding Protein 1 (ZBP1) in a subset of neurons in the brain. ZBP1 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the localization, as well as translation and stability of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. We…

  6. Conditional activation of associative semantic structures:forming and transmitting impressions of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Ludmila Duarte da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Psicologia (Cognição Social), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Psicologia, 2012 In the presented line of research we intended to systematically study the importance of memory to the formation and transmission of impressions of personality. We consider that impressions of personality are grounded in associative structures (e.g., Asch, 1946), which should be prone to similar memory distortions that other associative memory structures are (e.g., Roediger& McDermott, ...

  7. Flow Conditions in the Intracranial Aneurysm Lumen Are Associated with Inflammation and Degenerative Changes of the Aneurysm Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebral, J; Ollikainen, E; Chung, B J; Mut, F; Sippola, V; Jahromi, B R; Tulamo, R; Hernesniemi, J; Niemelä, M; Robertson, A; Frösen, J

    2017-01-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysm is a common disease that may cause devastating intracranial hemorrhage. Hemodynamics, wall remodeling, and wall inflammation have been associated with saccular intracranial aneurysm rupture. We investigated how saccular intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics is associated with wall remodeling and inflammation of the saccular intracranial aneurysm wall. Tissue samples resected during a saccular intracranial aneurysm operation (11 unruptured, 9 ruptured) were studied with histology and immunohistochemistry. Patient-specific computational models of hemodynamics were created from preoperative CT angiographies. More stable and less complex flows were associated with thick, hyperplastic saccular intracranial aneurysm walls, while slower flows with more diffuse inflow were associated with degenerated and decellularized saccular intracranial aneurysm walls. Wall degeneration (P = .041) and rupture were associated with increased inflammation (CD45+, P = .031). High wall shear stress (P = .018), higher vorticity (P = .046), higher viscous dissipation (P = .046), and high shear rate (P = .046) were associated with increased inflammation. Inflammation was also associated with lack of an intact endothelium (P = .034) and the presence of organized luminal thrombosis (P = .018), though overall organized thrombosis was associated with low minimum wall shear stress (P = .034) and not with the flow conditions associated with inflammation. Flow conditions in the saccular intracranial aneurysm are associated with wall remodeling. Inflammation, which is associated with degenerative wall remodeling and rupture, is related to high flow activity, including elevated wall shear stress. Endothelial injury may be a mechanism by which flow induces inflammation in the saccular intracranial aneurysm wall. Hemodynamic simulations might prove useful in identifying saccular intracranial aneurysms at risk of developing inflammation, a potential biomarker for rupture.

  8. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions at Emergency Department Visits for Conditions Commonly Associated with Prescription Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Astha; Tien, Yu-Yu; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem nationally. In an effort to curb this problem, emergency physicians might rely on subjective cues such as race-ethnicity, often unknowingly, when prescribing opioids for pain-related complaints, especially for conditions that are often associated with drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies that examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid dispensing at emergency departments (EDs) did not differentiate between prescriptions at discharge and drug administration in the ED. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescription at ED visits for pain-related complaints often associated with drug-seeking behavior and contrasted them with conditions objectively associated with pain. We hypothesized a priori that racial-ethnic disparities will be present among opioid prescriptions for conditions associated with non-medical use, but not for objective pain-related conditions. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 5 years (2007-2011), the odds of opioid prescription during ED visits made by non-elderly adults aged 18-65 for 'non-definitive' conditions (toothache, back pain and abdominal pain) or 'definitive' conditions (long-bone fracture and kidney stones) were modeled. Opioid prescription at discharge and opioid administration at the ED were the primary outcomes. We found significant racial-ethnic disparities, with non-Hispanic Blacks being less likely (adjusted odds ratio ranging from 0.56-0.67, p-value disparities in health, and may have implications for disproportionate burden of opioid abuse among whites. The findings have important implications for medical provider education to include sensitization exercises towards their inherent biases, to enable them to consciously avoid these biases from defining their practice behavior.

  9. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles D Witham

    Full Text Available Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people.We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain, and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space, psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control, social variables (number of close contacts and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire.547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity.In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables.

  10. Barriers and facilitators associated with colonoscopy completion in individuals with multiple chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Shahnaz Sultan,1–4 Melissa R Partin,1,2 Phalgoon Shah,5 Jennifer LeLaurin,4 Ivette Magaly Freytes,4 Chandylen L Nightingale,6 Susan F Fesperman,4 Barbara A Curbow,7 Rebecca J Beyth3,4,8 1Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System, 2Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, 4Center of Innovation on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, 5Department of Medicine, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI, 6Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC, 7Department of Community and Behavioral Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 8Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, USA Background: A recommendation to undergo a colonoscopy, an invasive procedure that requires commitment and motivation, planning (scheduling and finding a driver and preparation (diet restriction and laxative consumption, may be uniquely challenging for individuals with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs. This qualitative study aimed to describe the barriers and facilitators to colonoscopy experienced by such patients.Materials and methods: Semistructured focus groups were conducted with male Veterans who were scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy and either failed to complete the procedure or completed the examination. Focus group recordings were transcribed and analyzed by an inductive grounded approach using constant comparative analysis.Results: Forty-four individuals aged 51–83 years participated in this study (23 adherent and 21 nonadherent. Participants had an average of 7.4 chronic conditions (range 2–14. The five most common chronic conditions were hypertension (75%, hyperlipidemia (75

  11. Tuned-circuit Johnson noise thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M. J.; Blalock, T. V.; Shepard, R. L.

    Three tuned circuits that can be used in Johnson noise thermometry have been analyzed; series resistance-inductance-capacitance (RLC), parallel RLC, and transformer coupled. Tuned circuits allow the temperature of the sensor to be determined by a single noise voltage, which is ideally independent of the resistance of the sensor, thereby reducing the complexity of temperature-measuring systems for space applications. Direct-coupled and transformer-coupled tuned circuits may offer advantage to the SP-100 system designer interfacing with data systems. A study was performed to establish whether the advantages of the ideal tuned circuits would be obtained with real, lossy inductive components and would provide a measurement system independent of aging and temperature effects on sensor resistance. Theoretical mean-squared output voltage dependence on sensor temperature and resistance, output capacitor value, and inductor temperature and resistance are derived for the series and parallel RLC cases. It is shown for tuned circuits using lossless inductors that the mean squared voltage is kT sub R/C, where T sub R is the sensor temperature and C is the capacitance of the capacitor. For lossy inductors and transformers, the mean-squared capacitor voltage is a function of sensor resistance, which may change in an unknown manner during an extended mission.

  12. Tuning curves, neuronal variability, and sensory coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Butts

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuning curves are widely used to characterize the responses of sensory neurons to external stimuli, but there is an ongoing debate as to their role in sensory processing. Commonly, it is assumed that a neuron's role is to encode the stimulus at the tuning curve peak, because high firing rates are the neuron's most distinct responses. In contrast, many theoretical and empirical studies have noted that nearby stimuli are most easily discriminated in high-slope regions of the tuning curve. Here, we demonstrate that both intuitions are correct, but that their relative importance depends on the experimental context and the level of variability in the neuronal response. Using three different information-based measures of encoding applied to experimentally measured sensory neurons, we show how the best-encoded stimulus can transition from high-slope to high-firing-rate regions of the tuning curve with increasing noise level. We further show that our results are consistent with recent experimental findings that correlate neuronal sensitivities with perception and behavior. This study illustrates the importance of the noise level in determining the encoding properties of sensory neurons and provides a unified framework for interpreting how the tuning curve and neuronal variability relate to the overall role of the neuron in sensory encoding.

  13. On the association between hydrometeorological conditions in Amazonia and the extremes of the southern oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available ASSOCIATION ENTRE LES CONDITIONS HYDROMÉTÉOROLOGIQUES EN AMAZONIE ET LES EXTRÊMES DE L’OSCILLATION DU SUD. L’Amazonie du nord et du centre montre une tendance vers une anomalie négative de la pluviométrie de l’été au cours des phases avancées d’événements El Niño forts comme ceux de 1982/83, 1986/87 et de 1997/98. Cependant on observe aussi une tendance vers une anomalie positive de la pluviométrie, certaines années El Niño comme 1972/73. Une inversion des variations de la pluviométrie entre le nord et le sud de l’Amazonie est évidente. On a aussi observé que certaines stations en Amazonie reçoivent une pluviométrie excédentaire l’année qui précède le maximum du El Niño, alors que d’autres montrent des tendances nettement négatives au début de l’été, compensées par d’importantes anomalies positives au coeur de la saison des pluies dans l’année du El Niño. De plus un fort événement El Niño est aussi concomitant de nuages de fumées résultants des incendies provoqués par une saison sèche exceptionnellement longue, qui affecte les habitants des principales villes d’Amazonie. SOBRE LAS ASOCIACIONES ENTRE HIDROMETEOROLOGÍA DE LA AMAZONIA Y LOS EXTREMOS DE LA OSCILACIÓN DEL SUR. Las regiones norte y centro de la Amazonia presentan lluvia por debajo de lo normal durante el verano de los años de El Niño, donde el fenómeno alcanza su mayor intensidad, como en los eventos de 1982/83, 1986/87 y el actual 1997/98. De otro lado, también se observa una tendencia hacia lluvias por encima de lo normal durante otros años de El Niño, como en 1972/73. La Amazonia del Norte y del Sur presentan variaciones opuestas en lo que se refiere a lluvia y los efectos de El Niño. Se observa que en algunas estaciones en la Amazonia hay una tendencia por abundante lluvia en el año anterior al pico de El Niño, mientras que en otras estaciones se observan anomalías negativas de lluvia en el inicio del verano y final del

  14. Meteorological Conditions Associated with the ATR72 Aircraft Accident near Roselawn, Indiana, on 31 October 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwitz, J.; Politovich, M.; Bernstein, B.; Ralph, F.; Neiman, P.; Ashenden, R.; Bresch, J.

    1997-01-01

    An ATR72 commuter aircraft crashed near Roselawn, Indiana, on 31 October 1994 killing all 68 people on board. Available weather data, including those from a Next Generation Radar, a radar wind profiler, a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, and pilot reports of icing have been examined in combination with analysis fields from the Rapid Update Cycle model and forecast fields from the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research MM5 numerical model. Synthesis of this information provides a relatively complete and consistent picture of the ambient meteorological conditions in the region of the ATR72 holding pattern at 3.1 km above mean sea level. Of particular interest is the evidence that these conditions favored the development of supercooled drizzle drops within a strong frontal zone, as indicated by cloud-top temperatures of 10° to 15°C, weak radar reflectivity, and strong, vertical wind shear within the cloud and warm front.

  15. Association of comorbid mental health symptoms and physical health conditions with employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kristin M; Wilson, Mark G; Vandenberg, Robert J; DeJoy, David M; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-10-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that employees with comorbid physical health conditions and mental health symptoms are less productive than other employees. Self-reported health status and productivity measures were collected from 1723 employees of a national retail organization. chi2, analysis of variance, and linear contrast analyses were conducted to evaluate whether health status groups differed on productivity measures. Multivariate linear regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze how predictive health status was of productivity. Those with comorbidities were significantly less productive on all productivity measures compared with all other health status groups and those with only physical health conditions or mental health symptoms. Health status also significantly predicted levels of employee productivity. These findings provide evidence for the relationship between health statuses and productivity, which has potential programmatic implications.

  16. The elephant in the room: ethical issues associated with rare and expensive medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudis, Constantine D; Mavroudis, Constantine; Jacobs, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of rare and expensive medical conditions is one of the defining qualities of paediatric cardiology and congenital heart surgery. Increasing concerns over healthcare resource allocation are challenging the merits of treating more expensive forms of congenital heart disease, and this trend will almost certainly continue. In this manuscript, the problems of resource allocation for rare and expensive medical conditions are described from philosophical and economic perspectives. The argument is made that current economic models are limited in the ability to assess the value of treating expensive and rare forms of congenital heart disease. Further, multi-disciplinary approaches are necessary to best determine the merits of treating a patient population such as those with significant congenital heart disease that sometimes requires enormous healthcare resources.

  17. Use orotic acid in the treatment of pathological conditions associated with hyperuricemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ivanov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia - a condition characterized by elevated relative to normal ranges, levels of uric acid in the blood. Among the diseases caused by hyperuricemia, most noteworthy are gout, urate nephropathy, and urolithiasis. The topic of this article is devoted to the comparative characteristics of drugs used to correct hyperuricemia. The main part of the article is an analysis of pharmacodynamics, efficacy, safety and expediency of using orotic acid agents.

  18. [Local conditions of vulnerability associated with dengue in two communities of Morelos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuc, Silvia; Hurtado-Díaz, Magali; Schilmann, Astrid; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Rangel, Hilda; González-Fernández, Mariana Irina

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the vulnerability associated with the occurrence of dengue in two villages of Morelos, Mexico from 2006 to 2009. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A survey on knowledge, risk perception, prevention practices and water use was applied in two villages of Morelos. Using a principal component analysis, an index of local vulnerability to dengue (IVL) was constructed. The association of IVL with the disease at home was assessed using a Chi-square test. The IVL included five components explaining 63% of the variance and was classified in three categories: low, medium and high. There was a significant association between increased vulnerability and prevalence of reported cases of dengue in Temixco and Tlaquiltenango. The study of vulnerability to dengue allows us to identify local needs in the field of health promotion.

  19. Conditions associated with REM sleep behaviour disorder: Description of a hospital series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenza Abildúa, M J; Miralles Martinez, A; Arpa Gutiérrez, F J; Lores Gutiérrez, V; Algarra Lucas, C; Jimeno Montero, C; Sánchez García, B; Mata Álvarez-Santullano, M; Borrue Fernández, C; Cordero Martín, G; Gutiérrez Cueto, G; Torrecillas Narváez, M D; Thuissard Vasallo, I; Gómez Aceña, A

    2017-02-16

    REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterised by violent behaviours (screaming, kicking, vivid dreams) during REM sleep. It has a prevalence of 1% to 2% of the general population and is especially frequent in men and the population older than 60. In the last decade, RBD has been suggested to be a prodrome of neurodegenerative disease. We analysed associated neurological diseases and responses to drug treatment in 33 patients with RBD treated in the multidisciplinary sleep disorders unit at Hospital Infanta Sofía. We conducted an observational descriptive retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with RBD and treated in our multidisciplinary sleep disorders unit between October 2012 and December 2015. We recorded age, sex, associated diseases, and treatments administered to these patients. A total of 365 patients were attended at our unit, including 33 with RBD: 13 women (40%) and 20 men (60%). Mean age was 62.72 years. An associated disorder was identified in 48%, with the most common being mild cognitive impairment (69%). The percentage of patients with RBD and an associated disorder among patients older than 60 was 68%. Eighty-two percent of the patients required treatment. The most commonly used drug was clonazepam (76%), followed by melatonin (9%), gabapentin (6%), and trazodone (3%). In our series, 48% of the patients had an associated disorder. The likelihood of detecting an associated disorder increases with patients' age. The vast majority of patients required drug treatment due to symptom severity; the most frequently administered drug was clonazepam (76%). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Politics, operant conditioning, Galileo, and the American Psychological Association's response to Rind et al. (1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Brian N

    2002-03-01

    The controversy surrounding B. Rind, P. Tromovitch, and R. Bauserman (1998) provides valuable lessons into scientific independence, politics, and organizational decision making. In an unprecedented action, the U.S. Congress officially condemned findings of Rind et al. Meanwhile, the American Psychological Association took similarly unprecedented measures in an effort to assuage its Congressional critics. This article, written from the perspective of a psychologist serving in Congress, discusses the various political and organizational dynamics that developed during the controversy. Understanding and learning from this incident can help psychologists and their professional associations better prepare for and respond to potential controversies arising from research or other publications.

  1. The association between allergy skin testing, atopic respiratory conditions, and stroke mortality in middle-aged and elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Eric M; Mainous, Arch G; Carnemolla, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    A history of atopic respiratory conditions has been linked to an increased risk of stroke. What remains unclear is whether positive allergy skin testing is associated with an increased risk of stroke. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether positive allergy skin testing is associated with an increased risk of fatal stroke. A secondary goal is to determine whether having both positive allergy skin testing and an atopic respiratory condition is associated with a particularly high risk of stroke death. An analysis was performed of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II Mortality Cohort. Controlling for age, gender, race, alcohol use, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, and body mass index, patients with positive allergy skin testing had a hazard ratio for stroke mortality of 1.56 (95% CI, 1.01-2.40) versus those without positive allergy testing. Patients with both positive allergy testing and an atopic respiratory condition had a hazard ratio for stroke mortality of 2.31 (95% CI, 1.13-4.73). Individuals with both positive allergy skin testing and an atopic respiratory condition have more than a 2-fold increased risk of fatal stroke. This novel risk factor has substantial implications for a large segment of the population not previously considered at risk.

  2. SERUM LIPID PROFILE OF SPAYED AND NON-SPAYED FEMALE DOGS ASSOCIATED WITH THE BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Almeida Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutering females may be associated to weight gain in dogs. In order to diagnose possible alterations, such as diabetes and hyperlipidemias, laboratory assessment of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism is important. The aim of this study was to verify glycemia and serum lipid profile in non-spayed and spayed female dogs, and associate these results with the body condition score. Thirty-two spayed (n=16 and non-spayed (n=16 female dogs had their blood collected for biochemical analysis, and were classified as to their body condition score (BCS. Nine had normal BCS, 10 were overweight, and 13 were obese. Little difference was observed among spayed and non-spayed dogs. Glycemia of spayed canine females is higher than that of non-spayed dogs, regardless of the body condition score. Likewise, total cholesterol levels are higher in non-spayed females. The HDL is higher in non-spayed obese dogs than in spayed dogs with the same body condition, this parameter did not differ in other weight groups. Contrary to what happens in post-menopausal women, spaying dogs does not seem to have such a strong effect on the metabolic parameters assessed. This study revealed unique results, where neither spaying nor weight group had a strong association with metabolic alterations.

  3. Discrete PID Tuning Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr DOLEŽEL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PID controllers are widely used in industry these days due to their useful properties such as simple tuning or robustness. While they are applicable to many control problems, they can perform poorly in some applications. Highly nonlinear system control with constrained manipulated variable can be mentioned as an example. The point of the paper is to string together convenient qualities of conventional PID control and progressive techniques based on Artificial Intelligence. Proposed control method should deal with even highly nonlinear systems. To be more specific, there is described new method of discrete PID controller tuning in this paper. This method tunes discrete PID controller parameters online through the use of genetic algorithm and neural model of controlled system in order to control successfully even highly nonlinear systems. After method description and some discussion, there is performed control simulation and comparison to one chosen conventional control method.

  4. Human Rights Conditionality in the EU's Newly Concluded Association Agreements with the Eastern Partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaspar-Szilagyi, S.; Akrivopoulou, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The recent association agreements with Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia are meant to replace the existing Partnership and Cooperation Agreements between the EU and the three Eastern Partners. Their purpose is to deepen the political and economic ties between the contracting parties and to gradually

  5. Tuning the cosmological constant, broken scale invariance, unitarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Förste, Stefan; Manz, Paul [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-06-10

    We study gravity coupled to a cosmological constant and a scale but not conformally invariant sector. In Minkowski vacuum, scale invariance is spontaneously broken. We consider small fluctuations around the Minkowski vacuum. At the linearised level we find that the trace of metric perturbations receives a positive or negative mass squared contribution. However, only for the Fierz-Pauli combination the theory is free of ghosts. The mass term for the trace of metric perturbations can be cancelled by explicitly breaking scale invariance. This reintroduces fine-tuning. Models based on four form field strength show similarities with explicit scale symmetry breaking due to quantisation conditions.

  6. Audience-tuning effects on memory: the role of shared reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Higgins, E Tory; Groll, Stephan

    2005-09-01

    After tuning to an audience, communicators' own memories for the topic often reflect the biased view expressed in their messages. Three studies examined explanations for this bias. Memories for a target person were biased when feedback signaled the audience's successful identification of the target but not after failed identification (Experiment 1). Whereas communicators tuning to an in-group audience exhibited the bias, communicators tuning to an out-group audience did not (Experiment 2). These differences did not depend on communicators' mood but were mediated by communicators' trust in their audience's judgment about other people (Experiments 2 and 3). Message and memory were more closely associated for high than for low trusters. Apparently, audience-tuning effects depend on the communicators' experience of a shared reality.

  7. Treatment of Dermatological Conditions Associated with HIV/AIDS: The Scarcity of Guidance on a Global Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchismita Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skin diseases associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In resource-limited settings, nondermatologists and lay health care providers on the front line of HIV care provide much of the treatment for these conditions. Objective. To evaluate guidelines for treatment of HIV-related skin conditions and assess their accessibility, comprehensiveness, and quality of evidence employed. Methods. A review was undertaken of all national and society guidelines which included treatment information on the ten highest burden HIV-related skin conditions. The search strategy included gray and peer-reviewed literature. Results. Of 430 potential guidelines, 86 met inclusion criteria, and only 2 were written specifically to address HIV-related skin diseases as a whole. Treatment information for HIV-related skin conditions was embedded within guidelines written for other purposes, primarily HIV/AIDs treatment guidelines (49%. Development of guidelines relied either partially or completely on expert opinion (62%. Only 16% of guidelines used gradation of evidence quality and these were primarily from high-income countries (p=0.001. Limitations. Due to the nature of gray literature, not all guidelines may have been identified. Conclusion. This review highlights the need for evidence-based summary guidelines that address treatment for HIV-related skin conditions in an accessible format.

  8. Nutritional Status and Habitual Dietary Intake Are Associated with Frail Skin Conditions in Community-Dwelling Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, S; Nagata, S; Sanada, H

    2017-01-01

    Prevention of frail skin is important in older people because frail skin is associated with a risk of injury in this population. In this study, we investigated the association of nutritional status and habitual dietary intake with skin conditions in community-dwelling older people. Cross-sectional study. Three community settings in Japan from autumn to winter. Older people aged ≥65 years without care-need certification (n=118). Malnutrition and obesity were evaluated to assess the nutritional status. Nutrient and food group intakes per 1000 kcal were evaluated using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns based on food groups were evaluated by principal component analysis. Skin condition parameters, including stratum corneum hydration, appearance of xerosis (specific symptom sum score [SRRC score]), and dermal intensity by high-frequency ultrasonography, were measured on a lower leg. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with adjustment for confounders. The mean (standard deviation) age was 74.1 (4.8) years, and 83.1% of participants were female. A higher intake of plant fat (p=0.018) was associated with a lower SRRC score. Higher intakes of α-tocopherol (p=0.050) and vitamin C (p=0.017) were associated with increased dermal intensity. A body mass index ≥25 (p=0.016) was associated with decreased dermal intensity. A dietary pattern characterized by higher vegetable and fruit intake was associated with a better skin condition. Plant fat, antioxidant vitamins, and a dietary pattern characterized by vegetables and fruits showed positive and obesity showed negative associations for frail skin in community-dwelling older people.

  9. Monosodium glutamate-associated alterations in open field, anxiety-related and conditioned place preference behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Aremu, Olaleye Samuel; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated changes in behaviour associated with oral monosodium glutamate (a flavouring agent), using the open field, elevated plus maze and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms, respectively. Mice were assigned to two groups for CPP [monosodium glutamate (MSG)-naïve (n = 40) and MSG-pretreated (n = 40)] and two groups for open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests [n = 40 each], respectively. Animals in respective groups were then divided into four subgroups (n = 10) (vehicle or MSG (80, 160 and 320 mg/kg)). MSG-naïve mice were observed in the CPP box in three phases (pre-conditioning, conditioning and post-conditioning). Mice were conditioned to MSG or an equivalent volume of saline. The MSG pretreatment group received vehicle or respective doses of MSG daily for 21 days, prior to conditioning. Mice in the OF or EPM groups received vehicle or doses of MSG (orally) for 21 days, at 10 ml/kg. Open field or EPM behaviours were assessed on days 1 and 21. At the end of the experiments, mice in the OF groups were sacrificed and brain homogenates used to assay glutamate and glutamine. Results showed that administration of MSG was associated with a decrease in rearing, dose-related mixed horizontal locomotor, grooming and anxiety-related response and an increase in brain glutamate/glutamine levels. Following exposure to the CPP paradigm, MSG-naïve and MSG-pretreated mice both showed 'drug-paired' chamber preference. The study concluded that MSG (at the administered doses) was associated with changes in open field activities, anxiety-related behaviours and brain glutamate/glutamine levels; its ingestion also probably leads to a stimulation of the brain reward system.

  10. Prevalence and conditions associated with chronic pelvic pain in women from São Luís, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.C. Coelho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in the community of São Luís, capital of the State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil, and to identify independent conditions associated with it. A cross-sectional study was conducted, including a sample of 1470 women older than 14 years predominantly served by the public health system. The interviews were held in the subject's home by trained interviewers not affiliated with the public health services of the municipality. The homes were visited at random according to the city map and the prevalence of the condition was estimated. To identify the associated conditions, the significant variables (P=0.10 were selected and entered in a multivariate analysis model. Data are reported as odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, with the level of significance set at 0.05. The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain was 19.0%. The independent conditions associated with this diagnosis were: dyspareunia (OR=3.94, premenopausal status (OR=2.95, depressive symptoms (OR=2.33, dysmenorrhea (OR=1.77, smoking (OR=1.72, irregular menstrual flow (OR=1.62, and irritative bladder symptoms (OR=1.90. The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in Sao Luís is high and is associated with the conditions cited above. Guidelines based on prevention and/or early identification of risk factors may reduce the prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in São Luís, Brazil.

  11. Exploring cross-sectional associations between common childhood illness, housing and social conditions in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of informing development of housing interventions to improve child health. Methods Hierarchical multi-level analysis of association between carer report of common childhood illnesses and functional and hygienic state of housing infrastructure, socio-economic, psychosocial and health related behaviours using baseline survey data from a housing intervention study. Results Multivariate analysis showed a strong independent association between report of respiratory infection and overall functional condition of the house (Odds Ratio (OR 3.00; 95%CI 1.36-6.63, but no significant association between report of other illnesses and the overall functional condition or the functional condition of infrastructure required for specific healthy living practices. Associations between report of child illness and secondary explanatory variables which showed an OR of 2 or more included: for skin infection - evidence of poor temperature control in the house (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.06-9.94, evidence of pests and vermin in the house (OR 2.88; 95%CI 1.25-6.60; for respiratory infection - breastfeeding in infancy (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.14-0.49; for diarrhoea/vomiting - hygienic state of food preparation and storage areas (OR 2.10; 95%CI 1.10-4.00; for ear infection - child care attendance (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.26-3.99. Conclusion These findings add to other evidence that building programs need to be supported by a range of other social and behavioural interventions for potential health gains to be more fully realised.

  12. Conditioned suppression of bar-pressing behavior by stimuli associated with drugs1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Oliver G.; Appel, James B.

    1972-01-01

    Ten naive male albino rats were trained to press a bar under a variable-interval 30-sec schedule with water as the reinforcer in two experiments. This behavior was disrupted by chlorpromazine in Experiment I (two rats) and by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in both Experiment I (two rats) and Experiment II (six rats). The administration of the drug was paired with an originally neutral white light. After several pairings with either drug, the light also depressed behavior. When the light was no longer paired with drug, the depression effect extinguished much faster than is usually observed in conditioned suppression studies. PMID:5063082

  13. BDS tuning and luminosity monitoring in CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, Barbara; Latina, Andrea; Marin, Eduardo; Pfingstner, Jurgen; Schulte, Daniel; Snuverink, Jochem; Tomas, Rogelio; Zamudio, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    The emittance preservation in the Beam Delivery System (BDS) is one of the major challenges in CLIC. The fast detuning of the final focus optics requires an on-­line tuning procedure in order to keep luminosity close to the maximum. Different tuning techniques have been applied to the CLIC BDS and in particular to the Final Focus System (FFS) in order to mitigate static and dynamic imperfections. Some of them require a fast luminosity measurement. Here we study the possibility to use beam-­beam backgrounds processes at CLIC 3 TeV CM energy as fast luminosity signal. In particular the hadrons multiplicity in the detector region is investigated.

  14. Performance Enhancement using SQL Statement Tuning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Kumar SHARMA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuning your SQL statements may be one of the most important tasks you can do to improve the performance of your Oracle system. By tuning your SQL statements to be as efficient as possible, you use your system to its full potential. Some of the things you can do to improve the efficiency of your SQL statements may involve as little effort as rewriting the SQL to take advantage of some property of your database or perhaps even changing the structure of the database itself.

  15. Java EE 7 performance tuning and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Oransa, Osama

    2014-01-01

    The book adopts a step-by-step approach, starting from building the basics and adding to it gradually by using different tools and examples. The book sequence is easy to follow and all topics are fully illustrated showing you how to make good use of different performance diagnostic tools. If you are an experienced Java developer, architect, team leader, consultant, support engineer, or anyone else who needs performance tuning in your Java applications, and in particular, Java enterprise applications, this book is for you. No prior experience of performance tuning is required.

  16. Employees' perception of lighting conditions in manufacturing plants: associations with illuminance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Abdollah; Dianat, Iman

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the employees' subjective assessments of different aspects of lighting condition as well as task area illuminance in manufacturing plants. This field study was conducted between March and May 2013, in three packing plants (Saveh, central Iran). Data were collected by questionnaire and measurement of the task area illuminance levels. Data were analysed using contingency coefficient test, Spearman's correlation analysis and non-parametric Friedman tests. The recommended illuminance levels were not met in 46.9% of the work areas. This finding was in agreement with the employees' perception of light level, and with low satisfaction with lighting in the work environment. Adverse effects of lighting condition on job performance, changing posture for better viewing of the work area and eye tiredness were reported as 64%, 33% and 31% of the employees, respectively. Satisfaction with lighting was negatively correlated with the age of respondents (r=-0.229; Plighting was also highly correlated with the employees' subjective assessments of the light level (r=0.779; Plight sources (r=0.591; Plight colour (r=0.50; Plight sources was correlated with job performance (r=0.311, Plighting design and planning.

  17. Environmental conditions differentially affect neurobehavioral outcomes in a mouse model of sepsis-associated encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mu-Huo; Tang, Hui; Luo, Dan; Qiu, Li-Li; Jia, Min; Yuan, Hong-Mei; Feng, Shan-Wu; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Brain dysfunction remains a common complication after sepsis development and is an independent risk factor for a poorer prognosis and an increased mortality. Here we tested the hypothesis that the behavioral outcomes after lipopolysaccharides (LPS) administration are exacerbated by an impoverished environment (IE) and alleviated by an enriched environment (EE), respectively. Mice were randomly allocated in a standard environment (SE), an EE, or an IE for 4 weeks after LPS or normal saline (NS) administration. Neurobehavioral alternations were assessed by the open field, novel objective recognition, and fear conditioning tests. The expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10), ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (IBA1)-positive cells as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and the number of dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA1 were determined. Our results showed that the some of the neurocognitive abnormalities induced by LPS administration can be aggravated by stressful conditions such as IE but alleviated by EE. These neurocognitive alternations were accompanied by significant changes in biomarkers of immune response and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In summary, our study confirmed the negative impact of IE and the positive effects of EE on the cognitive function after LPS administration, with potential implications to the basis of sepsis-related cognitive impairments in the critically ill patients. PMID:29137271

  18. Variation in the rapid shallow breathing index associated with common measurement techniques and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kapil N; Ganatra, Kalpesh D; Bates, Jason H T; Young, Michael P

    2009-11-01

    The rapid-shallow-breathing index (RSBI) is widely used to evaluate mechanically ventilated patients for weaning and extubation, but it is determined in different clinical centers in a variety of ways, under conditions that are not always comparable. We hypothesized that the value of RSBI may be significantly influenced by common variations in measurement conditions and technique. Sixty patients eligible for a weaning evaluation after >or=72 hours of mechanical ventilation were studied over 15 months in a medical intensive care unit. RSBI was measured while the patients were on 2 different levels of ventilator support: 5 cm H2O continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus T-piece. RSBI was also calculated in 2 different ways: using the values of minute ventilation and respiratory rate provided by the digital output of the ventilator, versus values obtained manually with a Wright spirometer. Finally, RSBI was measured at 2 different times of the day. RSBI was significantly less when measured on 5 cm H2O CPAP, compared to T-piece: the medians and interquartile ranges were 71 (52-88) breaths/min/L versus 90 (59-137) breaths/min/L, respectively (Pventilator-derived versus manual measures of the breathing pattern. RSBI was also not significantly different in the morning versus evening measurements. RSBI can be significantly affected by the level of ventilator support, but is relatively unaffected by both the technique used to determine the breathing pattern and the time of day at which it is measured.

  19. The associations between menstrual function and life style/working conditions among nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Fen-Fang; Yao, Chuan-Chiang Chou; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2005-03-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the relationship among menstrual pattern, dysmenorrhea, life style and working conditions in nurses. The nurses were randomly selected from a medical center in Northern Taiwan. Each subject completed daily records including life and working conditions during the study period. The study showed that there were statistically significant differences in work years, daily working hours and type of work shift among nurses that worked at different units in the hospital. In the perceived regular cycle group, nurses that worked the night shift only exhibited the shortest menstrual cycles, less than 25 d. There was a significant difference (pstress) and working factors (such as work years, perceived work satisfaction and perceived work stress) were not significantly related to menstrual cycle regularity. In addition, 30% of the nurses complained of dysmenorrhea. Some factors including age, marital status and perceived life satisfaction were significantly related to dysmenorrhea. However, other life factors (such as passive tobacco smoke exposure, smoking, coffee, alcohol, cold drink habits, exercise and perceived life stress) and working factors (such as working places, type of work shift, daily work hours, perceived work satisfaction and perceived work stress) showed no correlation with dysmenorrhea. This study indicates that women should pay attention to their menstrual function and dysmenorrhea phenomenon.

  20. Association of achondroplasia with sagittal synostosis and scaphocephaly in two patients, an underestimated condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accogli, Andrea; Pacetti, Mattia; Fiaschi, Pietro; Pavanello, Marco; Piatelli, Gianluca; Nuzzi, Daniele; Baldi, Maurizia; Tassano, Elisa; Severino, Maria Savina; Allegri, Anna; Capra, Valeria

    2015-03-01

    We report on two patients with an unusual combination of achondroplasia and surgically treated sagittal synostosis and scaphocephaly. The most common achondroplasia mutation, p.Gly380Arg in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), was detected in both patients. Molecular genetic testing of FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and TWIST1 genes failed to detect any additional mutations. There are several reports of achondroplasia with associated craniosynostosis, but no other cases of scaphocephaly in children with achondroplasia have been described. Recently it has been demonstrated that FGFR3 mutations affect not only endochondral ossification but also membranous ossification, providing new explanations for the craniofacial hallmarks in achondroplasia. Our report suggests that the association of isolated scaphocephaly and other craniosynostoses with achondroplasia may be under recognized. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Vb cyclones and associated rainfall extremes over Central Europe under present day and climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin M. Nissen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclones moving on a track from the Mediterranean region towards Central Europe can transport humid air masses into the Central European region. Cyclones on this track are of particular interest, as they have historically often caused major river flooding during the summer season. Such systems are also known as Vb cyclones. In this study, an objective identification algorithm is presented, which detects the systems. The algorithm has been applied to the summer half year (April?September of the ERA40 reanalysis data set. It is able to capture most documented historic hazardous events in the data set. The amount of precipitation affecting the study region is found to increase with the residence time of the cyclone within the region of interest. About 41% of the Vb cyclones are associated with precipitation exceeding the daily mean 95th percentile over Central Europe. In order to detect possible changes in the frequency and severity of Vb cyclones under rising greenhouse gas forcing, the algorithm was applied to an ensemble of 3 simulations with the ECHAM5/OM1 model covering the period from 1971?2100, which were forced with 20th century and A1B scenario greenhouse gas concentrations. For present day forcing, the model overestimates the number of Vb cyclones. The ratio between systems associated with extreme daily precipitation over the area and systems producing less impact in terms of rainfall is, however, close to the number found in observations. For the future scenario period the simulations produce a decrease in the total number of Vb cyclones, due to an eastward shift in the most common northbound cyclone tracks. At the same time, the mean amount of precipitation associated with the Vb cyclones increases by 16%. Due to long term climate variability this increase is not continuously statistical significant. The number of Vb cyclones associated with extreme precipitation remains stable throughout the 21st century.

  2. Association between clinical condition and F-waves changes in the acute phase of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo José Luvizutto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To relate F-waves with clinical and laboratory exams in the acute phase of stroke. Methods Inclusion criteria for this cross-sectional study were: hemiplegia, absence of previous cranial trauma, myopathy, diabetes, alcoholism or other known causes of peripheral neuropathy, and normal sensory and motor conduction. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score, glycemia, glucosilate hemoglobin, and CPK were obtained at admission by routine blood exams. After hospital admission, the F-wave latencies and persistence were obtained from the deep peroneal nerve using symmetrical techniques. Results Evaluation of 20 individuals – mean age 66 years, 50% male and 85% Caucasian – showed association of F-wave persistence with glycemia (r = 0.71; p < 0.001 and NIHSS categorized (NIHSS 1-7 = 65.0 x NIHSS 9-23 = 100; p = 0.004. Multivariate analysis found only association of F-wave persistence with glycemia β = 0.59 (0.44–0.74; p < 0.001. Conclusion The increase in the persistence of F-waves are associated with hyperglycemia in the acute phase of stroke.

  3. Climatic conditions associated to the occurrence of slope instabilities in the Italian Alps in year 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranunzio, Roberta; Chiarle, Marta; Laio, Francesco; Luino, Fabio; Nigrelli, Guido; Turconi, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Studies carried out in different parts of the world have shown that, in the mountain high-elevation sites, temperature can play a major role in the preparation and trigger of slope instabilities. However, the interplay with other climatic parameters (in particular precipitation) and the nature of the climate-driven processes that lead to the development of slope instability continue to be poorly understood. This understanding is crucial in order to define reliable scenarios of the evolution of slope instability under the expected climatic and environmental changes. The present work aims to contribute to shed light on these issues by analyzing with the statistical and probabilistic method developed by Paranunzio et al. (2016) the values of the climatic parameters associated to the most significant events of slope instability occurred at high elevation in the Italian Alps in 2016. The method allows to detect the anomalies in temperature and precipitation values that are associated to the development of these slope instabilities, providing the ground for discussion of possible causes and triggering mechanisms, also in the framework of ongoing climate change. Paranunzio R., Laio F., Chiarle M., Nigrelli G., Guzzetti F. (2016) - Climate anomalies associated to the occurrence of rockfalls at high-elevation in the Italian Alps. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 16, 2085-2106, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-16-2085-2016;

  4. Preschool children's health and its association with parental education and individual living conditions in East and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schikowski Tamara

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social inequalities in health exist globally and are a major public health concern. This study focus on a systematic investigation into the associations between health indicators, living conditions and parental educational level as indicator of the social status of 6-year-old children living in West and East Germany in the decade after re-unification. Explanations of observed associations between parental education and health indicators were examined. Methods All boys and girls entering elementary school and living in predefined areas of East and West Germany were invited to participate in a series of cross-sectional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2000. Data of 28,888 German children with information on parental education were included in the analysis. Information about educational level of the parents, individual living conditions, symptoms and diagnoses of infectious diseases and allergies were taken from questionnaire. At the day of investigation, atopic eczema was diagnosed by dermatologists, blood was taken for the determination of allergen-specific immuno-globulin E, height and weight was measured and lung function tests were done in subgroups. Regression analysis was applied to investigate the associations between the health indicators and parental educational level as well as the child's living conditions. Gender, urban/rural residency and year of survey were used to control for confounding. Results Average response was 83% in East Germany and 71% in West Germany. Strong associations between health indicators and parental education were observed. Higher educated parents reported more diagnoses and symptoms than less educated. Children of higher educated parents were also more often sensitized against grass pollen or house dust mites, but had higher birth weights, lower airway resistance and were less overweight at the age of six. Furthermore, most of the health indicators were significantly associated with one or

  5. Conditional testing of multiple variants associated with bone mineral density in the FLNB gene region suggests that they represent a single association signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Benjamin H; Mamotte, Cyril; Prince, Richard L; Spector, Tim D; Dudbridge, Frank; Wilson, Scott G

    2013-10-31

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a primary risk factor for osteoporosis and is a highly heritable trait, but appears to be influenced by many genes. Genome-wide linkage studies have highlighted the chromosomal region 3p14-p22 as a quantitative trait locus for BMD (LOD 1.1 - 3.5). The FLNB gene, which is thought to have a role in cytoskeletal actin dynamics, is located within this chromosomal region and presents as a strong candidate for BMD regulation. We have previously identified significant associations between four SNPs in the FLNB gene and BMD in women. We have also previously identified associations between five SNPs located 5' of the transcription start site (TSS) and in intron 1 of the FLNB gene and expression of FLNB mRNA in osteoblasts in vitro. The latter five SNPs were genotyped in this study to test for association with BMD parameters in a family-based population of 769 Caucasian women. Using FBAT, significant associations were seen for femoral neck BMD Z-score with the SNPs rs11720285, rs11130605 and rs9809315 (P = 0.004 - 0.043). These three SNPs were also found to be significantly associated with total hip BMD Z-score (P = 0.014 - 0.026). We then combined the genotype data for these three SNPs with the four SNPs we previously identified as associated with BMD and performed a conditional analysis to determine whether they represent multiple independent associations with BMD. The results from this analysis suggested that these variants represent a single association signal. The SNPs identified in our studies as associated with BMD appear to be part of a single association signal between the FLNB gene and BMD in our data. FLNB is one of several genes located in 3p14-p22 that has been identified as significantly associated with BMD in Caucasian women.

  6. Habitat association, size, stomach contents, and reproductive condition of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Puerto Rican boa occurs in a variety of habitats, including wet montane forest, lowland wet forest, mangrove forest, wet limestone karst, and offshore cays, and from sea level to 480 m. Mean SVL of 49 encountered boas (live and road-killed) was 136.9 ?? 35.1 (range = 38.8-205 cm), with a mean mass of 952.1 ?? 349.0 g (n = 47; range = 140-1662 g). Prey in digestive tracts (n = 29) included remains of black rats, house mice, three species of anoles, bats, common ground-doves, domestic fowl chicks, and invertebrates. Females were in reproductive condition in late April through mid-August and had an average brood size of 21.8 ?? 6.0 (n = 9, range = 13-30 ).

  7. Field measurements of key parameters associated with nocturnal OBT formation in vegetables grown under Canadian conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Workman, W G; Korolevych, V; Davis, P A

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to provide the parameter values required to model OBT formation in the edible parts of plants following a hypothetical accidental tritium release to the atmosphere at night. The parameters considered were leaf area index, stomatal resistance, photosynthesis rate, the photosynthetic production rate of starch, the nocturnal hydrolysis rate of starch, the fraction of starch produced daily by photosynthesis that appears in the fruits, and the mass of the fruit. Values of these parameters were obtained in the summer of 2002 for lettuce, radishes and tomatoes grown under typical Canadian environmental conditions. Based on the maximum observed photosynthetic rate and growth rate, the fraction of starch translocated to the fruit was calculated to be 17% for tomato fruit and 14% for radish root. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Possible dendritic contribution to unimodal numerosity tuning and Weber-Fechner law-dependent numerical cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Morita

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans and animals are known to share an ability to estimate or compare the numerosity of visual stimuli, and this ability is considered to be supported by the cortical neurons that have unimodal tuning for numerosity, referred to as the numerosity detector neurons. How such unimodal numerosity tuning is shaped through plasticity mechanisms is unknown. Here I propose a testable hypothetical mechanism based on recently revealed features of the neuronal dendrite, namely, cooperative plasticity induction and nonlinear input integration at nearby dendritic sites, on the basis of the existing proposal that individual visual stimuli are represented as similar localized activities regardless of the size or the shape in a cortical region in the dorsal visual pathway. Intriguingly, the proposed mechanism naturally explains a prominent feature of the numerosity detector neurons, namely, the broadening of the tuning curve in proportion to the preferred numerosity, which is considered to underlie the known Weber-Fechner law-dependent accuracy of numerosity estimation and comparison. The simulated tuning curves are less sharp than reality, however, and together with the evidence from human imaging studies that numerical representation is a distributed phenomenon, it may not be likely that the proposed mechanism operates by itself. Rather, the proposed mechanism might facilitate the formation of hierarchical circuitry proposed in the previous studies, which includes neurons with monotonic numerosity tuning as well as those with sharp unimodal tuning, by serving as an efficient initial condition.

  9. Enhancing inulinase yield by irradiation mutation associated with optimization of culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Gou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new inulinase-producing strain was isolated from rhizosphere soils of Jerusalem artichoke collected from Shihezi (Xinjiang, China using Jerusalem artichoke power (JAP as sole carbon source. It was identified as an Aspergillus niger strain by analysis of 16S rRNA. To improve inulinase production, this fungus was subjected to mutagenesis induced by 60Co γ-irradiation. A genetically stable mutant (designated E12 was obtained and it showed 2.7-fold higher inulinase activity (128 U/mL than the parental strain in the supernatant of a submerged culture. Sequential methodology was used to optimize the inulinase production of stain E12. A screening trial was first performed using Plackett-Burman design and variables with statistically significant effects on inulinase bio-production were identified. These significant factors were further optimized by central composite design experiments and response surface methodology. Finally, it was found that the maximum inulinase production (185 U/mL could be achieved under the optimized conditions namely pH 7.0, yeast extract concentration of 5.0 g/L, JAP concentration of 66.5 g/L, peptone concentration of 29.1 g/L, solution volume of 49.4 mL in 250-mL shake flasks, agitation speed of 180 rpm, and fermentation time of 60 h. The yield of inulinase under optimized culture conditions was approximately 1.4-fold of that obtained by using basal culture medium. These findings are of significance for the potential industrial application of the mutant E12.

  10. Enhancing inulinase yield by irradiation mutation associated with optimization of culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yafeng; Li, Jianhua; Zhu, Junbao; Xu, Wanyun; Gao, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    A new inulinase-producing strain was isolated from rhizosphere soils of Jerusalem artichoke collected from Shihezi (Xinjiang, China) using Jerusalem artichoke power (JAP) as sole carbon source. It was identified as an Aspergillus niger strain by analysis of 16S rRNA. To improve inulinase production, this fungus was subjected to mutagenesis induced by (60)Co γ-irradiation. A genetically stable mutant (designated E12) was obtained and it showed 2.7-fold higher inulinase activity (128 U/mL) than the parental strain in the supernatant of a submerged culture. Sequential methodology was used to optimize the inulinase production of stain E12. A screening trial was first performed using Plackett-Burman design and variables with statistically significant effects on inulinase bio-production were identified. These significant factors were further optimized by central composite design experiments and response surface methodology. Finally, it was found that the maximum inulinase production (185 U/mL) could be achieved under the optimized conditions namely pH 7.0, yeast extract concentration of 5.0 g/L, JAP concentration of 66.5 g/L, peptone concentration of 29.1 g/L, solution volume of 49.4 mL in 250-mL shake flasks, agitation speed of 180 rpm, and fermentation time of 60 h. The yield of inulinase under optimized culture conditions was approximately 1.4-fold of that obtained by using basal culture medium. These findings are of significance for the potential industrial application of the mutant E12.

  11. Quasiperiodic spin-orbit motion and spin tunes in storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Barber

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an in-depth analysis of the concept of spin precession frequency for integrable orbital motion in storage rings. Spin motion on the periodic closed orbit of a storage ring can be analyzed in terms of the Floquet theorem for equations of motion with periodic parameters, and a spin precession frequency emerges in a Floquet exponent as an additional frequency of the system. To define a spin precession frequency on nonperiodic synchrobetatron orbits we exploit the important concept of quasiperiodicity. This allows a generalization of the Floquet theorem so that a spin precession frequency can be defined in this case, too. This frequency appears in a Floquet-like exponent as an additional frequency in the system in analogy with the case of motion on the closed orbit. These circumstances lead naturally to the definition of the uniform precession rate and a definition of spin tune. A spin tune is a uniform precession rate obtained when certain conditions are fulfilled. Having defined spin tune we define spin-orbit resonance on synchrobetatron orbits and examine its consequences. We give conditions for the existence of uniform precession rates and spin tunes (e.g., where small divisors are controlled by applying a Diophantine condition and illustrate the various aspects of our description with several examples. The formalism also suggests the use of spectral analysis to “measure” spin tune during computer simulations of spin motion on synchrobetatron orbits.

  12. The NetVISA automatic association tool. Next generation software testing and performance under realistic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, Ronan; Arora, Nimar; Kushida, Noriyuki; Tomuta, Elena; Kebede, Fekadu; Feitio, Paulino

    2016-04-01

    The CTBTO's International Data Centre is in the process of developing the next generation software to perform the automatic association step. The NetVISA software uses a Bayesian approach with a forward physical model using probabilistic representations of the propagation, station capabilities, background seismicity, noise detection statistics, and coda phase statistics. The software has been in development for a few years and is now reaching the stage where it is being tested in a realistic operational context. An interactive module has been developed where the NetVISA automatic events that are in addition to the Global Association (GA) results are presented to the analysts. We report on a series of tests where the results are examined and evaluated by seasoned analysts. Consistent with the statistics previously reported (Arora et al., 2013), the first test shows that the software is able to enhance analysis work by providing additional event hypothesis for consideration by analysts. A test on a three-day data set was performed and showed that the system found 42 additional real events out of 116 examined, including 6 that pass the criterion for the Reviewed Event Bulletin of the IDC. The software was functional in a realistic, real-time mode, during the occurrence of the fourth nuclear test claimed by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea on January 6th, 2016. Confirming a previous statistical observation, the software found more associated stations (51, including 35 primary stations) than GA (36, including 26 primary stations) for this event. Nimar S. Arora, Stuart Russell, Erik Sudderth. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA) April 2013, vol. 103 no. 2A pp709-729.

  13. Interspecialty communication supported by health information technology associated with lower hospitalization rates for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Ann S; Reschovsky, James D; Saiontz-Martinez, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Practice tools such as health information technology (HIT) have the potential to support care processes, such as communication between health care providers, and influence care for "ambulatory care-sensitive conditions" (ACSCs). ACSCs are conditions for which good outpatient care can potentially prevent the need for hospitalization. To date, associations between such primary care practice capabilities and hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions have been primarily limited to smaller, local studies or unique delivery systems rather than nationally representative studies of primary care physicians in the United States. We analyzed a nationally representative sample of 1,819 primary care physicians who responded to the Center for Studying Health System Change's Physician Survey. We linked 3 years of Medicare claims (2007 to 2009) with these primary care physician survey respondents. This linkage resulted in the identification of 123,760 beneficiaries with one or more of 4 ambulatory care-sensitive chronic conditions (diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and congestive heart failure) for whom these physicians served as the usual provider. Key independent variables of interest were physicians' practice capabilities, including communication with specialists, use of care managers, participation in quality and performance measurement, use of patient registries, and HIT use. The dependent variable was a summary measure of ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations for one or more of these 4 conditions. Higher provider-reported levels of communication between primary care and specialist physicians were associated with lower rates of potentially avoidable hospitalizations. While there was no significant main effect between HIT use and ACSC hospitalizations, the associations between interspecialty communication and ACSC hospitalizations were magnified in the presence of higher HIT use. For example, patients in practices with both the

  14. Pectus Excavatum and Pectus Carinatum: Associated Conditions, Family History, and Postoperative Patient Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Pinar; Cakiroglu, Aylin; Er, Aynur; Ozbakir, Hincal; Cinel, Ali Emin; Cangut, Busra; Iris, Merve; Canbaz, Berkay; Pıçak, Ebru; Yuksel, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    Pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC) are the most common chest wall deformities. In this study, we aimed to characterize how patients obtained information about these deformities, as well as patients' family history, associated medical problems, and postoperative satisfaction after the Nuss and Abramson procedures. This cross-sectional retrospective study included patients who were operated by a single surgeon between 2006 and 2013. Follow-up calls were made after approval of our institution's ethics committee. We reached 207 of the 336 PE patients (61.6%) and 73 of the 96 PC patients (76%). The majority of the patients were male (85% of the PE patients and 91.8% of the PC patients). The age of diagnosis of PE was 14.52±0.51 years and the age at the time of operation was 17.89±0.42 years; for PC patients, the corresponding ages were 15.23±0.55 years and 16.77±0.55 years, respectively. A total of 70% of the PE patients and 63.8% of the PC patients obtained information about pectus deformities through the Internet. In 27.1% of the PE patients with an associated anomaly, 57.1% (n=13) had scoliosis, while 41.1% of the PC patients with an associated anomaly had kyphosis (n=5). Postoperative satisfaction, as evaluated on a scale from 0 to 10, was 8.17±0.15 for PE patients and 8.37±0.26 for PC patients. The postoperative pain duration was 51.93±5.18 days for PE patients and 38.5±6.88 days for PC patients. In this study, we found that most patients with pectus deformities were male. The Internet was an important resource for patients to learn about their deformities. Family history and associated anomalies were identified as important aspects for consideration in the clinical setting. The patients reported high levels of postoperative satisfaction, and pain management was found to be one of the most important elements of postoperative care.

  15. Park availability and major depression in individuals with chronic conditions: Is there an association in urban India?

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, D.; Safraj, S; M. Tayyab; Shivashankar, R.; Patel, SA; Narayanan, G.; Ajay, VS; Ali, Mk; Narayan, KV; Tandon, N; Prabhakaran, D.

    2017-01-01

    Green space exposure has been positively correlated with better mental-health indicators in several high income countries, but has not been examined in low- and middle-income countries undergoing rapid urbanization. Building on a study of mental health in adults with a pre-existing chronic condition, we examined the association between park availability and major depression among 1208 adults surveyed in Delhi, India. Major depression was measured using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric ...

  16. Association between use of air-conditioning or fan and survival of elderly febrile patients: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, G; Tansarli, G S; Mavros, M N; Spiropoulos, T; Barbas, S G; Falagas, M E

    2013-09-01

    Elderly individuals are more susceptible to excess summer heat. We sought to examine whether the use of cooling systems (air-conditioning or fan) affected the clinical outcomes of elderly febrile patients. We prospectively followed elderly (≥ 75 years old) febrile patients requesting the medical services of the SOS Doctors (a network of physicians performing house-call visits) from July 10 to August 20, 2011. Patients who used cooling systems ("users") were compared with those who did not ("non-users") regarding mortality, clinical outcome of primary illness (improvement or deterioration), and emergency hospitalization. Prospectively collected data were available for 339 individual elderly febrile patients. "Users" had lower mortality (10 % vs. 19 %, p air-conditioning and fan regarding mortality or clinical improvement, but fan use was associated with more hospitalizations (37 % vs. 19 %, p conditions), the sole variable significantly associated with mortality was the non-use of cooling systems [odds ratio (OR): 2.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.06-4.50]. The use of air-conditioning or fan during hot summer periods appeared to be beneficial for elderly febrile patients living in a large city. Large prospective studies are warranted in order to provide further insight into potential individual and public health initiatives aiming to alleviate the impact of excess summer heat on the health of elderly patients.

  17. Safety conditions of steam boilers in companies associated with a professional risk administration company in Antioquia, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. Sepúlveda M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the safety conditions of steam boilers in companies associated with a professional risk administra-tion company in Antioquia, Colombia. To this end, their op-eration conditions shall be characterized, the associated risks identified, and their safety level assessed. Methodology:. a descriptive crosssectional study was carried out in twenty companies whose production processes involve boilers. A survey on the conditions for operation was applied on both the maintenance managers and the boilers’ operators in each company. A hazard risk assessment matrix was made as in-structed in the GTC-45 Colombian technical guide, and an assessment instrument was applied to determine the safety level for each boiler. Results: 70% of the assessed boilers obtained a low score (less than 65 points according to the scale, which has been validated by experts; the remaining boilers obtained an acceptable score (66 to 81 points. It was also found that 85% of the boilers had no operating instructions, and 60% of them did not have any kind of alarm. Conclusions: the stud-ied boilers had poor security conditions, mainly related to the absence of operation protocols, boiler operator training, and poor supervision by competent authorities

  18. Behavioural hyperventilation as a novel clinical condition associated with central sleep apnoea: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevernagie, Dirk; Mariman, An; Vandenbussche, Nele; Tobback, Els; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Delesie, Liesbeth; Janssen, Hennie; Vogelaers, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Central sleep apnoea (CSA) is a disorder characterised by repetitive episodes of decreased ventilation due to complete or partial reduction in the central neural outflow to the respiratory muscles. Hyperventilation plays a prime role in the pathogenesis of CSA. Chronic heart failure and dwelling at high altitude are classical conditions in which CSA is induced by hyperventilation. Hyperventilation syndrome (HVS) is a prevalent behavioural condition in which minute ventilation exceeds metabolic demands, resulting in haemodynamic and chemical changes that produce characteristic dysphoric symptoms. HVS is frequently caused by anxiety disorders and panic attacks. Until now, medical literature has focussed primarily on daytime symptoms of behavioural hyperventilation. It is currently unknown how this condition may affect sleep. Three cases are reported in which behavioural hyperventilation was associated with occurrence of significant central sleep apnoea, which was not present during normal tidal breathing in steady sleep. Therefore, behavioural hyperventilation should be added to the list of known clinical conditions associated with CSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nontronite (NAu-1) Structure Associated with Microbial Fe(III) Reduction in Various Redox Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, T.; Kim, S.; Kim, J.

    2011-12-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 respires the structural Fe(III) of smectite and promotes illite formation in O2-free environment (Kostka et al., 1996, Kim et al., 2004). Since S. oneidensis is a facultative iron reducing bacterium, it is crucial to understand the structural changes induced by bio-reduction of structural Fe(III) in various redox conditions. Furthermore, the changes in cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bio-reduced nontronite upon the modification of mineral structure has not been extensively studied in terms of Fe-cycling. In this present study, we reported the evolution of nontronite structure at various time points in various redox conditions and corresponding CEC upon reduction and re-oxidation. S. oneidensis MR-1 was incubated in M1 medium with Na-lactate as the electron donor and Fe in nontronite (NAu-1) as the sole electron acceptor at pH 7 in anaerobic chamber for 3 hrs, 12 hrs, 1 day, 2 days, 4 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days. O2 gas bubbling was then applied to the sample at each time point for 24 hours for re-oxidation. The triplet samples at each time point for both reduction and re-oxidation experiments were prepared. The extent of Fe(III) reduction measured by 1,10-phenanthroline method (Stucki and Anderson, 1981) indicated that the structural Fe(III) was reduced up to 8.8% of total Fe(III) within 21 days. XRD data with various treatments such as air dried, glycolated and lithium-saturated showed that K-nontronite may be formed because no discrete 10-Å illite peak was observed in Li-saturated sample upon glycolation. The CEC increased from 747 meg/kg to 1145 meg/kg during Fe(III) reduction and decreased to 954 meg/kg upon re-oxidation, supporting the possible formation of K-nontronite. The direct observation by electron microscopy verified the structural changes in nontonite in various redox conditions. The long-term experiment for 6 months, is in progress in anaerobic chamber, and results will be discussed. Kim, J. W., Dong, H., Seabaugh

  20. Trends, productivity losses, and associated medical conditions among toxoplasmosis deaths in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000-2010. A matched case-control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Dreams, mnemonics, and tuning for criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, Barak A; Houghton, Conor J

    2013-12-01

    According to the tuning-for-criticality theory, the essential role of sleep is to protect the brain from super-critical behaviour. Here we argue that this protective role determines the content of dreams and any apparent relationship to the art of memory is secondary to this.

  2. Description of CBETA magnet tuning wire holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-07-19

    A non-­magnetic insert will be placed directly inside the permanent magnet blocks in every CBETA Halbach magnet in order to hold a set of iron “tuning wires”. These wires have various lengths around the perimeter of the aperture in order to cancel multipole field errors from the permanent magnet blocks.

  3. Tuning intermetallic electronic coupling in polyruthenium systems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A large number of polynuclear ruthenium complexes encompassing selective combinations of spacer (bridging ligand, BL) and ancillary (AL) functionalities have been designed. The extent of intermetallic electronic communication in mixed-valent states and the efficacy of the ligand frameworks towards the tuning of ...

  4. TUNING OF GAUSSIAN STOCHASTIC-CONTROL SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSCHUPPEN, JH

    1994-01-01

    A closed-loop system consisting of a control system and an adaptive controller will be called tuning for a specified control objective if the real system and the ideal system defined below achieve the same value for the control objective. The real system is the system consisting of the unknown

  5. Tuning controllers using the dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Youla parameterization of all stabilizing controllers and the dual Youla parameterization of all systems stabilized by a given controller in connection with tuning of controllers. In the uncertain case, it is shown that the use of the Youla parameteriza...

  6. The Yin and Yang of Tuning History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováky, György

    2017-01-01

    History as a subject area is facing increasing demands from the society to be more profitable and, sometimes, more conformist. The Tuning methodology, developed in cooperation with a large number of Universities worldwide, could offer a viable and sustainable way to take societal needs into account without compromising academic soundness.

  7. Fine-Tuning in a Design Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Foo Him; Toh, Pee Choon; Toh, Tin Lam

    2013-01-01

    Quek, Tay, Toh, Leong, and Dindyal (2011) proposed that a design-theory-practice troika should always be considered for a designed package to be acceptable to the research users who, in this case, are teachers and schools. This paper describes the fine-tuning to the MProSE problem-solving design made by the teachers in the school after first round…

  8. Does Face Inversion Change Spatial Frequency Tuning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenbockel, Verena; Fiset, Daniel; Chauvin, Alan; Blais, Caroline; Arguin, Martin; Tanaka, James W.; Bub, Daniel N.; Gosselin, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined spatial frequency (SF) tuning of upright and inverted face identification using an SF variant of the Bubbles technique (F. Gosselin & P. G. Schyns, 2001). In Experiment 1, they validated the SF Bubbles technique in a plaid detection task. In Experiments 2a-c, the SFs used for identifying upright and inverted inner facial…

  9. Iterative feedback tuning of wind turbine controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Solingen, E.; Mulders, S.P.; van Wingerden, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, wind turbine controllers are designed using first principles or linearized or identified models. The aim of this paper is to show that with an automated, online, and model-free tuning strategy, wind turbine control performance can be significantly increased. For this purpose,

  10. Photoacoustic sensing with micro-tuning forks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer, U.; Köhring, M.; Mordmüller, M.; Schade, W.

    2015-06-01

    Different modifications of quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) are discussed. An analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio for the generated photoacoustic signal gives hints for an optimized geometry of tuning fork and acoustic resonator. Furthermore, simultaneous or alternate photoacoustic and electrical driving is discussed, leading the way to new detection schemes that are capable of measuring changes in molecular relaxation dynamics.

  11. Long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders is associated with individual features and psychosocial work conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Silvestre da Silva-Junior

    Full Text Available Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD.The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385 included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD.All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models.Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the implementation of preventive

  12. Long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders is associated with individual features and psychosocial work conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, João Silvestre da; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2014-01-01

    Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD). The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385) included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions) and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD. All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models. Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the implementation of preventive actions and

  13. Varroa destructor and viruses association in honey bee colonies under different climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobino, Agostina; Molineri, Ana I; Pacini, Adriana; Fondevila, Norberto; Pietronave, Hernán; Rodríguez, Graciela; Palacio, Alejandra; Bulacio Cagnolo, Natalia; Orellano, Emanuel; Salto, César E; Signorini, Marcelo L; Merke, Julieta

    2016-06-01

    Honey bee colonies are threatened by multiple factors including complex interactions between environmental and diseases such as parasitic mites and viruses. We compared the presence of honeybee-pathogenic viruses and Varroa infestation rate in four apiaries: commercial colonies that received treatment against Varroa and non-treated colonies that did not received any treatment for the last 4 years located in temperate and subtropical climate. In addition, we evaluated the effect of climate and Varroa treatment on deformed wing virus (DWV) amounts. In both climates, DWV was the most prevalent virus, being the only present virus in subtropical colonies. Moreover, colonies from subtropical climate also showed reduced DWV amounts and lower Varroa infestation rates than colonies from temperate climate. Nevertheless, non-treated colonies in both climate conditions are able to survive several years. Environment appears as a key factor interacting with local bee populations and influencing colony survival beyond Varroa and virus presence. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Halitosis: a review of the etiologic factors and association with systemic conditions and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokeem, Sameer A

    2014-11-01

    Halitosis is a general term defined as an unpleasant or offensive odor emanating from the breath, arising from either oral or nonoral sources. Extraoral factors, such as ear-nose-throat conditions or gastrointestinal, respiratory, and systemic diseases, may also contribute to oral malodor. Although, halitosis has a multifactorial etiology, local factors play an important role in the majority of cases. Halitosis may lead to significant personal discomfort and social embarrassment. Assessment of halitosis can be performed using organoleptic measurements, sulfide monitoring, gas chromatography, microbial testing and chemical test strips. Management approaches are based on masking oral malodor, reducing the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), and mechanical and/or chemical treatment. This review aims to identify the etiology of oral halitosis, describe the methods available for assessment and differential diagnosis and introduce a variety of management strategies. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach for the improvement of overall health and for the management and prevention of halitosis is highlighted.

  15. Associations between ulnar nerve strain and accompanying conditions in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Kensuke; Horiuchi, Yukio; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Sato, Kazuki; Morita, Kozo; Horiuchi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Pathophysiology of cubital tunnel syndrome (CubTS) is still controversial. Ulnar nerve strain at the elbow was measured intraoperatively in 13 patients with CubTS before simple decompression. The patients were divided into three groups according to their accompanying conditions: compression/adhesion, idiopathic, and relaxation groups. The mean ulnar nerve strain was 43.5 ± 30.0%, 25.5 ± 14.8%, and 9.0 ± 5.0% in the compression/adhesion, idiopathic, and relaxation groups respectively. The mean ulnar nerve strains in patients with McGowan's classification grades I, II, and III were 18.0 ± 4.2%, 27.1 ± 22.7%, and 33.7 ± 24.7%, respectively. The Jonckheere-Terpstra test showed that there were significant reductions in the ulnar nerve strain among the first three groups, but not in the three groups according to McGowan's classification. Our results suggest that the pathophysiology, not disease severity, of CubTS may be explained at least in part by the presence of ulnar nerve strain.

  16. Obesity and Co-morbid Conditions Are Associated with Specific Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley H. Sanderlin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs in MCI, and midlife obesity increase the likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s disease. It is unknown whether obesity or related health conditions modify the risk of NPS or severity of cognitive impairment in MCI.Methods: One hundred and thirteen subjects with MCI were assessed near the time of MCI diagnosis. The sample was divided by BMI and related disorders, type-2 diabetes (T2D and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA to measure the relationship of these groups with NPS and severity of MCI. NPSs scores were evaluated based on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q and Geriatric Depression Scale, along with NPI-Q clusters. MCI-severity was estimated based on a composite z-score of neuropsychological tests.Results: Obese and overweight subjects represented 65% of the sample and were on average 7 years younger than normal weight subjects. The presence of obesity, T2D and OSA status modified the prevalence and severity of specific NPI-Q symptom clusters, specifically affective symptoms were more frequent across groups and severe in OB and T2D. Total NPS scores were higher for subjects with T2D and OSA although MCI-severity did not differ across groups.Conclusion: MCI subjects with obesity, T2D and OSA demonstrated a higher susceptibility to psychopathologic changes.

  17. Environmental Conditions Associated with Elevated Vibrio parahaemolyticus Concentrations in Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A Urquhart

    Full Text Available Reports from state health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that the annual number of reported human vibriosis cases in New England has increased in the past decade. Concurrently, there has been a shift in both the spatial distribution and seasonal detection of Vibrio spp. throughout the region based on limited monitoring data. To determine environmental factors that may underlie these emerging conditions, this study focuses on a long-term database of Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in oyster samples generated from data collected from the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire over a period of seven consecutive years. Oyster samples from two distinct sites were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus abundance, noting significant relationships with various biotic and abiotic factors measured during the same period of study. We developed a predictive modeling tool capable of estimating the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus presence in coastal New Hampshire oysters. Results show that the inclusion of chlorophyll a concentration to an empirical model otherwise employing only temperature and salinity variables, offers improved predictive capability for modeling the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus in the Great Bay Estuary.

  18. Weather and hydrographic conditions associated with coral bleaching: Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ned P.

    2001-12-01

    Thermograph, current-meter, and coastal-weather data from Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas, are used to investigate hydrographic and meteorological conditions preceding and during a bleaching event in August 1990. Shelf water temperatures recorded at three locations rise to just over 30 °C. Weather data provide estimates of local heating and cooling by insolation, net outgoing long-wave radiation, and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Weather data do not indicate a period of unusually clear skies during the days and weeks preceding the bleaching event. Rather, calculations suggest that low wind speeds during late July and early August reduced evaporative cooling. A tidal channel near the bleaching site provided a source of hyperpycnal 31 °C water that had been heated in the shallow waters of Great Bahama Bank. Current-meter data suggest an along-shelf transport of water from the mouth of the tidal channel to the bleaching site. A comparison of wind-stress and water-temperature data suggests that a downwelling pattern contributed to heating at the reef by flooding the shelf with warm surface water. Results suggest that heating at the reef was a combination of local warming, enhanced by reduced evaporation, and advective warming resulting from both an along-shelf transport of bank water and a landward across-shelf transport of warm surface water.

  19. The triply troubled teenager--chronic conditions associated with fewer protective factors and clustered risk behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Charlotte; Seidel, Carina; Tindberg, Ylva

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to measure protective factors and risk behaviour among adolescents with chronic conditions (CCs) and to evaluate the impact of protective factors on risk-taking. A population-based study of 7262 students aged 15 and 17 years old was performed in Sörmland, Sweden 2008 (response rate 82%). The questionnaire explored background factors, CCs, risk behaviours and protective factors. CCs were reported by 8%, while 58% had no health problems. Girls with CCs encompassed less individual protective factors, while boys with CCs tended to over-report all individual risk behaviours compared with healthy peers. Both boys and girls with CCs were more likely to report few protective factors and co-occurrence of risk behaviours. The adjOR for clustered health risk behaviours was 1.6 (1.0-2.5) in youths with CCs and ≥4 protective factors and 6.3 (3.6-10.9) in youths with CCs and 0-3 protective factors, as compared to healthy peers with ≥4 protective factors. Adolescents with CCs reported fewer protective factors and more risk behaviours than their healthy peers. The vulnerability of adolescents with CCs and few protective factors is important to acknowledge. Professionals should provide stronger protection for these adolescents, to prevent risky behaviour. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Internship Tasks Associated With CIF Icy Regolith Excavation and Volatile Capture Under Vacuum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Erik Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the surface and atmosphere of Mars is critical to current and future development of exploration systems. Dealing with the Martian regolith-the top layer of soil-remains a significant challenge, and much research is still needed. Addressing this need, the Cryogenics Test Lab and Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations Lab at NASA's Kennedy Space Center are partnering to develop an apparatus that utilizes simulated Martian regolith in an analogous atmospheric environment to gather data about how the material behaves when exposed to water vapor. Martian surface temperatures range from 128 K (-145 C) to 308 K (35 C), and the average pressure is approximately 4.5 Torr; which presents an environment where water can potentially exist in vapor, solid or liquid form. And based on prior Mars missions such as the Phoenix Lander, it is known that water-ice exists just below the surface. This test apparatus will attempt to recreate the conditions that contributed to the Martian ice deposits by exposing a sample to water vapor at low pressure and temperature; thereby forming ice inside the simulant via diffusion. From this, we can better understand the properties and behavior of the regolith, and have more knowledge concerning its ability to store water-and subsequently, how to dig up and extract that water-which will be crucial to sample gathering when the first manned Mars mission takes place.

  1. Evidence of molybdenum association with particulate organic matter under sulfidic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, T. W.; Chappaz, Anthony; Hoek, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    The geochemical behavior of molybdenum (Mo) in the oceans is closely linked to the presence of sulfide species in anoxic environments, where Fe availability may play a key role in the Mo scavenging. Here, we show that Mo(VI) is reduced in the presence of particulate organic matter (represented...... by sulfate-reducing bacteria). Molybdenum was immobilized at the surface of both living cells and dead/lysed cells, but not in cell-free control experiments. Experiments were carried out at four different Mo concentrations (0.1 to 2 mm) to yield cell-associated Mo precipitates with little or no Fe......, consisting of mainly Mo(IV)-sulfide compounds with molecular structures similar to Mo enzymes and to those found in natural euxinic sediments. Therefore, we propose that Mo removal in natural sulfidic waters can proceed via a non-Fe-assisted pathway that requires particulate organic matter (dead or living...

  2. Antagonistic activity of autosimbionts А. viridans, B. subtilis and their probiotic association to conditionally microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepansky D.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research the data on examination of antagonist qualities of bioassotiantes A. viridans and strain B. subtilis 3 towards pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic microflora isolated from oropharynx and nasopharynx of children who were in contact with patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (MBT + are submitted. The expressed antagonist activity of autosimbionts A. viridans towards pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic microflora was shown. Common antagonist activity of A. viridans (k N 1 and B. subtilis 3 towards diverse strains of test-cultures is 1,5-2 times higher, than separate antagonist activity of A. viridans (k №1 and B. subtilis 3. Received research data showed the possibility of continuing work on development of probiotic associations, that contain representatives of normal microflora - bioassociants A. viridans and probiotic strains B. subtilis 3 with broadspectrum of antagonistic activity in relation to the various groups of bacterium.

  3. Observational study of generation conditions of substorm-associated low-frequency AKR emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsson

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available It has lately been shown that low-frequency bursts of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR are nearly exclusively associated with substorm expansion phases. Here we study low-frequency AKR using Polar PWI and Interball POLRAD instruments to constrain its possible generation mechanisms. We find that there are more low-frequency AKR emission events during wintertime and equinoxes than during summertime. The dot-AKR emission radial distance range coincides well with the region where the deepest density cavities are seen statistically during Kp>2. We suggest that the dot-AKR emissions originate in the deepest density cavities during substorm onsets. The mechanism for generating dot-AKR is possibly strong Alfvén waves entering the cavity from the magnetosphere and changing their character to more inertial, which causes the Alfvén wave associated parallel electric field to increase. This field may locally accelerate electrons inside the cavity enough to produce low-frequency AKR emission. We use Interball IESP low-frequency wave data to verify that in about half of the cases the dot-AKR is accompanied by low-frequency wave activity containing a magnetic component, i.e. probably inertial Alfvén waves. Because of the observational geometry, this result is consistent with the idea that inertial Alfvén waves might always be present in the source region when dot-AKR is generated. The paper illustrates once more the importance of radio emissions as a powerful remote diagnostic tool of auroral processes, which is not only relevant for the Earth's magnetosphere but may be relevant in the future in studying extrasolar planets.

  4. Observational study of generation conditions of substorm-associated low-frequency AKR emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsson

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available It has lately been shown that low-frequency bursts of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR are nearly exclusively associated with substorm expansion phases. Here we study low-frequency AKR using Polar PWI and Interball POLRAD instruments to constrain its possible generation mechanisms. We find that there are more low-frequency AKR emission events during wintertime and equinoxes than during summertime. The dot-AKR emission radial distance range coincides well with the region where the deepest density cavities are seen statistically during Kp>2. We suggest that the dot-AKR emissions originate in the deepest density cavities during substorm onsets. The mechanism for generating dot-AKR is possibly strong Alfvén waves entering the cavity from the magnetosphere and changing their character to more inertial, which causes the Alfvén wave associated parallel electric field to increase. This field may locally accelerate electrons inside the cavity enough to produce low-frequency AKR emission. We use Interball IESP low-frequency wave data to verify that in about half of the cases the dot-AKR is accompanied by low-frequency wave activity containing a magnetic component, i.e. probably inertial Alfvén waves. Because of the observational geometry, this result is consistent with the idea that inertial Alfvén waves might always be present in the source region when dot-AKR is generated. The paper illustrates once more the importance of radio emissions as a powerful remote diagnostic tool of auroral processes, which is not only relevant for the Earth's magnetosphere but may be relevant in the future in studying extrasolar planets.

  5. Characterizing meteorological and hydrologic conditions associated with shallow landslide initiation in the coastal bluffs of the Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashland, Francis; Fiore, Alex R.; Reilly, Pamela A.; De Graff, Jerome V.; Shakoor, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Meteorological and hydrologic conditions associated with shallow landslide initiation in the coastal bluffs of the Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey remain undocumented despite a history of damaging slope movement extending back to at least 1903. This study applies an empirical approach to quantify the rainfall conditions leading to shallow landsliding based on analysis of overlapping historical precipitation data and records of landslide occurrence, and uses continuous monitoring to quantify antecedent soil moisture and hydrologic response to rainfall events at two failure-prone hillslopes. Analysis of historical rainfall data reveals that both extended duration and cumulative rainfall amounts are critical characteristics of many landslide-inducing storms, and is consistent with current monitoring results that show notable increases in shallow soil moisture and pore-water pressure in continuous rainfall periods. Monitoring results show that shallow groundwater levels and soil moisture increase from annual lows in late summer-early fall to annual highs in late winter-early spring, and historical data indicate that shallow landslides occur most commonly from tropical cyclones in late summer through fall and nor’easters in spring. Based on this seasonality, we derived two provisional rainfall thresholds using a limited dataset of documented landslides and rainfall conditions for each season and storm type. A lower threshold for landslide initiation in spring corresponds with high antecedent moisture conditions, and higher rainfall amounts are required to induce shallow landslides during the drier soil moisture conditions in late summer-early fall.

  6. Behaviorally-inhibited temperament is associated with severity of PTSD symptoms and faster eyeblink conditioning in veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E.; VanMeenen, Kirsten M.; McAuley, J. Devin; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C. H.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies have sometimes demonstrated facilitated acquisition of classically-conditioned responses and/or resistance to extinction in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unclear whether these behaviors are acquired as a result of PTSD or exposure to trauma, or reflect pre-existing risk factors that confer vulnerability for PTSD. Here, we examined classical eyeblink conditioning and extinction in veterans self-assessed for current PTSD symptoms, exposure to combat, and the personality trait of behavioral inhibition (BI), a risk factor for PTSD. 128 veterans were recruited (mean age 51.2 years; 13.3% female); 126 completed self-assessment, with 25.4% reporting a history of exposure to combat and 30.9% reporting severe, current PTSD symptoms (PTSS). PTSD symptom severity was correlated with current BI (R2=0.497) and PTSS status could be predicted based on current BI and combat history (80.2% correct classification). A subset of the veterans (n=87) also completed eyeblink conditioning. Among veterans without PTSS, childhood BI was associated with faster acquisition; veterans with PTSS showed delayed extinction, under some conditions. These data demonstrate a relationship between current BI and PTSS, and suggest that the facilitated conditioning sometimes observed in PTSD patients may partially reflect personality traits such as childhood BI that pre-date and contribute to vulnerability for PTSD. PMID:21790343

  7. Oral lesions and conditions associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection in 300 south Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, K; Reddy, B V; Kumarasamy, N; Solomon, S; Viswanathan, R; Johnson, N W

    2000-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a major health problem in India. The National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) of India reports a seropositivity of 25.03 per thousand for the whole country, as of October 1999. In spite of this high prevalence there are very few reports of oral lesions and conditions in Indian HIV/AIDS patients, which are important in early diagnosis and management of these patients. The present report describes the oral lesions in 300 HIV positive symptomatic patients presenting to us at RAGAS-YRG CARE, a non-governmental organisation in Chennai, South India, over a period of 9 months in 1998. Lesions were diagnosed on clinical appearance using international criteria. Of the 300 patients 89% had acquired the infection through heterosexual contact. There were 205 males and 95 females, aged from 7 months to 72 years. Forty-seven percent of the patients were in the age group 21-30 years. CD4 counts were ascertained for 105 patients, 64 (62%) had CD4 counts oral lesion when examined. Gingivitis (47%) and pseudomembranous candidiasis (33%) were the most common oral lesions. The other oral lesions seen were oral mucosal pigmentation (23%), erythematous candidiasis (14%), periodontitis (9%), angular cheilitis (8%), oral ulcers (3%), oral hairy leukoplakia (3%), hyperplastic candidiasis (1%), oral submucous fibrosis (2%) and one case of leukoplakia. Oral lesions occur commonly in HIV infection. A comprehensive oral examination may not only suggest HIV disease but may also be useful in monitoring the disease progression. This is a cost-effective procedure, which may be useful in screening large populations in developing countries like India.

  8. Does unbalanced gender composition in the workplace influence the association between psychosocial working conditions and sickness absence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Robin; Lidwall, Ulrik; Holmgren, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that bad psychosocial working conditions contribute to sick-leave. Some theorists argue that skewed gender composition can be one of the factors contributing to bad psychosocial working conditions. We examine whether workplace gender composition has an effect on the association between job strain and sick-leave. Associations were assessed using a case-control study with Swedish data collected in 2008 (n=5595). Results indicated that there was an association between high strain jobs and sickness absence among both women (Adj. OR 2.04, CI95% 1.62-2.57) and men (2.24, 1.67-3.01). Furthermore, both women (2.87, 1.34-6.26) and men (2.53, 1.74-3.69) in male-dominated workplaces had the highest risk for sickness absence due to high strain jobs. Male-dominated workplaces were, in general adverse for both women and men. The results indicated that a minority position strengthens job strain for women while it weakens the association for men. Using modern gender theories, we could argue that some of these results might be explained by the general use of masculinity as the social norm in the labor market. However, findings from this study need to be validated by further research.

  9. Associations of self-reported periodontal disease with metabolic syndrome and number of self-reported chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensley, Lillian; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Ossiander, Eric M

    2011-05-01

    Increasing evidence supports associations between periodontal disease and various chronic conditions. Possible explanations include chronic inflammatory processes, shared pathogens, and shared risk factors, such as smoking and psychosocial stress. The objective of this study was to assess associations of periodontal disease with metabolic syndrome and number of chronic diseases. As part of the Washington Adult Health Survey, a household-based cross-sectional study conducted during 2006-2007 among adults aged 25 years or older in Washington State, we collected questionnaire data, blood samples, and anthropometric measures. We used these data to assess associations of periodontal disease with metabolic syndrome and the number of self-reported chronic diseases, controlling for age, sex, annual household income, smoking, and psychosocial stress. We used both complete case and multiple imputation Poisson regression analyses. In the adjusted complete case analysis, 1.4 times as many chronic conditions were found among people with severe compared with no periodontal disease, and people with severe periodontal disease were 1.5 times more likely to have metabolic syndrome than people with no periodontal disease. Arthritis and liver disease were individually associated with severe periodontal disease. Results of the multiple imputation analyses were similar. These results suggest that people with severe periodontal disease are likely to have more chronic diseases and are more likely to have metabolic syndrome compared with people without periodontal disease. Research about the effectiveness of periodontal treatment to help prevent or control chronic diseases is needed.

  10. The risk of polyomavirus BK-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT is associated with myeloablative conditioning, CMV viremia and severe acute GVHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, J; Hamad, N; Michelis, F V; Shanavas, M; Kuruvilla, J; Gupta, V; Lipton, J H; Messner, H A; Seftel, M; Kim, D D

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common complication after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HSCT). Several risk factors have been suggested including BU-containing myeloablative conditioning, unrelated donors and GVHD, but these have not been consistently reported. We conducted a retrospective study including 339 allo-HSCT recipients between 2009 and 2012. Of 339 patients, 79 (23.3%) developed HC with 2-year cumulative incidence of 24.0% (95% confidence interval, 19.4-28.9). The median onset time was 45 days (range, 16-430) after allo-HSCT. Sixty-two patients (84%) out of 74 evaluated for urine BK virus PCR testing showed a positive result (mean 2.0 × 10(10) copies of DNA per mL). In univariate analysis, myeloablative conditioning, HLA-mismatched donor, CMV viremia and acute GVHD (aGVHD) grade 3-4 were significantly associated with the risk of HC. Multivariate analysis confirmed all associating factors identified in univariate analysis except for HLA-mismatched donor: myeloablative conditioning (hazard ratio (HR) 2.63, P=0.003), CMV viremia (HR 1.88, P=0.014) and aGVHD grade 3-4 (HR 1.71, P=0.029). HC did not affect OS or non-relapse mortality. Symptomatic HC is a frequent complication following allo-HSCT, with a 2-year cumulative incidence of 24.0%. Three clinical factors associated with HC were identified including myeloablative conditioning, CMV viremia and severe aGVHD.

  11. Magnetoelectric tuning of the inverse spin-Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, José M.; Gómez, Javier E.; Avilés-Félix, Luis; Butera, Alejandro

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate in this article that the magnetoelectric (ME) mechanism can be exploited to control the spin current emitted in a spin pumping experiment using moderate electric fields. Spin currents were generated at the interface of a ferromagnet/metal bilayer by driving the system to the ferromagnetic resonance condition at X-Band (9.78 GHz) with an incident power of 200 mW. The ME structure, a thin (20 nm) FePt film grown on top of a polished 011-cut single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) slab, was prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. The PMN-PT/FePt was operated in the L-T mode (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized). This hybrid composite showed a large ME coefficient of 140 Oe cm/kV, allowing to easily tune the ferromagnetic resonance condition with electric field strengths below 4 kV/cm. A thin layer of Pt (10 nm) was grown on top of the PMN-PT/FePt structure and was used to generate and detect the spin current by taking advantage of its large spin-orbit coupling that produces a measurable signal via the inverse spin-Hall effect. These results proved an alternative way to tune the magnetic field at which the spin current is established and consequently the inverse spin-Hall effect signal, which can promote advances in hybrid spintronic devices.

  12. Dependence of NMR noise line shapes on tuning, matching, and transmission line properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendet-Taicher, Eli; Müller, Norbert; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-02-01

    The tuning and matching conditions of rf circuits, as well as the properties of the transmission lines connecting these to the preamplifier, have direct consequences for NMR probe sensitivity and as for the optimum delivery of rf power to the sample. In addition, tuning/matching conditions influence radiation damping effects, which manifest themselves as fast signal flip-back and line broadening effects, and can lead to concentration-dependent frequency shifts. Previous studies have also shown that the appearance of spin-noise and absorbed circuit noise signals heavily depended on tuning settings. Consequently, all these phenomena are linked together. The mutual connections and interdependences of these effects are highlighted and reviewed here.

  13. Conditional Reduction of Predation Risk Associated with a Facultative Symbiont in an Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Polin

    Full Text Available Symbionts are widespread among eukaryotes and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of their hosts are meaningful. Most insects harbour obligate and facultative symbiotic bacteria that can influence their phenotype. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an astounding symbiotic-mediated phenotype has been recently observed: when infected with the symbiotic bacteria Rickettsiella viridis, young red aphid larvae become greener at adulthood and even darker green when co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa. As body colour affects the susceptibility towards natural enemies in aphids, the influence of the colour change due to these facultative symbionts on the host survival in presence of predators was tested. Our results suggested that the Rickettsiella viridis infection may impact positively host survival by reducing predation risk. Due to results from uninfected aphids (i.e., more green ones attacked, the main assumption is that this symbiotic infection would deter the predatory ladybird feeding by reducing the profitability of their hosts rather than decreasing host detection through body colour change. Aphids co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa were, however, more exposed to predation suggesting an ecological cost associated with multiple infections. The underlying mechanisms and ecological consequences of these symbiotic effects are discussed.

  14. The Role of Food Peptides in Lipid Metabolism during Dyslipidemia and Associated Health Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibuike C. Udenigwe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal and human clinical studies have demonstrated the ability of dietary food proteins to modulate endogenous lipid levels during abnormal lipid metabolism (dyslipidemia. Considering the susceptibility of proteins to gastric proteolytic activities, the hypolipidemic functions of proteins are possibly due, in part, to their peptide fragments. Food-derived peptides may directly modulate abnormal lipid metabolism in cell cultures and animal models of dyslipidemia. The peptides are thought to act by perturbing intestinal absorption of dietary cholesterol and enterohepatic bile acid circulation, and by inhibiting lipogenic enzymatic activities and gene expression in hepatocytes and adipocytes. Recent evidence indicates that the hypolipidemic activities of some peptides are due to activation of hepatic lipogenic transcription factors. However, detailed molecular mechanisms and structural requirements of peptides for these activities are yet to be elucidated. As hypolipidemic peptides can be released during enzymatic food processing, future studies can explore the prospects of combating metabolic syndrome and associated complications using peptide-rich functional food and nutraceutical products.

  15. UV reflectance is associated with environmental conditions in Palaearctic Pieris napi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, David; Pecháček, Pavel; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno; Kleisner, Karel

    2016-12-12

    The subject of our investigation was the visual features of wing color with special focus on the UV reflectance in the green-veined white butterfly (Pieris napi). Previous studies had concluded that UV reflectance on dorsal wing surfaces is found only in the female P. napi. Based on UV sensitive photography, we analyzed a correlation between 12 geographic and environmental factors and UV reflectance patterns on 3 patches on the forewings of 407 P. napi specimens from the Palaearctic region. Results had shown that females significantly differ from males: they exhibit a 25% higher UV reflectance. To investigate whether and how UV reflectance levels on the forewings and hindwings of both sexes are influenced by the environment, we performed a principal component analysis (PCA) with several environmental variables. For several variables (in particular, latitude and longitude, mean annual temperature and precipitation, and temperature annual range and altitude), the generalized linear model (GLM) model revealed a significant correlation in both sexes. This suggests a link between UV reflectance levels and the environment and distribution of P. napi. We found that stronger UV reflectance is associated with generally more hostile environments and concluded that large-scale environmental factors influence the UV reflectance on the forewings of both male and female green-veined white butterflies. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. A review of clinical conditions in pet rabbits associated with their teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, F M

    1995-09-30

    Pet rabbits are frequently treated by veterinary surgeons but most of the literature is based on diseases encountered in laboratory or commercial rabbits. Many pet rabbits suffer from dental abnormalities and 40 clinical cases of diseases associated with teeth problems are reviewed. The clinical and radiological examination of the oral cavity of conscious and anaesthetised rabbits is described and the treatment of dental disorders is discussed. Post mortem studies of 20 of the skulls revealed bone of poor quality. Deformed teeth with little or no enamel were found during clinical examination and post mortem. The poor quality of the teeth and bone was not related to malocclusion. Distorted growth of the crowns led to lacerations to the tongue or inside the cheek, causing anorexia, weight loss and problems with grooming. Distorted growth of the roots resulted in penetration of the weakened bones of the maxillae, mandibles and orbits. Osteomyelitis, abscess formation or infections of the lacrimal duct or nasal cavity were a result of this disease process. The cause of the defective teeth and poor bone quality was not determined but preventative measures are proposed.

  17. Robust quantitative trait association tests in the parent-offspring triad design: conditional likelihood-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-Y; Tai, J J

    2009-03-01

    Association studies, based on either population data or familial data, have been widely applied to mapping of genes underlying complex diseases. In family-based association studies, using case-parent triad families, the popularly used transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) was proposed for avoidance of spurious association results caused by other confounders such as population stratification. Originally, the TDT was developed for analysis of binary disease data. Extending it to allow for quantitative trait analysis of complex diseases and for robust analysis of binary diseases against the uncertainty of mode of inheritance has been thoroughly discussed. Nevertheless, studies on robust analysis of quantitative traits for complex diseases received relatively less attention. In this paper, we use parent-offspring triad families to demonstrate the feasibility of establishment of the robust candidate-gene association tests for quantitative traits. We first introduce the score statistics from the conditional likelihoods based on parent-offspring triad data under various genetic models. By applying two existing robust procedures we then construct the robust association tests for analysis of quantitative traits. Simulations are conducted to evaluate empirical type I error rates and powers of the proposed robust tests. The results show that these robust association tests do exhibit robustness against the effect of misspecification of the underlying genetic model on testing powers.

  18. Can phlorotannins purified extracts constitute a novel pharmacological alternative for microbial infections with associated inflammatory conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciliana Lopes

    the biological properties demonstrated herein, phlorotannins extracts may also be preferred, in order to avoid side effects and allergic reactions commonly associated with synthetic drugs.

  19. Intensive care unit physicians: socio-demographic profile, working conditions and factors associated with burnout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Dalton de Souza; Tironi, Márcia Oliveira Staffa; Nascimento Sobrinho, Carlito Lopes; Neves, Flávia Serra; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Almeida, Alessandro de Moura; Souza, Ygor Gomes de; Teles, Marcelo Santos; Feitosa, Ana Isabela Ramos; Mota, Igor Carlos Cunha; França, Juliana; Borges, Lorena Guimarães; Lordão, Manuela Barreto de Jesus; Trindade, Maria Valverde; Almeida, Mônica Bastos Trindade; Marques Filho, Edson Silva; Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges Dos

    2008-09-01

    Burnout syndrome is a response to prolonged occupational stress that involves three main dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. The aim of this study was to describe socio-demographic characteristics of intensive care unit physicians and evaluate factors associated to the presence of Burnout syndrome in this population. A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate physicians who have worked in intensive care units from the city of Salvador (Bahia - Brazil) with a minimum weekly workload of 12-hour. An anonymous self-reported questionnaire was used and it was divided into two parts: socio-demographic characteristics and evaluation of Burnout syndrome through Maslach Burnout Inventory. We studied 297 physicians and most of them were male (70%). The mean age and time of graduation were, respectively, 34.2 and 9 years. High levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment were found in respectively, 47.5%, 24.6% and 28.3%. The prevalence of Burnout syndrome, considered as high level in at least one dimension, was of 63.3%. This prevalence was statistically lower in physicians specialized on intensive care, those with more than nine years of graduation and those who intend to continue working in intensive care units for more than 10 years. The prevalence was higher in the doctors with more than 24-hours of uninterrupted intensive care work per week. Burnout syndrome was common among intensive care physicians and it was more frequent in the youngest doctors, with higher workload and without specialization on intensive care.

  20. Increased risk of genetic and epigenetic instability in human embryonic stem cells associated with specific culture conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibon Garitaonandia

    Full Text Available The self-renewal and differentiation capacities of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs make them a promising source of material for cell transplantation therapy, drug development, and studies of cellular differentiation and development. However, the large numbers of cells necessary for many of these applications require extensive expansion of hPSC cultures, a process that has been associated with genetic and epigenetic alterations. We have performed a combinatorial study on both hESCs and hiPSCs to compare the effects of enzymatic vs. mechanical passaging, and feeder-free vs. mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder substrate, on the genetic and epigenetic stability and the phenotypic characteristics of hPSCs. In extensive experiments involving over 100 continuous passages, we observed that both enzymatic passaging and feeder-free culture were associated with genetic instability, higher rates of cell proliferation, and persistence of OCT4/POU5F1-positive cells in teratomas, with enzymatic passaging having the stronger effect. In all combinations of culture conditions except for mechanical passaging on feeder layers, we noted recurrent deletions in the genomic region containing the tumor suppressor gene TP53, which was associated with decreased mRNA expression of TP53, as well as alterations in the expression of several downstream genes consistent with a decrease in the activity of the TP53 pathway. Among the hESC cultures, we also observed culture-associated variations in global gene expression and DNA methylation. The effects of enzymatic passaging and feeder-free conditions were also observed in hiPSC cultures. Our results highlight the need for careful assessment of the effects of culture conditions on cells intended for clinical therapies.

  1. β-cell serotonin production is associated with female sex, old age, and diabetes-free condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Gi; Moon, Joon Ho; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Juok; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Lee, Junguee; Kang, Shinae; Park, Joon Seong; Kim, Hail

    2017-11-25

    Serotonin is known to be present in pancreatic β-cells and to play several physiological roles, including insulin secretion, β-cell proliferation, and paracrine inhibition of α-cells. However, the serotonin production of different cell lines and islets has not been compared based on age, sex, and diabetes related conditions. Here, we directly compared the serotonin concentrations in βTC and MIN6 cell lines, as well as in islets from mice using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The average serotonin concentration was 5-10 ng/mg protein in the islets of male and non-pregnant female mice. The serotonin level was higher in females than males at 8 weeks, although there was no difference at 1 year. Furthermore, we observed serotonin by immunofluorescence staining in the pancreatic tissues of mice and human. Serotonin was detected by immunofluorescence staining in a portion of β-cells from islets of old female mice, but not of male or young female mice. A similar pattern was observed in human pancreas as well. In humans, serotonin production in β-cells was associated with a diabetes-free condition. Thus, serotonin production in β-cells was associated with old age, female sex, and diabetes-free condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biochemical changes associated with in vivo RbcL fragmentation by reactive oxygen species under chilling-light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, R; Ishida, H; Kobayashi, M; Makino, A; Mae, T

    2010-01-01

    During physiological stress, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) degradation is accelerated, which is considered to be one of the key factors responsible for photosynthetic decline. A recent study has shown that the large subunit (RbcL) of Rubisco is directly fragmented by hydroxyl radicals in Cucumis sativus leaves under chilling-light conditions. In the present study, we investigated biochemical aspects associated with this in vivo RbcL fragmentation by reactive oxygen species. RbcL fragmentation was observed in C. sativus and Phaseolus vulgaris, but not in Solanum lycopersicum, Glycine max, Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, Spinacia oleracea or Arabidopsis thaliana. In C. sativus and P. vulgaris, RbcL fragmentation followed the fragmentation of PsaB, while in the other species, PsaB fragmentation did not occur. In C. sativus and P. vulgaris, the activities of antioxidant enzymes decreased dramatically under chilling-light conditions, and the proportion of uncarbamylated Rubisco increased. These data suggest that in vivo RbcL fragmentation under chilling-light conditions is associated with a combination of events, namely, inactivation of antioxidant enzymes, destruction of photosystem I and an increase of uncarbamylated Rubisco, which can produce hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton reaction at the catalytic site of RbcL.

  3. Dupuytren's Disease: Predicting Factors and Associated Conditions. A Single Center Questionnaire-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Ilaria; Fraschini, Gianfranco; Banfi, Arianna E

    2017-11-01

    Conflicting studies link several conditions and risk factors to Dupuytren's disease (DD). A questionnaire-based case-control study was set to investigate associated conditions and clinical features of DD in a sample of Italian patients. The main purpose was the identification of predicting factors for: DD development; involvement of multiple rays; involvement of both hands; development of radial DD; development of recurrences and extensions. A self-administered questionnaire was used to investigate medical and drug histories, working and life habits, DD clinical features, familial history, recurrences and extensions. Binary logistic regression, Mann Whitney U-test and Fisher's exact test were used for the statistical analysis. A role in DD development was found for male sex, cigarette smoking, diabetes and heavy manual work. The development of aggressive DD has been linked to age, male sex, high alcohol intake, dyslipidemias and positive familial history. Further studies might explain the dual relationship between ischemic heart disease and DD. According to our results, the questionnaire used for this study revealed to be an easy-handling instrument to analyze the conditions associated to DD. Nevertheless, its use in further and larger studies is needed to confirm our results as well as the role of the questionnaire itself as investigation tool for clinical studies.

  4. Dupuytren’s Disease: Predicting Factors and Associated Conditions. A Single Center Questionnaire-Based CaseControl Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Morelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conflicting studies link several conditions and risk factors to Dupuytren’s disease (DD. A questionnaire-based case-control study was set to investigate associated conditions and clinical features of DD in a sample of Italian patients. The main purpose was the identification of predicting factors for: DD development; involvement of multiple rays; involvement of both hands; development of radial DD; development of recurrences and extensions. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to investigate medical and drug histories, working and life habits, DD clinical features, familial history, recurrences and extensions. Binary logistic regression, Mann Whitney U-test and Fisher’s exact test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: A role in DD development was found for male sex, cigarette smoking, diabetes and heavy manual work. The development of aggressive DD has been linked to age, male sex, high alcohol intake, dyslipidemias and positive familial history. Conclusion: Further studies might explain the dual relationship between ischemic heart disease and DD. According to our results, the questionnaire used for this study revealed to be an easy-handling instrument to analyze the conditions associated to DD. Nevertheless, its use in further and larger studies is needed to confirm our results as well as the role of the questionnaire itself as investigation tool for clinical studies.

  5. Acute exposure to selenium disrupts associative conditioning and long-term memory recall in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christina M; Elmore, Christopher; Hladun, Kristen R; Trumble, John T; Smith, Brian H

    2016-05-01

    A plethora of toxic compounds - including pesticides, heavy metals, and metalloids - have been detected in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and their colonies. One such compound is selenium, which bees are exposed to by consuming nectar and pollen from flowers grown in contaminated areas. Though selenium is lethal at high concentrations, sublethal exposure may also impair honey bees' ability to function normally. Examining the effect of selenium exposure on learning and memory provides a sensitive assay with which to identify sublethal effects on honey bee health and behavior. To determine whether sublethal selenium exposure causes learning and memory deficits, we used proboscis extension reflex conditioning coupled with recall tests 30min and 24h post-conditioning. We exposed forager honey bees to a single sublethal dose of selenium, and 3h later we used an olfactory conditioning assay to train the bees to discriminate between one odor associated with sucrose-reinforcement and a second unreinforced odor. Following conditioning we tested short- and long-term recall of the task. Acute exposure to as little as 1.8ng of an inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenate) before conditioning caused a reduction in behavioral performance during conditioning. And, exposure to 18ng of either an inorganic form (sodium selenate) or an organic form (methylseleno-l-cysteine) of selenium caused a reduction in the bees' performance during the long-term recall test. These concentrations of selenium are lower than those found in the nectar of plants grown in selenium-contaminated soil, indicating that even low-grade selenium toxicity produces significant learning and memory impairments. This may reduce foragers' ability to effectively gather resources for the colony or nurse bees' ability to care for and maintain a healthy colony. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. [Hierarchical modeling of determinants associated with hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Espírito Santo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazó, Rosalva Grobério; Frauches, Diana de Oliveira; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi; Cade, Nágela Valadão

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between health services organization and hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic variables in municipalities (counties) in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. In an ecological study, data were collected from the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) on the following variables: hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions, city size, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and health services organization. Rates were analyzed by Poisson regression with robust variance. Models were adjusted for the total population and age group. The explanatory variables were ordered hierarchically. Hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions were associated with illiteracy rate (RR: 1.08-1.17), proportion of beds in the SUS (RR: 1.09-1.12), urbanization (RR: 1.02-1.03), proportion of blacks (RR: 0.97-0.98), and health insurance coverage (RR: 0.97-0.98). Some determinants of hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions involve patterns of health services use and lie outside the scope of primary care.

  7. Tuning magnetism by biaxial strain in native ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chengxiao; Wang, Yuanxu; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Guangbiao; Wang, Chao; Yang, Gui

    2015-07-07

    Magnetic ZnO, one of the most important diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), has attracted great scientific interest because of its possible technological applications in optomagnetic devices. Magnetism in this material is usually delicately tuned by the doping level, dislocations, and local structures. The rational control of magnetism in ZnO is a highly attractive approach for practical applications. Here, the tuning effect of biaxial strain on the d(0) magnetism of native imperfect ZnO is demonstrated through first-principles calculations. Our calculation results show that strain conditions have little effect on the defect formation energy of Zn and O vacancies in ZnO, but they do affect the magnetism significantly. For a cation vacancy, increasing the compressive strain will obviously decrease its magnetic moment, while tensile strain cannot change the moment, which remains constant at 2 μB. For a singly charged anion vacancy, however, the dependence of the magnetic moment on strain is opposite to that of the Zn vacancy. Furthermore, the ferromagnetic state is always present, irrespective of the strain type, for ZnO with two zinc vacancies, 2VZns. A large tensile strain is favorable for improving the Curie temperature and realizing room temperature ferromagnetism for ZnO-based native semiconductors. For ZnO with two singly charged oxygen vacancies, 2Vs, no ferromagnetic ordering can be observed. Our work points the way to the rational design of materials beyond ZnO with novel non-intrinsic functionality by simply tuning the strain in a thin film form.

  8. [Correlation and association of income and educational level with health and nutritional conditions among the morbidly obese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula Dos Santos; Da Silveira, Erika Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate the relationship between income and educational level and health and nutritional conditions among the morbidly obese. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 79 patients at first appointment, with Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2 and age ≥ 20 years. The following data was collected: demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle, biochemical and food intake data. Average BMI was 48.3 ± 6.9 kg/m2. There was a significant negative correlation between education level and the variables of weight (r = -0.234) and BMI (r = -0.364) and per capita family income with daily consumption of leafy vegetables (r = -0.263). After multivariate analysis, higher per capita family income was associated with the absence of heart disease (PR: 0.51, CI95%: 0.32-0.81), higher daily consumption of leafy vegetables (PR: 1.79, CI95%: 1.16-2.75) and candy (PR: 3.12, CI95%: 1.21-8.04). In the morbidly obese, per capita household income was associated with absence of heart disease and higher consumption of leafy vegetables and candy. On the other hand, education level was not associated with health and nutrition conditions.

  9. Narrative meaning making is associated with sudden gains in psychotherapy clients' mental health under routine clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jonathan M; Harmeling, Luke H; Walder-Biesanz, Ilana

    2013-10-01

    The present study had two aims: (a) to replicate previous findings regarding the characteristics of sudden gains (SGs) in psychotherapy under routine clinical conditions and (b) to examine whether clients' narrative meaning-making processes were associated with SGs in mental health. 54 psychotherapy clients completed the Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change (Pinsof et al., 2009) and wrote private narratives prior to beginning treatment and between every session for 12 assessment points over the course of psychotherapy for a variety of presenting problems. Clients' narratives were coded using existing systems (Adler, 2012; A. M. Hayes, Feldman, & Goldfried, 2006) to assess their content in eight themes: processing, avoidance, coherence, positive self, negative self, agency, hope, and hopelessness. The prevalence, magnitude, and timing of SGs in mental health observed in the present study were similar to those observed in prior research. Two narrative meaning-making processes-processing and coherence-were significantly associated with SGs in mental health. The present study significantly extends prior research on SGs, replicating the characteristics of these gains in routine clinical conditions with a measure of general functioning and identifying two narrative meaning-making processes that are associated with SGs in mental health.

  10. Self-Tuning Speed Regulator for CVC Induction Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, N.; Rasmussen, Henrik; Knudsen, Torben

    1994-01-01

    A self-tuning speed regulator for a current vector controlled induction motor drive has been designed.......A self-tuning speed regulator for a current vector controlled induction motor drive has been designed....

  11. Associations between weather conditions and clinical symptoms in patients with hip osteoarthritis: a 2-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorleijn, Desirée M J; Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Burdorf, Alex; Rozendaal, Rianne M; Verhaar, Jan A N; Bos, Pieter K; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study was to assess whether there is an association between ambient weather conditions and patients' clinical symptoms in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). The design was a cohort study with a 2-year follow-up and 3-monthly measurements and prospectively collected data on weather variables. The study population consisted of 222 primary care patients with hip OA. Weather variables included temperature, wind speed, total amount of sun hours, precipitation, barometric pressure, and relative humidity. The primary outcomes were severity of hip pain and hip disability as measured with the Western Ontario and McMasters University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function subscales. Associations between hip pain and hip disability and the weather variables were assessed using crude and multivariate adjusted linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measurements. On the day of questionnaire completion, mean relative humidity was associated with WOMAC pain (estimate 0.1; 95% confidence interval=0.0-0.2; P=.02). Relative humidity contributed weather variables were not associated with the WOMAC pain or function score. Our results support the general opinion of OA patients that barometric pressure and relative humidity influence perceived OA symptoms. However, the contribution of these weather variables (< or = 1%) to the severity of OA symptoms is not considered to be clinically relevant. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Continental-scale variation in seaweed host-associated bacterial communities is a function of host condition, not geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Campbell, Alexandra H; Zozaya Valdes, Enrique; Vergés, Adriana; Nielsen, Shaun; Wernberg, Thomas; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Bennett, Scott; Caporaso, J Gregory; Thomas, Torsten; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between hosts and associated microbial communities can fundamentally shape the development and ecology of 'holobionts', from humans to marine habitat-forming organisms such as seaweeds. In marine systems, planktonic microbial community structure is mainly driven by geography and related environmental factors, but the large-scale drivers of host-associated microbial communities are largely unknown. Using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing, we characterized 260 seaweed-associated bacterial and archaeal communities on the kelp Ecklonia radiata from three biogeographical provinces spanning 10° of latitude and 35° of longitude across the Australian continent. These phylogenetically and taxonomically diverse communities were more strongly and consistently associated with host condition than geographical location or environmental variables, and a 'core' microbial community characteristic of healthy kelps appears to be lost when hosts become stressed. Microbial communities on stressed individuals were more similar to each other among locations than those on healthy hosts. In contrast to biogeographical patterns of planktonic marine microbial communities, host traits emerge as critical determinants of associated microbial community structure of these holobionts, even at a continental scale. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Broadband planar multilayered absorbers tuned by VO2 phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Ji, Chunhui; Lu, Lulu; Li, Zhe; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Jun; Wu, Zhiming; Jiang, Yadong; Xu, Jimmy; Liu, Zhijun

    2017-08-01

    The metal-insulator transition makes vanadium dioxide an attractive material for developing reconfigurable optoelectronic components. Here we report on dynamically tunable broadband absorbers consisting of planar multilayered thin films. By thermally triggering the phase transition of vanadium dioxide, the effective impedance of multilayered structures is tuned in or out of the condition of impedance matching to free-space, leading to switchable broadband absorptions. Two types of absorbers are designed and demonstrated by using either the insulating or metallic state of vanadium dioxide at the impedance matched condition. The planar multilayered absorbers exhibit tunable absorption bands over the wavelength ranges of 5-9.3 μm and 3.9-8.2 μm, respectively. A large modulation depth up to 88% is measured. The demonstrated broadband absorbance tunability is of potential interest for reconfigurable bolometric sensing, camouflaging, and modulation of mid-infrared lights.

  14. Tuning Fano resonance by plasmonic core-shell nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoning; Liu, Xuan; Zhou, Jing

    2018-01-01

    The scattering property of core-shell subwavelength structure is analyzed. It is found that this structure could generate Fano resonance when its aspect ratio η approaches zero or one. The specific conditions of forming Fano resonance for η → 0 and η → 1 are derived. Based on these conditions, we propose to generate tunable Fano resonance using the nanostructure with dielectric-core and graphene-shell. The resonance wavelength can be tuned by changing the chemical potential of graphene. Besides, the structure made of anisotropic dielectric and plasmonic materials is also proposed to adjust the Fano resonance, which could adjust the resonance wavelength in wider spectrum than traditional core-shell structure.

  15. Gait characteristics under different walking conditions: Association with the presence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Erik; Perkisas, Stany; Verhoeven, Veronique; Beauchet, Olivier; Remmen, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Background Gait characteristics measured at usual pace may allow profiling in patients with cognitive problems. The influence of age, gender, leg length, modified speed or dual tasking is unclear. Methods Cross-sectional analysis was performed on a data registry containing demographic, physical and spatial-temporal gait parameters recorded in five walking conditions with a GAITRite® electronic carpet in community-dwelling older persons with memory complaints. Four cognitive stages were studied: cognitively healthy individuals, mild cognitive impaired patients, mild dementia patients and advanced dementia patients. Results The association between spatial-temporal gait characteristics and cognitive stages was the most prominent: in the entire study population using gait speed, steps per meter (translation for mean step length), swing time variability, normalised gait speed (corrected for leg length) and normalised steps per meter at all five walking conditions; in the 50-to-70 years old participants applying step width at fast pace and steps per meter at usual pace; in the 70-to-80 years old persons using gait speed and normalised gait speed at usual pace, fast pace, animal walk and counting walk or steps per meter and normalised steps per meter at all five walking conditions; in over-80 years old participants using gait speed, normalised gait speed, steps per meter and normalised steps per meter at fast pace and animal dual-task walking. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender predicted in two compiled models the presence of dementia or cognitive impairment with acceptable accuracy in persons with memory complaints. Conclusion Gait parameters in multiple walking conditions adjusted for age, gender and leg length showed a significant association with cognitive impairment. This study suggested that multifactorial gait analysis could be more informative than using gait analysis with only one test or one variable. Using this type of gait analysis

  16. Gait characteristics under different walking conditions: Association with the presence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie De Cock

    Full Text Available Gait characteristics measured at usual pace may allow profiling in patients with cognitive problems. The influence of age, gender, leg length, modified speed or dual tasking is unclear.Cross-sectional analysis was performed on a data registry containing demographic, physical and spatial-temporal gait parameters recorded in five walking conditions with a GAITRite® electronic carpet in community-dwelling older persons with memory complaints. Four cognitive stages were studied: cognitively healthy individuals, mild cognitive impaired patients, mild dementia patients and advanced dementia patients.The association between spatial-temporal gait characteristics and cognitive stages was the most prominent: in the entire study population using gait speed, steps per meter (translation for mean step length, swing time variability, normalised gait speed (corrected for leg length and normalised steps per meter at all five walking conditions; in the 50-to-70 years old participants applying step width at fast pace and steps per meter at usual pace; in the 70-to-80 years old persons using gait speed and normalised gait speed at usual pace, fast pace, animal walk and counting walk or steps per meter and normalised steps per meter at all five walking conditions; in over-80 years old participants using gait speed, normalised gait speed, steps per meter and normalised steps per meter at fast pace and animal dual-task walking. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender predicted in two compiled models the presence of dementia or cognitive impairment with acceptable accuracy in persons with memory complaints.Gait parameters in multiple walking conditions adjusted for age, gender and leg length showed a significant association with cognitive impairment. This study suggested that multifactorial gait analysis could be more informative than using gait analysis with only one test or one variable. Using this type of gait analysis in clinical practice

  17. Gait characteristics under different walking conditions: Association with the presence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Anne-Marie; Fransen, Erik; Perkisas, Stany; Verhoeven, Veronique; Beauchet, Olivier; Remmen, Roy; Vandewoude, Maurits

    2017-01-01

    Gait characteristics measured at usual pace may allow profiling in patients with cognitive problems. The influence of age, gender, leg length, modified speed or dual tasking is unclear. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on a data registry containing demographic, physical and spatial-temporal gait parameters recorded in five walking conditions with a GAITRite® electronic carpet in community-dwelling older persons with memory complaints. Four cognitive stages were studied: cognitively healthy individuals, mild cognitive impaired patients, mild dementia patients and advanced dementia patients. The association between spatial-temporal gait characteristics and cognitive stages was the most prominent: in the entire study population using gait speed, steps per meter (translation for mean step length), swing time variability, normalised gait speed (corrected for leg length) and normalised steps per meter at all five walking conditions; in the 50-to-70 years old participants applying step width at fast pace and steps per meter at usual pace; in the 70-to-80 years old persons using gait speed and normalised gait speed at usual pace, fast pace, animal walk and counting walk or steps per meter and normalised steps per meter at all five walking conditions; in over-80 years old participants using gait speed, normalised gait speed, steps per meter and normalised steps per meter at fast pace and animal dual-task walking. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender predicted in two compiled models the presence of dementia or cognitive impairment with acceptable accuracy in persons with memory complaints. Gait parameters in multiple walking conditions adjusted for age, gender and leg length showed a significant association with cognitive impairment. This study suggested that multifactorial gait analysis could be more informative than using gait analysis with only one test or one variable. Using this type of gait analysis in clinical practice could facilitate

  18. Medical conditions associated with the use of CT in children and young adults, Great Britain, 1995-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journy, Neige M; McHugh, Kieran; Harbron, Richard W; Pearce, Mark S; Berrington De Gonzalez, Amy

    2016-12-01

    To describe the medical conditions associated with the use of CT in children or young adults with no previous cancer diagnosis. Radiologist reports for scans performed in 1995-2008 in non-cancer patients less than 22 years of age were collected from the radiology information system in 44 hospitals of Great Britain. By semantic search, an automated procedure identified 185 medical conditions within the radiologist reports. Manual validation of a subsample by a paediatric radiologist showed a satisfactory performance of the automatic coding procedure. Medical information was extracted for 37,807 scans; 19.5% scans were performed in children less than 5 years old; 52.0% scans were performed in 2000 or after. Trauma, diseases of the nervous (mainly hydrocephalus) or the circulatory system were each mentioned in 25-30% of scans. Hydrocephalus was mentioned in 19% of all scans, 59% of scans repeated ≥5 times in a year, and was the most frequent condition in children less than 5 years of age. Congenital diseases/malformations, disorders of the musculoskeletal system/connective tissues and infectious or respiratory diseases were each mentioned in 5-10% of scans. Suspicionor diagnosis of benign or malignant tumour was identified in 5% of scans. This study describes the medical conditions that likely underlie the use of CT in children in Great Britain. It shows that patients with hydrocephalus may receive high cumulative radiation exposures from CT in early life, i.e. at ages when they are most sensitive to radiation. Advances in knowledge: The majority of scans were unrelated to cancer suspicion. Repeated scans over time were mainly associated with the management of hydrocephalus.

  19. Conditional recall and the frequency effect in the serial recall task: an examination of item-to-item associativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leonie M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-11-01

    The frequency effect in short-term serial recall is influenced by the composition of lists. In pure lists, a robust advantage in the recall of high-frequency (HF) words is observed, yet in alternating mixed lists, HF and low-frequency (LF) words are recalled equally well. It has been argued that the preexisting associations between all list items determine a single, global level of supportive activation that assists item recall. Preexisting associations between items are assumed to be a function of language co-occurrence; HF-HF associations are high, LF-LF associations are low, and mixed associations are intermediate in activation strength. This account, however, is based on results when alternating lists with equal numbers of HF and LF words were used. It is possible that directional association between adjacent list items is responsible for the recall patterns reported. In the present experiment, the recall of three forms of mixed lists-those with equal numbers of HF and LF items and pure lists-was examined to test the extent to which item-to-item associations are present in serial recall. Furthermore, conditional probabilities were used to examine more closely the evidence for a contribution, since correct-in-position scoring may mask recall that is dependent on the recall of prior items. The results suggest that an item-to-item effect is clearly present for early but not late list items, and they implicate an additional factor, perhaps the availability of resources at output, in the recall of late list items.

  20. Posicionamiento de la National Strength and Conditioning Association-Spain. Entrenamiento con electroestimulación de cuerpo completo

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, A.J.; Martín, J; Benito, P.J.; I. Gonzalo-Martínez; Chulvi-Medrano, I.; D. García-López

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo fue establecer, a partir de una revisión sistemática sobre la metodología del entrenamiento y los efectos sobre el organismo de la electroestimulación de cuerpo completo (en inglés, whole body electromyostimulation [WB-EMS]), el posicionamiento de la National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA)-Spain al respecto. Se buscaron en PubMed, Web of Science, Physiotherapy Evidence Database y Google Académico estudios que aplicasen WB-EMS en miembro superior e in...

  1. New aspects of osteoporosis: Bone mineral content (BMC) measurement in osteoporosis associated with drugs, arthritis, and related conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-02-01

    Sensitive, non-invasive measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) provide the means to identify and characterize, prior to the development of symptoms, osteoporosis associated with drugs, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and immobilization. Moreover, BMC can be used to effectively screen populations at risk for the development of osteoporosis and longitudinal studies in individual patients can be used to guide effective anti-osteopenia therapy. This review will briefly detail recent BMC measurements in osteoporosis due to drugs, arthritis and related conditions.

  2. Tuning of light-graphene interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    — Graphene opens up for novel optoelectronic applications thanks to its high carrier mobility, ultra-large absorption bandwidth, and extremely fast material response. In particular, the opportunity to control optoelectronic properties through Fermi-level tuning enables electrooptical modulation......, optical-optical switching, and other optoelectronics applications. Except for the statistic gating and chemical doping, the Fermi level of graphene can also be optically tuned. With the aid of external optical pumping, electrons can be excited in the substrate, then move to the graphene layer, leading...... to the electrical doping in graphene. In this talk, I will firstly discuss how the graphene property changes when applying the optical pumping with different incident power. Then I will discuss graphene-silicon microring devices with having a high modulation depth and with a relatively low bias voltage. Finally, I...

  3. I Tune, You Tube, We Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shida, R. Y.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The website YouTube was created in 2005 and has rapidly become one ofthe most popular entertainment websites on the internet. It is riding the online video wave today like few other online companies and is currently more popular than the video sections of either Yahoo or Google. iTunes, a digital media application created by Apple in 2001, where one can download and play music and videos, has had a similar success. There is little doubt that they both represent important communication channels in a world heavily influenced by online media, especially among teenagers and young adults. As science communicators we can use this direct route to a younger audience to our advantage. This article aims to give a taste of these applications with a fewselected examples demonstrating that both YouTube and iTunes are excellent tools to teach and inspire the general public.

  4. I Tune, You Tube, We Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, R. Y.; Gater, W.

    2007-10-01

    The website YouTube was created in 2005 and has rapidly become one of the most popular entertainment websites on the internet. It is riding the online video wave today like few other online companies and is currently more popular than the video sections of either Yahoo or Google. iTunes, a digital media application created by Apple in 2001, where one can download and play music and videos, has had a similar success. There is little doubt that they both represent important communication channels in a world heavily influenced by online media, especially among teenagers and young adults. As science communicators we can use this direct route to a younger audience to our advantage. This article aims to give a taste of these applications with a few selected examples demonstrating that both YouTube and iTunes are excellent tools to teach and inspire the general public.

  5. Analysis and Design of Tuned Turbo Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Koller, Christian; Kliewer, Joerg; Vatta, Francesca; Zigangirov, Kamil S; Costello, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    It has been widely observed that there exists a fundamental trade-off between the minimum distance properties and the iterative decoding convergence behavior of turbo-like codes. While capacity achieving code ensembles typically are asymptotically bad in the sense that their minimum distance does not grow linearly with block length, and they therefore exhibit an error floor at moderate-to-high signal to noise ratios, asymptotically good codes usually converge further away from channel capacity. In this paper, we introduce the concept of tuned turbo codes, a family of asymptotically good hybrid concatenated code ensembles, where minimum distance growth rates, convergence thresholds, and code rates can be traded-off using two tuning parameters, {\\lambda} and {\\mu}. By decreasing {\\lambda}, the asymptotic minimum distance growth rate is reduced for the sake of improved iterative decoding convergence behavior, while increasing {\\lambda} raises the growth rate at the expense of worse convergence behavior, and thus...

  6. Adaptive tuning of elasto-plastic damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Riess; Krenk, Steen

    2007-01-01

    Hysteretic dampers are frequency independent, and thereby otentially effective for several structural vibration modes, provided that the inherent amplitude dependence can be controlled. An adaptive tuning procedure is proposed, aiming at elimination of the amplitude dependence by adjusting...... the damper parameter(s) with respect to the magnitude of the damper motion. The procedure is demonstrated in terms of the bilinear elasto-plastic damper model, and optimality corresponds to maximum modal damping. A parametric solution for the damping ratio is obtained by a two-component system reduction...... technique, and maximization leads to an amplitude dependent expression for the optimal yield level. The amplitude is predicted from the most recent extremum of the damper response, and simultaneously used to adjust the yield level. Numerical examples demonstrate that the adaptive tuning procedure succeeds...

  7. Laser Tuning in van der Waals Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Fadi; Li, Guo; Liang, Yufeng; Ji, Xu; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Zhaojun; Huang, Feng

    2018-01-31

    The great progress that optoelectronic technologies have achieved in van der Waals crystals promises the development of next-generation two-dimensional (2D) integrated optoelectronic systems (IOSs). Here, relying on the anomalous avoidance of pump-light absorption, the harvest of extremely strong Raman scattering, and the achievement of polarization inheritance by the designed optical geometry, we realized laser wavelength tuning with ultrahigh precision (0.01 nm/25 K) in layered MoS 2 and WS 2 by adjusting the temperature. Our results offer a potential approach for 2D laser tuning, while also building a substantial theoretical foundation, which might be of use in developing future wavelength-division-multiplexing technology in 2D IOSs.

  8. Information tuning of populations of neurons in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kukjin; Shapley, Robert M; Sompolinsky, Haim

    2004-04-14

    Neurons in macaque primary visual cortex (V1) show a diversity of orientation tuning properties, exhibiting a broad distribution of tuning width, baseline activity, peak response, and circular variance (CV). Here, we studied how the different tuning features affect the performance of these cells in discriminating between stimuli with different orientations. Previous studies of the orientation discrimination power of neurons in V1 focused on resolving two nearby orientations close to the psychophysical threshold of orientation discrimination. Here, we developed a theoretical framework, the information tuning curve, that measures the discrimination power of cells as a function of the orientation difference, deltatheta, of the two stimuli. This tuning curve also represents the mutual information between the neuronal responses and the stimulus orientation. We studied theoretically the dependence of the information tuning curve on the orientation tuning width, baseline, and peak responses. Of main interest is the finding that narrow orientation tuning is not necessarily optimal for all angular discrimination tasks. Instead, the optimal tuning width depends linearly on deltatheta. We applied our theory to study the discrimination performance of a population of 490 neurons in macaque V1. We found that a significant fraction of the neuronal population exhibits favorable tuning properties for large deltatheta. We also studied how the discrimination capability of neurons is distributed and compared several other measures of the orientation tuning such as CV with Chernoff distances for normalized tuning curves.

  9. Singly resonant cw OPO with simple wavelength tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Markku; Peltola, Jari; Persijn, Stefan; Harren, Frans J M; Halonen, Lauri

    2008-07-21

    A singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (cw OPO) is described. The OPO contains no intracavity etalon, which makes its wavelength tuning simple and straightforward, including only temperature tuning of the nonlinear crystal and wavelength tuning of the pump laser. The OPO provides watt-level output in the mid-infrared region and operates reliably without mode hops for several hours.

  10. Increased skin conductance responses and neural activity during fear conditioning are associated with a repressive coping style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eKlucken

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of individual differences in coping styles in response to fear conditioning is an important issue for a better understanding of the etiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. It has been assumed that an avoidant (repressive coping style is characterized by increased emotion regulation efforts in context of fearful stimuli as compared to a more vigilant coping style. However, no study so far has investigated the neural correlates of fear conditioning of repressors and sensitizers.In the present fMRI study, 76 participants were classified as repressors or as sensitizers and were exposed to a fear conditioning paradigm, in which the CS+ predicted electrical stimulation, while another neutral stimulus (CS- did not. In addition, skin conductance responses (SCRs were measured continuously.As the main findings, we found increased neural activations in repressors as compared to sensitizers in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex during fear conditioning. In addition, elevated activity to the CS+ in amygdala, insula, occipital, and orbitofrontal cortex as well as conditioned SCRs were found in repressors.The present results demonstrate increased neural activations in structures linked to emotion down-regulation mechanisms like the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which may reflect the increased coping effort in repressors. At the same time, repressors showed increased activations in arousal and evaluation-associated structures like the amygdala, the occipital cortex, and the orbitofrontal cortex, which is also mirrored in increased SCRs. The present results support recent assumptions about a two-process model of repression postulating a fast vigilant response to fearful stimuli, but also a second emotion down-regulating process.

  11. Reorganization of the bacterial and archaeal populations associated with organic loading conditions in a thermophilic anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tomoyuki; Haruta, Shin; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hanajima, Dai; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Atsushi; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    Organic loading conditions are an important factor influencing reactor performances in methanogenic bioreactors. Yet the underlying microbiological basis of the process stability, deterioration, and recovery remains to be understood. Here, structural responses of the bacterial and archaeal populations to the change of organic loading conditions in a thermophilic anaerobic digester were investigated by process analyses and 16S rRNA gene-based molecular approaches. The biogas was produced stably without the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at low organic loading rates (OLRs) in the beginning of reactor operation. Increasing OLR in stages disrupted the stable reactor performance, and high OLR conditions continued the deteriorated performance with slight biogas production and high accumulation of VFAs. Thereafter, the gradual decrease of OLR resulted in the recovery from the deterioration, giving rise to the stable performance again. The stable performances before and after the high OLR conditions conducted were associated with compositionally similar but not identical methanogenic consortia. The bacterial and archaeal populations were synchronously changed at both the transient phases toward the deteriorated performance and in recovery process, during which the dynamic shift of aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens including the recently identified Methanomassiliicoccus might contribute to the maintenance of the methanogenic activity. The distinctive bacterial population with a high predominance of Methanobacterium formicicum as archaeal member was found for the deteriorated performance. The results in this study indicate the coordinated reorganization of the bacterial and archaeal populations in response to functional states induced by the change of organic loading conditions in the anaerobic digester. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma equol concentration is not associated with breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions among women in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Charlotte; Ray, Roberta M; Li, Wenjin; Lin, Ming-Gang; Gao, Dao Li; Shannon, Jackilen; Stalsberg, Helge; Porter, Peggy L; Frankenfeld, Cara L; Wähälä, Kristiina; Thomas, David B; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-08-01

    Equol (a bacterial metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein) is produced by 30% to 50% of humans and may be associated with health outcomes. We hypothesized that plasma equol would be inversely associated with risks of fibrocystic breast conditions (FBC) and breast cancer (BC). Plasma from women in a breast self-examination trial in Shanghai with BC (n=269) or FBC (n=443), and age-matched controls (n=1027) was analyzed for isoflavones. Equol was grouped into categories (equol:daidzein ratio was grouped into tertiles. Where available, non-cancerous tissue (NCT) adjacent to the carcinomas from women with BC were classified as non-proliferative or proliferative (n=130 and 172, respectively). The lesions from women with FBC were similarly classified (n=99 and 92, respectively). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated across equol categories and tertiles of log10 equol:daidzein ratio. Equol categories were not associated with FBC or BC (P>.05). For log10 equol:daidzein, compared to controls there were positive associations in the mid tertile for proliferative FBC (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.08-3.93), BC with proliferative NCT (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.37-6.35), and all BC regardless of histology (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.43-3.95). However, trends in ORs with increasing plasma equol values or equol:daidzein ratios were not observed (P>.05). The results of this study do not provide evidence that equol plays a role in the etiology of these breast conditions. However, further work is needed to confirm or refute this conclusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PubMed search strategies for the identification of etiologic associations between hypothalamic-pituitary disorders and other medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldi, Federica; Grottoli, Silvia; Arvat, Emanuela; Mattioli, Stefano; Ghigo, Ezio; Gori, Davide

    2013-12-01

    Biomedical literature has enormously grown in the last decades and become broadly available through online databases. Ad-hoc search methods, created on the basis of research field and goals, are required to enhance the quality of searching. Aim of this study was to formulate efficient, evidence-based PubMed search strategies to retrieve articles assessing etiologic associations between a condition of interest and hypothalamic-pituitary disorders (HPD). Based on expert knowledge, 17 MeSH (Medical Subjects Headings) and 79 free terms related to HPD were identified to search PubMed. Using random samples of abstracts retrieved by each term, we estimated the proportion of articles containing pertinent information and formulated two strings (one more specific, one more sensitive) for the detection of articles focusing on the etiology of HPD, that were then applied to retrieve articles identifying possible etiologic associations between HPD and three diseases (malaria, LHON and celiac disease) considered not associated to HPD, and define the number of abstracts needed to read (NNR) to find one potentially pertinent article. We propose two strings: one sensitive string derived from the combination of articles providing the largest literature coverage in the field and one specific including combined terms retrieving ≥40% of potentially pertinent articles. NNR were 2.1 and 1.6 for malaria, 3.36 and 2.29 for celiac disease, 2.8 and 2.2 for LHON, respectively. For the first time, two reliable, readily applicable strings are proposed for the retrieval of medical literature assessing putative etiologic associations between HPD and other medical conditions of interest.

  15. Parameterizing loop fusion for automated empirical tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y; Yi, Q; Kennedy, K; Quinlan, D; Vuduc, R

    2005-12-15

    Traditional compilers are limited in their ability to optimize applications for different architectures because statically modeling the effect of specific optimizations on different hardware implementations is difficult. Recent research has been addressing this issue through the use of empirical tuning, which uses trial executions to determine the optimization parameters that are most effective on a particular hardware platform. In this paper, we investigate empirical tuning of loop fusion, an important transformation for optimizing a significant class of real-world applications. In spite of its usefulness, fusion has attracted little attention from previous empirical tuning research, partially because it is much harder to configure than transformations like loop blocking and unrolling. This paper presents novel compiler techniques that extend conventional fusion algorithms to parameterize their output when optimizing a computation, thus allowing the compiler to formulate the entire configuration space for loop fusion using a sequence of integer parameters. The compiler can then employ an external empirical search engine to find the optimal operating point within the space of legal fusion configurations and generate the final optimized code using a simple code transformation system. We have implemented our approach within our compiler infrastructure and conducted preliminary experiments using a simple empirical search strategy. Our results convey new insights on the interaction of loop fusion with limited hardware resources, such as available registers, while confirming conventional wisdom about the effectiveness of loop fusion in improving application performance.

  16. Defending The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Stenger, Victor J

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, I published a popular-level book, The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed for Us. It investigated a common claim found in contemporary religious literature that the parameters of physics and cosmology are so delicately balanced, so "fine-tuned," that any slight change and life in the universe would have been impossible. I concluded that while the precise form of life we find on Earth would not exist with slight changes in these parameters, some form of life could have evolved over a parameter range that is not infinitesimal, as often claimed. Postdoctoral fellow Luke Barnes has written a lengthy, highly technical review [arXiv:1112.4647] of the scientific literature on the fine-tuning problem. I have no significant disagreement with that literature and no prominent physicist or cosmologist has disputed my basic conclusions. Barnes does not invalidate these conclusions and misunderstands and misrepresents much of what is in the book.

  17. Recreation Embedded State Tuning for Optimal Readiness and Effectiveness (RESTORE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-01-01

    Physiological self-regulation training is a behavioral medicine intervention that has demonstrated capability to improve psychophysiological coping responses to stressful experiences and to foster optimal behavioral and cognitive performance. Once developed, these psychophysiological skills require regular practice for maintenance. A concomitant benefit of these physiologically monitored practice sessions is the opportunity to track crew psychophysiological responses to the challenges of the practice task in order to detect shifts in adaptability that may foretell performance degradation. Long-duration missions will include crew recreation periods that will afford physiological self-regulation training opportunities. However, to promote adherence to the regimen, the practice experience that occupies their recreation time must be perceived by the crew as engaging and entertaining throughout repeated reinforcement sessions on long-duration missions. NASA biocybernetic technologies and publications have developed a closed-loop concept that involves adjusting or modulating (cybernetic, for governing) a person's task environment based upon a comparison of that person's physiological responses (bio-) with a training or performance criterion. This approach affords the opportunity to deliver physiological self-regulation training in an entertaining and motivating fashion and can also be employed to create a conditioned association between effective performance state and task execution behaviors, while enabling tracking of individuals psychophysiological status over time in the context of an interactive task challenge. This paper describes the aerospace spin-off technologies in this training application area as well as the current spin-back application of the technologies to long-duration missions - the Recreation Embedded State Tuning for Optimal Readiness and Effectiveness (RESTORE) concept. The RESTORE technology is designed to provide a physiological self

  18. A PID de-tuned method for multivariable systems, applied for HVAC plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A. B.

    2015-09-01

    A simple yet effective de-tuning of PID parameters for multivariable applications has been described. Although the method is felt to have wider application it is simulated in a 3-input/ 2-output building energy management system (BEMS) with known plant dynamics. The controller performances such as the sum output squared error and total energy consumption when the system is at steady state conditions are studied. This tuning methodology can also be extended to reduce the number of PID controllers as well as the control inputs for specified output references that are necessary for effective results, i.e. with good regulation performances being maintained.

  19. Periostin associates with Notch1 precursor to maintain Notch1 expression under a stress condition in mouse cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Tanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Matricellular proteins, including periostin, modulate cell-matrix interactions and cell functions by acting outside of cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, however, we reported that periostin physically associates with the Notch1 precursor at its EGF repeats in the inside of cells. Moreover, by using the periodontal ligament of molar from periostin-deficient adult mice (Pn-/- molar PDL, which is a constitutively mechanically stressed tissue, we found that periostin maintained the site-1 cleaved 120-kDa transmembrane domain of Notch1 (N1 level without regulating Notch1 mRNA expression. N1 maintenance in vitro was also observed under such a stress condition as heat and H(2O(2 treatment in periostin overexpressed cells. Furthermore, we found that the expression of a downstream effector of Notch signaling, Bcl-xL was decreased in the Pn-/- molar PDL, and in the molar movement, cell death was enhanced in the pressure side of Pn-/- molar PDL. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility that periostin inhibits cell death through up-regulation of Bcl-xL expression by maintaining the Notch1 protein level under the stress condition, which is caused by its physical association with the Notch1 precursor.

  20. Increasing body condition score is positively associated interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Lauren; Mann, Sabine; Levine, Corri B; Cummings, Bethany P; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2015-10-15

    The accumulation of excess body fat is a growing problem in dogs as well as people. Contrary to prior understanding of adipose tissue, fat is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that promotes a chronic low-grade inflammatory state often characterized by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These have been implicated in several obesity-related disorders such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and neoplasia. The purpose of this study was to characterize fasting plasma cytokine concentrations in ninety-two healthy client-owned Labrador retriever dogs of various ages and body condition scores. The dogs were grouped according to body condition score (BCS) into three categories, lean, overweight and obese. The following cytokines and chemokines were evaluated; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1). Our results indicated that fasting plasma IL-6 and MCP-1 concentrations are associated with increasing BCS. This data suggest that certain markers of inflammation increase with increasing body condition score, and that dogs, similar to humans, may be fostering a chronic inflammatory state due to obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of war-related mental health conditions and association with displacement status in postwar Jaffna District, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Farah; Anderson, Mark; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Becknell, Kristin; Blanton, Curtis; Araki, Diane; Vithana, Eeshara Kottegoda

    2011-08-03

    Nearly 2.7 million individuals worldwide are internally displaced (seeking refuge in secure areas of their own country) annually by armed conflict. Although the psychological impact of war has been well documented, less is known about the mental health symptoms of forced displacement among internally displaced persons. To estimate the prevalence of the most common war-related mental health conditions, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression, and to assess the association between displacement status and these conditions in postwar Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. Between July and September 2009, a cross-sectional multistage cluster sample survey was conducted among 1517 Jaffna District households including 2 internally displaced persons camps. The response rate was 92% (1448 respondents, 1409 eligible respondents). Two percent of participants (n = 80) were currently displaced, 29.5% (n = 539) were recently resettled, and 68.5% (n = 790) were long-term residents. Bivariable analyses followed by multivariable logistic regression models were performed to determine the association between displacement status and mental health. Symptom criteria of PTSD, anxiety, and depression as measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. The overall prevalences of symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression were 7.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.1%-9.7%), 32.6% (95% CI, 28.5%-36.9%), and 22.2% (95% CI, 18.2%-26.5%), respectively. Currently displaced participants were more likely to report symptoms of PTSD (odds ratio [OR], 2.71; 95% CI, 1.28-5.73), anxiety (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.89-4.48), and depression (OR, 4.55; 95% CI, 2.47-8.39) compared with long-term residents. Recently resettled residents were more likely to report symptoms of PTSD (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.11-3.47) compared with long-term residents. However, displacement was no longer associated with mental health symptoms after controlling for trauma exposure

  2. Conditional entropy in variation-adjusted windows detects selection signatures associated with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Samuel K; Seweryn, Michal; Smith, Ryan M; Hartmann, Katherine; Wang, Danxin; Pietrzak, Maciej; Johnson, Andrew D; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    frequency(MAF); otherwise, ascertainment bias is a huge factor in all eQTL data sets. Relationships between Gene Ontology categories, positive selection and eQTL specificity were replicated with H|H in a single larger data set. Our measure, Adjusted Haplotype Conditional Entropy (H|H), was essential in generating all of the results above because it: 1) is a stronger overall predictor for eQTLs than comparable existing approaches, and 2) shows low sequential auto-correlation, overcoming problems with convergence of these conditional regression statistical models. Our new method, H|H, provides a consistently more robust signal associated with cis-eQTLs compared to existing methods. We interpret this to indicate that some cis-eQTLs are under positive selection compared to their surrounding genes. Conditional entropy indicative of a selective sweep is an especially strong predictor of eQTLs for genes in several biological processes of medical interest. Where conditional entropy is a weak or negative predictor of eQTLs, such as innate immune genes, this would be consistent with balancing selection acting on such eQTLs over long time periods. Different measures of selection may be needed for variant prioritization under other modes of evolutionary selection.

  3. A new pneumatic suspension system with independent stiffness and ride height tuning capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhihong; Khajepour, Amir; Cao, Dongpu; Ebrahimi, Babak; Guo, Konghui

    2012-12-01

    This paper introduces a new pneumatic spring for vehicle suspension systems, allowing independent tuning of stiffness and ride height according to different vehicle operating conditions and driver preferences. The proposed pneumatic spring comprises a double-acting pneumatic cylinder, two accumulators and a tuning subsystem. This paper presents a detailed description of the pneumatic spring and its working principle. The mathematical model is established based on principles of thermo and fluid dynamics. An experimental setup has been designed and fabricated for testing and evaluating the proposed pneumatic spring. The analytical and experimental results confirm the capability of the new pneumatic spring system for independent tuning of stiffness and ride height. The mathematical model is verified and the capabilities of the pneumatic spring are further proved. It is concluded that this new pneumatic spring provides a more flexible suspension design alternative for meeting various conflicting suspension requirements for ride comfort and performance.

  4. Tune and Chromaticity Control During Snapback and Ramp in 2015 LHC Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumann, Michaela; Lamont, Mike; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Todesco, Ezio; Wenninger, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Because of current redistribution on the superconducting cables, the harmonic components of the magnetic fields of the superconducting magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) show decay during the low field injection plateau. This results in tune and chromaticity variations for the beams. In the first few seconds of the ramp the original hysteresis state of the magnetic field is restored - the field snaps back. These fast dynamic field changes lead to strong tune and chromaticity excursions that, if not properly controlled, induce beam losses and potentially trigger a beam dump. A feed-forward system applies predicted corrections during the injection plateau and to the first part of the ramp to avoid violent changes of beam conditions. This paper discusses the snapback of tune and chromaticity as observed in 2015, as well as the control of beam parameters during the ramp. It also evaluates the quality of the applied feed-forward corrections and their reproducibility.

  5. Model-Based Self-Tuning Multiscale Method for Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dzu, K.; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    A multi-scale representation of the combustor dynamics was used to create a self-tuning, scalable controller to suppress multiple instability modes in a liquid-fueled aero engine-derived combustor operating at engine-like conditions. Its self-tuning features designed to handle the uncertainties in the combustor dynamics and time-delays are essential for control performance and robustness. The controller was implemented to modulate a high-frequency fuel valve with feedback from dynamic pressure sensors. This scalable algorithm suppressed pressure oscillations of different instability modes by as much as 90 percent without the peak-splitting effect. The self-tuning logic guided the adjustment of controller parameters and converged quickly toward phase-lock for optimal suppression of the instabilities. The forced-response characteristics of the control model compare well with those of the test rig on both the frequency-domain and the time-domain.

  6. Self-tuning bistable parametric feedback oscillator: Near-optimal amplitude maximization without model information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, David J.; Sutas, Andrius; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2017-01-01

    Theory predicts that parametrically excited oscillators, tuned to operate under resonant condition, are capable of large-amplitude oscillation useful in diverse applications, such as signal amplification, communication, and analog computation. However, due to amplitude saturation caused by nonlinearity, lack of robustness to model uncertainty, and limited sensitivity to parameter modulation, these oscillators require fine-tuning and strong modulation to generate robust large-amplitude oscillation. Here we present a principle of self-tuning parametric feedback excitation that alleviates the above-mentioned limitations. This is achieved using a minimalistic control implementation that performs (i) self-tuning (slow parameter adaptation) and (ii) feedback pumping (fast parameter modulation), without sophisticated signal processing past observations. The proposed approach provides near-optimal amplitude maximization without requiring model-based control computation, previously perceived inevitable to implement optimal control principles in practical application. Experimental implementation of the theory shows that the oscillator self-tunes itself near to the onset of dynamic bifurcation to achieve extreme sensitivity to small resonant parametric perturbations. As a result, it achieves large-amplitude oscillations by capitalizing on the effect of nonlinearity, despite substantial model uncertainties and strong unforeseen external perturbations. We envision the present finding to provide an effective and robust approach to parametric excitation when it comes to real-world application.

  7. Frequency-Splitting-Free Synchronous Tuning of Close-Coupling Self-Oscillating Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The synchronous tuning of the self-oscillating wireless power transfer (WPT in a close-coupling condition is studied in this paper. The Hamel locus is applied to predict the self-oscillating points in the WPT system. In order to make the system operate stably at the most efficient point, which is the middle resonant point when there are middle resonant and split frequency points caused by frequency-splitting, the receiver (RX rather than the transmitter (TX current is chosen as the self-oscillating feedback variable. The automatic delay compensation is put forward to eliminate the influence of the intrinsic delay on frequency tuning for changeable parameters. In addition, the automatic circuit parameter tuning based on the phase difference is proposed to realize the synchronous tuning of frequency and circuit parameters. The experiments verified that the synchronous tuning proposed in this paper is effective, fully automatic, and more robust than the previous self-oscillating WPT system which use the TX current as the feedback variable.

  8. Risk of recurrence following mesh associated incisional hernia repair using the retromuscular technique in patients with relevant medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodolski, Maciej; Papadakis, Marios; Zirngibl, Hubert; Ambe, Peter C

    2018-02-14

    Incisional hernia is a common problem following open abdominal surgery. Hernia repair in patients with relevant medical conditions is a topic of controversy due to the high risk of morbidity and recurrence. We investigated the risk of recurrence in patients with relevant medical conditions managed with a prosthesis in the retromuscular position. A retrospective review of the data of patients undergoing midline incisional hernia repair was performed. The outcomes of patients with relevant concomitant medical conditions defined as ASA scores >2 were compared with those of healthier patients with ASA scores ≤2. 115 patients including 41 with ASA >2 and 74 with ASA ≤2 were included for analysis. There were no statistically significant differences amongst both groups with regard to the size of the hernia defect, the duration of surgery (123.0 ± 71 vs. 149.0 ± 92 min, p = 0.73), the incidence of postoperative seroma (14.6% vs. 29.7%, p = 0.07), postoperative hematoma (12.2% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.10) and surgical site infection (14.6% vs. 8.1%, p = 0.27). No statistically significant difference was seen amongst both groups with respect to the rate of long-term recurrence after a median follow-up of 63.0 ± 36 months (12.2% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.32). Relevant medical condition alone cannot be seen as a contraindication for midline incisional hernia repair using the retromuscular technique. Rates of morbidity and long-term recurrence following mesh-associated closure are not difference from those of healthier patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  9. Ion association in concentrated NaCl brines from ambient to supercritical conditions: results from classical molecular dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collings Matthew D

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated NaCl brines are important geothermal fluids; chloride complexation of metals in such brines increases the solubility of minerals and plays a fundamental role in the genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits. There is experimental evidence that the molecular nature of the NaCl–water system changes over the pressure–temperature range of the Earth's crust. A transition of concentrated NaCl–H2O brines to a "hydrous molten salt" at high P and T has been argued to stabilize an aqueous fluid phase in the deep crust. In this work, we have done molecular dynamic simulations using classical potentials to determine the nature of concentrated (0.5–16 m NaCl–water mixtures under ambient (25°C, 1 bar, hydrothermal (325°C, 1 kbar and deep crustal (625°C, 15 kbar conditions. We used the well-established SPCE model for water together with the Smith and Dang Lennard-Jones potentials for the ions (J. Chem. Phys., 1994, 100, 3757. With increasing temperature at 1 kbar, the dielectric constant of water decreases to give extensive ion-association and the formation of polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters in addition to simple NaCl ion pairs. Large polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters resemble what would be expected in a hydrous NaCl melt in which water and NaCl were completely miscible. Although ion association decreases with pressure, temperatures of 625°C are not enough to overcome pressures of 15 kbar; consequently, there is still enhanced Na–Cl association in brines under deep crustal conditions.

  10. Fine-tuning tomato agronomic properties by computational genome redesign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Carrera

    Full Text Available Considering cells as biofactories, we aimed to optimize its internal processes by using the same engineering principles that large industries are implementing nowadays: lean manufacturing. We have applied reverse engineering computational methods to transcriptomic, metabolomic and phenomic data obtained from a collection of tomato recombinant inbreed lines to formulate a kinetic and constraint-based model that efficiently describes the cellular metabolism from expression of a minimal core of genes. Based on predicted metabolic profiles, a close association with agronomic and organoleptic properties of the ripe fruit was revealed with high statistical confidence. Inspired in a synthetic biology approach, the model was used for exploring the landscape of all possible local transcriptional changes with the aim of engineering tomato fruits with fine-tuned biotechnological properties. The method was validated by the ability of the proposed genomes, engineered for modified desired agronomic traits, to recapitulate experimental correlations between associated metabolites.

  11. Destruction and creation of spatial tuning by disinhibition: GABA(A) blockade of prefrontal cortical neurons engaged by working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S G; Williams, G V; Goldman-Rakic, P S

    2000-01-01

    Local circuit neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dPFC) of monkeys have been implicated in the cellular basis of working memory. To further elucidate the role of inhibition in spatial tuning, we iontophoresed bicuculline methiodide (BMI) onto functionally characterized neurons in the dPFC of monkeys performing an oculomotor delayed response task. This GABA(A) blockade revealed that both putative interneurons and pyramidal cells possess significant inhibitory tone in the awake, behaving monkey. In addition, BMI application primarily resulted in the loss of previously extant spatial tuning in both cell types through reduction of both isodirectional and cross-directional inhibition. This tuning loss occurred in both the sensorimotor and mnemonic phases of the task, although the delay activity of prefrontal neurons appeared to be particularly affected. Finally, application of BMI also created significant spatial tuning in a sizable minority of units that were untuned in the control condition. Visual field analysis of such tuning suggests that it is likely caused by the unmasking of normally suppressed spatially tuned excitatory input. These findings provide the first direct evidence of directional inhibitory modulation of pyramidal cell and interneuron firing in both the mnemonic and sensorimotor phases of the working memory process, and they implicate a further role for GABAergic interneurons in the construction of spatial tuning in prefrontal cortex.

  12. Association among Working Hours, Occupational Stress, and Presenteeism among Wage Workers: Results from the Second Korean Working Conditions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sung-Hwan; Leem, Jong-Han; Park, Shin-Goo; Heo, Yong-Seok; Lee, Bum-Joon; Moon, So-Hyun; Jung, Dal-Young; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2014-03-24

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the association between presenteeism and long working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress using representative national survey data on Korean workers. We analyzed data from the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS), which was conducted in 2010, in which a total of 6,220 wage workers were analyzed. The study population included the economically active population aged above 15 years, and living in the Republic of Korea. We used the chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression to test the statistical association between presenteeism and working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress. Approximately 19% of the workers experienced presenteeism during the previous 12 months. Women had higher rates of presenteeism than men. We found a statistically significant dose-response relationship between working hours and presenteeism. Shift workers had a slightly higher rate of presenteeism than non-shift workers, but the difference was not statistically significant. Occupational stress, such as high job demand, lack of rewards, and inadequate social support, had a significant association with presenteeism. The present study suggests that long working hours and occupational stress are significantly related to presenteeism.

  13. Urinary Microbiota Associated with Preterm Birth: Results from the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Ollberding

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (PTB is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Genitourinary infection is implicated in the initiation of spontaneous PTB; however, examination of the urinary microbiota in relation to preterm delivery using next-generation sequencing technologies is lacking. In a case-control study nested within the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE study, we examined associations between the urinary microbiota and PTB. A total of 49 cases (delivery < 37 weeks gestation and 48 controls (delivery ≥ 37 weeks gestation balanced on health insurance type were included in the present analysis. Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V4 region was performed on urine samples collected during the second trimester. We observed no difference in taxa richness, evenness, or community composition between cases and controls or for gestational age modeled as a continuous variable. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs classified to Prevotella, Sutterella, L. iners, Blautia, Kocuria, Lachnospiraceae, and S.marcescens were enriched among cases (FDR corrected p≤ 0.05. A urinary microbiota clustering partition dominated by S. marcescens was also associated with PTB (OR = 3.97, 95% CI: 1.19-13.24. These data suggest a limited role for the urinary microbiota in PTB when measured during the second trimester by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The enrichment among cases in several organisms previously reported to be associated with genitourinary pathology requires confirmation in future studies to rule out the potential for false positive findings.

  14. Self Tuning Techniques on PLC Background and Control Systems With Self Tuning Methods Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Koziorek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Process Control techniques have become standard functions of distributed control systems. Self tuning methods belong to Advanced Process Control (APC techniques. APC techniques contain software packages for advanced control based on mathematical methods. APC tools are designed to increase the process capacity, yield and quality of products. Most of nowadays digital industry regulators and PLCs are provided with some kind of the self tuning constant algorithm. Practical part of the paper deals with design of the control systems which contain self tuning regulator. A control system with PID Self Tuner by Siemens and with visualization in WinCC is designed. There is a description of an implementation of the PID regulator as a function block which can be also used for extension control functions. Control systems for relay and moment self tuner with visualizations in WinCC are also designed.

  15. Psychophysical tuning curves for frequences below 100 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Moore, Brian C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) were measured for sinusoidal signals with frequency /f_s / = 31.5, 40, 50, 63, and 80 Hz, using sinusoidal and narrowband-noise maskers. For the former, conditions were included where a pair of beating tones were added to reduce the use of cues related to beats....... Estimates of each subject's middle-ear transfer function (METF) were obtained from equal-loudness contours measured from 20 to 160 Hz. With decreasing /f_s /, the PTCs progressively broadened and became markedly asymmetrical, with shallow upper skirts and steep lower skirts. For the sinusoidal maskers......, the tips were more irregular than for narrowband noise maskers or when beating tones were added. For /f_s / = 31.5 and 40 Hz, the tips of the PTCs always fell above /f_s /. Allowing for the METF so as to infer underlying filter shapes resulted in flatter lower skirts, especially below 40 Hz, and reduced...

  16. Tuning the characteristics of electrochemically fabricated gold nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, S; Ensinger, W; Cornelius, T W; Khan, E U; Neumann, R

    2008-11-01

    We have developed different electrochemical procedures for the production of gold nanowires with variable and controllable crystallographic and morphological properties using etched ion track templates. The texture of the nanowires is tuned by the variation of the electrodeposition parameters. Potentiostatic plating at low overvoltage provides strongly (110) textured wires for diameters below 100 nm. With the increase in diameter above 100 nm, this texture decreases and the signal from ({111} planes becomes more pronounced. Under reverse pulse deposition conditions, (100) textured wires are generated. The growth mechanism is discussed in detail in terms of the surface energy minimum principle. In addition, wires are shaped in a reliable way from cylindrical to conical geometry by engineering the pore structure in the template.

  17. Fine-tuning the activity of oxygen evolution catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoli, Elisa Antares; Masini, Federico; Frydendal, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Water splitting is hindered by the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The choice of materials for this reaction in acid is limited to the platinum group metals; high loading required of these scarce and expensive elements severely limit the scalability of such technology....... Ruthenium oxide is among the best catalysts for OER, however the reported activity and stability can vary tremendously depending on the preparation conditions and pre-treatment. Herein, we investigate the effect of oxidation treatment on mass-selected Ru nanoparticles in the size range between 2 and 10 nm....... The effect of two distinct oxidation pre-treatments on the activity and stability have been investigated: (1) thermal oxidation; and (2) oxidation with an oxygen plasma under vacuum. We report that activity and stability can be tuned by using different oxidation pre-treatments. Thermally oxidized particles...

  18. Wavelength shifting of intra-cavity photons: Adiabatic wavelength tuning in rapidly wavelength-swept lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirauschek, Christian; Huber, Robert

    2015-07-01

    We analyze the physics behind the newest generation of rapidly wavelength tunable sources for optical coherence tomography (OCT), retaining a single longitudinal cavity mode during operation without repeated build up of lasing. In this context, we theoretically investigate the currently existing concepts of rapidly wavelength-swept lasers based on tuning of the cavity length or refractive index, leading to an altered optical path length inside the resonator. Specifically, we consider vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirrors as well as Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) and Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector (VT-DBR) lasers. Based on heuristic arguments and exact analytical solutions of Maxwell's equations for a fundamental laser resonator model, we show that adiabatic wavelength tuning is achieved, i.e., hopping between cavity modes associated with a repeated build up of lasing is avoided, and the photon number is conserved. As a consequence, no fundamental limit exists for the wavelength tuning speed, in principle enabling wide-range wavelength sweeps at arbitrary tuning speeds with narrow instantaneous linewidth.

  19. Association between patient age, geographical location, Indigenous status and hospitalisation for oral and dental conditions in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffery, Liam; Bradford, Natalie; Meurer, Maria; Smith, Anthony

    2016-07-15

    A retrospective analysis of hospitalisation due to oral and dental conditions (ODC) was performed for patients in Queensland. The aim was to identify the rate and cost of hospitalisation and to examine the association between hospitalisation and age, geographical location and Indigenous status. There were 81528 admissions to Queensland's hospitals due to ODC during the 3-year study period (2011-2013). The annual cost of ODC-related hospitalisation was estimated to be AU$87million. Indigenous infants (Z=4.08, PIndigenous counterparts. A non-Indigenous high school child was almost fourfold more likely to be hospitalised. There was no significant difference in the rate of hospitalisation for adults. Infants (Z=6.70, Pcare to service remote areas of Queensland and Indigenous populations. Strategies that enable Indigenous Health Workers to provide dental care, and the use of teledentistry, are models of care that may reduce potentially preventable hospitalisations and lead to cost savings and better health outcomes.

  20. Worker's life conditions in the teaching profession: Association between lifestyle and quality of life at work among physical education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Both

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the degree of correlation between quality of life at work (QVT and personal lifestyle (EV among physical education teachers. The sample, 1645 teachers, was selected in three phases. The first phase divided southern Brazil into federal states. The second subdivided each state into mesoregions and the third considered individual regional teaching centers. Data collection used questionnaires to evaluate QVT and EV. The single group Chi-square Test was used to establish discrepancies of opinion and behavior and the Spearman Test to evaluate correlations between the investigated variables, with a significance level of 5%. The results showed that the teachers are unsatisfied with salaries, working conditions, social integration and available leisure time; also revealed poor diet and stress control and limited personal physical activity. Evidence to support an association between specific concerns and socio-environmental position was insufficient to establish correlations between QVT and EV.

  1. Intense Geomagnetic Storms Associated with Coronal Holes Under the Weak Solar-Wind Conditions of Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, S.

    2018-02-01

    The activity of Solar Cycle 24 has been extraordinarily low. The yearly averaged solar-wind speed is also lower in Cycle 24 than in Cycles 22 and 23. The yearly averaged speed in the rising phase of Cycle 21 is as low as that of Cycle 24, although the solar activity of Cycle 21 is higher than that of Cycle 24. The relationship between the solar-wind temperature and its speed is preserved under the solar-wind conditions of Cycle 24. Previous studies have shown that only a few percent of intense geomagnetic storms (minimum Dst solar-wind flows from coronal holes. We identify two geomagnetic storms associated with coronal holes within the 19 intense geomagnetic storms that took place in Cycle 24.

  2. Stress-Triggered Phase Separation Is an Adaptive, Evolutionarily Tuned Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riback, Joshua A.; Katanski, Christopher D.; Kear-Scott, Jamie L.; Pilipenko, Evgeny V.; Rojek, Alexandra E.; Sosnick, Tobin R.; Drummond, D. Allan

    2017-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, diverse stresses trigger coalescence of RNA-binding proteins into stress granules. In vitro, stress-granule-associated proteins can demix to form liquids, hydrogels, and other assemblies lacking fixed stoichiometry. Observing these phenomena has generally required conditions far removed from physiological stresses. We show that poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1 in yeast), a defining marker of stress granules, phase separates and forms hydrogels in vitro upon exposure to physiological stress conditions. Other RNA-binding proteins depend upon low-complexity regions (LCRs) or RNA for phase separation, whereas Pab1’s LCR is not required for demixing, and RNA inhibits it. Based on unique evolutionary patterns, we create LCR mutations, which systematically tune its biophysical properties and Pab1 phase separation in vitro and in vivo. Mutations that impede phase separation reduce organism fitness during prolonged stress. Poly(A)-binding protein thus acts as a physiological stress sensor, exploiting phase separation to precisely mark stress onset, a broadly generalizable mechanism.

  3. Intense Exercise and Aerobic Conditioning Associated with Chromium or L-Carnitine Supplementation Modified the Fecal Microbiota of Fillies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Luiza Mendes de; Feringer, Walter Heinz; Carvalho, Júlia Ribeiro Garcia; Rodrigues, Isadora Mestriner; Jordão, Lilian Rezende; Fonseca, Mayara Gonçalves; Carneiro de Rezende, Adalgiza Souza; de Queiroz Neto, Antonio; Weese, J Scott; Costa, Márcio Carvalho da; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo; Ferraz, Guilherme de Camargo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies performed in humans and rats have reported that exercise can alter the intestinal microbiota. Athletic horses perform intense exercise regularly, but studies characterizing horse microbiome during aerobic conditioning programs are still limited. Evidence has indicated that this microbial community is involved in the metabolic homeostasis of the host. Research on ergogenic substances using new sequencing technologies have been limited to the intestinal microbiota and there is a considerable demand for scientific studies that verify the effectiveness of these supplements in horses. L-carnitine and chromium are potentially ergogenic substances for athletic humans and horses since they are possibly able to modify the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. This study aimed to assess the impact of acute exercise and aerobic conditioning, associated either with L-carnitine or chromium supplementation, on the intestinal microbiota of fillies. Twelve "Mangalarga Marchador" fillies in the incipient fitness stage were distributed into four groups: control (no exercise), exercise, L-carnitine (10g/day) and chelated chromium (10mg/day). In order to investigate the impact of acute exercise or aerobic conditioning on fecal microbiota all fillies undergoing the conditioning program were analyzed as a separate treatment. The fillies underwent two incremental exercise tests before and after training on a treadmill for 42 days at 70-80% of the lactate threshold intensity. Fecal samples were obtained before and 48 h after acute exercise (incremental exercise test). Bacterial populations were characterized by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the MiSeq Illumina platform, and 5,224,389 sequences were obtained from 48 samples. The results showed that, overall, the two most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (50.22%) followed by Verrucomicrobia (15.13%). The taxa with the highest relative abundances were unclassified Clostridiales (17.06%) and "5 genus

  4. Intense Exercise and Aerobic Conditioning Associated with Chromium or L-Carnitine Supplementation Modified the Fecal Microbiota of Fillies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Mendes de Almeida

    Full Text Available Recent studies performed in humans and rats have reported that exercise can alter the intestinal microbiota. Athletic horses perform intense exercise regularly, but studies characterizing horse microbiome during aerobic conditioning programs are still limited. Evidence has indicated that this microbial community is involved in the metabolic homeostasis of the host. Research on ergogenic substances using new sequencing technologies have been limited to the intestinal microbiota and there is a considerable demand for scientific studies that verify the effectiveness of these supplements in horses. L-carnitine and chromium are potentially ergogenic substances for athletic humans and horses since they are possibly able to modify the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. This study aimed to assess the impact of acute exercise and aerobic conditioning, associated either with L-carnitine or chromium supplementation, on the intestinal microbiota of fillies. Twelve "Mangalarga Marchador" fillies in the incipient fitness stage were distributed into four groups: control (no exercise, exercise, L-carnitine (10g/day and chelated chromium (10mg/day. In order to investigate the impact of acute exercise or aerobic conditioning on fecal microbiota all fillies undergoing the conditioning program were analyzed as a separate treatment. The fillies underwent two incremental exercise tests before and after training on a treadmill for 42 days at 70-80% of the lactate threshold intensity. Fecal samples were obtained before and 48 h after acute exercise (incremental exercise test. Bacterial populations were characterized by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the MiSeq Illumina platform, and 5,224,389 sequences were obtained from 48 samples. The results showed that, overall, the two most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (50.22% followed by Verrucomicrobia (15.13%. The taxa with the highest relative abundances were unclassified Clostridiales (17.06% and "5

  5. Tuning bacterial hydrodynamics with magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, C. J.; Mumper, E.; Brown, E. E.; Brangham, J. T.; Lower, B. H.; Lower, S. K.; Yang, F. Y.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2017-06-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a group of motile prokaryotes that synthesize chains of lipid-bound, magnetic nanoparticles called magnetosomes. This study exploits their innate magnetism to investigate previously unexplored facets of bacterial hydrodynamics at surfaces. Through use of weak, uniform, external magnetic fields and local, micromagnetic surface patterns, the relative strength of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and flagellar force components is tuned through magnetic control of the bacteria's orientation. The resulting swimming behaviors provide a means to experimentally determine hydrodynamic parameters and offer a high degree of control over large numbers of living microscopic entities. The implications of this controlled motion for studies of bacterial motility near surfaces and for micro- and nanotechnology are discussed.

  6. iPhone Applications Tune-Up

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Loyal

    2011-01-01

    Written to be read straight through as well as to be used as a technical reference, each chapter of this book focuses on an individual aspect of application performance and how it relates to the overall development and tune-up process. The reader will be introduced to the fundamentals of iOS performance bottlenecks and how poor application performance can and does affect a user's experience, adoption, and ultimately success This book is for iOS application developers who are interested in resolving application performance bottlenecks in both new and existing Xcode projects. Readers should be f

  7. Ignition tuning for the National Ignition Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landen O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of the indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion [1] tuning campaigns [2] is to maximize the probability of ignition by experimentally correcting for likely residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics [3] used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models, and by checking for and resolving unexpected shot-to-shot variability in performance [4]. This has been started successfully using a variety of surrogate capsules that set key laser, hohlraum and capsule parameters to maximize ignition capsule implosion velocity, while minimizing fuel adiabat, core shape asymmetry and ablator-fuel mix.

  8. Tuning quantum correlations with intracavity photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Maria M. de; Gomila, Damia; Zambrini, Roberta [IFISC, Institute for Cross-Disciplinary Physics and Complex Systems (CSIC-UIB), Campus UIB, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Garcia-March, Miguel Angel [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We show how to tune quantum noise in nonlinear systems by means of periodic spatial modulation. We prove that the introduction of an intracavity photonic crystal in a multimode optical parametric oscillator inhibits and enhances light quantum fluctuations. Furthermore, it leads to a significant noise reduction in field quadratures, robustness of squeezing in a wider angular range, and spatial entanglement. These results have potential benefits for quantum imaging, metrology, and quantum information applications and suggest a control mechanism of fluctuations by spatial modulation of interest also in other nonlinear systems.

  9. Automatic tuning of the reinforcement function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzet, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research; Santos, J.M. [Univ. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work is to present a method that helps tuning the reinforcement function parameters in a reinforcement learning approach. Since the proposal of neural based implementations for the reinforcement learning paradigm (which reduced learning time and memory requirements to realistic values) reinforcement functions have become the critical components. Using a general definition for reinforcement functions, the authors solve, in a particular case, the so called exploration versus exploitation dilemma through the careful computation of the RF parameter values. They propose an algorithm to compute, during the exploration part of the learning phase, an estimate for the parameter values. Experiments with the mobile robot Nomad 200 validate their proposals.

  10. Association between the organoleptic scores, oral condition and salivary β-galactosidases in children affected by halitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, M; Costacurta, M; Ferrante, M; Trentini, P; Docimo, R; Spoto, G

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the association between organoleptic scores, oral condition and salivary β-galactosidases, to facilitate the differential diagnosis of halitosis in children. Fifty systemically healthy children with a primary complaint of oral malodour were included in this cross-sectional study. The organoleptic evaluation was carried out by two judges, evaluating the intensity of malodour of the air exhaled 5 s through the mouth of the patients, at a distance of approximately 10 cm from their noses; the level of salivary β-galactosidases was quantified spectrophotometrically after a chromatic reaction between a salivary sample of each patient and a specific chromatic substrate of the enzyme. Clinical conditions, such as visible plaque and gingival bleeding index, tongue coating score, localized food stagnation and other oral parameters, were evaluated by qualified dentists through an oral check-up. The β-galactosidase level was significantly related to the organoleptic scores and clinical parameters, such as the tongue coating score and the visible plaque index. Stratifying results with respect to the different phase of the day at which parents complained halitosis in their children, statistical analysis showed that the organoleptic scores and the level of β-galactosidases were significantly higher in children who suffered of halitosis during the whole day, A = 40%, with respect to those without this problem, N = 20% (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). Certain oral parameters such as halitosis during the whole day, high tongue coating score and high visible plaque index were particularly associated with an increase in the salivary β-galactosidase level. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Association of Psychosocial Conditions, Oral Health, and Dietary Variety with Intellectual Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Japanese Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Tomioka

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors related to intellectual activity in community-dwelling elderly persons.Self-administered questionnaires mailed to all people aged ≥65 years in a dormitory suburb in Japan (n = 15,210. The response rate was 72.2%. Analytical subjects (n = 8,910 were those who lived independently and completely answered questions about independent and dependent variables and covariates. Independent variables included psychosocial conditions (i.e., social activities, hobbies, and a sense that life is worth living (ikigai, oral health (i.e., dental health behaviors and oral function evaluated by chewing difficulties, swallowing difficulties, and oral dryness, and dietary variety measured using the dietary variety score (DVS. A dependent variable was intellectual activity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Covariates included age, gender, family structure, pensions, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, medical history, self-rated health, medications, cognitive function, depression, and falling. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR for poor intellectual activity.Poor intellectual activity was reported by 28.9% of the study population. After adjustment for covariates and independent variables, poor intellectual activity was significantly associated with nonparticipation in social activities (OR = 1.90, 95%CI = 1.61-2.24, having neither hobbies nor ikigai (3.13, 2.55-3.84, having neither regular dental visits nor daily brushing (1.70, 1.35-2.14, the poorest oral function (1.61, 1.31-1.98, and the lowest DVS quartile (1.96, 1.70-2.26.These results indicate that psychosocial conditions, oral health, and dietary variety are independently associated with intellectual activity in elderly persons. The factors identified in this study may be used in community health programs for maintaining the intellectual activity ability of the elderly.

  12. Association of Traumatic Brain Injury With Chronic Pain in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans: Effect of Comorbid Mental Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Karen H; Bertenthal, Daniel; Barnes, Deborah E; Byers, Amy L; Strigo, Irina; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-08-01

    To characterize the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic pain and pain disability in the context of comorbid conditions, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression to better inform care of combat veterans. Retrospective cohort study. Medical centers and community clinics. Combat veterans (N=116,913) who received Veterans Affairs care between October 1, 2007 and March 31, 2015, completed a Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluation, and received a criterion standard diagnosis of TBI (none, mild, or moderate to severe). Not applicable. Chronic pain defined as ≥2 of the same pain diagnoses ≥90 days apart and pain disability defined as self-reported pain causing moderate to very severe interference with daily functioning. Fifty-seven percent received ≥1 chronic pain diagnosis. Compared to those with no TBI, PTSD, or depression, there was an independent risk for chronic pain in veterans with mild TBI, which was higher in veterans with moderate to severe TBI. The risk of chronic pain was additive and highest when all 3 conditions-TBI, depression, and PTSD-were copresent (adjusted relative risk, 1.53 and 1.62 [95% confidence interval, 1.50-1.66] for mild and moderate or severe TBI, respectively, plus other diagnoses). The relation of pain disability to TBI, PTSD, and depression followed a similar additive pattern. In combat veterans, chronic pain and pain disability are most commonly associated with TBI in conjunction with PTSD, depression, or both. Integrated models of care that simultaneously address pain in conjunction with TBI, PTSD, and depression will likely be the most clinically effective. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The association between space weather conditions and emergency hospital admissions for myocardial infarction during different stages of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencloviene, J.; Antanaitiene, J.; Babarskiene, R.

    2016-11-01

    A number of studies have established the effects of space weather on the human cardio-vascular system. We investigated whether geomagnetic storms (GS), solar proton events (SPEs), and X-class solar flare affect the risk of emergency hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) separately during declining (2004-2006) and rising (2010-2012) phases of solar activity. The data on hospital admissions for MI were obtained from the computer database of Lithuanian University of Health sciences from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2012. We evaluated the associations between space weather conditions and the daily number of emergency admissions for MI by Poisson regression, controlling for seasonal variation and weekdays. During 2004-2006, an increase in the risk of hospital admission for MI was observed on days of the daily mean proton >10 MeV flux >100 pfu (by 63%, p10 MeV flux >100 pfu (by 52%, p=0.015) and on days of GS and 1-2 days after GS (by 17%, p=0.024). These findings suggest that the impact of hazardous space weather conditions on human health depends of the strength of space storm during the investigated period.

  14. Linking Behavioral and Neurophysiological Indicators of Perceptual Tuning to Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswen eFava

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie tuning to the native language(s in early infancy. Here we review language tuning through the lens of language experience and introduce a new manner in which to conceptualize the phenomenon of language tuning: the relative speed of tuning hypothesis. This hypothesis has as its goal a characterization of the unique time course of the tuning process, given the different components (e.g., phonology, prosody, syntax, semantics of one or more languages as they become available to infants. In this review, we first examine the established behavioral findings and integrate more recent neurophysiological data on neonatal development, which together demonstrate evidence of early language tuning given differential language exposure in utero. Next, we examine traditional accounts of sensitive and critical periods to determine how these constructs complement current data on the neural mechanisms underlying language tuning. We then synthesize the extant infant behavioral and imaging literatures on monolingual, bilingual, and sensory deprived tuning experience, thereby scrutinizing the effect of these three different language profiles on the specific timing, progression, and outcomes of language tuning. Finally, we discuss future directions researchers might pursue on this aspect of development, advocating our relative speed of tuning hypothesis as a useful framework for conceptualizing the complex process by which language experience shapes language sensitivity.

  15. Conditioned breathing depression during neonatal life as a function of associating ethanol odor and the drug's intoxicating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchione, A F; Anunziata, F; Culleré, M E; Haymal, B O; Spear, N; Abate, P; Molina, J C

    2016-09-01

    Fetal and neonatal ethanol-related alterations upon the respiratory system have been described in different mammals. Studies also indicate that perinates learn about the sensory attributes of ethanol and associate them with diverse physiological effects of the state of intoxication. The present study was conducted in rat neonates during a developmental stage equivalent to the third human gestational trimester. The major goal was to analyze the consequences of ethanol odor exposure, the state of intoxication, or the temporal contiguity between these factors upon breathing patterns. The main findings were as follows: (a) a conditioned breathing depression was observed following few trials defined by the association between ethanol odor and the state of intoxication and (b) sequential exposure to ethanol sensitizes the organism to the drug's respiratory depressant effects without affecting ethanol metabolism. These results indicate that early breathing disruptions caused by ethanol can be determined or modulated via learning processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:670-686, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions associated with flash flooding in watersheds of the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teale, N. G.; Quiring, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding flash flooding is important in unfiltered watersheds, such as portions of the New York City water supply system (NYCWSS), as water quality is degraded by turbidity associated with flooding. To further understand flash flooding in watersheds of the NYCWSS, synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions most frequently associated with flash flooding between 1987 and 2013 were examined. Flash floods were identified during this time period using USGS 15-minute discharge data at the Esopus Creek near Allaben, NY and Neversink River at Claryville, NY gauges. Overall, 25 flash floods were detected, occurring over 17 separate flash flood days. These flash flood days were compared to the days on which flash flood warnings encompassing the study area was issued by the National Weather Service. The success rate for which the flash flood warnings for Ulster County coincided with flash flood in the study watershed was 0.09, demonstrating the highly localized nature of flash flooding in the Catskill Mountain region. The synoptic-scale atmospheric patterns influencing the study area were characterized by a principal component analysis and k-means clustering of NCEP/NCAR 500 mb geopotential height reanalysis data. This procedure was executed in Spatial Synoptic Typer Tools 4.0. While 17 unique synoptic patterns were identified, only 3 types were strongly associated with flash flooding events. A strong southwesterly flow suggesting advection of moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico is shown in composites of these 3 types. This multiscalar study thereby links flash flooding in the NYCWSS with synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation.Understanding flash flooding is important in unfiltered watersheds, such as portions of the New York City water supply system (NYCWSS), as water quality is degraded by turbidity associated with flooding. To further understand flash flooding in watersheds of the NYCWSS, synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions most frequently associated with

  17. Unravelling the temporal association between lameness and body condition score in dairy cattle using a multistate modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P Y; Huxley, J N; Willshire, J A; Green, M J; Othman, A R; Kaler, J

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have reported associations between lameness and body condition score (BCS) in dairy cattle, however the impact of change in the dynamics of BCS on both lameness occurrence and recovery is currently unknown. The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of change in BCS on the transitions from the non-lame to lame, and lame to non-lame states. A total of 731 cows with 6889 observations from 4 UK herds were included in the study. Mobility score (MS) and body condition score (BCS) were recorded every 13-15 days from July 2010 until December 2011. A multilevel multistate discrete time event history model was built to investigate the transition of lameness over time. There were 1042 non-lame episodes and 593 lame episodes of which 50% (519/1042) of the non-lame episodes transitioned to the lame state and 81% (483/593) of the lame episodes ended with a transition to the non-lame state. Cows with a lower BCS at calving (BCS Group 1 (1.00-1.75) and Group 2 (2.00-2.25)) had a higher probability of transition from non-lame to lame and a lower probability of transition from lame to non-lame compared to cows with BCS 2.50-2.75, i.e. they were more likely to become lame and if lame, they were less likely to recover. Similarly, cows who suffered a greater decrease in BCS (compared to their BCS at calving) had a higher probability of becoming lame and a lower probability of recovering in the next 15 days. An increase in BCS from calving was associated with the converse effect, i.e. a lower probability of cows moving from the non-lame to the lame state and higher probability of transition from lame to non-lame. Days in lactation, quarters of calving and parity were associated with both lame and non-lame transitions and there was evidence of heterogeneity among cows in lameness occurrence and recovery. This study suggests loss of BCS and increase of BCS could influence the risk of becoming lame and the chance of recovery from lameness. Regular

  18. Park availability and major depression in individuals with chronic conditions: Is there an association in urban India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Debarati; Safraj, S; Tayyab, Mohammad; Shivashankar, Roopa; Patel, Shivani A; Narayanan, Gitanjali; Ajay, Vamadevan S; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, Km Venkat; Tandon, Nikhil; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2017-09-01

    Green space exposure has been positively correlated with better mental-health indicators in several high income countries, but has not been examined in low- and middle-income countries undergoing rapid urbanization. Building on a study of mental health in adults with a pre-existing chronic condition, we examined the association between park availability and major depression among 1208 adults surveyed in Delhi, India. Major depression was measured using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The ArcGIS platform was used to quantify park availability indexed as (i) park distance from households, (ii) area of the nearest park; and within one km buffer area around households - the (iii) number and (iv) total area of all parks. Mixed-effects logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics indicated that relative to residents exposed to the largest nearest park areas (tertile 3), the odds [95% confidence interval] of major depression was 3.1 [1.4-7.0] times higher among residents exposed to the smallest nearest park areas (tertile 1) and 2.1 [0.9-4.8] times higher in residents with mid-level exposure (tertile 2). There was no statistically significant association between other park variables tested and major depression. We hypothesized that physical activity in the form of walking, perceived stress levels and satisfaction with the neighborhood environment may have mediating effects on the association between nearest park area and major depression. We found no significant mediation effects for any of our hypothesized variables. In conclusion, our results provide preliminary and novel evidence from India that availability of large parks in the immediate neighborhood positively impacts mental well-being of individuals with pre-existing chronic conditions, at the opportune time when India is embarking on the development of sustainable cities that aim to promote health through smart urban design - one of the key elements of which is the

  19. Nocturnal leg cramps: Prevalence and associations with demographics, sleep disturbance symptoms, medical conditions, and cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Grandner

    Full Text Available Nocturnal leg cramps (NLC are common and poorly understood.To determine the prevalence of NLC and associations with cardiometabolic, sleep, and behavioral risk factors in the US population.Cross-sectional epidemiology.National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 waves.NLC were assessed with, "In the past month, how often did you have leg cramps while trying to sleep?" Responses were categorized as None, Mild, or Moderate-Severe. Demographics, medical history, sleep disturbances, and cardiometabolic risk factors were evaluated using the 2005-2006 dataset. Variables that demonstrated significant relationships to NLC after adjusting for age, sex, education, and BMI were assessed in the 2007-2008 dataset. Variables that were still significant were entered into a forward stepwise regression model combining both waves, to determine which variables best explained the variance in NLC.Prevalence was 24-25% reporting mild and 6% reporting moderate-severe NLC. NLC increased with age, lower education, unemployment, shorter sleep duration, all assessed sleep symptoms (nocturnal "leg jerks", snoring, snorting/gasping, difficulty falling asleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, non-restorative sleep, sleepiness, use of sleep medications, higher BMI, smoking, medical history (hypertension, heart failure, angina, stroke, arthritis, respiratory disease, and cancer, depression symptoms, and biomarkers (CRP, HbA1c, calcium, cadmium, red blood cells. Stepwise analysis showed that moderate-severe nocturnal leg cramps were associated with (in decreasing order of partial R2: leg jerks, poor overall health, arthritis, difficulty falling asleep, age, nonrestorative sleep, red blood cell count, lower education, angina, and difficulty maintaining sleep.Based on this first large, representative study, NLC occurring >5x per month are reported by 6% of the adult US population. Sleep disturbance symptoms and health conditions are associated with

  20. Varactor-tuned Substrate Integrated Evanescent Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Acar, Öncel; Dong, Yunfeng

    Evanescent mode waveguides allow for more compact microwave component design in comparison to the traditional fundamental mode waveguide technology. Evanescent waveguides can be integrated into a dielectric substrate in order to further reduce the mass and volume. Unfortunately, traditional reali......, fabricated and tested in order to validate the developed filter models as well as the implemented realization method. The filter structure as well as its tuning are shown in Figure 1....... is considered. In contrast to other methods described in the literature, it avoids etching split ring resonators in the metal layer of the SIW. The filters presented here use varactors as tuning elements. The varactors (as well as DC decoupling circuits) are mounted on the surface of PCB bringing the lower...... metal layer of the waveguide to the top layer with metalized via holes. The present filters are analyzed using models based on impedance matrix representation. The developed models allow computationally efficient and relatively accurate prediction of the filter behavior in a wide frequency range (at...

  1. Electrical tuning of a quantum plasmonic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoge; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Yuan, Hongtao; Park, Junghyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Cui, Yi; Hwang, Harold Y.; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2017-09-01

    Surface plasmon (SP) excitations in metals facilitate confinement of light into deep-subwavelength volumes and can induce strong light-matter interaction. Generally, the SP resonances supported by noble metal nanostructures are explained well by classical models, at least until the nanostructure size is decreased to a few nanometres, approaching the Fermi wavelength λF of the electrons. Although there is a long history of reports on quantum size effects in the plasmonic response of nanometre-sized metal particles, systematic experimental studies have been hindered by inhomogeneous broadening in ensemble measurements, as well as imperfect control over size, shape, faceting, surface reconstructions, contamination, charging effects and surface roughness in single-particle measurements. In particular, observation of the quantum size effect in metallic films and its tuning with thickness has been challenging as they only confine carriers in one direction. Here, we show active tuning of quantum size effects in SP resonances supported by a 20-nm-thick metallic film of indium tin oxide (ITO), a plasmonic material serving as a low-carrier-density Drude metal. An ionic liquid (IL) is used to electrically gate and partially deplete the ITO layer. The experiment shows a controllable and reversible blue-shift in the SP resonance above a critical voltage. A quantum-mechanical model including the quantum size effect reproduces the experimental results, whereas a classical model only predicts a red shift.

  2. Tuning emergent magnetism in a Hund's impurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajetoorians, A A; Valentyuk, M; Steinbrecher, M; Schlenk, T; Shick, A; Kolorenc, J; Lichtenstein, A I; Wehling, T O; Wiesendanger, R; Wiebe, J

    2015-11-01

    The recently proposed concept of a Hund's metal--a metal in which electron correlations are driven by Hund's rule coupling-can be used to explain the exotic magnetic and electronic behaviour of strongly correlated electron systems of multi-orbital metallic materials. Tuning the abundance of parameters that determine these materials is, however, experimentally challenging. Here, we show that the basic constituent of a Hund's metal--a Hund's impurity--can be realized using a single iron atom adsorbed on a platinum surface, a system that comprises a magnetic moment in the presence of strong charge fluctuations. The magnetic properties can be controlled by using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope to change the binding site and degree of hydrogenation of the 3d transition-metal atom. We are able to experimentally explore a regime of four almost degenerate energy scales (Zeeman energy, temperature, Kondo temperature and magnetic anisotropy) and probe the magnetic excitations with the microscope tip. The regime of our Hund's impurity can be tuned from an emergent magnetic moment to a multi-orbital Kondo state, and the system could be used to test predictions of advanced many-body theories for non-Fermi liquids in quantum magnets or unconventional superconductors.

  3. Telling in-tune from out-of-tune: widespread evidence for implicit absolute intonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Huang, Alex; Rutstein, Brooke; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2017-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to name or produce an isolated musical note without the aid of a reference note. One skill thought to be unique to AP possessors is the ability to provide absolute intonation judgments (e.g., classifying an isolated note as "in-tune" or "out-of-tune"). Recent work has suggested that absolute intonation perception among AP possessors is not crystallized in a critical period of development, but is dynamically maintained by the listening environment, in which the vast majority of Western music is tuned to a specific cultural standard. Given that all listeners of Western music are constantly exposed to this specific cultural tuning standard, our experiments address whether absolute intonation perception extends beyond AP possessors. We demonstrate that non-AP listeners are able to accurately judge the intonation of completely isolated notes. Both musicians and nonmusicians showed evidence for absolute intonation recognition when listening to familiar timbres (piano and violin). When testing unfamiliar timbres (triangle and inverted sine waves), only musicians showed weak evidence of absolute intonation recognition (Experiment 2). Overall, these results highlight a previously unknown similarity between AP and non-AP possessors' long-term musical note representations, including evidence of sensitivity to frequency.

  4. Subjective acceptability of various regular twelve-tone tuning systems in two-part musical fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, J

    1988-06-01

    Musically trained subjects rated the overall acceptability of the performance of two-part musical fragments. With the help of a computer these fragments were produced with intonations according to various regular 12-tone tuning systems: Pythagorean tuning (tempering T of the fifths equal to 0.0 cent), equal temperament (T = -2.0 cents), Silbermann (T = -3.9 cents), mean-tone (T = -5.4 cents), and Salinas tuning (T = -7.2 cents). In experiment 1, two systems in which T = 2.0 or T = -10.0 cents were also included. In both the lower and the higher parts of the fragments we used complex tones with a spectral-envelope slope of -6 dB/oct. Mean acceptability ratings were about the same for -5.4 less than or equal to T less than or equal to 0.0 cent, whereas for T greater than 0.0 and T less than -5.4 cents the ratings strongly decreased. This effect of tuning system was also found when acceptability was determined by means of the method of paired comparisons. The specific effect of tuning system was not affected by the tempo of the fragments. The perception of beats in the harmonic intervals was manipulated in experiment 2 by varying the spectral content of the tones. The condition in which the interference of the nearly coinciding harmonics was canceled resulted in higher acceptability. The effect of tuning system was the same as in experiment 1. In both experiments overall acceptability could be accurately predicted from a linear combination of the purity ratings of the isolated harmonic fifths and major thirds. It is not precluded, however, that for T greater than 0.0 and T less than -5.4 cents, the subjects based their acceptability ratings partly on the subjective purity of the melodic intervals.

  5. Efficient protein production by yeast requires global tuning of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Mingtao; Bao, Jichen; Hallstrom, Bjorn M.

    2017-01-01

    intracellular processes with many underlying mechanisms still remaining unclear. Here, we use RNA-seq to study the genome-wide transcriptional response to protein secretion in mutant yeast strains. We find that many cellular processes have to be attuned to support efficient protein secretion. In particular......, altered energy metabolism resulting in reduced respiration and increased fermentation, as well as balancing of amino-acid biosynthesis and reduced thiamine biosynthesis seem to be particularly important. We confirm our findings by inverse engineering and physiological characterization and show...... that by tuning metabolism cells are able to efficiently secrete recombinant proteins. Our findings provide increased understanding of which cellular regulations and pathways are associated with efficient protein secretion....

  6. Improving Convergence of Iterative Feedback Tuning using Optimal External Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Hjalmarsson, Håkon; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    Iterative feedback tuning constitutes an attractive control loop tuning method for processes in the absence of sufficient process insight. It is a purely data driven approach to optimization of the loop performance. The standard formulation ensures an unbiased estimate of the loop performance cost...... function gradient, which is used in a search algorithm. A slow rate of convergence of the tuning method is often experienced when tuning for disturbance rejection. This is due to a poor signal to noise ratio in the process data. A method is proposed for increasing the information content in data...... by introducing an optimal perturbation signal in the tuning algorithm. For minimum variance control design the optimal design of an external perturbation signal is derived in terms of the asymptotic accuracy of the iterative feedback tuning method....

  7. Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with neurological conditions: Observations on a clinical sample of outpatients neurorehabilitation service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Torelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The overall aims of this study were to investigate the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS associated with neurological conditions and their prevalence and impact on a clinical sample of outpatients of a neurorehabilitation service. Materials and methods: We reviewed the files of 132 patients treated in our neurorehabilitation service from December 2012 to December 2013. Patients were divided into several subgroups based on the neurological diagnosis: Multiple Sclerosis (MS, other demyelinating diseases, Peripheral Neuropathy, neurovascular disorders (ND, neoplastic disease, traumatic brain injury (TBI, Parkinson and Parkinsonism, spinal cord injuries (SCI. Urinary status was based on medical evaluations of history of LUTS, type, degree, onset and duration of symptoms. We tried to analyze prevalence, kind of disorder, timing of presentation (if before or after the neurological onset and eventual persistence of urological disorders (in the main group and in all subgroups. Results: At the time of admission to our rehabilitation service, LUTS were observed in 14 out of 132 cases (11%. A high proportion of these outpatients (64.2% presented bothersome urinary symptoms such as incontinence, frequency and urgency (storage LUTS. The most frequent symptom was urinary urge incontinence (42.8%. This symptom was found to be prevalent in the multiple sclerosis and neurovascular disorders. In 93% the urinary symptoms arose as a result of neurologic conditions and 78.5% did not present a complete recovery of urological symptoms in spite of improved selfreported functional activity limitations. None of these patients performed urological rehabilitation. Conclusions: Neurological disorders are a significant issue in rehabilitation services and it can lead to lower tract dysfunction, which causes LUTS. Storage symptoms are more common, especially urge incontinence. Current literature reports that a further optimization of the rehabilitation potential

  8. Prehospital factors associated with an acute life-threatening condition in non-traumatic chest pain patients - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibring, Kristoffer; Herlitz, Johan; Christensson, Lennart; Lingman, Markus; Bång, Angela

    2016-09-15

    Chest pain is a common symptom among patients contacting the emergency medical services (EMS). Risk stratification of these patients is warranted before arrival in hospital, regarding likelihood of an acute life-threatening condition (LTC). To identify factors associated with an increased risk of acute LTC among patients who call the EMS due to non-traumatic chest pain. Several databases were searched for relevant articles. Identified articles were quality-assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network checklists. Extracted data was analysed using a semi-quantitative synthesis evaluating the level of evidence of each identified factor. In total, 10 of 1245 identified studies were included. These studies provided strong evidence for an increased risk of an acute LTC with increasing age, male gender, elevated heart rate, low systolic blood pressure and ST elevation or ST depression on a 12-lead ECG. The level of evidence regarding the history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or presence of a Q wave or a Left Bundle Branch Block on the ECG was moderate. The evidence was inconclusive regarding dyspnoea, cold sweat/paleness, nausea/vomiting, history of chronic heart failure, smoking, Right Bundle Branch Block or T-inversions on the ECG. Factors reflecting age, gender, myocardial ischemia and a compromised cardiovascular system predicted an increased risk of an acute life-threatening condition in the prehospital setting in cases of acute chest pain. These factors may form the basis for prehospital risk stratification in acute chest pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Position-resolved Surface Characterization and Nanofabrication Using an Optical Microscope Combined with a Nanopipette/Quartz Tuning Fork Atomic Force Microscope

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sangmin An Baekman Sung Haneol Noh Corey Stambaugh Soyoung Kwon Kunyoung Lee Bongsu Kim Qhwan Kim Wonho Jhe

    2014-01-01

    ...) combined with a nanopipette-based quartz tuning fork atomic force microscope(nanopipette/QTF-AFM) system. This system is used to accurately determine substrate position and nanoscale phenomena under ambient conditions...

  10. Position-resolved Surface Characterization and Nanofabrication Using an Optical Microscope Combined with a Nanopipette/Quartz Tuning Fork Atomic Force Microscope

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    An, Sangmin; Sung, Baekman; Noh, Haneol; Stambaugh, Corey; Kwon, Soyoung; Lee, Kunyoung; Kim, Bongsu; Kim, Qhwan; Jhe, Wonho

    2014-01-01

    ...) combined with a nanopipette-based quartz tuning fork atomic force microscope (nanopipette/QTF-AFM) system. This system is used to accurately determine substrate position and nanoscale phenomena under ambient conditions...

  11. Mammalian odorant receptor tuning breadth persists across distinct odorant panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Kepchia

    Full Text Available The molecular receptive range (MRR of a mammalian odorant receptor (OR is the set of odorant structures that activate the OR, while the distribution of these odorant structures across odor space is the tuning breadth of the OR. Variation in tuning breadth is thought to be an important property of ORs, with the MRRs of these receptors varying from narrowly to broadly tuned. However, defining the tuning breadth of an OR is a technical challenge. For practical reasons, a screening panel that broadly covers odor space must be limited to sparse coverage of the many potential structures in that space. When screened with such a panel, ORs with different odorant specificities, but equal tuning breadths, might appear to have different tuning breadths due to chance. We hypothesized that ORs would maintain their tuning breadths across distinct odorant panels. We constructed a new screening panel that was broadly distributed across an estimated odor space and contained compounds distinct from previous panels. We used this new screening panel to test several murine ORs that were previously characterized as having different tuning breadths. ORs were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and assayed by two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. MOR256-17, an OR previously characterized as broadly tuned, responded to nine novel compounds from our new screening panel that were structurally diverse and broadly dispersed across an estimated odor space. MOR256-22, an OR previously characterized as narrowly tuned, responded to a single novel compound that was structurally similar to a previously known ligand for this receptor. MOR174-9, a well-characterized receptor with a narrowly tuned MRR, did not respond to any novel compounds in our new panel. These results support the idea that variation in tuning breadth among these three ORs is not an artifact of the screening protocol, but is an intrinsic property of the receptors.

  12. Small Commercial Building Re-tuning: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2013-09-30

    To help building owners and managers address issues related to energy-efficient operation of small buildings, DOE has developed a Small Building Re-tuning training curriculum. This "primer" provides additional background information to understand some of the concepts presented in the Small Building Re-tuning training. The intent is that those who are less familiar with the buidling energy concepts will review this material before taking the building re-tuning training class.

  13. Tuning the Emission Energy of Chemically Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Noor-Ul-Ain; Eriksson, Martin O.; Susann Schmidt; Asghar, M.; Pin-Cheng Lin; Per Olof Holtz; Mikael Syväjärvi; G. Reza Yazdi

    2016-01-01

    Tuning the emission energy of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and understanding the reason of tunability is essential for the GOD function in optoelectronic devices. Besides material-based challenges, the way to realize chemical doping and band gap tuning also pose a serious challenge. In this study, we tuned the emission energy of GQDs by substitutional doping using chlorine, nitrogen, boron, sodium, and potassium dopants in solution form. Photoluminescence data obtained from (Cl- and N-doped) ...

  14. Application research of tune measurement system in Hefei light source

    CERN Document Server

    Sun Bao Gen; Xu Hong Liang; Lu Ping; Wang Jun; Gao Yun Feng; Wang Li; LiuJinYing

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the measurement and research of some beam parameters using tune measurement system for Hefei Light Source (HLS), which include the betatron tune, beta function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, and central frequency. Additionally, it also describes the measurement of the influence of DC clearing electrodes on the betatron tune shift and gives some measurement results. The measurement results are compared with the theoretical values and they are in good agreement

  15. An observed database to characterize the weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclogenesis over southern-southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, R.; Porfirio da Rocha, R.

    2012-04-01

    A project to study the climatic, dynamic and synoptic aspects of subtropical cyclones that develop in southern-southeastern coast of Brazil is in development. The weather conditions associated with such cyclones is an important question that must be answered in this project. However, for such characterization it is necessary to use the local meteorological observations of wind, wind gust, rainfall, air temperature, etc. The NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis have spatial and time resolutions that provide elements to study the synoptic and dynamics of meteorological events (cyclone, anticyclones, troughs, ridges, monsoons circulations, etc) until the production of complex climatology. However, this analysis has coarse horizontal resolution (~250 Km) that often does not allow the identification of intense meteorological phenomena. A more precise characterization of location and intensity of weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclones would be performed using local observations. Therefore, this work describes the methodology to construct a database of surface weather observations using a relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL. The data source are SYNOP (Surface Synoptic Observations), METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) and CETESB (Environmental Agency of Sao Paulo State) that are available online through dynamic web page. An iterative algorithm robot was developed to automate the data extraction. Most of the data source are encoded or at non-standard format, hence was developed an algorithm in C++, using the REGEX library, an engine of text pattern search, for decode and handle the exception (erroneous and corrupted data). After the data decoding and formatting it is stored into the MySQL database. The structure of database was divided into categories of tables: a table with the source of data definition, a table with stations information and two sets of tables (for hourly

  16. Self-ordered pointing and visual conditional associative learning tasks in drug-free schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galluzzo Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence of a link between schizophrenia and a deficit of working memory, but this has been derived from tasks not specifically developed to probe working memory per se. Our aim was to investigate whether working memory deficits may be detected across different paradigms using the self-ordered pointing task (SOPT and the visual conditional associative learning task (VCALT in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls. The current literature suggests deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients versus healthy controls but these studies frequently involved small samples, broad diagnostic criteria, inclusion of patients on antipsychotic medications, and were not controlled for symptom domains, severity of the disorder, etc. To overcome some of these limitations, we investigated the self-monitoring and conditional associative learning abilities of a numerically representative sample of healthy controls and a group of non-deteriorated, drug-free patients hospitalized for a schizophrenia spectrum disorder with florid, mainly positive psychotic symptoms. Methods Eighty-five patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 71 or schizophreniform disorder (n = 14 and 80 healthy controls entered the study. The clinical picture was dominated by positive symptoms. The healthy control group had a negative personal and family history of schizophrenia or mood disorder and satisfied all the inclusion and exclusion criteria other than variables related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Results Compared to controls, patients had worse performances on SOPT, VCALT and higher SOPT/VCALT ratios, not affected by demographic or clinical variables. ROC curves showed that SOPT, VCALT, and SOPT/VCALT ratio had good accuracy in discriminating patients from controls. The SOPT and VCALT scores were inter-correlated in controls but not in patients. Conclusion The

  17. Aripiprazole improves associated comorbid Conditions in addition to Tics in adult Patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gerasch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients. Specifically, we investigated the influence of aripiprazole on tic severity, comorbidities, premonitory urge (PU, and quality of life (QoL. Moreover we were interested in the factors that influence a patient’s decision in electing for-or against- pharmacological treatment. In this prospective uncontrolled open-label study, we included 44 patients and used a number of rating scales to assess tic severity, PU, comorbidities, and QoL at baseline and during treatment with aripiprazole. 18 out of 44 patients decided for undergoing treatment for their tics with aripiprazole and completed follow-up assessments after 4-6 weeks. Our major findings were (1 aripiprazole resulted in significant reduction of tics, but did not affect PU; (2 aripiprazole significantly improved OCD and showed a trend towards improvement of other comorbidities including depression, anxiety and ADHD; (3 neither severity of tics, nor PU or QoL influenced patients’ decisions for or against treatment of tics with aripiprazole; instead patients with comorbid OCD tended to decide in favor of, while patients with comorbid ADHD tended to decide against tic treatment; (4 most frequently reported adverse effects were sleeping problems; (5 patients’ QoL was mostly impaired by comorbid depression. Our results suggest that aripiprazole may improve associated comorbid conditions in addition to tics

  18. Dyadic social interaction inhibits cocaine-conditioned place preference and the associated activation of the accumbens corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernig, Gerald; Pinheiro, Barbara S

    2015-09-01

    Impaired social interaction is a hallmark symptom of many psychiatric disorders. In substance use disorders, impaired social interaction is triply harmful (a) because addicts increasingly prefer the drug of abuse to the natural reward of drug-free social interaction, thus worsening the progression of the disease by increasing their drug consumption, (b) because treatment adherence and, consequently, treatment success itself depends on the ability of the recovering addict to maintain social interaction and adhere to treatment, and (c) because socially interacting with an individual suffering from a substance use disorder may be harmful for others. Helping the addict reorient his/her behavior away from the drug of abuse toward social interaction would therefore be of considerable therapeutic benefit. This article reviews our work on the neural basis of such a reorientation from cocaine, as a prototypical drug of abuse, toward dyadic (i.e. one-to-one) social interaction and compares our findings with the effects of other potentially beneficial interventions, that is, environmental enrichment or paired housing, on the activation of the accumbens and other brain regions involved in behavior motivated by drugs of abuse or nondrug stimuli. Our experimental models are based on the conditioned place preference paradigm. As the therapeutically most promising finding, only four 15 min episodes of dyadic social interaction were able to inhibit both the subsequent reacquisition/re-expression of preference for cocaine and the neural activation associated with this behavior, that is, an increase in the expression of the immediate early gene Early Growth Response protein 1 (EGR1, Zif268) in the nucleus accumbens, basolateral and central amygdala, and the ventral tegmental area. The time spent in the cocaine-associated conditioning compartment was correlated with the density of EGR1-activated neurons not only in the medial core (AcbCm) and medial shell (AcbShm) of the nucleus

  19. Conditional associative learning examined in a paralyzed patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using brain-computer interface technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birbaumer N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-computer interface methodology based on self-regulation of slow-cortical potentials (SCPs of the EEG (electroencephalogram was used to assess conditional associative learning in one severely paralyzed, late-stage ALS patient. After having been taught arbitrary stimulus relations, he was evaluated for formation of equivalence classes among the trained stimuli. Methods A monitor presented visual information in two targets. The method of teaching was matching to sample. Three types of stimuli were presented: signs (A, colored disks (B, and geometrical shapes (C. The sample was one type, and the choice was between two stimuli from another type. The patient used his SCP to steer a cursor to one of the targets. A smiley was presented as a reward when he hit the correct target. The patient was taught A-B and B-C (sample – comparison matching with three stimuli of each type. Tests for stimulus equivalence involved the untaught B-A, C-B, A-C, and C-A relations. An additional test was discrimination between all three stimuli of one equivalence class presented together versus three unrelated stimuli. The patient also had sessions with identity matching using the same stimuli. Results The patient showed high accuracy, close to 100%, on identity matching and could therefore discriminate the stimuli and control the cursor correctly. Acquisition of A-B matching took 11 sessions (of 70 trials each and had to be broken into simpler units before he could learn it. Acquisition of B-C matching took two sessions. The patient passed all equivalence class tests at 90% or higher. Conclusion The patient may have had a deficit in acquisition of the first conditional association of signs and colored disks. In contrast, the patient showed clear evidence that A-B and B-C training had resulted in formation of equivalence classes. The brain-computer interface technology combined with the matching to sample method is a useful way to assess various

  20. Optimization of cultural conditions for growth associated chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 isolated from chromite mine overburden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Satarupa, E-mail: dey1919@gmail.com [Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India); Paul, A.K., E-mail: amalk_paul@yahoo.co.in [Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of a potent Cr(VI) resistant and reducing Arthrobacter SUK 1201 from chromite mine overburdens of Orissa, India. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phylogenetically (16S rDNA analysis), Arthrobacter SUK 1201 showed 99% nucleotide base pair similarity with Arthrobacter GZK-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Production of insoluble chromium precipitates during chromate reduction under batch culture by the isolate SUK 1201. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Confirmation of formation of insoluble chromium precipitate during reduction studies by EDX analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of cultural conditions for Cr(VI) reduction under batch culture leading to complete reduction of 2 mM of Cr(VI). - Abstract: Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201, a chromium resistant and reducing bacterium having 99% sequence homology of 16S rDNA with Arthrobacter sp. GZK-1 was isolated from chromite mine overburden dumps of Orissa, India. The objective of the present study was to optimize the cultural conditions for chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201. The strain showed 67% reduction of 2 mM chromate in 7 days and was associated with the formation of green insoluble precipitate, which showed characteristic peak of chromium in to energy dispersive X-ray analysis. However, Fourier transform infrared spectra have failed to detect any complexation of end products of Cr(VI) reduction with the cell mass. Reduction of chromate increased with increased cell density and was maximum at 10{sup 10} cells/ml, but the reduction potential decreased with increase in Cr(VI) concentration. Chromate reducing efficiency was promoted when glycerol and glucose was used as electron donors. Optimum pH and temperature of Cr(VI) reduction was 7.0 and 35 Degree-Sign C respectively. The reduction process was inhibited by several metal ions and metabolic inhibitors but not by Cu(II) and DNP. These findings suggest that Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 has great promise

  1. Heading Tuning in Macaque Area V6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Reuben H; Liu, Sheng; DeAngelis, Gregory C; Angelaki, Dora E

    2015-12-16

    Cortical areas, such as the dorsal subdivision of the medial superior temporal area (MSTd) and the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), have been shown to integrate visual and vestibular self-motion signals. Area V6 is interconnected with areas MSTd and VIP, allowing for the possibility that V6 also integrates visual and vestibular self-motion cues. An alternative hypothesis in the literature is that V6 does not use these sensory signals to compute heading but instead discounts self-motion signals to represent object motion. However, the responses of V6 neurons to visual and vestibular self-motion cues have never been studied, thus leaving the functional roles of V6 unclear. We used a virtual reality system to examine the 3D heading tuning of macaque V6 neurons in response to optic flow and inertial motion stimuli. We found that the majority of V6 neurons are selective for heading defined by optic flow. However, unlike areas MSTd and VIP, V6 neurons are almost universally unresponsive to inertial motion in the absence of optic flow. We also explored the spatial reference frames of heading signals in V6 by measuring heading tuning for different eye positions, and we found that the visual heading tuning of most V6 cells was eye-centered. Similar to areas MSTd and VIP, the population of V6 neurons was best able to discriminate small variations in heading around forward and backward headings. Our findings support the idea that V6 is involved primarily in processing visual motion signals and does not appear to play a role in visual-vestibular integration for self-motion perception. To understand how we successfully navigate our world, it is important to understand which parts of the brain process cues used to perceive our direction of self-motion (i.e., heading). Cortical area V6 has been implicated in heading computations based on human neuroimaging data, but direct measurements of heading selectivity in individual V6 neurons have been lacking. We provide the first

  2. Evaluation of Controller Tuning Methods Applied to Distillation Column Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; W. Andersen, Henrik; Kümmel, Professor Mogens

    A frequency domain approach is used to compare the nominal performance and robustness of dual composition distillation column control tuned according to Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) and Biggest Log Modulus Tuning (BLT) for three binary distillation columns, WOBE, LUVI and TOFA. The scope...... of this is to examine whether ZN and BLT design yield satisfactory control of distillation columns. Further, PI controllers are tuned according to a proposed multivariable frequency domain method. A major conclusion is that the ZN tuned controllers yield undesired overshoot and oscillation and poor stability robustness...

  3. Driving the Power of AIX Performance Tuning on IBM Power

    CERN Document Server

    Milberg, Ken

    2009-01-01

    A concise reference for IT professionals, this book goes beyond the rules and contains the best practices and strategies for solid tuning methodology. Tips based on years of experience from an AIX tuning master show specific steps for monitoring and tuning CPU, virtual memory, disk I/O, and network components. Also offering techniques for tuning Oracle and Linux structures that run on an IBM power system-as well as for the new AIX 6.1-this manual discusses what tools are available, how to best use them to collect historical data, and when to analyze trends and results. The only comprehensive,

  4. Associations of common noncommunicable medical conditions and chronic diseases with chronotype in a population-based health examination study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Syaron; Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Männistö, Satu; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Chronotype is an emerging predictor of health and longevity, and understanding its influence on chronic diseases is important for constructing conceptual models of long-term pathways to health. We assessed the associations of chronotype with health status in the general Finnish adult population. Our population-based data were derived from the National FINRISK 2012 study and consisted of 4414 participants, aged 25-74 years, living in Finland. As part of their health examination, participants were asked about their circadian preference to the daily activities (morningness-eveningness) and a diagnosis or treatment for a set of common noncommunicable medical conditions and chronic diseases during the past 12 months. We found that there were 1935 (43.8%) morning types (MTs) and 595 (13.5%) evening types (ETs) and that 1884 (42.7%) were intermediates. As compared with the MTs, the ETs had significantly greater odds for depression (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.52-3.90, p < 0.001) and other mental disorders (OR = 5.18, 95% CI = 2.32-11.52, p < 0.001). The odds were also increased for gallstones, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but these did not remain significant after controlling for multiple testing. Responses to the single-item subjective estimation on the chronotype yielded the association of the definitely evening type of persons with the diagnosis or treatment of cardiac insufficiency (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.02-3.88, p = 0.044) that was corroborated as the greater the eveningness score was, the more common the diagnosis or treatment of cardiac insufficiency was (β = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85-0.98, p = 0.013). This exploratory study adds further support to the role of evening chronotype in chronic disease risk, albeit underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  5. Factors Associated with Hospitalisations for Ambulatory Care-Sensitive Conditions among Persons with an Intellectual Disability--A Publicly Insured Population Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, R. S.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Brownell, M.; Colantonio, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hospitalisations for ambulatory care-sensitive (ACS) conditions are used as an indicator of access to, and the quality of, primary care. The objective was to identify factors associated with hospitalisations for ACS conditions among adults with an intellectual disability (ID) in the context of a publicly insured healthcare system.…

  6. Measurement of the axial eye length by wavelength-tuning interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexer, Franz; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Kulhavy, Manfred; Fercher, Adolf F.

    1996-12-01

    An alternative approach to measure intraocular optical distances in vivo is wavelength tuning interferometry. The principle of this technique is that every wavelength shift of a laser diode is associated with a phase shift of the waves reflected at the cornea and the retina. This results in a change of the interference order of the fringe system that will occur when the two wavefronts interfere. By Fourier transform of the intensity data, we cannot only measure the axial eye length but also other intraocular distances. In our approach we used an external cavity, single mode laser diode at a center wavelength of 780 nm which is tunable over 15 nm. First measurements were carried out in a model eye using the mode hop free tuning range of 9 nm, at the maximum tuning rate of 0.33 nm/s. The precision we obtained for the axial eye length was 0.04 mm. The large tuning range cannot be used of in vivo measurements because of the slow scanning rate of 0.33 nm/s. With this scanning rate the signal frequency corresponding to the axial eye length is on the order of 30 Hz. This is within the frequency range of the intensity modulations caused by fundus pulsations due to the heart beat and can therefore not be separated from them. The in vivo measurements have to be performed by tuning the wavelength of the laser with a piezoelectric transducer to achieve signal frequencies in the kHz range. Since the tuning range in this case in only 0.18 nm the resolution is about 50 times worse than that achieved in the model eye.

  7. Modifying the Genetic Regulation of Bone and Cartilage Cells and Associated Tissue by EMF Stimulation Fields and Uses Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Shackelford, Linda C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus and method to modify the genetic regulation of mammalian tissue, bone, or any combination. The method may be comprised of the steps of tuning at least one predetermined profile associated with at least one time-varying stimulation field thereby resulting in at least one tuned time-varying stimulation field comprised of at least one tuned predetermined profile, wherein said at least one tuned predetermined profile is comprised of a plurality of tuned predetermined figures of merit and is controllable through at least one of said plurality of tuned predetermined figures of merit, wherein said plurality of predetermined tuned figures of merit is comprised of a tuned B-Field magnitude, tuned rising slew rate, tuned rise time, tuned falling slew rate, tuned fall time, tuned frequency, tuned wavelength, and tuned duty cycle; and exposing mammalian chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, nucleus pulposus, associated tissue, or any combination to said at least one tuned time-varying stimulation field comprised of said at least one tuned predetermined profile for a predetermined tuned exposure time or plurality of tuned exposure time sequences.

  8. Early Reticulocytosis and Anemia Are Associated with Abnormal and Conditional Transcranial Doppler Velocities in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Emily Riehm; Fasano, Ross M; Estrada, Monica; He, Jianping; Luban, Naomi L C; McCarter, Robert

    2016-02-01

    To improve prediction of sickle cell anemia severity at an early age, we evaluated whether absolute reticulocyte count (ARC) or hemoglobin (Hb) levels during early infancy (2-6 months of age) in patients with sickle cell anemia predict the risk of later developing an abnormal (abTCD) or conditional (cdTCD) Transcranial Doppler (TCD). We used chart review to identify 121 consecutive patients who underwent TCD screening and had steady state ARC and Hb levels recorded between 2 and 6 months of age. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between AR