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Sample records for association publisher australian

  1. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  2. Publishing and Australian literature : crisis, decline or transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  3. PADB : Published Association Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hwanseok; Lee, Jin-Sung

    2007-01-01

    Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; ) that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases. PMID:17877839

  4. PADB : Published Association Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jin-Sung

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; http://www.medclue.com/padb that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases.

  5. FoR Codes Pendulum: Publishing Choices within Australian Research Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn; Genoni, Paul; Haddow, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory case study that considered the impacts of journal ranking and Fields of Research codes on the publishing decisions of Australian authors. The study also considered the level of alignment between authors' allocation of Fields of Research codes and the codes assigned to the journals in which they were published.…

  6. An Analysis of 27 Years of Research into Computer Education Published in Australian Educational Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagami, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of three decades of publications in Australian Educational Computing (AEC) provides insight into the historical trends in Australian educational computing, highlighting an emphasis on pedagogy, comparatively few articles on educational technologies, and strong research topic alignment with similar international journals. Analysis confirms…

  7. Every Child: The Magazine of the Australian Early Childhood Association, Inc., 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Alison, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document is comprised of the four 2000 issues of a periodical published by the Australian Early Childhood Association focusing on the needs of children from birth to 8 years and on issues related to child care and early childhood education in Australia. Each issue features articles focusing on a particular theme along with editorials and…

  8. [book review] Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds -- Les Christidis and Walter E. Boles. Collingwood, VIC, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R. Terry

    2009-01-01

    Systematists argue that the importance of our work lies not only in the elucidation of evolutionary relationships, but also in the incorporation of evolutionary information into classifications and the use of these classifications by government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, professional scientists, and others interested in biodiversity. If this is true, and I think that it is, then synthetic publications that make our findings accessible to a wide audience, such as Christidis and Boles' new Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds, may be among the most significant works that we publish.

  9. Childhood Stress and Adversity is Associated with Late-Life Dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Delbaere, Kim; Draper, Brian; Mack, Holly A; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Chalkley, Simon; Minogue, Cecilia; Broe, Gerald A

    2017-10-01

    High rates of dementia have been observed in Aboriginal Australians. This study aimed to describe childhood stress in older Aboriginal Australians and to examine associations with late-life health and dementia. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample of community-dwelling older Aboriginal Australians. Urban and regional communities in New South Wales, Australia. 336 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians aged 60-92 years, of whom 296 were included in the current analyses. Participants completed a life course survey of health, well-being, cognition, and social history including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), with consensus diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer disease. CTQ scores ranged from 25-117 (median: 29) and were associated with several adverse childhood indicators including separation from family, poor childhood health, frequent relocation, and growing up in a major city. Controlling for age, higher CTQ scores were associated with depression, anxiety, suicide attempt, dementia diagnosis, and, specifically, Alzheimer disease. The association between CTQ scores and dementia remained significant after controlling for depression and anxiety variables (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.05-2.45). In contrast, there were no significant associations between CTQ scores and smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes, or cardiovascular risk factors. Childhood stress appears to have a significant impact on emotional health and dementia for older Aboriginal Australians. The ongoing effects of childhood stress need to be recognized as people grow older, particularly in terms of dementia prevention and care, as well as in populations with greater exposure to childhood adversity, such as Aboriginal Australians. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Worldwide analysis of factors associated with medicines compendia publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, Blanca; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Medicines compendia, also called formularies, are the most commonly used drug information source among health care professionals. The aim was to identify the countries publishing medicines compendia and the socio-demographic factors associated to this fact. Additionally, we sought to determine the use of foreign compendia in countries lacking their own. Global web-based survey. Healthcare practitioners and researchers from 193 countries worldwide were invited to complete a web-based survey. The questionnaire investigated the existence of a national compendium, or the use of foreign compendia in the absence of one. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were used to predict compendia publishing through a multivariate analysis. Existence of national medicines compendia and foreign compendia used. Professionals from 132 countries completed the survey (response rate at a country level 68.4%, comprising 90.9% global population). Eighty-four countries (63.6%) reported publishing a medicines compendium. In the multivariate analysis, only two covariates had significant association with compendia publishing. Being a member of the Organisation for the Economic Cooperation and Development was the only variable positively associated with compendia publishing (OR = 37.5; 95% CI = 2.3:599.8). In contrast, the countries that listed French as an official language were less likely to publish a compendium (OR = 0.07; 95% CI = 0.007:0.585). Countries without national compendia reported using the British National Formulary most commonly, followed by the Dictionnaire Vidal. Publication of medicines compendia is associated with socio-economic development. Countries lacking a national compendium, use foreign compendia from higher-income countries. Creating an international medicines compendium under the leadership of the World Health Organisation, rather than merely a 'model', would reduce the risks of using information sources not-adapted to the necessities of developing countries.

  11. Prokaryotic algae associated with Australian proterozoic stromatolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licari, G. R.; Cloud, P.

    1972-01-01

    The most favorable sites in which to study the associations between stromatolites and the algae responsible for them are places where a variety of stromatolites of possibly early diagenetic or primary silica occupy a layer of substantial thickness of little metamorphosed ancient sediments. One such place is in northwestern Queensland, Australia. Five cases of association between stromatolites and blue-green algal nannofossils were observed within a 100-m sequence of carbonate rocks in that area.

  12. Prokaryotic Algae Associated with Australian Proterozoic Stromatolites*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licari, G. R.; Cloud, Preston

    1972-01-01

    Five instances of association between distinctive stromatolites and blue-green algal nannofossils are recorded from a 100-m sequence of carbonate rocks about 1.6 × 109 years old, along the south side of Paradise Creek, northwestern Queensland, Australia. No eukaryotes were identified in any of these systematically limited assemblages, although they are known from rocks as old as 1.3 × 109 years in eastern California. Thus, eukaryotes may not have appeared until after 1.6 × 109 years ago (but before 1.3 × 109 years ago). The associations observed would also be consistent with (but do not prove) a biotic influence on stromatolite morphology. As is usual among prePaleozoic forms described, the morphology of the nannofossils is very similar to living forms, displaying marked evolutionary conservatism. Primary orientation of stromatolitic laminae and columns is not invariably convex upward, as conventionally believed, but convex away from and parallel to the initial point or surface of attachment, which may be horizontal or even downward beneath overhangs. Images PMID:4627030

  13. Association between childbirth attitudes and fear on birth preferences of a future generation of Australian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yvonne L; Stoll, Kathrin H; Hall, Wendy A; Downie, Jill

    2016-12-01

    The reality of childbirth fear is recognised for expectant parents but we lack knowledge about the childbirth attitudes of the next generation of Australian parents. Examination of adults' attitudes toward childbirth including influencing contributing factors, fear scores, birth preferences and reasons for this preference. A cross-sectional online study was conducted with 654 Western Australian students attending one tertiary institution. Students (male and female) were eligible to participate if they were less than 40 years of age and did not currently have children but confirmed their intention to become parents. To assess associations or comparison of means, bi-variable analyses (Chi square test, Fisher's Exact test, Independent Student's t-test or one way ANOVA) were used. Factors associated with childbirth fear and birth preferences were assessed with binary logistic regression analysis. Childbirth attitudes were shaped by family members' (82.0%) and friends' experiences (64.4%) plus media (TV, YouTube, and movies) (63.5%). Furthermore, 15.6% of adults indicated a preference for a caesarean birth, even without obstetric complications. Likewise, 26.1% reported elevated fear; students with elevated fear scores had 2.6 times greater odds of wanting a caesarean birth. Only 23.4% of students felt confident about their childbirth knowledge. Adults reported fear levels that warrant attention prior to a future pregnancy. Although the majority would choose a vaginal birth, they require awareness of benefits and risks for both vaginal and caesarean births to ensure their decisions reflect informed choice rather than influences of inadequate knowledge or fear. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations of neighborhood environment with brain imaging outcomes in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Ames, David; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Macaulay, S Lance; Fowler, Christopher; Robertson, Joanne S; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Ellis, Kathryn A

    2017-04-01

    "Walkable" neighborhoods offer older adults opportunities for activities that may benefit cognition-related biological mechanisms. These have not previously been examined in this context. We objectively assessed neighborhood walkability for participants (n = 146) from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study with apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and two 18-month-apart brain volumetric and/or amyloid β burden assessments. Linear mixed models estimated associations of neighborhood walkability with levels and changes in brain imaging outcomes, the moderating effect of APOE ε4 status, and the extent to which associations were explained by physical activity. Cross-sectionally, neighborhood walkability was predictive of better neuroimaging outcomes except for left hippocampal volume. These associations were to a small extent explained by physical activity. APOE ε4 carriers showed slower worsening of outcomes if living in walkable neighborhoods. These findings indicate associations between neighborhood walkability and brain imaging measures (especially in APOE ε4 carriers) minimally attributable to physical activity. Copyright © 2016 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations between periodontal disease and cardiovascular surrogate measures among Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellas, Kostas; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; Bartold, P Mark; Wang, Hao; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Sullivan, David; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

    2014-05-01

    Inflammation is a key pathogenetic factor in atherogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory source which can have systemic impacts. Indigenous Australians have a higher prevalence of periodontal disease and experience cardiovascular disease earlier than non-Indigenous Australians. The aim was to describe the association between severity of periodontal inflammatory disease and measures of arterial structure and function. Periodontal disease in a convenience sample of Indigenous Australians was assessed clinically; for those with periodontal disease, the extent of periodontal pockets ≥ 4 mm was stratified into quartiles. Vascular health was measured non-invasively via carotid-dorsalis pedis pulse-wave velocity (PWV), and via B-mode ultrasound of the common carotid intima-media (IMT). Non-fasting blood samples were collected for lipid and inflammatory marker evaluation. Linear regression models were constructed to determine the associations between extent of periodontal pocketing and vascular health, adjusting for traditional cardiovascular common risk factors. 273 Indigenous Australian adults were recruited and complete data was available for 269 participants (154 males), median age 39 years. Arterial stiffness (PWV) significantly increased with increasing extent of periodontal pocketing (p trend=0.001). By contrast, carotid IMT did not differ across quartiles. Periodontal pocketing was associated with central arterial stiffness, a marker of presymptomatic arterial dysfunction, in Indigenous Australian adults with periodontal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combinations of social participation and trust, and association with health status-an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan L; Ronan, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    A limited number of studies have examined the 'miniaturization of community' model which is based on belief that 'new' individualistic, and narrower forms of social participation, do not promote generalized trust in others. Little is known about miniaturization of community and self-reported health, physical health and psychological health in Australia. Data from a 2009 computer-assisted-telephone-interview survey was used to investigate generalized trust, social participation and health-related quality of life in a regional Australian population (n = 1273; mean age 51.2 years). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between generalized trust, social participation and poor self-reported health (global self-rated, psychological and physical), and included four social participation/trust categories. A majority (67%) reported high generalized trust of others, 54% were categorized as high social participators. Miniaturization of community was a risk factor for poor self-rated psychological health across genders, and a risk factor for poor self-rated health for males. For women, low social participation (irrespective of trust level) was associated with poor self-reported health. Given current and previous findings, there is a need for further research in a range of contexts which explores the underlying concept of miniaturization of community, that is, the changes in social participation and social networks which may negatively impact community health. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A survey of Australian dairy farmers to investigate animal welfare risks associated with increasing scale of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, D S; Fisher, A D; Jongman, E C; Hemsworth, P E

    2015-08-01

    Although large herds (more than 500 cows) only represent 13% of Australian dairy farms, they represent more than 35% of the cows milked. A survey of Australian dairy farmers was conducted to assess relationships between herd size and known or proposed risk factors for adverse animal welfare outcomes in Australian dairy herds in relation to increasing scale of production. Responses from 863 Australian dairy farms (13% of Australian dairy farms) were received. Increasing herd size was associated with increases in stocking density, stock per labor unit, and grain fed per day-all of which could reasonably be hypothesized to increase the risk of adverse welfare outcomes unless carefully managed. However, increasing herd size was also associated with an increased likelihood of staff with formal and industry-based training qualifications. Herd size was not associated with reported increases in mastitis or lameness treatments. Some disease conditions, such as milk fever, gut problems, and down cows, were reported less in larger herds. Larger herds were more likely to have routine veterinary herd health visits, separate milking of the main herd and the sick herd, transition diets before calving, and written protocols for disease treatment. They were more likely to use monitoring systems such as electronic identification in the dairy, computerized records, daily milk yield or cell count monitoring, and pedometers or activity meters. Euthanasia methods were consistent between herds of varying sizes, and it was noted that less than 3% of farms make use of captive-bolt devices despite their effectiveness and ready availability. Increasing herd size was related to increased herd milking time, increased time away from the paddock, and increased distance walked. If the milking order of cows is consistent, this may result in reduced feed access for late-milking-order cows because of a difference in time away from the paddock. More than 95% of farmers believed that their cows were

  18. South Australian Science Teachers Association Conference and Science Fair, Salisbury Teachers College, July 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971

    The major papers presented at the 1971 conference of the South Australian Science Teachers Association are included in this pamphlet. Scientists from industry, research institutions, and the police forensic laboratory, and practicing teachers presented papers which included descriptions of modern scientific techniques, discussions of the role of…

  19. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  20. Adolescent peer aggression and its association with mental health and substance use in an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James

    2014-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal birth cohort data was used to examine the association between peer aggression at 14 years and mental health and substance use at 17 years. A sample of 1590 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories (victims, perpetrators, victim-perpetrators and uninvolved). Involvement in any type of peer aggression as a victim (10.1%), perpetrator (21.4%), or a victim-perpetrator (8.7%) was reported by 40.2% of participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, those who were a victim of peer aggression had increased odds of later depression and internalising symptoms whilst perpetrators of peer aggression were found to be at increased risk of depression and harmful alcohol use. Victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to have externalising behaviours at 17 years. These results show an independent temporal relationship between peer aggression and later mental health and substance use problems in adolescence. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association Between Age at Menarche and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data were from 4,749 women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 2000 and 2012. Age at menarche was reported at baseline in 2000 when women were aged 22-27 years. During 12 years of follow-up, information on GDM diagnosis was obtained for each live birth. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Analyses adjusted for mother's highest completed educational qualification, nulliparity, polycystic ovary syndrome, physical activity, and body mass index. Mean age at menarche was 12.9 years (standard deviation, 1.4). A first diagnosis of GDM was reported by 357 women (7.5%). Compared with women with menarche at age 13 years, women who had their first menstruation at age ≤11 years had a 51% higher risk of developing GDM (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.07) after adjustment for GDM risk factors. Our findings indicate that a young age at menarche may identify women at higher risk of GDM. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings and to elucidate the role of early-life exposures in age at menarche and subsequent GDM risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Asymmetry during preseason Functional Movement Screen testing is associated with injury during a junior Australian football season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Samuel; Fuller, Joel T; Debenedictis, Thomas A; Townsley, Samuel; Lynagh, Matthew; Gleeson, Cara; Zacharia, Andrew; Thomson, Stuart; Magarey, Mary

    2017-07-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a popular screening tool, however, the postulated relationship between prospective injury and FMS scoring remains sparsely explored in adolescent athletes. The aim of the study was to examine the association between pre-season FMS scores and injuries sustained during one regular season competition in elite adolescent Australian football players. Prospective cohort study. 237 elite junior Australian football players completed FMS testing during the late pre-season phase and had their weekly playing status monitored during the regular season. The definition of an injury was 'a trauma which caused a player to miss a competitive match'. The median composite FMS score was 14 (mean=13.5±2.3). An apriori analysis revealed that the presence of ≥1 asymmetrical sub-test was associated with a moderate increase in the risk of injury (hazard ratio=2.2 [1.0-4.8]; relative risk=1.9; p=0.047; sensitivity=78.4%; specificity=41.0%). Notably, post-hoc analysis identified that the presence of ≥2 asymmetrical sub-tests was associated with an even greater increase in risk of prospective injury (hazard ratio=3.7 [1.6-8.6]; relative risk=2.8; p=0.003; sensitivity=66.7%; specificity=78.0%). Achieving a composite score of ≤14 did not substantially increase the risk of prospective injury (hazard ratio=1.1 [0.5-2.1]; p=0.834). Junior Australian football players demonstrating asymmetrical movement during pre-season FMS testing were more likely to sustain an injury during the regular season than players without asymmetry. Findings suggest that the commonly reported composite FMS threshold score of ≤14 was not associated with injury in elite junior AF players. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Australian public's beliefs about the causes of depression: associated factors and changes over 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Pamela D; Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2013-09-05

    Biological conceptualisations of depression are increasingly prevalent. The current study aimed to investigate the current prevalence of causal beliefs about depression in the Australian public, the factors associated with these beliefs, and changes over time. A nationally representative sample of Australian adults was surveyed as part of the 2011 National Mental Health Literacy and Stigma Survey. Beliefs about the causes of depression were assessed based on responses to vignettes depicting a person with either depression (n=893) or depression with suicidal thoughts (n=903). Socio-demographic characteristics, personal and professional experience with depression, and correct recognition of depression were investigated as predictors of causal beliefs about depression using binary logistic regression. Comparisons were made between the Australian public's current causal beliefs and data obtained in national surveys conducted in 1995 and 2003/4. Over 80% of the Australian public attributed depression to day to day problems, death of a close friend or relative, a recent traumatic event, childhood problems, and a chemical imbalance in the brain. People who correctly labelled the disorder in the vignettes were more likely to attribute depression to psychosocial reasons and less likely to attribute it to an allergic reaction, a virus, or an infection. Belief in psychosocial and genetic causes has increased over time, whereas belief in infection, allergy and weakness of character has decreased. Comparisons between the 1995, 2003/4 and 2011 surveys were limited by the differences in the survey methodology at each time point, and by low response rates to the 2003/4 and 2011 surveys. The survey design prevented insight into the reasoning underlying individuals' responses, and lacked sufficient power to explore the beliefs of Australians from cultural minorities. The majority of the Australian public believe that both psychosocial and biological factors cause depression

  4. Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jamieson Lisa M; Parker Eleanor J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30) and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female) completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate mode...

  5. Associations with dental caries experience among a convenience sample of Aboriginal Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasena, N; Kapellas, K; Skilton, M R; Maple-Brown, L J; Brown, A; O'Dea, K; Celermajer, D S; Jamieson, L M

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined dental caries experience in Aboriginal adults. The objectives of this study were to describe the dental caries experience of some Aboriginal Australian adults residing in the Northern Territory, and to determine associations with dental caries experience. A convenience sample of Aboriginal adults from Australia's Northern Territory was dentally examined. Self-reported oral health information was collected through a questionnaire. Data were available for 312 participants. The per cent of untreated decayed teeth (per cent DT >0) was 77.9 (95% CI 73.0 to 82.1), the mean DT was 3.0 (95% CI 2.6 to 3.4), the prevalence of any caries experience (the per cent DMFT >0) was 95.5 (95% CI 92.6 to 97.3) and the mean DMFT was 9.7 (95% CI 8.9 to 10.5). In multivariable analyses, unemployment and not brushing teeth the previous day were associated with the per cent DT >0. Problem-based dental attendance was associated with both the mean DT and the per cent DMFT >0. Older age, residing in the capital city, being non-incarcerated, last visiting a dentist dental attendance were associated with the mean DMFT. Dental caries experience among this convenience sample of Aboriginal Australian adults was very high. Most factors associated with dental caries were social determinants or dental service access-related. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Prevention and management of obinutuzumab-associated toxicities: Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Alicia; Hayden, Ingrid; Dixon, Joanna; Gregory, Gareth

    2015-12-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) are typically diagnosed at an advanced age and may have multiple co-existing conditions, augmenting the challenges of treating their CLL. Aggressive cytotoxic therapies are often poorly tolerated in this patient population. Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody indicated in combination with chlorambucil for previously untreated CLL. The approval of this drug was based on the pivotal CLL11 trial, which demonstrated longer progression-free survival vs. rituximab/chlorambucil and chlorambucil alone in patients with significant co-existing medical conditions and/or poor renal function. However, a higher risk of infusion-related reactions (IRRs) was demonstrated with obinutuzumab-based therapy. We highlight important nursing care considerations to help prevent and successfully manage IRRs and other important adverse events, to improve the treatment experience of patients receiving obinutuzumab infusions and to enable them to complete their treatment and receive optimal benefit. Premedication, drug handling, dosing, administration, monitoring and documentation are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Adverse Events Associated with Yoga: A Systematic Review of Published Case Reports and Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Cramer; Carol Krucoff; Gustav Dobos

    2013-01-01

    While yoga is gaining increased popularity in North America and Europe, its safety has been questioned in the lay press. The aim of this systematic review was to assess published case reports and case series on adverse events associated with yoga. Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, CAMBase, IndMed and the Cases Database were screened through February 2013; and 35 case reports and 2 case series reporting a total of 76 cases were included. Ten cases had medical preconditions, mainly glaucoma and osteopeni...

  8. Incident osteoarthritis associated with increased allied health services use in 'baby boomer' Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lynne; Moorin, Rachael; Peeters, Geeske; Byles, Julie; Blyth, Fiona; Caughey, Gillian; Cunich, Michelle; Magin, Parker; March, Lyn; Pond, Dimity

    2016-08-01

    To explore impact of incident osteoarthritis (OA) on health services use by Australian women born 1946-51. Secondary analysis of Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health survey data linked to Medicare Australia databases (2002 to 2011). Medicare services use was compared for two groups: OA group (n=761) - reported incident OA in 2007; Never group (n=4346) - did not report arthritis in time frame. Interrupted time series regression compared health services use over time. The OA group had higher health services use than the Never group. Rate of services use increased over time for both groups. Rate of increase in quarterly doctor attendances was significantly lower for the OA group after onset of OA, with no corresponding change for the Never group. A pre-existing higher use of health services is associated with reporting incident OA, compared to those who never report arthritis. After onset of OA, rate of doctor use reduced and allied health use increased, consistent with recommended Australian treatment guidelines. This study provides a rare insight into change in healthcare use for people reporting incident OA, against an appropriate comparison group, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis of OA to optimise effective use of health services. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Falls risk assessment outcomes and factors associated with falls for older Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Keith D; Flicker, Leon; LoGiudice, Dina; Smith, Kate; Atkinson, David; Hyde, Zoë; Fenner, Stephen; Skeaf, Linda; Malay, Roslyn; Boyle, Eileen

    2016-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of falls and associated risk factors in older Indigenous Australians, and compare the accuracy of validated falls risk screening and assessment tools in this population in classifying fall status. Cross-sectional study of 289 Indigenous Australians aged ≥45 years from the Kimberley region of Western Australia who had a detailed assessment including self-reported falls in the past year (n=289), the adapted Elderly Falls Screening Tool (EFST; n=255), and the Falls Risk for Older People-Community (FROP-Com) screening tool (3 items, n=74) and FROP-Com falls assessment tool (n=74). 32% of participants had ≥1 fall in the preceding year, and 37.3% were classified high falls risk using the EFST (cut-off ≥2). In contrast, for the 74 participants assessed with the FROP-Com, only 14.9% were rated high risk, 35.8% moderate risk, and 49.3% low risk. The FROP-Com screen and assessment tools had the highest classification accuracy for identifying fallers in the preceding year (area under curve >0.85), with sensitivity/specificity highest for the FROP-Com assessment (cut-off ≥12), sensitivity=0.84 and specificity=0.73. Falls are common in older Indigenous Australians. The FROP-Com falls risk assessment tool appears useful in this population, and this research suggests changes that may improve its utility further. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. How is research publishing going to progress in the next 20 years? Transcription of session for editors, associate editors, publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing held at IADR meeting in Seattle on Wednesday, 20 March 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, K A; Holland, G R; Giannobile, W V; Hancocks, S; Robinson, P G; Lynch, C D

    2014-05-01

    On March 20th 2013, a one-hour session for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing was held at the IADR International Session in Seattle. Organised by Kenneth Eaton and Chris Lynch (Chair and Secretary, respectively, of the British Dental Editors Forum), the meeting sought to bring together leading international experts in dental publishing, as well as authors, reviewers and students engaged in research. The meeting was an overwhelming success, with more than 100 attendees. A panel involving four leading dental editors led a discussion on anticipated developments in publishing dental research with much involvement and contribution from audience members. This was the third such meeting held at the IADR for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. A follow up session will take place in Cape Town on 25 June 2014 as part of the annual IADR meeting. The transcript of the meeting is reproduced in this article. Where possible speakers are identified by name. At the first time of mention their role/ position is also stated, thereafter only their name appears. We are grateful to Stephen Hancocks Ltd for their generous sponsorship of this event. For those who were not able to attend the authors hope this article gives a flavour of the discussions and will encourage colleagues to attend future events. Involvement is open to Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. It is a very open group and all those with an interest will be welcome to join in. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Dental Education Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Interested and Influential: The Role of a Professional Association in the Development of the Foundation to Year 10 Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldis, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Australian Geography Teachers Association (AGTA) represents the views of Australian geography teachers on educational matters. AGTA also seeks to improve the capacity of geography teachers to respond to a changing teaching and learning landscape. The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) is an independent authority…

  12. How is research publishing going to progress in the next 20 years?: transcription of session for editors, associate editors, publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing held at IADR meeting in Seattle on Wednesday, 20 March 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Kenneth A; Rex Holland, G; Giannobile, William V; Hancocks, Stephen; Robinson, Peter G; Lynch, Christopher D

    2014-03-01

    On March 20th 2013, a one-hour session for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing was held at the IADR International Session in Seattle. Organised by Kenneth Eaton and Christopher Lynch (Chair and Secretary, respectively, of the British Dental Editors Forum), the meeting sought to bring together leading international experts in dental publishing, as well as authors, reviewers and students engaged in research. The meeting was an overwhelming success, with more than 100 attendees. A panel involving four leading dental editors led a discussion on anticipated developments in publishing dental research with much involvement and contribution from audience members. This was the third such meeting held at the IADR for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. A follow-up session will take place in Cape Town on 25 June 2014 as part of the annual IADR meeting. The transcript of the Seattle meeting is reproduced in this article. Where possible speakers are identified by name. At the first time of mention their role/position is also stated, thereafter only their name appears. We are grateful to Stephen Hancocks Ltd. for their generous sponsorship of this event. For those who were not able to attend the authors hope this article gives a flavour of the discussions and will encourage colleagues to attend future events. Involvement is open to Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. It is a very open group and all those with an interest will be welcome to join in. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Readability Assessment of Patient Education Material Published by German-Speaking Associations of Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betschart, Patrick; Zumstein, Valentin; Hasan Ali, Omar; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Abt, Dominik

    2018-01-01

    To assess the readability and comprehensibility of web-based German-language patient education material (PEM) issued by urological associations. German PEM available in June 2017 was obtained from the European Association of Urology (EAU), German (DGU), Swiss (SGU) and Austrian (ÖGU) Association of Urology websites. Each educational text was analyzed separately using 4 well-established readability assessment tools: the Amstad Test (AT), G-SMOG (SMOG), Wiener Sachtextformel (WS) and the Lesbarkeitsindex (LIX). The EAU has issued PEM on 8 topics, the DGU 22 and the SGU 5. The ÖGU refers to the PEMs published by the DGU. Calculation of grade levels (SMOG, WS, LIX) showed readability scores of the 7th-14th grades. The easiest readability was found for materials on Nocturia and Urinary Incontinence issued by the EAU. Kidney Cancer and Infertility, issued by the DGU had the hardest readability. The EAU achieved the best median AT score, followed by the SGU, and the DGU. Remarkable differences between readability were found for the PEMs issued by EAU, DGU and SGU. Materials published by the EAU were the easiest to read. Improving the readability of certain PEMs is of crucial importance to meet patient needs and act in the interests of a growing, self-informing German-speaking patient community. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Associations between yoga practice and joint problems: a cross-sectional survey among 9151 Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Schumann, Dania; Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon; Cramer, Holger

    2017-07-01

    Yoga exercises have been associated with joint problems recently, indicating that yoga practice might be potentially dangerous for joint health. This study aimed to analyse whether regular yoga practice is associated with the frequency of joint problems in upper middle-aged Australian women. Women aged 62-67 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were questioned in 2013 whether they experienced regular joint pain or problems in the past 12 months and whether they regularly practiced yoga. Associations of joint problems with yoga practice were analysed using Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling. Of 9151 women, 29.8% reported regular problems with stiff or painful joints, and 15.2, 11.9, 18.1 and 15.9% reported regular problems with shoulders, hips, knees and feet, respectively, in the past 12 months. Yoga was practiced sometimes by 10.1% and often by 8.4% of women. Practicing yoga was not associated with upper or lower limb joint problems. No association between yoga practice and joint problems has been identified. Further studies are warranted for conclusive judgement of benefits and safety of yoga in relation to joint problems.

  15. A Western Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Poor Academic Performance in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Hickling, Siobhan; Foster, Jonathan K.; Jacques, Angela; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and academic performance among 14-year-old adolescents. Study participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered when the adolescents were 14 years old, and from the dietary data, a ‘Healthy’ and a ‘Western’ dietary pattern were identified by factor analysis. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA) results from grade nine (age 14) were linked to the Raine Study data by The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between the dietary patterns and the WALNA (mathematics, reading and writing scores) were assessed using multivariate linear regression models adjusting for family and socioeconomic characteristics. Complete data on dietary patterns, academic performance and covariates were available for individuals across the different analyses as follows: n = 779 for mathematics, n = 741 for reading and n = 470 for writing. Following adjustment, significant negative associations between the ‘Western’ dietary pattern and test scores for mathematics (β = −13.14; 95% CI: −24.57; −1.76); p = 0.024) and reading (β = −19.16; 95% CI: −29.85; −8.47; p ≤ 0.001) were observed. A similar trend was found with respect to writing (β = −17.28; 95% CI: −35.74; 1.18; p = 0.066). ANOVA showed significant trends in estimated means of academic scores across quartiles for both the Western and Healthy patterns. Higher scores for the ‘Western’ dietary pattern are associated with poorer academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25898417

  16. A Western Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Poor Academic Performance in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Nyaradi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and academic performance among 14-year-old adolescents. Study participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered when the adolescents were 14 years old, and from the dietary data, a ‘Healthy’ and a ‘Western’ dietary pattern were identified by factor analysis. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA results from grade nine (age 14 were linked to the Raine Study data by The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between the dietary patterns and the WALNA (mathematics, reading and writing scores were assessed using multivariate linear regression models adjusting for family and socioeconomic characteristics. Complete data on dietary patterns, academic performance and covariates were available for individuals across the different analyses as follows: n = 779 for mathematics, n = 741 for reading and n = 470 for writing. Following adjustment, significant negative associations between the ‘Western’ dietary pattern and test scores for mathematics (β = −13.14; 95% CI: −24.57; −1.76; p = 0.024 and reading (β = −19.16; 95% CI: −29.85; −8.47; p ≤ 0.001 were observed. A similar trend was found with respect to writing (β = −17.28; 95% CI: −35.74; 1.18; p = 0.066. ANOVA showed significant trends in estimated means of academic scores across quartiles for both the Western and Healthy patterns. Higher scores for the ‘Western’ dietary pattern are associated with poorer academic performance in adolescence.

  17. Association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment and 10-year mortality amongst Indigenous Australians: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, José; Kaidonis, Georgia; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie E; Landers, John

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment significantly impairs the length and quality of life, but little is known of its impact in Indigenous Australians. To investigate the association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment with all-cause mortality. A retrospective cohort analysis. A total of 1347 Indigenous Australians aged over 40 years. Participants visiting remote medical clinics underwent clinical examinations including visual acuity, subjective refraction and slit-lamp examination of the anterior and posterior segments. The major ocular cause of visual impairment was determined. Patients were assessed periodically in these remote clinics for the succeeding 10 years after recruitment. Mortality rates were obtained from relevant departments. All-cause 10-year mortality and its association with disease-specific causes of visual impairment. The all-cause mortality rate for the entire cohort was 29.3% at the 10-year completion of follow-up. Of those with visual impairment, the overall mortality rate was 44.9%. The mortality rates differed for those with visual impairment due to cataract (59.8%), diabetic retinopathy (48.4%), trachoma (46.6%), 'other' (36.2%) and refractive error (33.4%) (P visual impairment from diabetic retinopathy were any more likely to die during the 10 years of follow-up when compared with those without visual impairment (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.00-2.87; P = 0.049). Visual impairment was associated with all-cause mortality in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. However, diabetic retinopathy was the only ocular disease that significantly increased the risk of mortality. Visual impairment secondary to diabetic retinopathy may be an important predictor of mortality. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. Prevalence and associations of psychological distress in Australian junior medical officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michelle W; Li, Wenlong E; Llewellyn, Anthony; Cyna, Allan M

    2017-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychological distress in Australian junior medical officers (JMO) and investigate the determinants associated with psychological distress over a 3-year (2014-2016) period. JMO were surveyed using the 2014-2016 JMO Census (n = 220, 399 and 466 each year; response rate approximately 15%). Levels of psychological distress were assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). A K10 ≥ 25 was chosen to indicate high psychological distress, and this determinant was compared to various demographic and work-related factors. Australian JMO experience a high level of psychological distress (mean: 18.1, median 16.0). There were no differences in demographical variables, such as age, gender, marital status, dependants and between postgraduate years 1 and 2. Increasing hours worked per week was associated with a higher K10, with every hour worked increasing odds by 3%. Attitudinal items, including feeling unwilling to study medicine again, feeling poorly trained and experiences of bullying, were related to high psychological distress. Coping strategies like exercise and spending time with friends correlated positively with lower distress, while time off work, frequent alcohol use, smoking and drug use were associated with increased distress levels. Of those with a high K10, 54.5% indicated that they did not use any form of professional support; 17.83% expressed that given their time again, they would not choose to study medicine. A focused approach to JMO support and education regarding significant risk factors identified is likely to assist health policies that aim to improve the mental well-being of Australian JMO. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Factors associated with high consumption of soft drinks among Australian secondary-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Niven, Philippa; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-09-01

    To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of high consumption of soft drinks (non-alcoholic sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks excluding energy drinks) among Australian adolescents and to explore the associations between high consumption and soft drink perceptions and accessibility. Cross-sectional self-completion survey and height and weight measurements. Australian secondary schools. Students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2012-13 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 7835). Overall, 14 % of students reported consuming four or more cups (≥1 litres) of soft drinks each week ('high soft drink consumers'). Demographic factors associated with high soft drink consumption were being male and having at least $AU 40 in weekly spending money. Behavioural factors associated with high soft drink consumption were low fruit intake, consuming energy drinks on a weekly basis, eating fast foods at least once weekly, eating snack foods ≥14 times/week, watching television for >2 h/d and sleeping for Students who perceived soft drinks to be usually available in their home, convenient to buy and good value for money were more likely to be high soft drink consumers, as were students who reported usually buying these drinks when making a beverage purchase from the school canteen/vending machine. High soft drink consumption clusters with other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among Australian secondary-school students. Interventions focused on reducing the availability of soft drinks (e.g. increased taxes, restricting their sale in schools) as well as improved education on their harms are needed to lower adolescents' soft drink intake.

  20. Publish or perish? A survey of abstracts accepted for meetings of the British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, and subsequently published.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Jonathan M; Vig, Navin; Hammond, Douglas

    2010-10-01

    Publications are important for all surgeons, including those practising oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). The results of relevant research are usually presented at the annual scientific meetings of the British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (BAOMS). The aim of this study was to find out how many abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the BAOMS go on to be published. Lists of abstracts accepted at BAOMS meetings 2002-2006 were obtained, and a thorough search was made for each article using the web-based search engine PubMed. Related publications were recorded. A total of 623 abstracts were accepted, of which only 147 (24%) resulted in peer-reviewed publication. Compared with clinical studies, scientific research was in the minority, but was more likely to appear in print and in journals with higher impact factors. Units with senior academic input had better records of publication. Currently only a small fraction of studies deemed worthy of presentation at the BAOMS become publications. This conversion from presentation to print is facilitated by strong academic support. Exposing trainees in OMFS training posts to basic research training might improve their ability to publish. Copyright © 2009 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the utility of data from the International HapMap Project for Australian association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovich, Jim; Cox, Charles J; Tan, Rachel B; Montgomery, Douglas S; Huxtable, Stewart J; Rubio, Justin P; Ehm, Margaret G; Johnson, Laura; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Speed, Terence P; Roses, Allen D; Bahlo, Melanie; Foote, Simon J

    2006-03-01

    We compare patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) for 633 SNPs in two regions between samples collected in two Australian states and HapMap samples collected from Utah residents of Northern and Western (NW) European ancestry (CEU). Patterns of LD in the Australian and HapMap samples are similar, and tag SNPs chosen using HapMap genotypes perform almost as well on Australian samples as tags chosen using Australian genotypes.

  2. Factors associated with unwanted sexual experiences of young Australian females: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Asvini K; Jayasinghe, Yasmin L; Wark, John D; Gorelik, Alexandra; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-08-01

    Background Behavioural and lifestyle factors associated with childhood unwanted sexual experiences (USE) have yet to be investigated in Australian females aged less than 18 years. Women aged 16-25 years living in Victoria were recruited via targeted advertising on Facebook. A web-based validated questionnaire was used to collect information on participant demographics, mental health, USE and sexual behaviours. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine associations between a history of childhood (depression were almost four times as likely to have experienced childhood USE than those who did not report suffering from depression (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 2.1-6.0, Pdepression and same-sex sexual behaviours was found, but results did not determine the direction of this association. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to investigate whether there are groups of individuals who are at a high risk of experiencing childhood USE, so that appropriate support systems can be put in place.

  3. Phylogenetic and microsatellite markers for Tulasnella (Tulasnellaceae) mycorrhizal fungi associated with Australian orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Monica P; Peakall, Rod; Smith, Leon M; Linde, Celeste C

    2013-03-01

    Phylogenetic and microsatellite markers were developed for Tulasnella mycorrhizal fungi to investigate fungal species identity and diversity. These markers will be useful in future studies investigating the phylogenetic relationship of the fungal symbionts, specificity of orchid-mycorrhizal associations, and the role of mycorrhizae in orchid speciation within several orchid genera. • We generated partial genome sequences of two Tulasnella symbionts originating from Chiloglottis and Drakaea orchid species with 454 genome sequencing. Cross-genus transferability across mycorrhizal symbionts associated with multiple genera of Australian orchids (Arthrochilus, Chiloglottis, Drakaea, and Paracaleana) was found for seven phylogenetic loci. Five loci showed cross-transferability to Tulasnella from other orchid genera, and two to Sebacina. Furthermore, 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for Tulasnella from Chiloglottis. • Highly informative markers were obtained, allowing investigation of mycorrhizal diversity of Tulasnellaceae associated with a wide variety of terrestrial orchids in Australia and potentially worldwide.

  4. Phylogenetic and Microsatellite Markers for Tulasnella (Tulasnellaceae Mycorrhizal Fungi Associated with Australian Orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica P. Ruibal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Phylogenetic and microsatellite markers were developed for Tulasnella mycorrhizal fungi to investigate fungal species identity and diversity. These markers will be useful in future studies investigating the phylogenetic relationship of the fungal symbionts, specificity of orchid–mycorrhizal associations, and the role of mycorrhizae in orchid speciation within several orchid genera. Methods and Results: We generated partial genome sequences of two Tulasnella symbionts originating from Chiloglottis and Drakaea orchid species with 454 genome sequencing. Cross-genus transferability across mycorrhizal symbionts associated with multiple genera of Australian orchids (Arthrochilus, Chiloglottis, Drakaea, and Paracaleana was found for seven phylogenetic loci. Five loci showed cross-transferability to Tulasnella from other orchid genera, and two to Sebacina. Furthermore, 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for Tulasnella from Chiloglottis. Conclusions: Highly informative markers were obtained, allowing investigation of mycorrhizal diversity of Tulasnellaceae associated with a wide variety of terrestrial orchids in Australia and potentially worldwide.

  5. Adverse events associated with yoga: a systematic review of published case reports and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Krucoff, Carol; Dobos, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    While yoga is gaining increased popularity in North America and Europe, its safety has been questioned in the lay press. The aim of this systematic review was to assess published case reports and case series on adverse events associated with yoga. Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, CAMBase, IndMed and the Cases Database were screened through February 2013; and 35 case reports and 2 case series reporting a total of 76 cases were included. Ten cases had medical preconditions, mainly glaucoma and osteopenia. Pranayama, hatha yoga, and Bikram yoga were the most common yoga practices; headstand, shoulder stand, lotus position, and forceful breathing were the most common yoga postures and breathing techniques cited. Twenty-seven adverse events (35.5%) affected the musculoskeletal system; 14 (18.4%) the nervous system; and 9 (11.8%) the eyes. Fifteen cases (19.7%) reached full recovery; 9 cases (11.3%) partial recovery; 1 case (1.3%) no recovery; and 1 case (1.3%) died. As any other physical or mental practice, yoga should be practiced carefully under the guidance of a qualified instructor. Beginners should avoid extreme practices such as headstand, lotus position and forceful breathing. Individuals with medical preconditions should work with their physician and yoga teacher to appropriately adapt postures; patients with glaucoma should avoid inversions and patients with compromised bone should avoid forceful yoga practices.

  6. Adverse events associated with yoga: a systematic review of published case reports and case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Cramer

    Full Text Available While yoga is gaining increased popularity in North America and Europe, its safety has been questioned in the lay press. The aim of this systematic review was to assess published case reports and case series on adverse events associated with yoga. Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, CAMBase, IndMed and the Cases Database were screened through February 2013; and 35 case reports and 2 case series reporting a total of 76 cases were included. Ten cases had medical preconditions, mainly glaucoma and osteopenia. Pranayama, hatha yoga, and Bikram yoga were the most common yoga practices; headstand, shoulder stand, lotus position, and forceful breathing were the most common yoga postures and breathing techniques cited. Twenty-seven adverse events (35.5% affected the musculoskeletal system; 14 (18.4% the nervous system; and 9 (11.8% the eyes. Fifteen cases (19.7% reached full recovery; 9 cases (11.3% partial recovery; 1 case (1.3% no recovery; and 1 case (1.3% died. As any other physical or mental practice, yoga should be practiced carefully under the guidance of a qualified instructor. Beginners should avoid extreme practices such as headstand, lotus position and forceful breathing. Individuals with medical preconditions should work with their physician and yoga teacher to appropriately adapt postures; patients with glaucoma should avoid inversions and patients with compromised bone should avoid forceful yoga practices.

  7. Association of trial registration with the results and conclusions of published trials of new oncology drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Registration of clinical trials has been introduced largely to reduce bias toward statistically significant results in the trial literature. Doubts remain about whether advance registration alone is an adequate measure to reduce selective publication, selective outcome reporting, and biased design. One of the first areas of medicine in which registration was widely adopted was oncology, although the bulk of registered oncology trials remain unpublished. The net influence of registration on the literature remains untested. This study compares the prevalence of favorable results and conclusions among published reports of registered and unregistered randomized controlled trials of new oncology drugs. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of published original research articles reporting clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of drugs newly approved for antimalignancy indications by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA from 2000 through 2005. Drugs receiving first-time approval for indications in oncology were identified using the FDA web site and Thomson Centerwatch. Relevant trial reports were identified using PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Evidence of advance trial registration was obtained by a search of clinicaltrials.gov, WHO, ISRCTN, NCI-PDQ trial databases and corporate trial registries, as well as articles themselves. Data on blinding, results for primary outcomes, and author conclusions were extracted independently by two coders. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression identified associations between favorable results and conclusions and independent variables including advance registration, study design characteristics, and industry sponsorship. Results Of 137 original research reports from 115 distinct randomized trials assessing 25 newly approved drugs for treating cancer, the 54 publications describing data from trials registered prior to publication were as likely to report

  8. Prevalent and incident bacterial vaginosis are associated with sexual and contraceptive behaviours in young Australian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona S Bradshaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine prevalence and incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and risk factors in young sexually-active Australian women. METHODS: 1093 women aged 16-25 years were recruited from primary-care clinics. Participants completed 3-monthly questionnaires and self-collected vaginal smears 6-monthly for 12-months. The primary endpoint was a Nugent Score = 7-10 (BV and the secondary endpoint was a NS = 4-10 (abnormal flora [AF]. BV and AF prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were derived, and adjusted odds ratios (AOR calculated to explore epidemiological associations with prevalent BV and AF. Proportional-hazards regression models were used to examine factors associated with incident BV and AF. RESULTS: At baseline 129 women had BV [11.8% (95%CI: 9.4-14.2] and 188 AF (17.2%; 15.1-19.5. Prevalent BV was associated with having a recent female partner [AOR = 2.1; 1.0-4.4] and lack of tertiary-education [AOR = 1.9; 1.2-3.0]; use of an oestrogen-containing contraceptive (OCC was associated with reduced risk [AOR = 0.6; 0.4-0.9]. Prevalent AF was associated with the same factors, and additionally with >5 male partners (MSP in 12-months [AOR = 1.8; 1.2-2.5], and detection of C.trachomatis or M.genitalium [AOR = 2.1; 1.0-4.5]. There were 82 cases of incident BV (9.4%;7.7-11.7/100 person-years and 129 with incident AF (14.8%; 12.5-17.6/100 person-years. Incident BV and AF were associated with a new MSP [adjusted rate ratio (ARR = 1.5; 1.1-2.2 and ARR = 1.5; 1.1-2.0], respectively. OCC-use was associated with reduced risk of incident AF [ARR = 0.7; 0.5-1.0]. CONCLUSION: This paper presents BV and AF prevalence and incidence estimates from a large prospective cohort of young Australian women predominantly recruited from primary-care clinics. These data support the concept that sexual activity is strongly associated with the development of BV and AF and that use of an OCC is associated with

  9. Development of phylogenetic markers for Sebacina (Sebacinaceae) mycorrhizal fungi associated with Australian orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Monica P; Peakall, Rod; Foret, Sylvain; Linde, Celeste C

    2014-06-01

    To investigate fungal species identity and diversity in mycorrhizal fungi of order Sebacinales, we developed phylogenetic markers. These new markers will enable future studies investigating species delineation and phylogenetic relationships of the fungal symbionts and facilitate investigations into evolutionary interactions among Sebacina species and their orchid hosts. • We generated partial genome sequences for a Sebacina symbiont originating from Caladenia huegelii with 454 genome sequencing and from three symbionts from Eriochilus dilatatus and one from E. pulchellus using Illumina sequencing. Six nuclear and two mitochondrial loci showed high variability (10-31% parsimony informative sites) for Sebacinales mycorrhizal fungi across four genera of Australian orchids (Caladenia, Eriochilus, Elythranthera, and Glossodia). • We obtained highly informative DNA markers that will allow investigation of mycorrhizal diversity of Sebacinaceae fungi associated with terrestrial orchids in Australia and worldwide.

  10. The Longitudinal Association of Childhood School Engagement with Adult Educational and Occupational Achievement: Findings from an Australian National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Martin, Kara; Ollington, Nadia; Venn, Alison; Dwyer, Terry; Gall, Seana

    2014-01-01

    The research investigated the association between school engagement and adult education and occupation outcomes, within the context of a 1985 Australian longitudinal national cohort study of the factors affecting children's long-term health and well-being. School engagement may be more modifiable than other factors related to academic success,…

  11. Driving a Fishery along the Bumpy Ride of Today's Globalisation: The Case of the Australian Southern Rock Lobster Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Lu, J.; English, F.; McBride, R.

    2012-01-01

    The case of the Australian Southern Rock Lobster Association describes real issues faced by the Market Development Manager of a collective agri-food organization (SRL) representing all the southern rock lobster fishermen in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. The case deals with recent

  12. Having fewer than 21 teeth associated with poorer general health among South Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lisa; Brennan, David; Peres, Marco A; Luzzi, Liana; Miller, Caroline; Bowden, Jacqui; McCaffrey, Nikki

    2017-06-01

    To explore whether having less than 21 teeth is associated with poorer general health in a representative population sample of South Australians. Data were from a cross-sectional state-based survey, conducted from September to December 2013. Complete data were available for 2,908 participants (58 percent response rate). General health-related quality of life (HrQOL), as measured by the EuroQol instrument (EQ-5D-5L), was the main outcome measure. Total disutility scores were calculated, with the five individual EQ-5D dimensions then dichotomized into "no problems" and "at least one problem." The main explanatory variable was self-reported missing teeth, as assessed by having poorer general health). In multivariable analysis, total disutility was positively associated with older age, lower annual household income, lower levels of physical activity, being a current tobacco smoker, receiving mental health treatment and associated with mobility problems (PR 1.26, 95 percent CI 1.06, 1.50) and pain/discomfort (PR 1.16, 95 percent CI 1.06, 1.27). Missing teeth was associated with poor general health status as measured by EQ-5D-5L disutility. The relationship was especially evident with respect to mobility and pain/discomfort. The findings emphasize the importance of oral health as predictors of general health. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  13. Energy drink consumption is associated with anxiety in Australian young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Georgina S A; Allen, Karina; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-05-01

    Energy drinks are predominantly targeted to young adult consumers; however, there has been limited research into their effects on psychological functioning in this demographic group. This study examined cross-sectional associations between energy drink consumption and mental health in a population-based sample of young adults participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. We used self-report questionnaires to assess energy drink consumption and mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. In the regression analyses, we considered associations between energy drink consumption (mL/day) and continuous DASS-21 scores, adjusting for sociodemographic variables, alcohol and drug use, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and dietary intake. Our sample included 502 males and 567 females (mean age 20 ± 3 years). After adjusting for potential confounding factors and controlling for coexisting mental health problems, energy drink consumption (per 100 mL/day) was significantly associated with anxiety (but not depression or stress), and this relationship was found only in males (β = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.58). Our study found that energy drink consumption was associated with increased anxiety in young adult males. Further research into the possible contribution of energy drink use to the development of mental health problems in young adults is needed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Associations between selected dietary behaviours and academic achievement: A study of Australian school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy; Goldman, Sharni; Olson, Richard K; Byrne, Brian; Coventry, William L

    2017-09-01

    Research investigating the effects of dietary behaviours on children's academic achievement has predominately focused on breakfast consumption. The aim of this study was to conduct secondary analysis to examine associations between a range of dietary behaviours and children's academic achievement. Data on five dietary variables (fruit intake; vegetable intake; consumption of takeaway; sugar sweetened beverages; and breakfast) and scores in the five domains of a standardised academic achievement test known as NAPLAN (reading, writing, grammar/punctuation, spelling and numeracy) were obtained for Australian children aged 8-15 years in school grades three (n = 1185), five (n = 1147), seven (n = 1053) and nine (n = 860). Mixed linear models adjusted for socioeconomic status and gender were used to examine associations between dietary behaviours and academic scores. Greater consumption of vegetables with the evening meal (7 nights/week) was associated with higher test scores in the domains of spelling and writing (p=writing, grammar/punctuation and numeracy (<0.01). The findings of this study demonstrate dietary behaviours are associated with higher academic achievement. Future research should further explore relationships between a wide range of dietary behaviours and children's academic achievement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors associated with trajectories of psychological distress for Australian fathers across the early parenting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Cooklin, Amanda; Christensen, Daniel; Nicholson, Jan M

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the course of fathers' psychological distress and associated risk factors beyond the postnatal period. Therefore, the current study aimed to: (a) assess the course of distress over 7 years postnatally; (b) identify classes of fathers defined by their symptom trajectories; and (c) identify early postnatal factors associated with persistent symptoms. Data from 2,470 fathers in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed using latent growth modelling. Fathers' psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler-6 (Kessler et al. in Arch Psychiatry 60:184-189, 2003) when their children were aged 0-1, 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7 years. Overall, distress was highest in the first postnatal year and then decreased over time. Two distinct trajectories were identified. The majority of fathers (92%) were identified as having minimal distress in the first postnatal year which decreased over time, whilst 8% had moderate distress which increased over time. Low parental self-efficacy, poor relationship and job quality were associated with 'persistent and increasing distress'. Early postnatal factors associated with fathers' persistent distress were identified, providing opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention.

  16. Dairy product consumption, dietary nutrient and energy density and associations with obesity in Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, T A; Bremner, A P; Bremer, H K; Seares, M E; Beilin, L J; Mori, T A; Lyons-Wall, P; Devine, A; Oddy, W H

    2015-10-01

    Dairy intake is likely to influence dietary energy density (ED) and nutrient density (ND), which are factors representing aspects of dietary quality. Although evidence suggests dairy intake is unlikely to contribute to obesity, intake tends to decrease over adolescence, potentially as a result of concerns around weight gain. We examined associations between dairy intake, ED and ND, and investigated relationships with obesity in adolescents. The present study comprised a cross-sectional study of 1613 14-year-olds in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Adolescents completed a 212-item food frequency questionnaire. Nutrient Rich Food index 9.3 (NRF9.3) was used to estimate ND. Age-specific body mass index (BMI) and waist-height cut-offs were used to categorise obesity risk. Mean (SD) dairy intake was: 2.62 (1.51) servings daily; ED was 4.53 (0.83) (food and beverage) and 6.28 (1.33) (food only); ND was 373 (109). Dairy intake was inversely associated with ED and positively associated with ND. The odds of being overweight (as assessed by BMI) increased by 1.24 (95% confidence interval = 1.09-1.42) with each 100-point increase in ND, after adjustment for potential confounders and energy intake. ED measures and dairy intake were inversely associated with obesity after adjustment for confounders; associations became nonsignificant after energy adjustment. The NRF9.3 was originally designed to assess foods, not diets. Further research in other cohorts to determine whether similar findings exist, or investigations into alternate measures of dietary ND, may prove useful. Our findings may be the result of factors such as an excess consumption of refined but fortified foods. Although higher dairy intakes were associated with higher ND, intakes were not associated with higher obesity risk. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Environmental Factors Associated with Success Rates of Australian Stock Herding Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Elizabeth R.; Early, Jonathan B.; Wade, Claire M.; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the current management practices associated with stock herding dogs on Australian farms. A parallel goal was to determine whether these practices and the characteristics of the dog handlers were associated with success rates. Success rate refers to the proportion of dogs acquired by the farmer that were retained as working dogs. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were obtained through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. Using logistic regression, significant associations were identified between success rate and seven variables: dog breed, housing method, trial participation, age of the dog at acquisition, electric collar use, hypothetical maximum treatment expenditure and the conscientiousness score of the owner's personality. These findings serve as a guide to direct further research into ways of optimising herding dog performance and welfare. They emphasise the importance of not only examining the genetic predispositions of the working dog but also the impact the handler can have on a dog's success in the workplace. PMID:25136828

  18. Associations between self-reported concussion with later violence injury among Australian early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L

    2017-03-01

    There is growing research finding associations between adolescents' concussion and negative outcomes, including violence, rarely however are the experiences of community-based early adolescents considered. This study examined associations between reports of concussion (Time-1) and reports of violence 1-year later (Time-2). Australian adolescents from 13 high-schools completed two identical surveys administered 12-months apart (n = 734 retained, initial mean age = 13.45). At the first survey, 91 students (13%) reported they had a concussion, and of these students, 40% reported seeing a doctor/attending hospital during the prior 3 months. Both self-reported experience of violent injury (from getting in a fight) and violent behaviour (getting in a fight) were predicted by reports of concussion in Year 9. This prediction held, when adding sex, Year 9 reports of violence, alcohol use, truancy and engagement in passenger and driving risk-taking to logistic regression models. Year 9 concussion was not predictive of later injury in other contexts, including transportation, falls or sports. The study highlights the need to understand concussion among community-based early adolescents including consider associations with violence.

  19. Association between short sleep duration and body mass index in Australian Indigenous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon-Crouch, Melissa; Skinner, Isabelle; Tucci, Joseph; Skinner, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Associations between short sleep duration and obesity and the relationship between obesity and chronic illness are well documented. Obese children are likely to become obese adults. To date, there is a paucity of information regarding sleep duration and quality for Indigenous Australian people. It may be that poor-quality, short sleep is contributing to the gap in health outcomes for Indigenous people compared with non-Indigenous adults and children. This study sought to investigate the possibility that poor sleep quality may be contributing to health outcomes for Indigenous children by exploring associations between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI). Participants included 1253 children aged 7-12 years in Wave 7 of the national Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children survey. Interviewers asked primary carers about children's sleep times. BMI was derived from measurements of children made by researchers. Regardless of age, relative socio-economic disadvantage and level of remoteness, unhealthy weight was associated with less sleep duration than healthy weight for Indigenous children. The relationship between short sleep duration and BMI in Indigenous children has important implications for their future health outcomes. Both overweight conditions and short sleep are established modifiable risk factors for metabolic dysfunction and other chronic illnesses prominent in the Indigenous population. It is important to consider strategies to optimise both for Indigenous children in an attempt to help 'close the gap' in health outcomes and life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Factors Associated With Sexual Coercion in a Representative Sample of Men in Australian Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Paul L; Reekie, Joanne; Butler, Tony G; Richters, Juliet; Yap, Lorraine; Grant, Luke; Richards, Alun; Donovan, Basil

    2016-07-01

    Very little research has focused on men or prisoners as victims of sexual violence. This study provides the first population-based analysis of factors associated with sexual coercion of men in Australian prisons, and the first to use a computer-assisted telephone interview to collect this information in a prison setting. A random sample of men in New South Wales and Queensland prisons were surveyed using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. We asked participants about sexual coercion, defined as being forced or frightened into doing something sexually that was unwanted while in prison. Associations between sexual coercion in prison and sociodemographics, sexual coercion history outside of prison, and prison-related factors were examined. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios in examining factors associated with sexual coercion in prisons. Of 2626 eligible men, 2000 participated. Participants identifying as non-heterosexual and those with a history of sexual coercion outside prison were found to be most at risk. Those in prison for the first time and those who had spent more than 5 years in prison ever were also more likely to report sexual coercion. Although prison policies and improving prison officer training may help address immediate safety and health concerns of those at risk, given the sensitivity of the issue and likely under-reporting to correctional staff, community-based organizations and prisoner peer-based groups arguably have a role too in providing both preventive and trauma-focused support.

  1. Environmental factors associated with success rates of Australian stock herding dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Elizabeth R; Early, Jonathan B; Wade, Claire M; McGreevy, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the current management practices associated with stock herding dogs on Australian farms. A parallel goal was to determine whether these practices and the characteristics of the dog handlers were associated with success rates. Success rate refers to the proportion of dogs acquired by the farmer that were retained as working dogs. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were obtained through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. Using logistic regression, significant associations were identified between success rate and seven variables: dog breed, housing method, trial participation, age of the dog at acquisition, electric collar use, hypothetical maximum treatment expenditure and the conscientiousness score of the owner's personality. These findings serve as a guide to direct further research into ways of optimising herding dog performance and welfare. They emphasise the importance of not only examining the genetic predispositions of the working dog but also the impact the handler can have on a dog's success in the workplace.

  2. Environmental factors associated with success rates of Australian stock herding dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Arnott

    Full Text Available This study investigated the current management practices associated with stock herding dogs on Australian farms. A parallel goal was to determine whether these practices and the characteristics of the dog handlers were associated with success rates. Success rate refers to the proportion of dogs acquired by the farmer that were retained as working dogs. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were obtained through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. Using logistic regression, significant associations were identified between success rate and seven variables: dog breed, housing method, trial participation, age of the dog at acquisition, electric collar use, hypothetical maximum treatment expenditure and the conscientiousness score of the owner's personality. These findings serve as a guide to direct further research into ways of optimising herding dog performance and welfare. They emphasise the importance of not only examining the genetic predispositions of the working dog but also the impact the handler can have on a dog's success in the workplace.

  3. Associations of sitting accumulation patterns with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettiere, John; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Chastin, Sebastien F M; Kerr, Jacqueline; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Healy, Genevieve N

    2017-01-01

    High amounts of time spent sitting can increase cardiovascular disease risk and are deleteriously associated cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers. Though evidence suggests that accruing sitting time in prolonged periods may convey additional risk, verification using high-quality measures is needed. We examined this issue in adults from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study, using accurate measures of sitting accumulation. In 2011/12, 739 adults aged 36 to 89 years (mean±SD 58±10 years) wore activPAL3™ monitors (which provide accurate objective measures of sitting); 678 provided ≥4 valid days of monitor data and complete cardio-metabolic biomarker and confounder data. Multivariable linear regression models examined associations of sitting time, sitting time accrued in ≥30 minute bouts (prolonged sitting time), and three measures of sitting accumulation patterns with cardio-metabolic risk markers: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, high- and low- density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour post-load glucose (PLG). Interactions tests examined whether associations of sitting time with biomarkers varied by usual sitting bout duration. Adjusted for potential confounders, greater amounts of sitting time and prolonged sitting time were significantly (pcardio-metabolic biomarkers and that sitting for prolonged periods at a time may exacerbate some of the effects of sitting time. The findings support sedentary behavior guidelines that promote reducing and regularly interrupting sitting.

  4. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maryam Safari; Soheila Mirshekary; Victoria Wise

    2015-01-01

      This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary...

  5. Associations between sports participation, adiposity and obesity-related health behaviors in Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A; Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Scully, Maree L; Morley, Belinda C

    2013-10-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organized sports participation, weight status, physical activity, screen time, and important food habits in a large nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents. Nationally representative cross-sectional study of 12,188 adolescents from 238 secondary schools aged between 12 and 17 years (14.47 ± 1.25 y, 53% male, 23% overweight/obese). Participation in organized sports, compliance with national physical activity, screen time, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods were self-reported. Weight status and adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) were measured. Organized sports participation was higher among males and those residing in rural/remote areas. Underweight adolescents reported the lowest levels of participation. Higher levels of participation were associated with an increased likelihood of complying with national physical activity (OR = 2.07 [1.67-2.58]), screen time (OR = 1.48 [1.19-1.84]), and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines (OR = 1.32 [1.05-1.67]). There was no association between organized sport participation and weight status, adiposity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages or high-fat foods. Participation in organized sports was associated with a greater likelihood to engage in a cluster of health behaviors, including meeting physical activity guidelines, electronic screen time recommendations, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines. However, participation in organized sports was not associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors including the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods. There is no association between participation in organized sports and likelihood to be overweight or obese. The role of sports in promoting healthy weight and energy balance is unclear.

  6. Personal, professional, and work factors associated with Australian clinical medical practitioners' experiences of workplace aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Danny J; Joyce, Catherine M

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the extent to which a range of personal, professional, and work factors are associated with workplace aggression experienced by medical practitioners in Australian clinical practice settings. An exploratory, descriptive study of cross-sectional, self-report survey design was undertaken in the third wave of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life survey during 2010-2011. Of 16 327 medical practitioners sampled, 9951 (60.9%) responded and 9449 (57.9%) worked in clinical practice. Logistic regression was undertaken to detect statistically significant associations between a suite of personal, professional, and work variables and eight binary outcome variables measuring exposure to verbal or written and physical aggression from patients, patients' relatives or carers, co-workers and others external to the workplace during the previous year. Age was consistently negatively associated and external control orientation was consistently positively associated with workplace aggression exposure from each source. Key variables related to work conditions (total hours worked, unpredictable work hours, a poor support network of other doctors, patients with unrealistic expectations, patients with complex health and social problems) and the presence of workplace aggression prevention and minimization strategies (alerts to high risk of aggression, restricting or withdrawing access for aggressive persons and optimized patient waiting) were also associated with aggression exposure. A broader implementation of strategies to prevent and minimize the likelihood and consequences of workplace aggression is required and needs to take account of both the individual and sub-group profiles of medical practitioners. Strategies need to mitigate the more challenging aspects of medical work, including excessive work hours, inadequate access to professional support networks, and larger caseloads of patients with complex conditions.

  7. Reverse Segond fracture and associated knee injuries: A case report and review of 13 published cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Kose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Reverse Segond fracture is originally described as an indirect radiographic clue for a specific injury complex of the knee joint that includes posterior cruciate ligament (PCL rupture and medial meniscal tear. Herein, we describe a case with reverse Segond fracture associated with PCL avulsion fracture instead of PCL rupture. According to current literature review, reverse Segond fracture is not only associated with PCL and medial meniscal injuries, but also frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL and medial collateral ligament (MCL injuries. Furthermore, medial meniscus and PCL may remain intact.

  8. A 12-week sports-based exercise programme for inactive Indigenous Australian men improved clinical risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendham, Amy E; Duffield, Rob; Marino, Frank; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the effect of a 12-week sports-based exercise intervention on glucose regulation, anthropometry and inflammatory markers associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Indigenous Australian men. Twenty-six inactive Indigenous Australian men (48.6±6.6 years) were randomized into exercise (n=16) or control (n=10)conditions. Training included ∼2-3 days/week for 12 weeks of sports and gym exercises in a group environment, whilst control participants maintained normal activity and dietary patterns. Pre- and post-intervention testing included: anthropometry, peak aerobic capacity, fasting blood chemistry of inflammatory cytokines, adiponectin, leptin, cholesterol, glucose, insulin and C-peptide. An oral glucose tolerance test measured glucose, insulin and C-peptide 30, 60, 90 and 120min post 75g glucose ingestion. The exercise condition decreased insulin area under the curve (25±22%), increased estimated insulin sensitivity (35±62%) and decreased insulin resistance (9±35%; p0.05). The exercise condition decreased in body mass index, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio (p0.05). Leptin decreased in the exercise group, with no changes for adiponectin (p>0.05) or inflammatory markers (p>0.05) in either condition. Aerobic fitness variables showed significant increases in peak oxygen consumption for the exercise condition compared to no change in control (p>0.05). Findings indicate positive clinical outcomes in metabolic, anthropometric and aerobic fitness variables. This study provides evidence for sport and group-based activities leading to improved clinical risk factors associated with T2DM development in clinically obese Indigenous Australian men. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel locus on canine chromosome 13 is associated with cataract in the Australian Shepherd breed of domestic dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Sally L; Pettitt, Louise; McLaughlin, Bryan; Jenkins, Christopher A; Mellersh, Cathryn S

    2015-06-01

    Hereditary cataract is a common ocular disorder in the purebred dog population and is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in dogs. Despite this, little is known to date about the genetics underlying this condition. We have used a genome-wide association study and targeted resequencing approach to identify a novel locus for cataracts in the Australian Shepherd breed of dog, using dogs that are clear of an HSF4 mutation, previously identified as the major susceptibility locus in this breed. Cataract cases were defined as dogs with bilateral posterior cataracts, or bilateral nuclear cataracts. Controls were at least 8 years of age with no evidence of cataracts or other ocular abnormality. Using 15 bilateral posterior polar cataract cases and 68 controls, we identified a genome-wide statistical association for cataracts in the Australian Shepherd on canine chromosome 13 at 46.4 Mb (P value: 1.5 × 10(-7)). We sequenced the 14.16 Mb associated region in ten Australian Shepherds to search for possible causal variants underlying the association signal and conducted additional fine-mapping of the region by genotyping 28 intronic variants that segregated correctly in our ten sequenced dogs. From this analysis, the strongest associated variants were located in intron 5 of the SCFD2 gene. Further study will require analysis of additional cases and controls and ocular tissue from dogs affected with bilateral cataracts that are free of the HSF4 mutation.

  10. Dietary patterns by reduced rank regression are associated with obesity and hypertension in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    Evidence linking dietary patterns (DP) and obesity and hypertension prevalence is inconsistent. We aimed to identify DP derived from energy density, fibre and sugar intakes, as well as Na, K, fibre, SFA and PUFA, and investigate associations with obesity and hypertension. Adults (n 4908) were included from the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011-2013. Two 24-h dietary recalls estimated food and nutrient intakes. Reduced rank regression derived DP with dietary energy density (DED), fibre density and total sugar intake as response variables for obesity and Na:K, SFA:PUFA and fibre density as variables for hypertension. Poisson regression investigated relationships between DP and prevalence ratios (PR) of overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and hypertension (blood pressure≥140/90 mmHg). Obesity-DP1 was positively correlated with fibre density and sugars and inversely with DED. Obesity-DP2 was positively correlated with sugars and inversely with fibre density. Individuals in the highest tertile of Obesity-DP1 and Obesity-DP2, compared with the lowest, had lower (PR 0·88; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·95) and higher (PR 1·09; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·18) prevalence of obesity, respectively. Na:K and SFA:PUFA were positively correlated with Hypertension-DP1 and inversely correlated with Hypertension-DP2, respectively. There was a trend towards higher hypertension prevalence in the highest tertile of Hypertension-DP1 compared with the lowest (PR 1·18; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·41). Hypertension-DP2 was not associated with hypertension. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with low-DED, high-fibre and high-sugar (natural sugars) diets and positively associated with low-fibre and high-sugar (added sugars) diets. Hypertension prevalence was higher on low-fibre and high-Na and SFA diets.

  11. Associations of sitting accumulation patterns with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers in Australian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bellettiere

    Full Text Available High amounts of time spent sitting can increase cardiovascular disease risk and are deleteriously associated cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers. Though evidence suggests that accruing sitting time in prolonged periods may convey additional risk, verification using high-quality measures is needed. We examined this issue in adults from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study, using accurate measures of sitting accumulation.In 2011/12, 739 adults aged 36 to 89 years (mean±SD 58±10 years wore activPAL3™ monitors (which provide accurate objective measures of sitting; 678 provided ≥4 valid days of monitor data and complete cardio-metabolic biomarker and confounder data. Multivariable linear regression models examined associations of sitting time, sitting time accrued in ≥30 minute bouts (prolonged sitting time, and three measures of sitting accumulation patterns with cardio-metabolic risk markers: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, high- and low- density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG and 2-hour post-load glucose (PLG. Interactions tests examined whether associations of sitting time with biomarkers varied by usual sitting bout duration.Adjusted for potential confounders, greater amounts of sitting time and prolonged sitting time were significantly (p<0.05 deleteriously associated with BMI, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Total sitting time was also significantly associated with higher PLG. Sitting accumulation patterns of frequently interrupted sitting (compared to patterns with relatively more prolonged sitting were significantly beneficially associated with BMI, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, PLG, and with FPG. Effect sizes were typically larger for accumulation patterns than for sitting time. Significant interactions (p<0.05 showed that associations of sitting time with HDL

  12. Associations between indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eleanor J; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2010-03-26

    To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30) and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female) completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.

  13. Seeking Health Information Online: Association with Young Australian Women's Physical, Mental, and Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Ingrid Jean; Loxton, Deborah; Dobson, Annette; Mishra, Gita Devi

    2015-05-18

    Relatively little is known about the extent to which young adults use the Internet as a health information resource and whether there are factors that distinguish between those who do and do not go online for health information. The aim was to identify the sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with young women's use of the Internet for health information. We used data from 17,069 young women aged 18-23 years who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with searching the Internet for health information. Overall, 43.54% (7433/17,069) of women used the Internet for health information. Women who used the Internet had higher odds of regular urinary or bowel symptoms (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.36-1.54), psychological distress (very high distress: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13-1.37), self-reported mental health diagnoses (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.23), and menstrual symptoms (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.36) than women who did not use the Internet for health information. Internet users were less likely to have had blood pressure checks (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93) and skin cancer checks (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97) and to have had a live birth (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.86) or pregnancy loss (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.98) than non-Internet users. Women experiencing "stigmatized" conditions or symptoms were more likely to search the Internet for health information. The Internet may be an acceptable resource that offers "anonymized" information or support to young women and this has important implications for health service providers and public health policy.

  14. Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamieson Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Results REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. Conclusions REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.

  15. Health inequalities, physician citizens and professional medical associations: an Australian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naccarella Lucio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As socioeconomic health inequalities persist and widen, the health effects of adversity are a constant presence in the daily work of physicians. Gruen and colleagues suggest that, in responding to important population health issues such as this, defining those areas of professional obligation in contrast to professional aspiration should be on the basis of evidence and feasibility. Drawing this line between obligation and aspiration is a part of the work of professional medical colleges and associations, and in doing so they must respond to members as well as a range of other interest groups. Our aim was to explore the usefulness of Gruen's model of physician responsibility in defining how professional medical colleges and associations should lead the profession in responding to socioeconomic health inequalities. Methods We report a case study of how the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners is responding to the issue of health inequalities through its work. We undertook a consultation (80 interviews with stakeholders internal and external to the College and two focus groups with general practitioners and program and policy review of core programs of College interest and responsibility: general practitioner training and setting of practice standards, as well as its work in public advocacy. Results Some strategies within each of these College program areas were seen as legitimate professional obligations in responding to socioeconomic health inequality. However, other strategies, while potentially professional obligations within Gruen's model, were nevertheless contested. The key difference between these lay in different moral orientations. Actions where agreement existed were based on an ethos of care and compassion. Actions that were contested were based on an ethos of justice and human rights. Conclusion Colleges and professional medical associations have a role in explicitly leading a debate about values

  16. Factors associated with presenteeism among employed Australian adults reporting lifetime major depression with 12-month symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Fiona; Martin, Angela; Scott, Jenn; Venn, Alison; Otahal, Petr; Sanderson, Kristy

    2011-12-01

    Employees experiencing depression can take a sickness absence or continue working ('presenteeism'). However, little is known about the factors associated with these behaviors within this population. This study aimed to determine the relative importance of socio-demographic, financial, work and health-related factors associated with presenteeism. The 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing provided data from employed individuals reporting lifetime major depression with 12-month symptoms (N=320). Survey adjusted multivariable logistic regression assessed classification of 12-month, depression-related presenteeism on the basis of socio-demographic, financial, work and health factors. Acceptable classification of cases was 70% or greater. Classification of cases based on socio-demographic factors, age, sex and marital status, was reasonable (62%). Adding work factors (work hours and occupation type) produced a 1% increase in successfully classified cases (63%). Health factors further increased correctly classified cases (67%). Marital status, housing tenure and co-morbid mental disorders were important indicators of presenteeism behavior. Work-related variables were restricted to available measures. Potentially important psychosocial work environment factors were unavailable. Cross-sectional data precluded causal inference. Using available factors, model discrimination did not reach an acceptable level i.e. 70% of presenteeism cases successfully classified. This highlighted the contribution of unmeasured factors to presenteeism behavior. Future research should explore the relative importance of psychosocial work environment and personality factors such as work demands, effort/reward imbalance and conscientiousness. The identified associations between socio-demographic, financial and health factors on work attendance behaviors could inform disease management guidelines for employers via recognition of employees at risk of presenteeism. Copyright

  17. Metabolic Pathways Associated with Kimchi, a Traditional Korean Food, Based on Modeling of Published Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Hee Shin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kimchi is a traditional Korean food prepared by fermenting vegetables, such as Chinese cabbage and radishes, which are seasoned with various ingredients, including red pepper powder, garlic, ginger, green onion, fermented seafood (Jeotgal, and salt. The various unique microorganisms and bioactive components in kimchi show antioxidant activity and have been associated with an enhanced immune response, as well as anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects. Red pepper inhibits decay due to microorganisms and prevents food from spoiling. The vast amount of biological information generated by academic and industrial research groups is reflected in a rapidly growing body of scientific literature and expanding data resources. However, the genome, biological pathway, and related disease data are insufficient to explain the health benefits of kimchi because of the varied and heterogeneous data types. Therefore, we have constructed an appropriate semantic data model based on an integrated food knowledge database and analyzed the functional and biological processes associated with kimchi in silico. This complex semantic network of several entities and connections was generalized to answer complex questions, and we demonstrated how specific disease pathways are related to kimchi consumption.

  18. Adherence to 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and associations with social-cognitive development among Australian preschool children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dylan P. Cliff; Jade McNeill; Stewart A. Vella; Steven J. Howard; Rute Santos; Marijka Batterham; Edward Melhuish; Anthony D. Okely; Marc de Rosnay

    2017-01-01

    ...–13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of preschool children meeting these guidelines and investigates associations with social-cognitive development...

  19. Diet quality is associated with obesity and hypertension in Australian adults: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-10-01

    Poor diet, characterized by a low diet quality score, has been associated with greater prevelence of obesity and hypertension. However, the evidence is inconsistent across diet quality scores and by sex. The aim was to investigate the relationship between diet quality and obesity and hypertension. Adults (n = 4908; age 45.2 ± 0.24 years) were included from the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011-2013. Two 24-h dietary recalls were used to derive the dietary guideline index (DGI) and recommended food score (RFS). Logistic regression investigated relationships between diet quality score and odds ratio of obesity, hypertension and obesity-associated hypertension. In the highest tertile of DGI, but not RFS, individuals were less likely to be obese (men: OR 0.64, CI: 0.45, 0.92, P-trend = 0.014; women: 0.68, 0.48, 0.96, P-trend = 0.025) and to have central adiposity (men: 0.68, 0.48, 0.97, P-trend = 0.030; women: 0.53, 0.37, 0.77, P-trend = 0.001) compared with the lowest tertile. Men, but not women, in the highest tertile of DGI and RFS were less likely to be hypertensive (DGI: 0.56, 0.37, 0.85, P-trend = 0.006; RFS: 0.62, 0.41, 0.94, P-trend = 0.021) compared with the lowest tertile. In men with obesity, but not normal weight men or women, those in the highest tertile of DGI were less likely to be hypertensive (0.53, 0.36, 0.78, P-trend = 0.001) compared with the highest tertile. Higher diet quality, as estimated using DGI, was associated with lower odds ratio of obesity in men and women. Odds ratio of hypertension was lower in men, but not women, with a high diet quality score compared with a low score, while obesity-associated hypertension was only associated with diet quality score in men with obesity. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether diet quality predicts risk of obesity and hypertension.

  20. Diet quality is associated with obesity and hypertension in Australian adults: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Livingstone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor diet, characterized by a low diet quality score, has been associated with greater prevelence of obesity and hypertension. However, the evidence is inconsistent across diet quality scores and by sex. The aim was to investigate the relationship between diet quality and obesity and hypertension. Methods Adults (n = 4908; age 45.2 ± 0.24 years were included from the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011–2013. Two 24-h dietary recalls were used to derive the dietary guideline index (DGI and recommended food score (RFS. Logistic regression investigated relationships between diet quality score and odds ratio of obesity, hypertension and obesity-associated hypertension. Results In the highest tertile of DGI, but not RFS, individuals were less likely to be obese (men: OR 0.64, CI: 0.45, 0.92, P-trend = 0.014; women: 0.68, 0.48, 0.96, P-trend = 0.025 and to have central adiposity (men: 0.68, 0.48, 0.97, P-trend = 0.030; women: 0.53, 0.37, 0.77, P-trend = 0.001 compared with the lowest tertile. Men, but not women, in the highest tertile of DGI and RFS were less likely to be hypertensive (DGI: 0.56, 0.37, 0.85, P-trend = 0.006; RFS: 0.62, 0.41, 0.94, P-trend = 0.021 compared with the lowest tertile. In men with obesity, but not normal weight men or women, those in the highest tertile of DGI were less likely to be hypertensive (0.53, 0.36, 0.78, P-trend = 0.001 compared with the highest tertile. Conclusions Higher diet quality, as estimated using DGI, was associated with lower odds ratio of obesity in men and women. Odds ratio of hypertension was lower in men, but not women, with a high diet quality score compared with a low score, while obesity-associated hypertension was only associated with diet quality score in men with obesity. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether diet quality predicts risk of obesity and hypertension.

  1. Prevalence of congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness in Australian Cattle Dogs and associations with coat characteristics and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommerlad Susan F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness (CHSD occurs in many dog breeds, including Australian Cattle Dogs. In some breeds, CHSD is associated with a lack of cochlear melanocytes in the stria vascularis, certain coat characteristics, and potentially, abnormalities in neuroepithelial pigment production. This study investigates phenotypic markers for CHSD in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs. Results Auditory function was tested in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs in family groups using brainstem auditory evoked response testing. Coat colour and patterns, facial and body markings, gender and parental hearing status were recorded. Deafness prevalence among all 899 dogs was 10.8% with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.3% bilaterally deaf, and amongst pups from completely tested litters (n = 696 was 11.1%, with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.6% bilaterally deaf. Univariable and multivariable analyses revealed a negative association between deafness and bilateral facial masks (odds ratio 0.2; P ≤ 0.001. Using multivariable logistic animal modelling, the risk of deafness was lower in dogs with pigmented body spots (odds ratio 0.4; P = 0.050. No significant associations were found between deafness and coat colour. Within unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral facial masks, no association was observed between the side of deafness and side of mask. The side of unilateral deafness was not significantly clustered amongst unilaterally deaf dogs from the same litter. Females were at increased risk of deafness (odds ratio from a logistic animal model 1.9; P = 0.034 after adjusting for any confounding by mask type and pigmented body spots. Conclusions Australian Cattle Dogs suffer from CHSD, and this disease is more common in dogs with mask-free faces, and in those without pigmented body patches. In unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral masks, the lack of observed association between side of deafness and side of mask suggests that if CHSD is due to

  2. Prevalence of congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness in Australian Cattle Dogs and associations with coat characteristics and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerlad, Susan F; Morton, John M; Haile-Mariam, Mekonnen; Johnstone, Isobel; Seddon, Jennifer M; O'Leary, Caroline A

    2012-10-29

    Congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness (CHSD) occurs in many dog breeds, including Australian Cattle Dogs. In some breeds, CHSD is associated with a lack of cochlear melanocytes in the stria vascularis, certain coat characteristics, and potentially, abnormalities in neuroepithelial pigment production. This study investigates phenotypic markers for CHSD in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs. Auditory function was tested in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs in family groups using brainstem auditory evoked response testing. Coat colour and patterns, facial and body markings, gender and parental hearing status were recorded.Deafness prevalence among all 899 dogs was 10.8% with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.3% bilaterally deaf, and amongst pups from completely tested litters (n = 696) was 11.1%, with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.6% bilaterally deaf.Univariable and multivariable analyses revealed a negative association between deafness and bilateral facial masks (odds ratio 0.2; P ≤ 0.001). Using multivariable logistic animal modelling, the risk of deafness was lower in dogs with pigmented body spots (odds ratio 0.4; P = 0.050).No significant associations were found between deafness and coat colour.Within unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral facial masks, no association was observed between the side of deafness and side of mask. The side of unilateral deafness was not significantly clustered amongst unilaterally deaf dogs from the same litter. Females were at increased risk of deafness (odds ratio from a logistic animal model 1.9; P = 0.034) after adjusting for any confounding by mask type and pigmented body spots. Australian Cattle Dogs suffer from CHSD, and this disease is more common in dogs with mask-free faces, and in those without pigmented body patches. In unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral masks, the lack of observed association between side of deafness and side of mask suggests that if CHSD is due to defects in molecular pigment pathways, the molecular control

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with the use of acupuncture and Chinese medicine: results of a nationally representative survey of 17161 Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David

    2017-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine has considerable public support in Australia and elsewhere around the world; the literature suggests Chinese medicine (CM) and acupuncture are particularly popular. To examine factors associated with CM/acupuncture use among young/middle-aged Australian women. This research formed part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), a population-based cohort study. Data were obtained from the 'young' (34-39 years; n=8010) and 'middle-aged' (62-67 years; n=9151) ALSWH cohorts, who completed survey 6 (in 2012) and survey 7 (in 2013), respectively. Outcome measures included use of CM and visits to an acupuncturist in the previous 12 months. Predictive factors included demographic characteristics, and measures of health status (diagnosed chronic medical conditions) and health service utilisation. Statistical analyses included bivariate χ 2 tests, two proportions Z-tests and backward stepwise multiple logistic regression modelling. In total, 9.5% and 6.2% of women in the young and middle-aged cohorts, respectively, had consulted an acupuncturist, and 5.7% and 4.0%, respectively, had used CM. Young women with low iron levels and/or endometriosis were more likely to use CM and/or acupuncture. Middle-aged women with low iron levels and/or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) were more likely to use CM, while middle-aged women with arthritis and/or CFS were more likely to use acupuncture. Women with chronic conditions (including arthritis, low iron, CFS and endometriosis) were associated with higher odds of CM/acupuncture use. There is a need for further research to examine the potential benefits of CM/acupuncture for these chronic illnesses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Associations between childhood overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesogenic behaviors and practices in Australian homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Drayton, Bradley A; Bauman, Adrian E; Hardy, Louise L

    2017-07-21

    Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home environment on early childhood obesity, little is known on how weight-related behaviors, parent practices and the home environment influence overweight/obesity in older children and adolescents. This analysis used data from a cross-sectional, representative population survey of Australian children age 5-16 years conducted in 2015. Data included measured anthropometry to calculate body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; waist circumference/height). Information on home-based weight-related behaviors (individual eating and screen time behaviors, parent influences including rules and home environment factors) were measured using established short questions, with parental proxy reporting for children in up to grade 4, and self-report for students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between weight status and home-based weight-related behaviors. Both children and adolescents who did not consume breakfast daily were more likely to be overweight/obese OR (95% CI) = 1.39 (1.07-1.81) p = 0.015, OR (95% CI) =1.42 (1.16-1.74) p = 0.001, respectively, adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence and physical activity. There was also a significant positive association with higher waist-to-height ratio in both children and adolescents. Among children, having a TV in the bedroom was also associated with overweight and obesity OR (95% CI) = 1.54 (1.13-2.09) p = 0.006 and higher waist-to-height ratio. For adolescents, parenting practices such as having no rules on screen-time, OR (95% CI) = 1.29 (1.07-1.55) p = 0.008, and rewarding good behavior with sweets, OR (95% CI) = 2.18 (1.05-4.52) p = 0.036, were significant factors associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of these obesogenic behaviors were higher in certain sub-groups of children and adolescents, specifically those from social

  5. Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights

  6. Associations between childhood overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesogenic behaviors and practices in Australian homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mihrshahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home environment on early childhood obesity, little is known on how weight-related behaviors, parent practices and the home environment influence overweight/obesity in older children and adolescents. Methods This analysis used data from a cross-sectional, representative population survey of Australian children age 5–16 years conducted in 2015. Data included measured anthropometry to calculate body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; waist circumference/height. Information on home-based weight-related behaviors (individual eating and screen time behaviors, parent influences including rules and home environment factors were measured using established short questions, with parental proxy reporting for children in up to grade 4, and self-report for students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between weight status and home-based weight-related behaviors. Results Both children and adolescents who did not consume breakfast daily were more likely to be overweight/obese OR (95% CI = 1.39 (1.07–1.81 p = 0.015, OR (95% CI =1.42 (1.16–1.74 p = 0.001, respectively, adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence and physical activity. There was also a significant positive association with higher waist-to-height ratio in both children and adolescents. Among children, having a TV in the bedroom was also associated with overweight and obesity OR (95% CI = 1.54 (1.13–2.09 p = 0.006 and higher waist-to-height ratio. For adolescents, parenting practices such as having no rules on screen-time, OR (95% CI = 1.29 (1.07–1.55 p = 0.008, and rewarding good behavior with sweets, OR (95% CI = 2.18 (1.05–4.52 p = 0.036, were significant factors associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of these obesogenic behaviors were higher in certain sub-groups of children

  7. Music Publishing

    OpenAIRE

    A.Manuel B. Simoes; J.Joao Dias De Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Current music publishing in the Internet is mainly concerned with sound publishing. We claim that music publishing is not only to make sound available but also to de ne relations between a set of music objects like music scores, guitar chords, lyrics and their meta-data. Wewant an easy way to publish music in the Internet, to make high quality paper booklets and even to create Audio CD's. In this document we present a workbench for music publishing based on open formats, using open-source too...

  8. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms and Associated Clinical Features among Australian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Dianna

    2007-01-01

    The current study addressed the frequency of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms among university students and investigated the predictors of dysmorphic concern. Six hundred and nineteen Australian university students completed measures assessing BDD, dysmorphic concern, self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, self-oriented and socially…

  9. Employment arrangements and mental health in a cohort of working Australians: are transitions from permanent to temporary employment associated with changes in mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Kavanagh, Anne M; Blakely, Tony A; Bentley, Rebecca

    2014-06-15

    We investigated whether being in temporary employment, as compared with permanent employment, was associated with a difference in Short Form 36 mental health and whether transitions from permanent employment to temporary employment were associated with mental health changes. We used fixed-effects regression in a nationally representative Australian sample with 10 waves of data collection (2001-2010). Interactions by age and sex were tested. Two forms of temporary employment were studied: "casual" (no paid leave entitlements or fixed hours) and "fixed-term contract" (a defined employment period plus paid leave). There were no significant mental health differences between temporary employment and permanent employment in standard fixed-effects analyses and no significant interactions by sex or age. For all age groups combined, there were no significant changes in mental health following transitions from stable permanent employment to temporary employment, but there was a significant interaction with age (P = 0.03) for the stable-permanent-to-casual employment transition, because of a small transition-associated improvement in mental health for workers aged 55-64 years (β = 1.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.34, 2.87; 16% of the standard deviation of mental health scores). Our analyses suggest that temporary employment is not harmful to mental health in the Australian context and that it may be beneficial for 55- to 64-year-olds transitioning from stable permanent employment to casual employment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Factors associated with hepatitis B vaccination among men who have sex with men: a systematic review of published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vet, Raymond; de Wit, John Bf; Das, Enny

    2017-05-01

    This systematic review identified and synthesised evidence from published research regarding personal and environmental factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination uptake among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in low prevalence, high-income countries. A systematic literature search identified 18 eligible papers that addressed factors potentially associated with HBV vaccination uptake among MSM, of which 16 reported research conducted in the US. Studies assessed possible associations between HBV vaccination among MSM and socio-demographic characteristics, behavioural and social-cognitive factors and indicators of health service access. Converging evidence was found for associations between HBV vaccination and younger age, gay self-identification, and not using alcohol and drugs; evidence suggests a lack of association between HBV vaccination and ethnicity. There was converging evidence for associations between HBV vaccination and social-cognitive factors, in particular knowledge, perceived vulnerability and perceived severity regarding HBV infection, and perceived barriers to HBV vaccination. Evidence further supported associations between HBV vaccination and indicators of health service access. While research regarding factors associated with HBV vaccination among MSM remains limited, the identified correlates of HBV vaccination among MSM provide important guidance for the development of health promotion interventions to effectively increase coverage of HBV vaccination among MSM.

  11. Adapting the personality-targeted Preventure program to prevent substance use and associated harms among high-risk Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emma L; Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Slade, Tim; Conrod, Patricia J

    2015-08-01

    Substance use among adolescents is of significant concern and the need for preventive interventions is clear. Although universal prevention programs have shown to reduce substance use among Australian adolescents, no effective selective program has been developed for high-risk youth in Australia. Preventure is a personality-targeted intervention that has shown to be effective in the UK and Canada and is yet to be trialled in Australia. Before doing so, it is necessary to ensure the content is relevant for the Australian setting. This study reports data collected to update and adapt the UK-based Preventure program for use in Australia. Eight focus groups were conducted with 69 students from three secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. Students who screened high risk for early-onset substance misuse were invited to participate in focus groups specific to their personality profile and provide feedback. Written feedback was also obtained from 12 teachers and health professionals. Students, teachers and experts recommended specific changes to the content, language, scenarios and graphics of the Preventure manuals. The majority of teachers and experts believed that the educational content of the program was appropriate for students and that it would be effective in reducing substance use in this population. The information obtained in the current study was used to update the Preventure program for use with Australian adolescents. It is expected that this modified Preventure program will demonstrate similar effects in reducing alcohol and drug use among high-risk youth in Australia, as it did in the UK and Canada. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Fibrinogen and associated risk factors in a high-risk population: urban indigenous australians, the druid Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Nirjhar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that fibrinogen and CRP are associated with coronary heart disease risk. High CRP in Indigenous Australians has been reported in previous studies including our 'Diabetes and Related diseases in Urban Indigenous population in Darwin region' (DRUID Study. We studied levels of fibrinogen and its cross-sectional relationship with traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in an urban Indigenous Australian cohort. Methods Fibrinogen data were available from 287 males and 628 females (aged ≥ 15 years from the DRUID study. Analysis was performed for associations with the following risk factors: diabetes, HbA1c, age, BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, blood pressure, heart rate, urine ACR, smoking status, alcohol abstinence. Results Fibrinogen generally increased with age in both genders; levels by age group were higher than those previously reported in other populations, including Native Americans. Fibrinogen was higher in those with than without diabetes (4.24 vs 3.56 g/L, p Conclusions Fibrinogen is associated with traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this urban Indigenous cohort and may be a useful biomarker of CVD in this high-risk population. The apparent different associations of fibrinogen with cardiovascular disease risk markers in men and women should be explored further.

  13. Lack of association between drought and mental health in a cohort of 45-61 year old rural Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jennifer R; Dobson, Annette J; Berry, Helen L; Graves, Anna M; Hanigan, Ivan C; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of drought on the mental health of rural Australian women and those in vulnerable sub-populations: women who were more isolated, poorer and less educated; and women who had histories of chronic disease or poor mental health. Surveys were mailed in 1996, 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2008 to 6,664 women born between 1946 and1951 who were participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. The surveys included the Mental Health Index of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (MHI). Drought was assessed by linking the latitude and longitude of women's place of residence at each survey to the Hutchinson Drought Index. Associations between MHI and drought were assessed using linear mixed-models. While 31% of the women experienced drought in 1998 and 50% experienced drought in 2007; experience of droughts was less common in the other years. Although drought varied from survey year to survey year, mental health did not vary with drought conditions for rural women or vulnerable sub-populations. These findings are contrary to the long-held assumption that droughts increase mental health problems in Australia. While similar results may not be true for men, empirical evidence (rather than assumptions) is required on associations between drought and mental health. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Cyclic Perimenstrual Pain and Discomfort and Australian Women's Associated Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carole; Hickman, Louise; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David

    2017-08-14

    To examine the longitudinal change in Australian women's prevalence of cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort and the association between their symptoms and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Data on endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), irregular periods, heavy periods, and severe period pain were collected over a 7-year period from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, for women aged 28 to 33 years in 2006, and at 3-year follow-ups. Changes in symptoms and patterns of CAM practitioner and therapy/product use associated with these symptoms were analyzed using longitudinal regression modeling. Over the 7-year period, prevalence rates of PMS and heavy periods increased, while prevalence rates of endometriosis, irregular periods, and severe period pain remained stable. The most common use of CAM longitudinally associated with the perimenstrual symptoms was use of vitamins/minerals, yoga/meditation, massage therapy, herbal medicine, and aromatherapy. Excluding consultation with a naturopath/herbalist, over the 7-year survey women's use of all other CAM practitioners increased as did their use of vitamin/minerals, yoga/meditation, and Chinese medicines, while aromatherapy use declined. Only the prevalence of PMS and heavy periods increased with aging in this sample of women. While overall use of CAM practitioner and self-prescribed products/therapies increased over time, CAM was chosen by women mainly to treat endometriosis and PMS. The extent to which this use reflects treatment efficacy is uncertain.

  15. Healthcare costs associated with language difficulties up to 9 years of age: Australian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciberras, Emma; Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan M; Lucas, Nina; Mensah, Fiona; Gold, Lisa; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to quantify the non-hospital healthcare costs associated with language difficulties within two nationally representative samples of children. Data were from three biennial waves (2004-2008) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (B cohort: 0-5 years; K cohort: 4-9 years). Language difficulties were defined as scores ≤ 1.25 SD below the mean on measures of parent-reported communication (0-3 years) and directly assessed vocabulary (4-9 years). Participant data were linked to administrative data on non-hospital healthcare attendances and prescription medications from the universal Australian Medicare subsidized healthcare scheme. It was found that healthcare costs over each 2-year age band were higher for children with than without language difficulties at 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 years, notably 36% higher (mean difference = $AU206, 95% CI = $90, $321) at 4-5 years (B cohort). The slightly higher 2-year healthcare costs for children with language difficulties at 6-7 and 8-9 years were not statistically different from those without language difficulties. Modelled to the corresponding Australian child population, 2-year government costs ranged from $AU1.2-$AU12.1 million (depending on age examined). Six-year healthcare costs increased with the persistence of language difficulties in the K cohort, with total Medicare costs increasing by $192 (95% CI = $74, $311; p = .002) for each additional wave of language difficulties. Language difficulties (whether transient or persistent) were associated with substantial excess population healthcare costs in childhood, which are in addition to the known broader costs incurred through the education system. It is unclear whether healthcare costs were specifically due to the assessment and/or treatment of language difficulties, as opposed to conditions that may be co-morbid with or may cause language difficulties.

  16. Health care utilisation and out-of-pocket expenditure associated with back pain: a nationally representative survey of Australian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R Kirby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Back pain impacts on a significant proportion of the Australian population over the life course and has high prevalence rates among women, particularly in older age. Back pain care is characterised by multiple practitioner and self-prescribed treatment options, and the out-of-pocket costs associated with consultations and self-prescribed treatments have not been examined to date. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the extent of health care practitioner consultations and self-prescribed treatment for back pain care among Australian women, and to assess the self-reported costs associated with such usage. METHODS: Survey of 1,310 women (response rate 80.9% who reported seeking help for back pain from the '1946-51 cohort' of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Women were asked about their use of health care practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain and the costs associated with such usage. RESULTS: In the past year 76.4% consulted a complementary and alternative practitioner, 56% an allied health practitioner and 59.2% a GP/medical specialist. Overall, women consulted with, on average, 3.0 (SD = 2.0 different health care practitioners, and had, on average, 12.2 (SD = 9.7 discrete health care practitioner consultations for back pain. Average self-reported out-of-pocket expenditure on practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain care per annum was AU$873.10. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple provider usage for various but distinct purposes (i.e. pain/mobility versus anxiety/stress points to the need for further research into patient motivations and experiences of back pain care in order to improve and enhance access to and continuity of care. Our results suggest that the cost of back pain care represents a significant burden, and may ultimately limit women's access to multiple providers. We extrapolate that for Australian working-age women, total out-of-pocket expenditure on back pain care per annum is in

  17. The association between built environment features and physical activity in the Australian context: a synthesis of the literature

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    Belen Zapata-Diomedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence indicating that the built environment is a determinant of physical activity. However, despite the well-established health benefits of physical activity this is rarely considered in urban planning. We summarised recent Australian evidence for the association built environment-physical activity among adults. This summary aims to inform policy makers who advocate for the consideration of health in urban planning. Methods A combination of built environment and physical activity terms were used to systematically identify relevant peer reviewed and grey literature. Results A total of 23 studies were included, providing 139 tests of associations between specific built environment features and physical activity. Of the total, 84 relationships using objective measures of built environment attributes were evaluated, whereas 55 relationships using self-reported measures were evaluated. Our results indicate that walkable neighbourhoods with a wide range of local destinations to go to, as well as a diverse use of land, encourage physical activity among their residents. Conclusions This research provides a summary of recent Australian evidence on built environments that are most favourable for physical activity. Features of walkability and availability of destinations within walking distance should be accounted for in the development or redevelopment of urban areas. Our findings emphasise the importance of urban planning for health via its impact on population levels of physical activity.

  18. Association Between Young Australian's Drinking Behaviours and Their Interactions With Alcohol Brands on Facebook: Results of an Online Survey.

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    Jones, Sandra C; Robinson, Laura; Barrie, Lance; Francis, Kate; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2016-07-01

    To examine the association of alcohol-brand social networking pages and Facebook users' drinking attitudes and behaviours. Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from a convenience sample of 283 Australian Facebook users aged 16-24 years via an online survey. More than half of the respondents reported using Facebook for more than an hour daily. While only 20% had actively interacted with an alcohol brand on Facebook, we found a significant association between this active interaction and alcohol consumption, and a strong association between engagement with alcohol brands on Facebook and problematic drinking. The findings of this study demonstrate the need for further research into the complex interaction between social networking and alcohol consumption, and add support to calls for effective regulation of alcohol marketing on social network platforms. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors associated with findings of published trials of drug-drug comparisons: why some statins appear more efficacious than others.

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    Lisa Bero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published pharmaceutical industry-sponsored trials are more likely than non-industry-sponsored trials to report results and conclusions that favor drug over placebo. Little is known about potential biases in drug-drug comparisons. This study examined associations between research funding source, study design characteristics aimed at reducing bias, and other factors that potentially influence results and conclusions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs of statin-drug comparisons. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional study of 192 published RCTs comparing a statin drug to another statin drug or non-statin drug. Data on concealment of allocation, selection bias, blinding, sample size, disclosed funding source, financial ties of authors, results for primary outcomes, and author conclusions were extracted by two coders (weighted kappa 0.80 to 0.97. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression identified associations between independent variables and favorable results and conclusions. Of the RCTs, 50% (95/192 were funded by industry, and 37% (70/192 did not disclose any funding source. Looking at the totality of available evidence, we found that almost all studies (98%, 189/192 used only surrogate outcome measures. Moreover, study design weaknesses common to published statin-drug comparisons included inadequate blinding, lack of concealment of allocation, poor follow-up, and lack of intention-to-treat analyses. In multivariate analysis of the full sample, trials with adequate blinding were less likely to report results favoring the test drug, and sample size was associated with favorable conclusions when controlling for other factors. In multivariate analysis of industry-funded RCTs, funding from the test drug company was associated with results (odds ratio = 20.16 [95% confidence interval 4.37-92.98], p < 0.001 and conclusions (odds ratio = 34.55 [95% confidence interval 7.09-168.4], p < 0.001 that favor the test drug when

  20. Biogeography of a Novel Ensifer meliloti Clade Associated with the Australian Legume Trigonella suavissima.

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    Eardly, Bertrand; Elia, Patrick; Brockwell, John; Golemboski, Daniel; van Berkum, Peter

    2017-05-15

    Here, we describe a novel clade within Ensifer meliloti and consider how geographic and ecological isolation contributed to the limited distribution of this group. Members of the genus Ensifer are best known for their ability to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with forage legumes of three related genera, Medicago L., Melilotus Mill., and Trigonella L., which are members of the tribe Trifolieae. These legumes have a natural distribution extending from the Mediterranean Basin through western Asia, where there is an unsurpassed number of species belonging to these genera. Trigonella suavissima L. is unusual in that it is the only species in the tribe Trifolieae that is native to Australia. We compared the genetic diversity and taxonomic placement of rhizobia nodulating T. suavissima with those of members of an Ensifer reference collection. Our goal was to determine if the T. suavissima rhizobial strains, like their plant host, are naturally limited to the Australian continent. We used multilocus sequence analysis to estimate the genetic relatedness of 56 T. suavissima symbionts to 28 Ensifer reference strains. Sequence data were partitioned according to the replicons in which the loci are located. The results were used to construct replicon-specific phylogenetic trees. In both the chromosomal and chromid trees, the Australian strains formed a distinct clade within E. meliloti The strains also shared few alleles with Ensifer reference strains from other continents. Carbon source utilization assays revealed that the strains are also unusual in their ability to utilize 2-oxoglutarate as a sole carbon source. A strategy was outlined for locating similar strains elsewhere.IMPORTANCE In this study, we employed a biogeographical approach to investigate the origins of a symbiotic relationship between an Australian legume and its nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. The question of the ancestral origins of these symbionts is based on the observation that the legume host is not closely

  1. Assessing junk food consumption among Australian children: trends and associated characteristics from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, S; Hardy, L L; Drayton, B A; Grunseit, A; Mihrshahi, S

    2017-04-05

    The ubiquitous supply of junk foods in our food environment has been partly blamed for the increased rates in overweight and obesity. However, consumption of these foods has generally been examined individually perhaps obscuring the true extent of their combined consumption and impact on health. An overall measure of children's junk food consumption may prove useful in the development of child obesity prevention strategies. We describe the development of a children's Junk Food Intake Measure (JFIM) to summarise temporal change in junk food consumption and examine the association between the JFIM and health-related behaviours. Cross-sectional population surveillance survey of Australian children age 5-16 years collected in 2010 and 2015. Data were collected by questionnaire with parent's proxy reporting for children in years K, 2 and 4 and children in years 6, 8 and 10 by self-report. Information on diet, screen-time and physical activity was collected using validated questionnaires. The JFIM comprised consumption of fried potato products, potato crisps/salty snacks, sweet and savoury biscuits/cakes/doughnuts, confectionary and, ice cream/ice blocks. A total of 7565 (missing = 493, 6.1%) and 6944 (missing n = 611, 8.1%) children had complete data on consumption of junk foods, in 2010 and 2015, respectively. The 2015 survey data showed that among students from high socio-economic status neighbourhoods, there were fewer high junk food consumers than low junk food consumers. Children from Middle Eastern cultural backgrounds had higher junk food consumption. High junk food consumers were more likely to consume take-away ≥3/week, eat dinner in front of the television, receive sweet rewards, be allowed to consume snacks anytime, have soft drinks available at home and a TV in their bedroom. There was a lower proportion of high junk food consumers in 2015 compared to 2010. This is the first study to provide and examine a summary measure of overall junk food

  2. Assessing junk food consumption among Australian children: trends and associated characteristics from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Boylan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquitous supply of junk foods in our food environment has been partly blamed for the increased rates in overweight and obesity. However, consumption of these foods has generally been examined individually perhaps obscuring the true extent of their combined consumption and impact on health. An overall measure of children’s junk food consumption may prove useful in the development of child obesity prevention strategies. We describe the development of a children’s Junk Food Intake Measure (JFIM to summarise temporal change in junk food consumption and examine the association between the JFIM and health-related behaviours. Methods Cross-sectional population surveillance survey of Australian children age 5–16 years collected in 2010 and 2015. Data were collected by questionnaire with parent’s proxy reporting for children in years K, 2 and 4 and children in years 6, 8 and 10 by self-report. Information on diet, screen-time and physical activity was collected using validated questionnaires. The JFIM comprised consumption of fried potato products, potato crisps/salty snacks, sweet and savoury biscuits/cakes/doughnuts, confectionary and, ice cream/ice blocks. Results A total of 7565 (missing = 493, 6.1% and 6944 (missing n = 611, 8.1% children had complete data on consumption of junk foods, in 2010 and 2015, respectively. The 2015 survey data showed that among students from high socio-economic status neighbourhoods, there were fewer high junk food consumers than low junk food consumers. Children from Middle Eastern cultural backgrounds had higher junk food consumption. High junk food consumers were more likely to consume take-away ≥3/week, eat dinner in front of the television, receive sweet rewards, be allowed to consume snacks anytime, have soft drinks available at home and a TV in their bedroom. There was a lower proportion of high junk food consumers in 2015 compared to 2010. Conclusion This is the first study

  3. Improving the quality of papers submitted to dental journals: Transcription of session for editors, associate editors, publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing held at IADR meeting in Cape Town on Wednesday, 25 June 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Kenneth A; Giannobile, William V; Sourgen, Deborah L; Balaji, S M; Honkala, Eino; Lynch, Christopher D

    2015-08-01

    This satellite symposium was the fourth in a series for editors, publishers, reviewers and all those with an interest in scientific publishing. It was held on Wednesday 25th June 2014 at the IADR International meeting in Cape Town, South Africa. The symposium attracted more than 180 attendees. This symposium placed an emphasis on how the quality of papers submitted to dental journals could be improved. The panel included representation from editors, researchers and publishers from North America, India and the Gulf States. The symposium identified a number of challenges for editors and publishers, including the poor quality of many papers submitted to dental and other scientific journals, plagiarism, attempted duplicate publication and sometimes fraudulent results. Where possible speakers are identified by name. A subsequent symposium was held during the IADR meeting in Boston on March 11th 2015. Involvement open to editors, associate editors, publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of positive fluid balance and mortality in sepsis and septic shock in an Australian cohort.

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    Pittard, M G; Huang, S J; McLean, A S; Orde, S R

    2017-11-01

    In patients with septic shock, a correlation between positive fluid balance and worsened outcomes has been reported in multiple observational studies worldwide. No published data exists in an Australasian cohort. We set out to explore this association in our institution. We conducted a retrospective audit of patient records from August 2012 to May 2015 in a single-centre, 24-bed surgical and medical intensive care unit (ICU) in Sydney, Australia. All patients with septic shock were included. Exclusion criteria included length of stay less than 24 hours or vasopressors needed for less than six hours. Data was gathered on fluid balance for the first seven days of ICU admission, biochemical data and other clinical indices. The primary outcome measure was survival to hospital discharge. One hundred and eighty-six patients with septic shock were included, with an overall hospital mortality of 23.7%. Seventy-five percent of patients required mechanical ventilation, and 27.4% required haemodialysis. The mean daily fluid balance on the first day of admission was positive 1,424 ml and 1,394 ml for ICU and hospital survivors, respectively. On average, the daily fluid balance for non-survivors was higher than the survivors: ICU non-survivors were 602 (95% confidence intervals 230, 974) ml (P=0.0015) and hospital non-survivors were 530 [95% confidence intervals 197, 863] ml (P=0.0017) more than the survivors. In line with other recently published data, after adjustment for confounders (severity of illness based on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score) we found a correlation between positive fluid balance and worsened hospital mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis and septic shock. Further research investigating rational use of fluids in this patient group is needed.

  5. Publishers' Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPL Management Team

    2008-12-01

    We would like to thank all our contributors, subscribers, reviewers, and readers for their interest in EPL during 2008. You each play an invaluable role in the promotion, prestige, development and success of the journal and therefore your continued support is greatly appreciated. The Directors' vision for EPL to become a leading home for global physics letters, to offer rapid publication of ground-breaking physics results from the international community, and to provide the broadest coverage of physics research, is beginning to take shape as increased submissions, reduced acceptance rates, raised scientific quality, rapid publication, and greater visibility amongst the community are achieved. The latest published articles will continue to be freely available for 30 days from their on-line publication. Those articles highlighted by the Co-Editors in 2008 will remain free-to-all for the entire of 2009. We invite you to visit the website regularly (http://www.epljournal.org) to stay up-to-date with the journal's latest developments and to read the most recent articles. Our most recent opportunity publicized on the EPL website and in the CERN SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics) messages is below: Open Access Opportunity for Authors of Experimental and Theoretical HEP Articles EPL is delighted to offer open access free of charge to all authors submitting experimental and theoretical letters in PACS codes 10 and 20. This offer will remain open until the SCOAP3 agreement at CERN takes effect. Authors submitting any article to EPL will continue to be offered the opportunity to make their published letter open access for a one-off payment. However, with effect from 1 November 2008, any author who submits work related to subject areas within PACS 10 and 20 will benefit from open access at no charge, meaning their published article will be available free to all readers, forever. ``Physics of Elementary Particles and Fields'' and

  6. Association between Australian adolescent alcohol use and alcohol use risk and protective factors in 2011 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca K; Campbell, Elizabeth; Gilligan, Conor; Lee, Hopin; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Green, Sue; MacDonald, Meghan; Wiggers, John

    2017-12-21

    Changes in risk and protective factors of adolescent alcohol use may be contributing to the recent decline in Australian adolescents alcohol use. The study aimed to determine the: (i) prevalence of alcohol use, risk and protective factors in 2011 and 2014; and (ii) association between alcohol use and risk and protective factors in 2011 and 2014. A repeat cross-sectional study was conducted. Grade 9-10 (aged 15-17 years) students from 32 Australian secondary schools were sampled in 2011 and 2014. A self-report survey collected data regarding alcohol use (ever, recent, 'binge drinking'), risk factors (e.g. alcohol use/permissive attitude to alcohol by friends/siblings/parents) and protective factors (e.g. self-efficacy; school/home/community support; peer caring relationships). Descriptive statistics were used to determine differences in alcohol use, risk and protective factors between 2011 and 2014. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between alcohol use, risk and protective factors separately in 2011 and 2014 (six models). Fewer adolescents reported alcohol use in 2014 compared with 2011 (ever: 56.6% vs. 67.9%, recent: 17.3% vs. 21.2%, 'binge drinking': 20.0% vs. 23.5%; 2011: n = 4366; 2014: n = 5199). Significant differences between 2014 and 2011 were found for some risk (five lower; one higher) and protective factors (four lower). Risk factors that were significantly lower in 2014 compared to 2011 were amongst variables with the strongest associations with alcohol use. The strength of associations with alcohol use, and decrease in the prevalence of certain risk factors in 2014 compared to 2011, suggests such factors may be contributing to the decline in adolescent alcohol use. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Fibrinogen and associated risk factors in a high-risk population: urban Indigenous Australians, the DRUID Study.

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    Maple-Brown, Louise J; Cunningham, Joan; Nandi, Nirjhar; Hodge, Allison; O'Dea, Kerin

    2010-10-29

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that fibrinogen and CRP are associated with coronary heart disease risk. High CRP in Indigenous Australians has been reported in previous studies including our 'Diabetes and Related diseases in Urban Indigenous population in Darwin region' (DRUID) Study. We studied levels of fibrinogen and its cross-sectional relationship with traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in an urban Indigenous Australian cohort. Fibrinogen data were available from 287 males and 628 females (aged ≥ 15 years) from the DRUID study. Analysis was performed for associations with the following risk factors: diabetes, HbA1c, age, BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, blood pressure, heart rate, urine ACR, smoking status, alcohol abstinence. Fibrinogen generally increased with age in both genders; levels by age group were higher than those previously reported in other populations, including Native Americans. Fibrinogen was higher in those with than without diabetes (4.24 vs 3.56 g/L, p fasting triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, HbA1c, CRP, ACR and alcohol abstinence. On multivariate regression (age and sex-adjusted) CRP and HbA1c were significant independent predictors of fibrinogen, explaining 27% of its variance; CRP alone explained 25% of fibrinogen variance. On factor analysis, both CRP and fibrinogen clustered with obesity in women (this factor explained 20% of variance); but in men, CRP clustered with obesity (factor explained 18% of variance) whilst fibrinogen clustered with HbA1c and urine ACR (factor explained 13% of variance). Fibrinogen is associated with traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this urban Indigenous cohort and may be a useful biomarker of CVD in this high-risk population. The apparent different associations of fibrinogen with cardiovascular disease risk markers in men and women should be explored further.

  8. Publisher's Announcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Neil

    2003-12-01

    We are delighted to announce that the new Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General for 2004 will be Professor Carl M Bender of Washington University, St. Louis. Carl will, with the help of his world class editorial board, maintain standards of scientific rigour whilst ensuring that research published is of the highest importance. Carl attained his first degree in physics at Cornell University before studying for his PhD at Harvard. He later worked at The Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and at MIT before assuming his current position at Washington University, St Louis. He has been a visiting professor at Technion, Haifa, and Imperial College, London and a scientific consultant for Los Alamos National Laboratory. His main expertise is in using classical applied mathematics to solve a broad range of problems in high-energy theoretical physics and mathematical physics. Since the publication of his book Advanced Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers, written with Steven Orszag, he has been regarded as an expert on the subject of asymptotic analysis and perturbative methods. `Carl publishes his own internationally-important research in the journal and has been an invaluable, energetic member of the Editorial Board for some time' said Professor Ed Corrigan, Carl's predecessor as Editor, `he will be an excellent Editor-in-Chief'. Our grateful thanks and best wishes go to Professor Corrigan who has done a magnificent job for the journal during his five-year tenure.

  9. Publisher's Announcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashan, Yasmin

    2008-01-01

    Important changes for 2008 As a result of reviewing several aspects of our content, both in print and online, we have made some changes for 2008. These changes are described below: Article numbering Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system, offering important advantages and flexibility by speeding up the publication process. Papers in different issues or sections can be published online as soon as they are ready, without having to wait for a whole issue or section to be allocated page numbers. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance, from this issue: Z Y Chen et al 2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 015001 Articles will continue to be published on the web in advance of the print edition. A new look and feel We have also taken the opportunity to refresh the design of the journal cover, in order to modernise the typography and create a consistent look and feel across our range of publications. We hope you like the new cover. If you have any questions or comments about any of these changes, please contact us at ppcf@iop.org.

  10. Malaria-Associated Mortality in the Australian Defence Force during the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2017-08-01

    Malaria has been a military problem throughout history capable of causing epidemics that stop military operations. Individual mortality was examined from records of the three major wars of the 20th century that involved Australia in which 133 (1914-1919), 92 (1943-1945), and two (1965-1967) soldiers are known to have died with malaria. Those dying were predominately enlisted soldiers with a mean age of 29 years often complicated by other infections such as influenza, pneumonia or scrub typhus. Lethal epidemics of falciparum malaria occurred in Palestine/Syria in October 1918 and New Guinea in September 1943 to March 1944. Although no Australian soldier has died in nearly 50 years from malaria, there were three serious falciparum infections in soldiers in East Timor 1999-2000 who might have died if intensive care had not been provided. Recent military deployments into Africa including United Nations contingents still show falciparum malaria's lethality despite the availability of effective malaria chemoprophylaxis.

  11. Associations of variable coloration with niche breadth and conservation status among Australian reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Anders; Aberg, Viktor

    2008-05-01

    We evaluate predictions concerning the evolutionary and ecological consequences of color polymorphisms. Previous endeavors have aimed at identifying conditions that promote the evolution and maintenance within populations of alternative variants. But the polymorphic condition may also influence important population processes. We consider the prediction that populations that consist of alternative "ecomorphs" with coadapted gene complexes will utilize more diverse resources and display higher rates of colonization success, population persistence, and range expansions, while being less vulnerable to range contractions and extinctions, compared with monomorphic populations. We perform pairwise comparative analyses based on information for 323 species of Australian lizards and snakes. We find that species with variable color patterns have larger ranges, utilize a greater diversity of habitat types, and are underrepresented among species currently listed as threatened. These results are consistent with the proposition that the co-occurrence of multiple color variants may promote the ecological success of populations and species, but there are also alternative interpretations.

  12. Is neighborhood green space associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes? Evidence from 267,072 Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are best positioned for success if participants live in supportive neighborhood environments. Deprived neighborhoods increase T2DM risk. Parks and other "green spaces" promote active lifestyles and therefore may reduce T2DM risk. We investigated association between neighborhood green space and the risk of T2DM in a large group of adult Australians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Multilevel logit regression was used to fit associations between medically diagnosed T2DM and green space exposure among 267,072 participants in the 45 and Up Study. Green space data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and exposure was calculated using a 1-km buffer from a participant's place of residence. Odds ratios (ORs) were controlled for measures of demographic, cultural, health, diet, active lifestyles, socioeconomic status, and neighborhood circumstances. RESULTS The rate of T2DM was 9.1% among participants in neighborhoods with 0-20% green space, but this rate dropped to approximately 8% for participants with over 40% green space within their residential neighborhoods. The risk of T2DM was significantly lower in greener neighborhoods, controlling for demographic and cultural factors, especially among participants residing in neighborhoods with 41-60% green space land use (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.83-0.92). This association was consistent after controlling for other explanatory variables and did not vary according to neighborhood circumstances. CONCLUSIONS People in greener surroundings have a lower risk of T2DM. Planning, promoting, and maintaining local green spaces is important in multisector initiatives for addressing the T2DM epidemic.

  13. Evaluation of the Endorsement of the STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association Studies (STREGA) Statement on the Reporting Quality of Published Genetic Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedovic, Darko; Panic, Nikola; Pastorino, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-08-05

    The STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association studies (STREGA) statement was based on the STrengthening the REporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, and it was published in 2009 in order to improve the reporting of genetic association (GA) studies. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of STREGA endorsement on the quality of reporting of GA studies published in journals in the field of genetics and heredity (GH). Quality of reporting was evaluated by assessing the adherence of papers to the STREGA checklist. After identifying the GH journals that endorsed STREGA in their instructions for authors, we randomly appraised papers published in 2013 from journals endorsing STREGA that published GA studies (Group A); in GH journals that never endorsed STREGA (Group B); in GH journals endorsing STREGA, but in the year preceding its endorsement (Group C); and in the same time period as Group C from GH journals that never endorsed STREGA (Group D). The STREGA statement was referenced in 29 (18.1%) of 160 GH journals, of which 18 (62.1%) journals published GA studies. Among the 18 journals endorsing STREGA, we found a significant increase in the overall adherence to the STREGA checklist over time (A vs C; P endorsing STREGA compared to those that did not endorse the statement (A vs B; P = 0.04). No significant improvement was detected in the adherence to STREGA items in journals not endorsing STREGA over time (B vs D; P > 0.05). The endorsement of STREGA resulted in an increase in quality of reporting of GA studies over time, while no similar improvement was reported for journals that never endorsed STREGA.

  14. Chronic disease prevalence and associations in a cohort of Australian men: The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Sue M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing proportion of Australia's chronic disease burden is carried by the ageing male. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma, cancer, diabetes, angina and musculoskeletal conditions and their relationship to behavioural and socio-demographic factors in a cohort of Australian men. Methods Self-reports of disease status were obtained from baseline clinic visits (August 2002 – July 2003 & July 2004 – May 2005 from 1195 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north-west regions of Adelaide. Initially, relative risks were assessed by regression against selected variables for each outcome. Where age-independent associations were observed with the relevant chronic disease, independent variables were fitted to customized multiadjusted models. Results The prevalence of all conditions was moderately higher in comparison to national data for age-matched men. In particular, there was an unusually high rate of men with cancer. Multiadjusted analyses revealed age as a predictor of chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, angina, cancer & osteoarthritis. A number of socio-demographic factors, independent of age, were associated with chronic disease, including: low income status (diabetes, separation/divorce (asthma, unemployment (cancer, high waist circumference (diabetes, elevated cholesterol (angina and a family history of obesity (angina. Conclusion Socio-demographic factors interact to determine disease status in this broadly representative group of Australian men. In addition to obesity and a positive personal and family history of disease, men who are socially disadvantaged (low income, unemployed, separated should be specifically targeted by public health initiatives.

  15. Water fluoridation and the association of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and dental caries in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Plastow, Katrina

    2013-03-01

    We examined demographic and socioeconomic differences in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), its association with dental caries in children, and whether exposure to water fluoridation modifies this association. In a cross-sectional study, we used a stratified, clustered sampling design to obtain information on 16 508 children aged 5 to 16 years enrolled in Australian school dental services in 2002 to 2005. Dental staff assessed dental caries, and parents completed a questionnaire about their child's residential history, sources of drinking water, toothbrushing frequency, socioeconomic status (SES), and SSB consumption. Children who brushed their teeth less often and were older, male, of low SES, from rural or remote areas consumed significantly more SSBs. Caries was significantly associated with greater SSB consumption after controlling for potential confounders. Finally, greater exposure to fluoridated water significantly reduced the association between children's SSB consumption and dental caries. Consumption of SSBs should be considered a major risk factor for dental caries. However, increased exposure to fluoridated public water helped ameliorate the association between SSB consumption and dental decay. These results reconfirm the benefits of community water fluoridation for oral health.

  16. Associations between socioeconomic status and primary total knee joint replacements performed for osteoarthritis across Australia 2003-10: data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sharon L; Lane, Stephen E; Lorimer, Michelle; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Wluka, Anita E; Page, Richard S; Osborne, Richard H; Pasco, Julie A; Sanders, Kerrie M; Cashman, Kara; Ebeling, Peter R; Graves, Stephen E

    2014-10-28

    Relatively little is known about the social distribution of total knee joint replacement (TKR) uptake in Australia. We examine associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and TKR performed for diagnosed osteoarthritis 2003-10 for all Australian males and females aged ≥ 30 yr. Data of primary TKR (n=213,018, 57.4% female) were ascertained from a comprehensive national joint replacement registry. Residential addresses were matched to Australian Census data to identify area-level social disadvantage, and categorised into deciles. Estimated TKR rates were calculated. Poisson regression was used to model the relative risk (RR) of age-adjusted TKR per 1,000py, stratified by sex and SES. A negative relationship was observed between TKR rates and SES deciles. Females had a greater rate of TKR than males. Surgery utilisation was greatest for all adults aged 70-79 yr. In that age group differences in estimated TKR per 1,000py between deciles were greater for 2010 than 2003 (females: 2010 RR 4.32 and 2003 RR 3.67; males: 2010 RR 2.04 and 2003 RR 1.78). Identifying factors associated with TKR utilisation and SES may enhance resource planning and promote surgery utilisation for end-stage osteoarthritis.

  17. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quester Pascale G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504, 2006 (n = 525, 2007 (n = 414 and 2008 (n = 464. Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact.

  18. Pathogenic Labyrinthula associated with Australian seagrasses: Considerations for seagrass wasting disease in the southern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan-Tackett, Stacey M; Sullivan, Brooke K; Robinson, Katie; Lilje, Osu; Macreadie, Peter I; Gleason, Frank H

    2018-01-01

    Marine disease ecology is a growing field of research, particularly for host organisms negatively impacted by a changing climate and anthropogenic activities. A decrease in health and increase in susceptibility to disease has been hypothesised as the mechanism behind wide-spread seagrass die-offs related to wasting disease in the past. However, seagrass wasting disease and the causative pathogen, Labyrinthula, have been vastly understudied in the southern hemisphere. Our aim was to build on the current knowledge of Australian Labyrinthula descriptions and phylogeny, while also providing a first look at wasting disease ecology in Australia. Five seagrass species along a 750km stretch of coastline in southeastern Australia were sampled. The resulting 38 Labyrinthula isolates represented a diversity of morphotypes and five haplotypes of varying phylogenetic clade positions and virulence. The haplotypes clustered with previously-described phylogenetic clades containing isolates from Asia, USA and Europe. Pathogenicity tests confirmed, for the first time, the presence of at least two pathogenic haplotypes in Australia. While historically there have been no reports of wasting disease-related seagrass habitat loss, the presence of pathogenic Labyrinthula highlights the need for disease monitoring and research to understand seagrass wasting disease ecology in Australia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Central and peripheral line-associated bloodstream infections in Australian neonatal and paediatric intensive care units: findings from a comprehensive Victorian surveillance network, 2008-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, L J; Daley, A J; Spelman, T; Bull, A L; Brett, J A; Richards, M J

    2017-12-05

    Healthcare-associated infections in neonatal and paediatric populations are associated with poorer outcomes and healthcare costs, and surveillance is a necessary component of prevention programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate burden of illness, aetiology, and time-trends for central and peripheral line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI and PLABSI) in Australian neonatal and paediatric intensive care units (ICUs) between 1 July 2008 and 31 December 2016. Using National Healthcare Safety Network methods, surveillance in neonatal and paediatric units was performed by hospitals participating in the Victorian Healthcare Associated Infection Surveillance System. Mixed effects Poisson regression was used to model infections over time. Overall, 82 paediatric CLABSI events were reported over 37125 CVC days (2.21/1000 CVC days), 203 neonatal CLABSI events were reported over 92169 CVC days (2.20/1000 CVC days), and 95 neonatal PLABSI events were reported over 142240 peripheral line-days (0.67/1000 peripheral line-days). Over time, a significant decrease in quarterly risk for neonatal CLABSI events was observed (risk ratio [RR] 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99, p=0.023) and this reduction was significant for the 751-1000g birth weight cohort (RR 0.97, p=0.015). Most frequently, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (24.2%) and Staphylococcus aureus (16.1%) were responsible for CLABSI events. A significant reduction in Gram-negative neonatal infections was observed (annual RR 0.85, p<0.001). CLABSI rates in neonatal and paediatric ICUs in our region are low, and neonatal infections have significantly diminished over time. Evaluation of infection prevention programs is required to determine if specific strategies can be implemented to further reduce infection risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. What factors are associated with frequent unhealthy snack-food consumption among Australian secondary-school students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Philippa; Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Baur, Louise; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-08-01

    To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of unhealthy snack-food consumption among Australian secondary-school students and the association between their perceptions of availability, convenience and intake with consumption. Cross-sectional survey of students' eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviours using validated instruments administered via an online questionnaire. Australian secondary schools across all states/territories. Secondary-school students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2009-10 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 12 188). Approximately one in five students (21 %) reported consuming unhealthy snack foods ≥14 times/week ('frequent snackers'). After adjusting for all covariates, older students and those with a BMI of ≥25 kg/m² were less likely to be frequent snackers, while students who reported high fast-food and high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and those who watched television for >2 h/d were more likely to snack frequently. Furthermore, after adjusting for all covariates and demographic factors, students who agreed that snack foods are usually available at home, convenient to buy and that they eat too many snack foods were more likely to be snacking frequently. Conversely, students who agreed that fruit is a convenient snack were less likely to be frequent snackers. Frequent unhealthy snack-food consumption appears to cluster with other poor health behaviours. Perceptions of availability and convenience are factors most readily amenable to change, and findings suggest interventions should focus on decreasing the availability of unhealthy snack foods in the home and promoting healthier options such as fruit as convenient snacks.

  1. Association between self-efficacy, career interest and rural career intent in Australian medical students with rural clinical school experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Vivian; Walters, Lucie; McLachlan, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate medical student's self-efficacy at the time of finishing their rural clinical school (RCS) placement and factors associated with self-efficacy. Secondary aims are to explore whether interest levels or self-efficacy are associated with rural or remote career intentions. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study of medical students who had completed their RCS term in 17 Australian universities. Data were derived from the 2013 Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) evaluation survey. Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia. All 732 students who completed their RCS term in 2013 were invited to participate. Primary and secondary outcome measures Rural self-efficacy: Six questions to measure self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice, based on the sources of self-efficacy described by Bandura. Rural career intention: Students were asked to identify their preferred location for future practice. The options were, Capital or Major City; Inner regional city or large town; Smaller town and very remote area. Results Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia (response rate 89.2%). 83.8% of all students recalled an increase in their interest levels for rural medicine as a result of their RCS experience. Actual career intention to work in a regional area or rural area was 60.2%. Bivariate analyses showed female gender (p=0.003), rural background (p<0.001), an RCS preference for clinical training (p<0.001) and general practice intentions (p=0.004) were factors associated with higher levels of self-efficacy. Logistic regression analyses showed that self-efficacy was independently associated with increased interest in rural medicine (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5)) and rural career intent (OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3)). (Model included gender, rural background, preference for RCS, generalist intent, rural practice interest and self

  2. Factors associated with childbirth self-efficacy in Australian childbearing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lianne; Toohill, Jocelyn; Creedy, Debra K; Baird, Kathleen; Gamble, Jenny; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2015-02-13

    Childbirth confidence is an important marker of women's coping abilities during labour and birth. This study investigated socio-demographic, obstetric and psychological factors affecting self-efficacy in childbearing women. This paper presents a secondary analysis of data collected as part of the BELIEF study (Birth Emotions - Looking to Improve Expectant Fear). Women (n = 1410) were recruited during pregnancy (≤24 weeks gestation). The survey included socio-demographic details (such as age and partner support); obstetric details including parity, birth preference, and pain; and standardised psychological measures: CBSEI (Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory), W-DEQ A (childbirth fear) and EPDS (depressive symptoms). Variables were tested against CBSEI first stage of labour sub-scales (outcome expectancy and self-efficacy expectancy) according to parity. CBSEI total mean score was 443 (SD = 112.2). CBSEI, W-DEQ, EPDS scores were highly correlated. Regardless of parity, women who reported low childbirth knowledge, who preferred a caesarean section, and had high W-DEQ and EPDS scores reported lower self-efficacy. There were no differences for nulliparous or multiparous women on outcome expectancy, but multiparous women had higher self-efficacy scores (p childbirth self-efficacy. Few studies have investigated childbirth self-efficacy according to parity. Although multiparous women reported higher birth confidence significant obstetric and psychological differences were found. Addressing women's physical and emotional wellbeing and perceptions of the upcoming birth may highlight their level of self-efficacy for birth. Australian New Zealand Controlled Trials Registry ACTRN12612000526875 , 17(th) May 2012.

  3. Using reduced rank regression methods to identify dietary patterns associated with obesity: a cross-country study among European and Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Inge; Lioret, Sandrine; Mouratidou, Theodora; Gunter, Marc J; Manios, Yannis; Kersting, Mathilde; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Widhalm, Kurt; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine repeatability of reduced rank regression (RRR) methods in calculating dietary patterns (DP) and cross-sectional associations with overweight (OW)/obesity across European and Australian samples of adolescents. Data from two cross-sectional surveys in Europe (2006/2007 Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, including 1954 adolescents, 12-17 years) and Australia (2007 National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, including 1498 adolescents, 12-16 years) were used. Dietary intake was measured using two non-consecutive, 24-h recalls. RRR was used to identify DP using dietary energy density, fibre density and percentage of energy intake from fat as the intermediate variables. Associations between DP scores and body mass/fat were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression as appropriate, stratified by sex. The first DP extracted (labelled 'energy dense, high fat, low fibre') explained 47 and 31 % of the response variation in Australian and European adolescents, respectively. It was similar for European and Australian adolescents and characterised by higher consumption of biscuits/cakes, chocolate/confectionery, crisps/savoury snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and lower consumption of yogurt, high-fibre bread, vegetables and fresh fruit. DP scores were inversely associated with BMI z-scores in Australian adolescent boys and borderline inverse in European adolescent boys (so as with %BF). Similarly, a lower likelihood for OW in boys was observed with higher DP scores in both surveys. No such relationships were observed in adolescent girls. In conclusion, the DP identified in this cross-country study was comparable for European and Australian adolescents, demonstrating robustness of the RRR method in calculating DP among populations. However, longitudinal designs are more relevant when studying diet-obesity associations, to prevent reverse causality.

  4. The apolipoprotein AII rs5082 variant is associated with reduced risk of coronary artery disease in an Australian male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Fan; Wiltshire, Steven; Hung, Joseph; Jennens, Michelle; Beilby, John P; Thompson, Peter L; McQuillan, Brendan M; McCaskie, Pamela A; Carter, Kim W; Palmer, Lyle J; Powell, Brenda L

    2008-08-01

    Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are inversely related to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Apolipoproteins AI and AII are the major protein constituents of HDL particles. APOAI and APOAII genetic polymorphisms have been proposed to affect transcriptional efficiency of their respective genes, thereby altering serum lipid levels and influencing atherosclerotic disease risk. 556 subjects with angiographically proven CAD (>50% stenosis) and 1109 randomly selected individuals from metropolitan Perth, Western Australia, were included in an association study. APOAI -75G/A (rs670) and APOAII -256T/C (rs5082) polymorphisms were both found to be not associated with plasma HDL levels. In a case-control analysis of 484 male CAD patients and 498 male controls, individuals carrying the 'CC' genotype for the APOAII rs5082 polymorphism had significantly lower risk of CAD than the 'T' allele carriers (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.39-0.84, p=0.004). The minor 'A' allele of the APOAI rs670 polymorphism was found to be not associated with CAD, contrary to previous reports. We conclude that the APOAII rs5082 polymorphism appears to be cardioprotective in this representative Caucasian Australian population.

  5. Meal Frequency but Not Snack Frequency Is Associated with Micronutrient Intakes and Overall Diet Quality in Australian Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; Livingstone, Katherine M; Worsley, Anthony; Timperio, Anna; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-10-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with poorer diet quality among adults, but evidence of associations for other eating patterns [e.g., eating occasion (EO), meal, or snack frequency] is equivocal. An understanding of how eating patterns are associated with diet quality is needed to inform population-level dietary recommendations. We aimed in this cross-sectional study to determine the relation between frequency of meals, snacks, and all EOs with nutrient intakes and diet quality in a representative sample of Australian adults. Dietary data for 5242 adults aged ≥19 y collected via two 24-h recalls during the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed. EO, meal, and snack frequency was calculated. Adherence to recommendations for healthy eating was assessed with the use of the 2013 Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI) and its subcomponents. Linear regression, adjusted for covariates and energy misreporting, was used to examine associations between eating patterns, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, and the DGI-2013. The frequency of meals, but not of snacks, was positively associated with micronutrient intakes, overall diet quality [men: β = 5.6 (95% CI: 3.9, 7.3); women: β = 4.1 (95% CI: 2.2, 5.9); P snacks was positively associated with DGI-2013 scores for food variety, fruits, and dairy foods (P snack frequency was associated with a lower compliance with guidelines for discretionary foods and added sugars among men (P snack frequency suggest that the quality of snack choices is variable. More research examining the dietary profiles of eating patterns and their relations with diet quality is needed to inform the development of meal-based guidelines and messages that encourage healthy eating. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Etiquette in scientific publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vinod

    2013-10-01

    Publishing a scientific article in a journal with a high impact factor and a good reputation is considered prestigious among one's peer group and an essential achievement for career progression. In the drive to get their work published, researchers can forget, either intentionally or unintentionally, the ethics that should be followed in scientific publishing. In an environment where "publish or perish" rules the day, some authors might be tempted to bend or break rules. This special article is intended to raise awareness among orthodontic journal editors, authors, and readers about the types of scientific misconduct in the current publishing scenario and to provide insight into the ways these misconducts are managed by the Committee of Publishing Ethics. Case studies are presented, and various plagiarism detection software programs used by publishing companies are briefly described. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High sitting time or obesity: Which came first? Bidirectional association in a longitudinal study of 31,787 Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedisic, Zeljko; Grunseit, Anne; Ding, Ding; Chau, Josephine Y; Banks, Emily; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Jalaludin, Bin B; Bauman, Adrian E

    2014-10-01

    Evidence on the direction of the association between sitting time and obesity is limited. The prospective associations between baseline total sitting time and subsequent changes in body mass index (BMI), and baseline BMI and subsequent changes in sitting time were examined. BMI, from self-reported height and weight, and a single-item measure of sitting time were ascertained at two time points (3.4 ± 0.96 years apart) in a prospective questionnaire-based cohort of 31,787 Australians aged 45-65 years without severe physical limitations. In a fully adjusted model, baseline obesity was associated with increased sitting time among all participants (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.20 [95% CI, 1.11-1.30]; P < 0.001) and in most subgroups. The association was significant among those who were sitting <4 hours/day (aOR = 1.24 [95% CI, 1.07-1.44]; P = 0.004) and 4-8 hours/day at baseline (aOR=1.18 [95% CI, 1.06-1.32]; P = 0.003), but not in the high sitting groups (P = 0.111 and 0.188 for 8-11 and ≥11 sitting hours/day, respectively). Nonsignificant and inconsistent results were observed for the association between baseline sitting time and subsequent change in BMI. Our findings support the hypothesis that obesity may lead to a subsequent increase in total sitting time, but the association in the other direction is unclear. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  8. Association of doxycycline use with the development of gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease in Australians deployed abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T W; Russell, L; Deng, M; Gibson, P R

    2013-08-01

    The risks are unknown for developing chronic gastrointestinal illness when personnel are relocated short term to other countries and when taking antibiotic prophylaxis in areas where malaria is endemic. To examine the associations of deployment to developed or developing countries and exposure to doxycycline with the new onset of acute gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A cross-sectional web-based survey of all current and past members of the Australian Federal Police Association was undertaken. Independent predictors of gastrointestinal illness were examined by logistic regression analysis relative to those not deployed without exposure to doxycycline. Of 1300 respondents (response rate 34%), 133 were excluded due to pre-existing chronic gastrointestinal illness. Five hundred and ninety had episodes of overseas deployment for a median duration of 6.5 (range 0.1-149) months. Eighteen (3%) of those not deployed took doxycycline compared with 171 (30%) of those deployed. The risk of acute gastroenteritis was associated with deployment itself without clear association with doxycycline. Doxycycline exposure was associated with increased onset of IBS in those deployed to developing (odds ratio [OR], 6.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.19-15.31) and developed country (OR, 6.93; 95% CI, 1.40-34.39). New onset of IBD (1.5%) was associated with deployment to developed countries and with doxycycline exposure (OR, 8.75; 95% CI, 1.67-45.86)). The use of doxycycline is a risk factor for developing IBS and possibly IBD when deployed to developing and developed countries respectively. Doxycycline as a risk factor for chronic gastrointestinal illness warrants a prospective large-scale study. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  9. Association of tracheal mucus or blood and airway neutrophilia with racing performance in Thoroughbred horses in an Australian racing yard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salz, R O; Ahern, B J; Boston, R; Begg, L M

    2016-04-01

    To determine the variation of tracheal mucus scores, tracheal blood scores and transendoscopic tracheal wash (TW) cytology in a population of Thoroughbred (TB) racehorses and assess their association with racing performance. A total of 220 endoscopic examinations were performed and TWs obtained from 155 TB racehorses. Samples were collected 60-120 min following gallop work. Tracheal mucus score, tracheal blood score and TW cytology were analysed and their association with racing performance assessed. Of the total examinations and samples, 194 from 135 horses fitted the criteria for inclusion. The overall prevalence of visible tracheal mucus was 2.5% (5/194) and of increased tracheal mucus was 0%. The prevalence of visible tracheal blood was 8.8% (17/194) and of increased tracheal blood was 4.6% (9/194). A total of 36% (70/194) of TWs contained elevated percentages of neutrophils and of these, 96% (67/70) occurred in the absence of any visible tracheal mucus. There was no significant association between tracheal mucus score or TW cytology and subsequent racing performance. There was a statistically significant association (P = 0.004) between increased tracheal blood scores and poor racing performance. Visible tracheal blood seen after strenuous exercise in clinically normal TB racehorses was a risk factor for poor racing performance, but the presence of airway neutrophilia was not. No horses in this study were found to have increased tracheal mucus, so the association of increased tracheal mucus with racing performance could not be assessed. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Cross-sectional analysis of association between socioeconomic status and utilization of primary total hip joint replacements 2006–7: Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Sharon L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The utilization of total hip replacement (THR surgery is rapidly increasing, however few data examine whether these procedures are associated with socioeconomic status (SES within Australia. This study examined primary THR across SES for both genders for the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD of Victoria, Australia. Methods Using the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry data for 2006–7, primary THR with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA among residents of the BSD was ascertained. The Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage was used to measure SES; determined by matching residential addresses with Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data were categorised into quintiles; quintile 1 indicating the most disadvantaged. Age- and sex-specific rates of primary THR per 1,000 person years were reported for 10-year age bands using the total population at risk. Results Females accounted for 46.9% of the 642 primary THR performed during 2006–7. THR utilization per 1,000 person years was 1.9 for males and 1.5 for females. The highest utilization of primary THR was observed in those aged 70–79 years (males 6.1, and females 5.4 per 1,000 person years. Overall, the U-shaped pattern of THR across SES gave the appearance of bimodality for both males and females, whereby rates were greater for both the most disadvantaged and least disadvantaged groups. Conclusions Further work on a larger scale is required to determine whether relationships between SES and THR utilization for the diagnosis of OA is attributable to lifestyle factors related to SES, or alternatively reflects geographic and health system biases. Identifying contributing factors associated with SES may enhance resource planning and enable more effective and focussed preventive strategies for hip OA.

  11. Association between Australian Hajj Pilgrims' awareness of MERS-CoV, and their compliance with preventive measures and exposure to camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Amani S; Wiley, Kerrie E; Mushta, Sami M; Yamazaki, Kaoruko; BinDhim, Nasser F; Heywood, Anita E; Booy, Robert; Rashid, Harunor

    2016-05-01

    Through a prospective cohort study the relationship between travellers' awareness of MERS-CoV, and compliance with preventive measures and exposure to camels was evaluated among Australian Hajj pilgrims who attended Hajj in 2015. Only 28% of Australian Hajj pilgrims were aware of MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia. Those who were aware of MERS-CoV were more likely to receive recommended vaccines [odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5-5.9, P pilgrims' awareness is reflected in some of their practices but not in all. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Repositorien: Der grüne Weg zu Open Access Publishing aus der Perspektive der International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers (STM: 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Barbara Kalumenos, Director of Public Affairs bei STM / Repository: The Green Road to Open Access Publishing and the International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers' (STM point of view: 10 questions to Barbara Kalumenos, Director of Public Affairs at STM, by Bruno Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Advocates of Open Access call to substitute the established scholarly publication model, in particular subscriptions and licences, by an Open Access Publishing model. Scholarly papers should be immediately accessible without paying and leave the copyright to the author.At the beginning the Open Access movement focused on and demanded for the publication of original scientific articles in Open Access journals. Meanwhile they moved on to support a form of secondary publication, the self-archiving of sholarly papers in institutional repositories. The current interview with Barbara Kalumenos gives an account of the International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers (STM; http://www.stm-assoc.org/ and their point of view towards Open Access. The interview hits the Golden Road as well as the Green Road to open access and their costs. Preconditions for a paradigm shift towards Open Access Publishing are brought up and prospects of sholarly publishing in 2020 were discussed with a look on libraries and their possible role within this setting.

  13. The linguistic demography of Australians living with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Benjamin

    2011-02-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is increasing in Australia, and most affected individuals were born overseas. Estimating the English literacy of predominantly affected populations and determining the languages other than English (LOTE) spoken is essential for the development of appropriate resources. Data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and Department of Immigration and Citizenship were used to estimate the number of Australian residents by birth country, English literacy and LOTE spoken, with a focus on those arriving in the past two decades. Prevalence of chronic HBV infection was estimated using source country seroprevalence. The results were compared to Victorian surveillance notification data and published Australian epidemiological and clinical studies. Chinese languages and Vietnamese are the dominant languages spoken by Australians living with chronic HBV infection who speak limited or no English. Estimates of predominant source countries for people living with chronic HBV infection derived from Census data were generally coherent with existing epidemiological and clinical studies but differences exist, particularly for groups targeted for screening such as humanitarian entrants. This study emphasises the need for LOTE resources for Australians living with chronic HBV infection and suggests priority languages. The notable differences observed between Census-derived estimates and surveillance data suggest there are particularly under-diagnosed groups within the community. This study has clear implications for prioritising the translation of resources targeting Australians living with chronic HBV infection. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Mesothelioma in vehicle mechanics: is the risk different for Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsh, Michael A; Craven, Valerie A; Teta, Mary Jane; Mowat, Fionna S; Goodman, Michael

    2007-12-01

    The question of whether vehicle mechanics have an increased risk of mesothelioma has important public health implications. Calculations of relative risk using case reports from the Australian Mesothelioma Registry (AMR) indicate increased risks; however, this contrasts with the results of 19 epidemiologic studies that have found no association. To evaluate potential explanations for the discrepancy of findings from epidemiologic studies and AMR reports. We evaluated three hypotheses as possible explanations for the inconsistency between the AMR-based calculations and the findings from published epidemiologic studies: (i) differences in exposure characteristics of Australian vehicle mechanics versus vehicle mechanics in North America and Europe, (ii) limitations of the AMR data and (iii) errors in the risk calculations based on AMR data. We reviewed available exposure information specific to Australian vehicle mechanics and AMR data, obtained from the Australian National Occupational Health and Safety Commission, for this evaluation. We did not identify differences in workplace exposures, processes or fibre type among Australian vehicle mechanics compared to vehicle mechanics in other countries. Our analysis of primary AMR data identified several errors in exposure classification and in the assumptions used to calculate relative risk. Discrepancies between epidemiologic studies and AMR-based calculations cannot be explained by differences in exposure. These discrepancies are most likely attributable to inadequate occupational information and classification in the AMR from 1986 forward and to erroneous assumptions used to derive relative risk estimates for mesothelioma among Australian vehicle mechanics.

  15. Evaluating the association between keratoconus and the corneal thickness genes in an independent Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebjada, Srujana; Schache, Maria; Richardson, Andrea J; Snibson, Grant; MacGregor, Stuart; Daniell, Mark; Baird, Paul N

    2013-12-17

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six loci associated with central corneal thickness that also conferred associated risk of keratoconus (KC). We aimed to assess whether genetic associations existed for these loci with KC or corneal curvature in an independent cohort of European ancestry. In total, 157 patients with KC were recruited from public and private clinics in Melbourne, Australia, and 673 individuals without KC were identified through the Genes in Myopia study from Australia. The following six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed a statistically significant association with KC in a recent GWAS study were selected for genotyping in our cohort: rs4894535 (FNDC3B), rs1324183 (MPDZ-NF1B), rs1536482 (RXRA-COL5A1), rs7044529 (COL5A), rs2721051 (FOXO1), and rs9938149 (BANP-ZNF469). The SNPs were assessed for their association with KC or corneal curvature using logistic or linear regression methods, with age and sex included as covariates. Bonferroni corrections were applied to account for multiple testing. Genotyping data were available for five of the SNPs. Statistically significant associations with KC were found for the SNPs rs1324183 (P = 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 1.68) and rs9938149 (P = 0.010; OR, 1.47). Meta-analysis of previous studies yielded genome-wide significant evidence of an association for rs1324183, firmly establishing it as a KC risk variant. None of the SNPs were significantly associated with corneal curvature. The SNPs rs1324183 in the MPDZ-NF1B gene and rs9938149 (between BANP and ZNF4659) were associated with KC in this independent cohort, but their association was via a non-corneal curvature route.

  16. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing orbital cellulitis in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaska, Vikram L; Grimwood, Keith; Gole, Glen A; Nimmo, Graeme R; Paterson, David L; Nissen, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has only emerged recently as a cause of serious ocular infections in several different countries. At a tertiary pediatric hospital in Brisbane, Australia, community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus orbital cellulitis was first noted in 2009. Since then, it has caused 4 of 9 such infections.

  17. Exploring cross-sectional associations between common childhood illness, housing and social conditions in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of informing development of housing interventions to improve child health. Methods Hierarchical multi-level analysis of association between carer report of common childhood illnesses and functional and hygienic state of housing infrastructure, socio-economic, psychosocial and health related behaviours using baseline survey data from a housing intervention study. Results Multivariate analysis showed a strong independent association between report of respiratory infection and overall functional condition of the house (Odds Ratio (OR 3.00; 95%CI 1.36-6.63, but no significant association between report of other illnesses and the overall functional condition or the functional condition of infrastructure required for specific healthy living practices. Associations between report of child illness and secondary explanatory variables which showed an OR of 2 or more included: for skin infection - evidence of poor temperature control in the house (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.06-9.94, evidence of pests and vermin in the house (OR 2.88; 95%CI 1.25-6.60; for respiratory infection - breastfeeding in infancy (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.14-0.49; for diarrhoea/vomiting - hygienic state of food preparation and storage areas (OR 2.10; 95%CI 1.10-4.00; for ear infection - child care attendance (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.26-3.99. Conclusion These findings add to other evidence that building programs need to be supported by a range of other social and behavioural interventions for potential health gains to be more fully realised.

  18. Reducing Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections associated with peripheral intravenous cannulae: successful implementation of a care bundle at a large Australian health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, D; Cheng, A C; McLellan, S; Guerra, P; Karanfilovska, D; Aitchison, S; Watson, K; Bass, P; Worth, L J

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (HA-SAB) results in morbidity, mortality, and increased healthcare costs, and these infections are frequently regarded as preventable. To implement a multi-modal prevention programme for improved processes regarding peripheral intravenous cannula (PIVC) insertion and maintenance, in order to reduce PIVC-associated HA-SAB events in a large Australian health service. Baseline clinical practice was evaluated for a 12-month pre-intervention period. Measures to reduce HA-SAB risk were introduced between January and September 2013: staff education, improved documentation (including phlebitis scoring), and availability of standardized equipment. Post-intervention auditing was performed during the 27 months following intervention. Baseline and post-intervention HA-SAB and PIVC-associated infection rates were compared. Interrupted time-series and Bayesian change-point analyses were applied to determine the impact of interventions and timing of change. Significantly improved documentation regarding PIVC insertion and management was observed in the post-intervention period, with fewer PIVCs left in situ for ≥4 days (2.6 vs 6.9%, P<0.05). During the baseline period a total of 68 HA-SAB events occurred [1.01/10,000 occupied bed-days (OBDs)] and 24 were PIVC-associated (35% of total, rate 0.39 per 10,000 OBDs). In the post-intervention period, a total of 83 HA-SAB events occurred (0.99 per 10,000 OBDs) and 12 were PIVC-associated (14.4% of total, rate 0.14 per 10,000 OBDs). PIVC-associated SAB rates were 63% lower in the post-intervention period compared to baseline (P=0.018) with a change point observed following full bundle implementation in October 2013. A successful multi-modal hospital-wide campaign was introduced to reduce PIVC-associated SAB rates. Evaluation of cost-effectiveness and sustainability is required. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel autism subtype-dependent genetic variants are revealed by quantitative trait and subphenotype association analyses of published GWAS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Valerie W; Addington, Anjene; Hyman, Alexander

    2011-04-27

    The heterogeneity of symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has presented a significant challenge to genetic analyses. Even when associations with genetic variants have been identified, it has been difficult to associate them with a specific trait or characteristic of autism. Here, we report that quantitative trait analyses of ASD symptoms combined with case-control association analyses using distinct ASD subphenotypes identified on the basis of symptomatic profiles result in the identification of highly significant associations with 18 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The symptom categories included deficits in language usage, non-verbal communication, social development, and play skills, as well as insistence on sameness or ritualistic behaviors. Ten of the trait-associated SNPs, or quantitative trait loci (QTL), were associated with more than one subtype, providing partial replication of the identified QTL. Notably, none of the novel SNPs is located within an exonic region, suggesting that these hereditary components of ASDs are more likely related to gene regulatory processes (or gene expression) than to structural or functional changes in gene products. Seven of the QTL reside within intergenic chromosomal regions associated with rare copy number variants that have been previously reported in autistic samples. Pathway analyses of the genes associated with the QTL identified in this study implicate neurological functions and disorders associated with autism pathophysiology. This study underscores the advantage of incorporating both quantitative traits as well as subphenotypes into large-scale genome-wide analyses of complex disorders.

  20. Novel autism subtype-dependent genetic variants are revealed by quantitative trait and subphenotype association analyses of published GWAS data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie W Hu

    Full Text Available The heterogeneity of symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs has presented a significant challenge to genetic analyses. Even when associations with genetic variants have been identified, it has been difficult to associate them with a specific trait or characteristic of autism. Here, we report that quantitative trait analyses of ASD symptoms combined with case-control association analyses using distinct ASD subphenotypes identified on the basis of symptomatic profiles result in the identification of highly significant associations with 18 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The symptom categories included deficits in language usage, non-verbal communication, social development, and play skills, as well as insistence on sameness or ritualistic behaviors. Ten of the trait-associated SNPs, or quantitative trait loci (QTL, were associated with more than one subtype, providing partial replication of the identified QTL. Notably, none of the novel SNPs is located within an exonic region, suggesting that these hereditary components of ASDs are more likely related to gene regulatory processes (or gene expression than to structural or functional changes in gene products. Seven of the QTL reside within intergenic chromosomal regions associated with rare copy number variants that have been previously reported in autistic samples. Pathway analyses of the genes associated with the QTL identified in this study implicate neurological functions and disorders associated with autism pathophysiology. This study underscores the advantage of incorporating both quantitative traits as well as subphenotypes into large-scale genome-wide analyses of complex disorders.

  1. Young Australians' use of pornography and associations with sexual risk behaviours

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lim, Megan S.C; Agius, Paul A; Carrotte, Elise R; Vella, Alyce M; Hellard, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Amid public health concern that rising pornography use may have a negative impact on young people's health and wellbeing, we report prevalence of pornography viewing and explore factors associated...

  2. Possible Association of High Urinary Magnesium and Taurine to Creatinine Ratios with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Reduction in Australian Aboriginals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsumi Hamada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16–79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02–0.57; P<.05. The significant inverse associations of fat intake with Mg/cre and of fast food intake with urinary taurine/creatinine ratio were revealed. Conclusions. The high prevalence of obesity in the Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine.

  3. Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Commencing Biologic Therapy Have High Baseline Levels of Comorbidity: A Report from the Australian Rheumatology Association Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Oldroyd

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To compare the baseline characteristics of a population-based cohort of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS commencing biological therapy to the reported characteristics of bDMARD randomised controlled trials (RCTs participants. Methods. Descriptive analysis of AS participants in the Australian Rheumatology Association Database (ARAD who were commencing bDMARD therapy. Results. Up to December 2008, 389 patients with AS were enrolled in ARAD. 354 (91.0% had taken bDMARDs at some time, and 198 (55.9% completed their entry questionnaire prior to or within 6 months of commencing bDMARDs. 131 (66.1% had at least one comorbid condition, and 24 (6.8% had a previous malignancy (15 nonmelanoma skin, 4 melanoma, 2 prostate, 1 breast, cervix, and bowel. Compared with RCT participants, ARAD participants were older, had longer disease duration and higher baseline disease activity. Conclusions. AS patients commencing bDMARDs in routine care are significantly different to RCT participants and have significant baseline comorbidities.

  4. Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Commencing Biologic Therapy Have High Baseline Levels of Comorbidity: A Report from the Australian Rheumatology Association Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, John; Schachna, Lionel; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Staples, Margaret; Murphy, Bridie; Bond, Molly; Briggs, Andrew; Lassere, Marissa; March, Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Aims. To compare the baseline characteristics of a population-based cohort of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) commencing biological therapy to the reported characteristics of bDMARD randomised controlled trials (RCTs) participants. Methods. Descriptive analysis of AS participants in the Australian Rheumatology Association Database (ARAD) who were commencing bDMARD therapy. Results. Up to December 2008, 389 patients with AS were enrolled in ARAD. 354 (91.0%) had taken bDMARDs at some time, and 198 (55.9%) completed their entry questionnaire prior to or within 6 months of commencing bDMARDs. 131 (66.1%) had at least one comorbid condition, and 24 (6.8%) had a previous malignancy (15 nonmelanoma skin, 4 melanoma, 2 prostate, 1 breast, cervix, and bowel). Compared with RCT participants, ARAD participants were older, had longer disease duration and higher baseline disease activity. Conclusions. AS patients commencing bDMARDs in routine care are significantly different to RCT participants and have significant baseline comorbidities. PMID:20107564

  5. Antenatal breastfeeding intention, confidence and comfort in obese and non-obese primiparous Australian women: associations with breastfeeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, R M; Davies, P S W

    2016-08-01

    Maternal adiposity is known to affect breastfeeding initiation and duration via both antenatal and postnatal factors. This study investigates associations between maternal pregravid body mass index (BMI), breastfeeding duration and antenatal breastfeeding confidence, intention and social comfort among primiparous Australian women. Women in their first pregnancy (n=462) were recruited by convenience sampling in Queensland, Australia. Participants responded to an antenatal and six postnatal questionnaires during their infants' first year between June 2010 and March 2012. Maternal pregravid BMI was examined against breastfeeding duration, participants' antenatal infant feeding intentions and measures of breastfeeding confidence and social comfort. Breastfeeding initiation in this cohort was 97%, but 46% of mothers had ceased breastfeeding at 52 weeks postpartum. Breastfeeding duration differed significantly (χ(2) (2)=7.21, P=0.007) between normal, overweight and obese women. No differences were found in antenatal intention for feeding type nor intended breastfeeding duration by one-way ANOVA (F(2,178)=1.77, P=0.17). More than half of the pregnant respondents anticipated social discomfort breastfeeding in public, with obese women significantly more likely to anticipate discomfort breastfeeding in the presence of close female friends, (χ(2) (1)=5.53, P=0.019). This study confirmed the risk of premature cessation of breastfeeding for obese mothers. Interventions during pregnancy that address body image issues in relation to breastfeeding may facilitate breastfeeding success for obese mothers and their infants and accrue short- and long-term health benefits for both.

  6. Associations between body condition, rumen fill, diarrhoea and lameness and ruminal acidosis in Australian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, E; Costa, N D; Fulkerson, W J; Lean, I J

    2013-11-01

    To investigate associations between ruminal acidosis and body condition score (BCS), prevalence of poor rumen fill, diarrhoea and lameness in dairy cows in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 100 dairy herds in five regions of Australia. Feeding practices, diets and management practices of herds were assessed. Lactating cows within herds were sampled for rumen biochemistry (n = 8 per herd) and scored for body condition, rumen fill and locomotion (n = 15 per herd). The consistency of faecal pats (n = 20 per herd) from the lactating herd was also scored. A perineal faecal staining score was given to each herd. Herds were classified as subclinically acidotic (ACID), suboptimal (SO) and non-acidotic (Normal) when ≥3/8 cows per herd were allocated to previously defined categories based on rumen biochemical measures. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the prevalence of conditions within a herd and explanatory variables. Median BCS and perineal staining score were not associated with herd category (p >0.05). In the multivariate models, herds with a high prevalence of low rumen fill scores (≤2/5) were more likely to be categorised Normal than SO with an associated increased risk of 69% (p = 0.05). Herds that had a greater prevalence of lame cows (locomotion scores ≥3/5), had 103% higher risk of being categorised as ACID than SO (p = 0.034). In a multivariate logistic regression model, with herd modelled as a random effect, an increase of 1% of pasture in the diet was associated with a 5.5% increase in risk of high faecal scores (≥4/5) indicating diarrhoea (p = 0.001). This study confirmed that herd categories based on rumen function are associated with biological outcomes consistent with acidosis. Herds that had a higher risk of lameness also had a much higher risk of being categorised ACID than SO. Herds with a high prevalence of low rumen scores were more likely to

  7. Sex-dependent association between omega-3 index and body weight status in older Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwina Mingay

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Omega-3 status was associated with weight status, particularly in older women but not in men. These results suggest the need for sex-based intervention trials to examine the role of dietary intake and/or supplementation of LCn-3PUFA in weight management of older adults.

  8. Associations between Teacher Emotional Support and Depressive Symptoms in Australian Adolescents: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G.; Spence, Susan H.; Bjerg, Annie C.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and…

  9. Concurrent and prospective associations between bullying victimization and substance use among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Erin V; Newton, Nicola C; Stapinski, Lexine A; Slade, Tim; Barrett, Emma L; Conrod, Patricia J; Teesson, Maree

    2015-09-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable time for both substance use and bullying involvement; however, there is limited research on substance use among adolescent victims of bullying. This study aimed to examine concurrent and prospective associations between bullying and substance use, differentiating between passive-victims, bully-victims and 'pure' bullies. Associations between bullying involvement and substance use at baseline and 24 months post-baseline were examined in a cohort of adolescents in Australia. Bullying victims were divided into passive-victims (those who get bullied and do not bully others) and bully-victims (those who both get bullied and bully others). Perpetrators of bullying were divided into 'pure' bullies (those who bully others but do not get bullied), and bully-victims (as above). Outcomes examined were past six month use of alcohol (any drinking; risky drinking), tobacco, and cannabis. While there was no evidence of an association between bullying victimization and/or perpetration and substance use at baseline, there was evidence of an association between bullying and substance use 24 months post-baseline. Specifically, there was evidence of increased odds of risky drinking and cannabis use for the bully-victim group. Bully-victim status at age 13 was associated with substance use at age 15, controlling for concurrent bullying involvement at age 15. Bully-victims are a particularly high-risk group that could benefit from targeted substance use preventive interventions. Reducing bullying is of great importance in reducing substance use and other harms among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with cervicitis and HIV infection in an urban Australian STI clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, M J; Konecny, P; Naing, Z W; Garden, F L; Cumming, R G; Rawlinson, W D

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of the genital mollicutes, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP), and their associations with cervicitis in a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic population. Clinical correlates of MG infection were also assessed. 527 women were enrolled in a cross-sectional study at two STI clinics in Sydney between June 2006 and January 2010. Genital mollicutes were detected by multiplex PCR testing of cervical swabs, and associations with cervicitis were analysed. Cervicitis was defined as >30 polymorphonuclear cells per high-power field in at least three non-adjacent fields of cervical mucus on Gram stain. MG was found in 4.0% of women, MH in 17.1%, UU in 14.1%, and UP in 51.8%. MG was the only mollicute associated with cervicitis (unadjusted prevalence ratio (PR) 1.85, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.26, p<0.0001), and this association remained after adjustment for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection (adjusted PR 1.24 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.48), p=0.02). MG was significantly associated with women being HIV positive (p=0.03), but not with age, vaginal discharge, commercial sex work, being of culturally and linguistically diverse background, or concurrent CT infection. Two of the 21 women with MG had ectopic pregnancies. The authors recommend wider application of PCR testing for MG in STI services, particularly in high-risk women and those with cervicitis or HIV infection.

  11. Predictors of Vitamin D-Containing Supplement Use in the Australian Population and Associations between Dose and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda J. Black

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite concerns about vitamin D deficiency in the Australian population, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use. We described the use of vitamin D-containing supplements, and investigated associations between supplemental vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations, using a single 24-h dietary recall from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey (n = 12,153; ages ≥ 2 years. Multiple regression models were used to investigate predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults, and associations between dose and serum 25(OHD concentrations/vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 10%, 6% and 19% in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults included being female, advancing age, higher educational attainment, higher socio-economic status, not smoking, and greater physical activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, a 40 IU (1 µg increase in vitamin D intake from supplements was associated with an increase of 0.41 nmol/L in serum 25(OHD concentrations (95% CI 0.35, 0.47; p < 0.001. However, the prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was generally low in the Australian population, particularly for single vitamin D supplements, with most supplement users obtaining only low levels of vitamin D from other supplement types.

  12. Discretionary food and beverage consumption and its association with demographic characteristics, weight status, and fruit and vegetable intakes in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhixian; Wong, Weng Kei; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Rangan, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Excessive consumption of discretionary foods/beverages in the Australian population has been identified, increasing the risk of obesity and chronic disease. The present study aimed to examine the associations between demographic, anthropometric and dietary factors and the consumption of discretionary foods, discretionary beverages and discretionary foods/beverages combined. Discretionary food/beverage consumption reported in two 24 h recalls was analysed, stratified by gender, age, socio-economic status, country of birth, BMI, waist circumference, and fruit and vegetable intakes. 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Australian adults (n 7873) aged 19 years or above. Mean discretionary food and beverage consumption was 631 g (28 % by weight from foods; 72 % from beverages), providing 2721 kJ of energy intake (72 % from foods; 28 % from beverages). Total discretionary food/beverage consumption was higher in younger age groups (Pbeverage consumption (β=6·6, Pfood consumption (β=0·5, P=0·01). Total discretionary food/beverage consumption as well as discretionary foods alone and discretionary beverages alone were associated with BMI in Australian adults. In addition, high intakes were associated with younger age, lower socio-economic status, and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables.

  13. Higher maternal protectiveness is associated with higher odds of child overweight and obesity: a longitudinal Australian study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten J Hancock

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4-5 year old children was followed up at 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years of age (n  =  2596. Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6-7 and 8-9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI, family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9 years. However at age 10-11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s that links the two concepts.

  14. Higher maternal protectiveness is associated with higher odds of child overweight and obesity: a longitudinal Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Kirsten J; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4-5 year old children was followed up at 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years of age (n  =  2596). Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6-7 and 8-9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI), family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9 years. However at age 10-11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s) that links the two concepts.

  15. Neighbourhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking in South Australian Adults: Differences between Urban and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Coffee, Neil T; Nolan, Rebecca; Dollman, James; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-08-26

    Although the health benefits of walking are well established, participation is lower in rural areas compared to urban areas. Most studies on walkability and walking have been conducted in urban areas, thus little is known about the relevance of walkability to rural areas. A computer-assisted telephone survey of 2402 adults (aged ≥18 years) was conducted to determine walking behaviour and perceptions of neighbourhood walkability. Data were stratified by urban (n = 1738) and rural (n = 664). A greater proportion of respondents reported no walking in rural (25.8%) compared to urban areas (18.5%). Compared to urban areas, rural areas had lower walkability scores and urban residents reported higher frequency of walking. The association of perceived walkability with walking was significant only in urban areas. These results suggest that environmental factors associated with walking in urban areas may not be relevant in rural areas. Appropriate walkability measures specific to rural areas should be further researched.

  16. Bibliometric analysis of articles published from 1980 to 2009 in Physical Therapy, journal of the American Physical Therapy Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A; Riddle, Daniel L; Wurtzel, Wendy A; George, Steven Z

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates growth in both the quality and quantity of evidence in physical therapy. Much of this work has focused on randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric assessment of Physical Therapy (PTJ) over the past 30 years to examine trends for all types of studies. This was a bibliometric analysis. All manuscripts published in PTJ from 1980 to 2009 were reviewed. Research reports, topical reviews (including perspectives and nonsystematic reviews), and case reports were included. Articles were coded based on type, participant characteristics, physical therapy focus, research design, purpose of article, clinical condition, and intervention. Coding was performed by 2 independent reviewers, and author, institution, and citation information was obtained using bibliometric software. Of the 4,385 publications identified, 2,519 were included in this analysis. Of these, 67.1% were research reports, 23.0% were topical reviews, and 9.9% were case reports. Percentage increases over the past 30 years were observed for research reports, inclusion of "symptomatic" participants (defined as humans with a current symptomatic condition), systematic reviews, qualitative studies, prospective studies, and articles focused on prognosis, diagnosis, or metric topics. Percentage decreases were observed for topical reviews, inclusion of only "asymptomatic" participants (defined as humans without a current symptomatic condition), education articles, nonsystematic reviews, and articles focused on anatomy/physiology. Quality assessment of articles was not performed. These trends provide an indirect indication of the evolution of the physical therapy profession through the publication record in PTJ. Collectively, the data indicated an increased emphasis on publishing articles consistent with evidence-based practice and clinically based research. Bibliometric analyses indicated the most frequent

  17. Outcomes of myringoplasty in Australian Aboriginal children and factors associated with success: a prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, D; MacKendrick, A; Bulsara, M; Coates, H; Lannigan, F; Lehmann, D; Leidwinger, L; Weeks, S

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes of myringoplasties in Aboriginal children and to identify factors associated with a successful outcome with the use of prospective case series from primary health care clinics and hospitals in four rural and remote regions of Western Australia. All 58 Aboriginal children, aged 5-15 years, who underwent 78 myringoplasties between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2001 were included in the study. Complete postoperative (post-op) follow-up was achieved following 78% of myringoplasties. The main outcome measures were (a) success, i.e. an intact tympanic membrane and normal hearing six or more months post-op in the operated ear, (b) closure of the perforation, (c) Post-op hearing improvement. Forty-nine per cent of myringoplasties were successful, 72% resulted in closure or reduction in the size of the perforation and 51% resulted in hearing improvement. After controlling for age, sex, clustering and number of previous myringoplasties, no association was observed between success or hearing improvement and perforation size, or the presence of serous aural discharge at the time of surgery. Myringoplasty resulted in hearing improvement and/or perforation closure in a significant proportion of children. Thus, primary school-aged Aboriginal children in whom conservative management of chronic suppurative otitis media has been unsuccessful should have access to myringoplasty because of the positive impact on their socialization, language and learning that results from improved hearing.

  18. High education and increased parity are associated with breast-feeding initiation and duration among Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowko, Natalie; Jones, Mark; Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita

    2016-10-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with positive maternal and infant health and development outcomes. To assist identifying women less likely to meet infant nutritional guidelines, we investigated the role of socio-economic position and parity on initiation of and sustaining breast-feeding for at least 6 months. Prospective cohort study. Australia. Parous women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (born 1973-78), with self-reported reproductive and breast-feeding history (N 4777). While 89 % of women (83 % of infants) had ever breast-fed, only 60 % of infants were breast-fed for at least 6 months. Multiparous women were more likely to breast-feed their first child (~90 % v. ~71 % of primiparous women), and women who breast-fed their first child were more likely to breast-feed subsequent children. Women with a low education (adjusted OR (95 % CI): 2·09 (1·67, 2·62)) or a very low-educated parent (1·47 (1·16, 1·88)) had increased odds of not initiating breast-feeding with their first or subsequent children. While fewer women initiated breast-feeding with their youngest child, this was most pronounced among high-educated women. While ~60 % of women breast-fed their first, second and third child for at least 6 months, low-educated women (first child, adjusted OR (95 % CI): 2·19 (1·79, 2·68)) and women with a very low (1·82 (1·49, 2·22)) or low-educated parent (1·69 (1·33, 2·14)) had increased odds of not breast-feeding for at least 6 months. A greater understanding of barriers to initiating and sustaining breast-feeding, some of which are socio-economic-specific, may assist in reducing inequalities in infant breast-feeding.

  19. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Dooley, Julian; Shaw, Thérèse; Cross, Donna

    2010-11-23

    Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means) has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0). All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour) in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  20. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Thérèse

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. Method The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0. All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Results Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Conclusions Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  1. Novel and divergent viruses associated with Australian orchid-fungus symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jamie W L; Li, Hua; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Dixon, Kingsley W; Jones, Michael G K; Wylie, Stephen J

    2017-11-24

    Terrestrial orchids represent a symbiotic union between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. This study describes the occurrence and nature of viruses associated with one population of wild Pterostylis sanguinea orchids and their fungal symbionts over two consecutive years. A generic sequencing approach, which combined dsRNA-enrichment from plant and mycelial tissues, random amplification and high throughput sequencing, was used to identify novel viruses. The majority of the virus-like sequences represent partial genomes, and their identification is based solely on de novo assembly of sequencing data. In orchid leaf tissues we found three isolates of a novel totivirus and an unclassified virus; both resemble fungus-infecting viruses. Two isolates of Ceratobasidium sp were isolated from orchid underground stems contained at least 20 viruses, 16 of which were previously described as alphapartitiviruses and betapartitiviruses. A hypovirus and a mitovirus were genetically distant from existing members of the genera and did not readily fit into recognised subgroups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated with Strongyloides stercoralis Treatment Failure in Australian Aboriginals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Hays

    Full Text Available To explore the efficacy of ivermectin in the treatment of serologically diagnosed cases of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis infection in an Aboriginal community and to describe factors that may influence the outcome of treatment.Longitudinal study of a group of 92 individuals with serologically diagnosed S. stercoralis treated with ivermectin and followed up over a period of approximately 6 months. Main outcomes were serological titers pre and post treatment, diabetic status, and duration of follow up.Treatment success was achieved in 62% to 79% of cases dependent on the methods employed for the diagnosis of infection and assessment of treatment outcome. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM was found to be significantly associated with treatment failure in this group for two of the three methods employed.Ivermectin has been confirmed as an effective treatment for S stercoralis infection in this setting. T2DM appears to be an independent risk factor for treatment failure in this population, and plausible mechanisms to explain this observation are presented.

  3. Metabolic Pathways Associated with Kimchi, a Traditional Korean Food, Based onIn SilicoModeling of Published Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ga Hee; Kang, Byeong-Chul; Jang, Dai Ja

    2016-12-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean food prepared by fermenting vegetables, such as Chinese cabbage and radishes, which are seasoned with various ingredients, including red pepper powder, garlic, ginger, green onion, fermented seafood ( Jeotgal ), and salt. The various unique microorganisms and bioactive components in kimchi show antioxidant activity and have been associated with an enhanced immune response, as well as anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects. Red pepper inhibits decay due to microorganisms and prevents food from spoiling. The vast amount of biological information generated by academic and industrial research groups is reflected in a rapidly growing body of scientific literature and expanding data resources. However, the genome, biological pathway, and related disease data are insufficient to explain the health benefits of kimchi because of the varied and heterogeneous data types. Therefore, we have constructed an appropriate semantic data model based on an integrated food knowledge database and analyzed the functional and biological processes associated with kimchi in silico . This complex semantic network of several entities and connections was generalized to answer complex questions, and we demonstrated how specific disease pathways are related to kimchi consumption.

  4. Longitudinal Associations Between Vitamin D Metabolites and Sarcopenia in Older Australian men: The Concord Health and Aging in Men Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Vasant; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasi; Blyth, Fiona; Le Couteur, David G; Hsu, Benjumin; Handelsman, David J; Waite, Louise M; Seibel, Markus J

    2017-12-12

    To explore the associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) levels at baseline and incidence of sarcopenia over time in older Australian community-dwelling older men. Of the 1,705 men aged ≥70 years (2005-2007) participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project, those without sarcopenia at baseline (n = 1,312 for 25D and n = 1,231 for 1,25D), 2 years (n = 1,024 for 25D and n = 956 for 1,25D), and 5-year follow-up (n = 709 for 25D and n = 663 for 1,25D) were included in the study. The main outcome measurement was the incidence of sarcopenia defined as appendicular lean mass adjusted for body mass index sarcopenia was 3.9% in men at the 2-year follow-up and 8.6% at the 5-year follow-up. In adjusted analysis, men with vitamin D levels in the lowest quartiles (25D sarcopenia compared to those with vitamin D levels in the highest quartiles over 5 years. [25D: odds ratio (OR) 2.53 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14, 5.64) p = .02; 1,25D: OR 2.67 (95% CI 1.28, 5.60) p = .01]. After further adjustments for the respective other serum vitamin D measure, (either 25D or 1,25D), the association remained significant [25D: OR 2.40 (95% CI 1.02, 5.64) p = .04; 1,25D: OR 2.23 (95% CI 1.04, 4.80) p = .04]. Low serum 1,25D and 25D concentrations at baseline are independently associated with the incidence of sarcopenia over the subsequent 5 years. Although our data do not prove any causal relationship, it is conceivable that maintaining vitamin D sufficiency may reduce the incidence of sarcopenia in ageing men.

  5. The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in a cohort study of Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Zhi Xiang; Grant, Janet; Shi, Zumin; Taylor, Anne W; Wittert, Gary A; Tully, Phillip J; Hayley, Amie C; Martin, Sean

    2017-06-01

    Previous clinical studies have demonstrated a relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with anxiety and depression; however, few population-based studies have controlled for sleep disorders. The current study aimed to assess the relationship between GERD and anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders in a community-based sample of Australian men. Participants comprised a subset of 1612 men (mean age: 60.7 years, range: 35-80) who participated in the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress Study during the years 2001-2012, who had complete GERD measures (Gastresophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire), and were not taking medications known to impact gastrointestinal function (excluding drugs taken for acid-related disorders). Current depression and anxiety were defined by (i) physician diagnosis, (ii) symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) or anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), and/or current depressive or anxiolytic medication use. Previous depression was indicated by past depressive diagnoses/medication use. Data on sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and obstructive sleep apnea were collected along with several health, lifestyle, and medical factors, and these were systematically evaluated in both univariate and multivariable analyses. Overall, 13.7% (n = 221) men had clinically significant GERD symptoms. In the adjusted models, an association between GERD and anxiety (odds ratio [OR] 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-6.8) and poor sleep quality (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.9) was observed; however, no effect was observed for current depression (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.8-2.7). After removing poor sleep quality from the model, an independent association between current depression (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7-3.8) and current anxiety (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.8-6.0) and GERD was observed, but not for previous depression (OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.7-2.8). In this sample of urban-dwelling men

  6. The Australian public׳s beliefs about the causes of schizophrenia: associated factors and change over 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2014-12-15

    This study investigated the Australian public׳s beliefs about the causes of schizophrenia and whether these beliefs have changed over a 16-year period. Data came from the 2011 Australian National Survey of Mental Health Literacy and Stigma which involved telephone interviews with 1995 Australians aged 15 or over. The survey interview used the same questions as those of the 2003/4 and 1995 national mental health literacy surveys, in which participants were presented with a case vignette describing either early or chronic schizophrenia. Questions were asked about recognition of, exposure to and causal beliefs about these disorders, including those relating to psychosocial, biogenetic and personality factors. Results showed that most Australians believe in multifactorial causes of schizophrenia and that, between 1995 and 2011, belief in problems from childhood and inherited or genetic causes of early schizophrenia increased while belief in weakness of character decreased. Overall, the findings are consistent with evidence that mental health literacy in Australia has improved over a 16-year period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resilience amongst Australian aboriginal youth: an ecological analysis of factors associated with psychosocial functioning in high and low family risk contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Katrina D; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12-17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000-2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth.

  8. Resilience amongst Australian aboriginal youth: an ecological analysis of factors associated with psychosocial functioning in high and low family risk contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina D Hopkins

    Full Text Available We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12-17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000-2002, a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low and psychosocial functioning (good/poor. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth.

  9. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Editorial developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    We are delighted to announce that from January 2009, Professor Murray T Batchelor of the Australian National University, Canberra will be the new Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. Murray Batchelor has been Editor of the Mathematical Physics section of the journal since 2007. Prior to this, he served as a Board Member and an Advisory Panel member for the journal. His primary area of research is the statistical mechanics of exactly solved models. He holds a joint appointment in mathematics and physics and has held visiting positions at the Universities of Leiden, Amsterdam, Oxford and Tokyo. We very much look forward to working with Murray to continue to improve the journal's quality and interest to the readership. We would like to thank our outgoing Editor-in-Chief, Professor Carl M Bender. Carl has done a magnificent job as Editor-in-Chief and has worked tirelessly to improve the journal over the last five years. Carl has been instrumental in designing and implementing strategies that have enhanced the quality of papers published and service provided by Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. Notably, under his tenure, we have introduced the Fast Track Communications (FTC) section to the journal. This section provides a venue for outstanding short papers that report new and timely developments in mathematical and theoretical physics and offers accelerated publication and high visibility for our authors. During the last five years, we have raised the quality threshold for acceptance in the journal and now reject over 60% of submissions. As a result, papers published in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical are amongst the best in the field. We have also maintained and improved on our excellent receipt-to-first-decision times, which now average less than 50 days for papers. We have recently announced another innovation; the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. These prizes will honour excellent papers

  10. Australian coal conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Almost 600 people attended this year's Australian Coal Conference on Queensland's Gold Coast. The article reports on issues raised at the conference which included the effects of globalisation and the difficulties of raising funds faced by the coal industry and environmental issues. A life cycle analysis of coal's emissions compared to other fuels, released at the conference had demonstrated that coal was a legitimate part of the world's future energy mix. Conference speakers included Michael Pinnock, Queensland Mining Council Chief Executive Officer, Dr Louis Wibberley and Rich Gazzard of BHP, Robin Batterham, the Australian Governments Chief Scientist, Mark Vale, Federal Minister for Trade, Tony Armor of EPRI, Daren Fooks, Clayton Utz Lawyers, Ron Knapp, Chief Executive of the World Coal Institute and Andrew Tucker, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Highlights of their addresses are given. Winners of the five research awards presented by the Australian Coal Association at the conference are reported. 11 photos.

  11. Therapeutic approaches to disease modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis in adults: an Australian and New Zealand perspective: part 2 new and emerging therapies and their efficacy. MS Neurology Group of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Simon A; Barnett, Michael H; Boggild, Mike; Brew, Bruce J; Butzkueven, Helmut; Heard, Robert; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Kermode, Allan G; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Macdonell, Richard A L; Marriott, Mark; Mason, Deborah F; Parratt, John; Reddel, Stephen W; Shaw, Cameron P; Slee, Mark; Spies, Judith; Taylor, Bruce V; Carroll, William M; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; King, John; McCombe, Pamela A; Pollard, John D; Willoughby, Ernest

    2014-11-01

    In Part 2 of this three part review of multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment with a particular focus on the Australian and New Zealand perspective, we review the newer therapies that have recently become available and emerging therapies that have now completed phase III clinical trial programs. We go on to compare the relative efficacies of these newer and emerging therapies alongside the existing therapies. The effectiveness of β-interferon in the treatment of different stages and the different disease courses of MS is critically reviewed with the conclusion that the absolute level of response in term of annualised relapse rates (where relapses occur) and MRI activity are similar, but are disappointing in terms of sustained disability progression for progressive forms of the disease. Finally we review the controversial area of combination therapy for MS. Whilst it remains the case that we have no cure or means of preventing MS, we do have a range of effective therapies that when used appropriately and early in the disease course can have a significant impact on short term and longer term outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel mutation of the CLCN1 gene associated with myotonia hereditaria in an Australian cattle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, Daniel F; Hanna, W J Brad; Poma, Roberto; Bendall, Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Heritable myotonia is a genetic muscle disorder characterized by slow relaxation of skeletal muscles. The main clinical signs are skeletal muscle stiffness, especially after vigorous contraction, and muscle hypertrophy. Muscle stiffness may be enhanced by inactivity, and often is relieved by exercise. Myotonia can be inherited in an autosomal dominant or recessive manner (Thomsen- or Becker-type myotonia, respectively). In mice, goats, Miniature Schnauzer dogs, and most affected humans, the disorder is caused by mutations in CLCN1, which encodes the skeletal muscle voltage-gated chloride channel, Cl1C-1. We hypothesized that an Australian Cattle Dog with generalized muscle stiffness and hypertrophy examined at the Ontario Veterinary College would have a mutation in the CLCN1 gene. A pure-bred Australian Cattle Dog from Ontario, Canada, was used. Based on clinical signs and electromyographic test results, a diagnosis of myotonia hereditaria was made, and a muscle biopsy was collected for genetic analysis. Sequence data obtained from the affected dog confirmed that it was homozygous for a single base insertion in the CLCN1 coding sequence. This mutation would result in a truncated ClC-1 protein being expressed, which, based on molecular evidence from other studies, would result in functionally compromised chloride conduction in the skeletal muscles of the animal. To the authors' knowledge, this report describes the Ist case of myotonia in an Australian Cattle Dog and represents the 1st non-Schnauzer canine myotonia to be genetically characterized. In addition, we developed a polymerase chain reaction-based genetic screen to detect heterozygotes with this mutation in the at-large Australian Cattle Dog population.

  13. Talarazines A-E: Noncytotoxic Iron(III) Chelators from an Australian Mud Dauber Wasp-Associated Fungus, Talaromyces sp. (CMB-W045).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Quezada, Michelle; Espósito, Breno P; Capon, Robert J

    2017-03-24

    Chemical analysis of an Australian mud dauber wasp-associated fungus, Talaromyces sp. (CMB-W045), yielded five new coprogen siderophores, talarazines A-E (1-5), together with dimerumic acid (6), desferricoprogen (7), and elutherazine B (8). Structures inclusive of absolute configuration were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and application of the C 3 Marfey's method. We report on the noncytotoxic Fe(III) chelation properties of 1-8 and demonstrate that biosynthesis is regulated by available Fe(III) in culture media. We demonstrate a magnetic nanoparticule approach to extracting high-affinity Fe(III) binding metabolites (i.e., 8) from complex extracts.

  14. Asian Australian Literatures

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Deborah Lea

    2007-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the range of Asian-Australian writers, within the context of changing historical and political conditions, as well as the complexity of defining a single category of literature written by Australians of Asian heritage. Such a category is difficult to define in strictly nationalistic terms as ‘Asian Australian literature’: where Australian literature is the controlling noun and ‘Asian’ functions as an adjective. Some Asian Australian writers are Australian-bo...

  15. The use of common mitochondrial variants to detect and characterise population structure in the Australian population: implications for genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Enda M; McRae, Allan F; Zhao, Zhen-Zhen; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Visscher, Peter M

    2008-11-01

    There is an increasing recognition of the potential role of variants in mitochondrial DNA and nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins in modifying disease risk. This has led to a rise in the number of mitochondrial association studies being undertaken. The unique inheritance pattern of mitochondria makes mitochondrial DNA variation susceptible to having geographical structure. Such a structure may have a dramatic impact on mitochondrial association studies, particularly in heterogeneous populations. By combining self-reported ancestry data and mitochondrial genotype data for a sample of 3839 individuals from 1037 Australian families, population substructure is tested by looking for evidence of differences in mitochondrial haplogroup and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies between different ancestral groups in Australia. In addition, the substructure within ancestral groups is tested by comparing the similarity of mates to randomly drawn pairs of individuals from the same ancestral group. It is shown that there are significant differences in the frequency of variants both between European and non-European groups, and within Europe. This agrees with previous studies of European mitochondrial variation. No evidence was found for structure within ancestral groups. These results have implications for future association studies in the Australian population, and other populations of heterogeneous ancestry.

  16. Readings in Geographical Education: Selections from Australian and New Zealand Sources, Volume 2, 1966-1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, D. S., Ed.; Deer, C. E., Ed.

    This anthology provides geography teachers with a sample of periodical literature available in Australian and New Zealand professional association journals. The articles, published between 1969 and 1972, are relevant to secondary- and college-level geography education. An introductory chapter defines the objectives and methods of geographical…

  17. Ureteroscopy in a community hospital compared to published data of SWL between 1997 and 2003 and the guidelines of the American Urological Association/European Association of Urology and the guidelines of the German Association of Urology

    OpenAIRE

    Benken, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this retrospective study was to compare the results of a primary ureteroscopy (URS) in patients with flank pain and ureteral calculi of a community hospital and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). 535 patients between 1997 and 2003 have been evaluated and matched to published results of SWL of these era and the AUA/ EAU (2007) guidelines and the guidelines of the German Association of Urology (2009). The overall stone free rate after 3 month has been slightly better in the SWL...

  18. Self-declared stock ownership and association with positive trial outcome in randomized controlled trials with binary outcomes published in general medical journals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk Delgado, Alberto; Falk Delgado, Anna

    2017-07-26

    Describe the prevalence and types of conflicts of interest (COI) in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in general medical journals with a binary primary outcome and assess the association between conflicts of interest and favorable outcome. Parallel-group RCTs with a binary primary outcome published in three general medical journals during 2013-2015 were identified. COI type, funding source, and outcome were extracted. Binomial logistic regression model was performed to assess association between COI and funding source with outcome. A total of 509 consecutive parallel-group RCTs were included in the study. COI was reported in 74% in mixed funded RCTs and in 99% in for-profit funded RCTs. Stock ownership was reported in none of the non-profit RCTs, in 7% of mixed funded RCTs, and in 50% of for-profit funded RCTs. Mixed-funded RCTs had employees from the funding company in 11% and for-profit RCTs in 76%. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that stock ownership in the funding company among any of the authors was associated with a favorable outcome (odds ratio = 3.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.59-7.86; p company among authors is associated with a favorable outcome.

  19. The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group "Grain (Cereal)", Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Mansour, Marie

    2017-02-18

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended "grain (cereal)" core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the "grain (cereal)" group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 9341). Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves), high consumers (6+ serves/day) were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI (p grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity.

  20. The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group “Grain (Cereal”, Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended “grain (cereal” core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes. We investigated the association between daily serves from the “grain (cereal” group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 9341. Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves, high consumers (6+ serves/day were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI (p < 0.001, waist circumference (p = 0.001 and a positive relationship with fibre (p < 0.001. Model adjustments for diet and lifestyle factors resulted in a smaller difference in waist circumference (p = 0.006 and BMI (p = 0.006. Core grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity.

  1. Associations of diet quality with health-related quality of life in older Australian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milte, Catherine M; Thorpe, Maree G; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated associations between diet quality measures and quality of life two years later. Adults 55-65 years participating in the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study in Victoria, Australia (n = 1150 men and n = 1307 women) completed a postal survey including a 111-item food frequency questionnaire in 2010. Diet quality in 2010 was assessed via the dietary guideline index (DGI), recommended food score (RFS) and Mediterranean diet score (MDS). The RAND 36-item survey assessed health-related quality of life in 2012. Associations were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for covariates. In men, DGI and RFS were associated with better reported energy (OR = 1.79, CI: 1.25, 2.55 and OR = 1.56, CI: 1.11, 2.19 respectively), and DGI was additionally associated with better general health (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.20), and overall mental component summary scale (OR = 1.51, CI: 1.07, 2.15) in the fully adjusted model. In women, associations between two indices of diet quality (DGI, RFS) physical function (OR = 1.66, CI: 1.19, 2.31 and OR = 1.70, CI: 1.21, 2.37 respectively) and general health (OR = 1.83, CI: 1.32, 2.54 and OR = 1.54, CI: 1.11, 2.14 respectively) were observed. DGI was also associated with overall physical component summary score (OR = 1.56, CI: 1.12, 2.17). Additional associations between emotional wellbeing and DGI (OR = 1.40, CI: 1.01, 1.93) and RFS (OR = 1.44, CI: 1.04, 1.99), and MDS and energy (OR = 1.53, CI: 1.11, 2.10) were observed in the fully adjusted model, in women only. Older adults with better quality diets report better health-related quality of life, with additional associations with emotional wellbeing observed in women. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. First genome-wide association study in an Australian aboriginal population provides insights into genetic risk factors for body mass index and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Anderson

    Full Text Available A body mass index (BMI >22kg/m2 is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D in Aboriginal Australians. To identify loci associated with BMI and T2D we undertook a genome-wide association study using 1,075,436 quality-controlled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped (Illumina 2.5M Duo Beadchip in 402 individuals in extended pedigrees from a Western Australian Aboriginal community. Imputation using the thousand genomes (1000G reference panel extended the analysis to 6,724,284 post quality-control autosomal SNPs. No associations achieved genome-wide significance, commonly accepted as P45,000 years ago. The top hit (rs10868204 Pgenotyped = 1.50x10-6; rs11140653 Pimputed_1000G = 2.90x10-7 for BMI lies 5' of NTRK2, the type 2 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF that regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R. PIK3C2G (rs12816270 Pgenotyped = 8.06x10-6; rs10841048 Pimputed_1000G = 6.28x10-7 was associated with BMI, but not with T2D as reported elsewhere. BMI also associated with CNTNAP2 (rs6960319 Pgenotyped = 4.65x10-5; rs13225016 Pimputed_1000G = 6.57x10-5, previously identified as the strongest gene-by-environment interaction for BMI in African-Americans. The top hit (rs11240074 Pgenotyped = 5.59x10-6, Pimputed_1000G = 5.73x10-6 for T2D lies 5' of BCL9 that, along with TCF7L2, promotes beta-catenin's transcriptional activity in the WNT signaling pathway. Additional hits occurred in genes affecting pancreatic (KCNJ6, KCNA1 and/or GABA (GABRR1, KCNA1 functions. Notable associations observed for genes previously identified at genome-wide significance in other populations included MC4R (Pgenotyped = 4.49x10-4 for BMI and IGF2BP2 Pimputed_1000G = 2.55x10-6 for T2D. Our results may provide novel functional leads in understanding disease pathogenesis in this Australian Aboriginal population.

  3. The Library Publishing Coalition: organizing libraries to enhance scholarly publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kalikman Lippincott

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Library-based publishing efforts are gaining traction in academic and research libraries across the world, primarily in response to perceived gaps in the scholarly publishing system. Though publishing is a new area of work for libraries, it is often a natural outgrowth of their existing infrastructure and skill sets, leveraging the institutional repository as publishing platform and repositioning librarians’ skills as information managers. For decades, these initiatives were primarily ad hoc and local, limiting the potential for library publishing to effect significant change. In 2013, over 60 academic and research libraries collectively founded the Library Publishing Coalition (LPC, a professional association expressly charged with facilitating knowledge sharing, collaboration and advocacy for this growing field. This article offers an overview of library publishing activity, primarily in the US, followed by an account of the creation and mission of the LPC, the first professional association dedicated wholly to the support of library publishers.

  4. Association between study design and citation counts of articles published in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics and Angle Orthodontist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Lee, Min Kyeong; Shah, Andrea; Elangovan, Satheesh; Lin, Chin-Yu

    2012-01-01

    The scientific community views meta-analyses and systematic reviews, in addition to well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials, as the highest echelon in the continuum of hierarchy of evidence. The objective of this study was to examine the association between different study designs and citation counts of articles published in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics and Angle Orthodontist. All articles, excluding editorial comments, letters to the editor, commentaries, and special articles, that were published in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics and Angle Orthodontist during the years 2004 and 2005 were examined in this study. The number of times an article was cited in the first 24 months after its publication was computed. The PubMed database was used to index the study design of the articles. The association between study design and citation counts was examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. A multivariable negative binomial regression model was used to examine the association between citation count and study design along with several other confounding variables. A total of 624 articles were selected for analysis. Of these, there were 25 meta-analyses or review articles, 42 randomized clinical trials, 59 clinical trials, 48 animal studies, 64 case reports, and 386 quasiexperimental/miscellaneous study designs. The mean ± SD citation count was 1.04 ± 1.46. Nearly half of the articles (n = 311) were not cited even once during the observation period. Case reports were cited less frequently than meta-analyses or reviews (incident risk ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.72; P = .003), even after adjusting for other independent variables. Among various study designs, meta-analyses and review articles are more likely to be cited in the first 24 months after publication. This study demonstrates the importance of publishing more meta-analyses and review articles for quicker dissemination of

  5. Comparative Associations Between Achieved Bicultural Identity, Achieved Ego Identity, and Achieved Religious Identity and Adaptation Among Australian Adolescent Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rayya, Hisham M; Abu-Rayya, Maram H; White, Fiona A; Walker, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the comparative roles of biculturalism, ego identity, and religious identity in the adaptation of Australian adolescent Muslims. A total of 504 high school Muslim students studying at high schools in metropolitan Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, took part in this study which required them to complete a self-report questionnaire. Analyses indicated that adolescent Muslims' achieved religious identity seems to play a more important role in shaping their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation compared to adolescents' achieved bicultural identity. Adolescents' achieved ego identity tended also to play a greater role in their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation than achieved bicultural identity. The relationships between the three identities and negative indicators of psychological adaptation were consistently indifferent. Based on these findings, we propose that the three identity-based forces-bicultural identity development, religious identity attainment, and ego identity formation-be amalgamated into one framework in order for researchers to more accurately examine the adaptation of Australian adolescent Muslims.

  6. A dataset for examining trends in publication of new Australian insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mesibov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian Faunal Directory data were used to create a new, publicly available dataset, nai50, which lists 18318 species and subspecies names for Australian insects described in the period 1961–2010, together with associated publishing data. The number of taxonomic publications introducing the new names varied little around a long-term average of 70 per year, with ca 420 new names published per year during the 30-year period 1981–2010. Within this stable pattern there were steady increases in multi-authored and 'Smith in Jones and Smith' names, and a decline in publication of names in entomology journals and books. For taxonomic works published in Australia, a publications peak around 1990 reflected increases in museum, scientific society and government agency publishing, but a subsequent decline is largely explained by a steep drop in the number of papers on insect taxonomy published by Australia's national science agency, CSIRO.

  7. Skipping breakfast in early childhood and its associations with maternal and child BMI: a study of 2-5-year-old Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharairi, N A; Somerset, S M

    2016-04-01

    Evidence supporting the association between skipping breakfast and children's body mass index (BMI) has been widely reported, and some consideration has been given to children aged 2-5 years. However, no evidence has considered an association between children skipping breakfast and mother's BMI. This study therefore investigated associations between skipping breakfast, child's BMI and mother's BMI in a large cohort of Australian children. Data were drawn from wave 2 (2-3 years, n=4601) and wave 3 (4-5 years, n=4381) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. The primary outcome was skipping breakfast. Child's and mother's BMI was assessed by trained professionals. Girls at 4-5 years were significantly more likely to skip breakfast compared with boys (56.9% versus 43.1%; P=0.031). In cross-sectional data analysis, obese boys at 2-3 years (odds ratio (OR) 2.38; P=0.039) and at 4-5 years (OR 2.32; P=0.046), and also obese girls at 4-5 years (OR 2.26; P=0.018), were more likely to skip breakfast. Skipping breakfast was positively associated with boys at 2-3 years (OR 2.04; P=0.042) whose mothers were overweight and with girls at 4-5 years (OR 2.60; P=0.001) whose mothers were obese. In longitudinal cross-lagged analysis, boys at 2-3 years whose mothers were obese were more likely to skip breakfast 2 years later at age 4-5 years (OR 2.36; P=0.045). Skipping breakfast was associated with higher BMI in children and mothers. Future interventions should target obese mothers to promote breakfast intake among children. The interventions may involve changes to dietary and lifestyle habits and provision of education on the benefits of breakfast intake.

  8. The association between regular yoga and meditation practice and falls and injuries: Results of a national cross-sectional survey among Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon; Lauche, Romy

    2016-02-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injuries in women across all ages. While yoga has been shown to increase balance, it has also been associated with injuries due to falls during practice. This study aimed to analyse whether regular yoga or meditation practice is associated with the frequency of falls and fall-related injuries in upper middle-aged Australian women. Women aged 59-64 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were queried regarding falls and falls-related injuries; and whether they regularly practiced yoga or meditation. Associations of falls and falls-related injuries with yoga or meditation practice were analysed using chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling. Of 10,011 women, 4413 (44.1%) had slipped, tripped or stumbled, 2770 (27.7%) had fallen to the ground, 1398 (14.0%) had been injured as a result of falling, and 901 (9.0%) women had sought medical attention for a fall-related injury within the previous 12 months. Yoga or meditation was practiced regularly by 746 (7.5%) women. No associations of falls, fall-related injuries and treatment due to falls-related injury with yoga or meditation practice were found. No association between yoga or meditation practice and falls or fall-related injuries have been found. Further studies are warranted for conclusive judgement of benefits and safety of yoga and meditation in relation to balance, falls and fall-related injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Publishing and Revising Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editors and Webmasters can publish content without going through a workflow. Publishing times and dates can be set, and multiple pages can be published in bulk. Making an edit to published content created a revision.

  10. Publishing with XML structure, enter, publish

    CERN Document Server

    Prost, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    XML is now at the heart of book publishing techniques: it provides the industry with a robust, flexible format which is relatively easy to manipulate. Above all, it preserves the future: the XML text becomes a genuine tactical asset enabling publishers to respond quickly to market demands. When new publishing media appear, it will be possible to very quickly make your editorial content available at a lower cost. On the downside, XML can become a bottomless pit for publishers attracted by its possibilities. There is a strong temptation to switch to audiovisual production and to add video and a

  11. Getting out of (self-) harm's way: A study of factors associated with self-harm among asylum seekers in Australian immigration detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Kyli

    2017-07-01

    The monitoring of self-harm among asylum seekers in Australian immigration detention has not occurred routinely or transparently. Thus whilst concerns regarding rates of self-harm among asylum seekers have been frequently raised, a paucity of systematic information regarding key factors associated with self-harm among asylum seekers exists. The present study was designed therefore to fill a number of gaps in government monitoring by examining the government's own archived self-harm data. Via a descriptive analysis of self-harm incident reports from all operational Australian immigration detention facilities over a 20-month period to May 2011, obtained under Freedom of Information, the present study identified that 959 incidents of self-harm occurred during this period. A gender bias towards men was also found. In addition to this, 10 different methods of self-harm were identified, the four most common being: cutting (47%), attempted hanging (19%), head hitting (12%) and self-poisoning by medication (6%). Seven different precipitating factors for self-harm were also identified, the four most common were: detention conditions (39%), processing arrangements (27%), negative decisions (24%) and family separation (3%). These findings point strongly to the health benefits of considering alternatives to held immigration detention, such as community based processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Prepare to publish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, P M

    2000-01-01

    "I couldn't possibly write an article." "I don't have anything worthwhile to write about." "I am not qualified to write for publication." Do any of these statements sound familiar? This article is intended to dispel these beliefs. You can write an article. You care for the most complex patients in the health care system so you do have something worthwhile to write about. Beside correct spelling and grammar there are no special skills, certificates or diplomas required for publishing. You are qualified to write for publication. The purpose of this article is to take the mystique out of the publication process. Each step of publishing an article will be explained, from idea formation to framing your first article. Practical examples and recommendations will be presented. The essential components of the APA format necessary for Dynamics: The Official Journal of the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses will be outlined and resources to assist you will be provided.

  13. Dietary factors associated with lifetime asthma or hayfever diagnosis in Australian middle-aged and older adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenkranz Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is abundant research relevant to genetic and environmental influences on asthma and hayfever, but little is known about dietary risk factors in Australian adults. This study’s purpose was to identify dietary factors associated with lifetime asthma (AS and asthma or hayfever (AS/HF diagnosis in Australian middle-aged and older adults. Methods From The 45 and Up Study baseline self-report data, this study included 156,035 adult men and women. Participants were sampled from the general population of New South Wales, Australia in 2006–2009. About 12% of participants reported ever receiving an AS diagnosis (men 10%; women 14% and 23% reported AS/HF diagnosis (men 19%; women 26%. Following principle components factor analysis, dietary items loaded onto one of four factors for men (meats/cheese; fruits/vegetables; poultry/seafood; grains/alcohol or five factors for women (meats; fruits/vegetables; poultry/seafood; cereal/alcohol; brown bread/cheese. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between dietary factors and AS or AS/HF diagnosis. Results For men, the meats/cheese factor was positively associated with AS (AOR = adjusted odds ratio for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.08, 1.28; Ptrend = 0.001 and AS/HF (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.29; Ptrend Ptrend = 0.002. For women, significant risk factors for AS/HF included meats (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.19, 1.31; Ptrend = 0.001, poultry/seafood (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.01, 1.12; Ptrend = 0.016, and fruits/vegetables (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.02, 1.12; Ptrend = 0.011. In contrast, the cheese/brown bread dietary factor was protective against AS in women (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.82, 0.94; Ptrend Conclusions Generally, diets marked by greater intakes of meats, poultry, and seafood were

  14. Psychological distress is associated with tobacco smoking and quitting behaviour in the Australian population: evidence from national cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janni; Gartner, Coral; Dobson, Annette; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the association between levels of psychological distress and smoking and quitting behaviours. Data were from two large Australian national household surveys of individuals over 20 years of age. Level of psychological distress was measured by the Kessler 10 scale. Tobacco smoking measures included current smoking status (never, former, current); ex-smokers' time since quitting; current smokers' abstinent period in the last 12 months, cigarettes smoked per day, reasons for smoking, and self-report of factors that would motivate quitting; and self-report of factors that motivated smokers to quit in the last 12 months. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationships between smoking behaviours and psychological distress, while controlling for socio-demographic factors. Current smokers, especially those who smoke more cigarettes per day and those who report less success at quitting or reducing smoking, had higher levels of psychological distress. Ex-smokers were also more likely to experience psychological distress than those who never smoked, but the association weakened with more years since quitting. Current smokers with psychological distress were just as, or more likely, to report planning to quit as those without psychological distress. Smokers who did not plan to quit due to addiction, past failure at quitting, and using smoking for relaxation or to deal with stress were more likely to report psychological distress than those who did not report these reasons. Current smoking and unsuccessful quit attempts in the Australian community were strongly associated with symptoms of psychological distress. Quitting aspirations and influence from general public health interventions were not associated with the smokers' level of psychological distress.

  15. Increased virulence of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus associated with genetic resistance in wild Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, Peter; Cooke, Brian D.; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ronald; Holmes, Edward C.; Strive, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    The release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia with the aim of controlling overabundant rabbits has provided a unique opportunity to study the initial spread and establishment of emerging pathogens, as well as their co-evolution with their mammalian hosts. In contrast to MYXV, which attenuated shortly after its introduction, rapid attenuation of RHDV has not been observed. By studying the change in virulence of recent field isolates at a single field site we show, for the first time, that RHDV virulence has increased through time, likely because of selection to overcome developing genetic resistance in Australian wild rabbits. High virulence also appears to be favoured as rabbit carcasses, rather than diseased animals, are the likely source of mechanical insect transmission. These findings not only help elucidate the co-evolutionary interaction between rabbits and RHDV, but reveal some of the key factors shaping virulence evolution. PMID:25146599

  16. Insulin resistance syndrome in Australian aboriginal people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, K G; Best, J D; McDermott, R; Green, E A; Piers, L S; O'Dea, K

    1997-01-01

    1. Like many indigenous populations, Australian Aboriginal people have developed high rates of obesity, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and cardiovascular and renal disease following the transition from a traditional to an 'urbanized' lifestyle. These conditions tend to cluster as part of the insulin resistance syndrome. 2. The prevalence of overweight people and obesity in Australian Aboriginal populations ranges from 0% in communities with a traditionally orientated lifestyle to well over 50% in the worst affected communities. There is a predominantly central pattern of fat deposition in both men and women, which is associated with greater insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk than is peripheral fat deposition. 3. Data from four previously published, population-based surveys in Aboriginal communities were combined to give a cohort of 1079 subjects of 15 years and older. Several conditions of the insulin resistance syndrome had a strong, positive association with increasing body mass index (BMI): NIDDM (both cross-sectionally and longitudinally), hypertension, dyslipidaemia and albuminuria. Remaining lean (BMI physical activity and improve dietary quality are likely to be the major means by which conditions associated with insulin resistance can be prevented in Aboriginal populations.

  17. Is the practice of yoga or meditation associated with a healthy lifestyle? Results of a national cross-sectional survey of 28,695 Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Sibbritt, David; Park, Crystal L; Adams, Jon; Lauche, Romy

    2017-10-01

    To examine the relationship between yoga/meditation practice and health behavior in Australian women. Women aged 19-25years, 31-36years, and 62-67years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were surveyed regarding smoking, alcohol or drug use, physical activity and dietary behavior; and whether they practiced yoga/meditation on a regular basis. Associations of health behaviors with yoga/meditation practice were analyzed using multiple logistic regression modelling. 11,344, 8200, and 9151 women aged 19-25years, 31-36years, and 62-67years, respectively, were included of which 29.0%, 21.7%, and 20.7%, respectively, practiced yoga/meditation. Women practicing yoga/meditation were significantly more likely to report at least moderate physical activity levels (OR=1.50-2.79), to follow a vegetarian (OR=1.67-3.22) or vegan (OR=2.26-3.68) diet, and to report the use of marijuana (OR=1.28-1.89) and illicit drugs in the last 12 months (OR=1.23-1.98). Yoga/meditation practice was associated with higher physical activity levels, a higher likelihood of vegetarian or vegan diet use, and a higher likelihood of drug use. While health professionals should keep the potential vulnerability of yoga/meditation practitioners to drug use in mind, the positive associations of yoga/meditation with a variety of positive health behaviors warrant its consideration in preventive medicine and healthcare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [New definition of ventilator associated pneumonia might not necessarily have been a step in the right direction. Key takeaways from published studies after two years in clinical use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaro-Michalska, Aleksandra; Adamczyk, Agata; Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Małgorzata; Siewiera, Jacek; Łazowski, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections. VAP is associated with prolonged hospitalization and visibly increased mortality, which in the group of patients with VAP ranges from 25% to 47%. In January 2013 Centers of Disease Control and Prevention introduced a new definition for VAP. Subjective criteria in the previous VAP definition were the reason for difficulties in VAP surveillance and assessment of efficacy of ventilator bundles and other quality improvement initiatives. The purpose of this article is to summarise the new definition of VAP and the first researches after two years of use of the new definition. The new definition of ventilator-associated events (VAE) identifies a broader group of patients than the previous VAP definition. Surveillance of all complications of mechanical ventilation aimed to create more efficient prophylaxis bundles and to decrease the mortality in critically ill patients. The latest published studies suggest that most of the complications defined as VAE are patient-related, not modifiable risk factors and these patients had no evidence of hospital-acquired complications. The new definition failed to detect many patients with VAP and it has not resolved the ambiguities related to the diagnosis of this complication. It seems that the new surveillance program will not lead to introducing new prevention strategies that could decrease the mortality in intensive care unit patients. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  19. Associations between yoga/meditation use, body satisfaction, and weight management methods: Results of a national cross-sectional survey of 8009 Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Sibbritt, David; Ostermann, Thomas; Fuller, Nicholas R; Adams, Jon; Cramer, Holger

    2017-02-01

    To analyze whether yoga or meditation use is associated with body (dis)satisfaction and weight control methods in Australian women. Women ages 34 to 39 y from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were surveyed regarding body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, and yoga and meditation practice. Associations of body satisfaction and weight control methods with yoga/meditation practice were analyzed using chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling. Of the 8009 women, 49% were overweight or obese. Sixty-five percent of women with normal body mass index (BMI) and approximately 95% of women with overweight/obesity wanted to lose weight. At least one in four women with normal BMI was dissatisfied with body weight and shape, as were more than two in three women with overweight/obesity. The most common weight control methods included exercising (82.7%), cutting down meal sizes (76.8%), and cutting down sugars or fats (71.9%). Yoga/meditation was practiced frequently by 688 women (8.6%) and occasionally by 1176 women (14.7%). Yoga/meditation users with normal BMI were less likely dissatisfied with body weight and shape. All yoga/meditation users more likely exercised and followed a low glycemic diet or diet books; and women with obesity occasionally using yoga/meditation also more likely used fasting or smoking to lose weight. Yoga/meditation users with normal BMI appear to be more satisfied with their body weight and shape than non-yoga/meditation users. While women with normal BMI or overweight tend to rely on healthy weight control methods, women with obesity occasional using yoga/meditation may more likely utilize unhealthy weight control methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leukodepleted blood components do not remove the potential for long-term transfusion-associated microchimerism in Australian major trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Rena; Balogh, Zsolt J; Lott, Natalie J; Hsu, Jeremy M; Irving, David O

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction of leukodepleted blood components, it has been shown that donor leukocyte engraftment (microchimerism) remains a long-term consequence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. The incidence of microchimerism may be affected by international disparities in blood processing methods or variations in transfusion practices. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microchimerism in Australian trauma patients. A secondary aim was to examine whether any patient complications correlated to the incidence of microchimerism. Australian trauma patients (n = 86) who had been transfused with red blood cell (RBC) units between 2000 and 2012 with an injury severity score (ISS) of greater than 15 were recruited. The prevalence of microchimerism was determined using genetic screening with a panel of insertion/deletion biallelic polymorphisms. The mean storage age of the transfused RBC units was 20 ± 8 days and the mean length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 40 ± 39 days. There were no significant associations in this study sample to bias for patient age, gender, number of transfused RBC units or ISS. Nine of the 55 (16.3%) patients transfused with non-leukodepleted blood components displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Of the 31 patients transfused with leukodepleted RBC units, 3 (9.6%) displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Therefore, despite the universal introduction of leukodepleted blood components in Australia, the prevalence of transfusion-associated microchimerism was found to be unchanged. Furthermore, half of the patients exhibiting microchimerism were recorded to have had splenic injury or required splenectomy at the time of transfusion.

  1. Leukodepleted blood components do not remove the potential for long-term transfusion-associated microchimerism in Australian major trauma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Rena; Balogh, Zsolt J; Lott, Natalie J; Hsu, Jeremy M; Irving, David O

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction of leukodepleted blood components, it has been shown that donor leukocyte engraftment (microchimerism) remains a long-term consequence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. The incidence of microchimerism may be affected by international disparities in blood processing methods or variations in transfusion practices. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microchimerism in Australian trauma patients. A secondary aim was to examine whether any patient complications correlated to the incidence of microchimerism. Australian trauma patients (n = 86) who had been transfused with red blood cell (RBC) units between 2000 and 2012 with an injury severity score (ISS) of greater than 15 were recruited. The prevalence of microchimerism was determined using genetic screening with a panel of insertion/deletion biallelic polymorphisms. The mean storage age of the transfused RBC units was 20 ± 8 days and the mean length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 40 ± 39 days. There were no significant associations in this study sample to bias for patient age, gender, number of transfused RBC units or ISS. Nine of the 55 (16.3%) patients transfused with non-leukodepleted blood components displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Of the 31 patients transfused with leukodepleted RBC units, 3 (9.6%) displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Therefore, despite the universal introduction of leukodepleted blood components in Australia, the prevalence of transfusion-associated microchimerism was found to be unchanged. Furthermore, half of the patients exhibiting microchimerism were recorded to have had splenic injury or required splenectomy at the time of transfusion. PMID:26252809

  2. Research Library Publishing Services: New Options for University Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Karla L.

    2008-01-01

    A 2007 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey indicates that research libraries are rapidly developing publishing services: 65 percent of 80 responding ARL member libraries currently deliver or are in processing of planning these services. Established journal titles dominate this emerging publishing sector and are the main drivers of…

  3. Temporal analyses of coral snakebite severity published in the American Association of Poison Control Centers' Annual Reports from 1983 through 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Frank G; Stolz, Uwe; Shirazi, Farshad; McNally, Jude

    2010-01-01

    The only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved coral snake antivenom was officially discontinued in 2007, causing ever-diminishing supplies. This study describes the severity of U.S. coral snakebites during the last 25 years to determine trends in annual rates of these bites' medical outcomes. This study retrospectively analyzed all human coral snakebites voluntarily reported by the public and/or health care professionals to poison centers that were subsequently published in the Annual Reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) from 1983 through 2007. Annual rates of medical outcomes from coral snakebites were calculated by dividing the annual number of people bitten by coral snakes who developed fatal, major, moderate, minor, or no effect outcomes by the total annual number of people bitten by coral snakes. Negative binomial regression was used to examine trends in annual rates. From 1983 through 2007, the incidence rate of coral snakebites producing no effects significantly decreased by 4.7% per year [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.953; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.920-0.987]. From 1985 through 2007, the incidence rates of minor and major outcomes did not significantly change; however, moderate outcomes significantly increased by 3.4% per year (IRR = 1.034; 95% CI = 1.004-1.064). No fatalities were reported from 1983 through 2007. Annual rates of coral snakebites producing no effects significantly decreased and those producing moderate outcomes significantly increased in our analyses of data from the last 25 years of published AAPCC Annual Reports. This study has important limitations that must be considered when interpreting these conclusions.

  4. CD14 (C-260T) polymorphism is not associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in a large South Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, Amanda R; Gibson, Catherine S; Goldwater, Paul N

    2011-02-01

    Similarities have been drawn between models of endotoxic shock and gross and microscopic pathology observed in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases. Polymorphisms in genes that influence the expression of endotoxin receptors could affect the outcome of toxaemia, and could, therefore, play a role in SIDS. The CD14 gene promoter contains a single nucleotide polymorphism that affects the level of CD14 gene expression. The TT genotype of the CD14 (C-260T) polymorphism causes a significantly higher density of CD14 receptor expression on monocytes which makes the individual more sensitive to endotoxin than those with the wild-type (CC). This investigation was designed to determine whether SIDS infants have a higher frequency of the CD14 (C-260T) polymorphism compared with non-SIDS controls. One hundred and sixteen SIDS and 228 control infants were genotyped using PCR followed by restriction fragment length analysis of amplified product. Carriage of the TT or CT genotypes did not significantly differ between SIDS and control infants (P = 0.218 and 0.081, respectively). The frequencies observed in the control group were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and did not differ significantly from the published frequencies in Caucasian Australians. These results suggest that CD14 (C-260T) polymorphism is unlikely to be implicated in SIDS.

  5. The Association of Vitamin D Status with Dyslipidaemia and Biomarkers of Endothelial Cell Activation in Older Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Alyami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Vitamin D has been investigated for many non-skeletal effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether circulating lipids, systemic inflammation, and biomarkers of endothelial cell activation varied with the vitamin D status of older Australians. Methods: One hundred and one participants were proportionately and randomly sampled across tertiles of 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD from a larger cohort of free living older adults (T1 median = 97; T2 median = 74.5; T3 median = 56.8 nmol/L. Overnight fasting blood samples were assayed for 25(OHD, parathyroid hormone (PTH, insulin, triacylglycerol (TAG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Markers of systemic inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and endothelial activation (hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, P-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM were determined. A general linear model multivariate analysis with a backward elimination procedure was performed. Results: Eighty-three participants (48 women, 35 men, aged 65 ± 7.7 years, BMI 28 ± 4.5 kg/m2, with complete data were analyzed. The final parsimonious model controlled for age, gender, BMI, and McAuley’s index, but excluded season, medications, and PTH. There were significant differences across 25(OHD tertiles in TC (T1 < T3, p = 0.003; T2 < T3, p = 0.001, LDL-C (T1 < T3, p = 0.005; T2 < T3, p = 0.001, TAG (T2 < T3, p = 0.026, HGF (T1 > T3, p = 0.009 and sVCAM (T1 > T3, P = 0.04. Conclusions: Higher vitamin D status may protect the endothelium through reduced dyslipidaemia and increased HGF.

  6. Adherence to 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and associations with social-cognitive development among Australian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; McNeill, Jade; Vella, Stewart A; Howard, Steven J; Santos, Rute; Batterham, Marijka; Melhuish, Edward; Okely, Anthony D; de Rosnay, Marc

    2017-11-20

    The new Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years recommend that, for preschoolers, a healthy 24-h includes: i) ≥180 min of physical activity, including ≥60 min of energetic play, ii) ≤1 h of sedentary screen time, and iii) 10-13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of preschool children meeting these guidelines and investigates associations with social-cognitive development. Data from 248 preschool children (mean age = 4.2 ± 0.6 years, 57% boys) participating in the PATH-ABC study were analyzed. Children completed direct assessments of physical activity (accelerometry) and social cognition (the Test of Emotional Comprehension (TEC) and Theory of Mind (ToM)). Parents reported on children's screen time and sleep. Children were categorised as meeting/not meeting: i) individual guidelines, ii) combinations of two guidelines, or iii) all three guidelines. Associations were examined using linear regression adjusting for child age, sex, vocabulary, area level socio-economic status and childcare level clustering. High proportions of children met the physical activity (93.1%) and sleep (88.7%) guidelines, whereas fewer met the screen time guideline (17.3%). Overall, 14.9% of children met all three guidelines. Children meeting the sleep guideline performed better on TEC than those who did not (mean difference [MD] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.36, 2.47). Children meeting the sleep and physical activity or sleep and screen time guidelines also performed better on TEC (MD = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.31, 2.41) and ToM (MD = 0.25; 95% CI = -0.002, 0.50; p = 0.05), respectively, than those who did not. Meeting all three guidelines was associated with better ToM performance (MD = 0.28; 95% CI = -0.002, 0.48, p = 0.05), while meeting a larger number of guidelines was associated with better TEC (3 or 2 vs. 1/none, p sleep and screen time guidelines, may be beneficial for their

  7. Co-morbid depression is associated with poor work outcomes in persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD: A large, nationally representative survey in the Australian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD and cardiovascular disease (CVD is associated with poor clinical and psychological outcomes. However, the full extent of the burden of, and interaction between, this co-morbidity on important vocational outcomes remains less clear, particularly at the population level. We examine the association of co-morbid MDD with work outcomes in persons with and without CVD. Methods This study utilised cross-sectional, population-based data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (n = 8841 to compare work outcomes of individuals with diagnostically-defined MDD and CVD, MDD but not CVD, CVD but not MDD, with a reference group of "healthy" Australians. Workforce participation was defined as being in full- or part-time employment. Work functioning was measured using a WHO Disability Assessment Schedule item. Absenteeism was assessed using the 'days out of role' item. Results Of the four groups, those with co-morbid MDD and CVD were least likely to report workforce participation (adj OR:0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6. Those with MDD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI:0.7-0.9 and CVD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9 also reported significantly reduced odds of participation. Employed individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD were 8 times as likely to experience impairments in work functioning (adj OR:8.1, 95% CI: 3.8- 17.3 compared with the reference group. MDD was associated with a four-fold increase in impaired functioning. Further, individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD reported greatest likelihood of workplace absenteeism (adj. OR:3.0, 95% CI: 1.4-6.6. Simultaneous exposure to MDD and CVD conferred an even greater likelihood of poorer work functioning. Conclusions Co-morbid MDD and CVD is associated with significantly poorer work outcomes. Specifically, the effects of these conditions on work functioning are synergistic. The development of specialised treatment programs for those with co

  8. Published journal article with data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — published journal article. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Schumacher, B., J. Zimmerman, J. Elliot, and G. Swanson. The Effect of...

  9. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  10. Who is at risk of chronic disease? Associations between risk profiles of physical activity, sitting and cardio-metabolic disease in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Lina; Gale, Joanne; Chau, Josephine Y; Hardy, Louise L; Mackey, Martin; Johnson, Nathan; Shirley, Debra; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    To examine the associations of physical activity (PA) and sitting time (sit) with cardio-metabolic diseases. Cross-sectional data from the Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-2012 (n=9,435) were used to classify adults into low and high risk groups based on their physical activity and sitting behaviour profiles. Logistic regression models examined associations between low and high risk classifications (high PA-low sit; high PA-high sit; low PA-low sit; low PA-high sit;) and socio-demographic factors, and associations between low and high risk classifications and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. These results characterise chronic disease risk based on both physical activity and sitting behaviour. Adults with the highest risk lifestyle behaviour pattern (low PA-high sit) tended to be middle aged, male, at greater social disadvantage, smoke, report fair health, be abdominally obese and employed in administrative and driver occupations. These individuals had a substantially greater risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome (OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.13, 1.75; OR= 2.37, 95% CI 1.63, 3.45, respectively). The findings highlight the importance of both sufficient physical activity and low sitting time for cardio-metabolic health. Implications for public health: Primary prevention focus should consider physical activity and reduced sitting time as well as provision of relevant advice for cardio-metabolic health. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy: factors independently associated with reported difficulty taking antiretroviral therapy in a national sample of HIV-positive Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, J; Koelmeyer, R L; Smith, A; Pitts, M

    2011-10-01

    Given the importance of adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for the reduced morbidity and improved mortality of people living with HIV infection (PLWH), we set out to determine which of a number of previously investigated personal, socioeconomic, treatment-related and disease-related factors were independently associated with self-reported difficulty taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in an Australian sample of PLWH. Using data from a national cross-sectional survey of 1106 PLWH, we conducted bivariate and multivariable analyses to assess the association of over 70 previously investigated factors with self-reported difficulty taking ART. Factors that maintained an association with reported difficulty taking ART at the level of α=0.05 in the multivariable logistic regression analysis were considered to be independently associated with reported difficulty taking ART. A total of 867 (78.4%) survey respondents were taking antiretroviral medication at the time of completing the HIV Futures 6 survey. Overall, 39.1% of these respondents reported difficulty taking ART. Factors found to be independently associated with reported difficulty taking ART included younger age, alcohol and party drug use, poor or fair self-reported health, diagnosis of a mental health condition, living in a regional centre, taking more than one ART dose per day, experiencing physical adverse events or health service discrimination, certain types of ART regimen and specific attitudes towards ART and HIV. Thirteen previously investigated factors were found to be independently associated with reported difficulty taking ART, reaffirming the dynamic nature of adherence behaviour and the ongoing importance of addressing adherence behaviour in the clinical management of PLWH. © 2011 British HIV Association.

  12. Regulating the regulators : accountability of Australian regulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bird, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Accountability of Australian regulators - Australian Securities and Investments Commission - Australian Prudential Regulation Authority - concept of 'accountability' - mechanisms for accountability...

  13. Darwin and his publisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, David

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin's publisher John Murray played an important, if often underrated, role in bringing his theories to the public. As their letters and publishing archives show they had a friendly, business like and successful relationship. This was despite fundamental scientific and religious differences between the men. In addition to publishing Darwin, Murray also published many of the critical and supportive works and reviews which Darwin's own works excited.

  14. Academic Nightmares: Predatory Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuland, Sonya E.; Rogers, Kem A.

    2017-01-01

    Academic researchers who seek to publish their work are confronted daily with a barrage of e-mails from aggressive marketing campaigns that solicit them to publish their research with a specialized, often newly launched, journal. Known as predatory journals, they often promise high editorial and publishing standards, yet their exploitive business…

  15. Methodological issues associated with collecting sensitive information over the telephone - experience from an Australian non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullerton Simon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collecting population data on sensitive issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is problematic. Case note audits or hospital/clinic based presentations only record severe cases and do not distinguish between suicidal and non-suicidal intent. Community surveys have largely been limited to school and university students, resulting in little much needed population-based data on NSSI. Collecting these data via a large scale population survey presents challenges to survey methodologists. This paper addresses the methodological issues associated with collecting this type of data via CATI. Methods An Australia-wide population survey was funded by the Australian Government to determine prevalence estimates of NSSI and associations, predictors, relationships to suicide attempts and suicide ideation, and outcomes. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI on a random sample of the Australian population aged 10+ years of age from randomly selected households, was undertaken. Results Overall, from 31,216 eligible households, 12,006 interviews were undertaken (response rate 38.5%. The 4-week prevalence of NSSI was 1.1% (95% ci 0.9-1.3% and lifetime prevalence was 8.1% (95% ci 7.6-8.6. Methodological concerns and challenges in regard to collection of these data included extensive interviewer training and post interview counselling. Ethical considerations, especially with children as young as 10 years of age being asked sensitive questions, were addressed prior to data collection. The solution required a large amount of information to be sent to each selected household prior to the telephone interview which contributed to a lower than expected response rate. Non-coverage error caused by the population of interest being highly mobile, homeless or institutionalised was also a suspected issue in this low prevalence condition. In many circumstances the numbers missing from the sampling frame are small enough to not cause worry

  16. Methodological issues associated with collecting sensitive information over the telephone--experience from an Australian non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne W; Martin, Graham; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Swannell, Sarah; Fullerton, Simon; Hazell, Philip; Harrison, James E

    2011-02-17

    Collecting population data on sensitive issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is problematic. Case note audits or hospital/clinic based presentations only record severe cases and do not distinguish between suicidal and non-suicidal intent. Community surveys have largely been limited to school and university students, resulting in little much needed population-based data on NSSI. Collecting these data via a large scale population survey presents challenges to survey methodologists. This paper addresses the methodological issues associated with collecting this type of data via CATI. An Australia-wide population survey was funded by the Australian Government to determine prevalence estimates of NSSI and associations, predictors, relationships to suicide attempts and suicide ideation, and outcomes. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) on a random sample of the Australian population aged 10+ years of age from randomly selected households, was undertaken. Overall, from 31,216 eligible households, 12,006 interviews were undertaken (response rate 38.5%). The 4-week prevalence of NSSI was 1.1% (95% ci 0.9-1.3%) and lifetime prevalence was 8.1% (95% ci 7.6-8.6).Methodological concerns and challenges in regard to collection of these data included extensive interviewer training and post interview counselling. Ethical considerations, especially with children as young as 10 years of age being asked sensitive questions, were addressed prior to data collection. The solution required a large amount of information to be sent to each selected household prior to the telephone interview which contributed to a lower than expected response rate. Non-coverage error caused by the population of interest being highly mobile, homeless or institutionalised was also a suspected issue in this low prevalence condition. In many circumstances the numbers missing from the sampling frame are small enough to not cause worry, especially when compared with the population as a whole

  17. A more rapid approach to systematically assessing published associations of genetic polymorphisms and disease risk: type 2 diabetes as a test case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho AH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alex H Cho1, Xiaolei Jiang2, Devin M Mann3, Kensaku Kawamoto4, Timothy J Robinson5, Nancy Wang6, Jeanette J McCarthy2, Mark Woodward7, Geoffrey S Ginsburg1,21Center for Personalized Medicine and Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 2Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, 3Section of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 4Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 5Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA, 6School of Medicine, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 7George Institute for Global Health and University of Sydney, AustraliaBackground: Comparative effectiveness research and research in genomic medicine are not orthogonal pursuits. Both require a robust evidence base, and each stands to benefit from applying the methods of the other. There is an exponentially growing literature reporting associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and increased risk for diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Literature-based meta-analysis is an important method of assessing the validity of published gene-disease associations, but a traditional emphasis on exhaustiveness makes it difficult to study multiple polymorphisms efficiently. Here we describe a novel two-step search method for broadly yet systematically reviewing the literature to identify the "most-studied" gene-disease associations, thereby selecting those with a high possibility of replication on which to conduct abbreviated, simultaneous meta-analyses. This method was then applied to identify and evaluate the validity of SNPs reported to be associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk, to demonstrate proof of principle.Methods: A two-step MEDLINE search (1950 to present was conducted in September 2007 for published genetic association data related to SNPs associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. The

  18. Is quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in high impact radiology journals associated with citation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Christian B; McInnes, Matthew D F; Petrcich, William; Tunis, Adam S; Hanna, Ramez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether study quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) published in high impact factor (IF) radiology journals is associated with citation rates. All SR and MA published in English between Jan 2007-Dec 2011, in radiology journals with an IF >2.75, were identified on Ovid MEDLINE. The Assessing the Methodologic Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist for study quality, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist for study completeness, was applied to each SR & MA. Each SR & MA was then searched in Google Scholar to yield a citation rate. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between AMSTAR and PRISMA results with citation rate. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for the effect of journal IF and journal 5-year IF on correlation with citation rate. Values were reported as medians with interquartile range (IQR) provided. 129 studies from 11 journals were included (50 SR and 79 MA). Median AMSTAR result was 8.0/11 (IQR: 5-9) and median PRISMA result was 23.0/27 (IQR: 21-25). The median citation rate for SR & MA was 0.73 citations/month post-publication (IQR: 0.40-1.17). There was a positive correlation between both AMSTAR and PRISMA results and SR & MA citation rate; ρ=0.323 (P=0.0002) and ρ=0.327 (P=0.0002) respectively. Positive correlation persisted for AMSTAR and PRISMA results after journal IF was partialed out; ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) and ρ=0.256 (P=0.004), and after journal 5-year IF was partialed out; ρ=0.235 (P=0.008) and ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) respectively. There is a positive correlation between the quality and the completeness of a reported SR or MA with citation rate which persists when adjusted for journal IF and journal 5-year IF.

  19. Pathway-analysis of published genome-wide association studies of lung cancer: A potential role for the CYP4F3 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jieyun; Liu, Hongliang; Liu, Zhensheng; Owzar, Kouros; Han, Younghun; Su, Li; Wei, Yongyue; Hung, Rayjean J; Brhane, Yonathan; McLaughlin, John; Brennan, Paul; Bickeboeller, Heike; Rosenberger, Albert; Houlston, Richard S; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria Teresa; Heinrich, Joachim; Risch, Angela; Christiani, David C; Amos, Christopher I; Wei, Qingyi

    2017-06-01

    The fatty acids (FAs) metabolism is suggested to play a pivotal role in the development of lung cancer, and we explored that by conducting a pathway-based analysis. We performed a meta-analysis of published datasets of six genome wide association studies (GWASs) from the Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung (TRICL) consortium, which included 12 160 cases with lung cancer and 16 838 cancer-free controls. A total of 30 722 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 317 genes relevant to FA metabolic pathways were identified. An additional dataset from the Harvard Lung Cancer Study with 984 cases and 970 healthy controls was also added to the final meta-analysis. In the initial meta-analysis, 26 of 28 SNPs that passed false discovery rate multiple tests were mapped to the CYP4F3 gene. Among the 26 top ranked hits was a proxy SNP, CYP4F3 rs4646904 (P = 8.65 × 10-6 , FDR = 0.018), which is suggested to change splicing pattern/efficiency and to be associated with gene expression levels. However, after adding data of rs4646904 from the Harvard GWAS, the significance in the combined analysis was reduced to P = 3.52 × 10-3 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.03-1.12]. Interestingly, the small Harvard dataset also pointed to the same direction of the association in subgroups of smokers (OR = 1.07) and contributed to a combined OR of 1.13 (95% CI = 1.06-1.20, P = 6.70 × 10-5 ). The results suggest that a potentially functional SNP in CYP4F3 (rs4646904) may contribute to the etiology of lung cancer, especially in smokers. Additional mechanistic studies are warranted to unravel the potential biological significance of the finding. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Risks associated with the microbiological quality of bodies of fresh and marine water used for recreational purposes: summary estimates based on published epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmirou, Denis; Pena, Laurent; Ledrans, Martine; Letertre, Alain

    2003-11-01

    The current European standards for microbiological quality of bathing water (i.e., all running or still fresh waters or parts thereof and/or sea water [with the exception of water intended for therapeutic purposes and water used in swimming pools]) were issued in 1976 and are currently undergoing revision. In this article, the authors propose parameters for select microorganism indicators to assist in the establishment of public-health-based objectives for fresh and marine water quality. A type-II meta-analysis of the results of 18 published epidemiological studies was implemented in an attempt to characterize the relationship(s) between concentrations of bacterial indicators and rates of acute gastrointestinal diseases among bathers who had used fresh or marine water for recreational purposes. The authors fit multiple linear-regression models, which allowed for random effects across studies, to derive dose-response curves. Several confounders and effect modifiers were controlled for in the analyses. Risks were then estimated for a hypothetical individual who would bathe 20 times/yr in water that contained a given concentration of microorganisms. For fresh-water-associated highly credible gastrointestinal illnesses, a level of 10 fecal coliforms/100 ml water yielded an attributable risk of 0.2 cases/1,000 person-years; a risk of 2 cases/1,000 person-years was found for fecal streptococci. The corresponding yearly attributable risks were 1 and 13 cases/1,000 person-years, respectively, for 100 bacteria/100 ml fresh water. Risks associated with fecal coliforms were found to be lower in marine water than in fresh water. Irrespective of the type of water examined, total coliforms were related only weakly with acute digestive morbidity. Developers of future bathing-water standards should state the level of risk deemed acceptable for public health. The authors of this study maintain that levels of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci should be used as criteria for

  1. Hardy-Weinberg analysis of a large set of published association studies reveals genotyping error and a deficit of heterozygotes across multiple loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Srijan; Burmeister, Margit

    2008-09-01

    In genetic association studies, deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWD) can be due to recent admixture or selection at a locus, but is most commonly due to genotyping errors. In addition to its utility for identifying potential genotyping errors in individual studies, here we report that HWD can be useful in detecting the presence, magnitude and direction of genotyping error across multiple studies. If there is a consistent genotyping error at a given locus, larger studies, in general, will show more evidence for HWD than small studies. As a result, for loci prone to genotyping errors, there will be a correlation between HWD and the study sample size. By contrast, in the absence of consistent genotyping errors, there will be a chance distribution of p- values among studies without correlation with sample size. We calculated the evidence for HWD at 17 separate polymorphic loci investigated in 325 published genetic association studies. In the full set of studies, there was a significant correlation between HWD and locus-standardised sample size ( p = 0.001). For 14/17 of the individual loci, there was a positive correlation between extent of HWD and sample size, with the evidence for two loci ( 5-HTTLPR and CTSD ) rising to the level of statistical significance. Among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 15/23 studies that deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) did so because of a deficit of heterozygotes. The inbreeding coefficient (F(is)) is a measure of the degree and direction of deviation from HWE. Among studies investigating SNPs, there was a significant correlation between F(is) and HWD ( R = 0.191; p = 0.002), indicating that the greater the deviation from HWE, the greater the deficit of heterozygotes. By contrast, for repeat variants, only one in five studies that deviated significantly from HWE showed a deficit of heterozygotes and there was no significant correlation between F(is) and HWD. These results indicate the

  2. Publishing studies: what else?

    OpenAIRE

    Legendre, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to reposition “publishing studies” in the long process that goes from the beginning of book history to the current research on cultural industries. It raises questions about interdisciplinarity and the possibility of considering publishing independently of other sectors of the media and cultural offerings. Publishing is now included in a large range of industries and, at the same time, analyses tend to become more and more segmented according to production sectors and sc...

  3. Publishing studies: what else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Legendre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to reposition “publishing studies” in the long process that goes from the beginning of book history to the current research on cultural industries. It raises questions about interdisciplinarity and the possibility of considering publishing independently of other sectors of the media and cultural offerings. Publishing is now included in a large range of industries and, at the same time, analyses tend to become more and more segmented according to production sectors and scientific fields. In addition to the problems created, from the professional point of view, by this double movement, this one requires a questioning of the concept of “publishing studies”.

  4. Resilience amongst Australian aboriginal youth: an ecological analysis of factors associated with psychosocial functioning in high and low family risk contexts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopkins, Katrina D; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth...

  5. Independent and joint associations of TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components; a cross-sectional study in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2013-08-09

    Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult's overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults. Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,110 women and 2,572 men (>35 years) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants were recruited between May 1999 and Dec 2000 in the six states and the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were categorised according to self-reported TV viewing time (low: 0-2 hr/d; high: >2 hr/d) and/or consumption of snack foods (low: 0-3 serves/d; high: >3 serves/d). Multivariate odds ratios [95% CI] for the MetS and its components were estimated using gender-specific, forced entry logistic regression. OR [95% CI] for the MetS was 3.59 [2.25, 5.74] (p≤0.001) in women and 1.45 [1.02, 3.45] (p = 0.04) in men who jointly reported high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (women only) were also jointly associated with high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Further adjustment for diet quality and central adiposity maintained the associations in women. High snack food consumption was also shown to be independently associated with MetS risk [OR: 1.94 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.60), p TV viewing time was independently associated with

  6. The Academic Publishing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Wenzel, Tim Ole; Schmidt, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The case starts with introducing the outstanding profitability of academic journal publishers such as Elsevier and then dives into describing the research process from an idea to conducting research and to publishing the results in academic journals. Subsequently, demand and supply for scientific...

  7. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2076-7714. AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1119-0221. AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2071-2162. AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2141-8322. AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0855-5591. AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1662-2510. AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1815-3941. AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2305-9478. AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1012-2796. AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1116-4336. AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2078-5143. AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1596-9827. AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0850-3907. AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1117-4145. AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1025-9848. AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1994-1072. AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1019-7079. AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1997-5902. AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1016-0728. AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1119-8362. AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1813-4424. AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0856-0625. AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1015-8758. AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1999-7639. AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0008-9176. AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  14. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0855-4307. AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0378-5254. AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0856-7212. AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1562-6997. AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1992-0407. AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2520–7997. AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2415-0495. AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1737-7803. AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2220-1173. AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0378-4738. AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0855-1502. AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2305-2678. AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1531-4065. AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1012-8867. AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0189-9686. AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1015-8618. AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2251-0362. AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0376-8902. AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2523-0816. AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1597-9857. AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 0856-0714. AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1117-4153. AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1022-9272. AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2077-4907. AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 003-8-2469. AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2313-1799. AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1596-3497. AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1021-6790. AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 1608-5906. AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Publishing and Journalism Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alfred; And Others

    1977-01-01

    If you like to work with words and notational symbols--or with describing, selecting, managing, and distributing the words and music of other people--then journalism or publishing as a whole may be your bailiwick. Describes the positions of music editor, music publisher, magazine/book editor, music critic, and freelance music writer. (Editor/RK)

  6. About this Publishing System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal uses Open Journal Systems 2.4.3.0, which is open source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. OJS Editorial and Publishing Process. ISSN: 2304-8239. AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. High-resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping in an Australian inclusion body myositis (s-IBM) cohort: an analysis of disease-associated alleles and diplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojana-udomsart, Arada; James, Ian; Castley, Alison; Needham, Merrilee; Scott, Adrian; Day, Timothy; Kiers, Lynette; Corbett, Alastair; Sue, Carolyn; Witt, Campbell; Martinez, Patricia; Christiansen, Frank; Mastaglia, Frank

    2012-09-15

    We performed high-resolution (4-digit) HLA-DRB1 genotyping in an Australian cohort of 105s-IBM patients and 189 controls. Our findings showed that whilst the strongest association was with the HLA-DRB1*03:01 allele and the HLA-DRB1*03:01/*01:01 diplotype, HLA-DRB1*01:01 and HLA-DRB1*13:01 are also risk alleles. A number of other alleles, HLA-DRB1*04:01, *04:04, *07:01, *09:01, *11:01 and *15:01, as well as the HLA-DRB1*03:01/*04:01 and HLA-DRB1*03:01/*07:01 diplotypes were reduced in s-IBM cases and may be protective. The HLA-DRB1*03:01 and HLA-DRB1*13:01 alleles also appear to have an influence on the age at onset of the disease and severity of muscle weakness. Our findings indicate that the influence of HLA-DRB1 in s-IBM is complex and that epistatic interactions at the HLA-DRB1 locus contribute both to disease susceptibility and to the clinical phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple sclerosis susceptibility-associated SNPs do not influence disease severity measures in a cohort of Australian MS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy J Jensen

    Full Text Available Recent association studies in multiple sclerosis (MS have identified and replicated several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP susceptibility loci including CLEC16A, IL2RA, IL7R, RPL5, CD58, CD40 and chromosome 12q13-14 in addition to the well established allele HLA-DR15. There is potential that these genetic susceptibility factors could also modulate MS disease severity, as demonstrated previously for the MS risk allele HLA-DR15. We investigated this hypothesis in a cohort of 1006 well characterised MS patients from South-Eastern Australia. We tested the MS-associated SNPs for association with five measures of disease severity incorporating disability, age of onset, cognition and brain atrophy. We observed trends towards association between the RPL5 risk SNP and time between first demyelinating event and relapse, and between the CD40 risk SNP and symbol digit test score. No associations were significant after correction for multiple testing. We found no evidence for the hypothesis that these new MS disease risk-associated SNPs influence disease severity.

  9. Independent and joint associations of TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components; a cross-sectional study in Australian adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult’s overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,110 women and 2,572 men (>35 years) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants were recruited between May 1999 and Dec 2000 in the six states and the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were categorised according to self-reported TV viewing time (low: 0-2 hr/d; high: >2 hr/d) and/or consumption of snack foods (low: 0-3 serves/d; high: >3 serves/d). Multivariate odds ratios [95% CI] for the MetS and its components were estimated using gender-specific, forced entry logistic regression. Results OR [95% CI] for the MetS was 3.59 [2.25, 5.74] (p≤0.001) in women and 1.45 [1.02, 3.45] (p = 0.04) in men who jointly reported high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (women only) were also jointly associated with high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Further adjustment for diet quality and central adiposity maintained the associations in women. High snack food consumption was also shown to be independently associated with MetS risk [OR: 1.94 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.60), p snack food

  10. Associations of stress and burnout among Australian-based doctors involved in after-hours home visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifediora, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The after-hours house call (AHHC) service in Australia is growing, but studies have never explored the doctor variables associated with burnout and stress within the service. This study fills this knowledge gap. To determine the doctor variables associated with burnout and stress among doctors involved in AHHC. A quantitative, questionnaire-based survey of all 300 doctors engaged in AHHC through the National Home Doctor Service (NHDS), Australia's largest home visiting doctor-service provider. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to assess burnout over a 12-month period from October 2013 to September 2014. Ordinal logistics regression was used to identify significant associations. There were 168 valid responses received, giving a 56 per cent response rate. The most significant factor associated with reduced stress and burnout is the adoption of self-protection measures while on the job. Such measures include the use of chaperones, the use of panic alarms or buttons, adopting de-escalation techniques, and reliance on relevant surgery policies. Other associations with reduced stress include the attainment of postgraduate fellowships (vocational registration), working less than 24 hours per week, being in legally recognised partnerships, and being male. Conversely, having general practice as a career, being under 40 years of age, and obtaining primary medical degrees from Australia (as opposed to overseas) are all associated with increased burnout for doctors involved in AHHC. A number of doctor variables have been found to significantly reduce burnout in AHHC Among these, the adoption of self-protective measures and the attainment postgraduate fellowships, where possible, should be encouraged among practitioners involved in the service.

  11. Associations of dietary patterns with bone mass, muscle strength and balance in a cohort of Australian middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feitong; Wills, Karen; Laslett, Laura L; Oldenburg, Brian; Jones, Graeme; Winzenberg, Tania

    2017-10-01

    Influences of dietary patterns on musculoskeletal health are poorly understood in middle-aged women. This cross-sectional analysis from a cohort of 347 women (aged 36-57 years) aimed to examine associations between dietary patterns and musculoskeletal health outcomes in middle-aged women. Diet was measured by the Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ. Total body bone mineral content (TB BMC), femoral neck and lumbar spine bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), lower limbs muscle strength (LMS) and balance tests (timed up and go test, step test, functional reach test (FRT) and lateral reach test) were also measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns and scores for each pattern generated using factor loadings with absolute values ≥0·20. Associations between food pattern scores and musculoskeletal outcomes were assessed using multivariable linear regression. Three dietary patterns were identified: 'Healthy' (high consumption of a plant-based diet - vegetables, legumes, fruit, tomatoes, nuts, snacks, garlic, whole grains and low intake of high-fat dairy products), 'high protein, high fat' (red meats, poultry, processed meats, potatoes, cruciferous and dark-yellow vegetables, fish, chips, spirits and high-fat dairy products) and 'Processed foods' (high intakes of meat pies, hamburgers, beer, sweets, fruit juice, processed meats, snacks, spirits, pizza and low intake of cruciferous vegetables). After adjustment for confounders, Healthy pattern was positively associated with LMS, whereas Processed foods pattern was inversely associated with TB BMC and FRT. The associations were not significant after accounting for multiple comparisons. There were no associations with any other outcomes. These results suggest that maintaining a healthy diet could contribute to bone acquisition, muscle strength and balance in adult life. However, while they provide some support for further investigating dietary strategies for prevention of age

  12. Defining the gap: a systematic review of the difference in rates of diabetes-related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew West

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community has an increased risk of developing chronic illnesses including diabetes. Among people with diabetes, foot complications are common and make a significant contribution to the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature comparing the rates of diabetes related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians to non-Indigenous Australians. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library; PUBMED and CINAHL were searched from inception until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: published cross-sectional or longitudinal studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes related foot complications in both a cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and a cohort of one other Australian population of any age with diabetes. Risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE tool. Results Eleven studies including a total of 157,892 participants were included. Studies were set in Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia, primarily in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experienced substantially more diabetes related foot complications with the mean age up to 14 years younger than non-Indigenous Australians. Aboriginality was associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy, foot ulceration and amputation. In several studies, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians accounted for the vast majority of diabetes related foot complications (up to 91% while comprising only a small proportion of the regional population. Reporting quality as assessed with the STROBE tool showed underreporting of: methods, sample description and potential sources of bias. There are no data available for some Australian states and for specific types of diabetes related foot complications. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

  13. Elearning and digital publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Ching, Hsianghoo Steve; Mc Naught, Carmel

    2006-01-01

    ""ELearning and Digital Publishing"" will occupy a unique niche in the literature accessed by library and publishing specialists, and by university teachers and planners. It examines the interfaces between the work done by four groups of university staff who have been in the past quite separate from, or only marginally related to, each other - library staff, university teachers, university policy makers, and staff who work in university publishing presses. All four groups are directly and intimately connected with the main functions of universities - the creation, management and dissemination

  14. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Carley A; Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (?SONIC?) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in ...

  15. Smoking in Australian University Students and Its Association with Socio-Demographic Factors, Stress, Health Status, Coping Strategies, and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David; Farquhar, Lynette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of smoking amongst university students in Brisbane, Australia and associated risk factors. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional design was used for the study. A sample of 2,414 university students aged 18-30 was examined to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use. Smoking was measured by…

  16. The Association between Cannabis Use and Motivation and Intentions to Quit Tobacco within a Sample of Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J.; Bryant, Jamie; Oldmeadow, C.; Palazzi, K.; Guillaumier, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) describe concurrent and simultaneous tobacco and cannabis use and (ii) investigate the association between cannabis use and motivation and intentions to quit tobacco in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 and 2014 with current tobacco smokers receiving aid from…

  17. Associations between education and personal income with body mass index among Australian women residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to (1) determine the association between personal income and body mass index (BMI) and between individual education and BMI, and (2) examine the association between education and BMI across strata of personal income among women. The design of the study was a quantitative analysis of data from self-report questionnaires. The study setting was socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. The study included 4065 nonpregnant women (ages 18-45 years) living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The study used a self-report questionnaire measuring sociodemographic characteristics known to be associated with BMI. Multiple linear regressions with imputation were used to assess the association between education level, personal income, and BMI, while controlling for covariates. Mean (SD) observed BMI was 26.0 (6.1) kg/m2. Compared with women with low education, women with medium (b = -0.81; 95% confidence interval, -1.30 to -0.27; p = .004) and high (b = -1.71; 95% confidence interval, -2.34 to -1.09; p education had statistically significantly lower BMI values. No differences in BMI were observed between income categories. Stratified analyses suggested that the education-BMI association may be stronger in low-income than higher-income women. Our data show that among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, high education level rather than personal income may be protective against overweight/obesity. High personal income, however, may buffer the effects of low education on BMI. Obesity prevention efforts should target women with amplified disadvantage.

  18. Why do men go to the doctor? Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with healthcare utilisation among a cohort of Australian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Schlichthorst

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men use health services less often than women and frequently delay seeking help even if experiencing serious health problems. This may put men at higher risk for developing serious health problems which, in part, may explain men’s higher rates of some serious illnesses and shorter life span relative to women. This paper identifies factors that contribute to health care utilisation in a cohort of Australian men by exploring associations between socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors and the use of general practitioner (GP services. Methods We used data from Ten to Men, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health. Health care utilisation was defined in two ways: at least one GP visit in the past 12 months and having at least yearly health check-ups with a doctor. Associations between these two measures and a range of contextual socio demographic factors (education, location, marital status, country of birth, employment, financial problems etc. as well as individual health and lifestyle factors (self-rated health, smoking, drinking, healthy weight, pain medication were examined using logistic regression analysis. The sample included 13,763 adult men aged 18 to 55 years. Analysis was stratified by age (18 to 34 year versus 35 to 55 years. Results Overall, 81 % (95 % CI: 80.3–81.6 of men saw a GP for consultation in the 12 months prior to the study. The odds of visiting a GP increased with increasing age (p < 0.01, but decreased with increasing remoteness of residence (p < 0.01. Older men, smokers and those who rate their health as excellent were less likely to visit a GP in the last 12 months, but those on daily pain medication or with co-morbidities were more likely to have visited a GP. However, these factors were not associated with consulting a GP in the last 12 months among young men. Overall, 39 % (95 % CI: 38.3–39.9 reported having an annual health check. The odds of having an annual

  19. Adherence to 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and associations with social-cognitive development among Australian preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan P. Cliff

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years recommend that, for preschoolers, a healthy 24-h includes: i ≥180 min of physical activity, including ≥60 min of energetic play, ii ≤1 h of sedentary screen time, and iii 10–13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of preschool children meeting these guidelines and investigates associations with social-cognitive development. Methods Data from 248 preschool children (mean age = 4.2 ± 0.6 years, 57% boys participating in the PATH-ABC study were analyzed. Children completed direct assessments of physical activity (accelerometry and social cognition (the Test of Emotional Comprehension (TEC and Theory of Mind (ToM. Parents reported on children’s screen time and sleep. Children were categorised as meeting/not meeting: i individual guidelines, ii combinations of two guidelines, or iii all three guidelines. Associations were examined using linear regression adjusting for child age, sex, vocabulary, area level socio-economic status and childcare level clustering. Results High proportions of children met the physical activity (93.1% and sleep (88.7% guidelines, whereas fewer met the screen time guideline (17.3%. Overall, 14.9% of children met all three guidelines. Children meeting the sleep guideline performed better on TEC than those who did not (mean difference [MD] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.36, 2.47. Children meeting the sleep and physical activity or sleep and screen time guidelines also performed better on TEC (MD = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.31, 2.41 and ToM (MD = 0.25; 95% CI = −0.002, 0.50; p = 0.05, respectively, than those who did not. Meeting all three guidelines was associated with better ToM performance (MD = 0.28; 95% CI = −0.002, 0.48, p = 0.05, while meeting a larger number of guidelines was associated with better TEC (3 or 2 vs. 1/none, p < 0.02 and To

  20. Open-Access Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature, one of the most prominent scientific journals dedicated one of its issues to recent changes in scientific publishing (Vol. 495, Issue 7442, 27 March 2013. Its editors stressed that words technology and revolution are closely related when it comes to scientific publishing. In addition, the transformation of research publishing is not as much a revolution than an attrition war in which all sides are buried. The most important change they refer to is the open-access model in which an author or an institution pays in advance for publishing a paper in a journal, and the paper is then available to users on the Internet free of charge.According to preliminary results of a survey conducted among 23 000 scientists by the publisher of Nature, 45% of them believes all papers should be published in open access, but at the same time 22% of them would not allow the use of papers for commercial purposes. Attitudes toward open access vary according to scientific disciplines, leading the editors to conclude the revolution still does not suit everyone.

  1. Maternal dietary intake and physical activity habits during the postpartum period: associations with clinician advice in a sample of Australian first time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pligt, Paige; Olander, Ellinor K; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Hesketh, Kylie D; Teychenne, Megan; Campbell, Karen

    2016-02-01

    significant association found between provision of dietary and/or physical activity advice, and mother's dietary intakes or physical activity levels. Healthy diet and physical activity advice was received less after pregnancy than during pregnancy yet no association between receipt of advice and behaviour was observed. More intensive approaches than provision of advice may be required to promote healthy diet and physical activity behaviours in new mothers. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12611000386932 13/04/2011).

  2. Estimation of nasal shedding and seroprevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease in Australian live export cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S Jo; O'Dea, Mark A; Perkins, Nigel; O'Hara, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was investigated in cattle prior to export. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect nucleic acids from the following viruses and bacteria in nasal swab samples: Bovine coronavirus (BoCV; Betacoronavirus 1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. Between 2010 and 2012, nasal swabs were collected from 1,484 apparently healthy cattle destined for export to the Middle East and Russian Federation. In addition, whole blood samples from 334 animals were tested for antibodies to BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The nasal prevalence of BoCV at the individual animal level was 40.1%. The nasal and seroprevalence of BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 was 1.0% and 39%, 1.2% and 46%, 3.0% and 56%, and 1.4% and 87%, respectively. The nasal prevalence of H. somni, M. bovis, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida was 42%, 4.8%, 13.4%, and 26%, respectively. Significant differences in nasal and seroprevalence were detected between groups of animals from different geographical locations. The results of the current study provide baseline data on the prevalence of organisms associated with BRD in Australian live export cattle in the preassembly period. This data could be used to develop strategies for BRD prevention and control prior to loading. © 2014 The Author(s).

  3. Intergenerational educational mobility is associated with cardiovascular disease risk behaviours in a cohort of young Australian adults: The Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Seana L; Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Patton, George C; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison

    2010-02-02

    Although educational disparity has been linked to single risk behaviours, it has not previously been studied as a predictor of overall lifestyle. We examined if current education, parental education or educational mobility between generations was associated with healthy lifestyles in young Australian adults. In 2004-06, participant and parental education (high [bachelor degree or higher], intermediate [vocational training], low [secondary school only]) were assessed. Educational mobility was defined as: stable high (participant and parent in high group), stable intermediate (participant and parent in intermediate group), stable low (participant and parent in low group), downwardly (lower group than parent) and upwardly (higher group than parent) mobile. We derived a lifestyle score from 10 healthy behaviours (BMI, non-smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity and six components of diet). Scores >4 indicated a high healthy lifestyle score. We estimated the likelihood of having a high healthy lifestyle score by education (participant and parent) and educational mobility. Complete data were available for 1973 participants (53% female, age range 26 to 36 years). Those with lower education were less likely to have healthy lifestyles. Parental education was not associated with having a high healthy lifestyle score after adjustment for participant's education. Those who moved upward or downward were as likely to have a high healthy lifestyle score as those in the group they attained. We found clear disparities in health behaviour by participant education and intergenerational educational mobility. People attaining a higher level of education than their parents appeared protected from developing an unhealthy lifestyle suggesting that population-wide improvements in education may be important for health.

  4. Intergenerational educational mobility is associated with cardiovascular disease risk behaviours in a cohort of young Australian adults: The Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although educational disparity has been linked to single risk behaviours, it has not previously been studied as a predictor of overall lifestyle. We examined if current education, parental education or educational mobility between generations was associated with healthy lifestyles in young Australian adults. Methods In 2004-06, participant and parental education (high [bachelor degree or higher], intermediate [vocational training], low [secondary school only] were assessed. Educational mobility was defined as: stable high (participant and parent in high group, stable intermediate (participant and parent in intermediate group, stable low (participant and parent in low group, downwardly (lower group than parent and upwardly (higher group than parent mobile. We derived a lifestyle score from 10 healthy behaviours (BMI, non-smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity and six components of diet. Scores >4 indicated a high healthy lifestyle score. We estimated the likelihood of having a high healthy lifestyle score by education (participant and parent and educational mobility. Results Complete data were available for 1973 participants (53% female, age range 26 to 36 years. Those with lower education were less likely to have healthy lifestyles. Parental education was not associated with having a high healthy lifestyle score after adjustment for participant's education. Those who moved upward or downward were as likely to have a high healthy lifestyle score as those in the group they attained. Conclusions We found clear disparities in health behaviour by participant education and intergenerational educational mobility. People attaining a higher level of education than their parents appeared protected from developing an unhealthy lifestyle suggesting that population-wide improvements in education may be important for health.

  5. Dietary Patterns, Nutrition Knowledge, Lifestyle, and Health-Related Quality of Life: Associations with Anti-Hypertension Medication Adherence in a Sample of Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Saman; Irwin, Christopher; Sun, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Poor anti-hypertension medication (AHT) adherence can increase disease costs and adverse outcomes. Hypertensive individuals who have a better nutrition knowledge may lead a healthier lifestyle, have a better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and greater confidence to change behaviour. On this basis, they may have better treatment adherence. To explore the association between the above-mentioned variables and AHT adherence in a group of Australian adults with high blood pressure (BP) in a cross-sectional clinical and community-based study. Adults with high BP (n = 270) completed a questionnaire including: food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), nutrition knowledge, HRQoL, self-efficacy of diet and exercise, lifestyle and AHT adherence sections. Bivariate analysis and hierarchical logistic regression were used to explore the data. Three dietary patterns were identified from the FFQ, using factor and cluster analyses (Western, Snack and Alcohol, and Balanced). We observed that following a Western dietary pattern, having lower exercise self-efficacy and shorter sleep duration were more dominant in the poor AHT adherence individuals compared to their counterparts. A positive association was observed between self-efficacy and sleep duration with AHT adherence. A Western dietary pattern was prevalent in high BP participants which slightly reduced the likelihood of good adherence. A healthier dietary pattern, better exercise self-efficacy and adequate sleep (more than six hours a night) may increase the likelihood of AHT adherence in individuals with high BP. Interventions focusing on improving these variables are required to confirm the findings of this study.

  6. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Using Clinical Models and 77 Independent Risk-Associated SNPs for Women Aged Under 50 Years: Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dite, Gillian S; MacInnis, Robert J; Bickerstaffe, Adrian; Dowty, James G; Allman, Richard; Apicella, Carmel; Milne, Roger L; Tsimiklis, Helen; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Giles, Graham G; Terry, Mary Beth; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L

    2016-02-01

    The extent to which clinical breast cancer risk prediction models can be improved by including information on known susceptibility SNPs is not known. Using 750 cases and 405 controls from the population-based Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry who were younger than 50 years at diagnosis and recruitment, respectively, Caucasian and not BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, we derived absolute 5-year risks of breast cancer using the BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, BCRAT, and IBIS risk prediction models and combined these with a risk score based on 77 independent risk-associated SNPs. We used logistic regression to estimate the OR per adjusted SD for log-transformed age-adjusted 5-year risks. Discrimination was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Calibration was assessed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. We also constructed reclassification tables and calculated the net reclassification improvement. The ORs for BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, BCRAT, and IBIS were 1.80, 1.75, 1.67, and 1.30, respectively. When combined with the SNP-based score, the corresponding ORs were 1.96, 1.89, 1.80, and 1.52. The corresponding AUCs were 0.66, 0.65, 0.64, and 0.57 for the risk prediction models, and 0.70, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.63 when combined with the SNP-based score. By combining a 77 SNP-based score with clinical models, the AUC for predicting breast cancer before age 50 years improved by >20%. Our estimates of the increased performance of clinical risk prediction models from including genetic information could be used to inform targeted screening and prevention. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role a...

  8. Association of social determinants of health with self-rated health among Australian gay and bisexual men living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelmeyer, Rachel; English, Dallas R; Smith, Anthony; Grierson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Despite a vast improvement in the survival of people living with HIV (PLHIV) since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), little change in the self-rated health of PLHIV has been observed since the introduction of cART in Australia. Difficulties with attaining employment or achieving financial security have been noted as some of the key challenges still facing PLHIV in the post-cART era. As a result, we investigated the independent association of a number of key social determinants of health with self-rated health among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia. Data from two recent national, cross-sectional surveys of PLHIV (the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys) were used. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association of ethnicity, region of residence, education level, employment status, after-tax income, experience of HIV-related discrimination, level of social support, relationship status and recent sexual activity with reporting good-excellent self-rated health, after adjusting for clinical factors and other social determinants of health. Multiple imputation was used to estimate missing data for variables with >5% missing data. Of the 1713 HIV-positive gay/bisexual men who responded to the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys, information on self-rated health was available for 99.3%. Close to three-quarters of these respondents (72.1%) reported their self-rated health as good or excellent; the remainder (27.9%) reported their self-rated health as poor or fair. In multivariable analysis involving 89.3% of respondents, being employed, reporting recent sexual activity, a greater number of sources of social support and a higher weekly after-tax income were found to be independently associated with reporting good-excellent self-rated health. Despite the inability of this study to detect causal associations, addressing barriers to employment and sexual activity, and mechanisms to increase social support, is likely to have

  9. Under-reporting of energy intake in elderly Australian women is associated with a higher body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X; Kerr, D A; Zhu, K; Devine, A; Solah, V A; Wright, J; Binns, C W; Prince, R L

    2013-02-01

    Identify the extent of under-reporting of energy intake and the characteristics associated with implausible intakes in elderly women. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day weighed food record. Protein intake was validated by 24-hour urinary nitrogen. To examine under-reporting, participants were grouped according to their energy intake and compared to the Goldberg cut-off equation. Logistic regression was performed to assess the influence of body mass index (BMI) and social-demographic factors on under-reporting. Community dwelling elderly women from Perth, Western Australia. 217 elderly women aged 70-80 years. Under-reporters had a higher physical activity level (pmass index (BMI) (p=0.001), waist (p=0.011), hip circumference (pmass (penergy intake (BMI=25-29.9: odds ratio=2.98[95% CI=1.46-6.09]; BMI≥30: 5.84[2.41-14.14]). Under-reporting energy intake in elderly women was associated with a higher BMI, body fat and higher self-reported physical activity levels. A higher BMI (≥25) appears to be most significant factor in determining if elderly women will underreport their food intake and may be related to body image. These results have implications for undertaking surveys of food intake in elderly women.

  10. Longitudinal associations between cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and problem behavior and mental health problems in young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Heerde, Jessica A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate associations between Grade 9 and 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and Grade 11 problem behavior and mental health problems after controlling for risk factors for these outcomes in the analyses. The sample comprised 927 students from Victoria, Australia who completed a modified version of the self-report Communities That Care Youth Survey in Grades 9-11 to report on risk factors, traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, problem behavior, and mental health. Complete data on over 650 participants were analyzed. Five per cent of Grade 9 and 10 students reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 6-8% reported victimization only, and 8-9% both cyber-bullied others and were cyber-bullied. Results showed that cyber-bullying others in Grade 10 was associated with theft in Grade 11, cyber-victimization in Grade 10 was linked with Grade 11 depressive symptoms, and Grade 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization combined predicted Grade 11 school suspension and binge drinking. Prevention approaches that target traditional and cyber-bullying, and established risk factors are necessary. Such multi-faceted programs may also reduce problem behavior and mental health problems.

  11. Contributions to Indo-Australian Herpetology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1934-01-01

    A complete account of all the reptiles then known to occur in the Indo-Australian Archipelago was published by De Rooij in 1915 and 1917. Since this time several new species have been described, while others have been suppressed or revived. Also the problem of geographical variation begins to

  12. Publishers and repositories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The impact of self-archiving on journals and publishers is an important topic for all those involved in scholarly communication. There is some evidence that the physics arXiv has had no impact on physics journals, while 'economic common sense' suggests that some impact is inevitable. I shall review recent studies of librarian attitudes towards repositories and journals, and place this in the context of IOP Publishing's experiences with arXiv. I shall offer some possible reasons for the mis-match between these perspectives and then discuss how IOP has linked with arXiv and experimented with OA publishing. As well as launching OA journals we have co-operated with Cornell and the arXiv on Eprintweb.org, a platform that offers new features to repository users. View Andrew Wray's biography

  13. Ethics in Scientific Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Leslie J.

    2012-08-01

    We all learn in elementary school not turn in other people's writing as if it were our own (plagiarism), and in high school science labs not to fake our data. But there are many other practices in scientific publishing that are depressingly common and almost as unethical. At about the 20 percent level authors are deliberately hiding recent work -- by themselves as well as by others -- so as to enhance the apparent novelty of their most recent paper. Some people lie about the dates the data were obtained, to cover up conflicts of interest, or inappropriate use of privileged information. Others will publish the same conference proceeding in multiple volumes, or publish the same result in multiple journals with only trivial additions of data or analysis (self-plagiarism). These shady practices should be roundly condemned and stopped. I will discuss these and other unethical actions I have seen over the years, and steps editors are taking to stop them.

  14. Metaphyseal osteopathy in three Australian Kelpie siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, C M; Brain, P H; Dunn, A L

    2014-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) was diagnosed in three Australian Kelpie puppies that were presented for veterinary assessment of lameness. The three puppies were siblings. Each was from a different litter by the same breeding pair. The puppy in case one was seen by the authors, and the puppies in cases two and three were patients at other veterinary hospitals. However, the medical records and radiographs were examined and reviewed for this report. Radiographic investigation of the lameness revealed pathognomonic appearance of MO affecting the metaphyseal region of the long bones in all three puppies. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology in one patient. MO is considered a disease of large and giant-breed dogs, being rarely reported in non-large-breed dogs, and has not been reported in the Australian Kelpie, which is considered a medium-breed dog. This case series suggests a previously unreported breed predisposition to MO in the Australian Kelpie. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an account of interwoven and often competing repertoires of cosmopolitanism and nationalism on which Australians draw when encountering diversity. Using interview and focus group data the article first explores how the notion of Australianness grounded in civic virtues such ...

  16. Exploring the views and experiences of callers to the PANDA Post and Antenatal Depression Association Australian National Perinatal Depression Helpline: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Laura J; Shafiei, Touran; Forster, Della A; Small, Rhonda; McLachlan, Helen L

    2015-09-07

    Anxiety and depression are common in the perinatal period. Telephone interventions, including telephone peer support and counselling, have been developed to support those experiencing perinatal mental illness. PANDA Post and Antenatal Depression Association provides support to women and men experiencing perinatal mental illness via the Australian National Perinatal Depression Helpline, encompassing both volunteer peer support and professional counselling. This study aimed to explore the experiences of callers to the Helpline. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All new callers from 1(st) May to 30(th) September 2013 were invited to participate. The survey, adapted from a previous survey of PANDA callers, included 23 questions using Likert-type scales, demographic and open-ended questions. Thematic network analysis was undertaken for responses to open-ended questions. 124 responses were received (124/405; 30% response). The majority of callers had called the Helpline regarding themselves (90%), with over one third (33%) of all callers seeking crisis support and help. Ninety-nine per cent of respondents 'agreed' or 'strongly agreed' that staff and/or volunteers understood their concerns, and 97% 'agreed' or 'strongly agreed' that overall PANDA had helped them. Callers described the PANDA service as uniquely tailored to the perinatal period, providing accessible, non-judgemental understanding and support, with a global theme from open-ended comments describing PANDA as 'a safe space to be heard and receive support without judgement'. Recommendations for service changes included increased hours of availability. Callers reported positive experiences of accessing support from the PANDA National Perinatal Depression Helpline. The Helpline was described as an accessible and acceptable telephone support for individuals experiencing perinatal mental illness. Recommendations for changes to the service included an increase in hours of operation to enable greater

  17. The associations between TV viewing, food intake, and BMI. A prospective analysis of data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Hardy, Louise L; Halse, Christine

    2012-12-01

    Despite cross-sectional evidence of a link between TV viewing and BMI in early childhood, there has been limited longitudinal exploration of this relationship. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential bi-directionality of the relationship between TV viewing and child BMI. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether this relationship is mediated by dietary intake. Parents of 9064 children (4724 recruited at birth, 4340 recruited at age 4) from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) completed measures of their child's dietary intake and TV viewing habits at three equidistant time points, separated by 2years. Objective measures of height and weight were also obtained at each time point to calculate BMI. Cross-lagged panel analyses were conducted to evaluate potential bi-directional associations between TV viewing and child BMI, and to evaluate mediation effects of dietary intake for this relationship. Our longitudinal findings suggest that the relationship between TV viewing and BMI is bi-directional: Individuals who watch TV are more likely to gain weight, and individuals who are heavier are also more likely to watch TV. Interestingly, dietary intake mediated the BMI-TV viewing relationship for the older children, but not for the birth cohort. Present findings suggest that sedentary behaviours, particularly when coupled with unhealthy dietary habits, constitute a significant risk factor for excessive weight gain in early childhood. Interventions targeted at helping parents to develop healthy TV viewing and eating habits in their young children are clearly warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Childhood sexual abuse and its association with adult physical and mental health: results from a national cohort of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandawana William Majoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9 years. 1244 (79.3% were Indigenous. 44.2% (n=693 were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1 versus 57.4 (15.2, p<0.001] and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35 versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5, p<0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522 versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0, p<0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37 versus 28% (20–38, p=0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2=0.11, p<0.001, no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p<0.001, and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p<0.001, Indigenous ethnicity (p<0.001, urea reduction ratio (p=0.001, and gender (p<0.001 after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation.

  20. Associations of body mass index and waist circumference with: energy intake and percentage energy from macronutrients, in a cohort of australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbott Rebecca A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is evident from previous research that the role of dietary composition in relation to the development of childhood obesity remains inconclusive. Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and/or skin fold measurements with energy intake have suggested that the macronutrient composition of the diet (protein, carbohydrate, fat may play an important contributing role to obesity in childhood as it does in adults. This study investigated the possible relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage energy intake from macronutrients in Australian children and adolescents. Methods Height, weight and WC measurements, along with 24 h food and drink records (FDR intake data were collected from 2460 boys and girls aged 5-17 years living in the state of Queensland, Australia. Results Statistically significant, yet weak correlations between BMI z-score and WC with total energy intake were observed in grades 1, 5 and 10, with only 55% of subjects having a physiologically plausible 24 hr FDR. Using Pearson correlations to examine the relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage macronutrient intake, no significant correlations were observed between BMI z-score or WC and percentage energy intake from protein, carbohydrate or fat. One way ANOVAs showed that although those with a higher BMI z-score or WC consumed significantly more energy than their lean counterparts. Conclusion No evidence of an association between percentage macronutrient intake and BMI or WC was found. Evidently, more robust longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the relationship linking obesity and dietary intake.

  1. Associations of body mass index and waist circumference with: energy intake and percentage energy from macronutrients, in a cohort of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah A; Truby, Helen; Lee, Amanda; Harper, Catherine; Abbott, Rebecca A; Davies, Peter S W

    2011-05-26

    It is evident from previous research that the role of dietary composition in relation to the development of childhood obesity remains inconclusive. Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and/or skin fold measurements with energy intake have suggested that the macronutrient composition of the diet (protein, carbohydrate, fat) may play an important contributing role to obesity in childhood as it does in adults. This study investigated the possible relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage energy intake from macronutrients in Australian children and adolescents. Height, weight and WC measurements, along with 24 h food and drink records (FDR) intake data were collected from 2460 boys and girls aged 5-17 years living in the state of Queensland, Australia. Statistically significant, yet weak correlations between BMI z-score and WC with total energy intake were observed in grades 1, 5 and 10, with only 55% of subjects having a physiologically plausible 24 hr FDR. Using Pearson correlations to examine the relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage macronutrient intake, no significant correlations were observed between BMI z-score or WC and percentage energy intake from protein, carbohydrate or fat. One way ANOVAs showed that although those with a higher BMI z-score or WC consumed significantly more energy than their lean counterparts. No evidence of an association between percentage macronutrient intake and BMI or WC was found. Evidently, more robust longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the relationship linking obesity and dietary intake.

  2. Publishing and perishing: The critical importance of educational design research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeves, Thomas; McKenney, Susan; Herrington, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Reeves, T. C., McKenney, S., & Herrington, J. (2011). Publishing and perishing: The critical importance of educational design research. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(1), 55-65. http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet27/reeves.htm

  3. Publishing top tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Haselsberger, Beatrix

    2012-01-01

    As part of our wider mission Regional Insights organised a “Publishing Workshop” in the frame of the RSA European Conference, held at the Delft University of Technology, May 13th-16th, 2012. Our six very engaged panellists (experienced authors, reviewers, editors and mentors) provided the audience

  4. Web Publishing Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 207(f)(2) of the E-Gov Act requires federal agencies to develop an inventory and establish a schedule of information to be published on their Web sites, make those schedules available for public comment. To post the schedules on the web site.

  5. The Academic Publishing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Wenzel, Tim Ole; Schmidt, Florian

    2014-01-01

    . The case is intended to be used as a basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate effective handling of a managerial situation. It is based on published sources, interviews, and personal experience. The authors have disguised some names and other identifying information to protect confidentiality....

  6. Determinants of rural Australian primary health care worker retention: A synthesis of key evidence and implications for policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Deborah J; McGrail, Matthew R; Humphreys, John S

    2017-02-01

    To synthesise key Australian empirical rural retention evidence and outline implications and potential applications for policymaking. A comprehensive search of Medline, PsychINFO, CINAHL plus, Scopus and EMBASE revealed eight peer-reviewed empirical studies published since 2000 quantifying factors associated with actual retention. Rural and remote Australian primary health care workers. Hazard ratios (hazard of leaving rural), mean length of stay in current rural position and odds ratios (odds of leaving rural). A broad range of geographical, professional, financial, educational, regulatory and personal factors are strongly and significantly associated with the rural retention of Australian primary health care workers. Important factors included geographical remoteness and population size, profession, providing hospital services, practising procedural skills, taking annual leave, employment grade, employment and payment structures, restricted access to provider numbers, country of training, vocational training, practitioner age group and cognitive behavioural coaching. These findings suggest that retention strategies should be multifaceted and 'bundled', addressing the combination of modifiable factors most important for specific groups of Australian rural and remote primary health care workers, and compensating health professionals for hardships they face that are linked to less modifiable factors. The short retention of many Australian rural and remote Allied Health Professionals and GPs, particularly in small, outer regional and remote communities, requires ongoing policy support. The important retention patterns highlighted in this review provide policymakers with direction about where to best target retention initiatives, as well as an indication of what they can do to improve retention. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  7. Consumer attitudes and misperceptions associated with trends in self-reported cereal foods consumption: cross-sectional study of Western Australian adults, 1995 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Mary Pollard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reasons for low adherence to cereal dietary guidelines are not well understood but may be related to knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceived barriers. This study aims to assess trends in cereal foods consumption, intention to change and factors associated with intake among Western Australian (WA adults 18 to 64 years. Method Cross-sectional data from the 1995, 1998, 2001, 2004, 2009, and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series involving 7044 adults were pooled. Outcome variables: types and amount of cereals (bread, rice, pasta, and breakfast cereal eaten the day prior. Attitudes, knowledge, intentions, weight status and sociodemographic characteristics were measured. Descriptive statistics, multiple binary logistic and multinomial logistic regressions assess factors associated with consumption. Results Bread (78% was the most commonly consumed cereal food. The proportion eating bread decreased across survey years (Odds Ratio OR = 0.31; 95% Confidence Interval; 0.24–0.40 in 2012 versus 1995, as did the amount (4.1 slices of bread in 1995 to 2.4 in 2012. The odds of consuming whole-grain cereal foods increased since 2009 (OR = 1.27; 1.02–1.58 versus 1995 p < 0.05. The likelihood of trying to eat less cereal food in the past year was greater in 2012 compared to 1995 (Relative Risk Ratio RRR 10.88; 6.81–17.4. Knowledge of cereal recommendations decreased over time (OR = 0.20; 0.15–0.27 in 2012 versus 1995 p < 0.001. Overweight and obese respondents were more likely than healthy weight respondents to have tried to eat less cereals (RRR 1.65; 1.22–2.24 and 1.88; 1.35–2.63 respectively. ‘I already eat enough’ was the main barrier (75% in 1995 to 84% in 2012 (p < 0.001. Conclusions WA adults are actively reducing the amount of cereal foods they eat and intake is associated with a misperception of adequacy of intake. Nutrition intervention is needed to increase awareness of the health benefits of

  8. Reclaiming Society Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E. Steinberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learned societies have become aligned with commercial publishers, who have increasingly taken over the latter’s function as independent providers of scholarly information. Using the example of geographical societies, the advantages and disadvantages of this trend are examined. It is argued that in an era of digital publication, learned societies can offer leadership with a new model of open access that can guarantee high quality scholarly material whose publication costs are supported by society membership dues.

  9. Twenty years publishing science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Journal MVZ Córdoba is a scientific publication of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechny of the University of Córdoba in Montería, Colombia. Its mission is to publish scientific and technological knowledge of agricultural sciences and its vision is to become a national and international consulting reference in the field of agricultural sciences and to promote ethic values that contribute to the development of scientific and technological investigation.

  10. How much of the data published in observational studies of the association between diet and prostate or bladder cancer is usable for meta-analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, Geertruida E; Harris, Ross J; Thomas, Steve; Mayer, Anne-Marie B; Beynon, Rebecca; Ness, Andrew R; Harbord, Roger M; Bain, Chris; Smith, George Davey; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2008-05-01

    Epidemiologic investigations often report dose-response associations, which may be combined in meta-analyses. The authors examined how often the log odds, risk, or hazard ratio per unit increase in exposure, and its standard error, can be estimated from results reported from observational studies of diet and prostate or bladder cancer so that results are usable in meta-analyses estimating dose-response associations. Eight electronic databases were searched for studies reporting on the association of diet, nutrition, or physical activity with these cancers. A total of 767 papers reported 3,284 results; 1,999 (61%) results, reported in 545 (71%) papers, were usable in dose-response meta-analyses. The most important reason that results were not usable was the absence of sufficient information on exposure levels in the different groups. The proportion of results usable in "high-low" meta-analyses (comparisons of extreme categories) was similar (62%). Results that showed evidence of an association were more likely to be usable than results that found no such evidence. Insufficient detail in reporting of results of observational studies can lead to exclusion of these results from meta-analyses and is an important threat to the validity of systematic reviews of such research. Results providing evidence of associations may be overrepresented in meta-analyses of observational studies.

  11. A genomics-informed, SNP association study reveals FBLN1 and FABP4 as contributing to resistance to fleece rot in Australian Merino sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Fleece rot (FR) and body-strike of Merino sheep by the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina are major problems for the Australian wool industry, causing significant losses as a result of increased management costs coupled with reduced wool productivity and quality. In addition to direct effects on fleece quality, fleece rot is a major predisposing factor to blowfly strike on the body of sheep. In order to investigate the genetic drivers of resistance to fleece rot, we constructed a combined ovine-bovine cDNA microarray of almost 12,000 probes including 6,125 skin expressed sequence tags and 5,760 anonymous clones obtained from skin subtracted libraries derived from fleece rot resistant and susceptible animals. This microarray platform was used to profile the gene expression changes between skin samples of six resistant and six susceptible animals taken immediately before, during and after FR induction. Mixed-model equations were employed to normalize the data and 155 genes were found to be differentially expressed (DE). Ten DE genes were selected for validation using real-time PCR on independent skin samples. The genomic regions of a further 5 DE genes were surveyed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that were genotyped across three populations for their associations with fleece rot resistance. Results The majority of the DE genes originated from the fleece rot subtracted libraries and over-representing gene ontology terms included defense response to bacterium and epidermis development, indicating a role of these processes in modulating the sheep's response to fleece rot. We focused on genes that contribute to the physical barrier function of skin, including keratins, collagens, fibulin and lipid proteins, to identify SNPs that were associated to fleece rot scores. Conclusions We identified FBLN1 (fibulin) and FABP4 (fatty acid binding protein 4) as key factors in sheep's resistance to fleece rot. Validation of these markers in other populations

  12. No evidence of association of the KLF12 gene with rheumatoid arthritis in Spanish and Dutch cohorts and a meta-analysis of published data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Bermudez, M.; Lopez-Mejias, R.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L.; Fernandez-Gutierrez, B.; Garcia, A.; Raya, E.; Ortiz, A.M.; Coenen, M.J.H.; Riel, P.L. van; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Martin, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to replicate the previously reported association of KLF12 gene polymorphisms with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two independent cohorts from Spain (1,360 RA patients and 1,520 controls) and the Netherlands (1,018 RA patients and 1,150 controls) were genotyped for KLF12

  13. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  14. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  15. Navigating the Publishing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Karen

    2017-06-01

    : This is the fourth and final article in a series to help nurses share their knowledge, skills, and insight through writing for publication. Nurses have something important to contribute no matter what their nursing role. This series will help nurses develop good writing habits and sharpen their writing skills. It will take nurses step by step through the publication process, highlighting what gets published and why, how to submit articles and work with editors, and common pitfalls to avoid. For the previous articles in this series, see http://bit.ly/2lhnYKJ.

  16. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Refereeing standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, C.; Scriven, N.

    2004-08-01

    On 1 January 2004 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General (J. Phys. A). I am flattered at the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Ed Corrigan, has worked tirelessly for the last five years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements. Before accepting the position of Editor-in-Chief, I visited the office of J. Phys. A to examine the organization and to assess its strengths and weaknesses. This office is located at the Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) headquarters in Bristol. J. Phys. A has been expanding rapidly and now publishes at the rate of nearly 1000 articles (or about 14,000 pages) per year. The entire operation of the journal is conducted in a very small space---about 15 square metres! Working in this space are six highly intelligent, talented, hard working, and dedicated people: Neil Scriven, Publisher; Mike Williams, Publishing Editor; Rose Gray and Sarah Nadin, Publishing Administrators; Laura Smith and Steve Richards, Production Editors. In this small space every day about eight submitted manuscripts are downloaded from the computer or received in the post. These papers are then processed and catalogued, referees are selected, and the papers are sent out for evaluation. In this small space the referees' reports are received, publication decisions are made, and accepted articles are then published quickly by IOPP. The whole operation is amazingly efficient. Indeed, one of the great strengths of J. Phys. A is the speed at which papers are processed. The average time between the receipt of a manuscript and an editorial decision is under sixty days. (Many distinguished journals take three to five times this amount of time.) This speed of publication is an extremely strong enticement for

  17. Support open access publishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    Projektet Support Open Access Publishing har til mål at få opdateret Sherpa/Romeo databasen (www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo) med fagligt relevante, danske tidsskrifter. Projektet skal endvidere undersøge mulighederne for at få udviklet en database, hvor forskere på tværs af relevante tidsskriftsinformati...... tidsskriftsinformationer (faglig disciplin, BFI niveau, Impact Factor, Open Access) vil kunne danne sig et hurtigt overblik, for derved at kunne træffe et kvalificeret valg om, hvor og hvordan man skal publicere sine forskningsresultater....

  18. Atlantoaxial Joint Interlocking Following Type II Odontoid Fracture Associated with Posterolateral Atlantoaxial Dislocation: a Case Report and Review of Published Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Deng-Wei; Huang, Wen-Jun; Sheng, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Li-Jun; Fan, Shun-Wu

    2016-08-01

    A rare case of atlantoaxial lateral mass joint interlocking secondary to traumatic posterolateral C1,2 complete dislocation associated with type II odontoid fracture is herein reported and the impact of atlantoaxial joint interlocking on fracture reduction discussed. A 72-year-old man presented with traumatic atlantoaxial lateral mass joint interlocking without spinal cord signal change, the diagnosis being confirmed by radiography and 3-D reconstruction digital anatomy. Posterior internal fixation was performed after failure to achieve closed reduction by skull traction. After many surgical attempts at setting had failed because of interlocking of the lateral mass joints, reduction was achieved by compressing the posterior parts of the atlantal and axial screws. Odontoid bone union and C1,2 posterior bone graft fusion were eventually obtained by the 12-month follow-up. The patient had a complete neurological recovery with no residual neck pain or radiculopathy. © 2016 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Predictors of musculoskeletal discomfort: A cross-cultural comparison between Malaysian and Australian office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maakip, Ismail; Keegel, Tessa; Oakman, Jodi

    2017-04-01

    Prevalence and predictors associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) vary considerably between countries. It is plausible that socio-cultural contexts may contribute to these differences. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 1184 Malaysian and Australian office workers with the aim to examine predictors associated with MSD discomfort. The 6-month period prevalence of self-reported MSD discomfort for Malaysian office workers was 92.8% and 71.2% among Australian workers. In Malaysia, a model regressing level of musculoskeletal discomfort against possible risk factors was significant overall (F [6, 370] = 17.35; p Malaysian population only. Design and implementation of MSD risk management needs to take into account the work practices and culture of the target population. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Corruption in Australian sport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BRICKNELL, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Corruption and integrity in sport - betting and non-betting related match-fixing - use of inside information for betting - risks of corruption to Australian sport - government and national sporting...

  1. Why publish with AGU?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedel, T. E.

    The most visible activity of the American Geophysical Union is its publication of scientific journals. There are eight of these: Journal of Geophysical Research—Space Physics (JGR I), Journal of Geophysical Research—Solid Earth (JGR II), Journal of Geophysical Research—Oceans and Atmospheres (JGR III), Radio Science (RS), Water Resources Research (WRR), Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics (RGSP), and the newest, Tectonics.AGU's journals have established solid reputations for scientific excellence over the years. Reputation is not sufficient to sustain a high quality journal, however, since other factors enter into an author's decision on where to publish his or her work. In this article the characteristics of AGU's journals are compared with those of its competitors, with the aim of furnishing guidance to prospective authors and a better understanding of the value of the products to purchasers.

  2. Mental health help seeking patterns and associations among Australian same sex attracted women, trans and gender diverse people: a survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Ruth P; Bush, Rachel

    2016-07-04

    Same sex attracted women (SSAW) are disproportionately affected by depression and anxiety, due to experiences of sexuality and gender based discrimination. They access mental health services at higher rates than heterosexual women, however with lower levels of satisfaction. This study examined the range of professional and social help seeking by same-sex attracted women, and patterns according to sexual orientation and gender identity subgroup. Eight key stakeholders were interviewed, and a convenience sample of 1628 Australian SSAW completed an online survey in 2015. This included several scales to measure mental health, community connectedness and resilience; and measured past 12 month help seeking behaviour, enablers, barriers and preferences for mental health care. Chi-square analyses and binary logistic regression analyses examined demographic associations with mental health. Correlations between help seeking, mental and physical health, and connectedness were run. A high proportion (80 %) of the total sample had perceived mental health problems over the past 12 months. Over half had depression, and over 96 % had anxiety. Trans and gender diverse participants were twice as likely as female participants to have mental health problems, and lesbians were least likely. High levels of past 12 month help seeking included 74.4 % seeing a GP, 44.3 % seeing a psychologist/counsellor, 74.7 % seeking family/friends support and 55.2 % using internet based support. Professional help was prioritised by those with higher mental health need. Trans participants were most likely to have sought professional help and participated in support groups, but least likely to have sought help from friends or family. The most common barriers to help seeking were discrimination and lack of LGBTI sensitivity of services, particularly for gender diverse, queer and pansexual participants. Enablers included mainstream community connectedness, having a trustworthy GP, and

  3. Lifestyle behaviours associated with 5-year weight gain in a prospective cohort of Australian adults aged 26-36 years at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie J. Smith

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether not meeting common guidelines for lifestyle behaviours is associated with weight gain is uncertain. This study examined whether 5-year weight gain was predicted by not meeting guidelines for: breakfast consumption (eating between 6 and 9 am, takeaway food consumption (<2 times/week, television viewing (<2 h/day and daily steps (≥10,000 steps/day. Methods One thousand one hundred and fifty-five Australian participants (43% men, 26–36 years completed questionnaires and wore a pedometer at baseline (2004-06 and follow-up (2009-11. Weight was measured or self-reported, with a correction factor applied. For each behaviour, participants were classified according to whether they met the guideline: consistently met at baseline and follow-up (reference group; not met at baseline but met at follow-up; met at baseline but not met at follow-up; consistently not met at baseline and follow-up. For each behaviour, weight gain was calculated using linear regression. Weight gain by number of guidelines met was also examined. Results Mean 5-year weight gain was 2.0 kg (SD:6.3. Compared to the reference group, additional weight (mean, 95% CI was gained among those who did not meet the guideline at follow-up, or consistently did not meet the guideline, for breakfast (1.8 kg, 0.7–2.9; 1.5 kg, 0.1–2.8; takeaway food (2.2 kg, 0.7–3.6; 1.9 kg, 0.7–3.1; watching television (1.9 kg, 0.9–2.9; 1.4 kg, 0.4–2.3; and daily steps (2.6 kg, 1.1–4.04; 1.6 kg, 0.5–2.7. Those who met ≤1 guideline at follow-up gained 3.8 kg (95% CI 2.3–5.3 more than those meeting all guidelines. Conclusion Individuals who adopted healthier behaviours between baseline and follow-up had similar weight gain to those who met the guidelines at both time points. Encouraging young adults to meet these simple guidelines may reduce weight gain.

  4. Historical vignette: a life with poxviruses and publishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F

    1998-01-01

    Although I started science investigating the physical anthropology of Australian aboriginals and then spent six years in the Australian Army during the 1939-45 war, largely working on malaria control, the poxviruses have been the focal point of my research--at the bench, in the field, on committees, and in front of my word processor. I have had a relatively short period as a scientist at the bench, just over twenty years out of the sixty years since I graduated. For the last thirty years the pipette has been replaced by the pen and the word processor, and contacts with publishers have become an important element in my life. My pilgrim's progress, from mousepox through myxomatosis to vaccinia and then smallpox, has been helped by what can only be described as good luck, coming in many guises. I have been fortunate in many ways; in my father and mother and the genes and family life they gave me; in my wife, who was an immense source of support until her death in 1995; in the people whom I met during the Second World War; and in my close association with three great scientists, Macfarlane Burnet, René Dubos, and Howard Florey. I had the good fortune to be appointed, as a young and inexperienced virologist, to one of the best research jobs in the world, as a professor in the Australian National University. I have been very lucky in having had the opportunity to exploit a series of scientific gold mines; in turn, malaria, during the War, then mousepox, an unexploited virus because its use was forbidden in the United States, then, after a brief flirtation with mycobacteria, myxomatosis, an unparalleled natural experiment of evolution in action, and finally the most impressive achievement in public health in world history, the global eradication of smallpox. My last job in the University before retirement provided me with the opportunity to do something about the most important problems confronting humankind: the degradation of the environment, driven by the explosion in

  5. Schema-Based Processing in Australian Speakers of Aboriginal English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2001-01-01

    Explores features of Aboriginal English discourse that appear to be associated with some distinctive roles played by schemas in processing and formation of discourse by Aboriginal children. Examines the complexity of intercultural communication between Australian aborigines and the dominant class of white Australians. (Author/VWL)

  6. Geography in Australian Schools: A View from the AGTA Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The Australian Geography Teachers' Association (AGTA) seeks to: (1) foster the teaching and learning of geography in Australian schools and enhance awareness of its applications in society; (2) promote and circulate the results of research into geography education; (3) maintain a professional network through which teachers of geography in…

  7. Does the Level of Evidence of Paper Presentations at the Arthroscopy Association of North America Annual Meetings From 2006-2010 Correlate With the 5-Year Publication Rate or the Impact Factor of the Publishing Journal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeffrey; Memon, Muzammil; de Sa, Darren; Duong, Andrew; Simunovic, Nicole; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of paper (podium) presentations at the 2006-2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA) annual scientific meetings that were ultimately published in a peer-reviewed journal. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate whether the level of evidence correlated with the publication rate of these presentations or the impact factor (IF) of the publishing journal. Paper presentations from the 2006-2010 AANA annual meetings were included for evaluation. Clinical studies were graded for quality using the level of evidence by 2 independent reviewers. A comprehensive strategy was used to search the databases PubMed, Medline, and Embase for publications in scientific journals that corresponded to the presentations and were published within 5 years of the presentation date. Three hundred twenty-eight presentations were evaluated. Overall, 179 peer-reviewed publications corresponding to particular meeting presentations were identified, for a 5-year publication rate of 55%. There was no correlation between the publication rate and the level of evidence (P = .836), the type of study (P = .628), or the joint of focus (P = .07) of the presentations. The mean IF of journals that published Level I studies (4.8 [standard error, 2.3]) was significantly higher than the mean IF of journals that published Level II, III, or IV studies (2.58 [standard error, 0.10]) (P = .017). Between 2006 and 2010, presentations of the highest level of evidence at AANA meetings were subsequently published at a similar rate to presentations of lower levels of evidence, albeit in journals with higher IFs. This study is an important initial evaluation of the ultimate clinical impact of AANA meeting presentations. The study type, joint of focus, and level of evidence of the presentations all had no correlation with the rate at which these presentations were ultimately published. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published

  8. Physical qualities and activity profiles of sub-elite and recreational Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Josh G; Gabbett, Tim J; Townshend, Andrew D; Dawson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between physical qualities and match activity profiles of recreational Australian football players. Prospective cohort study. Forty players from three recreational Australian football teams (Division One, Two and Three) underwent a battery of fitness tests (vertical jump, 10 and 40 m sprint, 6 m × 30 m repeated sprint test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level Two and 2-km time trial). The activity profiles of competitive match-play were quantified using 10-Hz Global Positioning System units. Division One players possessed greater maximum velocity, Yo-Yo level Two and 2-km time trial performances than Division Two and Three players. In addition, Division One players covered greater relative distance, and relative distances at moderate- and high-intensities during match-play than Division Two and Three players. Division Two players had better 2-km time trial performances than Division Three players. Positive associations (P football players competing at a higher level exhibit greater physical qualities and match-play activity profiles than lesser-skilled recreational players. Acceleration and maximum velocity, 2-km time trial and Yo-Yo level Two performances discriminate between players of different playing levels, and are related to physical match performance in recreational Australian football. The development of these qualities is likely to contribute to improved match performance in recreational Australian football players. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Australian Geography Competition: An Overview of Participation and Results 2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Iraphne R. W.; Berg, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Geography Competition (AGC) was established in 1995 by the Royal Geographical Society of Queensland (RGSQ) and the Australian Geography Teachers' Association to promote the study of geography in Australian secondary schools and to reward student excellence in geographical studies. Initially focusing on students at the lower…

  10. The rites of writing papers: steps to successful publishing for psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakoulias, Vlasios; Macfarlane, Matthew D; Looi, Jeffrey C

    2015-02-01

    To encourage psychiatrists to publish high-quality articles in peer-reviewed journals by demystifying the publishing process. This paper will describe the publishing process and outline key factors that ensure that publishing is an achievable goal for psychiatrists. The publishing process can be long and often this is related to delays associated with obtaining reviewers and their comments. Negative reviewer comments often relate to grammatical and typographical errors, an insufficient literature review, failure to adequately discuss limitations and conclusions that are not adequately supported by the results. Authors who systematically respond to their paper's reviewer comments are usually successful in having their papers accepted. Success in publishing is usually determined by a topic that appeals to the readership of a journal, a credible methodology and a paper that is well-written. Publishing is achievable for all psychiatrists providing they can write a paper that delivers a clear and concise message, are willing to address reviewer comments and that their paper is tailored to the readership of the journal. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  11. An evaluation of the telehealth facilitation of diabetes and cardiovascular care in remote Australian Indigenous communities: - protocol for the telehealth eye and associated medical services network [TEAMSnet] project, a pre-post study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazionis, Laima; Jenkins, Alicia; Keech, Anthony; Ryan, Chris; Bursell, Sven-Erik

    2017-01-05

    Despite substantial investment in detection, early intervention and evidence-based treatments, current management strategies for diabetes-associated retinopathy and cardiovascular disease are largely based on real-time and face-to-face approaches. There are limited data re telehealth facilitation in type 2 diabetes management. Therefore, we aim to investigate efficacy of telehealth facilitation of diabetes and cardiovascular disease care in high-risk vulnerable Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in remote/very remote Australia. Using a pre-post intervention design, 600 Indigenous Australians with type 2 diabetes will be recruited from three primary-care health-services in the Northern Territory. Diabetes status will be based on clinical records. There will be four technological interventions: 1. Baseline retinal imaging [as a real-time patient education/engagement tool and telehealth screening strategy]. 2. A lifestyle survey tool administered at ≈ 6-months. 3. At ≈ 6- and 18-months, an electronic cardiovascular disease and diabetes decision-support tool based on current guidelines in the Standard Treatment Manual of the Central Australian Rural Practitioner's Association to generate clinical recommendations. 4. Mobile tablet technology developed to enhance participant engagement in self-management. Data will include: Pre-intervention clinical and encounter-history data, baseline retinopathy status, decision-support and survey data/opportunistic mobile tablet encounter data. The primary outcome is increased participant adherence to clinical appointments, a marker of engagement and self-management. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed. Remoteness is a major barrier to provision and uptake of best-practice chronic disease management. Telehealth, beyond videoconferencing of consultations, could facilitate evidence-based management of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Indigenous Australians and serve as a model for other conditions. Australia

  12. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  13. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  14. Venom yields from Australian and some other species of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtschin, Peter J; Dunstan, Nathan; Hough, Ben; Hamilton, Ewan; Klein, Sharna; Lucas, Jonathan; Millar, David; Madaras, Frank; Nias, Timothy

    2006-08-01

    The wet and dry venom yields for most Australian native dangerous snakes and a number of non-Australian species are presented. Snakes from the Pseudonaja genus yielded higher than previously published amounts and suggest reconsideration be given to increasing the volume of antivenom in each vial. Higher percentage solids were obtained from venoms from the 4 cobra species (Naja) and Pseudechis genus included in this series.

  15. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase are associated with HLA-DR genotypes in both Australians and Asians with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serjeantson, S W; Kohonen-Corish, M R; Rowley, M J; Mackay, I R; Knowles, W; Zimmet, P

    1992-10-01

    Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, previously known as the 64 kD antigen, appear to be more predictive of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Caucasoids than other autoantibodies to islet cell antigens. However, seropositivity to glutamic acid decarboxylase is not universal at the onset of Type 1 diabetes and the prevalence in Asians is low compared to Caucasoid patients. This suggests the involvement of multiple pancreatic autoantigens in the Type 1 diabetes autoimmune process or, genetic differences within and between ethnic groups that contribute to the heterogeneous autoimmune response to glutamic acid decarboxylase or both. Alternatively some cases of Type 1 diabetes could have an aetiology unrelated to autoimmunity. This study examined the differential response to glutamic acid decarboxylase according to HLA-DR and -DQ genotypes, as determined by RFLP, in 49 white Australian and 44 Asian patients with Type 1 diabetes. Among Australians heterozygous for HLA-DR3, DR4, 85% were positive for antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, significantly different (p = 0.039) from the prevalence of 48% in patients with at least one HLA-DR antigen other than DR3 or DR4. Also, among Australians, the presence of "low risk" HLA-DQ antigens, namely DQw5, DQw6 or DQw7, reduced the prevalence of antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase by 40% (p = 0.064). Among Asians with Type 1 diabetes and with antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, HLA-DR9 was significantly (p = 0.037) increased in frequency, at 63% compared with 22% in those without glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, and the presence of a "low risk" HLA-DQ allele reduced the antibody rates by 87% (p = 0.003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Is More Area-Level Crime Associated With More Sitting and Less Physical Activity? Longitudinal Evidence From 37,162 Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S; Jalaludin, Bin

    2016-12-15

    Does a rise in crime result in increased sitting time and a reduction in physical activity? We used unobserved ("fixed")-effects models to examine associations between change in objectively measured crime (nondomestic violence, malicious damage, breaking and entering, and stealing, theft, and robbery) in Australia and measures of sitting time, walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a residentially stable sample of 17,474 men and 19,688 women at baseline (2006-2008) and follow-up (2009-2010). Possible sources of time-varying confounding included age, income, economic status, relationship (couple) status, and physical functioning. In adjusted models, an increase in all crimes of 10 counts per 1,000 residents was associated with an increase in sitting time (hours/day) among men (β = 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17, 0.25) and women (β = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.22). Counterintuitively, the same increase in crime was also associated with an increase in the weekly number of ≥10-minute walking sessions (men: rate ratio (RR) = 1.01 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.02); women: RR = 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.01)) and MVPA sessions (men: RR = 1.02 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.03); women: RR = 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.02)). Similar associations were found for the other area-level crime indicators. While area-level crime prevention may be considered a lever for promoting more active lifestyles, these results suggest that the association is not unequivocal. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  17. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  18. Australian Courseware in Geographical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidstone, John G.; Gerber, Rod

    Students pursuing Australian studies should be given every possible opportunity to work with materials produced in Australia. There is a substantial and growing list of good curriculum software written within Australia and from an Australian perspective which can add interest and excitement to Australian geography classrooms. Computers can be used…

  19. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  20. Open Access Publishing with Drupal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina McHale

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In January 2009, the Colorado Association of Libraries (CAL suspended publication of its print quarterly journal, Colorado Libraries, as a cost-saving measure in a time of fiscal uncertainty. Printing and mailing the journal to its 1300 members cost CAL more than $26,000 per year. Publication of the journal was placed on an indefinite hiatus until the editorial staff proposed an online, open access format a year later. The benefits to migrating to open access included: significantly lower costs; a green platform; instant availability of content; a greater level of access to users with disabilities; and a higher level of visibility of the journal and the association. The editorial staff chose Drupal, including the E-journal module, and while Drupal is notorious for its steep learning curve—which exacerbated delays to content that had been created before the publishing hiatus—the fourth electronic issue was published recently at coloradolibrariesjournal.org. This article will discuss both the benefits and challenges of transitioning to an open access model and the choice Drupal as a platform over other more established journal software options.

  1. Profiling nursing resources in Australian emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphet, Julia; Kent, Bridie; Plummer, Virginia; Considine, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Emergency nurses have a key role in managing the large numbers of patients that attend Australian emergency departments (EDs) annually, and require adequate educational preparation to deliver safe and quality patient care. This paper provides a detailed profile of nursing resources in Australian EDs, including ED locations, annual patient attendances, nurse staffing including level of education, and educational resources. Data were collected via online surveys of emergency Nurse Unit Managers and Nurse Educators and the MyHospitals website. Data were analysed by hospital peer group and state or territory. Comparisons were made using the Kruskal-Wallis Test and Spearman Rank Order Correlation. In 2011-2012, there were a median of 36,274 patient attendances to each of the 118 EDs sampled (IQR 28,279-46,288). Most of the nurses working in EDs were Registered Nurses (95.2%). Organisations provided educational resources including Clinical Nurse Educators (80.6%), learning packages (86%) and facilitation of postgraduate study (98%), but resources, both human and educational varied substantially between states and territories. One-third of emergency nurses held a relevant postgraduate qualification (30%). There are important variations in the emergency nursing resources available between Australian states and territories. The high percentage of RNs in Australian EDs is a positive finding, however strategies to increase the percentage of nurses with relevant postgraduate qualifications are required. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased work and social engagement is associated with increased stroke specific quality of life in stroke survivors at 3 months and 12 months post-stroke: a longitudinal study of an Australian stroke cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Tamara; Binte Yusoff, Siti Zubaidah; Churilov, Leonid; Ma, Henry; Davis, Stephen; Donnan, Geoffrey Alan; Carey, Leeanne M

    2017-09-01

    There is a relative lack of longitudinal studies investigating stroke-specific outcomes and quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to identify which factors (level of disability, cognitive functioning, depressive symptoms, physical activity, and work and social engagement) were independently associated with each stroke-specific domain of QOL, adjusting for age and gender, at 3 months and 12 months post-stroke in an Australian cohort. Survivors of ischemic stroke were recruited from 18 sites of the STroke imAging pRevention and Treatment (START) longitudinal cohort study. Survivors were assessed at 3 months (n = 185) and 12 months (n = 170) post-stroke using the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). WSAS was independently associated with the SIS domains of: Physical Composite function; Participation; and Perceived Recovery at 3 months and 12 months and SIS domain of Emotion at 12 months post-stroke. The presence of depressive symptoms was independently associated with the SIS domains of: Memory and Thinking; and Emotion at 3 months. At 12 months post-stroke, mRS was independently associated with SIS domain of Physical Composite function and MoCA with SIS domain of Communication. Engaging in work and social activities is an important factor associated with stroke-specific domains of QOL over time. It is recommended that services focus on improving work and social engagement given their importance related to QOL in the first year of recovery post-stroke. Identifying and treating those with depressive symptoms may enhance QOL in the early months post-stroke. START-PrePARE Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials, www.anzctr.org.au , Registry number: ACTRN12610000987066. EXTEND ClinicalTrial.gov identifier: NCT00887328.

  3. Is the concomitant use of clopidogrel and Proton Pump Inhibitors still associated with increased adverse cardiovascular outcomes following coronary angioplasty?: a systematic review and meta-analysis of recently published studies (2012 - 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundhun, Pravesh Kumar; Teeluck, Abhishek Rishikesh; Bhurtu, Akash; Huang, Wei-Qiang

    2017-01-05

    Controversies were previously observed with the concomitant use of clopidogrel and Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs), especially omeprazole, following coronary angioplasty. Even though several studies showed no interaction between clopidogrel and PPIs, questions have been raised about the decrease in antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel with PPIs. A previously published meta-analysis showed concomitant use of clopidogrel and PPIs to be associated with higher adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, data which were used were extracted from studies published before the year 2012. Whether these controversies still exist in this new era is not clear. Therefore, we aim to show if the concomitant use of clopidogrel and PPIs is still associated with higher adverse outcomes following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) using data obtained from recently published studies (2012 to 2016). Electronic databases were searched for recent publications (2012-2016) comparing (clopidogrel plus PPIs) versus clopidogrel alone following PCI. Adverse cardiovascular outcomes were considered as the clinical endpoints. Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were used as the statistical parameters and the pooled analyses were performed with RevMan 5.3 software. Eleven studies with a total number of 84,729 patients (29,235 patients from the PPIs group versus 55,494 patients from the non-PPIs group) were included. Results of this analysis showed that short term mortality and Target Vessel Revascularization (TVR) significantly favored the non-PPIs group with OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.43-1.68, P clopidogrel with PPIs is still associated with significantly higher adverse cardiovascular events such as MACEs, ST and MI following PCI supporting results of the previously published meta-analysis. However, long-term mortality is not statistically significant warranting further analysis with randomized patients.

  4. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue will focus on Number in the Number and Algebra strand. In this article Derek Hurrell provides a few tried and proven activities to develop place value understanding. These activities are provided for…

  5. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Derek; O'Neil, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue the authors focus, on Geometry in the Measurement and Geometry strand with strong links for an integrated focus on the Statistics and Probability strand. The small unit of work on the sorting and…

  6. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, M. J.; Hutchinson, W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  7. Cryptocotyly in Australian Dicotyledones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clifford, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Seedlings exhibit a great diversity in morphology as is well documented (Lubbock, 1892; De Vogel, 1980). As part of an ongoing study on the taxonomic importance of seedling characters and their possible phylogenetic significance the seedlings of about 320 endemic Australian genera of Dicotyledons

  8. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  9. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  10. Occupational therapy publications by Australian authors: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Gutman, Sharon A; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2018-01-18

    Bibliometrics refers to the collection and measurement of publishing and citation data configurations with the goal of quantifying the influence of scholarly activities. Advantages of bibliometrics include the generation of quantitative indicators of impact, productivity, quality and collaboration. Those parties who benefit from the results of bibliometric analysis include researchers, educators, journal publishers, employers and research funding bodies. A bibliometric analysis was completed of peer-reviewed literature from 1991 to 2015, written by Australian occupational therapists (who were able to be identified as such), and indexed in the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-Expanded) or the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) databases. "Occupational therapy" and "occupational therapist(s)" were used as keywords to search journal articles' publication title, abstract, author details, keywords and KeyWord Plus. Between 1991 and 2015, 752 peer-reviewed journal articles were published by Australian occupational therapy authors. On average, those articles had 3.7 authors, 35 references, and were nine pages in length. The top four journals in which Australian occupational therapists published were Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, British Journal of Occupational Therapy, American Journal of Occupational Therapy, and Physical and Occupational Therapy in Paediatrics. The four Australian institutions that generated the largest number of occupational therapy articles were the University of Queensland, University of Sydney, La Trobe University, and Monash University. The top four countries with whom Australian authors collaborated in manuscript writing were the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Sweden. The volume of occupational therapy peer-reviewed literature has grown over the last two decades. Australian authors have and continue to make significant contributions to the occupational therapy body of knowledge nationally and internationally. © 2018

  11. Therapeutic approaches to disease modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis in adults: an Australian and New Zealand perspective: part 3 treatment practicalities and recommendations. MS Neurology Group of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Simon A; Barnett, Michael H; Boggild, Mike; Brew, Bruce J; Butzkueven, Helmut; Heard, Robert; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Kermode, Allan G; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Macdonell, Richard A L; Marriott, Mark; Mason, Deborah F; Parratt, John; Reddel, Stephen W; Shaw, Cameron P; Slee, Mark; Spies, Judith; Taylor, Bruce V; Carroll, William M; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; King, John; McCombe, Pamela A; Pollard, John D; Willoughby, Ernest

    2014-11-01

    In this third and final part of our review of multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment we look at the practical day-to-day management issues that are likely to influence individual treatment decisions. Whilst efficacy is clearly of considerable importance, tolerability and the potential for adverse effects often play a significant role in informing individual patient decisions. Here we review the issues surrounding switching between therapies, and the evidence to assist guiding the choice of therapy to change to and when to change. We review the current level of evidence with regards to the management of women in their child-bearing years with regards to recommendations about treatment during pregnancy and whilst breast feeding. We provide a summary of recommended pre- and post-treatment monitoring for the available therapies and review the evidence with regards to the value of testing for antibodies which are known to be neutralising for some therapies. We review the occurrence of adverse events, both the more common and troublesome effects and those that are less common but have potentially much more serious outcomes. Ways of mitigating these risks and managing the more troublesome adverse effects are also reviewed. Finally, we make specific recommendations with regards to the treatment of MS. It is an exciting time in the world of MS neurology and the prospects for further advances in coming years are high. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Community Publishing Project: assisting writers to self-publish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Community Publishing Project: assisting writers to self-publish. Colleen Higgs. Abstract. This article examines the need for a small project such as the Community Publishing Project in South Africa and explores its aims. The method of involving writers and community groups in the publication process is described and ...

  13. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A Case for Cautious Optimism? Active Citizenship and the Australian Civics and Citizenship Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Andrew; Bentley, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    In late 2013 a new curriculum for Civics and Citizenship education was published by the Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority for use in Australian schools. In line with previous curricular initiatives concerning education for citizenship in Australia a key rationale behind the new subject is the education of "active…

  15. Review of Selected Research in Applied Linguistics Published in Australia (2008-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Chen, Honglin; Moore, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the significant and diverse range of research in applied linguistics published in Australia in the period 2008-2014. Whilst acknowledging that a great deal of research by Australian scholars has been published internationally during these seven years, this review is based on books, journal articles, and conference proceedings…

  16. First evidence of Pezoloma ericae in Australia: using the Biomes of Australia Soil Environments (BASE) to explore the Australian phylogeography of known ericoid mycorrhizal and root-associated fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, David J; Greenfield, Paul; Bissett, Andrew; Tran-Dinh, Nai

    2017-08-01

    The prominent ericoid mycorrhizal fungus, Pezoloma ericae, has not been found in Australia to date. In the present study, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data from the Biomes of Australia Soil Environments (BASE) was searched for evidence of P. ericae and other known ericoid mycorrhizal and root-associated taxa. ITS sequences with high identity to P. ericae, Meliniomyces bicolor, Meliniomyces variabilis, Cairneyella sp. 2, Cadophora finlandica and Woollsia mycorrhizal fungus VI were identified and their distribution in Australia visualised. This is the first evidence that P. ericae, M. bicolor and M. variabilis very likely occur on the Australian continent and provides a set of locations from which to seek isolates for further characterisation. The presence of P. ericae in South America, South Africa, and now Australia suggests a broad and ancient Gondwanan distribution for this well-studied species.

  17. Green space is associated with walking and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in middle-to-older-aged adults: findings from 203 883 Australians in the 45 and Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2014-03-01

    Green space is widely hypothesised to promote physical activity. Few studies, however, examine whether this is the case for walking and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). We investigated to what extent neighbourhood green space was associated with weekly participation and frequency of walking and MVPA in a large cross-sectional survey of Australian adults 45 years and older. Logit and negative binomial regression were used to estimate the degree of association between walking, MVPA and neighbourhood green space in a sample of 203 883 adults from the Australian 45 and Up Study. Walking and MVPA were measured using the Active Australia Survey. Green space was measured as a percentage of the total land-use within 1 km radius of residence. We controlled for a range of individual and neighbourhood characteristics. 86.6% of the sample walked and 85.8% participated in MVPA at least once a week. These rates fell steeply with age. Compared with residents of neighbourhoods containing 0-20% green space, those in greener areas were significantly more likely to walk and participate in MVPAs at least once a week (trend for both pgreen space participated with a greater frequency of walking (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.09, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13) and MVPA (IRR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.15). Our findings suggest that the amount of green space available to adults in middle-to-older age within their neighbourhood environments could help to promote walking and MVPA.

  18. The Infection Rate of Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacement Is Higher When Compared to Other Bearing Surfaces as Documented by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Phil; Lyons, Matt; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Despite the well-documented decline in the use of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants over the last decade, there are still controversies regarding whether all MoM implants are created equally. Complications such as elevated serum metal ion levels, aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) and pseudotumours have all been well documented, but recent studies suggest increased risk of infection with MoM bearing surfaces. Most of these studies however have small patient numbers. The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative incidence of revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary hip arthroplasty at a national and single-surgeon level. Data was collected from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry, which contains over 98% of all arthroplasties performed in Australia since 2001. The cumulative incidence of revision for infection was extracted at a national level and single-surgeon level. Two hundred seventy-six thousand eight hundred seventy-eight subjects were documented in the Australian registry. The 10-year cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary total hip replacement (THR) was 2.5% at a national level, compared to 0.8% for other bearing surfaces. The senior author contributed 1755 subjects with 7-year follow-up and a cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary THR of 36.9%, compared to 2.0% for other bearing surfaces. The cumulative percent of revision of MoM bearing surfaces is higher compared to other bearing surfaces; this is especially pronounced in cumulative percent of revision for infection. There was a higher cumulative percent of revision for infection in MoM bearings surfaces (in particular, large-head MoM) compared to other bearing surfaces at both the national and individual-surgeon level.

  19. The effect of changing cow production and fitness traits on net income and greenhouse gas emissions from Australian dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Eckard, R J; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm net income and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) in the Australian dairy cow population. An average cow was modeled, using breed-average information for Holsteins and Jerseys from the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme. A Markov chain approach was used to describe the steady-state herd structure, as well as estimate the CO2-eq. emissions per cow and per kilogram of milk solids. The effects of a single unit change in herd milk volume, fat and protein yields, live weight, survival, dry matter intake, somatic cell count, and calving interval were assessed. With the traits studied, the only single-unit change that would bring about a desirable increase in both net income and reduced emissions intensity per cow and per kilogram of milk solids in Australian dairy herds would be an increase in survival and reductions in milk volume, live weight, DMI, SCC, and calving interval. The models developed can be used to assess lifetime dairy system abatement options by breeding, feeding, and management. Selective breeding and appropriate management can both improve health, fertility, and feed utilization of Australian dairy systems and reduce its environmental impact. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Publishing in Open Access Journals

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mbrunet

    Publisher uses direct and unsolicited marketing (i.e., spamming) or advertising is obtrusive (to publish articles or serve on editorial board). • No information is provided about the publisher or location; either information is missing or does not match geographical area covered by the journal (e.g., “American Journal of …

  1. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  2. International Marketing Developing Publishing Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Chlivickas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithuanian integration in the financial Eurozone and Lithuanian publishing business development in the European Union and outside it, becomes an important problem requiring a solution. Promoting the dissemination of printed books and literacy in Lithuania and beyond, to properly introduce the achievements of Lithuania in foreign countries, it is important to ensure Lithuanian letter, educational and scientific book publishing development. The article examines the characteristics of the international marketing publishing, the world and Lithuanian state publishing houses on the basis of foreign and Lithuanian scientists theoretical insights about the instruments of international marketing opportunities, developing proposals for publishing business integration of new economic conditions.

  3. A Publisher view on the future of scholarly publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Jose

    2015-08-01

    The journal publishing landscape is changing rapidly. With the massive move from print to online taking place at the end of the last century, we are now seeing a shift from traditional subscription based publishing model to ‘hybrid’ models and full Open Access publishing. Other major changes are taking place at the article interface level (from a static PDF to the “Article of the Future”), in data and code repository linking, in publishing data and code and hence make it citable and discoverable, and in many other subject area specific online innovations that are being introduced.Elsevier is actively involved - both in Open Access publishing, and in content innovation - in discussing, and taking the lead through many big and smaller scale initiatives. This presentation will outline Elsevier’s perspective on the future of scientific publishing with regards to these developments.

  4. What comes first? Publishing business or publishing studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipa Selthofer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare publishing studies, their programmes at the undergraduate and graduate levels and scholars involved in the teaching of publishing courses at the top universities around the world and in Croatia. Since traditional publishing business is rapidly changing, new skills and new jobs are involved in it. The main research question is: Can modern publishing studies produce a modern publisher? Or, is it the other way around? The hypothesis of the paper is that scholars involved in the teaching of publishing courses at the top universities around the world have a background in publishing business. So, can they prepare their students for the future and can their students gain competencies they need to compete in a confusing world of digital authors and electronic books? The research methods used were content analysis and comparison. Research sample included 36 university publishing programmes at the undergraduate and graduate level worldwide (24 MA, 12 BA. The research sample was limited mainly to the English-speaking countries. In most non-English-speaking countries, it was difficult to analyse the programme curriculum in the native language because the programme and course description did not exit. In the data gathering phase, a customized web application was used for content analysis. The application has three main sections: a list of websites to evaluate, a visual representation of the uploaded website and a list of characteristics grouped by categories for quantifying data. About twenty years ago, publishing was not considered a separate scientific branch in Croatia. Publishing studies are therefore a new phenomenon to both scholars and publishers in Croatia. To create a new, ideal publishing course, can we simply copy global trends or is it better to create something of our own?

  5. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  6. THE QUALITY CRITERIA AND SELF-PUBLISHING IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Mangas-Vega

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-publishing is a growing phenomenon in recent years. It is a process that goes beyond a simple change of leader in the publication, since it involves also a change of role of agents that were consolidated over time. A self-published work does not have to mean lack of quality, so it is important to define parameters and indicators that help its evaluation and identify who has the responsibility of those criteria. The article shows these aspects from the possibilities for cross-platform publishing and concludes with an analysis of the aspects that can be considered in assessing the quality of self-publishing.

  7. Interchange rotation factors and player characteristics influence physical and technical performance in professional Australian Rules football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Patrick A; Kempton, Thomas; Ryan, Samuel; Hocking, Joel; Coutts, Aaron J

    2017-06-08

    To examine the effects of match-related and individual player characteristics on activity profile and technical performance during rotations in professional Australian football. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system data and player rating scores were collected from 33 professional Australian football players during 15 Australian football League matches. Player rating scores were time aligned with their relative total and high-speed running (HSR) distance (>20kmh-1) for each on ground rotation. Individual players' maximal aerobic running speed (MAS) was determined from a two-kilometre trial. A multilevel linear mixed model was used to examine the influence of rotations on physical activity profiles and skill execution during match play. Rotation duration and accumulated distance resulted in a trivial-to-moderate reduction in relative total and HSR distances as well as relative rating points. The number of disposals in a rotation had a small positive effect on relative total and HSR distances and a large positive effect on relative rating points. MAS was associated with a moderate-to-large increase in relative total distance, but had a large negative effect on relative rating points. Previous rotation time, stoppages and the number of rotations in the quarter had a trivial-to-small negative effect on relative total and HSR distances. A greater speed (mmin-1) was associated with a trivial increase in rating points during a rotation, while there was a trivial decrease in relative total distance as rating points increased. The complex relationship between factors that influence activity profile and technical performance during rotations in Australian football needs to be considered when interpreting match performance. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Barroom Aggression Among Australian Men: Associations With Heavy Episodic Drinking, Conformity to Masculine Norms, and Personal and Perceived Peer Approval of Barroom Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hayley, Alexa; Sonderlund, Anders; Litherland, Steven; Medew-Ewen, Tess; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that heavy episodic drinking (HED), perceived peer norms, and personal approval of aggression influence male barroom aggression (MBA). Qualitative research suggests that conformity to hegemonic masculine gender norms also influences MBA; however, quantitative research on the direct and indirect influence of masculinity on MBA is limited. This study tested the relationships between HED, conformity to masculine gender norms, and personal approval and peer approval of MBA on MBA perpetration, as well as the indirect effect of masculine norms on MBA via HED. A convenience sample of Australian men (N = 322; mean age = 21.05 years, SD = 1.95; 76.9% university students) completed an online questionnaire, assessing HED and MBA over the previous year, and subscales of the Beliefs and Attitudes Towards Male Alcohol-Related Aggression Inventory and Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46. Negative binomial regression analyses found that, overall, HED, male peer approval, and personal approval of MBA directly predicted increased risk of verbal and physical MBA perpetration. Greater conformity to specific masculine norms also increased (Power Over Women) and decreased (Emotional Control, Heterosexual Self-Presentation) risk of MBA perpetration. The masculine norms Risk Taking, Playboy, and Emotional Control were found to be indirect predictors of MBA via HED. Risk of MBA perpetration is increased primarily by HED as a direct, but also mediating, predictor. Personal and male peer approval of MBA, and specific masculine norms, further increase this risk whereas other masculine norms appear protective.

  9. Sex-Specific Associations in Nutrition and Activity-Related Risk Factors for Chronic Disease: Australian Evidence from Childhood to Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Erin; Dash, Sarah R; Jennings, Garry L; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2018-01-26

    Global assessments of burden of disease suggests there are sex differences in risk factors for chronic disease, including overweight/obesity, dietary patterns and habitual physical activity. Given that prevention efforts aim to target such factors to reduce disease risk, the age at which sex differences may occur is of particular interest. Early life to young adulthood is the optimal time for intervention, with lifestyle habits typically forming during this period. This study aimed to identify the sex differences in risk factors for chronic disease during childhood (5-9 years), adolescence (10-17 years) and emerging adulthood (18-25 years) in a large population-representative Australian sample. Among children in this study (n = 739), no sex-related differences were observed. Among adolescents (n = 1304), females were more likely than males to meet daily fruit and vegetable recommendations (12.9% vs. 7.5%; OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.16, 2.93, p emerging adults (n = 909), females were less likely to be overweight/obese (30.1% vs. 39.8%; OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.44, 0.95, p risk factors of chronic disease occur during adolescence and emerging adulthood, although the differences are not consistent across age periods. From adolescence onwards, it appears that females exhibit lower risk factors than males and a life span approach to risk factor monitoring is warranted.

  10. More than just physical activity: time use clusters and profiles of Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Katia; Olds, Tim; Maher, Carol

    2013-09-01

    To describe time use clusters and correlate-cluster profiles of Australian youth. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional national survey. Data were from the National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a random sample (n=1853) of 9-16 years old Australians (February-August 2007). Time use data were collected using the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults, and collapsed into 17 age-adjusted variables for sex-specific cluster analysis. Cluster associations with socio-demographic, anthropometric, health and dietary variables were analysed. For boys (n=930), the Social tasker cluster was characterised by social interaction and chores & work, the Techno-active cluster by team sport and TV and the Techno-studious cluster by video games and study. Average daily pedometer steps, age and remoteness were significant cluster correlates. For the girls (n=923), the Social screenie cluster was characterised by TV and social interaction, the Quiet actives cluster by quiet time and non-team sport and the Techno-studious cluster by video games and study. Pedometer steps, age, parental income and education, parent-child age difference, "extra foods", fat and fruit intakes were significant correlates. Distinct sex-specific time use clusters and profiles exist among Australian youth. These findings may assist the development of targeted time use interventions to improve health and well-being. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early life programming of cardiometabolic disease in the Western Australian pregnancy cohort (Raine) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rae-Chi; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J

    2012-11-01

    The Raine study (http://www.rainestudy.org.au, accessed 18 June 2012) is a longitudinal Australian birth cohort that has serially assessed the offspring of 2900 pregnant women from 18 weeks gestation in utero to 17 years of age. The Raine study data have shown that low birth weight is a surrogate for poor in utero growth from 18 weeks gestation. A U-shaped relationship between birth size and cardiometabolic risk exists in this Western Australian cohort, implying that both low and high birth weight are associated with increased risk. High birth weight is a risk factor for cardiometabolic risk, particularly for females. Lifetime adiposity trajectories are better at predicting metabolic risk of the offspring than birth size or current body mass index. Therefore, early life programming is an ongoing process, starting in utero and undergoing at least some level of modification in parallel with changes in adiposity during early childhood. Maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal obesity, hypertension and diabetes increase the risk for metabolic risk in the offspring. Breast feeding is protective for cardiometabolic risk in this Australian cohort. © 2012 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. The Australian NHMRC guidelines for alcohol consumption and their portrayal in the print media: a content analysis of Australian newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfaardt, Bronwyn M; Brownbill, Aimee L; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Bowden, Jacqueline A

    2018-02-01

    To measure and characterise unpaid coverage in the Australian print media of the 2001, 2007 and 2009 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking Alcohol. A total of 172 articles published in Australian newspapers between 1999 and 2014 were content analysed using a coding framework aimed to define the article descriptors, article prominence, content, slant and guidelines. The majority (62.2%) of articles were published between 2007 and 2009, the predominant topic being 'the National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines" with less than two-thirds (59.2%) of the articles mentioning the specific guidelines for reducing alcohol-related harm. There was low unpaid print newspaper coverage of the guidelines, which may contribute to low community knowledge of the guidelines. Implications for public health: This study provides a foundation for developing further studies and highlights the need to improve awareness of the guidelines. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Spirometry reference values in Indigenous Australians: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Tamara L; Chang, Anne B; Petsky, Helen L; Rodwell, Leanne T; Brown, Michael G; Hill, Debra C; Thompson, Bruce; McElrea, Margaret S

    2016-07-04

    To evaluate published spirometry data for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) peoples to determine (i) whether their ethnicity influenced spirometry results; and (ii) if any reliable spirometry reference values exist for Indigenous Australians. Systematic review of published and grey literature. PubMed and Cochrane Library databases, references of included articles and appropriate grey literature. Last searches were conducted in April 2016. We included any study that performed spirometry on healthy Indigenous Australians and compared their results with those from people of European ancestry. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts and then reviewed potentially relevant full-text articles for possible inclusion. We used PRISMA systematic review reporting methods to collate data. Of a possible 125 studies, 18 full-text articles were reviewed, but only nine fulfilled the inclusion criteria. None specified Torres Strait Islander inclusion. All studies reported lower spirometry values (as much as 30% lower) for Aboriginal people compared with non-Indigenous people. Five studies developed spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians; however, none adhered to all participant inclusion and exclusion criteria outlined by the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. Hence, reported results and subsequent reference values may not be a true representation of spirometry values in healthy Indigenous people. The lower spirometry values reported for Indigenous Australians may be due to study limitations. Furthermore, there are currently no reliable spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians that adhere to current guidelines. Developing a set of Indigenous Australian reference values will improve the accuracy of test interpretation and aid in the diagnosis of respiratory disease in this population.

  14. Diabetic retinopathy in a remote Indigenous primary healthcare population: a Central Australian diabetic retinopathy screening study in the Telehealth Eye and Associated Medical Services Network project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazionis, L; Jenkins, A; Keech, A; Ryan, C; Brown, A; Boffa, J; Bursell, S

    2018-02-06

    To determine diabetic retinopathy prevalence and severity among remote Indigenous Australians. A cross-sectional diabetic retinopathy screening study of Indigenous adults with Type 2 diabetes was conducted by locally trained non-ophthalmic retinal imagers in a remote Aboriginal community-controlled primary healthcare clinic in Central Australia and certified non-ophthalmic graders in a retinal grading centre in Melbourne, Australia. The main outcome measure was prevalence of any diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Among 301 participants (33% male), gradable image rates were 78.7% (n =237) for diabetic retinopathy and 83.1% (n =250) for diabetic macular oedema, and 77.7% (n =234) were gradable for both diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema. For the gradable subset, the median (range) age was 48 (19-86) years and known diabetes duration 9.0 (0-24) years. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 47% (n =110) and for diabetic macular oedema it was 14.4% (n =36). In the fully gradable imaging studies, sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy prevalence was 16.2% (n =38): 14.1% (n =33) for clinically significant macular oedema, 1.3% (n =3) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 0.9% (n =2) for both. Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy had been treated in 78% of detected cases. A novel telemedicine diabetic retinopathy screening service detected a higher prevalence of 'any' diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in a remote primary care setting than reported in earlier surveys among Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Whether the observed high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was attributable to greater detection, increasing diabetic retinopathy prevalence, local factors, or a combination of these requires further investigation and, potentially, specific primary care guidelines for diabetic retinopathy management in remote Australia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

  15. Process evaluation of the Albany Physical Activity and Nutrition (APAN) program, a home-based intervention for metabolic syndrome and associated chronic disease risk in rural Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Krysten; Lee, Andy; James, Anthony P; Waddell, Tracy; Hills, Andrew P; Anderson, Annie S; Howat, Peter; Jancey, Jonine

    2017-03-01

    Issue addressed The Albany Physical Activity and Nutrition (APAN) study investigated the effects of the APAN program, a home-based intervention on dietary and physical activity behaviours and chronic disease risk for rural Australian adults. This paper reports on the process evaluation to gain insight into the link between intervention elements and outcomes. Methods The APAN program comprised resources to improve participants' diet and physical activity. Printed and online resources were provided to participants, complemented by motivational interviews via telephone. Process evaluation used mixed-methods, with a sample of 201 intervention participants residing in a disadvantaged rural area. Participants were aged 50 to 69 years with, or at risk of, metabolic syndrome. Quantitative data were collected using an online survey (n=73); qualitative data were collected via telephone exit interviews with intervention completers (n=8) and non-completers (n=8), and recruitment notes recorded by research assistants. Results The attrition rate of the program was 18%; major reasons for withdrawal were health and personal issues and a loss of interest. The majority of participants found the printed resources useful, attractive, and suitable to their age group. The website was the least preferred resource. Reasons for completing the program included the desired health benefits, wanting to honour the commitment, and wanting to assist with research. Conclusions Carefully planned recruitment will reduce the burden on resources and improve uptake. Understanding reasons for attrition such as family or personal barriers and health issues will assist practitioners to support participants overcome these barriers. Given participants' preference for printed resources, and the known effectiveness of these in combination with other strategies, investigating methods to encourage use of telephone and online support should be a priority. So what? This process evaluation provided an overview of

  16. Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Porter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition By Deidre Slattery. Clayton South, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2015. xvii + 302 pp. AU$ 45.00, US$ 35.95. ISBN 978-1-486-30171-3.

  17. Exploring Digital News Publishing Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindskow, Kasper

    . In order to do so, a theoretical model is developed that is suited for the analysis of the strategic design of business models, including the production networks that support them, in the sectors of the economy that are affected by networked informatization in general and in digital news publishing...... of the traditional business models poses an existential threat to news publishing and has given rise to a continuing struggle among news publishers to design digital business models that will be sustainable in the future. This dissertation argues that a central and underresearched aspect of digital news publishing...... business models concerns the production networks that support the co-production of digital news offerings. To fill this knowledge gap, this dissertation explores the strategic design of the digital news publishing production networks that are associated with HTML-based news offerings on the open Web...

  18. Comics, Copyright and Academic Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Deazley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the extent to which UK-based academics can rely upon the copyright regime to reproduce extracts and excerpts from published comics and graphic novels without having to ask the copyright owner of those works for permission. In doing so, it invites readers to engage with a broader debate about the nature, demands and process of academic publishing.

  19. More female patients and fewer stimuli per session are associated with the short-term antidepressant properties of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS: a meta-analysis of 54 sham-controlled studies published between 1997–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedzior KK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Karina Karolina Kedzior,1 Valeriya Azorina,2 Sarah Kim Reitz11School of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, GermanyBackground: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC appears to have short-term antidepressant properties. The aim of the current study was to update our previous meta-analysis and to investigate factors associated with the antidepressant properties of rTMS.Method: Following a systematic literature search conducted in Medline and PsycInfo, N=14 sham-controlled, parallel design studies (published after 2008 to August 2013 that had utilized rTMS of the DLPFC in major depression were included in the current meta-analysis. The sensitivity and moderator analyses also included data from N=40 studies (published in 1997–2008 from our previous meta-analysis. The effect size (Cohen’s d in each study was the standardized difference in mean depression scores (on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale from baseline to final (after last session in rTMS compared to sham groups.Results: According to a random-effects model with inverse-variance weights, depression scores were significantly reduced after rTMS compared to sham in studies published from 2008–2013 based on N=659 patients (overall mean weighted d=–0.42, 95% confidence interval: –0.66, –0.18, P=0.001. Combining studies from our past and current meta-analyses (published in 1997–2013; N=54 revealed that depression was significantly reduced after left-fast (>1 Hz, right-slow (≤1 Hz, and bilateral (or sequential rTMS of DLPFC compared to sham. Significant antidepressant properties of rTMS were observed in studies with patients who were treatment resistant, unipolar (or bipolar, non-psychotic, medication-free (or started on antidepressants concurrently with rTMS. According to univariate meta

  20. The handbook of journal publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Sally; LaFrenier, Douglas; Reich, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The Handbook of Journal Publishing is a comprehensive reference work written by experienced professionals, covering all aspects of journal publishing, both online and in print. Journals are crucial to scholarly communication, but changes in recent years in the way journals are produced, financed, and used make this an especially turbulent and challenging time for journal publishers - and for authors, readers, and librarians. The Handbook offers a thorough guide to the journal publishing process, from editing and production through marketing, sales, and fulfilment, with chapters on management, finances, metrics, copyright, and ethical issues. It provides a wealth of practical tools, including checklists, sample documents, worked examples, alternative scenarios, and extensive lists of resources, which readers can use in their day-to-day work. Between them, the authors have been involved in every aspect of journal publishing over several decades and bring to the text their experience working for a wide range of ...

  1. The Australian Work Exposures Study: Prevalence of Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Si; Carey, Renee N; Reid, Alison; Driscoll, Timothy; Glass, Deborah C; Peters, Susan; Benke, Geza; Darcey, Ellie; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Respirable crystalline silica (RCS) is a biologically active dust that can accumulate in the lung and induce silicosis and lung cancer. Despite occupational exposure being the predominant source, no study has described current occupational RCS exposure on a national scale in Australia. The aim of this study is to estimate the characteristics of those exposed and the circumstances of RCS exposure in Australian workplaces. A cross-sectional survey of the Australian working population (18-65 years old) was conducted. Information about the respondents' current job and their demographic characteristics was collected in a telephone interview. Occupational exposure to RCS was determined based on preprogrammed decision rules regarding potential levels of exposure associated with self-reported tasks. Overall, 6.4% of respondents were deemed exposed to RCS at work in 2012 (3.3% were exposed at a high level). The exposure varied with sex, state of residence, and socioeconomic status. Miners and construction workers were most likely to be highly exposed to RCS when performing tasks with concrete or cement or working near crushers that create RCS-containing dusts. When extrapolated to the entire Australian working population, 6.6% of Australian workers were exposed to RCS and 3.7% were highly exposed when carrying out tasks at work. This is the first study investigating occupational RCS exposure in an entire national working population. The information about occupational tasks that lead to high level RCS exposure provided by this study will inform the direction of occupational interventions and policies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  2. Use of Opioid Analgesics in Older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, Felicity C; Bereznicki, Luke R E; Thompson, Angus J; Peterson, Gregory M

    2015-08-01

    To identify potential medication management issues associated with opioid use in older Australians. Retrospective cross-sectional review of the utilization of analgesics in 19,581 people who underwent a medication review in Australia between 2010 and 2012. Australian residents living in the community deemed at risk for adverse medication outcomes or any resident living fulltime in an aged care facility. Patient characteristics in those taking regularly dosed opioids and not and those taking opioid doses >120 mg and ≤120 mg MEQ/day were compared. Multivariable binary logistic regression was used to analyze the association between regular opioid and high dose opioid usage and key variables. Additionally, medication management issues associated with opioids were identified. Opioids were taken by 31.8% of patients, with 22.1% taking them regularly. Several major medication management issues were identified. There was suboptimal use of multimodal analgesia, particularly a low use of non-opioid analgesics, in patients taking regular opioids. There was extensive use (45%) of concurrent anxiolytics/hypnotics among those taking regular opioid analgesics. Laxative use in those prescribed opioids regularly was low (60%). Additionally, almost 12% of patients were taking doses of opioid that exceeded Australian recommendations. A significant evidence to practice gap exists regarding the use of opioids amongst older Australians. These findings highlight the need for a quick reference guide to support prescribers in making appropriate decisions regarding pain management in older patients with persistent pain. This should also be combined with patient and caregiver education about the importance of regular acetaminophen to manage persistent pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. To Publish or Not to Publish: Some Faculty Choose Not to Publish while Others See Advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Every year, faculty members publish hundreds of thousands of research papers in academic journals at the nation's colleges and universities. Almost none of these papers are written by tribal college and university (TCU) faculty. Is this good for TCU faculty because without the pressure to "publish or perish," they are able to focus entirely on…

  4. Noteworthy Literature Published in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Richard J; Twite, Mark

    2017-03-01

    This article is a review of the literature published during the 12 months of 2016 that are of interest to the congenital cardiac anesthesiologist. Five themes are addressed for 2016, and 53 peer-reviewed articles are discussed.

  5. Printing and Publishing Monitoring Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page covers monitoring information specific to the printing and publishing industry.

  6. Making sense of journal publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert

    1982-10-01

    With cut-backs in library budgets it is hard to understand why new journals continue to appear. Here Robert Campbell discusses the economics of journal publishing and the prognosis for this part of the scientific literature.

  7. THE TYPES OF PUBLISHING SLOGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryzhov Konstantin Germanovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article focuses his attention on publishing slogans which are posted on 100 present-day Russian publishing houses' official websites and have not yet been studied in the special literature. The author has developed his own classification of publishing slogans based on the results of analysis and considering the current scientific views on the classification of slogans. The examined items are classified into autonomous and text-dependent according to interrelationship with an advertising text; marketable, corporative and mixed according to a presentation subject; rational, emotional and complex depending on the method of influence upon a recipient; slogan-presentation, slogan-assurance, slogan-identifier, slogan-appraisal, slogan-appeal depending on the communicative strategy; slogans consisting of one sentence and of two or more sentences; Russian and foreign ones. The analysis of the slogans of all kinds presented in the actual material allowed the author to determine the dominant features of the Russian publishing slogan which is an autonomous sentence in relation to the advertising text. In spite of that, the slogan shows the publishing output, influences the recipient emotionally, actualizes the communicative strategy of publishing house presentation of its distinguishing features, gives assurance to the target audience and distinguishes the advertised subject among competitors.

  8. Embracing Videos in Scholarly Publishing: The IOP Publishing Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Belsole, Elena; Dacey, James P; Navas, John

    2016-01-01

    In scholarly publishing video content has emerged in recent years as a way of conveying results beyond the written article. In 2010 New Journal of Physics started a pilot project on “video abstracts” as a means to innovate and offer authors opportunities to showcase their work. Today other IOP Publishing journals also offer this option to authors. IOP Publishing’s e-book programme also has adopted video abstracts and includes embedded video and multimedia in the e-books them...

  9. The SNP rs961253 in 20p12.3 is associated with colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study and a meta-analysis of the published literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiawen Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs961253 located in 20p12, was firstly described to be associated with the increased risk of CRC in a genome-wide association study; however, more recent replication studies yielded controversial results. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hospital-based case-control study in a Chinese population was firstly performed, and then a meta-analysis combining the current and previously published studies were conducted to explore the real effect of rs961253 in CRC susceptibility. In the Chinese population including 641 cases and 1037 controls, per-A-allele conferred an OR of 1.60 (95% CI = 1.26-2.02 under additive model. In the meta-analysis including 29859 cases and 29696 controls, per-A-allele have an OR of 1.13 (95% CI = 1.09-1.18 under a random-effects model due to heterogeneity (P = 0.019. Nevertheless, the heterogeneity can be totally explained by ethnicity, with the tau(2 reduced to 0 after including ethnicity in meta-regression model. In stratified analysis by ethnicity, per-A-allele had ORs of 1.34 (95% CI = 1.20-1.50 and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08-1.14 for Asian and European, respectively, without heterogeneity. Modest influence of each study was observed on overall estimate in sensitive analysis, and evident tendency to significant association was seen in cumulative analysis over time, together indicating the robust stability of the current results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results from our study and the meta-analysis provided firm evidence that rs961253 significantly contributed to CRC risk in both Asian and European population.

  10. The Community Publishing Project: assisting writers to self-publish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the need for a small project such as the Community Publishing Project in South Africa and explores its aims. The method of involving writers and community groups in the publication process is described and two completed projects are evaluated. Lessons learnt by the Centre for the Book in managing ...

  11. Colonial and post-colonial aspects of Australian identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Bruce; Donoghue, Jed

    2007-06-01

    Since the 1988 Bicentennial and the 2001 centenary of federation celebrations colonial images have flourished in Australia, highlighting the roles of convicts and free settlers during early colonization. Old sites, such as Port Arthur have been re-invigorated, and in 2004 Tasmanians celebrated the bicentenary of 'white' settlement. However, social scientists have given little attention to the role of colonial and post-colonial figures and myths as aspects of Australian national identity. We seek to address this issue by examining how convicts, free settlers, bushrangers and ANZACs are associated with contemporary identity in Australia. We examine evidence from the 2003 Australian Survey of Social Attitudes and find that historical figures such as the ANZACs and post-World War II immigrants comprise important aspects of national identity. A substantial majority of Australians judged ANZACs to be important, countering recent claims of the 'demise of the digger'. Sporting heroes are also at the core of Australian identity. Colonial figures appear to be far less important, although views on national identity vary according to social location. In particular, left-wing, university educated, younger, postmaterialist Australians view convicts and bushrangers as relatively important, indicating the salience of the larrikin in Australian identity.

  12. Publishing protocols for partnered research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Woodard, LeChauncy; Garvin, Jennifer H; Murawsky, Jeffrey; Petersen, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Published scientific protocols are advocated as a means of controlling bias in research reporting. Indeed, many journals require a study protocol with manuscript submission. However, publishing protocols of partnered research (PPR) can be challenging in light of the research model's dynamic nature, especially as no current reporting standards exist. Nevertheless, as these protocols become more prevalent, a priori documentation of methods in partnered research studies becomes increasingly important. Using as illustration a suite of studies aimed at improving coordination and communication in the primary care setting, we sought to identify challenges in publishing PPR relative to traditional designs, present alternative solutions to PPR publication, and propose an initial checklist of content to be included in protocols of partnered research. Challenges to publishing PPR include reporting details of research components intended to be co-created with operational partners, changes to sampling and entry strategy, and alignment of scientific and operational goals. Proposed solutions include emulating reporting standards of qualitative research, participatory action research, and adaptive trial designs, as well as embracing technological tools that facilitate publishing adaptive protocols, with version histories that are able to be updated as major protocol changes occur. Finally, we present a proposed checklist of reporting elements for partnered research protocols.

  13. Is there an Australian Pastoral Poetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Taylor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral was common as a European literary genre from the Renaissance until the eighteenth century. It existed in other artistic forms as well, especially in the visual arts, and after its demise as a distinct genre elements of it persisted into the twentieth century, for example in music. With the colonial spread of European culture the pastoral influence also extended into other countries, with a mixed fate. Recently, the term Pastoral has come back into prominence in literature in English, not only in Great Britain but also, notably in the USA and Australia, with the growth of writing motivated by ecological involvement with the natural world, especially landscape. This has led to re-definitions of the term Pastoral in the last few decades. A number of Australian poets are looked at to see whether, and how, their writing about landscape might relate to, or incorporate elements of the Pastoral. The Australian poet John Kinsella, in particular, has been a widely published spokesperson for a new definition of Pastoral. His published works trace his move from a politically activist anti-colonialist redefinition of Pastoral towards a quieter, more harmonious, and essentially ethical engagement with the natural world.

  14. Web publishing today and tomorrow

    CERN Document Server

    Lie, Hakon W

    1999-01-01

    The three lectures will give participants the grand tour of the Web as we know it today, as well as peeks into the past and the future. Many three-letter acronyms will be expanded, and an overview will be provided to see how the various specifications work together. Web publishing is the common theme throughout the lectures and in the second lecture, special emphasis will be given to data formats for publishing, including HTML, XML, MathML and SMIL. In the last lectures, automatic document manipulation and presentation will be discussed, including CSS, DOM and XTL.

  15. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  16. The carbon footprint of Australian ambulance operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence H; Canyon, Deon V; Buettner, Petra G; Crawford, J Mac; Judd, Jenni

    2012-12-01

    To determine the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy consumption of Australian ambulance operations, and to identify the predominant energy sources that contribute to those emissions. A two-phase study of operational and financial data from a convenience sample of Australian ambulance operations to inventory their energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for 1 year. State- and territory-based ambulance systems serving 58% of Australia's population and performing 59% of Australia's ambulance responses provided data for the study. Emissions for the participating systems totalled 67 390 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents. For ground ambulance operations, emissions averaged 22 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents per ambulance response, 30 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents per patient transport and 3 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents per capita. Vehicle fuels accounted for 58% of the emissions from ground ambulance operations, with the remainder primarily attributable to electricity consumption. Emissions from air ambulance transport were nearly 200 times those for ground ambulance transport. On a national level, emissions from Australian ambulance operations are estimated to be between 110 000 and 120 000 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents each year. Vehicle fuels are the primary source of emissions for ground ambulance operations. Emissions from air ambulance transport are substantially higher than those for ground ambulance transport. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  17. Current dynamics of scholarly publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, Gloria; Ramello, Giovanni B

    2015-02-01

    Scholarly publishing is an essential vehicle for actively participating in the scientific debate and for sustaining the invisible colleges of the modern research environment, which extend far beyond the borders of individual research institutions. However, its current dynamics have deeply transformed the scientific life and conditioned in new ways the economics of academic knowledge production. They have also challenged the perceived common sense view of scientific research. Analytical approach to set out a comprehensive framework on the current debate on scholarly publishing and to shed light on the peculiar organization and the working of this peculiar productive sector. The way in which scientific knowledge is produced and transmitted has been dramatically affected by the series of recent major technosocietal transformations. Although the effects are many, in particular the current overlap and interplay between two distinct and somewhat opposite stances-scientific and economic-tend to blur the overall understanding of what scholarly publishing is and produces distortion on its working which in turn affect the scientific activities. The outcome is thus a series of intended and unintended effects on the production and dissemination of scientific knowledge. The article suggests that a substantial transformation characterizes science today that seems more like a thrusting, entrepreneurial business than a contemplative, disinterested endeavor. In this essay, we provide a general overview of the pivotal role of the scholarly publishing in fostering this change and its pros and cons connected to the idiosyncratic interplay between social norms and market stances. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Balancing Author and Publisher Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Suber, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As open access gains momentum, more and more scholarly authors are trying to retain the rights they need to authorize open access. At the same time, many publishers continue to demand transfer of copyright and resist author demands to retain key rights. This article explores the possibility of a balance which gives each side the rights it needs.

  19. Getting Published: An Author's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkent, Lucia P.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the process of turning a manuscript into a published book for the Canadian English-as-a-second-language market, offering information on such topics as working with a co-author, class-testing, manuscript preparation, deadlines, contracts, the production process, and post-production responsibilities. (Author/CB)

  20. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological distress in farmers. Trial

  1. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoombe Scott

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological

  2. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, Susan; Chandrasekara, Ananda; McCoombe, Scott; Kremer, Peter; Lewandowski, Paul

    2011-03-30

    Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. IMPLICATIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS TESTED: Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological distress in farmers. ACTRN12610000827033.

  3. Australians as International Student/span>s--Where They Go, What They Do and Why They Do It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Current published information on the Australian student mobility offshore is reviewed as part of a long-term project aiming to determine the current propensity of Australian higher education students to study overseas and the return on investment that they can expect to achieve. It was found that limited data are available on the current extent of…

  4. The Impact of Collegiality amongst Australian Accounting Academics on Work-Related Attitudes and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Sophia; Baird, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an insight into the collegiality of Australian accounting academics and the association of collegiality with their work-related attitudes and academic performance. Data were collected by a survey questionnaire from a random sample of 267 accounting academics within Australian universities. The results suggest a moderate level…

  5. A short history of the Australian Society of Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennison, Linda

    2013-04-01

    In 1955 a resolution, "that the Australian Society of Soil Science be inaugurated as from this meeting" was recorded in Melbourne Australia. The following year in Queensland, the first official meeting of the Society took place with a Federal Executive and Presidents from the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australian and Victorian branches forming the Federal Council. In later years the executive expanded with the addition of the Western Australia branch in 1957, the Riverina Branch in 1962 and most recently the Tasmania Branch in 2008. The objects of the Society were 1) the advancement of soil science and studies therein with particular reference to Australia and 2) to provide a link between soil scientists and kindred bodies within Australia and between them and other similar organisations in other countries. Membership was restricted to persons engaged in the scientific study of the soil and has grown steadily from to 147 members in 1957 to 875 members in 2012. The first issue of the Society newsletter, Soils News, was published in January 1957 and continued to be published twice yearly until 1996. A name change to Profile and an increase to quarterly publication occurred in 1997; circulation remained restricted to members. The Publications Committee in 1968 determined the Publication Series would be the medium for occasional technical papers, reviews and reports but not research papers and in 1962 the Australian Journal of Soil Research was established by CSIRO in response to continued representations from the Society. By 1960 a draft constitution was circulated to, and adopted by members. The first honorary life membership of the Society was awarded to Dr. J A Prescott. Honorary memberships are still awarded for service to the Society and to soil science and are capped at 25. In 1964 the ISSS awarded honorary membership to Dr. Prescott. Now known as IUSS Honorary members other Australians recognised have been EG Hallsworth

  6. Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity But Not Sedentary Time Is Associated With Musculoskeletal Health Outcomes in a Cohort of Australian Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feitong; Wills, Karen; Laslett, Laura L; Oldenburg, Brian; Jones, Graeme; Winzenberg, Tania

    2017-04-01

    Associations between physical activity and time spent sedentary and musculoskeletal outcomes remain unclear in middle-aged adults. This study aimed to describe associations between objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary time and musculoskeletal health outcomes in middle-aged women. This cross-sectional study from a population-based sample of 309 women (age 36 to 57 years) examined associations of total physical activity (accelerometer counts/min of wear time), and time spent sedentary, in light physical activities and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (MVPA) (by Actigraph GT1M accelerometer) with lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD) (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), lower limb muscle strength (LMS), and functional mobility and balance tests (timed up and go test [TUG], functional reach test [FRT], lateral reach test [LRT], and step test [ST]) using linear regression. Total physical activity was beneficially associated with FN BMD (values are β; 95% CI) (0.011 g/cm(2) ; 95% CI, 0.003 to 0.019 g/cm(2) ), LMS (2.13 kg; 95% CI, 0.21 to 4.06 kg), and TUG (-0.080 s; 95% CI, -0.129 to -0.030 s), after adjustment for confounders. MVPA was also beneficially associated with FN BMD (0.0050 g/cm(2) ; 95% CI, 0.0007 to 0.0094 g/cm(2) ), LMS (1.48 kg; 95% CI, 0.45 to 2.52 kg), ST (0.12 steps; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.23 steps), and TUG (-0.043 s; 95% CI, -0.070 to -0.016 s). Associations between MVPA and LMS, TUG and ST persisted after further adjustment for sedentary time. Only TUG was associated with sedentary time, with a detrimental effect (0.075 s; 95% CI, 0.013 to 0.137 s) and this did not persist after further adjustment for MVPA. Light physical activity was not associated with any outcome. MVPA appears more important than light physical activity or sedentary time for many musculoskeletal outcomes in middle-aged women. This needs to be considered when developing interventions to improve habitual

  7. Trypanosomiasis in an Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, J T; Stenner, R; Gillett, A K; Barbosa, A; Ryan, U; Irwin, P J

    2017-07-01

    An adult female Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus) presented with icterus and anaemia. Examination of a blood smear revealed numerous trypanosomes 20.4-30.8 µm long with tapered ends. Necropsy and histological findings were consistent with trypanosome infection of lymphoid tissue and intravascular haemolysis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated this trypanosome species to be genetically distinct and most similar to Trypanosoma minasense and Trypanosoma rangeli (with a genetic distance of 1% at the 18S rRNA locus for both). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a trypanosome infection associated with clinical disease in bats. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Critical appraisal of published literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goneppanavar Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader′s work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice.

  9. From protocol to published report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Louise; Callréus, Torbjörn; Petersen, Lene Grejs

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unacknowledged inconsistencies in the reporting of clinical trials undermine the validity of the results of the trials. Little is known about inconsistency in the reporting of academic clinical drug trials. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of consistency between protocols...... and published reports of academic clinical drug trials. METHODS: A comparison was made between study protocols and their corresponding published reports. We assessed the overall consistency, which was defined as the absence of discrepancy regarding study type (categorized as either exploratory or confirmatory......), primary objective, primary endpoint, and--for confirmatory trials only--hypothesis and sample size calculation. We used logistic regression, χ(2), and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: A total of 282 applications of academic clinical drug trials were submitted to the Danish Health and Medicines Authority...

  10. The Contribution of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association towards Developing Talent in Australian 12-Year-Old Female Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that inquired into the influence of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association competitive swimming structure on the development of talented 12-year old female swimmers. The study focused on ten 12-year old girls in the New South Wales team that contested the 2009 national swimming championships…

  11. Mapping a Memoir within Australian Landscapes: Shirley Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moreno Álvarez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shirley Walker (1927, retired Senior Lecturer in English from the University of New England at Armidale, where she taught Australian Literature, decided to try her own hand at writing a memoir. The result is Roundabout at Bangalow: An Intimate Chronicle (2001, which is her account of growing up in the Northern Rivers area of New South Wales in Australia. The author has also published numerous critical articles on Australian Literature, commenting thoroughly on the work of Mary Gilmore (1865- 1962, Judith Wright (1915-2000 and Dorothy Hewett (1923-2002. Walker has also published The Ghost at the Wedding (2009 based on the life of Walker’s mother in law, a woman whose life was largely shaped by war, and who, in 1918 near the end of WW1, married a returned soldier. This biography, which was awarded the Asher Literary Prize (2009 and the Nita B Kibble Award (2010, Australia’s premier award for women’s writing, has been described as a major work of Australian literature and a major contribution to Australian history. The present article focuses on Roundabout at Bangalow: An Intimate Chronicle, where Walker narrates the complicated and, sometimes, blurred resonances of her “half-a-lifetime” memoir. This work exemplifies how Walker is deeply concerned with the unreliability of memory and the way it can exaggerate grievances or distort past perceptions, unloosing itself from historical and geographical truth and adopting first and foremost a primal function in the formation of identities.

  12. Diet quality of Australian breast cancer survivors: a cross-sectional analysis from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J L; Collins, C E; Brown, L J; Hure, A J

    2014-12-01

    Evidence supports strong associations between healthful eating patterns and maintaining a healthy weight with favourable health outcomes for breast cancer survivors (BCS). The present study aimed to evaluate the diet quality of Australian BCS and to determine whether diet quality differed between BCS and age-matched healthy controls (HC) or by geographical location. This cross-sectional study included 281 BCS and 4069 HC from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health mid-aged cohort completing Survey 3 in 2001. Data from the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies food frequency questionnaire were used to calculate the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), a validated summary estimate of diet quality based on adherence to the Australian dietary guidelines. The mean (SD) ARFS of the BCS group was 33.2 (9.4) out of a maximum of 74. Mean (SD) total ARFS and component scores of BCS did not differ from the HC group [32.9 (8.7)] and no differences were found in ARFS between urban and rural BCS. This is the first study dedicated exclusively to describing the diet quality of Australian BCS. Although no difference was found when comparisons were made with a HC group, there is considerable room for improvement in the diet quality of Australian BCS. Given research suggesting higher risk of chronic conditions such as obesity amongst BCS, and the recognition of optimising diet quality as a key factor in health promotion for all population groups, data from the present study suggest the need for research targeting the feasibility and impact of improving diet quality of Australian BCS. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Associations between body mass index, lean and fat body mass and bone mineral density in middle-aged Australians: The Busselton Healthy Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kun; Hunter, Michael; James, Alan; Lim, Ee Mun; Walsh, John P

    2015-05-01

    Low BMI is a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is not clear if relationships between BMI, lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM) and BMD are consistent across different levels of BMI. We studied 1929 Caucasian participants (1014 females) aged 45-66years in the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study in Western Australia. Body composition and BMD of total body, lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck were measured using DXA. From generalized additive models, the positive relationships between BMI and BMD were weaker at high BMI, particularly at the spine and in males. In the entire cohort, adjusting for relevant covariates, LM and FM were significant predictors of all BMD measures in both genders. In men, analysis by tertiles of BMI showed that LM and FM (in kg) were positively associated with BMD (in mg/cm(2)) in tertile 1 except for LM and spine BMD (LM β: 5.18-6.80, FM β: 3.38-9.24, all PFM β: -4.75-1.82, P>0.05). In women, LM was positively associated with BMD in each tertile of BMI, except for spine BMD in the upper tertile, with regression coefficients lower in the upper tertile (β: 5.16-9.95, 5.76-9.56 and 2.80-5.78, respectively, all PFM was positively associated with total body, spine and total hip BMD in women in BMI tertile 1 (β: 2.86-6.68, P<0.05); these associations were weaker or absent in the middle and upper tertiles. In conclusion, in middle-aged adults the positive relationships between lean or fat mass with BMD among those with higher BMI are absent in males and weaker in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Whole genome sequence analysis of the first Australian OXA-48-producing outbreak-associated Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates: the resistome and in vivo evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn A Espedido

    Full Text Available Whole genome sequencing was used to characterize the resistome of intensive care unit (ICU outbreak-associated carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates. Importantly, and of particular concern, the carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamase gene bla(OXA-48 and the extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene bla(CTX-M-14, were identified on a single broad host-range conjugative plasmid. This represents the first report of bla(OXA-48 in Australia and highlights the importance of resistance gene surveillance, as such plasmids can silently spread amongst enterobacterial populations and have the potential to drastically limit treatment options. Furthermore, the in vivo evolution of these isolates was also examined after 18 months of intra-abdominal carriage in a patient that transited through the ICU during the outbreak period. Reflecting the clonality of K. pneumoniae, only 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were accumulated during this time-period and many of these were associated with genes involved in tolerance/resistance to antibiotics, metals or organic solvents, and transcriptional regulation. Collectively, these SNPs are likely to be associated with changes in virulence (at least to some extent that have refined the in vivo colonization capacity of the original outbreak isolate.

  15. The Australian cerebral palsy research study--protocol for a national collaborative study investigating genomic and clinical associations with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Michael E; MacLennan, Alastair H; Gibson, Catherine S; McMichael, Gai L; Haan, Eric A; Broadbent, Jessica; Priest, Kevin; Goldwater, Paul N; Dekker, Gustaaf A

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have proposed a link between the presence of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cerebral palsy and the majority of these associations remain to be confirmed or rejected by prospective studies with sufficient statistical power. Prior studies have also given little attention to the interaction of genomic characteristics and clinical risk factors. This paper describes the design of a prospective case-control study to test these genetic associations in conjunction with more stringent data collection in respect to clinical features associated with pregnancy, particularly maternal infection. Here we consider the ethical requirements, our hypothesis that genetic susceptibility modifies the risk of cerebral palsy in the presence of perinatal environmental triggers, a priori primary and secondary aims, power calculations, participant recruitment strategies, data linkage, sampling methods of genetic material and subsequent SNP analysis, collection of clinical data and the proposed final statistical analysis. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Oral health of community-dwelling older Australian men: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Fac; Chu, Sk-Y; Milledge, K L; Valdez, E; Law, G; Hsu, B; Naganathan, V; Hirani, V; Blyth, F M; Le Couteur, D G; Harford, J; Waite, L M; Handelsman, D J; Seibel, M J; Cumming, R G

    2017-08-29

    The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) is a cohort study of the health of a representative sample of Australian men aged 70 years and older. The aim of this report is to describe the oral health of these men. Oral health was assessed when the men were all aged 78 years or older. Two calibrated examiners conducted a standardized intraoral assessment. Descriptive data were analysed by statistical association tests. Participants were excluded from the collection of some periodontal assessments if they had a medical contraindication. Dental assessments of 614 participants revealed 90 (14.6%) were edentate. Men had a mean of 13.8 missing teeth and 10.3 filled teeth. Dentate participants had a mean of 1.1 teeth with active coronal decay. Those in the low-income group had a higher rate of decayed teeth and lower rate of filled teeth. Thirty-four participants (5.5%) had one or more dental implants, and 66.3% relied on substitute natural teeth for functional occlusion. Of those with full periodontal assessments; 90.9% had sites with pocket depths of 3 mm or more, 96.6% had sites with CAL of 5 mm or more, and 79.7% had three or more sites with GI scores of 2 or more. There was a high prevalence of periodontal diseases and restorative burden of dentitions, which suggests that greater attention needs to be given to prevention and health maintenance in older Australian men. © 2017 The Authors. Australian Dental Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Dental Association.

  17. Open access to scientific publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Beate Reitan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in open access (OA to scientific publications is steadily increasing, both in Norway and internationally. From the outset, FORMakademisk has been published as a digital journal, and it was one of the first to offer OA in Norway. We have since the beginning used Open Journal Systems (OJS as publishing software. OJS is part of the Public Knowledge Project (PKP, which was created by Canadian John Willinsky and colleagues at the Faculty of Education at the University of British Columbia in 1998. The first version of OJS came as an open source software in 2001. The programme is free for everyone to use and is part of a larger collective movement wherein knowledge is shared. When FORMakademisk started in 2008, we received much help from the journal Acta Didactic (n.d. at the University of Oslo, which had started the year before us. They had also translated the programme to Norwegian. From the start, we were able to publish in both Norwegian and English. Other journals have used FORMakademisk as a model and source of inspiration when starting or when converting from subscription-based print journals to electronic OA, including the Journal of Norwegian Media Researchers [Norsk medietidsskrift]. It is in this way that the movement around PKP works and continues to grow to provide free access to research. As the articles are OA, they are also easily accessible to non-scientists. We also emphasise that the language should be readily available, although it should maintain a high scientific quality. Often there may be two sides of the same coin. We on the editorial team are now looking forward to adopting the newly developed OJS 3 this spring, with many new features and an improved design for users, including authors, peer reviewers, editors and readers.

  18. Associations between compensable injury, perceived fault and pain and disability 1 year after injury: a registry-based Australian cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J; Baker, Katharine S; Ioannou, Liane; Gwini, Stella M; Gibson, Stephen J; Arnold, Carolyn A; Ponsford, Jennie; Cameron, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Compensable injury increases the likelihood of having persistent pain after injury. Three-quarters of patients report chronic pain after traumatic injury, which is disabling for about one-third of patients. It is important to understand why these patients report disabling pain, in order to develop targeted preventative interventions. This study examined the experience of pain and disability, and investigated their sequential interrelationships with, catastrophising, kinesiophobia and self-efficacy 1 year after compensable and non-compensable injury. Design Observational registry-based cohort study. Setting Metropolitan Trauma Service in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Participants Participants were recruited from the Victorian State Trauma Registry and Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry. 732 patients were referred to the study, 82 could not be contacted or were ineligible, 217 declined and 433 participated (66.6% response rate). Outcome measures The Brief Pain Inventory, Glasgow Outcome Scale, EuroQol Five Dimensions questionnaire, Pain Catastrophising Scale, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Injustice Experience Questionnaire and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia. Methods Direct and indirect relationships (via psychological appraisals of pain/injury) between baseline characteristics (compensation, fault and injury characteristics) and pain severity, pain interference, health status and disability were examined with ordinal, linear and logistic regression, and mediation analyses. Results Injury severity, compensable injury and external fault attribution were consistently associated with moderate-to-severe pain, higher pain interference, poorer health status and moderate-to-severe disability. The association between compensable injury, or external fault attribution, and disability and health outcomes was mediated via pain self-efficacy and perceived injustice. Conclusions Given that the associations between compensable injury, pain and

  19. Is Neighborhood Green Space Protective against Associations between Child Asthma, Neighborhood Traffic Volume and Perceived Lack of Area Safety? Multilevel Analysis of 4447 Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Feng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy traffic is a source of air pollution and a safety concern with important public health implications. We investigated whether green space lowers child asthma risk by buffering the effects of heavy traffic and a lack of neighborhood safety. Multilevel models were used to analyze affirmative asthma cases in nationally representative cross-sectional data from 4447 children aged 6–7 years old in Australia. Case-finding was based upon a triangulation of affirmative responses to three questions on doctor-diagnosed asthma, asthma-related medications and illness with wheezing lasting for at least 1 week within the 12 months prior. Among children considered to be exposed to high traffic volumes and areas with 0 to 20% green space quantity, the odds ratio of affirmative asthma was 1.87 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.55. However, the association between heavy traffic and asthma was significantly lower for participants living in areas with over 40% green space coverage (odds ratio for interaction 0.32, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.84. No association between affirmative asthma and green space coverage was observed for participants not exposed to heavy traffic, nor for the area safety variable. Protecting existing and investing in new green space may help to promote child respiratory health through the buffering of traffic-related air pollution.

  20. Is Neighborhood Green Space Protective against Associations between Child Asthma, Neighborhood Traffic Volume and Perceived Lack of Area Safety? Multilevel Analysis of 4447 Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2017-05-19

    Heavy traffic is a source of air pollution and a safety concern with important public health implications. We investigated whether green space lowers child asthma risk by buffering the effects of heavy traffic and a lack of neighborhood safety. Multilevel models were used to analyze affirmative asthma cases in nationally representative cross-sectional data from 4447 children aged 6-7 years old in Australia. Case-finding was based upon a triangulation of affirmative responses to three questions on doctor-diagnosed asthma, asthma-related medications and illness with wheezing lasting for at least 1 week within the 12 months prior. Among children considered to be exposed to high traffic volumes and areas with 0 to 20% green space quantity, the odds ratio of affirmative asthma was 1.87 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.55). However, the association between heavy traffic and asthma was significantly lower for participants living in areas with over 40% green space coverage (odds ratio for interaction 0.32, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.84). No association between affirmative asthma and green space coverage was observed for participants not exposed to heavy traffic, nor for the area safety variable. Protecting existing and investing in new green space may help to promote child respiratory health through the buffering of traffic-related air pollution.

  1. Investigating the association between weather conditions, calendar events and socio-economic patterns with trends in fire incidence: an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jonathan; Higgs, Gary; Rohde, David; Chhetri, Prem

    2011-06-01

    Fires in urban areas can cause significant economic, physical and psychological damage. Despite this, there has been a comparative lack of research into the spatial and temporal analysis of fire incidence in urban contexts. In this paper, we redress this gap through an exploration of the association of fire incidence to weather, calendar events and socio-economic characteristics in South-East Queensland, Australia using innovative technique termed the quad plot. Analysing trends in five fire incident types, including malicious false alarms (hoax calls), residential buildings, secondary (outdoor), vehicle and suspicious fires, results suggest that risk associated with all is greatly increased during school holidays and during long weekends. For all fire types the lowest risk of incidence was found to occur between one and six a.m. It was also found that there was a higher fire incidence in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods and there was some evidence to suggest that there may be a compounding impact of high temperatures in such areas. We suggest that these findings may be used to guide the operations of fire services through spatial and temporal targeting to better utilise finite resources, help mitigate risk and reduce casualties.

  2. What are talent scouts actually identifying? Investigating the physical and technical skill match activity profiles of drafted and non-drafted U18 Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Joyce, Christopher; Robertson, Sam

    2016-05-01

    To compare the physical and technical skill match activity profiles of drafted and non-drafted under 18 Australian football players. Cross-sectional observational. In-game physical and skill variables were assessed for under 18 Australian football players participating within the 2013 and 2014 National under 18 Australian Football League Championships. Players originated from one State Academy (n=55). Ten games were analysed; resulting in 183 observations. Players were sub-divided into two groups; drafted/non-drafted. Microtechnology and a commercial statistical provider allowed the quantification of total distance (m), relative distance (mmin(-1)), high speed running distance (>15kmh(-1)), high speed running expressed as a percentage of total distance (% total), total disposals, marks, contested possessions, uncontested possessions, inside 50s and rebound 50s (n=10). The effect size (d) of draft outcome on these criterion variables was calculated, with generalised estimating equations (GEE's) used to model which of these criterion variables was associated with draft outcome. Contested possessions and inside 50s reflected large effect size differences between groups (d=1.01, d=0.92, respectively). The GEE models revealed contested possessions as the strongest predictor of draft outcome, with inside 50s being the second. Comparatively, the remaining criterion variables were not predictive of draft outcome. Contested possessions and inside 50s are the most influential in-game variables associated with draft outcome for West Australian players competing within the National under 18 Australian Football League Championships. Technically skilled players who win contested possessions and deliver the ball inside 50 may be advantageously positioned for draft success. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. E-publishing and multimodalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the literature of e-publishing there has been a consistent call from the advent of e-publishing on, until now, to explore new ways of expressing ideas through the new media. It has been claimed that the Internet opens an alley of possibilities and opportunites for publishing that will change the ways of publishing once and for all. In the area of publication of e-journals, however, the call for changes has received very modest responds.The thing is, it appears, that the conventional paper journal has a solid grip on the accepted formats of publishing. In a published research paper Mayernik (2007 explaines some of the reasons for that. Although pioneers of e-publishing suggested various areas where academic publishing could be expanded on, the opportunities given are scarsely used. Mayernik outlines "Non-linearity", "Multimedia", "Multiple use", "Interactivity" and "Rapid Publication" as areas of expansion for the academic e-journal. (2007. The paper deserves a thorough reading in itself, and I will briefly quote from his conclusion: "It is likely that the traditional linear article will continue to be the prevalent format for scholarly journals, both print and electronic, for the foreseeable future, and while electronic features will garner more and more use as technology improves, they will continue to be used to supplement, and not supplant, the traditional article."This is a challenging situation. If we accept the present dominant style of presenting scientific literature, we would use our energy best in seeking a way of improving the efficiency of that communication style. The use of multimedia, non-linearity etc. would perfect the present state, but still keep the scientific article as the main template. It is very unlikely that scientific publication will substitute the scholarly article with unproven alternatives. What we face is a rather conservative style of remediation that blurs the impact of the new media, - or "transparency" if

  4. General practitioners' views on perceived and actual gains, benefits and barriers associated with the implementation of an Australian health assessment for people with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, N G; Brolan, C E; Dean, J; Ware, R S; Boyle, F M; Taylor Gomez, M; van Dooren, K; Bain, C

    2013-10-01

    Health assessments for people with intellectual disability have been implemented in the UK, New Zealand and Australia, and have led to improved health outcomes. The Comprehensive Health Assessment Program (CHAP) has been shown to improve the health of people with intellectual disability. Similar to other health assessments, it is designed to address healthcare needs, many of which are often overlooked in this population, through better communication between the general practitioner (GP), support worker and the person with intellectual disability. This study investigates GP views of the perceived and actual benefits, gains and barriers associated with its uptake and use in practice. As part of a larger randomised controlled trial of the CHAP, 46 GPs in Queensland, Australia, completed two telephone interviews that included open-ended questions about their perceptions of the health assessment. The GPs were enrolled in the intervention arm of the trial. Interviews took place at commencement and conclusion of the trial to gain the views of GPs as they experienced using the CHAP. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes and patterns from the GP responses. Four themes were identified: better healthcare and uncertain benefits captured GP perceptions of the potential gains associated with use of the CHAP, while two further themes, organisational barriers in the general practice setting and engagement across the healthcare triad highlighted strengths and barriers related to implementation. Anticipated concerns about time raised by GPs at commencement of the trial were borne out in practice, but concerns about communication and cooperation of people with disabilities were not. Matters associated with support worker engagement emerged as an area of concern. GPs perceive the CHAP as a structured and comprehensive approach to the detection of medical problems as well as an aid in overcoming communication barriers between the doctor and the person with disability. Our

  5. Infective endocarditis prophylaxis and the current AHA, BSAC, NICE and Australian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Naomi; Rogers, Seamus; Ryan, David; Healy, Claire; Flint, Stephen

    The latest guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) 2007, the Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA) 2008, the Australian Prevention of Endocarditis Guidelines 2008, the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) 2006, and the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) 2008 were reviewed for this article. As a result of recent literature reviews by the AHA and NICE committees, both groups made recommendations regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for dental treatment. While both agree that the benefit of prophylaxis for dental treatment is unproven, the NICE committee has recommended no antibiotic cover for any patients previously classified as 'at risk' of infective endocarditis (IE), while the AHA has recommended cover only for patients deemed to be at high risk of developing IE and with the poorest outcome in the event of IE development. The BSAC guidelines and the recently published Australian Therapeutic Guidelines on Prevention of Endocarditis 2008 fall broadly into line with the AHA guidelines. This paper will review all the separate guidelines and advocate a regimen for treating at-risk patients.

  6. Cohort Profile: The Australian Parental Supply of Alcohol Longitudinal Study (APSALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Alexandra; Wadolowski, Monika; Bruno, Raimondo; Najman, Jackob; Kypri, Kypros; Slade, Tim; Hutchinson, Delyse; McBride, Nyanda; Mattick, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    The Australian Parental Supply of Alcohol Longitudinal Study (APSALS) was established in 2010 to investigate the short- and long-term associations between exposure to early parental alcohol provision, early adolescent alcohol initiation, subsequent alcohol use and alcohol-related harms, controlling for a wide range of parental, child, familial, peer and contextual covariates. The cohort commenced with 1927 parent-child dyads comprising Australian Grade 7 school students (mean age = 12.9 years, range = 10.8-15.7 years), and a parent/guardian. Baseline, 1- and 2-year follow-up data have been collected, with > 90% retention, and a 3-year follow-up is under way. The data collected include child, familial, parental and peer factors addressing demographics, alcohol use and supply, parenting practices, other substance use, adolescent behaviours and peer influences. The cohort is ideal for prospectively examining predictors of initiation and progression of alcohol use, which increases markedly through adolescence. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  7. Publishing corruption discussion: predatory journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James W; McCullough, Laurence B

    2014-02-01

    Dr Spock is a brilliant young vascular surgeon who is up for tenure next year. He has been warned by the chair of surgery that he needs to increase his list of publications to assure passage. He has recently had a paper reviewed by one of the top journals in his specialty, Journal X-special, with several suggestions for revision. He received an e-mail request for manuscript submission from a newly minted, open access, Journal of Vascular Disease Therapy, which promises a quick and likely favorable response for a fee. What should be done? A. Send the paper to another peer reviewed journal with the suggested revisions. B. Resubmit the paper to Journal X-special. C. Submit to the online journal as is to save time. D. Submit to the online journal and another regular journal. E. Look for another job. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Published papers on telepathology projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrieh Hajesmaeel-Gohari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although many studies have been conducted in the telepathology field in recent years, a systematic review that examines studies in a comparative manner has not yet been undertaken. This paper aims to review the published papers on telepathology projects and compare them in several aspects such as telepathology method,telecommunication method, clinical outcome, etc. Method: This is a systematic review study. PubMed database was used to find the studies published in the past ten years (2004–2014. The 71 final related papers were evaluated. Data were extracted from these studies based on the following items: country, national (in country or international (between countries, frozen section or slide, body part, type of camera used, telecommunication method, telepathology method, clinical outcome, cost evaluation, satisfaction evaluation and the description of consultation providers and receivers. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis. Results: Results showed that most of the studies were performed in developed countries on a national level, on slide and on a specific body part. In most studies, a Nikon camera was used to take images. Online methods were the most used telecommunication method in the studies, while store and forward was the most used telepathology method. Clinical outcome of many studies showed that telepathology is a reliable and accurate method for consultation. More than half of the studies considered the cost, and most of them showed that a telepathology system is cost effective. Few studies evaluated satisfaction of the participants. In most studies, the telepathology project was undertaken between pathologists. Conclusion: Although there is enough evidence to suggest that telepathology is an effective way of consultation between pathologists, there are still some areas that should be addressed and for which there is a lack of convincing evidence. For example, pathologist satisfaction, cost evaluation

  9. ETHICAL ISSUES IN MEDICAL PUBLISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Zwitter

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medical publishing has a key role in guidance of medical practice and research. It is essential to avoid systematic biases on all steps from formulating a research proposal to the editorial evaluation of a submitted manuscript. With this in mind, we will attempt to assess the responsibilities of the five key persons: sponsor, clinical investigator, author, editor, and reviewer.Sponsor. To an increasing degree, pharmaceutical companies and other commercial sponsors initiate, support, and define priorities of clinical research. To avoid a systematic bias, a substantial proportion of medical research should be supported through public resources.Clinical investigator. Since patients’ autonomy is rarely complete, formal adherence to ethical codes is not enough. In addition to patients in research who are often offered substantial benefits, attention should be paid also to patients not included in research who may be discriminated.Author. The author is the one who is most often responsible for delayed or missing publication of results of a negative trial. The author should respect rules for co-authorship, be honest presentation of results, and retain an appropriate degree of scientific scepticism.Editor. The editorial work is time-consuming and should be paid. In order to avoid bias against publication of negative trials, we propose a special category of short reports not included in the assessment of impact factor of a journal.Reviewer. Due to annonymity, reviewers have little interest and do not feel responsible for their work. For the accepted papers, we propose to publish the name of the reviewer, along with an optional short comment.

  10. Cumulative risks and cessation of exclusive breast feeding: Australian cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayton, Jennifer; van der Mei, Ingrid; Wills, Karen; Hansen, Emily; Nelson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of cessation of exclusive breast feeding at each month up to 6 months and document key factors and cumulative risks associated with exclusive breastfeeding cessation for children aged from 0 to 6 months. Secondary analysis using a national representative sample of 22 202 mother and infant pairs derived from the 2010 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare cross-sectional survey, the Australian Infant Feeding Survey. Among breastfed infants, 49% had ceased exclusive breast feeding before they had reached 2 months of age. In the final Cox proportional hazards model, cessation of exclusive breast feeding was most strongly associated with partners preferring bottle feeding (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.69 to 20.6) or having no preference (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.42), regular dummy use (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.39) and maternal obesity (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.35). Living within the most disadvantaged areas of Australia (quintile 1) was not strongly associated with cessation (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14) compared with least disadvantaged areas. Having three risk factors significantly increased the risk of cessation by 31% (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.6). The prevalence of early cessation of exclusive breast feeding is alarmingly high with 50% of infants no longer exclusively breast fed by age 2 months. Given that not one factor is associated with cessation of exclusive breast feeding, the greatest public health impact is likely to be achieved when multiple risk factors are modified or prevented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit study of haemoglobinopathies in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Elizabeth; Emder, Phillip; Monagle, Paul; Mowat, David; Petterson, Toni; Russell, Susan; Sachdev, Rani; Stone, Christine; Ziegler, David S

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and types of haemoglobinopathies in Australian children and their distribution among ethnic groups, and to collect information on timing of diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies in Australia. Between January 2004 and March 2006, the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit asked paediatricians to report all children under 15 years of age with a newly diagnosed haemoglobinopathy. A questionnaire requesting further information was forwarded to those clinicians. Carrier states such as thalassaemia minor were excluded. Eighty-four notifications of haemoglobinopathy were received by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit, with 59 confirmed cases giving a national incidence of 0.74 per 100,000 children < 15 years of age per annum. Of 59 cases, 42 (71%) were Australian born. Twenty-nine (35.6%) children had sickle cell disease, 17 (28.8%) had Hb H disease, six (10.2%) had beta-thalassaemia major and 15 (25.4%) had compound heterozygous conditions. One child died from sickle cell disease. Of Australian born children, at least 10 mothers (23.8%) and 11 fathers (26.2%) were unaware of their carrier status pre-partum (information unavailable for 13 mothers and 17 fathers). Only 11 parents (18.6%) had risks of haemoglobinopathy discussed with them antenatally and only three cases (5.1%) were diagnosed antenatally. We found that a small but significant number of children with haemoglobinopathies are being born in Australia despite existing programmes of testing at-risk groups and neonatal screening. Haemoglobinopathies were also diagnosed in recent immigrants. Greater awareness of these conditions and enhancements of screening and detection programmes may be needed as the genetic diversity of the Australian population continues to develop. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Gillian A; Johansen, Mathew P; Carpenter, Julia G; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beresford, Nicholas A

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife concentration ratios for 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po and isotopes of Th and U from soil, water, and sediments were evaluated for a range of Australian uranium mining environments. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CRwo-media) were developed for 271 radionuclide-organism pairs within the terrestrial and freshwater wildlife groups. Australian wildlife often has distinct physiological attributes, such as the lower metabolic rates of macropod marsupials as compared with placental mammals. In addition, the Australian CRswo-media originate from tropical and semi-arid climates, rather than from the temperate-dominated climates of Europe and North America from which most (>90%) of internationally available CRwo-media values originate. When compared, the Australian and non-Australian CRs are significantly different for some wildlife categories (e.g. grasses, mammals) but not others (e.g. shrubs). Where differences exist, the Australian values were higher, suggesting that site-, or region-specific CRswo-media should be used in detailed Australian assessments. However, in screening studies, use of the international mean values in the Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD) appears to be appropriate, as long as the values used encompass the Australian 95th percentile values. Gaps in the Australian datasets include a lack of marine parameters, and no CR data are available for freshwater phytoplankton, zooplankton, insects, insect larvae or amphibians; for terrestrial environments, there are no data for amphibians, annelids, ferns, fungi or lichens & bryophytes. The new Australian specific parameters will aide in evaluating remediation plans and ongoing operations at mining and waste sites within Australia. They have also substantially bolstered the body of U- and Th-series CRwo-media data for use internationally. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The Work-Related Attitudes of Australian Accounting Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Vasileva, Aleksandra; Baird, Kevin; Blair, Bill

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the work-related attitudes of Australian accounting academics. A survey of 350 academics provides an insight into the specific organisational and institutional factors associated with the dissatisfaction, stress levels, and propensity to remain of academics. Of particular concern is the lower level of satisfaction and…

  14. Sedentary behaviours among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; Dobbins, Timothy; Booth, Michael L; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Okely, Anthony D

    2006-12-01

    To describe the prevalence and distribution (by demographic characteristics and body mass index [BMI] category) of sedentary behaviour among Australian adolescents aged 11-15 years. Cross-sectional representative population survey of school students (n = 2,750) in New South Wales, conducted in 2004. Students' self-reported time spent during a usual week in five categories of sedentary behaviour (small screen recreation [SSR], education, cultural, social and non-active travel). Height and weight were measured. Grade 6, 8 and 10 students spent approximately 34 hours, 41 hours and 45 hours/week of their discretionary time, respectively, engaged in sedentary behaviour. Urban students and students from Asian-speaking backgrounds spent significantly more time sedentary than students from rural areas or other cultural backgrounds. SSR accounted for 60% and 54% of sedentary behaviour among primary and high school students, respectively. Overweight and obese students spent more time in SSR than healthy weight students. Out-of-school hours educational activities accounted for approximately 20% of sedentary behaviour and increased with age. Girls spent twice the time in social activities compared with boys. Time spent in cultural activities declined with age. Sedentary behaviours among young people differ according to sex, age and cultural background. At least half of all time spent in sedentary behaviours was spent engaged in SSR. BMI was significantly associated with sedentary behaviour among some children, but not consistently across age groups. A clear understanding of young people's patterns of sedentary behaviour is required to develop effective and sustainable intervention programs to promote healthy living.

  15. Publishers Press Colleges To Stop Software Piracy by Their Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Karla

    1997-01-01

    Software piracy among college students is increasing, and the software publishing industry insists colleges are responsible for the activities of their computer nets' users. Colleges generally cooperate with publishers when their students are found infringing on copyrights. The Software Publishers Association is holding a University of Puget Sound…

  16. Australian survey on current practices for breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Kylie L; Pogson, Elise M; Batumalai, Vikneswary; Boxer, Miriam M; Yap, Mei Ling; Delaney, Geoff P; Metcalfe, Peter; Holloway, Lois

    2015-12-01

    Detailed, published surveys specific to Australian breast radiotherapy practice were last conducted in 2002. More recent international surveys specific to breast radiotherapy practice include a European survey conducted in 2008/2009 and a Spanish survey conducted in 2009. Radiotherapy techniques continue to evolve, and the utilisation of new techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), is increasing. This survey aimed to determine current breast radiotherapy practices across Australia. An online survey was completed by 50 of the 69 Australian radiation therapy treatment centres. Supine tangential beam whole breast irradiation remains the standard of care for breast radiotherapy in Australia. A growing number of institutions are exploring prone positioning and IMRT utilisation. This survey demonstrated a wide variation in the benchmarks used to limit and report organ at risk doses, prescribed dose regimen, and post-mastectomy bolus practices. This survey also indicated, when compared with international literature, that there may be less interest in or uptake of external beam partial breast irradiation, prone positioning, simultaneous integrated boost and breath hold techniques. These are areas where further review and research may be warranted to ensure Australian patients are receiving the best care possible based on the best evidence available. This survey provides insight into the current radiotherapy practice for breast cancer in Australia. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  17. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  18. Short communication: Influence of labeling on Australian and Chinese consumers' liking of milk with short (pasteurized) and long (UHT) shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, D G; Bolhuis, D P; Hu, X; Keast, R S J

    2016-03-01

    Sixty percent of milk consumed in China has a long shelf life (UHT), presumably because milk with a short shelf life (pasteurized) is comparatively expensive. This in contrast to Australia, where 10% of consumed milk is UHT and the price between UHT and pasteurized milk is equivalent. Whether UHT is actually more liked than pasteurized milk by Chinese consumers is unknown. However, the potential positive halo around the expensive pasteurized milk might result in Chinese consumers liking milk more when it is labeled as "short shelf-life milk." To test these hypotheses, Chinese (n=48, 20 males, 28 females, 23 ± 7.2 yr) and Australian (n=93, 11 males, 82 females, 24 ± 5.6 yr) consumers tasted and rated (9-point hedonic scale), in a randomized order, 3 × 30-mL samples of UHT milk (labeled as "long shelf-life milk," "short shelf-life milk," or "milk") and 3 × 30-mL samples of pasteurized milk (also labeled as "long shelf-life milk," "short shelf-life milk," or "milk"). Australian participants' liking of milk was not influenced by labeling. Regardless of what the label stated, they always preferred the taste of pasteurized milk over the taste of UHT milk. This was different for Chinese participants, who preferred the taste of UHT milk over the taste of pasteurized milk, but in general had a higher liking for any milk that was labeled "short shelf-life milk." Both Australian and Chinese were more positive about pasteurized than UHT milk. In conclusion, Chinese, but not Australian, consumers' liking of milk was guided by the positive expectations of pasteurized milk and the negative expectations of UHT milk. Further research is needed to investigate if the present findings can be extrapolated to a larger and more varied group of Chinese and Australian consumers. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. What do you think overdiagnosis means? A qualitative analysis of responses from a national community survey of Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Ray; Nickel, Brooke; Hersch, Jolyn; Doust, Jenny; Barratt, Alexandra; Beller, Elaine; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2015-05-19

    Overdiagnosis occurs when someone is diagnosed with a disease that will not harm them. Against a backdrop of growing evidence and concern about the risk of overdiagnosis associated with certain screening activities, and recognition of the need to better inform the public about it, we aimed to ask what the Australian community understood overdiagnosis to mean. Content analysis of verbatim responses from a randomly sampled community telephone survey of 500 Australian adults, between January and February 2014. Data were analysed independently by two researchers. Analysis of themes arising from community responses to open-ended questions about the meaning of overdiagnosis. The sample was broadly representative of the Australian population. Forty per cent of respondents thought overdiagnosis meant exaggerating a condition that was there, diagnosing something that was not there or too much diagnosis. Twenty-four per cent described overdiagnosis as overprescribing, overtesting or overtreatment. Only 3% considered overdiagnosis meant doctors gained financially. No respondents mentioned screening in conjunction with overdiagnosis, and over 10% of participants were unable to give an answer. Around half the community surveyed had an approximate understanding of overdiagnosis, although no one identified it as a screening risk and a quarter equated it with overuse. Strategies to inform people about the risk of overdiagnosis associated with screening and diagnostic tests, in clinical and public health settings, could build on a nascent understanding of the nature of the problem. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Diabetes and disability in older Australians: The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koye, Digsu N; Shaw, Jonathan E; Magliano, Dianna J

    2017-04-01

    To examine the association between diabetes and disability in older Australians and to identify factors that explain this association. We analysed data from a subsample of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study (AusDiab) cohort. Disability was measured using the Katz questionnaire in those aged 60years or over and was defined as some difficulty in any of the Katz activities of daily living (ADL) questions. Among 2373 study participants aged 60years or above who had a disability assessment at the third wave of follow-up (2011-12), 255 (11%) reported at least some disability. Participants with diabetes at baseline had higher odds of disability at 12years [odds ratio=2.41 (95% CI 1.60-3.64)] as compared to individuals with normal glucose tolerance; these patterns were similar for men and women. There was no association between baseline prediabetes and disability [OR=1.27 (95% CI 0.91-1.78)]. Baseline body mass index (BMI) and cardiometabolic factors (hypertension, prior cardiovascular disease, impaired glomerular filtration rate, triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins) were important in explaining the increased odds of disability. BMI and cardiometabolic factors together explained 65% of the diabetes-associated odds of disability at 12years. In older Australians, we showed that baseline diabetes more than doubled the odds of reporting disability at 12years, with BMI and cardiometabolic factors accounting for much of this relationship. These findings suggest that interventions targeting weight control, and prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic factors may prevent disability associated with diabetes and promote healthy aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reporting unit size and measurement uncertainty: current Australian practice in clinical chemistry and haematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert C; Badrick, Tony

    2015-08-01

    In this study we aimed to compare the reporting unit size used by Australian laboratories for routine chemistry and haematology tests to the unit size used by learned authorities and in standard laboratory textbooks and to the justified unit size based on measurement uncertainty (MU) estimates from quality assurance program data. MU was determined from Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA) - Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB) and RCPA Haematology Quality Assurance Program survey reports. The reporting unit size implicitly suggested in authoritative textbooks, the RCPA Manual, and the General Serum Chemistry program itself was noted. We also used published data on Australian laboratory practices.The best performing laboratories could justify their chemistry unit size for 55% of analytes while comparable figures for the 50% and 90% laboratories were 14% and 8%, respectively. Reporting unit size was justifiable for all laboratories for red cell count, >50% for haemoglobin but only the top 10% for haematocrit. Few, if any, could justify their mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) reporting unit sizes.The reporting unit size used by many laboratories is not justified by present analytical performance. Using MU estimates to determine the reporting interval for quantitative laboratory results ensures reporting practices match local analytical performance and recognises the inherent error of the measurement process.

  2. Viscosity of thickened fluids that relate to the Australian National Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten Hadde, Enrico; Ann Yvette Cichero, Julie; Michael Nicholson, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, Australia published standardized terminology and definitions for three levels of thickened fluids used in the management of dysphagia. This study examined the thickness of the current Australian National Fluid Standards rheologically (i.e. viscosity, yield stress) and correlated these results with the "fork test", as described in the national standards. Clinicians who prescribe or work with thickened liquids and laypersons were recruited to categorize 15 different thickened fluids of known viscosities using the fork test. The mean apparent viscosity and the yield stress for each fluid category were calculated. Clear responses were obtained by both clinicians and laypersons for very thin fluids ( 1150 mPa.s), but large variations of responses were seen for intermediate viscosities. Measures of viscosity and yield stress were important in allocating liquids to different categories. Three bands of fluid viscosity with distinct intermediate band gaps and associated yield stress measures were clearly identifiable and are proposed as objective complements to the Australian National Standards. The "fork test" provides rudimentary information about both viscosity and yield stress, but is an inexact measure of both variables.

  3. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  4. Australian Nursing Informatics Competency Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joanne; Bryce, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    A study of Australian nurses on their use of information technology in the workplace was undertaken by the Australian Nursing Federation (ANF) in 2007. This study of over 4000 nurses highlighted that nurses recognise benefits to adopting more information technology in the workplace although there are significant barriers to their use. It also identified gross deficits in the capacity of the nursing workforce to engage in the digital processing of information. Following the release of the study last year, the ANF commenced work on a number of key recommendations from the report in order to overcome identified barriers and provide opportunities for nurses to better utilise information technology and information management systems. One of these recommendations was to seek research funding to develop national information technology and information management competency standards for nurses. This project has now received Federal Government funding to undertake this development. This project is being developed in collaboration with the ANF and the Queensland University of Technology. This paper will discuss the methodology, development and publication of the Australian Nursing Informatics Competency Standards Project which is currently underway and due for completion in May 2009. The Australian Nursing Informatics Competencies will be presented at the conference.

  5. Australian Naturalism and Its Critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Park Sun

    1997-01-01

    Details the ongoing debate between Australian naturalists and their critics since the publication of C.W. Evers and G. Lakomski's seminal book "Knowing Educational Administration." Examines critics' views in several categories: the coherence concept, coherentism criteria, the naturalistic fallacy, and questions concerning foundations and…

  6. Big Ideas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Within weeks of taking office, Australia's new Labor government commissioned two major reviews--one of Australia's innovation system and one of Australian higher education. Taken together, these reviews will have major implications for the future of research and teaching in Australia for decades to come. This paper discusses the main…

  7. Australian Queer Science Fiction Fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Stephen Craig

    2017-10-23

    Science fiction (sf) does more than provide a fleeting moment of entertainment; it has many personal and social functions. In addition to offering audiences "romantic escapism" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6), sf also enables the "postulation of an alternative reality from which to contemplate this one" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6); as such, it is especially important "for groups which have had limited stakes in the status quo" (Jenkins, 1995, p. 242). To date, no research has been undertaken on the relationship between Australian queers and sf fandom. This article reports the findings of an online survey and explores the psycho-social features of Australian queer sf fans and why they like the genre. While the characteristics of this sample mirror those of Australian queers generally, they also have slightly higher rates of mental illness and are far more likely to state they have "no religion." Furthermore, while enjoying the "sciency" (P10, bisexual woman) aspects of sf, Australian queers also like the "poignant metaphors for our own civilization" (P45, asexual man).

  8. Techniques of Australian forest planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Forestry Council

    1978-01-01

    Computer modeling has been extensively adopted for Australian forest planning over the last ten years. It has been confined almost entirely to the plantations of fast-growing species for which adequate inventory, growth, and experimental data are available. Stand simulation models have replaced conventional yield tables and enabled a wide range of alternative...

  9. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  10. Are Australian medical students being taught to teach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Amy C; Liu, Michael; Dannaway, Jasan; Schoo, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    The current global trend of growth in medical training is increasing the demand for the teaching and supervision of medical students and junior doctors. If well trained and supported, junior doctors and medical students represent an important teaching resource. Unfortunately, there is limited evidence available on whether Australian medical students are equipped with teaching skills. This study aimed to gain insight into the type and amount of teaching-skills training and peer-to-peer teaching present in Australian medical schools. A survey of Australian medical schools was conducted between May and December 2014. An online 22-item questionnaire was sent to all 19 Australian medical schools. The response rate to the questionnaire was 100 per cent. Eleven Australian medical schools reported offering a teaching-skills programme, of which five were described as compulsory formal programmes. Eight schools did not offer such a programme, citing time restraints and other subjects taking higher priority. Formal peer-to-peer teaching opportunities were described by 17 schools, with 13 offering this electively. Two schools reported that they did not offer such opportunities because of time restraints, the belief that the quality of expert teaching is superior and because of a lack of staffing. The demand for the teaching and supervision of medical students and junior doctors is increasing CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increasing number of medical students and subsequently junior doctors in Australia, a minority of Australian medical schools report including a formal, compulsory teaching-skills programme. These results may imply a lost opportunity to use the positive effects of teaching-skills programmes, and are in line with studies from other countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  11. Comparative validation of self-report measures of negative attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Timothy C; Blick, Julie; Coffin, Juli; Dudgeon, Pat; Forrest, Simon; Morrison, David

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the construct validity of two self-report measures of attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders against an implicit measure of attitude. Total of 102 volunteer participants completed the three measures in a randomized order. The explicit measures of prejudice towards Aboriginal Australians were the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) and the Attitudes Towards Indigenous Australians Scale (ATIAS). The implicit attitudes measure was an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and utilised simple drawn head-and-shoulder images of Aboriginal Australians and White Australians as the stimuli. Both explicit measures and implicit measure varied in the extent to which negative prejudicial attitudes were held by participants, and the corresponding construct validities were unimpressive. The MRS was significantly correlated with the IAT, (r =.314;pattitudes towards Aboriginal Australians, only the MRS evidenced validity when compared with the use of an implicit attitude measure.

  12. Stable isotope and trace metal compositions of Australian prawns as a guide to authenticity and wholesomeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J F; Tinggi, U; Yang, X; Fry, B

    2015-03-01

    This research has explored the potential of stable isotope and trace metal profiles to distinguish Australian prawns from prawns imported from neighbouring Asian countries. Australian prawns were collected mostly from the Brisbane area. Strong differences in Australian vs. imported prawns were evident from both the isotope and trace element data, with the differences most likely occurring because imported prawns are typically reared in aquaculture facilities and frozen prior to sale in Australia. The aquaculture origins are characterised by comparatively; low δHVSMOW, δ(13)CVPDB values, low concentrations of arsenic, zinc and potassium, and high water contents (>80%). Relatively high arsenic and cadmium contents were found within Australian prawns, but the concentrations did not exceed local human health guidelines. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Ethics in articles published in medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Humberto; Palma, Joaquín; Andresen, Max

    2007-04-01

    Authors of clinical articles have similar motivations and rules than authors in other scientific fields. In addition, medical research must obey specific ethical rules that apply to studies involving human subjects, including biological samples, tissues, cellular or sub cellular samples obtained from them. When submitting their reports for publication, authors must declare that they have followed such ethical rules and also should declare any possible conflict of interest that may have arisen. External peer reviewers and the editors should also conform to limitations by eventual conflicts of interest. Authors should respect specific ethical norms that apply to the process of submitting, publishing and reproducing their manuscripts. In recent years, the editors of Revista Médica de Chile have become aware of five instances of misconduct committed by authors of articles submitted or already published. Four correspond to redundant publications and one exhibits overt plagiarism in the text and syntax. Appropriate actions have been taken following recommendations published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the World Association of Medical Editors and other groups. The present article stresses that authors and their sponsoring institutions must be aware of the importance of following ethical rules when reporting scientific work.

  14. A Compound Object Authoring and Publishing Tool for Literary Scholars based on the IFLA-FRBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gerber

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents LORE (Literature Object Re-use and Exchange, a light-weight tool which is designed to allow literature scholars and teachers to author, edit and publish compound information objects encapsulating related digital resources and bibliographic records. LORE enables users to easily create OAI-ORE-compliant compound objects, which build on the IFLA FRBR model, and also enables them to describe and publish them to an RDF repository as Named Graphs. Using the tool, literary scholars can create typed relationships between individual atomic objects using terms from a bibliographic ontology and can attach metadata to the compound object. This paper describes the implementation and user interface of the LORE tool, as developed within the context of an ongoing case study being conducted in collaboration with AustLit: The Australian Literature Resource, which focuses on compound objects for teaching and research within the Australian literature studies community.

  15. SECOND EVALUATION OF TESTS PUBLISHED IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Ponsoda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of the second evaluation of psychological tests published in Spain. The Official Association of Psychologists Testing Committee decided that 12 tests, selected mainly because they were innovative and widely used, should be assessed. Each test was evaluated by two experts. As in the first evaluation (Muñiz, Fernández-Hermida, Fonseca-Pedrero, Campillo-Álvarez and Peña-Suárez, 2011, the evaluators’ work was done by responding to the questions on the Questionnaire for Test Evaluation (Prieto and Muñiz, 2000, which adapts the model prepared by the European Federation of Professional Psychologist Associations to the Spanish context. Each test was evaluated for quality of materials and documentation, score reliability, coverage of validation studies, quality of scales, etc. The reviewers also reported on the suitability of the instrument and the evaluation process and made suggestions that might be useful to improve future assessments.

  16. Intersectoral action on SDH and equity in Australian health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew; Baum, Frances E; MacDougall, Colin; Newman, Lareen; McDermott, Dennis; Phillips, Clare

    2017-12-01

    Intersectoral action between public agencies across policy sectors, and between levels of government, is seen as essential for effective action by governments to address social determinants of health (SDH) and to reduce health inequities. The health sector has been identified as having a crucial stewardship role, to engage other policy sectors in action to address the impacts of their policies on health. This article reports on research to investigate intersectoral action on SDH and health inequities in Australian health policy. We gathered and individually analysed 266 policy documents, being all of the published, strategic health policies of the national Australian government and eight State/Territory governments, current at the time of sampling in late 2012-early 2013. Our analysis showed that strategies for intersectoral action were common in Australian health policy, but predominantly concerned with extending access to individualized medical or behavioural interventions to client groups in other policy sectors. Where intersectoral strategies did propose action on SDH (other than access to health-care), they were mostly limited to addressing proximal factors, rather than policy settings affecting the distribution of socioeconomic resources. There was little evidence of engagement between the health sector and those policy sectors most able to influence systemic socioeconomic inequalities in Australia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Australian work exposures studies: occupational exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomichen, Jasmine; El-Zaemey, Sonia; Heyworth, Jane S; Carey, Renee N; Darcey, Ellie; Reid, Alison; Glass, Deborah C; Driscoll, Tim; Peters, Susan; Abramson, Michael; Fritschi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in some occupational settings. Some pesticides have been classified as carcinogens; however, data on the number of workers exposed to pesticides are not available in Australia. The main aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of pesticide exposure in Australian workplaces. The analysis used data from the Australian Work Exposures Study, a series of nationwide telephone surveys which investigated work-related prevalence and exposure to carcinogens and asthmagens, including pesticides, among current Australian workers. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Workers were considered exposed to pesticides if they reported applying or mixing pesticides in their current job. Of the 10 371 respondents, 410 (4%) respondents were assessed as being exposed to pesticides in the workplace, with exposure being more likely among males, individuals born in Australia, individuals with lower education level and those residing in regional or remote areas. Glyphosate was the most common active ingredient used by workers. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational pesticide exposure in Australia and one of the few recent studies internationally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. The status and models of digital publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Cong, Ting

    2010-01-01

    This Thesis examines the current impact of digital technology upon certain aspects of the publishing industry, especially the e-book industry. It reviews the key developments in globally digital publishing and sums up several publishing models of digital contents.

  19. Growth charts for Australian children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofts, Louise; Das, Sandeep; Collins, Felicity; Burton, Karen L O

    2017-08-01

    Achondroplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder, the most common genetic cause of short stature in humans. Reference curves for head circumference, weight, height, and BMI are needed in clinical practice but none exist for the Australian population. This study aimed to produce head circumference, height, weight, and BMI reference percentile curves for Australian children and adolescents with achondroplasia. Measurements of head circumference, height and weight taken at clinical visits were retrospectively extracted from the electronic medical record. Age was corrected for prematurity. Patients were excluded from head circumference analysis if they had significant neurosurgical complications and from the weight and BMI analysis when they had a clinical diagnosis of overweight. Measurements were available on 138 individuals (69 males and 69 females) taken between 1970 and 2015, with over 50% collected since 2005. A total of 3,352 data points were available. The LMS method was used to produce growth charts with estimated centiles (10, 25, 50, 75, and 90th) separately for males and females. For females birth weight was 3 kg (2.5-3.5 kg), birth length 48 cm (44-50 cm) and head circumference 37.5 cm (36-39 cm), adult height was 125 cm (116-132 cm), weight 42 kg (34-54 kg), and head circumference 58 cm (55.5-60.5 cm) all 50th centile (10-90th). For males birth weight was 3.5 kg (3-4 kg), length 49 cm (46-52 cm) and head circumference 38.5 cm (36-41 cm), adult height was 134 cm (125-141 cm), weight 41 kg (24.5-57 kg) and head circumference 61 cm (58-64 cm). The curves are similar to previously published reference data from the USA and have expected population wide variation from curves from an Argentinian population. Despite limitations of our curves for adolescents (12 years and older) due to data paucity, these Australian growth charts for children and adolescents with achondroplasia will be a useful reference in clinical

  20. Cultural challenges when developing anti-tobacco messages for Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Stevenson, Leah C; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-08-22

    Recently, many programs have been funded to tackle Indigenous Australian smoking. This study assessed what challenges and unexpected responses could occur when developing anti-tobacco messages for Indigenous communities. A cross-sectional telephone survey of organizations involved in making anti-tobacco messages for the target population was conducted in 2012-2013. Open-ended questions explored cultural challenges to message development and unexpected outcomes. Responses were noted and these qualitative data were independently coded by two researchers using an inductive analysis. Non-parametric tests explored associations between organization orientation, whether target group feedback about messages was sought (pre-tests) and the presence of the above factors. The 47 organizations represented included: 22 Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS), 13 government organizations (GO), eight non-government organizations (NGO) and four universities. The response rate was 83%. Cultural challenges were reported equally by organizations oriented towards Aboriginal communities and those oriented towards the general population. Organizations conducting target group pre-tests of the messages were more likely to report cultural challenges (p = 0.002). Four main themes were revealed: the diversity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures; the selection of role models; conflicts and delays; and unexpected outcomes. Nearly 60% of organizations reported better-than-expected outcomes e.g. community appreciation and pride. A further 40% reported negative responses, e.g. messages being misunderstood or confronting. Cultural challenges and unexpected outcomes are reported by Australian organizations when developing anti-tobacco messages for Indigenous Australians warranting attention to improve the salience of anti-tobacco messages for Indigenous peoples.NB. In this paper, Indigenous Australians is a term used to refer to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, the first

  1. Breathlessness During the Last Week of Life in Palliative Care: An Australian Prospective, Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Magnus; Allingham, Samuel F; Eagar, Kathy; Yates, Patsy; Johnson, Claire; Currow, David C

    2016-05-01

    Breathlessness is a major cause of suffering and distress, and little is known about the trajectory of breathlessness near death. To determine the trajectory and clinical-demographic factors associated with breathlessness in the last week of life in patients receiving specialist palliative care. This was a prospective, longitudinal cohort study using national data on specialist palliative care from the Australian Palliative Care Outcomes Collaboration. We included patients in the Australian Palliative Care Outcomes Collaboration who died between July 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014 with at least one measurement of breathlessness on a 0-10 numerical rating scale in the week before death. The trajectory and factors associated with breathlessness were analyzed using multivariate random-effects linear regression. A total 12,778 patients from 87 services (33,404 data points) were analyzed. The average observed breathlessness was 2.1 points and remained constant over time. Thirty-five percent reported moderate to severe distress (numerical rating scale ≥4) at some time in their last week. Factors associated with higher breathlessness were younger age, male gender, cardiopulmonary involvement, concurrent fatigue, nausea, pain, sleeping problems, higher Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Status, and clinical instability in the multivariate analysis. Respiratory failure showed the largest association (mean adjusted difference 3.1 points; 95% confidence interval, 2.8-3.4). Although breathlessness has been reported to worsen in the last months, the mean severity remained stable in the final week of life. In specialized palliative care, one in three people experienced significant breathlessness especially in respiratory disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Climatology of Australian Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ross M.; Forgan, Bruce W.; Campbell, Susan K.

    2017-04-01

    Airborne particles or aerosols have long been recognised for their major contribution to uncertainty in climate change. In addition, aerosol amounts must be known for accurate atmospheric correction of remotely sensed images, and are required to accurately gauge the available solar resource. However, despite great advances in surface networks and satellite retrievals over recent years, long-term continental-scale aerosol data sets are lacking. Here we present an aerosol assessment over Australia based on combined sun photometer measurements from the Bureau of Meteorology Radiation Network and CSIRO/AeroSpan. The measurements are continental in coverage, comprising 22 stations, and generally decadal in timescale, totalling 207 station-years. Monthly climatologies are given at all stations. Spectral decomposition shows that the time series can be represented as a weighted sum of sinusoids with periods of 12, 6 and 4 months, corresponding to the annual cycle and its second and third harmonics. Their relative amplitudes and phase relationships lead to sawtooth-like waveforms sharply rising to an austral spring peak, with a slower decline often including a secondary peak during the summer. The amplitude and phase of these periodic components show significant regional change across the continent. Fits based on this harmonic analysis are used to separate the periodic and episodic components of the aerosol time series. An exploratory classification of the aerosol types is undertaken based on (a) the relative periodic amplitudes of the Ångström exponent and aerosol optical depth, (b) the relative amplitudes of the 6- and 4-month harmonic components of the aerosol optical depth, and (c) the ratio of episodic to periodic variation in aerosol optical depth. It is shown that Australian aerosol can be broadly grouped into three classes: tropical, arid and temperate. Statistically significant decadal trends are found at 4 of the 22 stations. Despite the apparently small

  3. Ground hardness and injury in community level Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Dara M; Finch, Caroline F; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C; Doyle, Tim L A

    2012-07-01

    To describe the risk and details of injuries associated with ground hardness in community level Australian football (AF). Prospective injury surveillance with periodic objective ground hardness measurement. 112 ground hardness assessments were undertaken using a Clegg hammer at nine locations across 20 grounds, over the 2007 and 2008 AF seasons. Details of 352 injuries sustained by community level players on those grounds were prospectively collected as part of a large randomised controlled trial. The ground location of the injury was matched to the nearest corresponding ground hardness Clegg hammer readings, in gravities (g), which were classified from unacceptably low (hardness (>120 g). Clegg hammer readings ranged from 25 to 301 g. Clegg hammer hardness categories from low/normal to high/normal were associated with the majority of injuries, with only 3.7% (13 injuries) on unacceptably high hardness and 0.3% (1 injury) on the unacceptably low hardness locations. Relative to the preferred range of hardness, the risk of sustaining an injury on low/normal hardness locations was 1.31 (95%CI: 1.06-1.62) times higher and 1.82 (95%CI: 1.17-2.85) times higher on locations with unacceptably high hardness. The more severe injuries occurred with low/normal ground hardness. Despite the low number of injuries, the risk of sustaining an injury on low/normal and unacceptably hard grounds was significantly greater than on the preferred range of hardness. Notably, the severity of the injuries sustained on unacceptably hard grounds was lower than for other categories of hardness. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Short sleep duration and obesity among Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Tiffany K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information on sleep duration and obesity among Australian children. The objective of the study is to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in Australian children aged 5 to 15 years. Methods Data were collected using the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System between January 2004 and December 2008. Each month a representative random sample of South Australians are selected from the Electronic White Pages with interviews conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI. Within each household, the person who was last to have a birthday was selected for interview. Parents reported the number of hours their children slept each day. Obesity was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF definition based on BMI calculated from reported body weight and height. Results Overall, parents of 3495 children aged 5-15 years (mean 10.7 years, 50.3% boys were interviewed. The prevalence of obesity was 7.7% (8.9% in boys, 6.6% in girls. In multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, intake of fruit and vegetables, physical activity and inactivity, the odds ratio (OR for obesity comparing sleeping Conclusion Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity in children especially among younger age groups and boys.

  5. Contemporary Australian writers and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available It is amazing to see just how much travel writing, writing which does not exclusively belong to the travel sub-genre of "creative non-fiction", and also how many non-Australian locales, with emphasis on European and Asian ones, there are in the recent contemporary Australian writing since the 1960s. This perhaps speaks about a certain preoccupation or downright trait in the Australian national character. Perhaps, it is a reflection of a particular condition of being "down under", itself derived from "a tradition of colonialism and post-colonialism; from geographical location, both a deterrent and a spur; from post-Romantic literary tradition, coinciding with the early years of white settlement; and from the universal lure of ideas of travel, never more flourishing than at the present" (Hergenhan, Petersson xiii. Tourism is an increasingly global phenomenon to some extent shaping the physical reality as well as the spiritual world of the people involved in it. Within this globalization process, with the prospect of "cyber" travel, there is, however, always an individual "national" experience of the country of destination that a literary traveller puts into words, an experience which is typical and conditioned by specific socio-political and cultural circumstances.

  6. The Once and Future Publishing Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okerson, Ann; Holzman, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The report explores the revitalization of library publishing and its possible future, and examines elements that influence the success and sustainability of library publishing initiatives. The authors trace the history of library publishing and factors that have transformed the publishing landscape, and describe several significant library-press…

  7. Writing and Publishing: The Librarian's Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Carol, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever considered writing or reviewing for the library community? Are you interested in publishing a book on your favorite author or hobby? Do you need to write and publish for tenure? If so, "Writing and Publishing" is for you. Practical how-to guidance covering fiction, poetry, children's books/magazines, self-publishing, literary agents,…

  8. The validity of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Barrett, Emma L; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Kelly, Erin; Champion, Katrina E; Stapinski, Lexine; Conrod, Patricia J; Slade, Tim; Nair, Natasha; Teesson, Maree

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the validity of a brief personality screening measure for substance use in adolescents, the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS), among Australian adolescents. A total of 527 adolescents (mean age: 13.38years, SD=0.43) from seven Australian schools were assessed at two time points 24months apart. The concurrent and predictive validity of the SURPS was determined using a series of linear and logistic regressions, and was compared to the results in a United Kingdom (UK) sample. SURPS subscale scores for the Australian population were also reported and compared to those in the UK. Overall, the SURPS subscale scores for Australian adolescents were similar to those for adolescents from the UK. Tests of concurrent and predictive validity in the Australian sample demonstrated that the all four personality profiles - Hopelessness (H), Anxiety Sensitivity (AS), Impulsivity (IMP), and Sensation Seeking (SS) - were related to measures of substance use and other behavioural and emotional characteristics. In addition, all the predicted specific prospective relationships between the personality profiles and particular substance use and other behavioural problems were confirmed except that H was not associated with illicit drug use. Overall, the results were similar between the Australian and UK samples. The SURPS is a valid and useful measure for identifying Australian adolescents at high-risk for substance use and other emotional and behavioural problems. Implications for prevention are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mean Atmospheric Conditions - Australian Tropical Operating Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    analysis method used to define the current ARDU mean ,opi:al atmosphere; b. liaise with appropriate agencies ’eg DRCS, Bureau of Meteorology to assess...encountered in the Austr-alian region . .3 Current Australian _’,teorological Data. 23.1 The Bureau of Meteorology is the prime Australian agen-j -on:e...tropical atmosphere has not been determined, the atmosphere is consistent with current Bureau of Meteorology records which form the basis of Reference E

  10. Sustainability and Competitiveness in Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study injects sustainability into competitiveness to inform policy making and planning for contemporary urban development. This is built upon the recent advancement in the scholarship on urban competitiveness that demonstrates a clear deviation from an economic-centric approach to incorporate multiple dimensions of a city’s progress. This study has an explicit concern for environmental sustainability and its relationship with urban competitiveness and their conceptual and methodological articulations. Empirically, this study measures the sustainability and competitiveness in Australian cities and reveals that Australia’s urban progress is clearly associated with an environmental cost. The findings are useful to inform policy making and planning for building sustainable and competitive cities. Apart from the conventional solutions that focus on urban form change and transport infrastructure improvement, this study suggests a need to explore the opportunities deriving from the emerging smart city planning and practice.

  11. Did the 2000 Sydney Olympics increase physical activity among adult Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Bellew, Bill; Craig, Cora L

    2015-02-01

    The Olympic Games' (OG) organisers typically hope that a diverse range of health legacies, including increases in physical activity and sport participation will result from their hosting of the OG. Despite these aspirations, the effects of the Olympics on physical activity levels remain to be demonstrated in large-scale population studies. This study examined the short-term impact of the Sydney 2000 OG, using serial cross-sectional population physical activity surveys of Australian adults in November 1999 and November 2000. Random sample surveys of adults asked about physical activity participation, intention to be more active, and in 2000, response to the OG. There were no significant effects of the Olympics on physical activity participation among adult Australians, measured 6 weeks after the end of the Games. Total minutes of leisure-time physical activity did not change significantly between 1999 and 2000 (295-303 min/week), and the proportion reaching the recommended levels of 150 min/week did not change (56.6% and 56.8%, respectively, in 1999 and 2000). The intention to be active in the next month increased after the Games (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.24), but was not associated with physical activity behaviour change. The legacy of the OG may be apparent through new infrastructure and other urban improvements, but evidence of their influence on physical activity levels remains elusive. Without multiyear integrated and well-funded programmes to promote physical activity, the Olympic legacy of a more active community may remain more rhetoric than reality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Variations in phytosanitary and other management practices in Australian grapevine nurseries

    OpenAIRE

    Helen WAITE; May, Peter; Bossinger, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic and costly failure of newly planted vines is an ongoing problem in the Australian wine industry. Failed vines are frequently infected with wood pathogens, including the fungi associated with Young Vine Decline. Hot water treatment (HWT) and other nursery practices have also been implicated in vine failure. We undertook a survey of Australian grapevine nurseries to develop an understanding of current propagation practices and to facilitate the development of reliable propagation proce...

  13. Sedative load and functional outcomes in community-dwelling older Australian men: the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnjidic, Danijela; Le Couteur, David G; Hilmer, Sarah N; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona M; Naganathan, Vasi; Waite, Louise; Handelsman, David J; Bell, John Simon; J S, Bell

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between sedative load and functional outcomes in community-dwelling older Australian men. A total of 1696 males aged ≥ 70 years, enrolled in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project, were studied. Participants underwent assessments during 2005-2007. Sedative load was computed using a published model. Outcomes included activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), physical performance measures and a clinical diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Of the participants, 15.3% took medications with sedative properties. After adjusting for age, education, depressive symptoms and comorbidities, participants who took one medication with sedation as a prominent side effect (sedative load = 1) had odds ratio (OR) of 2.15 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.20-3.85) for ADL disability, compared with participants with sedative load = 0. Participants who took at least one primary sedative or two medications with sedation as a prominent side effect (sedative load ≥ 2) had an OR of 1.55 (95% CI: 1.02-2.35) for IADL disability, compared with participants with sedative load = 0. The mean 6-m walking speed (P = 0.001) and grip strength (P = 0.003) were significantly different between sedative load groups in unadjusted models only. No association between sedative load and poorer performance on balance and chair stands tests or cognitive impairment was observed. Participants with sedative load of one were more likely to report ADL disability, whereas participants with sedative load of ≥2 were more likely to report IADL disability. Higher sedative load was not associated with poorer physical performance or cognitive impairment in older Australian men. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  14. "Don't forget your cotton underwear girls": femininity and Australian Army nurses in the Vietnam War (1967-1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Narelle

    2004-01-01

    War and nursing are unequivocally linked and the impact that this type of nursing has had upon the nursing profession in indisputable. However, a review of the Australian scholarly nursing literature revealed that the contribution and experiences of Australian nurses in the Vietnam War has not been widely published. The direct involvement of Australian women in the Vietnam War was limited and, as female nurses, they were unquestionably a minority. This paper describes the gender issues that confronted the nurses who worked within the confines of war.

  15. Journals publishing research relevant to stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R W; Puharic, T; Roberts, D

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this brief article is to provide a list of core journals relevant to stroke rehabilitation and to indicate the adequacy of five bibliographic indexing services in covering them. Citation analysis yielded a list of 30 core journals. No indexing service's data base included all of the 28 journals used in evaluating comprehensiveness. All services except the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, however, included over 71% of the journals. To be completely comprehensive in journal coverage, any pair of indexes had to include AMED/ CATS. The all too common reliance on Index Medicus/Medline will result in a relatively thorough but clearly incomplete search. Copyright © 1992 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parsons, Melissa; Morley, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index - a consistent spatial assessment of the current state of disaster resilience across Australia - produces the Disaster Resilience Report - Index will...

  17. The reliability and validity of video analysis for the assessment of the clinical signs of concussion in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdissi, Michael; Davis, Gavin

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of identifying clinical signs of concussion using video analysis in Australian football. Prospective cohort study. All impacts and collisions potentially resulting in a concussion were identified during 2012 and 2013 Australian Football League seasons. Consensus definitions were developed for clinical signs associated with concussion. For intra- and inter-rater reliability analysis, two experienced clinicians independently assessed 102 randomly selected videos on two occasions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated based on the diagnosis provided by team medical staff. 212 incidents resulting in possible concussion were identified in 414 Australian Football League games. The intra-rater reliability of the video-based identification of signs associated with concussion was good to excellent. Inter-rater reliability was good to excellent for impact seizure, slow to get up, motor incoordination, ragdoll appearance (2 of 4 analyses), clutching at head and facial injury. Inter-rater reliability for loss of responsiveness and blank and vacant look was only fair and did not reach statistical significance. The feature with the highest sensitivity was slow to get up (87%), but this sign had a low specificity (19%). Other video signs had a high specificity but low sensitivity. Blank and vacant look (100%) and motor incoordination (81%) had the highest positive predictive value. Video analysis may be a useful adjunct to the side-line assessment of a possible concussion. Video analysis however should not replace the need for a thorough multimodal clinical assessment. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Australian and New Zealand recommendations for the diagnosis and management of gout: integrating systematic literature review and expert opinion in the 3e Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Scott W; Whittle, Samuel L; Wechalekar, Mihir D; Moi, John H Y; Barrett, Claire; Hill, Catherine L; Littlejohn, Geoff; Lynch, Nora; Major, Gabor; Taylor, Andrew L; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Zochling, Jane

    2015-03-01

    To develop evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of gout in Australia and New Zealand as part of the multi-national 3e Initiative. Using a formal voting process, a panel of 78 international rheumatologists selected 10 key clinical questions pertinent to the diagnosis and management of gout. An additional question was also developed by participating Australian and New Zealand rheumatologists. Each question was investigated with a systematic literature review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and abstracts from 2010 to 2011 European League Against Rheumatism and American College of Rheumatology meetings were searched in each review. Relevant studies were independently reviewed by two individuals for data extraction and synthesis and risk of bias assessment. Using this evidence, 47 Australian and New Zealand rheumatologists developed national recommendations. For each recommendation the level of agreement was assessed and the level of evidence graded. Eleven recommendations were produced relating to the diagnosis of gout, different aspects of the management of gout, cardiovascular and renal comorbidities and the management of asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The mean level of agreement with the recommendations was 9.1 on a 1-10 scale, with 10 representing full agreement. Eleven Australian and New Zealand recommendations on the diagnosis and management of gout were developed combining systematically reviewed evidence with local expertise, enhancing their utility in clinical practice. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in Australian children aged 9-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawaty, S; Charlton, K; Lyons-Wall, P; Meyer, B J

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to develop a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessing dietary omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) intake in Australian children and to validate the FFQ against a 7-day food diary. The investigation comprised a cross-sectional and validation study. The study setting was two private primary schools in the in the Illawarra region of New South Wales. Twenty-two Australian children, aged 9-13 years, who were not on a special diet or receiving medical care that limited their food choice in the 3 months prior to recruitment, were recruited into the study. A total of 131 items, classified according to seven food group categories, was included in the n-3 LCPUFA FFQ, as identified from published dietary surveys and a supermarket survey. Good correlations between the FFQ and the 7-day food diary were observed for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [r = 0.691, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.83, P food diary. However, the mean EPA, DHA and total n-3 LCPUFA intakes estimated from the FFQ were significantly higher than those from the average 7-day food diary estimates (P < 0.001). A novel n-3 LCPUFA FFQ that has been developed to estimate dietary n-3 LCPUFA intakes in Australian children has been shown to have relative validity. The FFQ provides a useful contribution to dietary assessment methodology in this age group; however, reproducibility remains to be demonstrated. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. A polymorphism in a staphylococcal enterotoxin receptor gene (T cell receptor BV3 recombination signal sequence) is not associated with unexplained sudden unexpected death in infancy in an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, Amanda R; Gibson, Catherine S; Goldwater, Paul N

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes that influence the expression of toxin receptors could contribute to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and unexplained Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (uSUDI) for which there is evidence of toxin involvement. We aimed to determine whether TCRBV3S1 allele 2 could be involved in a staphylococcal toxic shock hypothesis for uSUDI. Observed frequencies of the TCRBV3S1*2 allele and genotype in 48 Australian uSUDI cases and 96 live comparison infants did not differ. In future the role of other toxin receptor gene polymorphisms deserves investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.