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Sample records for association providing nutrition

  1. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Providing nutrition services for people with developmental disabilities and special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, Cynthia L; Wallace, Lee Shelly

    2010-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition services provided by registered dietitians (RDs) and dietetic technicians, registered (DTRs), are essential components of comprehensive care for all people with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Nutrition services should be provided throughout life in a manner that is interdisciplinary, family-centered, community-based, and culturally competent. People with developmental disabilities and special health care needs frequently have nutrition concerns, including growth alterations (failure to thrive, obesity, or growth retardation), metabolic disorders, poor feeding skills, medication-nutrient interactions, and sometimes partial or total dependence on enteral or parenteral nutrition. Individuals with special needs are also more likely to develop comorbid conditions such as obesity or endocrine disorders that require nutrition interventions. Poor health habits, limited access to services, and long-term use of multiple medications are considered health risk factors. Health maintenance and avoidance of complications can be promoted by timely and cost-effective nutrition interventions. Public policy for individuals with special needs has evolved over time, resulting in a transition from institutional facilities and programs to community living. The expansion of public access to technology and health information on the Internet challenges RDs and DTRs to provide accurate scientific information for those with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Nationally credentialed RDs and DTRs are best prepared to provide appropriate nutrition information for wellness and quality of life.

  2. Nutritional health attitudes and behaviors and their associations with the risk of overweight/obesity among child care providers in Michigan Migrant and Seasonal Head Start centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won O; Song, SuJin; Nieves, Violeta; Gonzalez, Andie; Crockett, Elahé T

    2016-07-27

    Children enrolled in Migrant and Seasonal Head Start (MSHS) programs are at high risks of health problems. Although non-family child care providers play important roles on children's health status as role models, educators, program deliverers, and information mediators, little is known about their nutritional health attitudes and behaviors, and weight status. Therefore, we investigated nutritional health attitudes and behaviors and their associations with overweight/obesity among child care providers in Michigan MSHS centers. A total of 307 child care providers aged ≥ 18 years working in 17 Michigan MSHS centers were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 2013. An online survey questionnaire was used to collect data on nutritional health attitudes and behaviors of child care providers. Weight status was categorized into normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) based on child care providers' self-reported height and weight. Factor analysis was performed to investigate patterns of nutritional health attitudes and behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of overweight/obesity across tertiles of pattern scores taking the lowest tertile group as the reference group after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Three patterns of nutritional health attitudes and behaviors were identified: pattern 1) "weight loss practices with weight dissatisfaction", pattern 2) "healthy eating behaviors", and pattern 3) "better knowledge of nutrition and health". The pattern 1 scores were positively associated with overweight/obesity (Tertile 2 vs. Tertile 1: OR = 5.81, 95 % CI = 2.81-12.05; Tertile 3 vs. Tertile 1: OR = 14.89, 95 % CI = 6.18-35.92). Within the pattern 2, the OR for overweight/obesity in individuals with the highest scores was 0.37 (95 % CI = 0.19-0.75) compared with those with the lowest scores. However, the

  3. Providing quality nutrition care in acute care hospitals: perspectives of nutrition care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H H; Vesnaver, E; Davidson, B; Allard, J; Laporte, M; Bernier, P; Payette, H; Jeejeebhoy, K; Duerksen, D; Gramlich, L

    2014-04-01

    Malnutrition is common in acute care hospitals worldwide and nutritional status can deteriorate during hospitalisation. The aim of the present qualitative study was to identify enablers and challenges and, specifically, the activities, processes and resources, from the perspective of nutrition care personnel, required to provide quality nutrition care. Eight hospitals participating in the Nutrition Care in Canadian Hospitals study provided focus group data (n = 8 focus groups; 91 participants; dietitians, dietetic interns, diet technicians and menu clerks), which were analysed thematically. Five themes emerged from the data: (i) developing a nutrition culture, where nutrition practice is considered important to recovery of patients and teams work together to achieve nutrition goals; (ii) using effective tools, such as screening, evidence-based protocols, quality, timely and accurate patient information, and appropriate and quality food; (iii) creating effective systems to support delivery of care, such as communications, food production and delivery; (iv) being responsive to care needs, via flexible food systems, appropriate menus and meal supplements, up to date clinical care and including patient and family in the care processes; and (v) uniting the right person with the right task, by delineating roles, training staff, providing sufficient time to undertake these important tasks and holding staff accountable for their care. The findings of the present study are consistent with other work and provide guidance towards improving the nutrition culture in hospitals. Further empirical work on how to support successful implementation of nutrition care processes is needed. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G.

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  5. Position of the American Dietetic Association: oral health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touger-Decker, Riva; Mobley, Connie C

    2007-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition is an integral component of oral health. The American Dietetic Association supports the integration of oral health with nutrition services, education, and research. Collaboration between dietetics and dental professionals is recommended for oral health promotion and disease prevention and intervention. Scientific and epidemiological data suggest a lifelong synergy between nutrition and the integrity of the oral cavity in health and disease. Oral health and nutrition have a synergistic bidirectional relationship. Oral infectious diseases, as well as acute, chronic, and terminal systemic diseases with oral manifestations, impact the functional ability to eat as well as diet and nutrition status. Likewise, nutrition and diet may affect the development and integrity of the oral cavity as well as the progression of oral diseases. As we advance in our discoveries of the links between oral and nutrition health, practitioners of both disciplines must learn to provide screening, baseline education, and referral to each other as part of comprehensive client/patient care. Dietetics practice requires registered dietitians to provide medical nutrition therapy that incorporates a person's total health needs, including oral health. Inclusion of both didactic and clinical practice concepts that illustrate the role of nutrition in oral health is essential in both dental and dietetic education programs. Collaborative endeavors between dietetics and dentistry in research, education, and delineation of health provider practice roles are needed to ensure comprehensive health care. The multifaceted interactions between diet, nutrition, and oral health in practice, education, and research in both dietetics and dentistry merit continued, detailed delineation.

  6. Association between maternal lifestyle and preschool nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Érica Bezerra; Brentani, Alexandra Valéria Maria; Ferraro, Alexandre Archanjo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Many of the health behaviors involved in the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) are originated in childhood under parental influence. Mothers are the ones most involved in the education and health care of children. Lifestyle (LS) is a social determinant of health. Very few studies tried to understand the influence of maternal LS on child nutrition. Objective: To verify the association between maternal behavioral and non-behavioral LS and nutritional ...

  7. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: comprehensive school nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health, and academic performance of our nation's children. Local school wellness policies may strengthen comprehensive nutrition services by encouraging multidisciplinary wellness teams, composed of school and community members, to work together in identifying local school needs, developing feasible strategies to address priority areas, and integrating comprehensive nutrition services with a coordinated school health program. This joint position paper affirms schools as an important partner in health promotion. To maximize the impact of school wellness policies on strengthening comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools nationwide, ADA, SNA, and SNE recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: nutrition education and promotion, food and nutrition programs available on the school campus, school-home-community partnerships, and nutrition-related health services. Copyright © 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactive Distance Learning Effectively Provides Winning Sports Nutrition Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jennifer; Hoelscher-Day, Sharon; Begeman, Gale; Houtkooper, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Interactive distance-education (n=226) and face-to-face (n=129) continuing education workshops for health care and education professionals on sports nutrition were evaluated immediately and after 6 months. The well-designed distance-education format was as effective and acceptable as face to face and increased sports nutrition knowledge. (SK)

  9. A Survey of Medical Students’ Use of Nutrition Resources and Perceived Competency in Providing Basic Nutrition Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Connor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aims of this study were to assess where medical students obtain their nutrition information and their self-perceived level of competency in providing basic nutrition education to patients. Methods. A survey was distributed to all first through fourth year medical students at Case Western Reserve University (n=657. For statistical analysis, data was expressed as percentages of total responses and binomial regression was used to answer the study hypotheses. Results. The survey response rate was 47%. Forty-two percent of respondents selected a majority of professional nutrition resources (n=132 as their most commonly used nutrition resources, 38% selected a majority of consumer resources (n=119, and 20% selected “I do not use nutrition resources” (n=61. The most popular nutrition resource selected was consumer websites. Seventy percent of respondents reported feeling competent in their ability to provide basic nutrition education to patients (n=219. Conclusion. Medical students seem to feel competent in their ability to give basic nutrition education to patients, but they may be obtaining nutrition information from unreliable consumer-based resources. To help increase the provision of sound nutritional guidance, medical students should be taught to use reliable nutrition resources, as well as the value of referring patients to registered dietitians.

  10. Personal Trainer Perceptions of Providing Nutrition Care to Clients: A Qualitative Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Katelyn; Ball, Lauren; Desbrow, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Personal trainers are well placed to provide basic nutrition care in line with national dietary guidelines. However, many personal trainers provide nutrition care beyond their scope of practice and this has been identified as a major industry risk due to a perceived lack of competence in nutrition. This paper explores the context in which personal trainers provide nutrition care, by understanding personal trainers' perceptions of nutrition care in relation to their role and scope of practice. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 15 personal trainers working within Australia. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. All personal trainers reported to provide nutrition care and reported that nutrition care was an important component of their role. Despite this, many were unaware or uncertain of the scope of practice for personal trainers. Some personal trainers reported a gap between the nutrition knowledge they received in their formal education, and the knowledge they needed to optimally support their clients to adopt healthy dietary behaviors. Overall, the personal training context is likely to be conducive to providing nutrition care. Despite concerns about competence personal trainers have not modified their nutrition care practices. To ensure personal trainers provide nutrition care in a safe and effective manner, greater enforcement of the scope of practice is required as well as clear nutrition competencies or standards to be developed during training.

  11. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters. Athletes were divided into 2 groups and were under the same conditions (nutrition, medical monitoring, living conditions and training process. Athletes of the experimental group were given the dietary supplement Kladorod (capsule of 0.4 g by mouth between meals 4 times a day for 28 days. The control group was given placebo (Ringer-Locke powder capsules in the same terms in a similar way. During the experiment, the athletes were medically examined 3 times: at the beginning, in the middle, and after the course of intervention. We measured muscle performance, fat mass, muscle mass, and serum concentrations of cortisol and total testosterone. Results: It was established that during the intensive training of boxers and mixfighters for rating fights, administration of the dietary supplement Kladorod for 28 days stabilized the absolute and relative muscle mass, preventing its reduction, in comparison with the placebo group. At the same time, indicators of fat mass decreased significantly in the experimental group. After administering the course of Kladorod, we did not observe a significant decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio, compared to the control group Thus, the use of biologically active supplements based on lichen raw materials and complexes of lichen raw materials with different plant substances enables the body to increase its adaptive potential and physical capacity.

  12. Midwives' Role in Providing Nutrition Advice during Pregnancy: Meeting the Challenges? A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arrish, Jamila; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the Australian midwives' role in the provision of nutrition advice. Little is known about their perceptions of this role, the influence of the model of care, and the barriers and facilitators that may influence them providing quality nutrition advice to pregnant women. Semistructured telephone interviews were undertaken with a subsample (n = 16) of the members of the Australian College of Midwives who participated in an online survey about midwives' nutrition knowledge, at...

  13. Nursery nutrition in Liverpool: an exploration of practice and nutritional analysis of food provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mike; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Weston, Gemma; Macklin, Julie; McFadden, Kate

    2011-10-01

    To explore nutrition and food provision in pre-school nurseries in order to develop interventions to promote healthy eating in pre-school settings. Quantitative data were gathered using questionnaires and professional menu analysis. In the community, at pre-school nurseries. All 130 nurseries across Liverpool were a sent questionnaire (38 % response rate); thirty-four menus were returned for analysis (26 % response rate). Only 21 % of respondents stated they had adequate knowledge on nutrition for pre-school children. Sixty-one per cent of cooks reported having received only a 'little' advice on healthy eating and this was often not specific to under-5 s nutrition. Fifty-seven per cent of nurseries did not regularly assess their menus for nutritional quality. The menu analysis revealed that all menus were deficient in energy, carbohydrate, Fe and Zn. Eighty-five per cent of nurseries had Na/salt levels which exceed guidelines. Nurseries require support on healthy eating at policy, knowledge and training levels. This support should address concerns relating to both menu planning and ingredients used in food provision and meet current guidelines on food provision for the under-5 s.

  14. Nutrition advice during pregnancy: do women receive it and can health professionals provide it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Catherine; Charlton, Karen E; Yeatman, Heather

    2014-12-01

    A healthy diet during pregnancy is essential for normal growth and development of the foetus. Pregnant women may obtain nutrition information from a number of sources but evidence regarding the adequacy and extent of this information is sparse. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify sources of nutrition information accessed by pregnant women, their perceived needs for nutrition education, the perceptions of healthcare providers about nutrition education in pregnancy, and to assess the effectiveness of public health programs that aim to improve nutritional practices. The Scopus data base was searched during January, 2013 and in February 2014 to access both qualitative and quantitative studies published between 2002 and 2014 which focused on healthy pregnant women and their healthcare providers in developed countries. Articles were excluded if they focused on the needs of women with medical conditions, including obesity, gestational diabetes or malnutrition. Of 506 articles identified by the search terms, 25 articles were deemed to be eligible for inclusion. Generally, women were not receiving adequate nutrition education during pregnancy. Although healthcare practitioners perceived nutrition education to be important, barriers to providing education to clients included lack of time, lack of resources and lack of relevant training. Further well designed studies are needed to identify the most effective nutrition education strategies to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviours for women during antenatal care.

  15. USDA food and nutrient databases provide the infrastructure for food and nutrition research, policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA food and nutrient databases provide the basic infrastructure for food and nutrition research, nutrition monitoring, and dietary practice. They have had a long history that goes back to 1892, and are unique, as they are the only databases available in the public domain that perform these fu...

  16. Growing Healthy Bodies: Nutrition Education for Day Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viebrock, Margaret A.; Berry, Holly

    This booklet discusses the important role that day care providers can play in ensuring that children eat healthy snacks and meals and learn good eating habits. Section one of the booklet examines snack foods, discusses the difference between nutritious and less-nutritious snacks, and recommends snack foods appropriate for different age groups.…

  17. Association between lifestyle and health variables with nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association between lifestyle and health variables with nutritional status of the elderly in the Northern Region of Ghana. ... The formulation and implementation of a national policy on the elderly and nutrition education targeting the whole populace is urgently needed in Ghana to ensure healthy aging. Keywords: nutritional ...

  18. [Nutritional deficiencies associated with bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folope, Vanessa; Coëffier, Moïse; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2007-04-01

    Morbidly obese patients often have nutritional deficiencies, particularly in fat-soluble vitamins, folic acid and zinc. After bariatric surgery, these deficiencies may increase and others can appear, especially because of the limitation of food intake in gastric reduction surgery and of malabsorption in by-pass procedures. The latter result in more important weight loss but also increase the risk of more severe deficiencies. The protein deficiency associated with a decrease in the fat-free mass has been described in both procedures. It can sometimes require an enteral or parenteral support. Anemia can be secondary to iron deficiency, folic acid deficiency and even to vitamin B12 deficiency. Neurological disorders such as Gayet-Wernicke encephalopathy due to thiamine deficiency, or peripheral neuropathies may also be observed. Malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins and other nutrients, especially if diagnosed after by-pass surgery, rarely cause clinical symptoms. However, some complications have been reported such as bone demineralization due to vitamin D deficiency, hair loss secondary to zinc deficiency or hemeralopia from vitamin A deficiency. A careful nutritional follow-up should be performed during pregnancy after obesity surgery, because possible deficiencies can affect the health of both the mother and child. In conclusion, increased awareness of the risk of deficiency and the systematic dosage of micronutrients are needed in the pre- and postoperative period in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The case by case correction of these deficiencies is mandatory, and their systematic prevention should be evaluated.

  19. Association between Nutrition Label Reading and Nutrient Intake in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2009 (KNHANES IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Gyou; Oh, Seung-Won; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label readin...

  20. Is Nutrition Specific Quality of Life Associated With Nutritional Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasel-Aklilu, Sarah; Marcus, Andrea; Parrott, J Scott; Peters, Emily; Byham-Gray, Laura

    2018-04-06

    The study purpose was to explore the relationship between nutritional status, as measured by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), and Health Related Quality of Life measured using the Nutrition Specific Quality of Life (NS-QoL), tool among participants on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). The study aim was to determine if NS-QoL may be an adjuvant tool for detecting changes in nutritional status among patients on MHD. This is a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of data from a multi-center study. Participants were adult (>18) men and women on MHD (n = 145) recruited from 3 institutions in the Northeastern United States. Statistical tests were conducted to determine the relationship between key demographic characteristics (age, sex, dialysis vintage, gender, and ethnicity) and SGA and NS-QoL. Spearman's correlation examined the relationship between the independent variable, SGA and the dependent variable, NS-QoL. A univariate general linear model was conducted to adjust for confounding variables. The relationship between overall SGA score and composite NS-QoL score. The sample consisted of 85 men (58.6%), with a mean age of 55.3 ± 11.9 years, who were largely African-American (84.1%) and non-Hispanic (77.2%). Mean SGA score was 5.5 ± 1.0, and the mean NS-QoL composite score was 9.51 ± 3.77. No key demographic characteristics had a statistically significant relationship with SGA, whereas sex (P nutritional status. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Organizational culture associated with provider satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammon, Debra L; Tabler, Jennifer; Brunisholz, Kimberly; Gren, Lisa H; Kim, Jaewhan; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Day, Julie; Farrell, Timothy W; Waitzman, Norman J; Magill, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Organizational culture is key to the successful implementation of major improvement strategies. Transformation to a patient-centered medical home (PCHM) is such an improvement strategy, requiring a shift from provider-centric care to team-based care. Because this shift may impact provider satisfaction, it is important to understand the relationship between provider satisfaction and organizational culture, specifically in the context of practices that have transformed to a PCMH model. This was a cross-sectional study of surveys conducted in 2011 among providers and staff in 10 primary care clinics implementing their version of a PCMH: Care by Design. Measures included the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the American Medical Group Association provider satisfaction survey. Providers were most satisfied with quality of care (mean, 4.14; scale of 1-5) and interactions with patients (mean, 4.12) and were least satisfied with time spent working (mean, 3.47), paperwork (mean, 3.45), and compensation (mean, 3.35). Culture profiles differed across clinics, with family/clan and hierarchical cultures the most common. Significant correlations (P ≤ .05) between provider satisfaction and clinic culture archetypes included family/clan culture negatively correlated with administrative work; entrepreneurial culture positively correlated with the Time Spent Working dimension; market/rational culture positively correlated with how practices were facing economic and strategic challenges; and hierarchical culture negatively correlated with the Relationships with Staff and Resource dimensions. Provider satisfaction is an important metric for assessing experiences with features of a PCMH model. Identification of clinic-specific culture archetypes and archetype associations with provider satisfaction can help inform practice redesign. Attention to effective methods for changing organizational culture is recommended.

  2. The role of mycorrhizal associations in plant potassium nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eGarcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K+ is one of the most abundant elements of soil composition but its very low availability limits plant growth and productivity of ecosystems. Because this cation participates in many biological processes, its constitutive uptake from soil solution is crucial for the plant cell machinery. Thus, the understanding of strategies responsible of K+ nutrition is a major issue in plant science. Mycorrhizal associations occurring between roots and hyphae of underground fungi improve hydro-mineral nutrition of the majority of terrestrial plants. The contribution of this mutualistic symbiosis to the enhancement of plant K+ nutrition is not well understood and poorly studied so far. This mini-review examines the current knowledge about the impact of both arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal symbioses on the transfer of K+ from the soil to the plants. A model summarizing plant and fungal transport systems identified and hypothetically involved in K+ transport is proposed. In addition, some data related to benefits for plants provided by the improvement of K+ nutrition thanks to mycorrhizal symbioses are presented.

  3. Does providing nutrition information at vending machines reduce calories per item sold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A; Schulz, Mark R; Wyrick, David L; Bibeau, Daniel L; Gupta, Sat N

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, the United States (US) enacted a restaurant menu labeling law. The law also applied to vending machine companies selling food. Research suggested that providing nutrition information on menus in restaurants might reduce the number of calories purchased. We tested the effect of providing nutrition information and 'healthy' designations to consumers where vending machines were located in college residence halls. We conducted our study at one university in Southeast US (October-November 2012). We randomly assigned 18 vending machines locations (residence halls) to an intervention or control group. For the intervention we posted nutrition information, interpretive signage, and sent a promotional email to residents of the hall. For the control group we did nothing. We tracked sales over 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after we introduced the intervention. Our intervention did not change what the residents bought. We recommend additional research about providing nutrition information where vending machines are located, including testing formats used to present information.

  4. Caregiver and health care provider preferences of nutritional support in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hooker, Ruth; Adams, Marissa; Havrilla, David A; Leung, Wing; Roach, Robin R; Mosby, Terezie T

    2015-08-01

    Many pediatric oncology patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) require nutritional support (NS) because of their inability to consume adequate caloric intake enough calories orally. Although NS can be provided either enteraly (EN) or parenteraly (PN), EN is the preferred method of NS as long as if the gastrointestinal tract is functioning. In this qualitative study, we determined the type of NS preferences and the reservations of caregivers of pediatric HSCT patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as well as those of health care (HC) providers working on the HSCT unit. A survey was developed and completed anonymously by HC providers and caregivers. The hypothesis was that HC providers and caregivers would prefer PN because it is convenient to use in patients who already have a central line in place. Most caregivers preferred PN to EN, while most HC providers preferred EN to PN. The barrier between EN initiation and caregivers' approval was the caregivers' perception that EN was invasive and painful, most common obstacle for initiation of EN among caregivers was that it hurts/is invasive, while the barrier with HC providers was vomiting and/abdominal pain associated with EN. If caregivers were better educated about NS and the advantages/disadvantages of the different forms of NS, their preferences may change. There have been policy changes at St. Jude have been implemented since this study, and an outpatient dietitian now provides education to caregivers about NS during the pre-evaluation for HSCT. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Implementing the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Benchmarks for Nutrition Education for Children: Child-Care Providers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Schober, Daniel J; McBride, Brent A; Kok, Car Mun; Ramsay, Samantha

    2017-12-01

    National childhood obesity prevention policies recommend that child-care providers educate young children about nutrition to improve their nutrition knowledge and eating habits. Yet, the provision of nutrition education (NE) to children in child-care settings is limited. Using the 2011 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks for NE in child care as a guiding framework, researchers assessed child-care providers' perspectives regarding delivery of NE through books, posters, mealtime conversations, hands-on learning, and sensory exploration of foods to young children (aged 2 to 5 years). Using a qualitative design (realist method), individual, semistructured interviews were conducted until saturation was reached. The study was conducted during 2012-2013 and used purposive sampling to select providers. Final sample included 18 providers employed full-time in Head Start or state-licensed center-based child-care programs in Central Illinois. Child-care providers' perspectives regarding implementation of NE. Thematic analysis to derive themes using NVivo software. Three overarching themes emerged, including providers' motivators, barriers, and facilitators for delivering NE to children. Motivators for delivering NE included that NE encourages children to try new foods, NE improves children's knowledge of healthy and unhealthy foods, and NE is consistent with children's tendency for exploration. Barriers for delivering NE included that limited funding and resources for hands-on experiences and restrictive policies. Facilitators for delivering NE included providers obtain access to feasible, low-cost resources and community partners, providers work around restrictive policies to accommodate NE, and mealtime conversations are a feasible avenue to deliver NE. Providers integrated mealtime conversations with NE concepts such as food-based sensory exploration and health benefits of foods. Present study findings offer insights regarding providers' perspectives on

  6. Prevalence of nutrition associated ponderal outcomes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and 7.6%, respectively, in the urban subjects and 1.5%, 2.3% and 20.3%, respectively, in the rural subjects. Conclusion: The prevalence of underweight among rural school children and adolescents is high, thus a need for nutritional intervention. Keywords: Ebonyi state, nutritional, obesity, overweight, South‑East Nigeria, ...

  7. Exploring the Associations among Nutrition, Science, and Mathematics Knowledge for an Integrative, Food-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Virginia C.; Kolasa, Kathryn M.; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Explore associations between nutrition, science, and mathematics knowledge to provide evidence that integrating food/nutrition education in the fourth-grade curriculum may support gains in academic knowledge. Methods: Secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study. Sample included 438 students in 34 fourth-grade classrooms across…

  8. Metabolic acidosis and its association with nutritional status in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Claudia Maria Costa; Vidal, Caroline Lustosa da Costa; Cristino, Eurinice Fontenele; Pinheiro, Francisco Marto Leal; Kubrusly, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a common problem in dialysis patients and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of protein-energy malnutrition in these patients. To assess the prevalence of metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis and search their association with nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was performed in hemodialysis patients at a single center. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric, biochemical and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Metabolic acidosis was defined as serum bicarbonate (BIC) nutritional status, inflammation and bone disease.

  9. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  10. Nutrition and the HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonam, Cathríona Rosemary; Mullen, Anne

    2012-12-01

    HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS), comprising metabolic and morphological alterations, is a known side effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Evidence for the role of nutrition in the management of the systemic parameters of HALS is currently limited. In the present paper we review the current knowledge base surrounding HALS, focusing particularly on the role of nutrition in mitigating the systemic parameters of the syndrome. Reported prevalence of HALS was found to vary from 9 to 83 % due to lack of a standardised definition, as well as variations in assessment methods and in the study population used. HALS is associated with both morphological (lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy) and metabolic (dyslipidaemia, glucose intolerance, diabetes, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis) alterations, which may occur singly or in combination, and are associated with an increased risk of CVD. HAART-induced adipocyte inflammation, oxidative stress and macrophage infiltration, as well as altered adipocyte function and mitochondrial toxicity, have been shown to be central to the development of HALS. The adipocyte, therefore, represents a plausible target for treatment. Pharmacological and surgical treatment interventions have shown effect. However, their use is associated with numerous adverse effects and complications. Targeted lifestyle interventions may provide a useful alternative for managing HALS owing to their safety and tolerability. A Mediterranean-style diet has been found to be effective in improving the systemic parameters of HALS. Furthermore, the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation are encouraging and future randomised controlled trials investigating the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA in HALS are justified.

  11. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  12. Exploring the Associations Among Nutrition, Science, and Mathematics Knowledge for an Integrative, Food-Based Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Virginia C; Kolasa, Kathryn M; Díaz, Sebastián R; Duffrin, Melani W

    2018-01-01

    Explore associations between nutrition, science, and mathematics knowledge to provide evidence that integrating food/nutrition education in the fourth-grade curriculum may support gains in academic knowledge. Secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study. Sample included 438 students in 34 fourth-grade classrooms across North Carolina and Ohio; mean age 10 years old; gender (I = 53.2% female; C = 51.6% female). Dependent variable = post-test-nutrition knowledge; independent variables = baseline-nutrition knowledge, and post-test science and mathematics knowledge. Analyses included descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. The hypothesized model predicted post-nutrition knowledge (F(437) = 149.4, p Science and mathematics knowledge were predictive of nutrition knowledge indicating use of an integrative science and mathematics curriculum to improve academic knowledge may also simultaneously improve nutrition knowledge among fourth-grade students. Teachers can benefit from integration by meeting multiple academic standards, efficiently using limited classroom time, and increasing nutrition education provided in the classroom. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  13. Early Childhood Nutrition Is Positively Associated with Adolescent Educational Outcomes: Evidence from the Andhra Pradesh Child and Parents Study (APCAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arindam; Ashok, Ashvin; Kinra, Sanjay; Behrman, Jere R; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-03-09

    India's Integrated Child Development Scheme, which provides supplementary nutrition and other public health services to >91 million women and children aged nutrition provided under the Integrated Child Development Scheme with educational outcomes when the children became adolescents. We used longitudinal data from a controlled nutrition trial conducted near the city of Hyderabad, India. From 1987 to 1990, a balanced protein-energy supplement (corn-soya meal, called upma) was offered to pregnant women and children aged nutrition with school enrollment, schooling grades completed, and academic test performance of these adolescents. Children born in intervention villages were 7.8% (95% CI: 0.1%, 15.4%; P nutrition and academic performance, as measured by school test scores. Offering a nutritional supplement to pregnant women and children Nutrition Trial was associated with improved school enrollment and completion of more schooling grades when the children became adolescents. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. What do healthcare providers know about nutrition support? A survey of the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of pharmacists and doctors toward nutrition support in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Sarah A; Ibrahim, Baharudin; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan; Davies, J Graham

    2015-05-01

    Malnutrition is one of the health problems that can be prevented by appropriate nutrition care provided by healthcare providers. However, this practice is still lacking possibly because of the providers' inadequate knowledge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pharmacists and doctors toward nutrition support in a tertiary care hospital setting. A validated questionnaire was distributed to all the doctors and pharmacists working in a tertiary hospital in Penang, Malaysia. Seven individuals including academics, general surgeons, and pharmacists performed the face and content validity. The questionnaire was piloted using 24 healthcare providers at a different hospital. Of 400 surveyed, 158 doctors and 72 pharmacists from various grades completed the questionnaire. More doctors (31.6%) than pharmacists (15.3%) reported adequate knowledge to perform patients' nutrition screening. However, in the knowledge assessment, pharmacists had a higher mean score (6.07 ± 1.77) than the doctors did (4.59 ± 1.87; P < .001), and most (70.4%) of them were grouped in the "average" score range. In addition, both pharmacists and doctors have ambivalent attitudes toward nutrition support. Only 31.3% stated that they perform nutrition screening on admission, and half of them performed nutrition assessment during hospitalization. Inappropriate nutrition care might be due to the lack of guidelines and insufficient knowledge among doctors and pharmacists. Special nutrition training and education for both pharmacists and doctors should be established. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  15. Factors associated with the practice of nursing staff sharing information about patients' nutritional status with their colleagues in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Y; Tamaura, Y; Akamatsu, R; Sakai, M; Fujiwara, K

    2018-01-01

    Nursing staff have an important role in patients' nutritional care. The aim of this study was to demonstrate how the practice of sharing a patient's nutritional status with colleagues was affected by the nursing staff's attitude, knowledge and their priority to provide nutritional care. The participants were 492 nursing staff. We obtained participants' demographic data, the practice of sharing patients' nutritional information and information about participants' knowledge, attitude and priority of providing nutritional care by the questionnaire. We performed partial correlation analyses and linear regression analyses to describe the relationship between the total scores of the practice of sharing patients' nutritional information based on their knowledge, attitude and priority to provide nutritional care. Among the 492 participants, 396 nursing staff (80.5%) completed the questionnaire and were included in analyses. Mean±s.d. of total score of the 396 participants was 8.4±3.1. Nursing staff shared information when they had a high nutritional knowledge (r=0.36, Pnutritional care practice was not significantly associated with the practice of sharing information. Knowledge and attitude were independently associated with the practice of sharing patients' nutrition information with colleagues, regardless of their priority to provide nutritional care. An effective approach should be taken to improve the practice of providing nutritional care practice.

  16. What do patients think about the role of optometrists in providing advice about smoking and nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Laura E; Douglass, Amanda; Guest, Daryl; Keller, Peter R

    2017-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and nutrition are key lifestyle factors with long-term effects on eye health. However, little is known about patients' perceptions and experiences in these areas in relation to the care received from optometrists. The main aim was to survey patients' perceptions and prior experience regarding the role of optometrists in enquiring and providing advice about tobacco smoking and nutrition. An anonymous, paper-based survey was distributed to a convenience sample of 225 adults attending the University of Melbourne eye care clinic. Respondents provided demographic and other information (age, sex, length of time since last eye examination, country of most recent eye examination, smoking status and intake of nutritional supplements) and indicated their level of agreement (using a five-step Likert scale) with a series of statements relating to the care provided by optometrists in the areas of health, smoking and nutrition. The statements were designed to assess the perceived scope of practice of optometrists and the extent to which patients expect, and feel comfortable, discussing these issues with their optometrist. 220 completed surveys were returned. Most respondents (>80%) agreed that they visit their optometrist to quantify their refractive error and to examine their eye health. About two-thirds of respondents indicated that they expect their optometrist to ask about their general health, with almost half expecting their optometrist to communicate with their general medical practitioner. Approximately one-third of respondents indicated having been routinely questioned about their smoking status, diet and nutritional supplement intake by their optometrist. This was despite about half expecting their optometrist to question them about these factors and almost three out of four respondents indicating that they felt comfortable talking with their optometrist about these lifestyle behaviours. This study provides novel insight into patients' perceptions and

  17. Association between oxidative stress and nutritional status in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Lucelia Moreira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is a dynamic and progressive process that is characterized by the occurrence of morphological, biochemical, functional and psychological changes in the organism. The aim of the present article is to provide updated concepts on oxidative stress, covering its importance in aging, as well as nutritional status and supplementation with antioxidants (substances that prevent or attenuate oxidation of oxidizable substrates, such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and deoxyribonucleic acid in the geriatric population. Evidence suggests that there is an inverse relationship between oxidative stress and nutritional status in elderly individuals. Although an increase in oxidative stress in chronic diseases associated with aging has been proven, such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, up to now there has been no consistent clinical evidence proving the efficiency of supplementation with antioxidants against oxidative stress. In this context, supplementation is not recommended. On the other hand, the elderly should be encouraged to eat antioxidant foods, such as fruits and vegetables. Maintaining a normal weight (body mass index between 23 and 28 Kg/m2 should also be stimulated.

  18. Costs of multidisciplinary parenteral nutrition care provided at a distance via mobile tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung; Spaulding, Ryan; Werkowitch, Marilyn; Yadrich, Donna; Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Gilroy, Richard; Smith, Carol E

    2014-11-01

    Determining the costs of healthcare delivery is a key step for providing efficient nutrition-based care. This analysis tabulates the costs of delivering home parenteral nutrition (HPN) interventions and clinical assessments through encrypted mobile technologies to increase patients' access to healthcare providers, reduce their travel expenses, and allow early detection of infection and other complications. A traditional cost-accounting method was used to tabulate all expenses related to mobile distance HPN clinic appointments, including (1) personnel time of multidisciplinary healthcare professionals, (2) supply of HPN intervention materials, and (3) equipment, connection, and delivery expenses. A total of 20 mobile distance clinic appointments were conducted for an average of 56 minutes each with 45 patients who required HPN infusion care. The initial setup costs included mobile tablet devices, 4G data plans, and personnel's time as well as intervention materials. The initial costs were on average $916.64 per patient, while the follow-up clinic appointments required $361.63 a month, with these costs continuing to decline as the equipment was used by multiple patients more frequently over time. Patients reported high levels of satisfaction with cost savings in travel expenses and rated the quality of care comparable to traditional in-person examinations. This study provides important aspects of the initial cost tabulation for visual assessment for HPN appointments. These findings will be used to generate a decision algorithm for scheduling mobile distance clinic appointments intermittent with in-person visits to determine how to lower costs of nutrition assessments. To maximize the cost benefits, clinical trials must continue to collect clinical outcomes. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  19. Ghrelin and its Association with Nutritional and Inflammatory Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition and inflammation are associated with morbidity and mortality in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide hormone, is speculated to be associated with nutritional and inflammatory status in MHD. Aim: To assess the serum total ghrelin levels and its possible ...

  20. Association between nutrition knowledge and nutritional intake in middle-aged men from Northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallongeville, J; Marécaux, N; Cottel, D; Bingham, A; Amouyel, P

    2001-02-01

    The way in which nutrition knowledge transforms into dietary behaviour and nutrient intake may vary among populations. Therefore, the goal of the study was to examine whether nutrition knowledge is associated with nutritional intake in middle-aged men who are at major risk of cardiovascular disease. Cross-sectional population study aimed at comparing the response to a nutrition quiz with food habits and nutrient intake determined by a 3-day food record. Men of the Urban Community of Lille (France) examined at home. 361 men aged 45-64 y, randomly selected from the electoral rolls. Subjects were separated in a high-score and a low-score group according to their responses to the nutrition quiz. Subjects in the high-score group had better educational and higher income levels than those from the low-score group. Multivariate analysis, adjusting on educational and socio-economic levels and other confounding variables - such as age, body mass index, cigarette smoking, physical activity and energy intake underreporting - showed that subjects in the high-score group were more often consumers of olive oil (36 vs. 12%; ), cheese (85 vs. 76%; or cereals (27 vs. 15%; and less often consumers of sunflower oil (51 vs. 68%; or dry vegetables (12 vs. 22%; than those in the low-score group. Subjects in the high-score group had lower intakes of fat vs. and especially of monounsaturated fat of animal origin vs. than individuals in the low-score group. Nutrition quiz score is associated with specific patterns of food choices and nutrient intake suggesting that nutrition knowledge influences dietary behaviour in middle-aged men from Northern France.

  1. An Integrated Curriculum of Nursing, Nutrition, Exercise, and Drugs for Health Care Providers of the Elderly (Project NNED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summit-Portage Area Health Education Network, Akron, OH.

    This document is intended to give health care providers interdisciplinary information concerning drugs, nutrition, and exercise to help them enhance health maintenance of the elderly. Prepared as part of Project NNED, (Nursing, Nutrition, Exercise, and Drugs), an integrated curriculum for health care providers of the elderly, the document includes…

  2. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition intervention in the treatment of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozier, Amy D; Henry, Beverly W

    2011-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition intervention, including nutritional counseling by a registered dietitian (RD), is an essential component of team treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders (EDs) during assessment and treatment across the continuum of care. Diagnostic criteria for EDs provide important guidelines for identification and treatment. In addition, individuals may experience disordered eating that extends along a range from food restriction to partial conditions to diagnosed EDs. Understanding the roles and responsibilities of RDs is critical to the effective care of individuals with EDs. The complexities of EDs, such as epidemiologic factors, treatment guidelines, special populations, and emerging trends highlight the nature of EDs, which require a collaborative approach by an interdisciplinary team of mental health, nutrition, and medical specialists. RDs are integral members of treatment teams and are uniquely qualified to provide medical nutrition therapy for the normalization of eating patterns and nutritional status. However, this role requires understanding of the psychologic and neurobiologic aspects of EDs. Advanced training is needed to work effectively with this population. Further efforts with evidenced-based research must continue for improved treatment outcomes related to EDs, along with identification of effective primary and secondary interventions. This paper supports the "Practice Paper of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Intervention in the Treatment of Eating Disorders" published online at www.eatright.org/positions. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutrition status and associated factors among children in public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 13 Issue 1 March 2013. 39. Nutrition status and associated factors among ... Breakfast contributed 10.2% of the daily energy intake. Few children consumed foods from more than four food groups ... also be a long term deficit in mental and physical development that leaves children unable to take.

  4. Nutrition Status and Associated Morbidity Risk Factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition Status and Associated Morbidity Risk Factors among Orphanage and Non-Orphanage Children in Selected Public Primary Schools within Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya. ... Results: The orphanage children had a significantly higher rate of stunting and underweight (p< 0.05) than the non-orphanage children.

  5. Role of FODMAP content in enteral nutrition-associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmos, Emma P

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea are common complications of enteral nutrition (EN); however, the cause is unclear. Mode of EN delivery that alters digestion and possibly absorption is suggested to contribute to the high incidence of diarrhea; however, enteral formula is frequently blamed. Most research has focused on fiber-supplemented EN, with a meta-analysis showing that fiber reduces the incidence of diarrhea in non-intensive care unit studies. Other hypotheses include formula osmolality and FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) content. FODMAPs are poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that exert an osmotic effect. Dietary FODMAPs have been shown to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, in those with irritable bowel syndrome and, given a high-enough dose, will induce a laxative effect in most people. As FODMAPs are commonly added to enteral formula and EN is frequently used as the main source of nutrition, it is reasonable to hypothesize that EN provides more FODMAPs than usual dietary intake and increases risk for developing diarrhea. This hypothesis was assessed through a retrospective study showing that the standard-use enteral formula Isosource 1.5 had a protective effect of developing diarrhea. The only characteristic unique to Isosource 1.5 was the lower FODMAP content as determined through methodologies previously validated for food analysis. Methodologies for application to enteral formulas are currently undergoing formal validation. Once confirmed for application in enteral formula, future directions include FODMAP analysis of specific ingredients to increase understanding of potential problems associated with enteral formula and a randomized, controlled trial investigating the role of formula FODMAP content. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Sweeteners elicit pleasurable sensations with (nutritive) or without (nonnutritive) energy. Nutritive sweeteners (eg, sucrose, fructose) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), yet concern exists about increasing sweetener intakes relative to optimal nutrition and health. Dietary quality suffers at intakes above 25% of total energy (the Institutes of Medicine's suggested maximal intake level). In the United States, estimated intakes of nutritive sweeteners fall below this, although one in four children (ages 9 to 18 years) can surpass this level. Polyols (sugar alcohols), GRAS-affirmed or petitions filed for GRAS, add sweetness with reduced energy and functional properties to foods/beverages and promote dental health. Five nonnutritive sweeteners with intense sweetening power have FDA approval (acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, sucralose) and estimated intakes below the Acceptable Daily Intake (level that a person can safely consume everyday over a lifetime without risk). By increasing palatability of nutrient-dense foods/beverages, sweeteners can promote diet healthfulness. Scientific evidence supports neither that intakes of nutritive sweeteners by themselves increase the risk of obesity nor that nutritive or nonnutritive sweeteners cause behavioral disorders. However, nutritive sweeteners increase risk of dental caries. High fructose intakes may cause hypertriglyceridemia and gastrointestinal symptoms in susceptible individuals. Thus, it is the position of The American Dietetic Association that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners when consumed in a diet that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary References Intakes, as well as individual health goals. Dietetics professionals should provide consumers with science-based information about sweeteners and support research on the use of sweeteners

  7. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugasti Murillo, Ana; Petrina Jáuregui, Estrella; Elizondo Armendáriz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a particularly important problem in patients who need this type of nutritional support for a long time. Prevalence of the condition is highly variable depending on the series, and its clinical presentation is different in adults and children. The etiology of PNALD is not well defined, and participation of several factors at the same time has been suggested. When a bilirubin level >2 mg/dl is detected for a long time, other causes of liver disease should be ruled out and risk factors should be minimized. The composition of lipid emulsions used in parenteral nutrition is one of the factors related to PNALD. This article reviews the different types of lipid emulsions and the potential benefits of emulsions enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Food industry firms' economic incentives to provide nutritional information to the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ronit, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Information asymmetries between producers and consumers exist with respect to nutritional characteristics of foods and beverages. This paper aims to analyze firms’ methods to supply nutritional information, focusing on three specific food industries: breakfast cereals, snacks and soft drinks...

  9. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks for nutrition in child care 2011: are child-care providers across contexts meeting recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; McBride, Brent A

    2013-10-01

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) recommends feeding practices for child-care providers to establish nutrition habits in early childhood to prevent obesity. With >12 million US children in child care, little is known about child-care providers' feeding practices. The purpose of this study was to examine child-care providers' feeding practices to assess whether providers met the Academy's benchmarks and whether attainment of benchmarks varied across child-care contexts (Head Start, Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP], and non-CACFP). Cross-sectional data was collected in 2011 and 2012 from 118 child-care providers who completed self-administered surveys regarding their feeding practices for 2- to 5-year-old children. χ(2) tests and analysis of variance were used to determine variation across contexts. Head Start providers sat more frequently with children during meals (P=0.01), ate the same foods as children (P=0.001), and served meals family style (Pchildren (P=0.01) received more nutrition-education opportunities compared with CACFP and non-CACFP. Head Start providers encouraged more balance and variety of foods (Pchildren about nutrition (PAcademy's benchmarks compared with CACFP and non-CACFP providers. Possible reasons for this compliance might be attributed to Head Start nutrition performance standards and increased nutrition-training opportunities for Head Start staff. Head Start programs can serve as a model in implementing the Academy's benchmarks. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional parameters are associated with mortality in acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nogueira Berbel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to perform a nutritional assessment of acute kidney injury patients and to identify the relationship between nutritional markers and outcomes.METHOD:This was a prospective and observational study. Patients who were hospitalized at the Hospital of Botucatu School of Medicine were evaluated between January 2009 and December 2011. We evaluated a total of 133 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute kidney injury and a clinical presentation suggestive of acute tubular necrosis. We explored the associations between clinical, laboratory and nutritional markers and in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding and selection bias.RESULTS:Non-survivor patients were older (67±14 vs. 59±16 years and exhibited a higher prevalence of sepsis (57.1 vs. 21.4% and higher Acute Tubular Necrosis-Individual Severity Scores (0.60±0.22 vs. 0.41±0.21 than did survivor patients. Based on the multivariable analysis, laboratorial parameters such as blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein were associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 1.013, p= 0.0052; OR: 1.050, p= 0.01, respectively, and nutritional parameters such as low calorie intake, higher levels of edema, lower resistance based on bioelectrical impedance analysis and a more negative nitrogen balance were significantly associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 0.950, p= 0.01; OR: 1.138, p= 0.03; OR: 0.995, p= 0.03; OR: 0.934, p= 0.04, respectively.CONCLUSIONS:In acute kidney injury patients, a nutritional assessment seems to identify nutritional markers that are associated with outcome. In this study, a low caloric intake, higher C-reactive protein levels, the presence of edema, a lower resistance measured during a bioelectrical impedance analysis and a lower nitrogen balance were significantly associated with risk of death in acute kidney injury patients.

  11. Estimated Nutritive Value of Low-Price Model Lunch Sets Provided to Garment Workers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makurat, Jan; Pillai, Aarati; Wieringa, Frank T; Chamnan, Chhoun; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2017-07-21

    The establishment of staff canteens is expected to improve the nutritional situation of Cambodian garment workers. The objective of this study is to assess the nutritive value of low-price model lunch sets provided at a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Exemplary lunch sets were served to female workers through a temporary canteen at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Dish samples were collected repeatedly to examine mean serving sizes of individual ingredients. Food composition tables and NutriSurvey software were used to assess mean amounts and contributions to recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake of energy, macronutrients, dietary fiber, vitamin C (VitC), iron, vitamin A (VitA), folate and vitamin B12 (VitB12). On average, lunch sets provided roughly one third of RDA or adequate intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat and dietary fiber. Contribution to RDA of protein was high (46% RDA). The sets contained a high mean share of VitC (159% RDA), VitA (66% RDA), and folate (44% RDA), but were low in VitB12 (29% RDA) and iron (20% RDA). Overall, lunches satisfied recommendations of caloric content and macronutrient composition. Sets on average contained a beneficial amount of VitC, VitA and folate. Adjustments are needed for a higher iron content. Alternative iron-rich foods are expected to be better suited, compared to increasing portions of costly meat/fish components. Lunch provision at Cambodian garment factories holds the potential to improve food security of workers, approximately at costs of <1 USD/person/day at large scale. Data on quantitative total dietary intake as well as physical activity among workers are needed to further optimize the concept of staff canteens.

  12. Estimated Nutritive Value of Low-Price Model Lunch Sets Provided to Garment Workers in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Makurat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment of staff canteens is expected to improve the nutritional situation of Cambodian garment workers. The objective of this study is to assess the nutritive value of low-price model lunch sets provided at a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods: Exemplary lunch sets were served to female workers through a temporary canteen at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Dish samples were collected repeatedly to examine mean serving sizes of individual ingredients. Food composition tables and NutriSurvey software were used to assess mean amounts and contributions to recommended dietary allowances (RDAs or adequate intake of energy, macronutrients, dietary fiber, vitamin C (VitC, iron, vitamin A (VitA, folate and vitamin B12 (VitB12. Results: On average, lunch sets provided roughly one third of RDA or adequate intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat and dietary fiber. Contribution to RDA of protein was high (46% RDA. The sets contained a high mean share of VitC (159% RDA, VitA (66% RDA, and folate (44% RDA, but were low in VitB12 (29% RDA and iron (20% RDA. Conclusions: Overall, lunches satisfied recommendations of caloric content and macronutrient composition. Sets on average contained a beneficial amount of VitC, VitA and folate. Adjustments are needed for a higher iron content. Alternative iron-rich foods are expected to be better suited, compared to increasing portions of costly meat/fish components. Lunch provision at Cambodian garment factories holds the potential to improve food security of workers, approximately at costs of <1 USD/person/day at large scale. Data on quantitative total dietary intake as well as physical activity among workers are needed to further optimize the concept of staff canteens.

  13. Parenteral Nutrition Electrolyte Abnormalities and Associated Factors Before and After Nutrition Support Team Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Katie; Utech, Anne; Velez, Maria Eugenia; Walker, Renee

    2018-02-01

    Studied since the 1940s, refeeding syndrome still has no universal definition, thus making comparison of studies difficult. Negative outcomes (eg, metabolic abnormalities) may occur with the use of specialized nutrition, such as parenteral nutrition (PN). Less than half of medical institutions have a nutrition support team (NST) managing PN. Interdisciplinary team management of PN may reduce negative outcomes of PN. The objective of this study was to show the value of the NST by measuring differences in PN variables, especially electrolyte abnormalities (EAs), before and after NST initiation at a large medical center and to identify factors associated with EAs among adult subjects receiving PN. During this retrospective study, computerized medical charts (N = 735) from 2007-2010 were reviewed for electrolyte changes (particularly potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus) the first 3 days following PN initiation in hospitalized adults. Changes in EAs with other variables were compared before and after NST implementation. Equivalent samples sizes were collected to better evaluate the impact of the team. Following the implementation of the NST, fewer EAs were seen in PN patients (53%; χ 2  = 10.906, P = .004); significantly less potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium intravenous piggyback supplementation (88.8% vs 94%; χ 2  = 5.05, P = .026) was used; and mortality within 30 days of PN cessation was significantly less (12.7% vs 10.6%, P = .012). Our study complements existing research, finding that an NST was associated with a decreased occurrence of EAs and mortality in the hospitalized adult receiving PN. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  14. The role of mycorrhizal associations in plant potassium nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Kevin; Zimmermann, Sabine D.

    2014-01-01

    Potassium (K+) is one of the most abundant elements of soil composition but it's very low availability limits plant growth and productivity of ecosystems. Because this cation participates in many biological processes, its constitutive uptake from soil solution is crucial for the plant cell machinery. Thus, the understanding of strategies responsible of K+ nutrition is a major issue in plant science. Mycorrhizal associations occurring between roots and hyphae of underground fungi improve hydro...

  15. Association between state school nutrition laws and subsequent child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakshappa, Deepak; Fiks, Alexander G; Faerber, Jennifer A; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Many states have enacted laws to improve school nutrition. We tested whether stronger state nutrition laws are associated with subsequently decreased obesity. We conducted a retrospective national multi-year panel data study (analyzed 2014-2016 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia). The predictors were 2010 laws regarding 9 nutrition categories from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students, which grades the strength of state laws (none, weak, or strong). The outcome was weight status (healthy weight, overweight, or obese) in elementary, middle, and high school from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health. We tested the association between the strength of laws and weight using multinomial logistic regression. To further evaluate our main results, we conducted state-level longitudinal analyses testing the association between competitive food and beverage laws on the change in obesity from 2003-2011. In main analyses of 40,177 children ages 10-17years, we found strong state laws restricting the sale of competitive food and beverages in elementary school (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.96) and strong advertising laws across all grades (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86) were associated with reduced odds of obesity. In longitudinal analyses, states with strong competitive food and beverage laws from 2003-2010 had small but significant decreases in obesity, compared to states with no laws. Although further research is needed to determine the causal effect of these laws, this study suggests that strong state laws limiting the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages in schools are associated with decreased obesity rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the Feasibility of an Academic Course That Provides Nutrition Education to Collegiate Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the delivery of nutrition education to collegiate student-athletes through an academic course. Existing literature has established the need for nutrition education among collegiate athletes. This article considers the collaboration of the university and the athletic department to better serve this…

  17. ERICA: age at menarche and its association with nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Bruna de Siqueira; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Maria Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira da

    2018-01-18

    To estimate the mean age at menarche and its association with nutritional status in Brazilian adolescents. The study sample included female adolescents aged 12-17 who participated in a multicenter, school-based, country-wide, cross-sectional study entitled The Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents (Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes [ERICA]). Mean and median ages at menarche in Brazil were estimated. The association of age at menarche with sociodemographic data and nutritional status were described as means and their respective 95% confidence intervals. Survival analysis was used to assess the age at menarche according to nutritional status categories and the log-rank test was used to compare the medians. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox regression to verify the association between menarche and other variables. A total of 73,624 students were evaluated, comprising 40,803 girls, of whom 37,390 reported menarche at a mean age of 11.71 years and a median of 12.41 years. Median age at menarche was lower in overweight and obese girls (p<0.001). The multivariate analysis showed that excess weight (HR=1.28; 95% CI 1.21-1.36; p<0.001) and studying in a private school (HR=1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.10; p=0.003) were associated with menarche. This is a pioneering study in Brazil with national and regional representativeness to estimate the mean and the median age of occurrence of menarche. Adolescents with excess weight had an earlier menarche than their peers, even after adjustment for confounding factors. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a Website Providing Evidence-Based Information About Nutrition and Cancer: Fighting Fiction and Supporting Facts Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Merel Rebecca; Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen

    2015-09-08

    Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors' questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. The website provides access to evidence- and eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. As can be

  19. Nutritional status of children under five years and associated factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Information on nutritional status of children under five years is an indicator of the nutritional situation in society. Identification of core factors influencing nutrition of this population supports plans to alleviate child malnutrition and its consequences. This study sought to determine the nutritional status of children under five ...

  20. The effect of providing nutritional information about fast-food restaurant menus on parents' meal choices for their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Kiwon; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Soyeong; Yang, Jihye; Song, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Youngmi

    2015-12-01

    To encourage healthier food choices for children in fast-food restaurants, many initiatives have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effect of disclosing nutritional information on parents' meal choices for their children at fast-food restaurants in South Korea. An online experimental survey using a menu board was conducted with 242 parents of children aged 2-12 years who dined with them at fast-food restaurants at least once a month. Participants were classified into two groups: the low-calorie group (n = 41) who chose at least one of the lowest calorie meals in each menu category, and the high-calorie group (n = 201) who did not. The attributes including perceived empowerment, use of provided nutritional information, and perceived difficulties were compared between the two groups. The low-calorie group perceived significantly higher empowerment with the nutritional information provided than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.020). Additionally, the low-calorie group was more interested in nutrition labeling (P children more than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.017). The low-calorie group used the nutritional information provided when choosing meals for their children significantly more than did the high-calorie group (P food choices for their children at fast-food restaurants.

  1. In–Center Nutrition Practices of Clinics within a Large Hemodialysis Provider in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Mary; Stasios, Maria; Brosch, Becky; Wilund, Ken; Shen, Sa; Kistler, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Eating during hemodialysis treatment remains a controversial topic. It is perceived that more restrictive practices in the United States contribute to poorer nutritional status and elevated mortality compared with some other parts of the world. However, in–center food practices in the United States have not been previously described. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In 2011, we conducted a survey of clinic practices and clinician (dietitian, facility administrator, and medical director) opinions related to in–center food consumption within a large dialysis organization. After the initial survey, we provided clinicians with educational materials about eating during treatment. In 2014, we performed a follow-up survey. Differences in practices and opinions were analyzed using chi-squared tests and logistic regression. Results In 2011, 343 of 1199 clinics (28.6%) did not allow eating during treatment, 222 clinics (18.2%) did not allow drinking during treatment, and 19 clinics (1.6%) did not allow eating at the facility before or after treatment. In 2014, the proportion of clinics that did not allow eating during treatment had declined to 22.6% (321 of 1422 clinics), a significant shift in practice (Pnutritional status. Among clinicians, a higher percentage encouraged eating during treatment (53.1% versus 37.4%; Phemodialysis clinics within the United States restricted eating during treatment in 2011 and 2014, respectively, a rate more than double that found in an international cohort on which we previously published. However, practices and clinician opinions are shifting toward allowing patients to eat. Additional research is warranted to understand the effect that these practices have on patient outcomes and outline best practices. PMID:27084879

  2. In-Center Nutrition Practices of Clinics within a Large Hemodialysis Provider in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Debbie; Burgess, Mary; Stasios, Maria; Brosch, Becky; Wilund, Ken; Shen, Sa; Kistler, Brandon

    2016-05-06

    Eating during hemodialysis treatment remains a controversial topic. It is perceived that more restrictive practices in the United States contribute to poorer nutritional status and elevated mortality compared with some other parts of the world. However, in-center food practices in the United States have not been previously described. In 2011, we conducted a survey of clinic practices and clinician (dietitian, facility administrator, and medical director) opinions related to in-center food consumption within a large dialysis organization. After the initial survey, we provided clinicians with educational materials about eating during treatment. In 2014, we performed a follow-up survey. Differences in practices and opinions were analyzed using chi-squared tests and logistic regression. In 2011, 343 of 1199 clinics (28.6%) did not allow eating during treatment, 222 clinics (18.2%) did not allow drinking during treatment, and 19 clinics (1.6%) did not allow eating at the facility before or after treatment. In 2014, the proportion of clinics that did not allow eating during treatment had declined to 22.6% (321 of 1422 clinics), a significant shift in practice (Pnutritional status. Among clinicians, a higher percentage encouraged eating during treatment (53.1% versus 37.4%; Phemodialysis clinics within the United States restricted eating during treatment in 2011 and 2014, respectively, a rate more than double that found in an international cohort on which we previously published. However, practices and clinician opinions are shifting toward allowing patients to eat. Additional research is warranted to understand the effect that these practices have on patient outcomes and outline best practices. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  4. [Nutritional status associated with demographic characteristics in older Peruvian adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina; Alvarez-Dongo, Doris; Espinoza-Oriundo, Paula; Gomez-Guizado, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    To describe the nutritional status in older adults and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Sampling was probabilistic, stratifi and multistage. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI) according to the classifi of nutritional status for the elderly from the Ministry of Health of Peru. The statistical analysis considered the necessary weight for complex samples. The study included 7,267 older adults. 26.8% of participants were underweight, 21.7% overweight, 10.6% obese and 40.8% normal. The average age in the sample was 70.1 ± 8.3 years. Illiteracy (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2-3.0), primary education (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.9), extreme poverty (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6-2.5), living in rural areas (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.5-2.1), living in the mountains (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.2) or jungle (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) were found associated with underweight. Females (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.4-2.1), living in urban areas (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6-2.5), living in the coastal region (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2- 1.8); and not classifi as poor (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.9) were associated with overweight. Female sex (OR 3.1; 95% CI 2.3-4.1), primary education (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5-4.0) and secondary (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.4); live in urban areas (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.6-2.9), inhabiting the coast (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.4), Metro (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2) and jungle (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.2), and not classifi as poor (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.8-7.0) were associated with obesity. The data suggest that both underweight and overweight are common in the elderly population studied.

  5. Global policy and programme guidance on maternal nutrition: what exists, the mechanisms for providing it, and how to improve them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimpton, Roger

    2012-07-01

    Undernutrition in one form or another affects the majority of women of reproductive age in most developing countries. However, there are few or no effective programmes trying to solve maternal undernutrition problems. The purpose of the paper is to examine global policy and programme guidance mechanisms for nutrition, what their content is with regard to maternal nutrition in particular, as well as how these might be improved. Almost all countries have committed themselves politically to ensuring the right of pregnant and lactating women to good nutrition through the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Despite this, the World Health Organization (WHO) has not endorsed any policy commitments with regard to maternal nutrition. The only policy guidance coming from the various technical departments of WHO relates to the control of maternal anaemia. There is no policy or programme guidance concerning issues of maternal thinness, weight gain during pregnancy and/or low birthweight prevention. Few if any countries have maternal nutrition programmes beyond those for maternal anaemia, and most of those are not effective. The lack of importance given to maternal nutrition is related in part to a weakness of evidence, related to the difficulty of getting ethical clearance, as well as a generalised tendency to downplay the importance of those interventions found to be efficacious. No priority has been given to implementing existing policy and programme guidance for the control of maternal anaemia largely because of a lack of any dedicated funding, linked to a lack of Millennium Development Goals indicator status. This is partly due to the poor evidence base, as well as to the common belief that maternal anaemia programmes were not effective, even if efficacious. The process of providing evidence-based policy and programme guidance to member states is currently being revamped and strengthened by the Department of Nutrition for Health and

  6. Association between an inflammatory-nutritional index and nutritional status in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberici Pastore, Carla; Paiva Orlandi, Silvana; González, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifatorial syndrome characterized by loss of body weight, fat and muscle, increasing morbidity and mortality. The use of an index accounting for both serum albumin and C Reactive Protein levels could make early identification of cachexia easier. To evaluate the variation of an inflammatory nutritional index related to nutritional status in cancer patients. Cross sectional study including patients with gastrointestinal and lung cancer of a public chemotherapy service in Brazil. Serum albumin and C Reactive Protein were measured and the nutritional status was defined by Subjective Global Assessment. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 9.2(TM). A total of 74 patients were evaluated, 58.1% of them were male, mean age 63.4 ± 11.9 years old. Gastrointestinal cancer was the most prevalent type (71.6%). Only 13.7% of the patients were well nourished and 21.9% were severely malnourished. C Reactive Protein significantly increased according to nutritional status decline (p=0.03). When the albumin from patients with systemic inflammation was evaluated, there was no significant variation in relation to nutritional status (p=0.06). The Inflammatory Nutritional Index significantly varied in relation to nutritional status independent of the systemic inflammation (p=0.02). Inflammatory Nutritional Index can be an adjuvant way for biochemical nutritional assessment and follow up in cancer patients with systemic inflammation. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Food and nutrition policies associate with indicators of healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has resulted in more focus on the role that public settings such as school for children can play in promoting healthy lifestyle. As a consequence increasingly organizational efforts have been directed towards this issue and policy instruments have...... become one of the preferred organizational tools to frame these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between having a local food & nutrition policy and indicators of healthy eating at school. It is based results from a web survey among food service coordinators in 179......, the attitude of school respondents regarding promoting organic food and healthy eating habits through school environment, the existing policies concerning healthy school food and the development of school food serving practice, were analyzed by using statistic tools. The results indicate a strong relationship...

  8. Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.

  9. Selected nutritional habits of teenagers associated with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Magdalena; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    A balanced diet is at the heart of healthy growth and development of children and youth, whereas inappropriate eating habits considerably influence the incidence of disorders connected with nutrition, including overweight and obesity. This paper aims at studying nutritional factors of 18-year-old secondary school youth in the urban environment and their effect on the incidence of overweight and obesity. The survey was conducted among 1,999 secondary school students chosen at random. The research tool consisted an original survey questionnaire. The measurements of respondents' height and body mass provided data for calculating the body mass index. The percentage of youth with deficient body mass was estimated at 8.4%. The percentage of normal weight students in the surveyed group was estimated at 77.6%. Overweight and obesity characterized 14.0% of the total number. As many as 21.8% of overweight and obese respondents would eat one or two meals as opposed to 16.8% of normal weight students. Three-fourths of the surveyed students would eat breakfast regardless of their nutritional habits. Lunch is eaten by 52.9% of normal weight 18-year-olds and 46.1% of overweight and obese students. The analysis of mealtimes suggests that overweight and obese students would have their breakfast and dinner at later hours than the rest of the surveyed. More than half of the participating students failed to eat lunch (53.9%), and one in four students within this group resigned from supper. Girls would eat fruit and vegetables more frequently than boys several times a day. The percentage of persons in the surveyed groups who would eat fast foods on a daily basis was similar regardless of their nutritional status. Sweetened carbonated beverages would be drunk more often by overweight and obese boys (81.2%) as compared with boys with proper body mass (75.8%). The same type of beverages would be popular with two-thirds of girls, and this result was similar regardless of their nutritional

  10. Selected nutritional habits of teenagers associated with overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zalewska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A balanced diet is at the heart of healthy growth and development of children and youth, whereas inappropriate eating habits considerably influence the incidence of disorders connected with nutrition, including overweight and obesity. This paper aims at studying nutritional factors of 18-year-old secondary school youth in the urban environment and their effect on the incidence of overweight and obesity. Materials and methods The survey was conducted among 1,999 secondary school students chosen at random. The research tool consisted an original survey questionnaire. The measurements of respondents’ height and body mass provided data for calculating the body mass index. Results and conclusion The percentage of youth with deficient body mass was estimated at 8.4%. The percentage of normal weight students in the surveyed group was estimated at 77.6%. Overweight and obesity characterized 14.0% of the total number. As many as 21.8% of overweight and obese respondents would eat one or two meals as opposed to 16.8% of normal weight students. Three-fourths of the surveyed students would eat breakfast regardless of their nutritional habits. Lunch is eaten by 52.9% of normal weight 18-year-olds and 46.1% of overweight and obese students. The analysis of mealtimes suggests that overweight and obese students would have their breakfast and dinner at later hours than the rest of the surveyed. More than half of the participating students failed to eat lunch (53.9%, and one in four students within this group resigned from supper. Girls would eat fruit and vegetables more frequently than boys several times a day. The percentage of persons in the surveyed groups who would eat fast foods on a daily basis was similar regardless of their nutritional status. Sweetened carbonated beverages would be drunk more often by overweight and obese boys (81.2% as compared with boys with proper body mass (75.8%. The same type of beverages would be popular with two

  11. The Nutritional Quality of Food Provided from Food Pantries: A Systematic Review of Existing Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmet, Anja; Depa, Julia; Tinnemann, Peter; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2017-04-01

    In many affluent countries, food-insecure households use food pantries to keep their family fed. The long-term dependence of many users on these programs calls for a systematic review of studies on the nutritional quality of food provided by food pantries. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the current scientific evidence about the nutritional quality of food bags distributed by food pantries. A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and Psychology Behavioral Sciences Collection to identify cross-sectional, cohort, and intervention studies reporting baseline data conducted in high-income countries and published between 1980 and 2015, which reported the nutritional quality of food bags distributed by food pantries. Identified citations were screened in two stages and data were independently extracted by two authors using a predefined data sheet. The quality of included studies was evaluated using criteria of an adapted Ottawa Scale. The systematic review was reported in accordance to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Applying the two-stage screening, 9 of 1,546 articles were identified for inclusion. Nutritional quality of food bags varied widely between and within studies. Milk products, vitamins A and C, and calcium were provided in particularly low amounts. None of the studies were nationally representative and only a few studies controlled for the household composition of the recipients of food bags. Food pantries likely have a strong influence on users' diets, but the food pantries examined in the selected studies were largely unable to support healthy diets. The distribution of more perishable foods would increase users' diet quality and may have an immense potential to address malnutrition in vulnerable population groups. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. nutrition status and associated morbidity risk factors among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... of malnutrition and respiratory infections (3). School-age children are particularly vulnerable to under nutrition as the priority in nutrition interventions is often to prevent malnutrition during foetal development and the first years of life – the most critical period for growth and development. (4). Stunting and ...

  13. Ghrelin and its Association with Nutritional and Inflammatory Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    altered amino acids, hormones (e.g., leptin and ghrelin), and neuropeptides (e.g., neuropeptide Y [NPY], peptide ..... on appetite regulation and nutritional status, the present study had assessed whether the nutritional status and ..... stimulates food intake and growth hormone secretion. Endocrinology 2000;141:4325‑8. 11.

  14. The association between nutrition and physical activity knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    foods and/or not eating breakfast (Puoane et al., 2005; 2010). Interestingly, most women did not see the connection between health and food intake. Studies on nutrition knowledge in recent years are limited in South Africa and even more so regarding the nutrition know- ledge of educators. Peltzer (2004) reported on the ...

  15. Testing the effect of specific orders to provide oral liquid nutritional supplements to nursing home residents: a quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, E; Ward, K; Simmons, S F; Sarkisian, C A; Moore, A A

    2008-11-01

    To improve nursing home (NH) staff delivery of oral liquid nutritional supplements between meals to residents with a history of weight loss. Pre-Post intervention study. Two skilled nursing homes. Eighteen long term care residents. At baseline all participants had a non-specific physician's order to receive a nutritional supplement. The intervention consisted of specifying the physician's order as follows: "Give 4 oz high protein supplement at 10 am, 2 pm, and 7 pm". Research staff conducted direct observations for two days during and between meals for a total of 4 days, or 12 possible observation periods per participant before and one week following the intervention. Research staff documented NH staff delivery of snacks (including high protein supplements) and amount consumed (fluid ounces) for the high protein supplements using a standardized protocol during each observation period. Before the specific order was written participants were offered any type of snack an average of 1.82 times per day and a high protein supplement 0.59 times per day. After the specific order was written participants were offered any type of snack an average of 1.59 times per day and a high protein supplement 0.91 times per day. There were no statistically significant differences in the average number of times snacks or supplements were offered before and after the specific order was written. The proportion of snacks offered that were high protein supplements did increase after the specific order was written (psupplement was provided, most residents consumed 100% of it. Oral liquid nutritional supplements were not provided consistent with orders in NH practice. The specificity of the order related to type of supplement and time of delivery did not influence when and how often supplements are provided to residents but it did influence the type of nutritional supplement offered.

  16. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition intervention in the treatment of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition intervention, including nutritional counseling, by a registered dietitian (RD) is an essential component of the team treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders during assessment and treatment across the continuum of care. Diagnostic criteria for eating disorders provide important guidelines for identification and treatment. However, it is thought that a continuum of disordered eating may exist that ranges from persistent dieting to subthreshold conditions and then to defined eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Understanding the complexities of eating disorders, such as influencing factors, comorbid illness, medical and psychological complications, and boundary issues, is critical in the effective treatment of eating disorders. The nature of eating disorders requires a collaborative approach by an interdisciplinary team of psychological, nutritional, and medical specialists. The RD is an integral member of the treatment team and is uniquely qualified to provide medical nutrition therapy for the normalization of eating patterns and nutritional status. RDs provide nutritional counseling, recognize clinical signs related to eating disorders, and assist with medical monitoring while cognizant of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy that are cornerstones of eating disorder treatment. Specialized resources are available for RDs to advance their level of expertise in the field of eating disorders. Further efforts with evidenced-based research must continue for improved treatment outcomes related to eating disorders along with identification of effective primary and secondary interventions.

  17. Decreased Glucose Metabolism in Medial Prefrontal Areas is Associated with Nutritional Status in Patients with Prodromal and Early Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Taiki; Nakamura, Akinori; Kato, Takashi; Iwata, Kaori; Saji, Naoki; Arahata, Yutaka; Hattori, Hideyuki; Bundo, Masahiko; Ito, Kengo; Niida, Shumpei; Sakurai, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Weight loss is frequently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To clarify the associations between nutritional status and AD-related brain changes using Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB)-PET, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and structural MRI. The subjects were 34 amyloid-β (Aβ)-positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment or early AD (prodromal/early AD), and 55 Aβ-negative cognitively normal (CN) subjects who attended the Multimodal Neuroimaging for AD Diagnosis (MULNIAD) study. Nutritional status of the subjects was assessed by body mass index and waist to height ratio (waist circumference/height). The associations between nutritional status and brain changes were examined by multiple regression analysis using statistical parametric mapping. In the prodromal/early AD group, nutritional status was significantly positively correlated with regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in the medial prefrontal cortices, while different topographical associations were seen in the CN group, suggesting these changes were AD-specific. Aβ deposition and gray matter volume were not significantly associated with nutritional status. Sub-analysis in the prodromal/early AD group demonstrated that fat mass index, but not fat-free mass index, was positively correlated with rCGM in the medial prefrontal areas. This present study provides preliminary results suggesting that hypometabolism in the medial prefrontal areas is specifically associated with AD-related weight loss, and decrease in fat mass may have a key role.

  18. Stigmatized by association: challenges for abortion service providers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniteye, Patience; O'Brien, Beverley; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-09-10

    Unsafe abortion is an issue of public health concern and contributes significantly to maternal morbidity and mortality globally. Abortion evokes religious, moral, ethical, socio-cultural and medical concerns which mean it is highly stigmatized and this poses a threat to both providers and researchers. This study sought to explore challenges to providing safe abortion services from the perspective of health providers in Ghana. A descriptive qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted. The study was conducted in three (3) hospitals and five (5) health centres in the capital city in Ghana. Participants (n = 36) consisted of obstetrician/gynaecologists, nurse-midwives and pharmacists. Stigma affects provision of safe-abortion services in Ghana in a number of ways. The ambiguities in Ghanaian abortion law and lack of overt institutional support for practitioners increased reluctance to openly provide for fear of stigmatisation and legal threat. Negative provider attitudes that stigmatised women seeking abortion care were frequently driven by socio-cultural and religious norms that highly stigmatise abortion practice. Exposure to higher levels of education, including training overseas, seemed to result in more positive, less stigmatising views towards the need for safe abortion services. Nevertheless, physicians open to practicing abortion were still very concerned about stigma by association. Stigma constitutes an overarching impediment for abortion service provision. It affects health providers providing such services and even researchers who study the subject. Exposure to wider debate and education seem to influence attitudes and values clarification training may prove useful. Proper dissemination of existing guidelines and overt institutional support for provision of safe services also needs to be rolled out.

  19. Possibilities for Providing Healthy Nutrition for Developing Children in Primary Schools in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olšteine Anita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The resources for optimal growth are biologically valuable substances that ensure life, and their consumption needs to be balanced and moderate with an adequate eating plan. Survey showed that 84% of respondents chose food products with low nutritional value and high energy value. The general aim of the research was to evaluate the eating habits of primary school pupils and to compare the tendencies in city and regional schools. Catering services are very different schools of Latvia in terms of both mealtimes and prices. Basic criteria were elaborated for estimation of catering quality for children in schools. It was found that 36% of school children in out-of-school conditions regularly consumed snacks with simple carbohydrates on a daily basis. For better utilisation of food, fresh unprocessed fruits and berries with high mineral and vitamin content have great significance. Pectin found in black currants is used as a natural gelling agent. Structured fruit puree was found to have the most important physical-chemical and sensory parameters. Recommendations to improve healthy eating habits of school children were developed.

  20. Selected nutritional habits of teenagers associated with overweight and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Zalewska, Magdalena; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A balanced diet is at the heart of healthy growth and development of children and youth, whereas inappropriate eating habits considerably influence the incidence of disorders connected with nutrition, including overweight and obesity. This paper aims at studying nutritional factors of 18-year-old secondary school youth in the urban environment and their effect on the incidence of overweight and obesity. Materials and methods The survey was conducted among 1,999 secondary school s...

  1. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Makkar

    Full Text Available Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase

  2. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, S K; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Zhou, Z Y; Huff, G R; Donoghue, A M

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  3. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with fat consumption among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie A; Rapley, Melyssa; Chung, Mei

    2016-10-04

    Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to explore whether increased nutrition knowledge is associated with a reduction in the consumption of unhealthy fats in a sample of university students. A sample of 231 students, with a mean age of 20 years, was recruited from university campus during spring 2012. Students completed a validated questionnaire related to students' demographic, nutrition knowledge, and daily fat consumption. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, chi-square, and student's t-test. Results indicate that female students have greater nutrition knowledge than male students (the mean nutrition score for women was 5 points higher than that of men (P = 0.01)). Nutrition knowledge was negatively correlated with fat and cholesterol intake. Students who consumed more than 35 % calories from fat or >300 mg of cholesterol daily had lower mean nutrition scores than those students with lower fat or cholesterol intake (8 points lower and 7.9 points lower, respectively). Using linear regression for nutrition scores on estimated saturated fat intake and cholesterol intake (controlling for gender, height, weight, age, and dieting), nutrition scores were negatively associated with saturated fat intake (-0.15, P Students with greater nutritional knowledge consumed less unhealthy fats and cholesterol. This finding magnifies the role of nutrition education as a potential tool in health campaigns to promote healthy eating patterns among college students. Results of this pilot study can inform the design of future nutrition education intervention studies to assess the efficacy of nutrition knowledge on pattern of fat consumption among college students.

  4. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with fat consumption among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat Yahia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to explore whether increased nutrition knowledge is associated with a reduction in the consumption of unhealthy fats in a sample of university students. Methods A sample of 231 students, with a mean age of 20 years, was recruited from university campus during spring 2012. Students completed a validated questionnaire related to students’ demographic, nutrition knowledge, and daily fat consumption. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, chi-square, and student’s t-test. Results Results indicate that female students have greater nutrition knowledge than male students (the mean nutrition score for women was 5 points higher than that of men (P = 0.01. Nutrition knowledge was negatively correlated with fat and cholesterol intake. Students who consumed more than 35 % calories from fat or >300 mg of cholesterol daily had lower mean nutrition scores than those students with lower fat or cholesterol intake (8 points lower and 7.9 points lower, respectively. Using linear regression for nutrition scores on estimated saturated fat intake and cholesterol intake (controlling for gender, height, weight, age, and dieting, nutrition scores were negatively associated with saturated fat intake (-0.15, P <0.0001 and cholesterol intake (-1.38, P <0.0001. Conclusion Students with greater nutritional knowledge consumed less unhealthy fats and cholesterol. This finding magnifies the role of nutrition education as a potential tool in health campaigns to promote healthy eating patterns among college students. Results of this pilot study can inform the design of future nutrition education intervention studies to assess the efficacy of nutrition knowledge on pattern of fat consumption among college students.

  5. The association between nutritional status and frailty characteristics among geriatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkcu, M; Meijer, R I; Lonterman, S; Muller, M; de van der Schueren, M A E

    2018-02-01

    Frailty is a common clinical syndrome in older adults and is associated with an increased risk of poor health outcomes, e.g. falls, disability, hospitalization, and mortality. Nutritional status might be an important factor contributing to frailty. This study aims to describe the association between nutritional status and characteristics of frailty in patients attending a geriatric outpatient clinic. Clinical data was collected of 475 patients who visited the geriatric outpatient department of a Dutch hospital between 2005 and 2010. Frailty was determined by: incontinence, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), mobility, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE). Nutritional status was represented by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and plasma concentrations of several micronutrients, whereby MNAnutritional status could prove usefulness in early clinical detection and prevention of frailty. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between caries location and restorative material treatment provided

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubisich, Erinne B.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Ferracane, Jack L.; Pashova, Hristina I.; Burton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional study by the Northwest PRECEDENT practitioners correlated the location of caries diagnosed in the past 12 months with treatment provided. Methods An oral health survey was conducted on up to 20 patients per practice for 101 practices in the Northwest PRECEDENT network. A total of 1943 eligible patients were randomly assessed for the location of and treatment provided for caries lesions diagnosed within the past 12 months. Regression analysis using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) was performed to assess association of treatment to tooth location and surface characterization, adjusting for age, practice location (urban/rural), dentist gender, and experience level. The analysis accounts for clustering by practice using robust variance estimates. Results Overall, 55.4% of patients exhibited recent caries and 42.8% received treatment for at least one permanent tooth. 18% of treated teeth were treated with amalgam, and 72% were treated with composite. This percentage varied as a function of tooth surface characteristics, patient characteristics, and dentist characteristics. The results suggest that restoration selection does depend on tooth type and which surfaces are being restored. The odds of a molar receiving an amalgam restoration are 2.44 (95% CI=1.81–3.30) times higher as compared to a bicuspid, adjusting for all other covariates. When the restoration includes the occlusal surface of a tooth the odds are 0.42 (95% CI=0.20–0.89) times as great that amalgam will be placed. When the restoration includes the mesial or distal surface of the tooth the odds for amalgam restoration are 2.49 (95% CI=1.25–4.95) times higher compared to when it does not include these surfaces. Conclusion Restorative material choice varied based on caries location and practitioner gender. PMID:21256915

  7. Cognitive decline is associated with nutritional risk in subjects with small head circumference (HC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Eom, Jin-Sup; Jung, Hae Sun; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Hong, Chang Hyung

    2010-01-01

    Nutrition has been found to be associated with cognitive impairment, but it has not been established whether these associations are present solely in later life or whether they are present in younger age as well. HC is a good indicator of brain development and the most sensitive anthropometric indicator of prolonged malnutrition during early life. This study examined the interaction between early HC and later (nutrition screening initiative) nutritional factors on the risk of cognitive decline in the elderly. The longitudinal factorial design had the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score as the dependent variable, with HC as one factor and nutritional risk as another. We studied a sample of 495 not cognitively impaired Korean participants with 2 years follow-up data. After multivariable adjustment, interactive effect between HC and nutritional risk was significantly associated with cognitive decline (F=2.449, p=0.045). Simple main effect analysis showed that compared with highest HC, lowest HC was associated with a cognitive decline. Nutritional risk was associated with cognitive function decline only in individuals with small HC. Therefore, the prevention for cognitive impairment and dementia should involve nutritional strategies throughout life. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The association between nutrition and physical activity knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Educators' high risk for developing chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) may impact on educator absenteeism and subsequently on school functioning. The aspects of poor nutrition and physical activity knowledge along with educators' high risk for NCD development may be particularly significant not merely in ...

  9. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children aged 3-5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -13.3, p=0.0155). Conclusion: Child malnutrition continue to be a public health concern given that preventable factors such as environmental and family were demonstrated to have a higher association with nutritional status of the children.

  10. Attitude and Behavior Factors Associated with Front-of-Package Label Use with Label Users Making Accurate Product Nutrition Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G; Joung, Hyun-Woo; Littlejohn, Emily I

    2018-05-01

    Front-of-package (FOP) labels are increasing in popularity on retail products. Reductive FOP labels provide nutrient-specific information, whereas evaluative FOP labels summarize nutrient information through icons. Better understanding of consumer behavior regarding FOP labels is beneficial to increasing consumer use of nutrition labeling when making grocery purchasing decisions. We aimed to determine FOP label format effectiveness in aiding consumers at assessing nutrient density of food products. In addition, we sought to determine relationships between FOP label use and attitude toward healthy eating, diet self-assessment, self-reported health and nutrition knowledge, and label and shopping behaviors. A between-subjects experimental design was employed. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four label conditions: Facts Up Front, Facts Up Front Extended, a binary symbol, and no-label control. One hundred sixty-one US primary grocery shoppers, aged 18 to 69 years. Participants were randomly invited to the online study. Participants in one of four label condition groups viewed three product categories (cereal, dairy, and snacks) with corresponding questions. Adults' nutrition assessment of food products based on different FOP label formats, along with label use and attitude toward healthy eating, diet self-assessment, self-reported health and nutrition knowledge, and label and shopping behaviors. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, χ 2 tests, and logistical regression. Significant outcomes were set to α=.05. Participants selected the more nutrient-dense product in the snack food category when it contained an FOP label. Subjective health and nutrition knowledge and frequency of selecting food for healthful reasons were associated with FOP label use (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Both Facts Up Front (reductive) and binary (evaluative) FOP labels appear effective for nutrition assessment of snack products compared with no label. Specific

  11. Association Between Snack Habit And Nutrition Status In Elementary School In Sungai Rambutan, Ogan Ilir District

    OpenAIRE

    Febry, Fatmalina; Mutahar, Rini

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds: One of the factors that influence the determinants of nutritional status of primary school's pupils is the habit of eating snacks besides the other factors that breakfast habits. One of the factors that associate with the consumption patterns of elementary school ‘s students-grade 4-6 is the habit of eating snacks. Methods: This study is an observational cross-sectional approach. Aim of this research is to identify association between the snack habits and the nutritional sta...

  12. Association between Maternal and Child Nutritional Status in Hula, Rural Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Canaan; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J; Belachew, Tefera; Hailemariam, Tewodros G

    2015-01-01

    Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children's nutritional status. A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers) or recumbent length (children) were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ), 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ) and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ). Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02) and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001) were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007) was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001) and WAZ score (Pmaternal BMI and maternal height were associated with WHZ (P = 0.04) and HAZ (P = 0.01) score of children. Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially.

  13. Association of nutrition club membership with markers of health: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Krupa Das

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition clubs (NC operate in community settings and provide members with nutrition education and meal replacements for weight management. NC are owned and operated by distributors of Herbalife products. There are over 6200 NC in the US, but there has been no independent assessment of the association of these NC with biomarkers of health. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study to compare the health status of 100 NC members to 100 community-matched controls (CC in the greater Boston area. Each CC was matched to a NC member for community of residence (zip code, age category, gender, BMI category, race/ethnicity, education level (category, and readiness to make health changes. Measures obtained included cardio-metabolic risk factors, body composition, markers of nutritional status, reported health status, dietary intake, physical activity, sleep and depression. Results Participants were predominantly female (64% and Hispanic (73%. NC members had significantly lower fasting insulin (P < 0.001 and lower HbA1c (P = 0.008, higher levels of 25 hydroxy-vitamin D (P = 0.001, and vitamin E:cholesterol ratio (P < 0.001, and lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.02 compared to CC. In addition, most of the NC members (99% were satisfied with Herbalife NC membership for themselves and their families. A higher percentage of NC members (86% compared to CC (32% reported being in much better or somewhat better health compared to a year ago (P < 0.001; and they reported significantly better physical health (P = 0.03, and fewer sleep problems (P = 0.03. Conclusion Herbalife NC membership was positively associated with perceived health and measured cardiometabolic benefits. However, causality cannot be inferred from these findings.

  14. Autism rates associated with nutrition and the WIC program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamberger, Raymond J

    2011-10-01

    Autism rates in the United States are increasing at a rate of 15% per year. Autistic children are diagnosed by age 3 when they have problems communicating and interacting socially. This study uses nutritional epidemiology and an ecologic study design to link the possible cause of autism to nutrition by creating autism rates for the 50 states of America and comparing them with published measures of infant nutrition such as duration of exclusive breast-feeding and participation in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. The percentage of infants with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) inoculations was also compared with the autism rates. Study Autism rates for each state were established. The percentage of infants who participate in the WIC program for low-income families was calculated for each of the 50 states as well as 21 New Jersey and 30 Oregon counties and compared with their autism rates. An ecologic study design with correlation coefficients is limited, but it is useful for generating hypotheses to be tested. The states with the highest WIC participation have significantly lower autism rates (p autism rate. The mothers who are exclusively breast-feeding should also continue their prenatal vitamins or their equivalent and make better dietary choices. These results suggest that autism may be nutritionally related to a possible deficiency of riboflavin or the cognitive vitamins such as thiamine or vitamin D. However, due to an ecologic study design there is a potential for fallacy because individuals were not examined. The results suggest the need for a robust observational study in advance of, and to confirm the need for, an intervention study.

  15. Competing for Iron: Duplication and Amplification of the isd Locus in Staphylococcus lugdunensis HKU09-01 Provides a Competitive Advantage to Overcome Nutritional Limitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Heilbronner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative bacterial pathogen that is particularly associated with severe cases of infectious endocarditis. Unique amongst the coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. lugdunensis harbors an iron regulated surface determinant locus (isd. This locus facilitates the acquisition of heme as a source of nutrient iron during infection and allows iron limitation caused by "nutritional immunity" to be overcome. The isd locus is duplicated in S. lugdunensis HKU09-01 and we show here that the duplication is intrinsically unstable and undergoes accordion-like amplification and segregation leading to extensive isd copy number variation. Amplification of the locus increased the level of expression of Isd proteins and improved binding of hemoglobin to the cell surface of S. lugdunensis. Furthermore, Isd overexpression provided an advantage when strains were competing for a limited amount of hemoglobin as the sole source of iron. Gene duplications and amplifications (GDA are events of fundamental importance for bacterial evolution and are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance in many species. As such, GDAs are regarded as evolutionary adaptions to novel selective pressures in hostile environments pointing towards a special importance of isd for S. lugdunensis. For the first time we show an example of a GDA that involves a virulence factor of a Gram-positive pathogen and link the GDA directly to a competitive advantage when the bacteria were struggling with selective pressures mimicking "nutritional immunity".

  16. Competing for Iron: Duplication and Amplification of the isd Locus in Staphylococcus lugdunensis HKU09-01 Provides a Competitive Advantage to Overcome Nutritional Limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Simon; Monk, Ian R; Brozyna, Jeremy R; Heinrichs, David E; Skaar, Eric P; Peschel, Andreas; Foster, Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative bacterial pathogen that is particularly associated with severe cases of infectious endocarditis. Unique amongst the coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. lugdunensis harbors an iron regulated surface determinant locus (isd). This locus facilitates the acquisition of heme as a source of nutrient iron during infection and allows iron limitation caused by "nutritional immunity" to be overcome. The isd locus is duplicated in S. lugdunensis HKU09-01 and we show here that the duplication is intrinsically unstable and undergoes accordion-like amplification and segregation leading to extensive isd copy number variation. Amplification of the locus increased the level of expression of Isd proteins and improved binding of hemoglobin to the cell surface of S. lugdunensis. Furthermore, Isd overexpression provided an advantage when strains were competing for a limited amount of hemoglobin as the sole source of iron. Gene duplications and amplifications (GDA) are events of fundamental importance for bacterial evolution and are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance in many species. As such, GDAs are regarded as evolutionary adaptions to novel selective pressures in hostile environments pointing towards a special importance of isd for S. lugdunensis. For the first time we show an example of a GDA that involves a virulence factor of a Gram-positive pathogen and link the GDA directly to a competitive advantage when the bacteria were struggling with selective pressures mimicking "nutritional immunity".

  17. A high-quality genome assembly of quinoa provides insights into the molecular basis of salt bladder-based salinity tolerance and the exceptional nutritional value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changsong; Chen, Aojun; Xiao, Lihong; Muller, Heike M; Ache, Peter; Haberer, Georg; Zhang, Meiling; Jia, Wei; Deng, Ping; Huang, Ru; Lang, Daniel; Li, Feng; Zhan, Dongliang; Wu, Xiangyun; Zhang, Hui; Bohm, Jennifer; Liu, Renyi; Shabala, Sergey; Hedrich, Rainer; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhang, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is a halophytic pseudocereal crop that is being cultivated in an ever-growing number of countries. Because quinoa is highly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses and its seed has a better nutritional value than any other major cereals, it is regarded as a future crop to ensure global food security. We generated a high-quality genome draft using an inbred line of the quinoa cultivar Real. The quinoa genome experienced one recent genome duplication about 4.3 million years ago, likely reflecting the genome fusion of two Chenopodium parents, in addition to the γ paleohexaploidization reported for most eudicots. The genome is highly repetitive (64.5% repeat content) and contains 54 438 protein-coding genes and 192 microRNA genes, with more than 99.3% having orthologous genes from glycophylic species. Stress tolerance in quinoa is associated with the expansion of genes involved in ion and nutrient transport, ABA homeostasis and signaling, and enhanced basal-level ABA responses. Epidermal salt bladder cells exhibit similar characteristics as trichomes, with a significantly higher expression of genes related to energy import and ABA biosynthesis compared with the leaf lamina. The quinoa genome sequence provides insights into its exceptional nutritional value and the evolution of halophytes, enabling the identification of genes involved in salinity tolerance, and providing the basis for molecular breeding in quinoa. PMID:28994416

  18. Training early childcare providers in evidence-based nutrition strategies can help improve nutrition policies and practices of early childcare centres serving racially and ethnically diverse children from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, T Lucas; Cook, Nicole; Natale, Ruby; Quinn, David; Phillips, Teina; DeLucca, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated the extent to which providing training and technical assistance to early childcare centre (ECC) directors, faculty and staff in the implementation of evidence-based nutrition strategies improved the nutrition contexts, policies and practices of ECC serving racially and ethnically diverse, low-income children in Broward County, Florida, USA. The nutrition strategies targeted snack and beverage policies and practices, consistent with Caring for Our Children National Standards. We used the nutrition observation and document review portions of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) instrument to observe ECC as part of a one-group pre-test/post-test evaluation design. ECC located within areas of high rates of poverty, diabetes, minority representation and unhealthy food index in Broward County, Florida, USA. Eighteen ECC enrolled, mean 112·9 (sd 53·4) children aged 2-5 years; 12·3 (sd 7·2) staff members; and 10·2 (sd 4·6) children per staff member at each centre. We found significant improvements in centres' overall nutrition contexts, as measured by total EPAO nutrition scores (P=0·01). ECC made specific significant gains within written nutrition policies (P=0·03) and nutrition training and education (P=0·01). Our findings support training ECC directors, faculty and staff in evidence-based nutrition strategies to improve the nutrition policies and practices of ECC serving racially and ethnically diverse children from low-income families. The intervention resulted in improvements in some nutrition policies and practices, but not others. There remains a need to further develop the evaluation base involving the effectiveness of policy and practice interventions within ECC serving children in high-need areas.

  19. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Guntupalli, Aravinda M; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline H D; Robinson, Sian M

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition 'track' from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The 'lacto-vegetarian' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the 'snack and fruit' pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition. © 2013 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Associations between nutritional status, weight loss, radiotherapy treatment toxicity and treatment outcomes in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Amanda; Kiss, Nicole; Hodgson, Belinda; Crowe, Timothy C; Walsh, Adam D

    2011-02-01

    Patients with gastrointestinal cancers are susceptible to nutritional deterioration which may be compounded by radiotherapy treatment toxicities. This study aimed to determine whether nutritional status at radiotherapy commencement or changes in nutritional status throughout radiotherapy were associated with treatment toxicity and outcomes in gastrointestinal cancer patients. Seventy-three gastrointestinal cancer patients receiving curative radiotherapy underwent medical record audits assessing body weight, radiotherapy toxicity, unplanned treatment breaks or hospital admissions and completion of prescribed treatment/s. Nutritional status was assessed in a subset of patients (n = 11) using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment tool. Seventy-five percent of patients lost weight throughout radiotherapy. Weight loss was significantly greater in patients experiencing unplanned radiotherapy breaks (-3.1% vs -1.6%, p nutritional status during radiotherapy (as measured by weight loss) may be associated with poorer short-term treatment outcomes in gastrointestinal cancer patients. Patient numbers were too small to definitively determine the effect of nutritional status at radiotherapy commencement or changes in nutritional status throughout radiotherapy (defined by PG-SGA) on treatment outcomes. Further research is required to investigate this in larger, longer-term studies. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Exploring nutrition education resources and barriers, and nutrition knowledge in teachers in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna Marie; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    To determine barriers to nutrition education, nutrition education resources used, and the relationship between nutrition knowledge and whether public school teachers in California teach nutrition in the classroom. A total of 102 teachers in California participated in a Web-based survey about nutrition education barriers, resources used to plan nutrition lessons, and factors that would encourage inclusion of nutrition. A validated questionnaire was used to assess nutrition knowledge. Analyses included ordinary least-squares regression. Common barriers were lack of instructional time and unrelated subject. Teachers were unaware of many nutrition education resources. Nutrition knowledge was not associated with nutrition lessons but was positively associated with teaching high school (β = 5.13; P teachers to provide nutrition education. Larger studies are needed to determine whether this holds true in a broader sample. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between maternal breastfeeding and the development of non-nutritive sucking habits

    OpenAIRE

    FREIRE, Gabriela Lopes Mesquita; FERRARI, Junia Carolina Linhares; PERCINOTO, Célio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of maternal breastfeeding time with the introduction of non-nutritive sucking habits in children attending the Baby Clinic at the Araçatuba College of Dentistry, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita.METHODS: Interviews were conducted with the parents/legal guardians of 228 children, with the aim of obtaining information about the period of natural breastfeeding, the presence of non-nutritive sucking habits and the duration of the habit. A desc...

  3. Longitudinal associations of nutritional factors with glycated hemoglobin in youth with type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Jamie L; Jaacks, Lindsay M; Couch, Sarah C; Lawrence, Jean M; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improved glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) delays the progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We previously showed that higher baseline intakes of n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids and leucine are associated with preserved β cell function 2 y later in youth with T1D. Objective: In the current study, we extend this work to explore the longitudinal associations of nutritional factors with Hb A1c in youth with T1D. Design: We included 908 T1D youth with baseline and follow-up Hb A1c measurements. Nutritional factors assessed at baseline were as follows: breastfeeding status and timing of complimentary food introduction; intakes of leucine, carbohydrates, protein, fat, and fiber estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and plasma biomarkers for vitamins D and E, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid. We fit linear regression models adjusted for baseline Hb A1c, sociodemographic variables, diabetes-related variables, time between baseline and follow-up visits, saturated fat, physical activity, and for FFQ-derived nutrients, total calories. The vitamin D model was further adjusted for season and body mass index z score. Results: The mean ± SD age and diabetes duration at baseline was 10.8 ± 3.9 y and 10.1 ± 5.8 mo, respectively. A total of 9.3% of participants had poor Hb A1c (value ≥9.5%) at baseline, which increased to 18.3% during follow-up (P nutritional factors may be associated with Hb A1c during early stages of disease progression in youth recently diagnosed with T1D. In addition to the overall role of major macronutrients such as carbohydrates and protein, leucine and n–3 fatty acid intakes, such as of EPA, may be important for long-term glycemic control. PMID:25948670

  4. The Nutritional Contribution of Foods and Beverages Provided by Government-Sponsored Day Care Centers in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossenaar, Marieke; Hernández, Liza; Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Soto-Méndez, María José; Bermudez, Odilia I; Solomons, Noel W

    2015-09-01

    Meals served at government-run day care centers must be nutritionally adequate to ensure good health and proper development of preschool-aged children. They can provide a controlled opportunity to complement the daily diet of children in vulnerable populations. To determine the nutrient adequacy and leading food sources of nutrients provided by the diet served in government-sponsored day care centers. Estimated daily energy and nutrient intakes of a theoretical 40-day day care center menu were calculated, and the nutrient adequacy was assessed. Nutrient densities and critical nutrient densities of the menu were computed to identify nutrient inadequacies. Furthermore, main sources of nutrients were identified, and energy and nutrient distributions were examined by meal time. The menu provides approximately 90% of daily energy requirement and more than 100% of Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs), with the exception of vitamin D and calcium. Sugar was the first leading source of energy, whereas milk was the first leading contributor of vitamin D. Within an environment of budgetary constraints, the Guatemalan government developed and advocated an exemplary menu offering for children in the vulnerable preschool period. We have demonstrated that, if prepared and served as planned, the items from the official, standard menu would supply most of the nutrients needed. High vitamin A intake related to the mandated national fortification program is a potential problem. From the analysis, it was found that vitamin D emerges as the most prominent candidate for a problem nutrient of deficient intake. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Association between Functional Capacity Decline and Nutritional Status Based on the Nutrition Screening Initiative Checklist: A 2-Year Cohort Study of Japanese Community-Dwelling Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yumiko; Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Imbe, Ayumi; Inaba, Yuiko; Sakai, Satoshi; Shishikura, Kanako; Tanimoto, Keiji; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    To assess whether nutritional status based on the Nutrition Screening Initiative Checklist is useful for predicting functional capacity decline in community-dwelling Japanese elderly. This two-year observational cohort study included 536 community-dwelling Japanese (65 years and older at baseline) who were independent in both activities and instrumental activities of daily living. Demographic attributes, chronic illness, lifestyle-related habits, nutritional status, functional capacity, and anthropometric measurements were assessed, with decline in functional capacity used as the outcome measure. Subjects were classified into three groups as follows based on the Nutrition Screening Initiative Checklist: low (59.5%), moderate (23.7%), and high (16.8%) nutritional risk. Significant differences were found between nutritional status and the following four baseline variables: age, hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases, and current smoking. However, no significant differences were evident between nutritional status and sex, body mass index, diabetes, drinking habit, or exercise habit. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases and smoking habit showed that the high nutritional risk group was significantly associated with a decline in both activities of daily living (odds ratio: 4.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.59-15.50) and instrumental activities of daily living (OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.31-5.06) compared with the low nutritional risk group. Poor nutritional status based on the Nutrition Screening Initiative Checklist was associated with a decline in functional capacity over a 2-year period in community-dwelling Japanese elderly. These results suggest that the Nutrition Screening Initiative Checklist is a suitable tool for predicting functional capacity decline in community-dwelling elderly.

  6. Nutritional analysis of Cardiaalliadora Oken species, associated with hydroponia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadena R, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Forestry industry is one in constant growth; Colombia has a favorable stage for development of this activity which generates a lot of employment. Forestry species Cardia alliodora is a pioneer one of quick growth, abundantly regenerated and adapted to ecological conditions from the sea level to 1900 meters above sea level. This species are very common in colombian coffee zone and is specially exploited in furniture industries. This study uses an hydroponic system in greenhouse conditions to simulate lacking of 12 bio-elements stages, with contribution of field data; the species nutritional request was established. The study determined 12 bio-elements concentration in three samples and allowed to establish the relationships in time by elements and the N,P,K and K,Ca,Mg ratios

  7. Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglseer, Doris; Eminovic, Sandra; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-07-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review" found on pages 33-41, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until June 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the geriatric syndrome of sarcopenia. 2. Identify the outcome of the

  8. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, Walid El; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary...... (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential......' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health...

  9. Association of nutritional risk and depressive symptoms with physical performance in the elderly: the Quebec longitudinal study of nutrition as a determinant of successful aging (NuAge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Funes, José Alberto; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Payette, Hélène

    2008-08-01

    Depressive symptoms and poor nutritional status have been associated with declines in physical capacity. However, it is not clear whether they exert independent effects and potential for interaction among these two variables has not been studied. The purpose of this report is to clarify the relationships between depressive symptoms and nutritional risk and physical capacity. Baseline data from community-living and well functioning men and women (n = 1,755) participating in the longitudinal study NuAge (Quebec, Canada), aged 67-84 years were used for this study. Physical performance (PP) was defined as the summary score of 4 tests of physical capacity [Standing Balance, Walking Speed, Chair Stands, and Timed "Up &Go"]. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and nutritional risk by the Elderly Nutrition Screening (ENS(c)) tool. Prevalence of mild depression (GDS score >or=11 and nutritional risk or mild depression (mean score: 10.45 +/- 3.45) as compared to those with both risk factors (8.66 +/- 3.59; p nutritional risk scores were independently associated with PP score after adjustment for age, sex, educational level, income, burden of disease, body mass index and physical activity. There was no interaction of nutritional risk and depressive symptoms in relation to PP. The overall adjusted multiple regression model explained 34% of the observed variance in physical performance score. Nutritional risk and depressive symptoms are both potentially modifiable independent correlates of PP but there is no synergistic effect of the two risk factors.

  10. Nutritional status and associations with falls, balance, mobility and functionality during hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, A; Ward, N; Haines, T

    2011-05-01

    To explore associations between nutritional status, falls and selected falls risk factors amongst older hospitalized people. Lengths of stay amongst fallers and the malnourished were assessed. An observational longitudinal cohort study. Geriatric Assessment and Rehabilitation Unit (GARU) of a tertiary teaching hospital. Admissions to the GARU during a six-month period were included. Associations between nutritional status and falls during hospitalization, reported preadmission history of falls, functional status, balance and mobility during GARU admission were analysed. Associations between nutritional status or experiencing a hospital fall and length of stay were also examined. Malnutrition prevalence was 39% (75/194, 95% CI 32-46%) with odds of falling during admission being 1.49 (95%CI: 0.81, 2.75), polder (polder people assessed as malnourished. Considering the results, a larger study concerning nutritional status, functionality and falls in the hospitalized population is warranted. The influence of nutritional status upon a person's physical functioning should be considered more broadly in falls research.

  11. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Intervention and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields-Gardner, Cade; Campa, Adriana

    2010-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that efforts to optimize nutritional status through individualized medical nutrition therapy, assurance of food and nutrition security, and nutrition education are essential to the total system of health care available to people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection throughout the continuum of care. Broad-based efforts to improve health care access and treatment have stabilized HIV prevalence levels in many parts of the world and led to longer survival for people living with HIV infection. Confounding clinical and social issues, such as medication interactions, comorbidities, wasting, lipodystrophy, food insecurity, aging, and other related conditions further complicate disease management. With greater understanding of the mechanisms of HIV disease and its impact on body function, development of new treatments, and wider ranges of populations affected, the management of chronic HIV infection continues to become more complex and demanding. Achievement of food and nutrition security and management of nutrition-related complications of HIV infection remain significant challenges for clients with HIV infection and health care professionals. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, should integrate their efforts into the overall health care strategies to optimize their clinical and social influence for people living with HIV infection.

  12. [Association between obstetric factors, hormone levels and nutritional status with the development of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Montero-Alonso, Miguel Ángel; Schmidt Riovalle, Jacqueline

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that the age at first pregnancy, number of children and the lapse between births may protect against breast cancer. Furthermore, serum levels of estrogen, prolactin and progesterone appear to contribute to the development of this tumors in obese women. To verify whether the variables age at first pregnancy, number of children, birth interval, hormone levels and nutritional status are associated with the age at diagnosis of breast cancer. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 550 female patients, diagnosed and treated for breast cancer at a hospital in Spain between 2009 and 2012. We found a significant and positive association between age at diagnosis of cancer and the variables age at first pregnancy, parity and interval between pregnancies. There was also a significant correlation (p nutritional status of patients. In this sample, age at first pregnancy or number of children, hormone levels and nutritional status are related to the age of onset of cancer.

  13. Association of maternal depression and infant nutritional status among women living with HIV in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaya, Sylvia; Garcia, Maria E; Li, Nan; Lienert, Jeffrey; Twayigize, William; Spiegelman, Donna; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2016-07-01

    Antenatal and post-natal depression has demonstrated a significant burden in sub-Saharan Africa, with rates ranging from 10% to 35%. However, perinatal women living with HIV in Tanzania have reported an even greater prevalence of depression (43-45%). The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal depression and infant malnutrition among women living with HIV. The design was a retrospective cohort study within the context of a randomised controlled trial among women living with HIV and their infants. Within this trial, 699 mother-child pairs were analysed for the present study. Although antenatal depression was not associated with infant malnutrition and post-natal depression was negatively associated [relative risk (RR = 0.80, P = 0.04], cumulative depression demonstrated a positive association with infant wasting (RR = 1.08, P nutritional status was observed for episodic vs. chronic depression. These findings suggest that providing evidence-based services for persistent depression among women living with HIV may have an effect on infant malnutrition. In addition, other positive outcomes may be related to infant cognitive development as well as HIV disease prognosis and survival among women. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Role of MicroRNA Regulation in Obesity-Associated Breast Cancer: Nutritional Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiappan, Ravi; Rajarajan, Dheeran

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in women, and the incidence of breast cancer is increasing every year. Obesity has been identified as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer progression. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to breast cancer development is not yet understood; however, there are a few mechanisms counted as potential producers of breast cancer in obesity, including insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and sex hormones. Recent emerging evidence suggests that alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expressions are found in several diseases, including breast cancer and obesity; however, miRNA roles in obesity-linked breast cancer are beginning to unravel. miRNAs are thought to be potential noninvasive biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients with comorbid conditions of obesity as well as therapeutic targets. Recent studies have evidenced that nutrients and other dietary factors protect against cancer and obesity through modulation of miRNA expressions. Herein, we summarize a comprehensive overview of up-to-date information related to miRNAs and their molecular targets involved in obesity-associated breast cancer. We also address the mechanisms by which dietary factors modulate miRNA expression and its protective roles in obesity-associated breast cancer. It is hoped that this review would provide new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated breast cancer to reduce the burden of breast cancer. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Age at adiposity rebound: determinants and association with nutritional status and the metabolic syndrome at adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péneau, S; González-Carrascosa, R; Gusto, G; Goxe, D; Lantieri, O; Fezeu, L; Hercberg, S; Rolland-Cachera, M F

    2016-07-01

    Early-life growth characteristics and in particular age at adiposity rebound (AR), have been shown to impact nutritional status later in life but studies investigating the association with long-term health remain scarce. Our aims were to identify determinants of age at AR and its relationship with nutritional status and cardiometabolic risk factors at adulthood. A total of 1465 subjects aged 20-60 years participated in this retrospective cohort study. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure were measured at adulthood. Childhood weight, height, gestational age, birth weight and early nutrition were collected retrospectively from health booklets and age at AR was assessed. Participants self-reported parental silhouettes. Associations were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression. An earlier AR was associated with higher body mass index and waist circumference at adulthood in both men and women (Pmetabolic syndrome. Larger parental silhouette was associated with an earlier AR. This long-term study showed that age at AR was associated with nutritional status and metabolic syndrome at adulthood. These results highlight the importance of monitoring childhood growth so as to help identify children at risk of developing an adverse cardiometabolic profile in adulthood. AR determinants for use in overweight surveillance were identified.

  16. Food parenting practices and their association with child nutrition risk status: comparing mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterworth, Jessica C; Hutchinson, Joy M; Buchholz, Andrea C; Darlington, Gerarda; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Ma, David W L; Haines, Jess

    2017-06-01

    In Canada, little is known about how food parenting practices are associated with young children's dietary intakes and no studies have examined food parenting practices of Canadian fathers. This study aimed to examine associations between food parenting practices and preschool-age children's nutrition risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of thirty-one 2-parent families; 31 mothers, 31 fathers, and 40 preschool-age children. Parents completed an adapted version of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. We calculated children's nutrition risk using their NutriSTEP score. To account for sibling association, we used generalized estimating equations, adjusting for child age, sex, household income, and parental body mass index. Both mothers' and fathers' involvement of children in meal preparation were associated with lower child nutrition risk (mother [Formula: see text] = -3.45, p = 0.02; father [Formula: see text] = -1.74, p = 0.01), as were their healthy home environment scores (mother [Formula: see text] = -8.36, p parental emotion regulation, control, monitoring, or restriction for weight. In conclusion, both mothers' and fathers' food parenting practices are associated with their children's nutrition status. Fathers should be included in food parenting practices interventions.

  17. Position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the

  18. Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain

  19. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help

  20. Association between nutritional status measurements and pulmonary function in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Célia Regina Moutinho de Miranda; Britto, José Augusto Alves de; Oliveira, Cristiano Queiroz de; Gomes, Miriam Martins; Cunha, Ana Lúcia Pereira da

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the association between nutritional status measurements and pulmonary function in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. We evaluated the nutritional status of 48 children and adolescents (aged 6-18 years) with cystic fibrosis based on body mass index (BMI) and body composition measurements-mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and triceps skinfold thickness (TST)-at a referral center in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Pulmonary function was assessed by means of spirometry, using FEV1 to classify the severity of airway obstruction. We used Student's t-tests for comparisons between proportions and linear regression analysis for associations between continuous variables. The level of significance was set at p evaluation of nutritional status based on BMI identified a smaller number of malnourished patients than did that based on MAMC (14 vs. 25 patients, respectively). Most of the patients presented mild pulmonary disease. Mean FEV1 was 82.5% of predicted. Pulmonary function was found to correlate significantly with BMI, MAMC and TST (p = 0.001, p = 0.001 and p = 0.03, respectively). All subjects with moderate or severe pulmonary involvement were considered malnourished based on BMI and body composition parameters. Of the 25 patients considered malnourished based on body composition (MAMC), 19 were considered well-nourished based on their BMI. In the present study, all nutritional status measurements correlated directly with the pulmonary function of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. However, body composition measurements allowed earlier detection of nutritional deficiencies.

  1. Association between nutritional status and outcomes in critically-ill pediatric patients - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Caroline A D; Tonial, Cristian T; Garcia, Pedro Celiny R

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the evidence about the impact of nutritional status in critically-ill pediatric patients on the following outcomes during hospitalization in pediatric intensive care units: length of hospital stay, need for mechanical ventilation, and mortality. The search was carried out in the following databases: Lilacs (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences), MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine United States) and Embase (Elsevier Database). No filters were selected. A total of seven relevant articles about the subject were included. The publication period was between 1982 and 2012. All articles assessed the nutritional status of patients on admission at pediatric intensive care units and correlated it to at least one assessed outcome. A methodological quality questionnaire created by the authors was applied, which was based on some references and the researchers' experience. All included studies met the quality criteria, but only four met all the items. The studies included in this review suggest that nutritional depletion is associated with worse outcomes in pediatric intensive care units. However, studies are scarce and those existing show no methodological homogeneity, especially regarding nutritional status assessment and classification methods. Contemporary and well-designed studies are needed in order to properly assess the association between children's nutritional status and its impact on outcomes of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional status and food intake of patients with systemic psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis associated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yazigi Solis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the nutritional status and food intake ofindividuals with systemic psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis associated. Methods: This is an exploratory and cross-sectional study with 34 men aged between 19 and 60 years seen at a Psoriasis Center.Participants were divided into systemic psoriasis group and arthriticsystemic psoriasis associated group. For nutritional assessment we used anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis and wholebody plethysmography. Clinical and nutritional information were assessed using the clinical and nutritional history-taking, and the 24-hour dietary recall. For statistics the general linear model test (p 25% and a high risk formetabolic complications according to the waist circumference andthe obesity index, however, there were no statistically significantdifferences between groups. The mean food intake, total fat, caloriesand protein were above recommended levels, being 58.8% for lipids(319.17 ± 241.02 mg of cholesterol and 17.42 ± 11.4 g saturated fattyacids; 29.4% for calories and 67.6% for proteins. Thus, regardless ofthe psoriasis type, an excessive consumption of calories, lipids, fatty acids, cholesterol and a higher incidence of overweight were found. Conclusion: The sample showed an abnormal nutritional condition, an increased risk for chronic diseases related to obesity, worsening of the psoriatic lesions, and poor quality of life.

  3. Factors associated with nutritional status of the elderly in two regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Daniele; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Borgatto, Adriano Ferreti; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique

    2012-01-01

    To verify the association of nutritional status with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, and health status in elderly individuals from two cities in different regions of Brazil. Cross-sectional epidemiological home-based study, involving 477 and 316 elderly individuals (≥ 60 years) from the towns of Antônio Carlos (AC-SC) and Lafaiete Coutinho (LC-BA), respectively. Nutritional status was verified using the body mass index (BMI). Explanatory variables in the study were gender, age, level of schooling, living arrangements, lifelong occupation, smoking status, alcohol consumption, time spent sitting, hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, respiratory diseases, and medications. Logistic regression analyses were used (crude and adjusted). Underweight (BMI 27.0 kg/m(2)) was more prevalent among individuals from AC-SC (52.8% vs. 28.2%). In AC-SC, underweight was positively associated with older age (≥ 75 years) and smoking, and inversely associated with longer periods spent sitting (≥ 6 hrs/day). Overweight was positively associated with longer periods spent sitting, hypertension, and arthritis, and inversely associated with older age, male gender, working in rural areas, and alcohol consumption. In LC-BA, no explanatory variable was associated with underweight. Overweight was positively associated with hypertension, and inversely associated with individuals aged ≥ 75 years, and with living alone. Underweight was more prevalent in LC-BA and overweight was more prevalent in AC-SC. Factors associated with nutritional status are specific to each municipality.

  4. Development and evaluation of the nutrition component of the Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Patients (REAP): a new tool for primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Kim M; Risica, Patricia M; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Ross, Elizabeth M; Strolla, Leslie O; McMurray, Jerome; Eaton, Charles B

    2006-01-01

    1. To describe the development of a dietary assessment tool (Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Patients [REAP]) that quickly assesses a patient's diet and physical activity and facilitates brief counselling by a primary care provider, and 2. To describe the evaluation of the REAP in terms of its reliability, validity, and ease of use by primary care providers. The evaluation of REAP included: 1) an implementation feasibility study conducted with 61 medical students and practicing physicians in practice settings at various medical schools; 2) a calibration study with 44 Brown University Medical School students; 3) cognitive assessment testing with 31 consumers in Rhode Island; and 4) a reliability and calibration study of the revised tool with 94 consumers in Rhode Island and Massachusetts. The feasibility study revealed moderately high rankings on usefulness, ease, practicality, and helpfulness. The calibration studies demonstrated that REAP has excellent test-retest reliability (r = 0.86, P Eating Index score (r = 0.49, P = .0007), and is significantly associated with intake of most nutrients studied. REAP has adequate reliability and validity to be used in primary care practices for nutrition assessment and counselling, and is also user-friendly for providers.

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with nutritional status among female university students in Florianópolis, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa da Cunha Feio Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available University admission provides the adoption of new behaviors, which can affect the health of students. The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics and factors associated with the nutritional status of female university students in Florianopolis, SC, and to assess their prevalence. Socioeconomic and behavioral variables were obtained by a structured questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed based on body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage. Food consumption data were obtained through the application of a 24-hour food recall. The chi-square test was used to select independent variables associated with body mass index. Response rate in this study was 86.6% (total of 220 students. Most students were teenagers (57.7%, lived with parents (69.5%, were sedentary (55.9%, and eutrophic (72.3%. The prevalence was 15.9% for underweight and 11.8% for overweight. Breakfast was the main meal most frequently omitted (16.9%, and most students (79.0% had an energy intake below2,200 kcal. Energy intake was the only variable inversely associated with nutritional status (p =0.0358. There is a need to implement educational health measures in universities in order to establish healthier lifestyle and eating habits.

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with nutritional status among female university students in Florianópolis, SC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa da Cunha Feio Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n3p326 University admission provides the adoption of new behaviors, which can affect the health of students. The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics and factors associated with the nutritional status of female university students in Florianopolis, SC, and to assess their prevalence. Socioeconomic and behavioral variables were obtained by a structured questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed based on body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage. Food consumption data were obtained through the application of a 24-hour food recall. The chi-square test was used to select independent variables associated with body mass index. Response rate in this study was 86.6% (total of 220 students. Most students were teenagers (57.7%, lived with parents (69.5%, were sedentary (55.9%, and eutrophic (72.3%. The prevalence was 15.9% for underweight and 11.8% for overweight. Breakfast was the main meal most frequently omitted (16.9%, and most students (79.0% had an energy intake below2,200 kcal. Energy intake was the only variable inversely associated with nutritional status (p =0.0358. There is a need to implement educational health measures in universities in order to establish healthier lifestyle and eating habits.

  7. Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stunting level among the children was 26.5%, underweight level was 11.1% and no child was wasted. There was a significant association between marital status, children age group and stunting using ordinal regression. Conclusion: The study showed a knowledge gap on infant complementary feeding in area of quality ...

  8. Association between maternal socioeconomic factors and nutritional outcomes in children under 5 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Géa‐Horta

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter‐sectoral interventions.

  9. Association of School Nutrition Policy and Parental Control with Childhood Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Chung Gun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools and parents may play important roles in preventing childhood obesity by affecting children's behaviors related to energy balance. This study examined how school nutrition policy and parental control over children's eating and physical activity habits are associated with the children's overweight/obesity (hereafter overweight)…

  10. Association Between Preoperative Nutritional Status and Postoperative Outcome in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, John S L; Seto, Alfred; Li, George K H

    2017-04-01

    Head and neck cancer patients treated with surgery often experience significant postoperative morbidities. Administering preoperative nutritional intervention may improve surgical outcomes, but there is currently a paucity of data reviewing the association between preoperative nutritional status and postoperative outcome. It is therefore of importance to investigate this association among head and neck cancer patients. To assess the association between preoperative nutritional status and postoperative outcome in head and neck cancer patients treated with surgery, a retrospective study of 70 head and neck cancer patients who were surgically treated between 2013 and 2014 in a tertiary referral head and neck surgery center in Hong Kong was conducted. Clinical data regarding preoperative nutritional status and postoperative outcome were retrieved from a computer record system. Logistic and linear regressions were used to analyze the appropriate parameters. A higher preoperative albumin level was associated with lower rates of postoperative complications and better wound healing (P cancer patients, preoperative intervention strategies that boost albumin levels could be considered for improving surgical outcome.

  11. Factors associated with the iron nutritional status of Brazilian children aged 4 to 7 years

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    Hercílio Paulino ANDRÉ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate factors associated with the iron nutritional status of Brazilian children aged 4 to 7 years in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 357 children aged 4-7 years who had been followed-up up for during their first six months of life by the Breastfeeding Support Program. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, feeding practices, nutritional status (height-for-age and body mass index-for-age, and serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated. Multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to evaluate factors independently associated with iron nutritional status (hemoglobin and ferritin, considering α=0.05 as the significance level. Results The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency was (34 9.52% and (11 11.00%, respectively. The factors independently associated with anemia were younger child age, low maternal education, low height-for-age Z-scores, and children of single and separated mothers or widows. Iron deficiency was associated with child younger age and consumption of chocolates and chocolate flavored milk. Conclusion The results obtained allow us to conclude that anemia among children 4-7 years of age is a public health problem in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Therefore, there is a need for intervention measures targeting children in this age group. These measures can be implemented through food and nutritional education by encouraging the consumption of iron-rich foods.

  12. A cross-sectional survey of nutrition labelling use and its associated factors on parents of school students in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianhong; Zhu, Zhenxin; Chen, Xiao; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Huansheng; Zhang, Yuyan; Zang, Jiajie

    2018-03-07

    To understand parents' knowledge and use of nutrition labelling and to explore its associated factors. Cross-sectional survey. Two schools providing a nine-year educational programme in Putuo District, Shanghai, China, were selected for the study. Information was included on demographic data and knowledge of the Chinese Food Pagoda. Students and their parents (n 1770) participated in a questionnaire survey. Of questionnaires, 1766 were completed (response rate 99·8 %). Utilization rate of nutrition labelling was 19·3 %. Among 624 parents knowing nutrition labelling, 22·1 % understood all the information included, 70·7 % understood it partially and 7·2 % could not understand it at all. Use of nutrition labelling by parents was related to the following factors (OR; 95 % CI): high educational level of parent (1·465; 1·165, 1·841), parent's knowledge of the Chinese Food Pagoda (1·333; 1·053, 1·688), parent's consumption of top three snacks which are unhealthy (1·065; 1·023, 1·109), parent's assumption that nutrition labelling would affect their choice of food (1·522; 1·131, 2·048), student's willingness to learn about labels (1·449; 1·093, 1·920) and student's knowledge and use of labels (2·214; 1·951, 2·513). Parents' knowledge and use of nutrition labelling are still at a lower level, and some information included in the nutrition labels is not understood by parents. The forms of the existing nutrition labelling need to be continuously improved to facilitate their understanding and usefulness. It is necessary to establish nutrition projects focusing on education and use of nutrition labels which help parents and their children make the right choices in selecting foods.

  13. Association between dental prosthesis need, nutritional status and quality of life of elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Rajath; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Jain, Veena

    2015-01-01

    clinic were recruited in the study. Mini-nutritional assessment (MNA), geriatric oral health assessment (GOHAI) indices, prosthesis need according to WHO criteria, and prosthesis want was recorded along with age, gender, socioeconomic status and posterior occluding pair. RESULTS: Significant associations......To determine the effect of prosthesis need on nutritional status and oral health-related quality of life (OHrQoL) in elderly and to check the disparity between prosthesis need and prosthesis want in the Indian elderly. METHODS: A total of 946 geriatric participants reporting to a geriatric medicine...

  14. Outcomes associated with intradialytic oral nutritional supplements in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: a quality improvement report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacson, Eduardo; Wang, Weiling; Zebrowski, Barbara; Wingard, Rebecca; Hakim, Raymond M

    2012-10-01

    Insufficient clinical data exist to determine whether provision of oral nutritional supplements during dialysis can improve survival in hypoalbuminemic maintenance hemodialysis patients. Retrospective matched-cohort study. All oral nutritional supplement program-eligible in-center maintenance hemodialysis patients with albumin level ≤3.5 g/dL in quarter 4 of 2009 without oral nutritional supplements in the prior 90 days at Fresenius Medical Care, North America facilities. Monitored intradialytic oral nutritional supplements were provided to eligible maintenance hemodialysis patients upon physician order, to continue for a year or until serum albumin level was ≥4.0 g/dL. Mortality (including deaths and withdrawals), followed up until December 31, 2010. Both an intention-to-treat (ITT) and an as-treated analysis was performed using a 1:1 geographic region and propensity score-matched study population (using case-mix, laboratory test, access type, 30-day prior hospitalization, and incident patient status) comparing patients treated with intradialytic oral nutritional supplements with usual-care patients. Cox models were constructed, unadjusted and adjusted for facility standardized mortality ratio and case-mix and laboratory variables. The ITT and as-treated analyses both showed lower mortality in the oral nutritional supplement group. The conservative ITT models with 5,227 matched pairs had 40% of controls subsequently receiving oral nutritional supplements after January 1, 2010 (because many physicians delayed participation), with comparative death rates of 30.1% versus 30.4%. The corresponding as-treated (excluding crossovers) death rates for 4,289 matched pairs were 30.9% versus 37.3%. The unadjusted ITT mortality HR for oral nutritional supplement use was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.88-1.01), and the adjusted HR was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.85-0.98); the corresponding as-treated HRs were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.66-0.76) and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.61-0.71) before and after adjustment

  15. Malnutrition and Associated Factors Influencing Nutrition of Children in Post War Resettlement Areas in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, Angela; Senarath, Upul; Mbuya, Nkosinathi; Navaratne, Kumari

    2014-01-01

    dietary practices and feeding behaviours indicated that 66.7 % were exclusively breastfed and majority of mothers breastfed their infant within one hour of birth. 73% were introduced to solid, semi-solid or soft foods at 8 months. Among 6-23 month children, 48.5% achieved minimum dietary diversity, 65.2% achieved minimum meal frequency and only 35.5% achieved a minimum acceptable diet. Almost 50% of care-givers restricted foods when their children were ill. 58 % of mothers shared the supplementary cereal given to children with MAM, with family members. Mothers’ knowledge in basic nutritional values of foods was poor but, 80 % availed themselves of growth monitoring and promotion activities provided by the healthcare delivery programme. Conclusions: This survey provides comprehensive data on nutrition status and associated factors influencing nutrition in a post-war population. Prevalence of acute malnutrition was high and was associated with infection, inadequate quantity and quality of diet and poor socio economic status. Nutrition knowledge and feeding behaviours of mothers was inadequate. The JSDF interventions, consisting of filling gaps in service delivery, promotion of better feeding behaviours and community involvement in growth monitoring and promotion through formation of mothers clubs would have a significant impact on malnutrition. (author)

  16. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  17. Nutritional deficiency of selenium secondary to weight loss (bariatric) surgery associated with life-threatening cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldery, Rachel; Fielding, George; Rafter, Tony; Pascoe, Andrew L; Scalia, Gregory M

    2007-04-01

    Nutritional deficiencies of vitamins and minerals have been associated with reversible and irreversible cardiomyopathic processes. Selenium deficient dilated cardiomyopathy, first described in 1935 in the Keshan Province of China, was sometimes reversed with selenium supplementation. In the past three decades, selenium deficient cardiomyopathy has re-emerged in western medicine secondary to gastrointestinal disorders, long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and gastrointestinal surgery. This report describes a case of selenium deficient cardiomyopathy secondary to the bariatric (weight loss) surgical operation bilio-pancreatic diversion (Scopinaro procedure). This patient presented with life-threatening heart failure nine months after this surgery, having lost 100 kg of body weight. Multiple nutritional deficiencies were detected and corrected including severely depleted selenium levels. Cardiac function and the clinical scenario improved dramatically over three weeks. Screening patients at risk of malnourishment for selenium deficiency as a potential cause of cardiomyopathy is indicated.

  18. Association of Alimentary Factors and Nutritional Status with Caries in Children of Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizar, Juan Manuel; Muñoz, Nathalie; Amador, Norma; Garcia, Gabriela

    To determine the association between types of food consumed, nutritional status (BMI) and caries in schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was performed with 224 schoolchildren 6 to 12 years of age. DMFT/ dmft indices, level of oral hygiene, nutritional status as quantified by BMI and types of food consumed were determined in all participants. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression with significance set at p Caries prevalence was 36%. In the multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for BMI, variables related to a higher number of caries were younger age and lower intake of vitamin D, calcium and fiber, with higher consumption of phosphorous and carbohydrates (R2 = 0.30; p caries prevalence, while consuming milk and carrots were protectors. Caries in schoolchildren is highly prevalent in this community and is related to younger age and lower intake of vitamin D, calcium and fiber, but a higher consumption of phosphorous and carbohydrates. No relationship was found between caries and nutritional status.

  19. The association between depression and widowhood and nutritional status in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Roschelle; Wong, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of depression and widowhood on the nutritional status of older adults. A cross-sectional study of community-dwelling older adults in the rural United States was conducted. Dietary intake was measured via questionnaires. Depression status was classified by asking participants if they have ever been diagnosed with the condition, or by review of medical records. The final sample consisted of 1065 participants with 141 (13.2%) depressed, 384 (36.1%) widowed, and 67 (6.3%) both depressed and widowed. Mean caloric intake for total study population was low; widows and widowers had the lowest energy consumption among all groups. Greater intake of several nutrients was observed in depressed and/or widowed subjects. Nutritional services, such as congregate and home delivered meal programs, were not identified as significant contributors to the nutritional intake in older adults who were depressed, widowed, or both. Health care professionals may contribute to meal-based nutrition programs by offering their assistance in aspects of nutritional education and counseling for the promotion of healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [FOOD PATTERNS ASSOCIATED WITH A HEALTY BODY WEIGHT IN CHILEAN STUDENTS OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Fernández Godoy, Eloina; Fuentes Fuentes, Jessica; Hidalgo Fernández, Andrea; Quintana Muñoz, Carol; Yunge Hidalgo, Wilma; Fehrman Rosas, Pamela; Delgado Sánchez, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    to determine food patterns and its association with the consumption of various foods with nutritional status of Chilean university students of Nutrition and Dietetics. cross-sectional study, 634 students were evaluated Nutrition and Dietetics at the Universidad San Sebastián, of Santiago, Concepción, Valdivia and Puerto Montt. Each student a food survey was applied and an anthropometric assessment. 68% of students eat breakfast daily, 36.1% and 37.1% consume the recommended servings of fruits and vegetables, 64.9% consume soft drinks frequently. A positive association was observed between an adecuated weight and the fact of eat vegetables (≥ 2 servings/day) OR = 0.662 (0.440 to 0.996), whole grains OR = 0.474 (0.224 to 1.002), low consumption of fried and sweet snack OR = 0.643 (0.406 to 1.019) and OR = 0.545 (0.360 to 0.825) respectively. students have an insufficient intake of healthy foods and a high intake of unhealthy foods, also shows that the intake of vegetables, whole grains, low consumption of fried foods and sweet snacks are associated with a normal nutritional status among students evaluated. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of protein and omega-3 supplementation, provided during regular dialysis sessions, on nutritional and inflammatory indices in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Daud ZA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Zulfitri A Mat Daud1, Boniface Tubie2, Judy Adams2, Tracey Quainton2, Robert Osia2, Sharon Tubie2, Deepinder Kaur1, Pramod Khosla1, Marina Sheyman21Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, 2Great Lake Dialysis, LLC, Detroit, MI, USAPurpose: Malnutrition and chronic inflammation in dialysis patients negatively impacts prognosis. However, intervening to correct this problem (through nutritional supplementation is often hampered by poor compliance due to both medical and socioeconomic barriers. We have therefore performed a pilot study to investigate the technical feasibility of “directly observed treatment” of nutritional supplementation (protein and omega-3 fatty acids, administered during regular dialysis sessions. Secondary end points included observation of nutritional and inflammatory status of hypoalbuminemic patients undergoing hemodialysis.Methods: Main inclusion criteria were serum albumin ≤ 3.9 g/dL (3 months prior to the study. Sixty-three eligible patients agreed to participate. Two intervention groups received 30 mL of a liquid protein supplement plus either 2.4 g omega-3 (1800 mg eicosapentaenoic acid + 600 mg docosahexaenoic acid or a placebo, three times per week after their routine dialysis session for 6 months. Serum albumin, plasma lipids, and other indicators of nutritional and inflammatory status were measured.Results: Directly observed nutritional supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in the low density lipoprotein cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in the omega-3 group as compared to the placebo group (P = 0.043. For the omega-3 group, serum albumin was also marginally higher after 6 months as compared to baseline (P = 0.07. The observed increase in C-reactive protein in the placebo group over 6 months was not apparent in the omega-3 group, although there was no significant difference between groups. Nuclear factor kappa B, malnutrition-inflammation score

  2. Examining the association between livestock ownership typologies and child nutrition in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Sarah E; Kassa, Lea; Young, Sera L; Travis, Alexander J

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association between livestock ownership and dietary diversity, animal-source food consumption, height-for-age z-score, and stunting among children living in wildlife "buffer zones" of Zambia's Luangwa Valley using a novel livestock typology approach. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 838 children aged 6-36 months. Households were categorized into typologies based on the types and numbers of animals owned, ranging from no livestock to large numbers of mixed livestock. We used multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression to examine the association between livestock typologies and four nutrition-related outcomes of interest. Results were compared with analyses using more common binary and count measures of livestock ownership. No measure of livestock ownership was significantly associated with children's odds of animal-source food consumption, child height-for-age z-score, or stunting odds. Livestock ownership Type 2 (having a small number of poultry) was surprisingly associated with decreased child dietary diversity (β = -0.477; powning no livestock. Similarly, in comparison models, chicken ownership was negatively associated with dietary diversity (β = -0.320; p<0.01), but increasing numbers of chickens were positively associated with dietary diversity (β = 0.022; p<0.01). Notably, neither child dietary diversity nor animal-source food consumption was significantly associated with height, perhaps due to unusually high prevalences of morbidities. Our novel typologies methodology allowed for an efficient and a more in-depth examination of the differential impact of livestock ownership patterns compared to typical binary or count measures of livestock ownership. We found that these patterns were not positively associated with child nutrition outcomes in this context. Development and conservation programs focusing on livestock must carefully consider the complex, context-specific relationship between livestock ownership and

  3. Association of nutritional status with quality of life in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Shooka; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Koon, Poh Bee; Amani, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional status and dietary intake play a significant role in the prognosis of breast cancer and may modify the progression of disease. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of nutritional status on the quality of life of Iranian breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional data were collected for 100 Iranian breast cancer survivors, aged 32 to 61 years, attending the oncology outpatient clinic at Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran. Nutritional status of subjects was assessed by anthropometric measurements, Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and three non-consecutive 24-hour diet recalls. The European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life form (EORTC QLQ-C30) was used to assess quality of life. Ninety-four percent of the survivors were well-nourished, 6% were moderately malnourished or suspected of being malnourished while none were severely malnourished. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 86%. Overall, participants had an inadequate intake of vitamin D, E, iron and magnesium according to dietary reference intake (DRI) recommendations. Survivors with better nutritional status had better functioning scales and experienced fewer clinical symptoms. It appears important to provide educational and nutritional screening programs to improve cancer survivor quality of life.

  4. Effects of protein and omega-3 supplementation, provided during regular dialysis sessions, on nutritional and inflammatory indices in hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Zulfitri A Mat; Tubie, Boniface; Adams, Judy; Quainton, Tracey; Osia, Robert; Tubie, Sharon; Kaur, Deepinder; Khosla, Pramod; Sheyman, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Malnutrition and chronic inflammation in dialysis patients negatively impacts prognosis. However, intervening to correct this problem (through nutritional supplementation) is often hampered by poor compliance due to both medical and socioeconomic barriers. We have therefore performed a pilot study to investigate the technical feasibility of “directly observed treatment” of nutritional supplementation (protein and omega-3 fatty acids), administered during regular dialysis sessions. Secondary end points included observation of nutritional and inflammatory status of hypoalbuminemic patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods Main inclusion criteria were serum albumin ≤ 3.9 g/dL (3 months prior to the study). Sixty-three eligible patients agreed to participate. Two intervention groups received 30 mL of a liquid protein supplement plus either 2.4 g omega-3 (1800 mg eicosapentaenoic acid + 600 mg docosahexaenoic acid) or a placebo, three times per week after their routine dialysis session for 6 months. Serum albumin, plasma lipids, and other indicators of nutritional and inflammatory status were measured. Results Directly observed nutritional supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in the low density lipoprotein cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in the omega-3 group as compared to the placebo group (P = 0.043). For the omega-3 group, serum albumin was also marginally higher after 6 months as compared to baseline (P = 0.07). The observed increase in C-reactive protein in the placebo group over 6 months was not apparent in the omega-3 group, although there was no significant difference between groups. Nuclear factor kappa B, malnutrition-inflammation score, normalized protein nitrogen appearance, body mass index, and hemoglobin were unaffected by the intervention. Conclusion “Directly observed treatment” with an omega-3 based supplement (as opposed to a pure protein supplement) showed beneficial effects on the lipid

  5. Genetic Variants Influencing Biomarkers of Nutrition Are Not Associated with Cognitive Capability in Middle-Aged and Older Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Tamuno; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Deary, Ian J.; Elliott, Jane; Harris, Sarah E.; Hyppönen, Elina; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Maddock, Jane; Power, Chris; Starr, John M.; Kuh, Diana; Day, Ian N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Several investigations have observed positive associations between good nutritional status, as indicated by micronutrients, and cognitive measures; however, these associations may not be causal. Genetic polymorphisms that affect nutritional biomarkers may be useful for providing evidence for associations between micronutrients and cognitive measures. As part of the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) program, men and women aged between 44 and 90 y from 6 UK cohorts were genotyped for polymorphisms associated with circulating concentrations of iron [rs4820268 transmembrane protease, serine 6 (TMPRSS6) and rs1800562 hemochromatosis (HFE)], vitamin B-12 [(rs492602 fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2)], vitamin D ([rs2282679 group-specific component (GC)] and β-carotene ([rs6564851 beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1)]. Meta-analysis was used to pool within-study effects of the associations between these polymorphisms and the following measures of cognitive capability: word recall, phonemic fluency, semantic fluency, and search speed. Among the several statistical tests conducted, we found little evidence for associations. We found the minor allele of rs1800562 was associated with poorer word recall scores [pooled β on Z-score for carriers vs. noncarriers: −0.05 (95% CI: −0.09, −0.004); P = 0.03, n = 14,105] and poorer word recall scores for the vitamin D–raising allele of rs2282679 [pooled β per T allele: −0.03 (95% CI: −0.05, −0.003); P = 0.03, n = 16,527]. However, there was no evidence for other associations. Our findings provide little evidence to support associations between these genotypes and cognitive capability in older adults. Further investigations are required to elucidate whether the previous positive associations from observational studies between circulating measures of these micronutrients and cognitive performance are due to confounding and reverse causality. PMID:23468552

  6. NUTRITIONAL STATUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN CHILDREN WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS AGED 9–19 YEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoff, Suzanne M.; Tluczek, Audrey; Laxova, Anita; Farrell, Philip M.; Lai, HuiChuan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of improved nutritional status on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is unknown for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods Associations between nutritional status and HRQOL were examined over 2 years in 95 children, aged 9–19 years, who were followed in the Wisconsin Newborn Screening Project. HRQOL was assessed using the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ). Associations between height z-score (HtZ), BMI z-score (BMIZ) and seven CFQ dimensions were evaluated. Results Mean values of at least 80 were observed for all CFQ dimensions except respiratory symptoms and treatment burden. Treatment burden was significantly worse in patients with meconium ileus (57) compared to pancreatic insufficient (65) and sufficient (78) subjects, pnutritional status was associated with increased HRQOL scores. Early diagnosis through newborn screening and improved nutrition provides an opportunity to enhance quality of life and body image perception. PMID:23410621

  7. [ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FITNESS, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy Cumillaf, Andrés; Valdés Badilla, Pablo; Fariña Herrera, Custodio; Cárcamo Mora, Francisco; Medina Herrera, Bernice; Meneses Sandoval, Elías; Gedda Muñoz, Relmu; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    several studies demonstrated that regular physical exercise would impact positively on the academic performance of students. to determine the association between physical fitness, nutritional status and academic performance of students of Pedagogy in Physical Education from Temuco, Chile. the sample was selected on a non-probabilistic approach, which included 208 subjects (n = 153 women and n = 55 women). The variables studied were physical fitness (short Abs, long jump with feet together, forward trunk flexion, elbow flexion and extension and "course navette" test), nutritional status (BMI) and academic performance (classified as up and down the academic average). 87.5% of students have a satisfactory fitness and a BMI of 23.8 ± 2.9 kg/m2. The students with the best academic performance were those with the higher proportion of satisfactory physical condition (92.5 %). No association between academic performance and nutritional status was determined, but it was observed between low fitness and a great risk of low academic performance (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 8 1; p academic achievement and physical fitness among students is observed, but no for the nutritional status and the academic performance. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of helicobacter pylori infection with nutritional status in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, S; Ibiş, A; Ozdemir, B H; Ozdemir, F N; Külah, E; Boyacioğlu, S; Haberal, M

    2004-01-01

    The presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection may adversely influence outcome in renal transplant candidates because of its strong association with gastrointestinal disorders. We examined the association between HP infection and nutritional parameters in symptom-free hemodialysis patients and assessed prospectively the nutritional changes in patients who received therapy for the disease. The 163 study patients, including 114 men and 69 women of mean age 41.5 +/- 12.9 years on dialysis for 67.2 +/- 47.6 months, were selected from among the group who underwent routine endoscopic evaluation according to our renal transplant protocol. Patients with active peptic ulcer, acute gastritis, chronic inflammatory disease, malignancy, or diabetes mellitus were excluded. Endoscopy results revealed normal findings in 60 (group 1), gastritis in 86 (group 2), or gastritis with HP in 17 patients (group 3). Group 3 patients received a 2-week course of triple therapy (omeprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin). The patient groups were compared for nutritional metrics (albumin, phosphorus, interdialytic weight gain [IDWG], body mass index [BMI]), inflammatory indices (CRP, fibrinogen), and iPTH levels. Group 3 patients were observed to be malnourished when compared with groups 1 and 2, namely abnormal values of albumin (P gastritis displayed a state of malnutrition; its eradication improved the nutritional status. Therefore, the presence of HP infection should be sought and its eradication mandatory for this patient population.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus

  10. Examining the association between livestock ownership typologies and child nutrition in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Lea; Young, Sera L.; Travis, Alexander J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between livestock ownership and dietary diversity, animal-source food consumption, height-for-age z-score, and stunting among children living in wildlife “buffer zones” of Zambia’s Luangwa Valley using a novel livestock typology approach. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 838 children aged 6–36 months. Households were categorized into typologies based on the types and numbers of animals owned, ranging from no livestock to large numbers of mixed livestock. We used multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression to examine the association between livestock typologies and four nutrition-related outcomes of interest. Results were compared with analyses using more common binary and count measures of livestock ownership. Results No measure of livestock ownership was significantly associated with children’s odds of animal-source food consumption, child height-for-age z-score, or stunting odds. Livestock ownership Type 2 (having a small number of poultry) was surprisingly associated with decreased child dietary diversity (β = -0.477; plivestock. Similarly, in comparison models, chicken ownership was negatively associated with dietary diversity (β = -0.320; plivestock ownership patterns compared to typical binary or count measures of livestock ownership. We found that these patterns were not positively associated with child nutrition outcomes in this context. Development and conservation programs focusing on livestock must carefully consider the complex, context-specific relationship between livestock ownership and nutrition outcomes–including how livestock are utilized by the target population–when attempting to use livestock as a means of improving child nutrition. PMID:29408920

  11. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  12. Early Trophic Enteral Nutrition Is Associated With Improved Outcomes in Mechanically Ventilated Patients With Septic Shock: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayshil J; Kozeniecki, Michelle; Biesboer, Annie; Peppard, William; Ray, Ananda S; Thomas, Seth; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Nanchal, Rahul; Kumar, Gagan

    2016-08-01

    Current guidelines provide weak recommendations for starting enteral nutrition (EN) in patients with septic shock (on vasopressor support). Outcomes of patients receiving EN in septic shock on vasopressor support have not been well studied. We hypothesize that early trophic EN in mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock is associated with improved outcomes. Single-center retrospective study of mechanically ventilated patients admitted with septic shock to identify patients receiving (1) no EN, (2) septic shock, those receiving septic shock. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Examining the content of weight, nutrition and physical activity advices provided by Dutch practice nurses in primary care: analysis of videotaped consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, S M E; Noordman, J; van Dulmen, S; Hiddink, G J

    2014-01-01

    To examine the content of Dutch practice nurses' (PNs') advices about weight, nutrition and physical activity to overweight and obese patients. A 100 videotaped real-life PN consultations (The Netherlands, 2010/2011) with overweight or obese patients were selected. An observational checklist was developed to assess frequency and content. Personalization of advices was scored, as also the guidelines on which PNs based their advices. Content analysis was used to identify different categories of advices. About one quarter of advices concerned weight, over two-thirds nutrition and one-third physical activity. Lose weight, eat less fat and be more physically active in general were the main categories for each type of advice. Despite high clarity of advices, lower scores were found for specificity and personalization. Very few nutrition advices were provided in combination with physical activity advices. Weight advices often related to the patient's complaint. PNs seldom set a concrete weight goal. Although benefits of physical activity were discussed, often no practical advices were provided about how to achieve this. Integrated lifestyle advice was not common: advices about nutrition and physical activity were fragmented throughout the consultation. Obesity prevention needs more emphasis in PNs' educational programs.

  14. Social factors and lifestyle attributes associated with nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS attending care and treatment clinics in Ilala District, Dar Es Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritte, S A; Kessy, A T

    2012-03-01

    Tanzania is one of the countries that suffer huge burden of malnutrition and food poverty with over two million people living with HIV/AIDS. Despite ongoing nutritional interventions in care and treatment clinics for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), a high proportion of them still face nutritional problems, with about 29% being underweight. This study therefore aimed assessing social factors and lifestyle attributes associated with nutritional status among adults living with HIV/AIDS and attending care and treatment clinics (CTCs) in an urban district in Tanzania. An interview schedule was administered to 412 randomly selected adult male and female clients attending different CTCs in Ilala district. Their anthropometric measurements i.e. body weights and heights were also taken. Findings revealed that 18.4% of males and females were underweight according to their body mass indices. The risk of being underweight was higher among respondents who were young; who had never married; had no formal education as well as those who reported to be living with their families or friends, although these associations were not statistically significant. On the other hand, factors which had statistically significant association with nutritional status included the type of persons the client was living with and the habit of drinking alcohol. From the findings we conclude that PLWHA attending Care and Treatment Clinics in Ilala district, Dar es Salaam have problems with their nutrition with underweight being common among them. This suggests that the existing care and treatment clinics that provide nutritional support to PLWHA do not appear to address these issues in their totality. There is therefore, need to ensure that more efforts are geared towards providing nutritional counseling, support and encouragement of these clients within social contexts of their lives so in order for the current efforts to give best results.

  15. [Prevalence of anemia and its association with nutritional status among Chinese students of ethnic minorities in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Zhang, B; Hu, P J; Ma, J

    2016-06-18

    To analyze the prevalence of anemia and its proportions of severity, and to examine the association between anemia and nutritional status among Chinese students of ethnic minorities, so as to provide bases for the prevention and treatment of anemia. The subjects were Mongolian, Hui, Zhuang and Korean students aged 7, 9, 12, 14 and 17 years, sampled from the 2010 Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health. World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for screening anemia (2001) was used, and the proportion rates of mild, moderate and severe were analyzed. The nutritional status was defined according to the growth references of body mass index (BMI)-for-age z-score for 5-19 years developed by the WHO. Stepwise Logistic regression was used to assess the association between anemia and nutritional status, gender, urban/rural areas, age and ethnic minorities. The prevalences of anemia were 4.4%, 26.4%, 6.6% and 5.8% in Mongolian, Hui, Zhuang and Korean students, respectively, of whom, the prevalence of anemia was highest in rural girls and reached 4.8%, 42.0%, 9.0% and 6.7%, respectively. Most of the ethnic minorities' students belonged to mild anemia, and the prevalence of severe anemia was 1.4%, 12.9%, 1.6% and 1.9% in Mongolian, Hui, Zhuang and Korean students, respectively. Stepwise Logistic regression showed that the girls, rural students, students aged 12 years and 17 years, Hui, Zhuang and Korean students were more likely to develop anemia than the boys, urban students, students aged 7 years and Mongolian students. The overweight students were less likely to develop anemia compared with the normal students and there was no significant association between anemia and thinness or obesity when the other factors were controlled (P>0.05). The epidemic of anemia was different in the different ethnic minorities and the prevalence of anemia in Hui students was of moderate public health concern according to the WHO's criteria. We should pay more attention to

  16. Nutritional and pathogenic fungi associated with the pine engraver beetle trigger comparable defenses in Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Battisti, Andrea; Chakraborty, Sourav; Michelozzi, Marco; Bonello, Pierluigi; Faccoli, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Conifer bark beetles are often associated with fungal complexes whose components have different ecological roles. Some associated species are nutritionally obligate fungi, serving as nourishment to the larvae, whereas others are pathogenic blue-stain fungi known to be involved in the interaction with host defenses. In this study we characterized the local and systemic defense responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) against Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum Math. (a blue-stain pathogen) and Hyalorhinocladiella macrospora (Franke-Grosm.) Harr. (a nutritional fungus). These fungi are the principal associates of the pine engraver beetle, Ips acuminatus (Gyll.). Host responses were studied following inoculation with the fungi, singly and as a fungal complex, and by identifying and quantifying terpenoids, phenolic compounds and lignin. Although the length of the necrotic lesions differed between control (wound) and fungal treatments, only two compounds (pinosylvin monomethyl ether and (+)-α-pinene) were significantly affected by the presence of the fungi, indicating that Scots pine has a generic, rather than specific, induced response. The fact that both nutritional and blue-stain fungi triggered comparable induced defense responses suggests that even a non-pathogenic fungus may participate in exhausting host plant defenses, indirectly assisting in the beetle establishment process. Our findings contribute to the further development of current theory on the role of associated fungal complexes in bark beetle ecology.

  17. Nutritional status, acute phase response and depression in metastatic lung cancer patients: correlations and association prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannousi, Zoe; Gioulbasanis, Ioannis; Pallis, Athanasios G; Xyrafas, Alexandros; Dalliani, Danai; Kalbakis, Kostas; Papadopoulos, Vassilis; Mavroudis, Dimitris; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Papandreou, Christos N

    2012-08-01

    Cancer cachexia is a metabolic syndrome related with poor outcome. Cytokines play a key role in the pathophysiology of that syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential correlations between nutritional status, systemic inflammation, and psychological distress in cancer patients. The prognostic significance of the recorded parameters was also assessed. Patients with metastatic lung cancer were eligible. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was used for the evaluation of nutritional status, Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) for the estimation of systemic inflammation, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for psychological assessment. Totally, 122 patients were enrolled (71.3% with NSCLC and 28.7% with SCLC). The following correlations were observed: MNA and GPS (r = 0.289, p = 0.001), MNA and HADS (depression scale) (r = 0.275, p = 0.002), GPS and HADS (depression scale) (r = 0.256, p = 0.004), and GPS and HADS (anxiety scale) (r =0.194, p =0.033). In univariate analysis, GPS (p = 0.002) and MNA (p = 0.010) emerged as significant predictors of survival. In multivariate analysis, both MNA (p = 0.032) and GPS (p = 0.020) retained their importance. This study highlights the associations between nutritional status, systemic inflammation, and psychological distress, supporting their common underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and further suggesting the necessity of a holistic anti-cachectic approach.

  18. Nutritional status is associated with disease progression in very mild Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Nourhashemi, Fati; Reynish, Emma; Vellas, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify, in a sample of very mild Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, factors associated with disease progression. The authors followed 160 AD patients from a multicenter cohort with a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 0.5, corresponding to very mild AD but with impairment insufficient to be classified as dementia. Patients with disease progression were defined as those with CDR> or =1 at 1 year; those with no progression (stable) remained at CDR 0.5. The baseline characteristics of these 2 groups of patients were compared in search of predictors of progression. After a 1-year follow-up, 84 (52.5%) of the patients remained stable, CDR 0.5; 76 (47.5%) progressed to a CDR score > or =1. A baseline lower nutritional status assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment [odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval (0.68-0.94), P=0.007] and a lower cognitive performance on the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale [odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval (1.07-1.39), P=0.003] were found as predictors of progression. The results suggest that clinical assessment of nutritional status, along with cognitive data, may help detect patients at risk of progression in very early AD. Nutritional assessment should therefore form part of clinical evaluation of patients with AD at an early stage of the disease.

  19. Association Between Nutritional Status and Intelligence Quotient of Junior High School Students in Denpasar

    OpenAIRE

    Septiari Maryani Ardi, N.M; Eka Putra, I.W.G. Artawan; Indraguna Pinatih, G.N

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: The prevalence of obesity among youth in Indonesia was increasing. Obese young people have risk of having non-communicable disease and also affect the intelligence quotient. This study aimed to determine the association between nutritional status and intelligence quotient among junior high school students.Methods: Study was cross sectional with a sample of 176 respondents determined by simple random sampling. Data were collected through an IQ test using Standard Progre...

  20. [Family characteristics associated with the nutritional status of schools children in the city of Cartagena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pastrana, Yina; Díaz-Montes, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Objective To determine the family characteristics associated with the nutritional status of school children in the city of Cartagena. Method A cross-sectional study involving a population of 104 384 children aged 6 to 10 in the city of Cartagena. Confidence levels were 95 % and prevalence levels were 5.8 % with 2 % error. The sample was 544 students. The schools were selected by proportional affixation in each of the three locations in the city, for a total of 21 schools. Later, the number of classrooms and the list of the students were requested. Children from these classrooms were randomly selected to complete the sample in each school. The tab and the family APGAR were the instruments used to assess the family characteristics as well as their family functionality. For nutritional status, anthropometric measurements were taken and evaluated in the WHO Anthro Plus program. The information was processed in the statistical package Epi info 7. Results 53.9 % of students had adequate nutritional status and 46.1 % malnutrition. The family characteristics associated with the child malnutrition by excess are: the number of family members OR 0.65 (CI: 0.4 -0.9) and family income OR 0.53 (CI: 0.3 -0.7). Meanwhile, the malnutrition by deficit was associated only with family income OR 2.08 (CI: 1.1 -3.9). Conclusion The variables that showed association with nutritional status were: income equal to or less than the minimum wage and number of family members.

  1. Association between maternal socioeconomic factors and nutritional outcomes in children under 5 years of age,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Géa-Horta

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between maternal socioeconomic factors and the occurrence of nutritional outcomes in children under five years of age in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated data from the latest National Survey of Children and Women's Demographics and Health, carried out in Brazil in 2006-2007. Maternal employment and maternal level of schooling were the main exposures. The following nutritional outcomes in children were considered: height/age 2SD for overweight. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were utilized as the regression method. Results: After adjustments, it was observed that children whose mothers had low level of schooling had a higher chance of having short stature (OR = 3.97, 95% CI, 1.23-12.80 and children whose mothers worked outside the home were more likely to have excess weight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.02-2.42. Maternal employment was not associated with short stature in children (OR = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.67-1.77. Conclusion: Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter-sectoral interventions.

  2. NF-κB expression and its association with nutritional status in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Najla E; Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; Leal, Viviane O; Cardozo, Ludmila Lmf; Carraro-Eduardo, José Carlos; Fouque, Denis; Mafra, Denise

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association among the expressions of pro- and anti-inflammatory nuclear factors (nuclear factor-kappaB, NF-κB and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2, Nrf2) and nutritional status in HD patients. This cross-sectional study included eighty-three HD patients. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and processed for the evaluation of NF-κB and Nrf2 RNAm expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Muscle mass was estimated by creatinine index (CI) and percentage of body fat (%BF) by anthropometry. Seven-point subjective global assessment was also used to evaluate the nutritional status. The NF-κB expression was negatively correlated with CI (r = -0.54, p = 0.0001), serum albumin (r = -0.32, p = 0.02) and %BF (r = -0.61, p = 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that NF-κB expression was independently associated with CI (β: -0.8, p = 0.013) and %BF (β: -0.42, p = 0.04). There was no correlation among Nrf2 and anthropometric and biochemical variables. The classical NF-κB activation seems to be associated with poor nutritional status in HD patients; however, the exact underlying mechanisms deserve further studies.

  3. [ASSOCIATION BETWEEN STEVIA SWEETENER CONSUMPTION AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Vásquez Leiva, Alejandra; Morales Illanes, Gladys; Schifferli Castro, Ingrid; Sanhueza Espinoza, Claudia; Encina Vega, Claudia; Vivanco Cuevas, Karla; Mena Bolvaran, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    stevia consumption has increased worlwide among the different age groups; however, studies regarding the association between stevia intake and nutritional status in adults are scarce. to evaluate stevia intake in first year university students from five chilean cities (Santiago, Temuco, Viña del Mar, Concepción and Antofagasta) controlling by nutritional status, socioeconomic level, gender and whether their undergraduate program belongs to the health sciences. 486 first year university students belonging to 4 Chilean universities were evaluated. Each student completed a weekly food frequency questionnaire including food and beverages containing stevia. Selfreport of weight and height was requested. 69.8% of the students consumed stevia every week, the liquid form being the main contributor to the dietary stevia intake (81.2%). Only 1.4% of the students went over the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Normal weight women show a higher stevia intake compared to those obese or overweight (p stevia consumption appears to be positively associated to normal weight in the first model (adjusted) (OR = 0.219; IC 95%: 0.13-0.35; p stevia consumption was positively associated with normal nutritional status in Chilean university students. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum nutritional biomarkers and their associations with sleep among US adults in recent national surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available The associations between nutritional biomarkers and measures of sleep quantity and quality remain unclear.Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2005-2006 were used. We selected 2,459 adults aged 20-85, with complete data on key variables. Five sleep measures were constructed as primary outcomes: (A Sleep duration; (B Sleep disorder; (C Three factors obtained from factor analysis of 15 items and labeled as "Poor sleep-related daytime dysfunction" (Factor 1, "Sleepiness" (Factor 2 and "Sleep disturbance" (Factor 3. Main exposures were serum concentrations of key nutrients, namely retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene, folate, vitamin B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy, vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and vitamin E. Main analyses consisted of multiple linear, logistic and multinomial logit models.Among key findings, independent inverse associations were found between serum vitamin B-12 and sleep duration, 25(OHD and sleepiness (as well as insomnia, and between folate and sleep disturbance. Serum total carotenoids concentration was linked to higher odds of short sleep duration (i.e. 5-6 h per night compared to normal sleep duration (7-8 h per night.A few of the selected serum nutritional biomarkers were associated with sleep quantity and quality. Longitudinal studies are needed to ascertain temporality and assess putative causal relationships.

  5. Evaluation of the association between the TAS1R2 and TAS1R3 variants and food intake and nutritional status in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Silvia V; Agnes, Grasiela; Vitolo, Márcia R; Mattevi, Vanessa S; Campagnolo, Paula D B; Almeida, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Taste perception plays a key role in determining individual food preferences and dietary habits and may influence nutritional status. This study aimed to investigate the association of TAS1R2 (Ile191Val - rs35874116) and TAS1R3 (-1266 C/T - rs35744813) variants with food intake and nutritional status in children followed from birth until 7.7 years old. The nutritional status and food intake data of 312 children were collected at three developmental stages (1, 3.9 and 7.7 years old). DNA was extracted from blood samples and the polymorphisms were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) using hydrolysis probes as the detection method. Food intake and nutritional status were compared among individuals with different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes. At 3.9 years old, children homozygous (Val/Val) for the TAS1R2 Ile191Val polymorphism ingested less sugar and sugar-dense foods than children who were *Ile carriers. This finding demonstrated that a genetic variant of the T1R2 taste receptor is associated with the intake of different amounts of high sugar-content foods in childhood. This association may provide new perspectives for studying dietary patterns and nutritional status in childhood.

  6. Nutritional status and associated comorbidities among the elderly in Doiwala block, Dehradun

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    Kritika .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ageing is an irreversible biological process which starts from conception and ends after death. Elderly population is at risk of under nutrition due to physical, cognitive as well as functional decline. Increasing ill health and increasing disability are linked with nutritional risk indicators. Nutritional deficiencies in geriatric age group are common and often subclinical thus escaping the desired interventions. Hence, this study was undertaken to collect information on nutritional status and associated comorbidities of this population. Aims & Objectives: 1.To assess the nutritional status and associated morbidities among the elderly. 2. To suggest appropriate measures to improve their health. Material methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly people in the field practice area of Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC, HIMS, Dehradun for a period of 3 months. A total of 192 individuals of ≥60 years were interviewed. Pre-structured Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA questionnaire was used. Data are presented as mean values and standard deviations and significance level chosen at p < 0.05. Result: Out of total 192 elderly (≥60 years interviewed, 48.4% were males and 51.6% were females. The mean weight (Kg was 54.65 ± 13.44 (25-94 and mean BMI (Kg/m2 was 22.30 ± 5.08 (12.57-44.64.According to MNA there were 20.83 % malnourished and 43.7 % were at risk of malnutrition and this was  positively associated with age (p – 0.004 and female gender (p – 0.0001. According to MNA-SF (MNA short form, 17.2 % were malnourished while 45.3% were at risk of malnutrition and followed the same pattern of age and sex as in MNA. BMI analysis showed that 21.8% were malnourished, 15.4% were overweight and 7.4% were obese. Comorbidities were found to be more in malnourished group as compared to the well-nourished. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of elderly who were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, a more detailed

  7. Food Products Made With Glycomacropeptide, a Low Phenylalanine Whey Protein, Provide a New Alternative to Amino Acid-Based Medical Foods for Nutrition Management of Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calcar, Sandra C.; Ney, Denise M.

    2012-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error in phenylalanine (phe) metabolism, requires lifelong nutrition management with a low-phe diet, which includes a phe-free amino acid-based medical formula to provide the majority of an individual’s protein needs. Compliance with this diet is often difficult for older children, adolescents and adults with PKU. The whey protein glycomacropeptide (GMP) is ideally suited for the PKU diet since it is naturally low in phe. Nutritionally complete, acceptable medical foods and beverages can be made with GMP to increase the variety of protein sources for the PKU diet. As an intact protein, GMP improves protein utilization and increases satiety compared with amino acids. Thus, GMP provides a new, more physiologic source of low-phe dietary protein for those with PKU. PMID:22818728

  8. Front-of-package nutrition references are positively associated with food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Anthea; Dachner, Naomi; Mendelson, Rena; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2018-01-01

    Foods characterized by a high degree of processing are pervasive in the global food supply and concerns have been raised about their contribution to the escalating burden of diet-related disease. It has been suggested that the dominance of these products relates in part to their aggressive on-package marketing. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between the extent and nature of front-of-package (FOP) nutrition references on products sold in Canadian supermarkets and the level of food processing. FOP references were recorded from all packaged foods. Nutrition references were classified as 'negative' and 'positive' and further differentiated in terms of the use of regulated and unregulated text. Foods were coded for level of processing, using three different classification systems. Logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were conducted to assess associations. Three large Toronto supermarkets, from the top Canadian food retailers. Packaged foods (n 20 520). Forty-one per cent of products had FOP nutrition references. Irrespective of the classification system considered, the most processed category comprised the greatest proportion of products and nearly half of these bore FOP references. Foods deemed most processed were more likely than less processed products to bear FOP references and regulated and unregulated references to negative ingredients, but they were equally or less likely to bear positive nutrition references, depending on the classification system. The greater frequency of FOP nutrition references on heavily processed foods raises questions about the extent to which discretionary FOP labelling supports public health efforts to promote healthy eating.

  9. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  10. Systemic Inflammation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Association with Muscle Function and Nutritional Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Guzmán, Oriana del Rocío; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Escobar Cedillo, Rosa Elena

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation described in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may be related to loss of muscle function or to obesity. It is unknown if circulating proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α) levels are associated with muscle function. The purpose was to evaluate whether an association exists between systemic inflammation with muscle function and nutritional status in DMD patients. In 66 DMD patients without corticosteroid treatment, the following were evaluated in serum: cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, and creatine kinase (CK). Muscle function was evaluated using Vignos Scale. Patients with better muscle function had the highest concentration of CK, IL-1, and TNF-α compared with less muscle function. No differences in IL-6 and adiponectin concentration were identified among groups with different levels of muscle function. Also, no differences were observed in the concentration of cytokines among groups with different nutritional status levels (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese). However, CRP and leptin were increased in the obese group compared with normal and underweight subjects. Systemic inflammation is increased in patients with better muscle function and decreases in DMD patients with poorer muscle function; nevertheless, systemic inflammation is similar among different levels of nutritional status in DMD patients. PMID:26380303

  11. Systemic Inflammation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Association with Muscle Function and Nutritional Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana del Rocío Cruz-Guzmán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation described in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD may be related to loss of muscle function or to obesity. It is unknown if circulating proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α levels are associated with muscle function. The purpose was to evaluate whether an association exists between systemic inflammation with muscle function and nutritional status in DMD patients. In 66 DMD patients without corticosteroid treatment, the following were evaluated in serum: cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP, leptin, adiponectin, and creatine kinase (CK. Muscle function was evaluated using Vignos Scale. Patients with better muscle function had the highest concentration of CK, IL-1, and TNF-α compared with less muscle function. No differences in IL-6 and adiponectin concentration were identified among groups with different levels of muscle function. Also, no differences were observed in the concentration of cytokines among groups with different nutritional status levels (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese. However, CRP and leptin were increased in the obese group compared with normal and underweight subjects. Systemic inflammation is increased in patients with better muscle function and decreases in DMD patients with poorer muscle function; nevertheless, systemic inflammation is similar among different levels of nutritional status in DMD patients.

  12. Could nutrition help behaviours associated with personality disorders? A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J; Mulder, Roger T

    2016-02-01

    Personality disorders are common, and the core problems of interpersonal dysfunction and social disturbance are difficult to treat. One area gaining international attention is the impact that diet and nutrients can have on psychiatric/psychological symptoms. There are no empirical studies studying the specific relationship between nutrition and personality disorders. A systematic search revealed longitudinal studies following malnourished children, either during pregnancy or in early life that reported malnourishment is a risk factor that can express as maladaptive behaviours later in life. Other studies show associations between nutrient intake and personality styles. A small body of literature reveals a potential benefit of consuming nutrients therapeutically in order to address behaviours often associated with personality disorders. If we consider the broad patterns of behaviour that typify personality disorders, such as cognition, affectivity, interpersonal functioning and impulse control, there is a research rationale for studying the role that nutrition could play in protecting against the development of these problems as well as possibly modifying them. Whether it is too late to intervene with nutrition once the pathological behaviours are entrenched is unknown. Given the dearth of good evidence-based treatments currently available for people with personality disorders, it is an area worth investing in. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Association between masticatory performance and anthropometric measurements and nutritional status in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kiwako; Enoki, Hiromi; Izawa, Sachiko; Iguchi, Akihisa; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    The association between chewing ability and physical constitution and nutritional status remains uncertain in the elderly. We examined the relationships between chewing ability and anthropometric measurements or nutritional status in the elderly. A total of 200 subjects (78 men and 122 women; mean age +/- standard deviation, 76.6 +/- 7.1) were enrolled from geriatric clinical settings. Chewing ability was evaluated by color-changeable chewing gum. Bodyweight, body mass index, mid-upper-arm circumference (MAC), and triceps skinfold, grip strength, serum albumin, physical and cognitive functions, depressive status, and dental status were determined. Correlations were found between chewing ability and bodyweight, MAC, dental status, physical and cognitive functions, and depressive status after adjusting for age and sex. The concentrations of serum albumin were well-correlated with chewing ability and anthropometric measurements. Stepwise linear regression analyses revealed that the masticatory cycle, dental status, bodyweight and MAC are predictors of chewing ability, and that age, chewing ability, grip strength and sex are predictors of serum albumin concentrations. Chewing ability is associated with not only oral health status but also the physical constitution of the elderly. In addition, chewing ability may add to the regulation of the nutritional status in the elderly.

  14. The social environment of schools and adolescent nutrition: associations between the school nutrition climate and adolescents' eating behaviors and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetan, Branko; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Denny, Simon

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between the school nutrition climate and students' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative health survey of high school students in New Zealand. Overall, 9107 randomly selected students from 96 randomly selected schools participated. School-level measures were created by aggregating students' reports within schools. Analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling, accounting for student-level characteristics. There was a positive association between the school nutrition climate and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables. This relationship was statistically significant after controlling for the background characteristics of students. There were no associations between the school nutrition climate and students' junk food consumption or BMI. The school nutrition climate appears to have a positive influence on adolescents' healthy eating behaviors (fruit and vegetable intake), but a limited effect on unhealthy eating behaviors and ultimately body weight. This may reflect the pervasiveness of junk food in the environments of adolescents outside of school and the difficulty in limiting its consumption. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  15. Vitamin E in new-generation lipid emulsions protects against parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in parenteral nutrition-fed preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) in preterm infants leads to PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). PNALD has been linked to serum accumulation of phytosterols that are abundant in plant oil but absent in fish oil emulsions. Whether modifying the phytosterol and vitamin E composition of soy and fish oil lipi...

  16. Vitamin E in new Generation Lipid Emulsions Protects Against Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver disease in Parenteral Nutrition-Fed Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Ng; Stoll, Barbara; Chacko, Shaji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Parenteral nutrition (PN) in preterm infants leads to PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). PNALD has been linked to serum accumulation of phytosterols that are abundant in plant oil but absent in fish oil emulsions. Hypothesis: Whether modifying the phytosterol and vitamin E...

  17. [Association between stages of behavior change related to physical activity and nutritional status in university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Alberto Saturno; Corseuil, Herton Xavier; Pelegrini, Andreia; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to verify the association between stages of behavior change related to physical activity and nutritional status among 862 university students. Body mass index cut-off values were used to classify nutritional status. Stages of behavior change were analyzed individually and classified into active (action, maintenance) and inactive (pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation). The most prevalent stages of behavior change were contemplation (32%) and preparation (29.5%). Among the entire sample of students, 68.4% were inactive. Prevalence rates for underweight, overweight, and obesity were 9.5%, 12.4%, and 1.7%, respectively. Students classified in the pre-contemplation stage were 5.99 times (CI95%: 2.29-15.68) and 7.98 times (CI95%: 1.41-45.32) more likely to be underweight and overweight, respectively. The university plays a fundamental role in adopting plans and actions targeting the academic community, promoting lifestyle changes through physical activity programs.

  18. Examining the association between livestock ownership typologies and child nutrition in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Dumas

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between livestock ownership and dietary diversity, animal-source food consumption, height-for-age z-score, and stunting among children living in wildlife "buffer zones" of Zambia's Luangwa Valley using a novel livestock typology approach.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 838 children aged 6-36 months. Households were categorized into typologies based on the types and numbers of animals owned, ranging from no livestock to large numbers of mixed livestock. We used multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression to examine the association between livestock typologies and four nutrition-related outcomes of interest. Results were compared with analyses using more common binary and count measures of livestock ownership.No measure of livestock ownership was significantly associated with children's odds of animal-source food consumption, child height-for-age z-score, or stunting odds. Livestock ownership Type 2 (having a small number of poultry was surprisingly associated with decreased child dietary diversity (β = -0.477; p<0.01 relative to owning no livestock. Similarly, in comparison models, chicken ownership was negatively associated with dietary diversity (β = -0.320; p<0.01, but increasing numbers of chickens were positively associated with dietary diversity (β = 0.022; p<0.01. Notably, neither child dietary diversity nor animal-source food consumption was significantly associated with height, perhaps due to unusually high prevalences of morbidities.Our novel typologies methodology allowed for an efficient and a more in-depth examination of the differential impact of livestock ownership patterns compared to typical binary or count measures of livestock ownership. We found that these patterns were not positively associated with child nutrition outcomes in this context. Development and conservation programs focusing on livestock must carefully consider the complex, context-specific relationship between

  19. Associations between low consumption of fruits and vegetables and nutritional deficiencies in Brazilian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Rosangela Aparecida; Cobayashi, Fernanda; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2015-04-01

    We examined associations between the frequency of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and nutritional deficiencies among Brazilian schoolchildren. A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed. A short FFQ was used to assess consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) over the past month. The prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 % confidence intervals for stunting, obesity, anaemia, vitamin A and folate deficiencies, vitamin E and vitamin D insufficiencies were estimated for low F&V consumption frequency (vegetables ≤ 3 times/month and fruits ≤ 3 times/week) and compared with children with usual F&V consumption frequency (vegetables ≥ 1 time/week and fruits ≥ 4 times/week). Acrelândia, Western Brazilian Amazon. A total of 702 children aged 4-10 years. Only 5 % of children consumed F&V ≥ 5 times/d. Prevalence of deficiency was 31 %, 15 %, 9 % and 2 % for vitamins D, A, E and folate, respectively. Overall, 6.3% of children were anaemic, 3.3% were stunted, 2.7% were obese and 33 % had multiple nutritional deficiencies. Low frequency of F&V consumption was associated with lower plasma concentrations of carotenoids and vitamin E. Nutritional deficiencies were higher among non-consumers of F&V when compared with usual consumers: anaemia (PR=1.9; 95 % CI 1.0, 3.7), vitamin E insufficiency (PR=2.5; 95% CI 1.5, 4.2), vitamin D insufficiency (PR=1.5; 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and stunting (PR=2.6; 95% CI 1.1, 6.1). In our study, the occurrence of nutritional deficiencies in children with low F&V consumption was twice as high as in children with usual F&V consumption, reinforcing the importance of effective actions to promote the consumption of F&V.

  20. Association between sarcopenia and nutritional status and physical activity among community-dwelling Chinese adults aged 60 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Shan; Cao, Li; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Jianghua; Liu, Ping; Yang, Ying; Hao, Qiukui; Dong, Birong

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sarcopenia and nutritional status and physical activity among community-dwelling Chinese people aged 60 years and older. This study was carried out on 836 community-dwelling Chinese individuals aged ≥60 years to evaluate sarcopenia using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits were collected using a general questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment and biochemical parameters, whereas physical activity was assessed using the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. In addition, univariate and multivariate analysis was used to analyze the association between sarcopenia with nutritional status and physical activity. The total prevalence rate of sarcopenia was 10.5%, 47 (11.3%) men and 41 (9.7%) women who were classified as sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia was significantly lower among the participants of normal nutrition status. Compared with the participants with sarcopenia, those without sarcopenia had higher levels of prealbumin (P Nutritional Assessment score (adjusted OR 0.769, 95% CI 0.689-0.859, P nutritional status, but not with physical activity, based on a questionnaire. Further studies should evaluate whether maintaining a good nutritional status might be effective in lowering the risk of sarcopenia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1959-1966. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Reception of nutrition information by adult and older adult users of Primary Healthcare: Occurrence, associated factors, and sources of information

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    Ivana Loraine LINDEMANN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate reception of nutrition information (outcome, associated factors, and types of sources. Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted in 2013, included 1,246 adult and older adult users of the Primary Healthcare network of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The sample was characterized by reception of nutrition information, its sources, and demographic, socioeconomic, health, knowledge, and life habit variables. Prevalence ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals investigated associations between reception of nutrition information and independent variables. Results: More than one-third of the sample (37.6% received nutrition information (95%CI=34.9-40.3. Older adults, individuals with positive self-perceived diet, those who received health information, and those who were physically active were more likely to receive nutrition information, and normal weight individuals were less likely. The outcome differed by income strata, being highest in the highest quintile. There was a linear trend for education level and for following the Ten Steps to Healthy Eating: the outcome was more likely in individuals with at least higher education and those who followed at least four steps. The most cited sources of nutrition information were television shows (56.2%, other (46.2%, physician (41.2%, Internet (25.1%, and family members (20.9%, which did not differ by sex. Conclusion: Primary healthcare users received little nutrition information, and television could be a useful tool for the institutions responsible for the sector to disseminate the official nutritional recommendations.

  2. Associations of prenatal growth with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and nutritional status in Chilean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones, Francisco; Arnaiz, Pilar; Pacheco, Paz; Dominguez, Angelica; Villarroel, Luis; Eriksson, Johan G; Barja, Salesa; Farías, Marcelo; Castillo, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    The association of prenatal growth with nutritional status, metabolic syndrome (MS), and insulin resistance (IR) was studied in school-age children. A retrospective cohort study was designed linking present data of children with perinatal records. 3325 subjects were enrolled. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), and pubertal status were assessed. Blood lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured. Linear associations were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Odds ratios and nonlinear associations were computed. 3290 children (52% females, mean age of 11.4 ± 1 years) were analyzed. Prevalence of obesity, stunting, MS, and IR was 16.0%, 3.6%, 7.3%, and 25.5%, respectively. The strongest positive association was between birth weight (BW) and obesity (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.01-4.40) at BW ≥ 4,000 g compared to BW 2,500-2,999). The strongest inverse association was between birth length (BL) and stunting (OR 8.70 (95% CI 3.66-20.67) at BL nutritional status. Prenatal growth was more important than present body composition in determining these outcomes.

  3. Association of nutritional status and functional capacity in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cruz, Elizabeth; Camacho-Limas, Christian Patricio

    To determine the nutritional status and its association with functional capacity in patients with digestive tract cancer. We retrospectively studied all adult patients hospitalized who were diagnosed as having a cancer of the digestive tract. Nutritional status and functional capacity were assessed. Descriptive statistic and odds ratio were used to determine the association in SPSS 14.0. 57 patients were included, 96% had weight loss. Using subjective global assessment (SGA) as a method of screening, 82.5% of the patients were found malnutrition and by biochemical and immunological test 82% and 65% respectively. Functional capacity was assessed by Karnofsky index, finding that 75.5% of the patients have some activity limitation. Results show an association between malnutrition by SGA and limitation in functional capacity (c2 = 1.56; p = 0.212; OR: 2.46; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.581-10.465). In addition, we observe an association between the total lymphocyte count and limitation in functional capacity (χ2 = 6.94; p = 0.008; OR: 5.23; 95% CI: 1.441-19.025). Malnutrition in patients with digestive tract cancer was associated with limitation in functional capacity. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  4. Association of nutrition in early life with body fat and serum leptin at adult age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Maillot, M; Deheeger, M; Souberbielle, J C; Péneau, S; Hercberg, S

    2013-08-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that experiences during early life could have long-term health consequences. However, the role of early nutrition in programming obesity and leptin resistance is still poorly understood. We aimed at determining whether nutritional intakes in early life are associated with body composition and hormonal status at 20 years. Healthy infants participating in the two-decade-long prospective ELANCE (Etude Longitudinale Alimentation Nutrition Croissance des Enfants) study were examined at 10 months and 2 years. At 20 years, weight, height, subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis, and serum leptin concentration were recorded in 73 subjects still participating in the follow-up. In adjusted linear regression models, an increase by 100 kcal in energy intake at 2 years was associated with higher subscapular skinfold thickness (β=6.4% SF, 95% confidence interval 2.53-10.30, P=0.002) and higher FFM (0.50 kg, 0.06-0.95, P=0.03) at 20 years. An increase by 1% energy from fat at 2 years was associated with lower subscapular skinfold thickness (-2.3% SF, -4.41 to -0.18, P=0.03), lower FM (-0.31 kg, -0.60 to -0.01, P=0.04) and lower serum leptin concentration (-0.21 μg l(-1), -0.39 to -0.03, P=0.02) at 20 years. Low-fat intake in early life was negatively associated with body fat (particularly at the trunk site) and serum leptin concentration at 20 years, suggesting that early low-fat intake could increase the susceptibility to develop overweight and leptin resistance at later ages. These findings substantiate current recommendations against restricting fat intake in early life and open new directions for investigating the origin of obesity.

  5. Maternal Health Literacy Is Associated with Early Childhood Nutritional Status in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S V; Koné, Georges K; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Minoyan, Nanor; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Pahwa, Smriti

    2016-07-01

    The global burden of child undernutrition is concentrated in South Asia, where gender inequality and female educational disadvantage are important factors. Maternal health literacy is linked to women's education and empowerment, can influence multiple malnutrition determinants, and is rapidly modifiable. This study investigated whether maternal health literacy is associated with child undernutrition in 2 resource-poor Indian populations. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site, interviewing 1 woman with a child aged 12-23 mo/household. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted independently for each site. The main exposure was maternal health literacy. We assessed respondents' ability to understand, appraise, and apply health-related information with the use of Indian health promotion materials. The main outcomes were severe stunting, severe underweight, and severe wasting. We classified children as having a severe nutritional deficiency if their z score was nutritional status. Programs targeting health literacy may offer effective entry points for intervention. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  7. Nutrition status and associated factors among children in public primary schools in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaniki, E W; Makokha, A N

    2013-03-01

    Malnutrition among school-age children is due to inadequacies in one or more of the three main preconditions for good nutrition: food, care and health. Children stunted at school age are likely to have been exposed to poor nutrition since early childhood. Interventions for school age children can supplement efforts to reduce levels of stunting in the preschool years. To assess the nutrition status and associated risk factors of children in selected public primary schools in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi. Descriptive cross sectional design was used. 208 students aged 4-11years of both gender were randomly selected from four public primary schools in Dagoretti Division. Data was collected from school registers and directly questioning the students, parents /guardians. Among the children surveyed, 24.5% were stunted, 14.9% underweight and 9.7% were wasted. There were more boys than girls who were stunted. Breakfast contributed 10.2% of the daily energy intake. Few children consumed foods from more than four food groups. Incidence of diarrhea, colds/coughs increased the risk of stunting and underweight. Consumption of food which is inadequate in required calories and from less than four varieties of food groups by the children were important predictors of malnutrition.

  8. Association of maternal and child nutritional status in Brazil: a population based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Villamor, Eduardo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Although child undernutrition and stunting has been decreasing worldwide while obesity rates increase, these extreme conditions might coexist in families from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between maternal and child anthropometric indicators using a population representative sample. 4,258 non-pregnant women and their children nutritional indexes of children, height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index-for age (BAZ) z-scores, by categories of maternal height, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Adjusted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from linear regression, taking into account the complex survey design. We also examined the associations of maternal anthropometry with the prevalence of child stunting (HAZ2). HAZ was positively associated with maternal height and WC in a linear fashion. After adjustment, for sociodemographic characteristics, children whose mothers' height wasmaternal height and maternal BMI, children of mothers with a waist circumference ≥88 cm had 0.3 higher HAZ than those of mothers with WCmaternal height (maternal BMI and WC. We observed a strong, positive association of maternal and child nutritional status. Mothers of low stature had children with lower stature, mothers with central obesity had taller children, and mothers with overall or abdominal obesity had children with higher BAZ.

  9. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.

  10. [Impact of a brief educational intervention about nutrition and healthy lifestyles to school students given by a healthcare provider].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Rodríguez, Rosario; Tous Romero, María; Gil Barcenilla, Begoña; Longo Abril, Guadalupe; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; García Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an important health concern worldwide. Spain has one of the highest pediatric obesity rates among European countries, and they are increasing, which mandates the development of innovative strategies aimed at reverting this trend and decreasing the health problems related to obesity and the considerable waste of resources foreseen for the upcoming years. To determine if an educational intervention from a health professional would yield an additional benefit in the acquisition of knowledge on nutrition. A second objective was to determine the prevalence of weight excess as well as the lifestyle habits in a sample of school students. Analytical, interventional, random, longitudinal, pilot study in a sample of 107 students aged 9-15 years. The weight, height, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, level of physical activity and sedentarism, and knowledge on feeding and healthy lifestyles were estimated through a questionnaire. In an intervention group (54 students) a short educational intervention was carried out by a health professional. Two months later, the knowledge on diet and lifestyle habits was reassessed in all the students. After the educational intervention, the students in the intervention group had better knowledge regarding feeding and healthy lifestyles than the control students, and this difference was statistically significant. the additional educational activities on healthy lifestyles within the scholar program given by a health professional may represent an additional benefit to the strategies aimed at decreasing pediatric obesity in our setting. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional status of adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in rural central India and its association with mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Anurag; Chatterjee, Madhuri; Jain, Yogesh; Chatterjee, Biswaroop; Kataria, Anju; Bhargava, Madhavi; Kataria, Raman; D'Souza, Ravi; Jain, Rachna; Benedetti, Andrea; Pai, Madhukar; Menzies, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Under-nutrition is a known risk factor for TB and can adversely affect treatment outcomes. However, data from India are sparse, despite the high burden of TB as well as malnutrition in India. We assessed the nutritional status at the time of diagnosis and completion of therapy, and its association with deaths during TB treatment, in a consecutive cohort of 1695 adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in rural India during 2004 - 2009.Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted estimates of the association of nutritional status with deaths during treatment. At the time of diagnosis, median BMI and body weights were 16.0 kg/m(2)and 42.1 kg in men, and 15.0 kg/m(2)and 34.1 kg in women, indicating that 80% of women and 67% of men had moderate to severe under-nutrition (BMInutrition. Half of women and one third of men remained moderately to severely underweight at the end of treatment. 60 deaths occurred in 1179 patients (5%) in whom treatment was initiated. Severe under-nutrition at diagnosis was associated with a 2 fold higher risk of death. Overall, a majority of patients had evidence of chronic severe under-nutrition at diagnosis, which persisted even after successful treatment in a significant proportion of them. These findings suggest the need for nutritional support during treatment of pulmonary TB in this rural population.

  12. Nutritional Status And Its Association With Diabetes Mellitus In School Children, India

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    Muninarayana C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor health and nutrition may impair both the growth and intellectual development of school children. Incidence of malnutrition related childhood diabetes mellitus has increased and continues to be on the rise.Objectives: To assess the nutritional status by anthropometry and to screen for diabetes by capillary blood examination of school children. Design: Longitudinal study Setting: The study was carried out at Sri R.L.Jalappa Central School, Kolar from August 2008 to December 2009. Methods: All the school children were interviewed with pre-designed and pre-tested proforma. Height, Weight was measured by standard procedures. The nutritional status was analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI for age. The school children were also screened for diabetes mellitus by Finger stick capillary random plasma glucose testing. The children were followed up for any major medical problems during the study period.Participants: All the students studying in the school during study period.Results: Mean height and weight of children were found comparable to the ICMR pooled data. However, compared to NCHS standards and affluent Indian children the mean height and weight were found to be much inferior at all ages. According to BMI for age as per NCHS most of the children were undernourished (79.2% and 3 children (0.6% were overweight. Out of 495 children screened for diabetes 14 children had hyperglycaemia (>160mg/dl. These 14 children were further tested by oral glucose tolerance test and found to have normal blood sugars levels. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: The magnitude of malnutrition among school going children was found to be 79%. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus, hence under nutrition was associated with diabetes mellitus.

  13. Association between nutritional indicators and risk of hospitalization among hemodialysis patients

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    Patrícia SZUCK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To verify the ability of nutritional indicators to predict risk of hospitalization in hemodialysis patients. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted in two hemodialysis units in Southern Brazil. The following nutritional indicators were evaluated: subjective global assessment, malnutrition-inflammation score, nutritional risk screening 2002, percentage of body fat, mid-upper arm muscle circumference, hand grip strength, phase angle, and serum albumin. The association between nutritional indicators and risk of hospitalization over a period of two years was analyzed. Results One hundred thirty-eight patients (55.4±15.2 years, 61.6% men were evaluated. The cumulative incidence of hospitalization during the study was 48.0% (95%CI=37.9-58.0. Patients hospitalized during the study period had higher body mass index and lower serum albumin than those who were not hospitalized. Based on the other indicators, malnourished patients did not have a significant risk of hospitalization (p>0.05. Serum albumin was the only predictor of hospitalization. Patients with levels <3.8 g/dL had a density ratio for incidence of hospitalization 2.47 times greater than those with higher levels (p=0.003. Gender was a modifier of the effect (p interaction=0.042, with an effect in women of 7.31 (95%CI=2.34-22.9; p=0.001 and in men of 1.37 (95%CI=0.60-3.12; p=0.448. Conclusion Serum albumin was able to predict the risk of hospitalization over a period of two years in female patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  14. Nutrition and the Athlete. New Horizons in Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This booklet examines some of the more common myths associated with sport nutrition and provides basic guidelines for sound dietary habits for both athletes and nonathletes. It contains a page of teaching…

  15. Association of anemia and hypoalbuminemia in German geriatric inpatients: Relationship to nutritional status and comprehensive geriatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, G; Becker, I; Polidori, M C; Schulz, R-J; Noreik, M

    2015-10-01

    Anemia and hypoalbuminemia (HA) are acknowledged independent risk factors for morbidity and mortality in geriatric patients and are associated with nutritional status and frailty. Data exist regarding the association between albumin and frailty, anemia and frailty as well as frailty and nutritional status; however, there is a lack of information on the association between HA, anemia and nutritional status in older people. This study retrospectively analyzed 626 patients admitted to a German geriatrics department (average age 81.1 years, 68.2% female and 31.8% male) for anemia and HA. Data from the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) and from the mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) were available in all patients. Patients with anemia suffered significantly more often from HA (pGeriatric inpatients with anemia should be evaluated in terms of the presence of malnutrition risk and HA.

  16. Assessment of women, infants and children providers' perceptions of oral health counseling and availability of associated resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendryga, Tiffany A; Gwozdek, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-income families and ethnic minority groups are associated with an increased risk of developing dental disease and are often enrolled in the Women, Infants and Children (WIC) nutritional program. It has been an intention of the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) Oral Health Program (OHP) to collaborate with WIC to provide preventive oral health resources and education to their population. This project focused on achieving the goals outlined in the Michigan 2010 State Oral Health Plan. An 18 question survey was designed to identify gaps existing in oral health counseling in Michigan WIC agencies. The survey was disseminated to 56 MI WIC agencies. WIC providers perceive oral health risk assessment to be important and are asking oral health questions during certification and re-certification appointments. Seventy-nine percent of participants indicated they never had training in oral health counseling, and 79% are interested in learning more about oral health. Agencies are interested in obtaining oral health education resources for their clients. The 2010 State Oral Health Plan's goals recognized the need for oral health related resources and education within community-based programs like WIC. The results of the survey support the need for additional oral health counseling and associated resources in WIC agencies. This information will be used to help the MDCH OHP find ways to address these gaps. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  17. Association between dialysis dose improvement and nutritional status among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Ahmad T; Wahba, Khaled; Mohamed, Abdalla S A; Massoud, Waleed A

    2007-01-01

    Several studies suggest an association between improved survival and better nutritional status. It has been suggested that there is a correlation between dose of dialysis and nutritional status. However, in spite of the current practice, there are conflicting reports regarding the relationship between dose of dialysis or malnutrition, and biochemical outcome. In this article, we will discuss the impact of dose of dialysis on nutritional status and biochemical outcome in hemodialysis patients. We will also mention the interrelationships of dialysis dose, malnutrition, and biochemical outcome with respect to these patients. Data were processed on 134 dialysis patients (mean age 48.21 +/- 13.38, 69 male, 65 female) on 3-times-per-week dialysis regimens. The overall study period was 3 months from June 1, 2005 to August 31, 2005. The patients were divided into two groups: the baseline group and the intervention group. The data of the baseline group were collected in June, 2005 and the data of the intervention group were collected in August, 2005 after applying the intervention or a protocol for dialysis adequacy improvement. The statistical analysis demonstrated that there was a significant improvement in mean URR and Kt/V from the baseline to the intervention group. The intervention group had a considerably higher rate than the baseline group for all nutritional and biochemical outcome parameters. The study showed a strong positive correlation between nPCR and Kt/V (p = 0.0001) and also a strong positive correlation between serum albumin and Kt/V (p = 0.00001). No correlations were found between Kt/V and biochemical outcomes such as hemoglobin (p = 0.4922), calcium (p = 0.650), phosphate (p = 0.508), and phosphatase (p = 0.091). All the available evidence in hemodialysis patients confirms the close association between dialysis dose and biochemical outcome. A body of evidence also highlights the existence of relationship between malnutrition and outcome among these

  18. Enteral Nutrition and Acid-Suppressive Therapy in the PICU: Impact on the Risk of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ben D; Zurakowski, David; Bechard, Lori J; Priebe, Gregory P; Duggan, Christopher P; Heyland, Daren K; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2016-10-01

    Enteral nutrition has been implicated as a risk factor for ventilator-associated pneumonia. We explored the prevalence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and its association with clinical and nutrition-related therapies in mechanically ventilated children. Prospective, multicenter, cohort study. Fifty-nine PICU in 15 countries. Children less than 18 years old, mechanically ventilated for more than 48 hours. None. Multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or counts (%). We enrolled 1,245 subjects (45% women; 42% surgical), age 20 months (4-84 mo), and duration of mechanical ventilation 7 days (3-13 d). Culture-positive ventilator-associated pneumonia was diagnosed in 80 patients (6.4%); duration of mechanical ventilation for this subgroup was 17 days (8-39 d). Enteral nutrition was delivered in 985 patients (79%), initiated within 48 hours in 592 patients (60%), and via postpyloric route in 354 patients (36%). Acid-suppressive agents were used in 763 patients (61%). The duration of enteral nutrition (p = 0.21), route (gastric vs postpyloric) of delivery (p = 0.94), severity of illness (p = 0.17), and diagnostic category on admission (p = 0.31) were not associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia. After adjusting for enteral nutrition days, illness severity, and site, ventilator-associated pneumonia was significantly associated with mechanical ventilation more than 10 days (odds ratio, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.2-6.5; p associated pneumonia was diagnosed in 6.5% of mechanically ventilated children in a heterogeneous multicenter cohort. We did not find a link between enteral nutrition duration or route of delivery and ventilator-associated pneumonia. In addition to duration of mechanical ventilation and length of PICU stay, the use of acid-suppressive therapy independently increased the likelihood of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia in this population

  19. Associations of Cooking With Dietary Intake and Obesity Among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Poti, Jennifer M

    2017-02-01

    Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) may help ease economic and time constraints of cooking, helping low-income households prepare healthier meals. Therefore, frequent cooking may be more strongly associated with improved dietary outcomes among SNAP recipients than among income-eligible non-recipients. Alternately, increased frequency of home-cooked meals among SNAP participants may be beneficial simply by replacing fast food intake. This study quantified the association between home cooking and fast food with diet intake and weight status among SNAP recipients. In 2016, data from low-income adults aged 19-65 years from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2007-2010 (N=2,578) were used to examine associations of daily home-cooked dinner and weekly fast food intake with diet intake, including calories from solid fat and added sugar and key food groups (sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit, and vegetables), and prevalence of overweight/obesity. Differences in these associations for SNAP recipients versus income-eligible non-recipients were analyzed, as well as whether associations were attenuated when controlling for fast food intake. Daily home-cooked dinners were associated with small improvements in dietary intake for SNAP recipients but not for non-recipients, including lower sugar-sweetened beverage intake (-54 kcal/day), and reduced prevalence of overweight/obesity (-6%) (pfast food intake. Consuming at least one fast food meal/week was associated with 9.3% and 11.6% higher overweight/obesity prevalence among SNAP recipients and non-recipients, respectively (pfast food intake. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations among epoetin therapy, inflammation, nutritional status, and mortality in patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hirokazu; Kimata, Naoki; Wakai, Kenji; Akizawa, Tadao

    2014-09-01

    Inflammation contributes to hemopoiesis by lowering responses to epoetin (EPO) and to an increase in the mortality of patients on hemodialysis. However, nutritional status might alter associations among inflammation, EPO responsiveness, and the risk of mortality. We assessed the effect of inflammation on mortality according to nutritional status among EPO responses in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. The observational cohort study analyzed data from the Japanese Dialysis Registry (2005-2006; n = 36,956; mean follow-up 11.5 months). Patients were categorized into tertiles of the EPO responsiveness index (ERI; the weekly weight-adjusted EPO dose [IU/kg/week] divided by hemoglobin [g/dL]) and an EPO-free group. Body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured. Bimodal peaks indicated associations between CRP and BMI in each group. Hazard ratio (HR) curves of CRP for mortality according to BMI in the upper ERI tertile, particularly among those with diabetes mellitus (DM), were reverse J-shaped. However, HR curves in the other groups were increased below a threshold BMI of 21 kg/m(2). These associations were confirmed in propensity score-matched populations. Risk of CRP for death is apparently changed by BMI in hemodialysis patients with a lower EPO response, especially in those with DM. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of Preoperative Nutritional Status with Prognosis in Patients with Esophageal Cancer Undergoing Salvage Esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Makoto; Sohda, Makoto; Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Tomonori; Kumakura, Yuji; Honjo, Hiroaki; Hara, Keigo; Ozawa, Daigo; Suzuki, Shigemasa; Tanaka, Naritaka; Yokobori, Takehiko; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-01

    To investigate whether malnutrition is associated with poor prognosis of patients who undergo salvage esophagectomy. We examined the association between the preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and prognosis of patients who undergo salvage esophagectomy. We conducted a single-center retrospective study and reviewed hospital patient records for tumor characteristics and patient outcomes. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were carried out using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Thirty-two patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who underwent salvage esophagectomy between 1998 and 2015 at our Institute were included in this study. Univariate analysis revealed that clinical response (p=0.045), preoperative PNI (pnutritional status is associated with the prognosis of patients undergoing salvage esophagectomy. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P children. © 2016 APJPH.

  3. Association among salivary flow rate, caries risk and nutritional status in pre-schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Patricia N; Martínez Reinoso, Josefina; Gamba, Carlota A; Salgado, Pablo A; Mateo, María Teresa; Manto, María del Carmen; Molgatini, Susana L; Iglesias, Verónica; Argentieri, Ángela B

    2015-01-01

    Modeer T. et al.(2011) claim that there is association between decreased salivary flow rate and caries in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the association among nutritional status, salivary flow rate and caries risk in preschoolers. The study comprised 60 children aged 3 to 6 years attending kindergartens in areas immediately adjacent to Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Body weight and height of the children were determined. Body mass index was calculated and the population was classified anthropometrically according to the WHO 2007 (WHO Anthro. Program). Caries risk was determined. Saliva was collected in sterile graduated widemouth containers, without stimulation and without food restrictions. Salivary flow rate (SFR) was determined. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's test. It was found that 56.7% (IC95%: 37.7-74.0) of anthropometrically adequate children (Ad) and 37.0% (IC95%: 20.1-57.5) of overweight and obese children (OW/Ob) had caries. The odds ratio for caries (OR=3.78; IC95%: 1.2-11.8, p=0.02) was almost 4 times higher in adequate children than in the others. SFR was 0.534 0.318 ml/min in Ad and 0.439 } 0.234 ml/min in OW/Ob. Pearson's test showed no correlation between SFR and nutritional status (r= 0.004592, p= 0.5977). Although the presence of caries was lower in overweight and obese children, no correlation was found between nutritional status and salivary flow rate.

  4. The Association between Nutritional Markers and Biochemical Parameters and Residual Renal Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    Full Text Available Residual renal function (RRF is an important prognostic factor for peritoneal dialysis patients as it influences the quality of life and mortality. This study was conducted to explore the potential factors correlated with RRF. A cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 155 patients with residual GFR more than 1mL/min per 1.73m2 at the initiation of peritoneal dialysis. We collected the demographic characteristics, nutritional markers and biochemical parameters of all participants, and analyzed the correlation between these variables and residual GFR as well. The odds ratio of RRF loss associated with each of the nutritional markers and biochemical parameters were estimated by logistic regression model. The residual GFR was negatively correlated with serum phosphate (ORQ3 = 2.67, 95%CI: 1.03-6.92; ORQ4 = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.35-9.04, magnesium (ORQ4 = 3.77, 95%CI: 1.48-3.63, and creatinine (ORQ3 = 2.93, 95%CI: 1.09-7.88; ORQ4 = 8.64 95%CI: 2.79-26.78, while positively associated with normalized protein catabolic rate (ORQ3 = 0.24, 95%CI: 0.09-0.65; ORQ4 = 0.11, 95%CI: 0.03-0.35, 24 hours urine volume(ORQ1 = 22.87, 95%CI: 2.76-189.24; ORQ3 = 0.08, 95%CI: 0.02-0.28 and serum chlorine concentrations (ORQ1 = 5.34, 95%CI: 1.94-14.68; ORQ4 = 0.28, 95%CI: 0.09-0.85, respectively. Our study suggested that the nutritional markers and biochemical parameters, though not all, but at least in part were closely correlated with RRF in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  5. Associations of Prenatal Growth with Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Nutritional Status in Chilean Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mardones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of prenatal growth with nutritional status, metabolic syndrome (MS, and insulin resistance (IR was studied in school-age children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was designed linking present data of children with perinatal records. 3325 subjects were enrolled. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP, and pubertal status were assessed. Blood lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured. Linear associations were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Odds ratios and nonlinear associations were computed. Results. 3290 children (52% females, mean age of 11.4 ± 1 years were analyzed. Prevalence of obesity, stunting, MS, and IR was 16.0%, 3.6%, 7.3%, and 25.5%, respectively. The strongest positive association was between birth weight (BW and obesity (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.01–4.40 at BW ≥ 4,000 g compared to BW 2,500–2,999. The strongest inverse association was between birth length (BL and stunting (OR 8.70 (95% CI 3.66–20.67 at BL < 48 cm compared to BL 52-53 cm. A U-shaped association between BL and BP ≥ 90th percentile was observed. Significant ORs were also found for MS and IR. Adjustments for present fat mass increased or maintained the most prenatal growth influences. Conclusions. Prenatal growth influences MS, IR, and nutritional status. Prenatal growth was more important than present body composition in determining these outcomes.

  6. The Association of Perceived Provider-Patient Communication and Relationship Quality with Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two-thirds of adults aged 50 years and older are adherent to recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. Provider-patient communication and characteristics of the patient-provider relationship may relate to screening behavior. Methods: The association of provider communication quality, relationship, and colorectal cancer screening…

  7. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  8. The Association of Early Life Supplemental Nutrition With Lean Body Mass and Grip Strength in Adulthood: Evidence From APCAPS

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Bharati; Kuper, Hannah; Radhakrishna, K. V.; Hills, Andrew P.; Byrne, Nuala M.; Taylor, Amy; Sullivan, Ruth; Bowen, Liza; Wells, Jonathan C.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Davey Smith, George; Ebrahim, Shah; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    : In the present study, we examined the associations of early nutrition with adult lean body mass (LBM) and muscle strength in a birth cohort that was established to assess the long-term impact of a nutrition program. Participants (n = 1,446, 32% female) were born near Hyderabad, India, in 29 villages from 1987 to 1990, during which time only intervention villages (n = 15) had a government program that offered balanced protein-calorie supplementation to pregnant women and children. Participan...

  9. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Lucia; Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that women of child-bearing ages should maintain good nutritional status through a lifestyle that optimizes maternal health and reduces the risk of birth defects, suboptimal fetal growth and development, and chronic health problems in their children. The key components of a health-promoting lifestyle during pregnancy include appropriate weight gain; appropriate physical activity; consumption of a variety of foods in accordance with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005; appropriate and timely vitamin and mineral supplementation; avoidance of alcohol, tobacco, and other harmful substances; and safe food handling. Pregnant women with inappropriate weight gain, hyperemesis, poor dietary patterns, phenylketonuria, certain chronic health problems, or a history of substance abuse should be referred to a registered dietitian for medical nutrition therapy. Prenatal weight gain within the Institute of Medicine recommended ranges has been associated with better pregnancy outcomes. Most pregnant women need 2,200 to 2,900 kcal a day, but prepregnancy body mass index, rate of weight gain, maternal age, and appetite must be considered when tailoring this recommendation to the individual. The consumption of more food to meet energy needs, and the increased absorption and efficiency of nutrient utilization that occurs in pregnancy, are generally adequate to meet the needs for most nutrients. However, vitamin and mineral supplementation is appropriate for some nutrients and situations. This position paper also includes recommendations pertaining to use of alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, and illicit drugs.

  10. Nutritional effects of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal associations on the sclerophyllous species Agathosma betulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Pèrez-Fernández

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is currently known about the seedling physiology of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM Agathosma betulina, a sclerophyllous crop plant cultivated for its high-value essential oils and food additives. In addition, virtually nothing is known about the AM associations of this plant. Consequently, the effect of an indigenous community of AM fungi on P nutrition and C economy in seedlings, grown in nursery conditions, was determined during different stages of host and AM fungal establishment. AM fungal ribosomal gene sequence analyses were used to identify some of the fungi within the roots, responsible for the nutritional changes. During the early stages of host and AM fungal establishment (0 to 77 days after germination, host growth was reduced, whereas the rate of P-uptake and growth respiration was increased. Beyond 77 days of growth, the rate of P-uptake and growth respiration declined. These findings, together with results obtained after molecular analyses of root associated fungal DNA, indicate that AM fungi belonging to the genera Acaulospora and Glomus, improve P-uptake and costs of utilization during the early stages of seedling establishment in a nutrient-poor soil.

  11. [Nutritional and psychological factors associated with the occurrence of pica in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeta, Ana Carolina; Cunha, Ana Cristina Barros da; Heidelmann, Sonaly Petronilho; Saunders, Cláudia

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the nutritional and psychological factors associated with the occurrence of the practice of pica in pregnant women attending a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was based on a descriptive design with exploratory features, and conducted on 13 adult and adolescent pregnant women aged 16 to 40 years with a diagnosis of pica in the current pregnancy. Pica was diagnosed by a nutritionist in a standardized interview situation, when questions about the occurrence and frequency of pica, and types of substance ingestion were investigated. After signing the Informed Consent Form (ICF), all participants were evaluated by a nutritionist and seven of them were submitted to psychological assessment with standardized instruments to evaluate stress and anxiety, and to assess coping strategies. The type of pica most frequently reported was pagophagia (30.8%) and the consumption of fruit with salt (30.8%). The most prevalent coping strategies were "religious practice-focused" and "seeking social support", both presented by 42% of the pregnant women. We observed the occurrence of some degree of stress and anxiety in all pregnant women, as well as comorbidities (69.2%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (84.6%). Considering that pica may be associated with increased perinatal risk, it is very important to investigate this disorder during prenatal care, and to dopt obstetric, psychological and nutritional preventive practices to reduce the complications for mother and fetus.

  12. Incidence and Risk Factors of Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis in Omani Neonates; Single centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharef W. Sharef

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC is one of the most challenging complications of prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN in neonates. There is a lack of research investigating its incidence in newborn infants in Oman and the Arab region. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the incidence of PNAC and its risk factors in Omani neonates. Methods: This retrospective study took place between January and April 2014. All neonates who received PN for ≥14 days during a four-year period (June 2009 to May 2013 at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, were enrolled. Results: A total of 1,857 neonates were admitted to the NICU over the study period and 135 neonates (7.3% received PN for ≥14 days. Determining the incidence of PNAC was only possible in 97 neonates; of these, 38 (39% had PNAC. The main risk factors associated with PNAC were duration of PN, duration of enteral starvation, gastrointestinal surgeries, blood transfusions and sepsis. Neonates with PNAC had a slightly higher incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in comparison to those without PNAC. Conclusion: This study found a PNAC incidence of 39% in Omani neonates. There were several significant risk factors for PNAC in Omani neonates; however, after logistic regression analysis, only total PN duration remained statistically significant. Preventive strategies should be implemented in NICUs so as to avoid future chronic liver disease in this population.

  13. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; de Niet, Judith E

    2013-02-19

    The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Principals from elementary (n=369) and middle/high schools (n=118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman's Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR=6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR=4.54 and OR=3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR=5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR= .80) and sugar-sweetened beverages (OR= .76). School nutritional capacity, resources

  14. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Methods Principals from elementary (n = 369) and middle/high schools (n = 118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman’s Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. Results In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR = 6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR = 4.54 and OR = 3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR = 5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR = .80) and sugar

  15. Nutritional status of community-dwelling older people with dementia: associations with individual and family caregivers' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullier, Laetitia; Lagarde, Alexia; Bouisson, Jean; Bergua, Valérie; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the associations of individual characteristics of both older people with dementia and family caregivers with the nutritional status of older people with dementia. This cross-sectional study comprising 56 community-dwelling older persons with dementia and 56 family caregivers was conducted at home by a psychogerontologist working for a community gerontological center. Older people with dementia were assessed with Mini mental state examination, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and NeuroPsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and family caregivers with the Burden Interview (Zarit scale), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the emotional impact measure of NPI. For both, nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Among older people with dementia, 58.9% were at risk of malnutrition and 23.2% presented a poor nutritional status, and among the family caregivers, 32.1% and 5.4%, respectively. The MNA score of older people with dementia was strongly and inversely associated with the ADL score and was strongly and positively associated with the MNA score of family caregiver. These two factors significantly explained 32% of variation of MNA score of older people with dementia. These findings confirm the value of investigating nutritional deficiencies in dementia within the caregiving dyad and suggest that the functional status of older people with dementia and the nutritional status of family caregivers should be carefully assessed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Radio Nutricion: A Program for Nutrition Education with the Hispanic Community. Service Provider's Guide = Radio Nutricion: Un Programa de Educacion para la Nutricion para la Comunidad Hispana. Guia del Proveeidor de Servicios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Farmworker Opportunity Program, Arlington, VA.

    The set of materials was designed to provide nutrition instruction to Spanish-speaking farm workers using radio broadcasts. It includes audiocassette tapes of four novellas (mini-dramas) on nutrition-related topics (diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure, pregnancy, smart shopping), talk shows on the same topics, a public service…

  17. Nutrition and Physical Activity Environments of Home-Based Child Care: What Hispanic Providers Have to Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Noereem Z.; Risica, Patricia; Gorham, Gemma; Gans, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: It is important to understand the perceptions and beliefs of family child care providers (FCCPs) regarding which factors influence children's physical activity (PA), screen-time (ST), and dietary behaviors in order to develop and implement appropriate obesity prevention interventions. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the aforementioned perceptions and beliefs of FCCPs in Rhode Island. Methods: Four focus groups (n = 30) were held with FCCPs. Providers were female, Hispanic, and Spanish speaking. Providers were asked about different aspects of feeding, PA, and ST behaviors. Themes were coded using NVivo10 (QSR International Pty Ltd, Doncaster, Victoria, Australia). Content analysis was used to analyze final themes. Results: Providers understood the importance of providing opportunities for healthy eating and PA for the children they cared for, but there was room for improvement, especially with regard to certain feeding and ST practices. Several barriers were evident, including the lack of physical infrastructure for PA, cultural beliefs and practices related to child feeding, and difficulties working with parents to provide consistent messages across environments. Conclusions: Given that FCCPs are aware of the importance of healthy eating and PA, there is a need to address the specific barriers they face, and operationalize some of their knowledge into practical everyday actions. This formative work will inform the development of a culturally relevant, multicomponent intervention for ethnically diverse FCCPs to improve the food and PA environments of their homes, which should, in turn, improve the dietary, PA, and ST behaviors of the 2- to 5-year-old children they care for. PMID:26332455

  18. Nutrition and Physical Activity Environments of Home-Based Child Care: What Hispanic Providers Have to Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Mena, Noereem Z; Risica, Patricia; Gorham, Gemma; Gans, Kim M

    2015-10-01

    It is important to understand the perceptions and beliefs of family child care providers (FCCPs) regarding which factors influence children's physical activity (PA), screen-time (ST), and dietary behaviors in order to develop and implement appropriate obesity prevention interventions. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the aforementioned perceptions and beliefs of FCCPs in Rhode Island. Four focus groups (n = 30) were held with FCCPs. Providers were female, Hispanic, and Spanish speaking. Providers were asked about different aspects of feeding, PA, and ST behaviors. Themes were coded using NVivo10 (QSR International Pty Ltd, Doncaster, Victoria, Australia). Content analysis was used to analyze final themes. Providers understood the importance of providing opportunities for healthy eating and PA for the children they cared for, but there was room for improvement, especially with regard to certain feeding and ST practices. Several barriers were evident, including the lack of physical infrastructure for PA, cultural beliefs and practices related to child feeding, and difficulties working with parents to provide consistent messages across environments. Given that FCCPs are aware of the importance of healthy eating and PA, there is a need to address the specific barriers they face, and operationalize some of their knowledge into practical everyday actions. This formative work will inform the development of a culturally relevant, multicomponent intervention for ethnically diverse FCCPs to improve the food and PA environments of their homes, which should, in turn, improve the dietary, PA, and ST behaviors of the 2- to 5-year-old children they care for.

  19. Provider-caregiver-child discussions about risks associated with asthma control medications: content and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Chris; Blalock, Susan J; Rao, Jaya K; Williams, Dennis; Loughlin, Ceila E; Sleath, Betsy

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the extent to which general pediatric providers discuss risks associated with asthma control medications with families, and (2) examine factors that are associated with risk discussions. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of audio taped medical visits involving 35 pediatric providers and 248 children with asthma with their caregivers. Transcripts of the visits were coded for discussions about asthma medication risks. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Providers discussed asthma control medication risks during 23% of visits. Risks were more likely to be discussed when the visit was longer and when the provider prescribed a new asthma control medication. When providers discussed asthma control medication risks, they were most likely to ask the family general questions and make general statements. Across all of the visits, caregivers asked a total of 16 questions and made a total of 20 statements about risks associated with asthma medications; children asked a total of 3 questions and made two statements about risks associated with asthma control medications. Providers discussed risks associated with asthma control medications in less than one-quarter of medical visits. Providers should involve families in discussions about risks associated with medications during every visit to assess potential barriers to medication adherence. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Schools Leaders Successfully Partner with Community Organization: Providing Nutrition so Students Focus on Learning Instead of on Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipsky, Shellie; Scigliano, Deborah; Parker, David

    2013-01-01

    Due to the closing of the GM Manufacturing Plants, Grand Rapids, Michigan area experienced an extreme loss of jobs, which led to low-socioeconomic hardships such as "food insecurity" that was witnessed in the needs of the many students who attend the Grand Rapid Public Schools. This case provides insight into how educational leader…

  1. Association between maternal perceptions and actual nutritional status for children in a study group in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Cruz, M; Serralde-Zúñiga, A E; Frigolet Vázquez-Vela, Ma E; Blancas Galicia, L; Islas-Ortega, L

    2012-01-01

    Mexico has the highest rates of childhood obesity of any country in the world. As an environmental risk factor, family perception and behavior concerning child obesity is thought to have an important influence on the prevention and treatment of obesity. the aim of this study was to evaluate maternal perceptions of children's weight and to determine whether these perceptions are associated with the actual weight of the children. A descriptive study was conducted that assessed 273 children and included interviews with their mothers. Maternal perceptions of the children's weight status were compared with the measured weights, statures and body mass indices (BMI). The mean BMIs of the children and mothers were 18.1 ± 3.6 and 27.7 ± 4.7 kg/m², respectively. The perceptions of mothers of children's weight are not associated with actual BMI category of children (p nutritional status.

  2. American Medical Association concepts of nutrition and health. Council on Scientific Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-23

    Although human need for various nutrients is well-established, the exact requirements for the different nutrients are not well-known. Nutrient requirements are affected by genetics; environment; nature of the diet; and hemeostatic demands under changing physiological conditions expressed as growth, reproduction and response to the stress of injury or disease. Pregnant and lactating women should be properly nourished if well-nourished infants are desired. Nutrient and energy needs are considerably increased during pregnancy and lactation. The most rapid growth of infants occurs during the 1st 4 to 6 months of life. Because of the many advantages of breast milk over artificial milk, full-term newborn infants should be breastfed, unless there are specific contraindications or breastfeeding is unsuccessful. The American Medical Association (AMA) urges that better efforts be made to educate the public and the medical profession as to the advantages of breastfeeding. The 4th to the 6th months of life constitute the transitional period in infant feeding. The baby should be introduced to single-ingredient foods in small quantities, one at a time, to isolate food sensitivities. Good eating habits can be formed early in life through the proper and gradual introduction of varied and nutritional meal patterns. Energy balance is a nutritional problem in late childhood and once maturity is achieved, while calorically and nutritionally inadequate diets are a growing concern for the elderly. Immoderate eating habits (e.g., overeating) may aggravate or contribute to the development of degenerative diseases and should be discouraged. The AMA recommends that the American public focus on the achievement and maintenance of the most desirable body weight through a proper combination of dietary control and exercise. Specific dietary modifications (sodium restriction, weight control) are necessary in the management of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart diseases and other medical

  3. Bronchopulmonary complications associated to enteral nutrition devices in patients admitted to internal medicine departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, J; Barba, R; Lázaro, M; Matía, P; Plaza, S; Canora, J; Zapatero, A

    2013-01-01

    Enteral nutrition using feeding devices such as nasogastric (NG) tube or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an effective feeding method subject that may give rise to complications. We have studied the relationship between enteral nutrition feeding devices in patients admitted to the Internal Medicine Departments and the development of pulmonary complications (bronchial aspiration and aspiration pneumonia). All of the patients discharge between 2005 and 2009 from the Internal Medicine (IM) Departments of the public hospitals of the National Health System in Spain were analyzed. The data of patients with bronchial aspiration or aspiration pneumonia who also were carriers of NG tubes or PEG, were obtained from the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS). From a total of 2,767,259 discharges, 26,066 (0.92%) patients with nasogastric tube (NG tube) or percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) were identified. A total of 21.5% of patients with NG tube and 25.9% of patients with PEG had coding for a bronchopulmonary aspiration on their discharge report versus 1.2% of patients without an enteral feeding tube. In the multivariate analysis, the likelihood of suffering bronchoaspiration was 9 times greater in patients with SNG (OR: 9.1; 95% CI: 8.7-9.4) and 15 greater in subjects with PEG (OR: 15.2; 95% CI: 14.5-15.9) than in subjects without SNG or PEG. Mean stay (9.2 and 12.7 more days), diagnostic complexity and costs were much higher in patients with SNG or PEG compared to patients in hospital who did not require these devices. An association was found between SNG and PEG for enteral feeding and pulmonary complications. Mean stay, diagnostic complexity and cost per admission of these patients was higher in patients who did not require enteral nutrition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Discovery and characterization of nutritionally regulated genes associated with muscle growth in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Neil I; Johnston, Ian A

    2010-10-01

    A genomics approach was used to identify nutritionally regulated genes involved in growth of fast skeletal muscle in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Forward and reverse subtractive cDNA libraries were prepared comparing fish with zero growth rates to fish growing rapidly. We produced 7,420 ESTs and assembled them into nonredundant clusters prior to annotation. Contigs representing 40 potentially unrecognized nutritionally responsive candidate genes were identified. Twenty-three of the subtractive library candidates were also differentially regulated by nutritional state in an independent fasting-refeeding experiment and their expression placed in the context of 26 genes with established roles in muscle growth regulation. The expression of these genes was also determined during the maturation of a primary myocyte culture, identifying 13 candidates from the subtractive cDNA libraries with putative roles in the myogenic program. During early stages of refeeding DNAJA4, HSPA1B, HSP90A, and CHAC1 expression increased, indicating activation of unfolded protein response pathways. Four genes were considered inhibitory to myogenesis based on their in vivo and in vitro expression profiles (CEBPD, ASB2, HSP30, novel transcript GE623928). Other genes showed increased expression with feeding and highest in vitro expression during the proliferative phase of the culture (FOXD1, DRG1) or as cells differentiated (SMYD1, RTN1, MID1IP1, HSP90A, novel transcript GE617747). The genes identified were associated with chromatin modification (SMYD1, RTN1), microtubule stabilization (MID1IP1), cell cycle regulation (FOXD1, CEBPD, DRG1), and negative regulation of signaling (ASB2) and may play a role in the stimulation of myogenesis during the transition from a catabolic to anabolic state in skeletal muscle.

  5. Early-Life Nutrition Is Associated Positively with Schooling and Labor Market Outcomes and Negatively with Marriage Rates at Age 20-25 Years: Evidence from the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arindam; Behrman, Jere R; Kinra, Sanjay; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2018-01-01

    India's Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) is among the world's largest public nutritional programs, providing daily nutritional supplements and other public health and educational services to pregnant and nursing women, children aged education completion, marriage, and employment or enrollment in higher education of these adults. Adults born in the intervention group during the trial, compared with the control group, were 9% (95% CI: 0.04, 0.14; P education, were 6% (95% CI: -0.11, -0.01; P higher education. The estimated associations for graduate education completion and employment-study rates were greater for men, whereas the associations for secondary education and ever-married rates were greater for women. Exposure to nutritional supplement in utero or during the first 3 y of life was associated with improved adult educational and employment outcomes and lower marriage rates in India. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between Awareness of Nutrition Labels and Menstrual Cycle Irregularity in Korean Women: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010~2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hae Young; Ryu, Eunjung; Kim, Ji Su; Han, Kyung do

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between awareness of nutrition labeling and menstrual cycle irregularity in women from a nationally representative sample of the Korean population. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. A total of 4,324 women aged 19~54 years from the 2010~2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participated in the study. The participants were classified into three groups based on self-report responses to a questionnaire about their awareness of nutrition labels: Reading, Not-Reading, and Not-Knowing Groups. The Reading, Not-Reading, and Not-Knowing Groups comprised 46.4%, 44.9%, and 8.7% of the participants, respectively, and 53.6% of the participants had never used nutrition labels. In the Not-Knowing Group, irregular menstrual cycles for more than 3 months were significantly more common than women with irregular menstrual cycles for up to 3 months and women with regular menstrual cycles. Women in the Not-Knowing Group were more likely to exhibit menstrual cycle irregularity (adjusted odds ratio: 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.10~2.41) compared to women in the Reading Group after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, exercise regularity, stress, depression, suicidal ideation, metabolic syndrome, age at menarche, parity, and use of oral contraceptives. No awareness of nutrition labeling appears to be associated with a higher prevalence of menstrual cycle irregularity in a nationally representative group of Korean women. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  7. Ovarian Cancer: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 35 grams of insoluble and soluble fiber. Important Plant Sources for Good Health lant Family Examples Grains ... orange/green vegetables and fruits The Department of Nutrition can provide nutritional counseling at the Nutrition Clinic ...

  8. Association between selenium nutritional status and metabolic risk factors in men with visceral obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutakin; Meiliana, Anna; Wijaya, Andi; Kobayashi, Kenji; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Nakazawa, Minato; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Previous evidence has suggested an association between selenium and cardiovascular disease, which is main outcome of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine possible correlation between selenium nutritional status and metabolic risk factors in men with visceral obesity. Plasma samples were collected from 123 Indonesian men with visceral obesity. Their metabolic risk factors and selenium nutritional status were analyzed. The eligible subjects (n=78) were stratified according to the International Diabetes Federation: obese, obese plus one component, and obese plus two components or more. Obese plus two components or more were diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome. Pearson's correlation was performed to examine the correlation in each group. In the obese group, selenium positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r=0.390, Pmetabolic syndrome group, selenium negatively correlated with monocytes chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (r=-0.429, Pnutritional status and metabolic risk factors is limited to particular group of obese men with or without metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. [Nutritional factors associated with dyslipidemia in users of service in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nathália Luíza; Rodrigues, Maria Tereza; Abreu, Mery Natali; Lopes, Aline Cristine

    2011-12-01

    Dyslipidemias are relevant to public health because are one of the major risk factors for Non-Communicable Diseases and Disorders, especially cardiovascular diseases. Identify factors associated with dyslipidemias on users of Primary Health Care Center. Users were assessed through the nutritional anamnesis (demographic data, consumption of foods and nutrients and morbidity) and anthropometry. Was performed descriptive analysis, t-Student, Chi-Square and Mann Whitney tests (ppercentage of adequacy monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p=0.007). In contrast, had higher proportion of adequacy of lipid (p=0.017), lower mean weight (p=0.044) and lower inadequate intake of fatty meat (p=0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that insufficient consumption of MUFA (p=0.005) and inadequate intake of lard (p=0.021) were the main variables which influenced the presence of dyslipidemia. The results show that important dietary changes for the prevention and control of dyslipidemia have not been implemented, demonstrating the importance of nutritional interventions aimed at to clarify new dietary strategies, such as reduce consumption of sugar and to maintain an adequate consumption of lipid fractions.

  10. Glutamine Supplemented Parenteral Nutrition to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Türkay Aydoğmuş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a form of nosocomial pneumonia that increases patient morbidity and mortality, length of hospital stay, and healthcare costs. Glutamine preserves the intestinal mucosal structure, increases immune function, and reduces harmful changes in gut permeability in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN. We hypothesized that TPN supplemented by glutamine might prevent the development of VAP in patients on mechanical ventilator support in the intensive care unit (ICU. Material and Methods: With the approval of the ethics committee and informed consent from relatives, 60 patients who were followed in the ICU with mechanical ventilator support were included in our study. Patients were divided into three groups. The first group received enteral nutrition (n=20, and the second was prescribed TPN (n=20 while the third group was given glutamine-supplemented TPN (n=20. C-reactive protein (CRP, sedimentation rate, body temperature, development of purulent secretions, increase in the amount of secretions, changes in the characteristics of secretions and an increase in requirement of deep tracheal aspiration were monitored for seven days by daily examination and radiographs. Results: No statistically significant difference was found among groups in terms of development of VAP (p=0.622. Conclusion: Although VAP developed at a lower rate in the glutamine-supplemented TPN group, no statistically significant difference was found among any of the groups. Glutamine-supplemented TPN may have no superiority over unsupplemented enteral and TPN in preventing VAP.

  11. Glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğmuş, Meltem Türkay; Tomak, Yakup; Tekin, Murat; Katı, Ismail; Hüseyinoğlu, Urfettin

    2012-12-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a form of nosocomial pneumonia that increases patient morbidity and mortality, length of hospital stay, and healthcare costs. Glutamine preserves the intestinal mucosal structure, increases immune function, and reduces harmful changes in gut permeability in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). We hypothesized that TPN supplemented by glutamine might prevent the development of VAP in patients on mechanical ventilator support in the intensive care unit (ICU). With the approval of the ethics committee and informed consent from relatives, 60 patients who were followed in the ICU with mechanical ventilator support were included in our study. Patients were divided into three groups. The first group received enteral nutrition (n=20), and the second was prescribed TPN (n=20) while the third group was given glutamine-supplemented TPN (n=20). C-reactive protein (CRP), sedimentation rate, body temperature, development of purulent secretions, increase in the amount of secretions, changes in the characteristics of secretions and an increase in requirement of deep tracheal aspiration were monitored for seven days by daily examination and radiographs. No statistically significant difference was found among groups in terms of development of VAP (p=0.622). Although VAP developed at a lower rate in the glutamine-supplemented TPN group, no statistically significant difference was found among any of the groups. Glutamine-supplemented TPN may have no superiority over unsupplemented enteral and TPN in preventing VAP.

  12. Uric acid is associated with nutritional status in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purines, mainly contained in meats, are metabolized finally to uric acid in humans. Although digestion of meat is impaired in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis owing to anorexia and decreased taste, hyperuricemia is common in these patients. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed demographic characteristics, normalized protein nitrogen appearance (nPNA, serum albumin concentration, and serum uric acid levels and other laboratory parameters in sixty patients on maintenance hemodialysis. There were 33 (55% males and 27 (45% females. The mean age was 62.9±14.3 years and the mean body mass index was 22.7±3.8 kg/m2. The mean serum uric acid level was 7.2±1.2 mg/dL, with the range of 5.1–10.8 mg/dL. There was a statistically significant correlation between serum uric level and nPNA (p < 0.05. The serum uric acid level was also positively correlated with blood urea nitrogen level (p < 0.01 and serum phosphorus level (p < 0.05. Our results suggest that serum uric acid level is associated with nutritional status, and might be a possible marker for protein nutrition in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

  13. A genome wide association study (GWAS) providing evidence of an association between common genetic variants and late radiotherapy toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Gillian C; Thompson, Deborah; Fachal, Laura; Kerns, Sarah; Talbot, Chris; Elliott, Rebecca M; Dorling, Leila; Coles, Charlotte E; Dearnaley, David P; Rosenstein, Barry S; Vega, Ana; Symonds, Paul; Yarnold, John; Baynes, Caroline; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wilkinson, Jennifer S; Gómez-Caamaño, Antonio; Tanteles, George A; Platte, Radka; Mayes, Rebecca; Conroy, Don; Maranian, Mel; Luccarini, Craig; Gulliford, Sarah L; Sydes, Matthew R; Hall, Emma; Haviland, Joanne; Misra, Vivek; Titley, Jennifer; Bentzen, Søren M; Pharoah, Paul D P; Burnet, Neil G; Dunning, Alison M; West, Catharine M L

    2014-05-01

    This study was designed to identify common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with toxicity 2years after radiotherapy. A genome wide association study was performed in 1850 patients from the RAPPER study: 1217 received adjuvant breast radiotherapy and 633 had radical prostate radiotherapy. Genotype associations with both overall and individual endpoints of toxicity were tested via univariable and multivariable regression. Replication of potentially associated SNPs was carried out in three independent patient cohorts who had radiotherapy for prostate (516 RADIOGEN and 862 Gene-PARE) or breast (355 LeND) cancer. Quantile-quantile plots show more associations at the P<5×10(-7) level than expected by chance (164 vs. 9 for the prostate cases and 29 vs. 4 for breast cases), providing evidence that common genetic variants are associated with risk of toxicity. Strongest associations were for individual endpoints rather than an overall measure of toxicity in all patients. However, in general, significant associations were not validated at a nominal 0.05 level in the replication cohorts. This largest GWAS to date provides evidence of true association between common genetic variants and toxicity. Associations with toxicity appeared to be tumour site-specific. Future GWAS require higher statistical power, in particular in the validation stage, to test clinically relevant effect sizes of SNP associations with individual endpoints, but the required sample sizes are achievable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Personal values, marketing attitudes and nutrition trust are associated with patronage of convenience food outlets in the Asia-Pacific region: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Breanna; Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei Chun; Sarmugam, Rani; Pham, Quynh; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ridley, Stacey

    2017-02-16

    An online cross-sectional survey examined the relationships between the demographic characteristics, personal values, trust in sources of nutrition information and the use of convenience food outlets among middle-class household food providers in the Asia-Pacific region. The survey was administered to 3945 household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Vietnam and Indonesia in late 2013. Information about demographics, personal values, trust in sources of nutrition information and use of convenience food outlets was elicited. Exploratory factor analysis, two-step clustering and logistic regression were employed. The analyses found that the use of convenience food outlets was positively related to hedonist values and trust in food industry sources of nutrition information. However, lesser use of convenience food outlets and trust in health sources of nutrition information was associated with traditional (community-oriented) values. Further replication and extension of these findings would be useful. However, they suggest that improvements in the quality of foods sold in convenience food outlets combined with stronger regulation of food marketing and long-term food education are required.

  15. Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

  16. Food insecurity in adults with mood disorders: prevalence estimates and associations with nutritional and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Karen M; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2015-01-01

    Because little is known about food insecurity in people with mental health conditions, we investigated relationships among food insecurity, nutrient intakes, and psychological functioning in adults with mood disorders. Data from a study of adults randomly selected from the membership list of the Mood Disorder Association of British Columbia (n = 97), Canada, were analyzed. Food insecurity status was based on validated screening questions asking if in the past 12 months did the participant, due to a lack of money, worry about or not have enough food to eat. Nutrient intakes were derived from 3-day food records and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Psychological functioning measures included Global Assessment of Functioning, Hamilton Depression scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale. Using binomial tests of two proportions, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Poisson regression we examined: (1) food insecurity prevalence between the study respondents and a general population sample from the British Columbia Nutrition Survey (BCNS; n = 1,823); (2) differences in nutrient intakes based on food insecurity status; and (3) associations of food insecurity and psychological functioning using bivariate and Poisson regression statistics. In comparison to the general population (BCNS), food insecurity was significantly more prevalent in the adults with mood disorders (7.3% in BCNS vs 36.1%; p food-insecure had lower median intakes of carbohydrates and vitamin C (p food insecurity had protein, folate, and zinc intakes below the DRI benchmark of potential inadequacy (p food insecurity and mania symptoms (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.37, 95% CI 1.49-3.75, p Food insecurity is associated with both nutritional and psychological health in adults with mood disorders. Investigation of interventions aimed at food security and income can help establish its role in enhancing mental health.

  17. Specific microbiome changes in a mouse model of parenteral nutrition associated liver injury and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J Kirk; El Kasmi, Karim C; Anderson, Aimee L; Devereaux, Michael W; Fillon, Sophie A; Robertson, Charles E; Wagner, Brandie D; Stevens, Mark J; Pace, Norman R; Sokol, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been a life-saving treatment in infants intolerant of enteral feedings. However, PN is associated with liver injury (PN Associated Liver Injury: PNALI) in a significant number of PN-dependent infants. We have previously reported a novel PNALI mouse model in which PN infusion combined with intestinal injury results in liver injury. In this model, lipopolysaccharide activation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling, soy oil-derived plant sterols, and pro-inflammatory activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) played key roles. The objective of this study was to explore changes in the intestinal microbiome associated with PNALI. Microbiome analysis in the PNALI mouse identified specific alterations within colonic microbiota associated with PNALI and further association of these communities with the lipid composition of the PN solution. Intestinal inflammation or soy oil-based PN infusion alone (in the absence of enteral feeds) caused shifts within the gut microbiota. However, the combination resulted in accumulation of a specific taxon, Erysipelotrichaceae (23.8% vs. 1.7% in saline infused controls), in PNALI mice. Moreover, PNALI was markedly attenuated by enteral antibiotic treatment, which also was associated with significant reduction of Erysipelotrichaceae (0.6%) and a Gram-negative constituent, the S24-7 lineage of Bacteroidetes (53.5% in PNALI vs. 0.8%). Importantly, removal of soy oil based-lipid emulsion from the PN solution resulted in significant reduction of Erysipelotrichaceae as well as attenuation of PNALI. Finally, addition of soy-derived plant sterol (stigmasterol) to fish oil-based PN restored Erysipelotrichaceae abundance and PNALI. Soy oil-derived plant sterols and the associated specific bacterial groups in the colonic microbiota are associated with PNALI. Products from these bacteria may directly trigger activation of KCs and promote PNALI. Furthermore, the results indicate that lipid modification of PN solutions may alter

  18. Association between anthropometry-based nutritional status and malaria: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Efrem d'Avila; Alexandre, Márcia A; Salinas, Jorge L; de Siqueira, André M; Benzecry, Silvana G; de Lacerda, Marcus V G; Monteiro, Wuelton M

    2015-09-17

    Multiple studies in various parts of the world have analysed the association of nutritional status on malaria using anthropometric measures, but results differ due to the heterogeneity of the study population, species of the parasite, and other factors involved in the host and parasite relationship. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review on the inter-relationship of nutritional status based on anthropometry and malarial infection. Two independent reviewers accessed the MEDLINE and LILACS databases using the same search terms related to malaria and anthropometry. Prospective studies associating anthropometry and malaria (incidence or severity) were selected. References from the included studies and reviews were used to increase the review sensitivity. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of the prospective studies was assessed. Selected articles were grouped based on exposures and outcomes. The search identified a total of 1688 studies: 1629 from MEDLINE and 59 from LILACS. A total of 23 met the inclusion criteria. Five additional studies were detected by reading the references of the 23 included studies and reviews, totaling 28 studies included. The mean sample size was 662.1 people, ranging from 57 to 5620. The mean follow-up was 365.8 days, ranging from 14 days to 1 year and 9 months, and nine studies did not report the follow-up period. Prospective studies assessing the relationship between malaria and malnutrition were mostly carried out in Africa. Of the 20 studies with malarial outcomes, fifteen had high and five had average quality, with an average score of 80.5 %. Most anthropometric parameters had no association with malaria incidence (47/52; 90.4 %) or parasite density (20/25; 80 %). However, the impact of malnutrition was noted in malaria mortality and severity (7/17; 41.2 %). Regarding the effects of malaria on malnutrition, malaria was associated with very few anthropometric parameters (8/39; 20.6

  19. Nutritional mitigation of winter thermal stress in gilthead seabream associated metabolic pathways and potential indicators of nutritional state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Nadege; Silva, Tomé S.; Wulff, Tune

    2016-01-01

    A trial was carried out with gilthead seabream juveniles, aiming to investigate the ability of an enhanced dietary formulation (diet Winter Feed, WF, containing a higher proportion of marine-derived protein sources and supplemented in phospholipids, vitamin C, vitamin E and taurine) to assist fis...... and metabolic profiling purposes. Intragroup variability and co-measured information were also used to pinpoint which proteins displayed a stronger relation with fish nutritional state....... in coping with winter thermal stress, compared to a low-cost commercial diet (diet CTRL). In order to identify the metabolic pathways affected by WF diet, a comparative two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis of fish liver proteome (pH 4–7) was undertaken at the end of winter...

  20. [Association between food addiction and nutritional status in Chilean college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, Ana; Fuentes, Jessica; Pettinelli, Paulina

    2015-05-01

    High calorie foods, especially high in sugar and sodium may have an addictive potential. Experimental rats are able to develop symptoms and neurochemical changes, comparable to those observed in drug abuse, when they are exposed intermittently to sucrose. To evaluate the association between nutritional status and the prevalence of food addiction in Chilean college students. Food addiction was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale in 292 Chilean students aged 18-39 years (35% males). Height and weight were measured and body mass index (weight/height²) was calculated. Eleven percent of participants met the criteria for food addiction. Women had a higher prevalence than men (14.4% and 4.8%, respectively). Thirty percent of individuals with a body mass index over 30 kg/m² met the criteria for food addiction. In these Chilean students, food addiction was more prevalent in women and a higher prevalence was observed in obese individuals.

  1. Choline Alleviates Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Duodenal Motility Disorder in Infant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Wu, Yang; Guo, Yonggao; Tang, Qingya; Lu, Ting; Cai, Wei; Huang, Haiyan

    2016-09-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been found to influence duodenal motility in animals. Choline is an essential nutrient, and its deficiency is related to PN-associated organ diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the role of choline supplementation in an infant rat model of PN-associated duodenal motility disorder. Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed chow and water (controls), PN solution (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) (PN + choline). Rats underwent jugular vein cannulation for infusion of PN solution or 0.9% saline (controls) for 7 days. Duodenal oxidative stress status, concentrations of plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were assayed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of c-Kit proto-oncogene protein (c-Kit) and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) together with the electrophysiological features of slow waves in the duodenum were also evaluated. Rats on PN showed increased reactive oxygen species; decreased total antioxidant capacity in the duodenum; reduced plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine; and enhanced serum TNF-α concentrations, which were reversed by choline intervention. In addition, PN reduced mRNA and protein expression of mSCF and c-Kit, which were inversed under choline administration. Moreover, choline attenuated depolarized resting membrane potential and declined the frequency and amplitude of slow waves in duodenal smooth muscles of infant rats induced by PN, respectively. The addition of choline to PN may alleviate the progression of duodenal motor disorder through protecting smooth muscle cells from injury, promoting mSCF/c-Kit signaling, and attenuating impairment of interstitial cells of Cajal in the duodenum during PN feeding. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  2. Dissatisfaction with body image among adolescent students: association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status

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    Andreia Pelegrini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to determine the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status among adolescents. The following socio-demographic data, anthropometric variables, and perception of body image (n = 660 were collected. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 71.4%. Girls wished to reduce the size of their body silhouette, whereas boys wished to increase it. The desire to reduce body size was positively associated with female gender, with increased waist circumference and with excess weight. On the other hand, the desire to increase body size was negatively associated with the female gender and waist circumference, and was positively associated with ages 16, 17 and 18 + 19 years. Dissatisfaction with body image is highly prevalent among adolescents, though it is manifested differently in boys and girls. Increased abdominal fat, excess weight and female gender were predictors of dissatisfaction due to excess weight, and male gender and advanced age were predictors of dissatisfaction due to thinness.

  3. Factors associated with adverse outcomes during parenteral nutrition administration in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queau, Y; Larsen, J A; Kass, P H; Glucksman, G S; Fascetti, A J

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is increasingly used to support hospitalized dogs and cats. Published assessments of outcome are limited. Evaluate type and prevalence of complications and risk factors for death and complications in dogs and cats receiving PN. Three hundred and nineteen dogs and 112 cats that received PN at a teaching hospital between 2000 and 2008. Retrospective case review. Diagnosis, duration of PN administration, concurrent enteral feeding, death, and mechanical, septic, and metabolic complications were abstracted from medical records. Association of each parameter with complications and death was analyzed by binary logistic regression. Pancreatitis was the most common diagnosis (109/319 dogs, 34/112 cats), and 137/319 dogs and 51/112 cats died. Dogs and cats received 113 ± 40% and 103 ± 32% of resting energy requirement, respectively. Mechanical (81/319 dogs, 16/112 cats) and septic (20/319 dogs, 6/112 cats) complications were not associated with death (P > .05). Hyperglycemia was the most common metabolic complication (96/158 dogs, 31/37 cats). Hypercreatininemia in dogs (8/79) was the only complication associated with death (P dogs, hepatic lipidosis in cats, and longer duration of inadequate caloric intake before PN in both species were negatively associated with survival (P feeding in cats with any disease, and enteral feeding in dogs with respiratory disease (P ill dogs and cats. Most complications accompanying PN administration do not affect survival. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Nutritional Status among Iranian Children.

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    Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Amirkhizi, Farshad; Amirkhizi, Behzad; Hamedi, Sousan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine household food security status and sociodemographic factors influencing it and to examine whether food insecurity of household is a risk factor for underweight, stunting, and thinness in primary school children of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran. A sample of 610 students aged 7-11 years was selected by a multistage cluster random sampling method during December 2013-May 2014. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Security questionnaire, 42.3% of households showed some degree of food insecurity. Food insecurity was positively associated with household size (p = .002) and number of children per household (p = .001) and negatively associated with mother's and father's education level (p = .005 and p = .042, respectively), father's occupation status, and household income (p underweight, stunted, and thin, respectively, as counterparts from food secure households. The findings showed food insecurity was prevalent and associated with sociodemographic factors among households with schoolchildren in southeastern Iran. Nutritional status of children was also associated with food security status of their households.

  5. Dissatisfaction with body image among adolescent students: association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Beck, Carmem Cristina; Ghedin, Karoliny Debiasi; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2014-04-01

    This article seeks to determine the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status among adolescents. The following socio-demographic data, anthropometric variables, and perception of body image (n = 660) were collected. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 71.4%. Girls wished to reduce the size of their body silhouette, whereas boys wished to increase it. The desire to reduce body size was positively associated with female gender, with increased waist circumference and with excess weight. On the other hand, the desire to increase body size was negatively associated with the female gender and waist circumference, and was positively associated with ages 16, 17 and 18 + 19 years. Dissatisfaction with body image is highly prevalent among adolescents, though it is manifested differently in boys and girls. Increased abdominal fat, excess weight and female gender were predictors of dissatisfaction due to excess weight, and male gender and advanced age were predictors of dissatisfaction due to thinness.

  6. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  7. Dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle: associations with blood pressure in a sample of Australian adults (the Food BP study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, S; Sharma, S; Irwin, C; Sun, J

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle with blood pressure (BP) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults with normal and high BP were included in a cross-sectional study. Dietary intake data was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrition knowledge and lifestyle surveys were included in the questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. Associations were analysed using logistic regression. Four hundred and seven participants were included. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western; Snack and alcohol; and Balanced. Participants with high BP had a higher intake of Western and a lower intake of Balanced dietary pattern. A significant and higher frequency of discretionary foods and oils consumption, as well as lower nutrition knowledge score and activity frequency, were observed in the high BP group. Regression analysis indicated that the intake of Western and Snack and alcohol dietary patterns increases the likelihood of having high BP by 2.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-4.49) and 2.76 (95% CI: 1.52-5.00), respectively, when nutrition knowledge and lifestyle were controlled for as moderator variables. The likelihood of high BP was not associated with nutrition knowledge, but increased with physical inactivity. This study indicates that poor dietary patterns and inactivity are associated with increases in the likelihood of high BP, and the association is not influenced by nutrition knowledge. These findings indicate the importance of developing public health strategies with an emphasis on improving the dietary patterns of individuals to prevent and control high BP in Australian adults.

  8. Association of nutritional status-related indices and chemotherapy-induced adverse events in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung Hee; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Ryoo, Baek-Yeol; Ryu, Min-Hee; Jeong, Jae Ho; Kang, Shin Sook; Yang, Mihi; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2016-11-18

    Malnutrition in gastrectomized patients receiving chemotherapy is associated with the susceptibility to chemotherapy-related adverse events. This study evaluated pre-operative nutritional status-related indices associated with adverse events in post-operation gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Medical records of 234 gastrectomized patients under adjuvant tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil chemotherapy with extended lymph node dissection were analyzed. Nutritional status assessment included Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), body weight, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, and Nutrition Risk Index (NRI). Chemotherapy-originated adverse events were determined using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. PG-SGA indicated 59% of the patients were malnourished, and 27.8% of the patients revealed serious malnutrition with PG-SGA score of ≥9. Fifteen % of patients lost ≥10% of the initial body weight, 14.5% of the patients had hypoalbuminemia (cancer patients.

  9. Early nutritional support is associated with decreased length of hospitalization in dogs with septic peritonitis: A retrospective study of 45 cases (2000-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Debra T; Brown, Dorothy C; Silverstein, Deborah C

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether the timing and route of nutritional support strategy affect length of hospitalization in dogs with naturally occurring septic peritonitis. Retrospective study encompassing cases from 2000 to 2009. University teaching hospital. Forty-five dogs that survived septic peritonitis. None. Nutritional strategy for each dog was categorized as either enteral nutrition (EN: free choice voluntary eating or assisted tube feeding) or central parenteral nutrition (CPN). Early nutritional support was defined as consistent caloric intake initiated within 24 hours postoperatively. Consistent caloric intake occurring after 24 hours was defined as delayed nutritional support. Data reflective of nutritional status included body condition score, serum albumin concentration, and duration of inappetence before and during hospitalization. Body weight change from the beginning to the end of hospitalization was calculated. A modified Survival Prediction Index 2 score was calculated for each dog at admission. Additional clinical data recorded for comparison of illness severity included indicators of severe inflammation (eg, presence of toxic changes in neutrophils and immature neutrophils), coagulopathy (eg, prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time), the use of vasopressors and blood transfusions, and presence of concurrent illnesses. Nutrition-related complications were classified as mechanical, metabolic, or septic complications. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to determine the relationship of nutritional strategy with hospitalization length, while considering the presence of nutrition-related complications, the nutritional status- and illness severity-related variables. While controlling for other variables, dogs that received early nutrition had significantly shorter hospitalization length (by 1.6 days). No statistically significant association was found between route of nutrition and hospitalization length. The presence

  10. [Association between intracellular zinc levels and nutritional status in HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez G, Erika María; Maldonado C, María Elena; Rojas L, Mauricio; Posada J, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition, growth retardation and opportunistic infections outlast the metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal disorders produced by HIV. Zinc deficiency has been associated with deteriorating nutritional status, growth failure, and risk of infection. The aim of this study is to determine the association between zinc levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the nutritional status of HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus. An analytical, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 17 infected and 17 exposed children, aged 2-10 years. Anthropometric measurements, clinical and nutritional history, 24h recall, measurement of physical activity, and zinc in PBMC by flow cytometry analysis were recorded. Height according to age, energy consumption and adequacy of energy, protein and dietary zinc were significantly higher in children exposed to the virus compared to those infected with HIV (P CD4 + and CD4- lymphocytes between the two study groups (P >.05). However, the median levels of zinc in monocytes of infected patients was higher (218.6) compared to the control group (217.0). No association was found between zinc intake and levels of intracellular zinc. The deterioration of nutritional status and growth retardation in children were associated with HIV, but not with the levels of intracellular zinc. The dietary intake of this nutrient was not associated with levels of zinc in monocytes or CD4 + and CD4- lymphocytes. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  11. Association of nutritional status as measured by the Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short Form with changes in mobility, institutionalization and death after hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuotio, M; Tuominen, P; Luukkaala, T

    2016-03-01

    We examined the association of nutritional status as measured by the Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) with changes in mobility, institutionalization and death after hip fracture. Population-based prospective data were collected on 472 out of 693 consecutive hip fracture patients aged 65 years and over between January 2010 and December 2012. Declined vs same or improved mobility level, institutionalization and death during the 4-month follow-up were the outcomes. Age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, pre-fracture diagnosis of a memory disorder, mobility level, living arrangements and MNA-SF scores at baseline were the independent variables. Age-adjusted and multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were conducted. At baseline, 41 (9%) patients were malnourished and 200 (42%) patients at risk of malnutrition according to the MNA-SF. During the follow-up, 90 (19%) had died. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, malnutrition (hazard ratio 2.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-4.34) was associated with mortality. In the multivariate binary logistic regression analyses, risk of malnutrition (odds ratios (OR) 2.42; 95% CI 1.25-4.66) and malnutrition (OR 6.10;95% CI 2.01-18.5) predicted institutionalization. Risk of malnutrition (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.24-3.31) was associated with decline in the mobility level. Malnutrition or risk of malnutrition as measured by the MNA-SF were independent predictors of negative outcomes after hip fracture. Patients classified as being at risk of malnutrition by the MNA-SF may constitute a patient population with mild-to-moderate malnutrition and may require specific attention when nutritional interventions are designed after hip fracture.

  12. Online nutrition and T2DM continuing medical education course launched on state-level medical association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Kristen K; Murano, Peter S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine whether a 1-hour online continuing medical education (CME) course focused on nutrition for type 2 diabetes would result in a gain in nutrition knowledge by practicing physicians. A practicing physician and dietitian collaborated to develop an online CME course (both webinar and self-study versions) on type 2 diabetes. This 1-hour accredited course was launched through the state-level medical association's education library, available to all physicians. Physicians (n=43) registered for the course, and of those, 31 completed the course in its entirety. A gain in knowledge was found when comparing pre- versus post-test scores related to the online nutrition CME ( P Online CME courses launched via state-level medical associations offer convenient continuing education to assist practicing physicians in addressing patient nutrition and lifestyle concerns related to chronic disease. The present diabetes CME one-credit course allowed physicians to develop basic nutrition care concepts on this topic to assist patients in a better way.

  13. Are physical activity and nutrition indicators of the checklist of health promotion environments at worksites (CHEW) associated with employee obesity among hotel workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Claudio R; Albright, Cheryl; Williams, Rebecca; Nichols, Carol; Renda, Gloria; Stevens, Victor J; Vogt, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Worksites provide opportunities to reach more than 60% of adults in the United States, including populations diverse in race, ethnicity, gender, age, occupation, income, and health status. Employers that provide worksite weight management interventions have the potential to reduce sick leave, health care costs, and workers compensation costs, and increase employee morale and worker efficiency. Hotels specifically, represent a broad cross-section of job categories, and most hotels are staffed and operated similarly around the world. However, from our literature review, there have been no investigations of the association between the hotel environment and employees' obesity. For this study, we tested the relationship between environmental factors in hotels and employees' body mass index (BMI). Overall no substantial correlations were found on any environmental variable. However, hotel size affected some relationships. Higher BMI was related to greater number of stairs, stair facilitation, and the healthy eating facilitation variables (excluding nutrition signs or posters) in medium sized hotels. Lower BMI was found with greater stair facilitation in small hotels; and with greater number of physical activity (PA) signs, lunch room nutrition signs, and hotel nutrition signs in large hotels. Unionized status affected only two environmental variables. For unionized hotels, BMI was negatively correlated with PA signs and positively correlated with the healthy eating facilitation. No logical pattern of association was found between workplace environmental factors and hotel employee BMI levels. Further research should investigate the interaction of the size and structure of the workplace with the impact of environmental efforts to reduce overweight and obesity.

  14. Metabolic syndrome's risk factors and its association with nutritional status in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Fabiana Costa; Pereira, Flavia Erika Felix; Pereira, Avany Fernandes; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves

    2017-06-01

    The metabolic risk factors (RF) to the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been evidenced at early ages, including children. The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of RF to the diagnosis of MetS and its association with nutritional status of schoolchildren from 6 to 10 years old. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 505 students of municipal schools in Macae, Brazil, conducted from 2013 to 2014. The RF evaluated were: blood pressure (mm Hg), triglycerides (mmol/L), HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) fasting glucose (mmol/L) and waist circumference (cm). At least one RF was present in 61% ( n  = 308) of the sample. By nutritional status, there was higher prevalence of RF in overweight/obese schoolchildren compared to those with normal weight, except in the concentration of HDL-c. The prevalence of one, two and three RF (MetS) were 34.7% ( n  = 175), 21.0% ( n  = 106) and 5.3% ( n  = 27), respectively. Two RF were more present in overweight (28.2% 95%CI 19.0; 39.0) and obese (41.5% 95%CI 31.4; 52.1) compared to normal weight children (13.5% 95%CI 9.9; 17.8). Three or more RF were more frequent among obese (25.5% 95%CI 17.0; 35.5) in relation to overweight (2.4% 95%CI 0.2; 8.2) and normal weight children (0.3% 95%CI 0; 1.7). The data indicate high prevalence of RF and its relationship with the magnitude of body weight excess. Therefore, the identification and early treatment of these RF might minimize the risk of MetS and related diseases.

  15. Metabolic syndrome's risk factors and its association with nutritional status in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Costa Teixeira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic risk factors (RF to the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS have been evidenced at early ages, including children. The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of RF to the diagnosis of MetS and its association with nutritional status of schoolchildren from 6 to 10 years old. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 505 students of municipal schools in Macae, Brazil, conducted from 2013 to 2014. The RF evaluated were: blood pressure (mm Hg, triglycerides (mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L fasting glucose (mmol/L and waist circumference (cm. At least one RF was present in 61% (n = 308 of the sample. By nutritional status, there was higher prevalence of RF in overweight/obese schoolchildren compared to those with normal weight, except in the concentration of HDL-c. The prevalence of one, two and three RF (MetS were 34.7% (n = 175, 21.0% (n = 106 and 5.3% (n = 27, respectively. Two RF were more present in overweight (28.2% 95%CI 19.0; 39.0 and obese (41.5% 95%CI 31.4; 52.1 compared to normal weight children (13.5% 95%CI 9.9; 17.8. Three or more RF were more frequent among obese (25.5% 95%CI 17.0; 35.5 in relation to overweight (2.4% 95%CI 0.2; 8.2 and normal weight children (0.3% 95%CI 0; 1.7. The data indicate high prevalence of RF and its relationship with the magnitude of body weight excess. Therefore, the identification and early treatment of these RF might minimize the risk of MetS and related diseases.

  16. Influence of adding pyrroloquinoline quinone to parenteral nutrition on gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Jiro; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Murakoshi, Satoshi; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Ueno, Chikara; Maeshima, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Koichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    Experimental intravenous (IV) parenteral nutrition (PN) diminishes gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cell number and function. PN solution cannot maintain GALT at the same level as a normal diet, even when delivered intragastrically (IG). Previous studies demonstrated pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-deficient mice to be less immunologically responsive. Because standard (STD) PN solution lacks PQQ, PQQ supplementation may prevent PN-induced GALT changes. This study was designed to determine the influence of adding PQQ to PN on GALT. In experiment 1, mice (n = 32) were randomized to chow, IV-STD-PN, and IV-PQQ-PN groups. The chow group was fed chow with the same caloric content as PN. The IV-STD-PN group received STD-PN solution, whereas the IV-PQQ-PN group was given PQQ (3 mcg/d)-enriched PN by the IV route. After 5 days of feeding, lymphocytes were isolated from the Peyer's patch (PPs), intraepithelial space (IE), and lamina propria (LP) of the small intestine. GALT lymphocyte number and phenotype (αβTCR+, γδTCR+, CD4+, CD8+, B220+ cells) and intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) level were determined. In experiment 2, mice (n = 28) were randomized to IG-STD-PN or IG-PQQ-PN group. After IG nutrition supports, GALT mass and function were determined as in experiment 1. The IV-PQQ-PN group showed increased PP lymphocyte number and PP CD8+ cell number compared with the IV-STD PN group. The IG-PQQ-PN group had significantly greater PP lymphocyte number and PP CD4+ cell numbers than the IG-STD-PN group. Neither IV nor IG PQQ treatment raised IgA level. PQQ added to PN partly restores GALT mass, although its effects on GALT function remain unclear.

  17. Intensively Cultivated Landscape and Varroa Mite Infestation Are Associated with Reduced Honey Bee Nutritional State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G Dolezal

    Full Text Available As key pollinators, honey bees are crucial to many natural and agricultural ecosystems. An important factor in the health of honey bees is the availability of diverse floral resources. However, in many parts of the world, high-intensity agriculture could result in a reduction in honey bee forage. Previous studies have investigated how the landscape surrounding honey bee hives affects some aspects of honey bee health, but to our knowledge there have been no investigations of the effects of intensively cultivated landscapes on indicators of individual bee health such as nutritional physiology and pathogen loads. Furthermore, agricultural landscapes in different regions vary greatly in forage and land management, indicating a need for additional information on the relationship between honey bee health and landscape cultivation. Here, we add to this growing body of information by investigating differences in nutritional physiology between honey bees kept in areas of comparatively low and high cultivation in an area generally high agricultural intensity in the Midwestern United States. We focused on bees collected directly before winter, because overwintering stress poses one of the most serious problems for honey bees in temperate climates. We found that honey bees kept in areas of lower cultivation exhibited higher lipid levels than those kept in areas of high cultivation, but this effect was observed only in colonies that were free of Varroa mites. Furthermore, we found that the presence of mites was associated with lower lipid levels and higher titers of deformed wing virus (DWV, as well as a non-significant trend towards higher overwinter losses. Overall, these results show that mite infestation interacts with landscape, obscuring the effects of landscape alone and suggesting that the benefits of improved foraging landscape could be lost without adequate control of mite infestations.

  18. Patient and Referring Provider Characteristics Associated With the Likelihood of Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Luke M.; Jolles, Sally; Fischer, Laura E.; Voils, Corrine I

    2016-01-01

    Importance Although bariatric surgery is the most cost-effective treatment for severe obesity, less than 1% of severely obese patients undergo it. Reasons for low utilization are unclear. Objectives To identify patient and referring provider characteristics associated with the likelihood of undergoing bariatric surgery. Evidence Review PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane databases were searched for reports published between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2014. Reports were eligible if they presented descriptive data regarding facilitators or barriers to bariatric surgery or if they reported statistical associations between patient or provider characteristics and referral to or receipt of bariatric surgery. Frequency effect sizes were calculated as the proportion of studies reporting a finding. Findings Of the 7,212 reports identified in the initial search, 53 were included in full-text review. Nine reports met our inclusion criteria and were included in analyses. Of those, four included descriptive findings, six reported statistical associations, and one included both. One report included providers as study participants, whereas eight included patients. Four of nine studies identified an association between female gender and a greater willingness to undergo bariatric surgery. Lack of knowledge about bariatric surgery was a barrier in two studies. Five of nine cited patient concerns about the outcomes and safety of bariatric surgery as a barrier to undergoing it. Patients were more likely to pursue bariatric surgery when it was recommended by referring providers. Providers who believed that obesity treatment should be covered by insurance were more likely to recommend bariatric surgery. Conclusions and Relevance Limited patient and referring provider knowledge about the safety and effectiveness of bariatric surgery are important barriers to bariatric surgery utilization. Future efforts focused on improving knowledge and identification of the critical

  19. Poor Socioeconomic and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Osteoporosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women: Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Jung Sun; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    As the population ages, osteoporosis is a growing global public health problem. This study examined potential risk factors associated with osteoporosis in a nationally representative sample of Korean postmenopausal women. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of Korean menopausal women participating in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey KNHANES 2009 (n = 1467; mean age ± SE = 65.2 ± 0.3 years). Bone mineral density of total femur, femoral neck, and spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteoporosis was determined as t-score of -2.5 or below in at least 1 of the 3 sites. Menopausal status was confirmed by self-reports. About 41% of the study sample met the criteria for osteoporosis. Poor socioeconomic status, lower BMI, and shorter estrogen exposure duration were significantly associated with osteoporosis in the study sample. Poor dietary intake was also related to osteoporosis. In the age- and energy-adjusted logistic regression models, participants consuming less protein, vitamin B2, or vitamin C than the estimated average requirement (EAR) showed higher odds of having osteoporosis than their counterparts. Participants consuming no milk or milk products had 45% increased odds of having osteoporosis than those consuming milk or milk products. The findings of this study suggest several risk factors associated with osteoporosis, which can be addressed in the development and implementation of tailored nutritional interventions to promote the bone health of Korean postmenopausal women.

  20. Consumer-providers in assertive community treatment programs: associations with client outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Maaike D; Kroon, Hans; Delespaul, Philippe A E G; Mulder, Cornelis L

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether employing mental health consumers as consumer-providers in assertive community treatment teams can enhance outcomes for clients with severe mental illness. In a prospective longitudinal study, presence of consumer-providers and outcomes of 530 clients with severe mental illness in 20 outpatient teams were assessed at baseline and at one-year and two-year follow-ups. Measures included the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS), the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Assessment Schedule (CANSAS), the Working Alliance Scale, the number of hospital days, and the number of days of homelessness. Multilevel regression was used with the independent variables consumer-provider presence, time of measurement, and their interaction. A positive association was found between consumer-provider presence and improvements in functioning on the HoNOS (p = .020), met needs in relation to personal recovery (p=.044), unmet needs in relation to personal recovery (p = .008), and number of homeless days (p<.001). A negative association was found for consumer-provider presence and the number of hospital days (p = .019). Consumer-providers are important participants in outpatient teams serving clients with severe mental illnesses, although integrating these providers as part of a team is a slow process.

  1. Factors associated with family-provider partnership among children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Fernandez-Baca, Daniel; Knapp, Caprice

    2012-01-01

    Partnering between families and their children's providers is the cornerstone of family-centered care. The aims of this study are to (1) identify factors associated with family-provider partnership and (2) determine the association between partnership and other outcome measures for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using data on children with ADHD from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (n=5,495), we utilized descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses to determine the impact of partnership on multiple health outcome measures. Children with more severe ADHD, children taking medication for ADHD, female children, Latino children, and families with increased strain were all more likely to report family-provider partnerships. Family-provider partnership was associated with fewer missed school days (16% less) and more preventive care visits (11% more) among children with ADHD. Family provider partnership is an important factor in the health care of children with ADHD. This relationship, along with other factors such as family strain, health insurance, gender, and racial/ethnic differences play a large role in a family's experience of their child's ADHD diagnosis.

  2. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-10-14

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  3. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189. For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables, a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students’ nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI. Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms. Multiple linear regression tested the association of students’ eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  4. Exploring the association between feeding habits, non-nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusions in the deciduous dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Freire, Gabriela Mesquita; Cárdenas, Abel Belizario Cahuana; Suarez de Deza, José Enrique Espasa; Ustrell-Torrent, Josep Maria; Oliveira, Luciana Butini; Boj Quesada, Joan Ramon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between feeding habits, non-nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusions in deciduous dentition. A cross-sectional observational survey was carried out in 275 children aged 3 to 6 years and included clinical evaluations of malocclusions and structured interviews. Statistical significance for the association between feeding habits and the development of malocclusion was determined using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. In addition, odds ratio (OR) calculations were used for intergroup comparisons. Controlling for confounders was adjusted by excluding children with non-nutritive sucking habits. The results indicated that there were no significant relationships between exclusive breastfeeding or bottlefeeding and the presence of any type of malocclusion (p > 0.05). There was also no significant association between breastfeeding or bottlefeeding duration and malocclusion (p > 0.05). In addition, it was observed that exclusive breastfeeding had a protective effect and diminished the risk of acquiring non-nutritive sucking habits (p = 0.001). There was no association between feeding habits and malocclusions in the deciduous dentition in this sample of children. Exclusive breastfeeding reduced the risk of acquiring non-nutritive sucking habits.

  5. A case-control study of nutritional factors associated with chronic suppurative otitis media in Yemeni children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elemraid, M. A.; Mackenzie, I. J.; Fraser, W. D.; Harper, G.; Faragher, B.; Atef, Z.; Al-Aghbari, N.; Brabin, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Undernutrition and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in children are common in low resource settings, but there are few studies of their interactions. The aim is to evaluate nutritional factors associated with CSOM in Yemeni children. A case-control study of 75 children with CSOM and 74

  6. [Association between food and nutrition insecurity with cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Naruna Pereira; Milagres, Luana Cupertino; Novaes, Juliana Farias de; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2016-06-01

    To address the association between food and nutrition insecurity and cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Articles were selected from the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases with no publication date limit, involving children and adolescents, using the descriptors: food and nutrition security, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, stress and dyslipidemia. The terms were used in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The search was carried out systematically and independently by two reviewers. Exposure to food insecurity during childhood and adolescence ranged from 3.3% to 82% in the selected publications. Exposure to food insecurity was associated with stress, anxiety, greater chance of hospitalization, nutritional deficiencies, excess weight and inadequate diets with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables and increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and fats. Food and nutrition insecurity was associated with the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the assessed publications. Childhood and adolescence constitute a period of life that is vulnerable to food insecurity consequences, making it extremely important to ensure the regular and permanent access to food. Because this is a complex association, some difficulties are found, such as the synergy between risk factors, the assessment of heterogeneous groups and extrapolation of data to other populations, in addition to the influence of environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between food and nutrition insecurity with cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruna Pereira Rocha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To address the association between food and nutrition insecurity and cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Data source: Articles were selected from the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases with no publication date limit, involving children and adolescents, using the descriptors: food and nutrition security, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, stress and dyslipidemia. The terms were used in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The search was carried out systematically and independently by two reviewers. Data synthesis: Exposure to food insecurity during childhood and adolescence ranged from 3.3% to 82% in the selected publications. Exposure to food insecurity was associated with stress, anxiety, greater chance of hospitalization, nutritional deficiencies, excess weight and inadequate diets with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables and increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and fats. Conclusions: Food and nutrition insecurity was associated with the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the assessed publications. Childhood and adolescence constitute a period of life that is vulnerable to food insecurity consequences, making it extremely important to ensure the regular and permanent access to food. Because this is a complex association, some difficulties are found, such as the synergy between risk factors, the assessment of heterogeneous groups and extrapolation of data to other populations, in addition to the influence of environmental factors.

  8. SLC6A14 and 5-HTR2C polymorphisms are associated with food intake and nutritional status in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Raquel C K; Vetter, Silvia B; Genro, Júlia P; Campagnolo, Paula D B; Mattevi, Vanessa S; Vitolo, Márcia R; Almeida, Silvana

    2015-12-01

    Serotonin plays a critical role in the regulation of food intake. The solute carrier family 6 member 14 (SLC6A14) and serotonin receptor 2C (5-HTR2C) genes are involved in the bioavailability and action of this neurotransmitter. Evaluation of the association of six polymorphisms in these genes with food intake and nutritional status in children followed to 7-8years of age. Blood samples and the biodemographic data of 344 children were collected at three development stages, in a cross-sectional study undertaken with the cohort from a randomized trial. Polymorphisms were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-based techniques. At 7 to 8years of age, carriers of the A alleles for both the SLC6A14 rs2312054 and SLC6A14 rs12391221 polymorphisms showed higher food intake, except for the sugar-dense food (SDF) intake parameter, than T/T and C/C homozygotes, respectively. Boy carriers of the C allele of rs2071877 had a higher sum of triceps and subscapular folds than T allele carriers at 7 to 8years old. For 5-HTR2C gene variants, A allele carriers (rs3813928) and T allele carriers (rs3813929) had higher food intake at 3 to 4years old than G/G and C/C homozygotes, respectively, except for SDF. At this age, the intake of energy-dense foods was higher in carriers of the T allele (rs3813929) than in C/C homozygotes. This study provides evidence that genetic variants of these proteins might be involved in the determination of food intake and nutritional status in children. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations Between Parental BMI and the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Environment in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joel E; Helsel, Brian; Griffin, Sarah F; Liang, Jessica

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental BMI and the family environment and determine if differences exist in child diet and physical activity related parenting behaviors by parental BMI in a community sample of families recruited through elementary schools in a local school district. We found an association between parental BMI category and family nutrition and physical activity (FNPA) score. Families with an underweight or normal weight parent had a larger proportion (64.3%) of high (indicating a healthier family environment) FNPA scores and families with an overweight or obese parent had a smaller proportion (45.2%) of high FNPA scores (χ 2  = 5.247, P = 0.022). Families with a parent who was overweight or obese had 2.18 times the odds (95% CI 1.11-4.27) of being in the low FNPA ("less healthy" environment) group. Further, underweight/normal weight parents reported higher levels of monitoring of child diet (Z = -3.652, P authoritative parenting behaviors were associated with a less obesogenic home environment and a positive parenting style related to child eating and physical activity behaviors.

  10. Nutritional Status Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-School Children in the City of Montes Claros - Mg, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Igor Raineh Durães; Mourão Daniella Mota; Freitas Daniel Antunes; Souza Andrey George Silva; Pereira Alessandra Ribeiro; Aidar Felipe José; Carneiro André Luiz Gomes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in middle-school students in the city of Montes Claros - MG. The sample consisted of 382 students, aged 10?16 years. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Body Mass Index (BMI). Metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined as the presence of two or more criteria in accordance with definition of the International Diabetes Federation. The overall prevalence of MS was 7.9%. 9...

  11. Provider and Health System Factors Associated with Usage of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Harney, Kathleen F; Singh, Tara; Hurwitz, Anita Gupta

    2017-12-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is recommended as first-line contraception for adolescents. Surveys of primary care providers suggest that physician and clinic factors might influence LARC counseling, but their effect on usage is unknown. Our objective was to explore provider and clinic characteristics associated with LARC usage in adolescents. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5363 women ages 15-21 years receiving primary care within a large health system in Massachusetts in 2015. We used data abstracted from electronic medical records to characterize rates of LARC usage. We analyzed the association of provider (specialty, degree, gender, resident status, LARC credentialing) and clinic (Title X funding, onsite LARC provision, onsite obstetrician-gynecologist) factors with adolescents' LARC usage using multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-3.9) of adolescents were documented as currently using a LARC method. Older adolescents were significantly more likely to use a LARC method (adjusted odds ratio, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.62-3.58 for women ages 20-21 years compared with ages 15-17 years). Adolescents whose primary care provider was a resident were significantly more likely to use a LARC method (adjusted odds ratio, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.02-2.68). Provider specialty, degree, gender, onsite LARC provision, and onsite obstetrician-gynecologist were not significantly associated with LARC usage in adolescents. Being older and having a primary care provider early in their training increased the odds of LARC usage among adolescents in a large Massachusetts health system. Across primary care specialties, educating providers about the appropriate uses of LARC methods in nulliparous adolescents might facilitate LARC usage. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of Fitness and Nutrition Apps: Associations With Body Mass Index, Snacking, and Drinking Habits in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Nathalie; Vangeel, Jolien; Lachat, Carl; Beullens, Kathleen; Vervoort, Leentje; Goossens, Lien; Maes, Lea; Deforche, Benedicte; De Henauw, Stefaan; Braet, Caroline; Eggermont, Steven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John; Van Lippevelde, Wendy

    2017-04-25

    Efforts to improve snacking and drinking habits are needed to promote a healthy body mass index (BMI) in adolescents. Although commercial fitness and nutrition mobile phone apps are widely used, little is known regarding their potential to improve health behaviors, especially in adolescents. In addition, evidence on the mechanisms through which such fitness and nutrition apps influence behavior is lacking. This study assessed whether the use of commercial fitness or nutrition apps was associated with a lower BMI and healthier snacking and drinking habits in adolescents. Additionally, it explored if perceived behavioral control to eat healthy; attitudes to eat healthy for the good taste of healthy foods, for overall health or for appearance; social norm on healthy eating and social support to eat healthy mediated the associations between the frequency of use of fitness or nutrition apps and BMI, the healthy snack, and beverage ratio. Cross-sectional self-reported data on snack and beverage consumption, healthy eating determinants, and fitness and nutrition app use of adolescents (N=889; mean age 14.7 years, SD 0.8; 54.8% [481/878] boys; 18.1% [145/803] overweight) were collected in a representative sample of 20 schools in Flanders, Belgium. Height and weight were measured by the researchers. The healthy snack ratio and the healthy beverage ratio were calculated as follows: gram healthy snacks or beverages/(gram healthy snacks or beverages+gram unhealthy snacks or beverages)×100. Multilevel regression and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the proposed associations and to explore multiple mediation. A total of 27.6% (245/889) of the adolescents used fitness, nutrition apps or both. Frequency of using nutrition apps was positively associated with a higher healthy beverage ratio (b=2.96 [1.11], P=.008) and a higher body mass index z-scores (zBMI; b=0.13 [0.05], P=.008. A significant interaction was found between the frequency of using nutrition and for

  13. Feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women in Samre Woreda, South Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactating mothers from low-income settings are considered as a nutritionally vulnerable group. Due to the nursing process, mothers are subjected to nutritional stresses. Frequent pregnancies followed by lactation increase the health risk of mothers resulting in a high maternal mortality. Objective To assess the feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women from Samre Woreda, South Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. Design Community based cross-sectional survey Setting Four kebeles of Samre Woreda (2 urban & 2 rural kebeles) Methods Four hundred lactating mothers were recruited from 400 randomly selected households. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, maternal characteristics, feeding practices, frequency of foods eaten and dietary diversity was collected using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each mother using calibrated equipments and standardized techniques. A one-day weighed food record was also collected from randomly selected sub sample (n=60) of mothers. The nutrient and energy content of foods consumed by the mothers was calculated by using ESHA Food Processor and the Ethiopian Food Composition Tables. To investigate the socio-economic and demographic factors affecting the nutritional status of the women, logistic regression was used. ANOVA and t-test were also used to see if there was a mean difference in nutritional status among the lactating mothers. Results Majority (71.2%) of the participants did not take additional meals during lactation. The median dietary diversity score of the study participants was 5 out of 14 food groups. The prevalence of underweight, chronic energy deficiency and stunting were 31%, 25% and 2.2% respectively. Using logistic regression model, factors significantly associated with the nutritional status of the study participants (as determined by BMI and MUAC) were size of farm land, length of years of marriage, maize cultivation

  14. The Association between Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge and Weight Status of Primary School Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Steyn, Nelia P.; de Villiers, Anniza; Fourie, Jean M.; Hill, Jillian; Lambert, Estelle V.; Draper, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate primary school educators' health status, knowledge, perceptions and behaviour regarding nutrition and physical activity. Thus, nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and risk factors for the development of non-communicable diseases of 155 educators were assessed in a…

  15. Sleep pattern is associated with adipokine levels and nutritional markers in resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Maria Carliana; Waterhouse, Jim; De-Souza, Daurea Abadia; Rossato, Luana Thomazetto; Silva, Catarina Mendes; Araújo, Maria Bernadete Jeha; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

    2014-12-01

    Shift work and long hours of work are common in medical training and have been associated with a higher propensity for developing nutritional problems and obesity. Changes in leptin and ghrelin concentrations - two hormones that contribute importantly to the central regulation of food intake - are poorly described in this population. The aim of this study was to identify possible negative associations between sleep patterns, nutritional status and serum levels of adipokines. The study included 72 resident physicians (52 women and 20 men) who underwent the following assessments: nutritional assessment (3-day dietary recall evaluated by the Adapted Healthy Eating Index), anthropometric variables, fasting metabolism, physical activity level, sleep quality and sleepiness. Resident physicians with poor sleep quality reported greater weight gain after the beginning of residency (5.1 and 3.0 kg, respectively; p = 0.01) and higher frequency of abnormal waist circumference (44.2 and 17.6%, respectively; p = 0.04) than those with better sleep quality. Mean ghrelin concentration was greater in volunteers with poor sleep quality (64.6 ± 67.8 and 26.2 ± 25.0 pg/mL, respectively; p = 0.04). Women identified as having excessive daytime sleepiness had lower levels of leptin (9.57 ± 10.4 ng/mL versus 16.49 ± 11.4 ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.03) than those without excessive sleepiness. Furthermore, correlations were found between hours of additional work per week and: intake of cereals, bread and pasta (r = 0.22, p = 0.01); intake of servings of fruits (r = -0.20; p = 0.02) and beans (r = -0.21; p = 0.01); and global score for Adapted Healthy Eating Index (r = -0.23; p = 0.008; Table 3). The sleep quality total score correlated with servings of beans (r = -0.22; p = 0.01) and servings of oils (r = 0.23; p = 0.008). Significant correlations were found between mean of time of sleep and servings

  16. Factors associated with nutritional status of infants and young children in Somali Region, Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Yirgu; Mesfin, Addisalem; Haile, Demewoz; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2015-09-02

    Inadequate nutrition during the first two years of life may lead to childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as inadequate brain development. Infants are at increased risk of malnutrition by six months, when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient to meet their nutritional requirements. However the factors associated with nutritional status of infants after 6 months of age have received little attention in pastoralist communities of Ethiopia. Therefore this study aimed to identify the factors associated with nutritional status of infants and young children (6-23 months) in Filtu town, Somali Region, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted. Simple random sampling was employed to select 214 infants for the study. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions models were used in the statistical analysis. The strength of association was measured by odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Both the crude (COR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) are reported. The prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight among infants and young children were 17.5% (95% CI: 12.91-23.22), 22.9% (95% CI: 17.6-28.9) and 19.5% (95% CI: 14.58-25.3) respectively. The multivariable logistic regression model showed that breastfeeding was independently associated with reduced odds of wasting (AOR = 0.38(95% CI: 0.14-0.99)). Diarrhea in the past 15 days (AOR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.55-4.69)) was also associated with increased odds for wasting. The independent predictors of reduced odds for stunting were dietary diversity score ≥ 4 (AOR = 0.45(95% CI: 0.21-0.95)) and introduction of complementary feeding at 6 months (AOR = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.09-0.66)). Bottle feeding was associated with increased odds of stunting (AOR = 3.83 (95% CI: 1.69-8.67)). Breastfeeding was associated with reduced odds of underweight (AOR = 0.24 (95% CI: 0.1-0.59)), while diarrheal disease in the past 15 days was associated with increased odds of underweight (AOR = 3.54 (95% CI: 1

  17. Factors Associated with the Diagnosis of Acute Malnutrition by Anthropometric Indicators in Nutrition Surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Aissa, Myriam; Guesdon, Benjamin; Roberfroid, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Two anthropometric indicators, low Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) and low Weight-for-Height Z-score (WHZ), are widely accepted proxies to identify 6 to 59 months old children suffering from non-oedematous acute malnutrition. However, they only partly identify the same children, which raises crucial issues at a time when MUAC is increasingly used as a stand-alone criterion in nutritional programmes. Misdiagnoses or differing pathophysiologies could in fact explain such diagnosis discrepancies. In particular, MUAC in the reference population is lower for girls than for boys, and increases with age. MUAC may also vary with the level of growth retardation. We thus aimed at testing the association between these factors and the diagnosis of severe or moderate acute malnutrition by MUAC, as well as their contribution to the diagnosis discrepancy, in a wide range of contexts. We used a series of more than 600 anthropometric surveys conducted by ACF-IN, from January 2001, in 25 countries. All surveys had a similar cluster sampling scheme. The association between sex, age, stunting (independant variables) and indicators of acute malnutrition (dependant variable) was investigated through multivariate logistic regressions. The clustering by surveys and countries was accounted for in multilevel modelling with random effects. Among the children included in the analysis, approximately 4.8% presented with either a MUAC<115mm or a WHZ<-3. Only 22.8% were identified as SAM cases by both indicators. This proportion was highly variable across countries, from 6.6% in Kenya to 50.0% in Mali. Being a female was significantly associated with low MUAC, whereas it appeared to be a protective factor for low WHZ. Young age and severe stunting were associated with both WHZ and MUAC diagnoses, although these associations were much stronger for MUAC (young age: OR = 7.86 [7.46; 8.29] vs. 2.15 [2.07; 2.24]; severe stunting: OR = 4.83 [4.59; 5.07] vs. 2.14 [2.03; 2.25]). Among the

  18. Cognitive function in relation with bone mass and nutrition: cross-sectional association in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownbill Rhonda A

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that bone loss and cognitive decline are co-occurring conditions, possibly due to their relationship with estrogen. Cognitive decline has been associated with various nutritional deficiencies as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if cognitive function is related to bone mineral density of various skeletal sites as well as to various dietary components. Methods Cross-sectional study with 97 healthy, Caucasian, postmenopausal women (59.4–85.0 years enrolled in a larger longitudinal study, investigating the effects of sodium on bone mass. The subjects were divided into two groups based on cognition scores. Group 1 represented lower and Group 2 higher scores on cognitive function. Bone mineral density from the whole body, lumbar spine, femur and forearm were measured with the Lunar DPX-MD instrument. Anthropometry was measured by standard methods. Cognition was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination. Cumulative (over 2 years dietary intake from 3-day records was analyzed by Food Processor® (ESHA Research, Salem, OR and cumulative physical activity was assessed using Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey for older adults. Results Subjects' cognition scores ranged from 22–30 (normal, 27–30, indicating all subjects had either mild or no cognitive impairment. Multiple Analysis of Covariance adjusted for age, height, weight, physical activity, alcohol, calcium, sodium and energy intake, showed a statistically significant association between cognition and bone mineral density of all measurable sites (η2 = 0.21, P 2 = 0.07, P = 0.050. Group 2 did have a significantly higher potassium intake (P = 0.023. In multiple regression, saturated fat had a significant negative relationship with cognitive function. Conclusions It appears mild degree of cognitive impairment may be a marker for lower bone mineral density as well as for a diet lower in carbohydrate and potassium intake, and higher

  19. Is the presence of a validated malnutrition screening tool associated with better nutritional care in hospitalized patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglseer, Doris; Halfens, Ruud J G; Lohrmann, Christa

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between the use of clinical guidelines and the use of validated screening tools, evaluate the nutritional screening policy in hospitals, and examine the association between the use of validated screening tools and the prevalence of malnutrition and nutritional interventions in hospitalized patients. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire on three levels: institution (presence of a guideline for malnutrition), department (use of a validated screening tool), and patient (e.g., malnutrition prevalence). In all, 53 hospitals with 5255 patients participated. About 45% of the hospitals indicated that they have guidelines for malnutrition. Of the departments surveyed, 38.6% used validated screening tools as part of a standard procedure. The nutritional status of 74.5% of the patients was screened during admission, mostly on the basis of clinical observation and patient weight. A validated screening tool was used for 21.2% of the patients. Significant differences between wards with and without validated screening tools were found with regard to malnutrition prevalence (P = 0.002) and the following interventions: referral to a dietitian (P malnutrition screening tools is associated with better nutritional care and lower malnutrition prevalence rates in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Association between hematopoietic nutrient intake and the origin of nutritional anemia in women of childbearing age in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarrés, Luz Mariela; Díaz, Abel; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Compare the nutritional origin of anemia by sociodemographic variables and analyze its association with deficient hematopoietic nutrient intake. The database of Colombia's 2005 National Survey of Nutritional Status was used. The data were obtained through complex representative sampling of the population and processed using SPSS v.15. Anemic women of childbearing age were selected and divided into two groups according to serum ferritin levels. Their customary hematopoietic nutrient intake and risk of deficiency were determined. The proportions of anemia types were compared by sociodemographic variables using the F-distribution, the Rao-Scott second order correction (P anemia and classification of the nutrient was analyzed using the odds ratio (OR). 595 women. Non-hypoferric anemia (67.2%) predominated, with no statistical difference by sociodemographic variable, except in the Pacific region (hypoferric anemia, 52.1%). The prevalence of deficiency in the customary intake of hematopoietic nutrients was high. There was no significant association between the deficit in consumption and the origin of the anemia. Non-hypoferric anemia was most common, with no difference by sociodemographic indicators except in the Pacific region. All the women were at high risk of deficiency in their customary hematopoietic nutrient intake, but a statistically significant association between the deficiency and the origin of the nutritional anemia was not observed. Programs to improve nutrient intake and a continued search for causes of nutritional anemia other than iron deficiency are justified.

  1. [Use of sugars and sweeteners in children's diets. Recommendations of the Nutrition Committee of the Spanish Paediatric Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Campos, M; San José González, M A; Díaz Martín, J J

    2015-11-01

    The term «sweetener» refers to a food additive that imparts a sweet flavour and usually provides no or very low energy. It is used to sweeten foods, medicines and food supplements with no nutritional purposes. For years, no-calorie sweeteners have been used as substitutes for all or part of the sugar content in foods and beverages. In recent decades its consumption has risen to prevent tooth decay, or as an aid in weight control, obesity and diabetes and, in general, to achieve an optimal energy balance. However, consumption of sugary or sweetened food and soft drinks is high, making this situation of special interest in calorie intake and in the poor behavioural pattern of eating habits in children. In addition, questions remain among consumers about the risks to health associated with their use, whether they are artificial or natural. The «artificial sweeteners» are the group of greatest interest in research in order to demonstrate their safety and to provide firm data on their possible therapeutic effects. The aim of the present document is to increase information for paediatricians on the characteristics of different sweeteners, and to advise on the choice of sweeteners, based on their properties. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. SURGICAL NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Kurniawan Darianto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing surgery faces great physiologic and psychologic stress. so nutritional demands are greatly increased during this period and deficiencies can easily develop. If these deficiencies are allowed to develop and are not in screening, serious malnutrition and clinical problem can occur. Therefore careful attention must be given to a patient's nutritional status in preparation of surgery, as well as to the individual nutritional needs. If these needs are met, complications are less likely developing. Natural resources provide for rapid recovery. Proper nutrition can speed healing in surgical patients with major trauma, severe malnutition, burns, and other severe illnesses. New techniques for tube feeding, intravenous nutrition for patients with serious weight loss due to gastrointestinal disorders, and use of supplements can hasten wound healing and shorten recovery times.

  3. Exploring the association between feeding habits, non-nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusions in the deciduous dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes-Freire, Gabriela Mesquita; C?rdenas, Abel Belizario Cahuana; Suarez de Deza, Jos? Enrique Espasa; Ustrell-Torrent, Josep Maria; Oliveira, Luciana Butini; Boj Quesada JR, Joan Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the association between feeding habits, non-nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusions in deciduous dentition. Methods A cross-sectional observational survey was carried out in 275 children aged 3 to 6?years and included clinical evaluations of malocclusions and structured interviews. Statistical significance for the association between feeding habits and the development of malocclusion was determined using chi-square and Fisher?s exact tests. In additi...

  4. A systematic review of the associations between maternal nutritional biomarkers and depression and/or anxiety during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Janet; Vieira, Matias Costa; Lepsch, Jaqueline; Rebelo, Fernanda; Poston, Lucilla; Pasupathy, Dharmintra; Kac, Gilberto

    2018-05-01

    Nutritional requirements need to be met in order to adapt to pre- and postnatal changes. Our aim was to systematically review the evidence of associations between nutritional biomarkers and psychological distress during pregnancy and in the first postnatal year. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Scielo, LILACS, clinicaltrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched for articles from inception to 4/15/2016. Studies of maternal nutritional biomarkers in blood (fatty acids/micronutrients/amino acids) and associations with psychological distress (depression/anxiety/stress) were included. Two independent reviewers extracted data based on study designs, participants, outcomes, exposures, and association measures. Thirty-eight studies were included. A total of 13 studies showed divergent or no associations between serum/plasma/erythrocyte fatty acid concentrations and depression/anxiety during pregnancy and postpartum. Changes in serum cholesterol levels from pregnancy to postpartum showed a significant inverse correlation with depression in one out of three studies. Five out of seven studies found an inverse association between serum vitamin D levels and pre- and postnatal depression. Plasma tryptophan levels were inversely correlated with postnatal depression scores in three out of four studies. We identified that one out of two studies presented no significant association between vitamin B 12 /folate/ferritin concentrations and depression in postpartum. There was higher variability between association measures, time and scales of depression and anxiety assessments. The majority of high-quality studies suggest that lower vitamin D levels may be associated with postpartum depression. However, further evidence is needed for guiding clinical practice on nutritional biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated With Medicaid providers' recommendation of the HPV vaccine to low-income adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Staras, Stephanie A S; Malo, Teri L; Giuliano, Anna R; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2014-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the United States remains a public health challenge with vaccine rates of 50%. Although health care providers can facilitate HPV vaccination, several factors may impede their ability to universally recommend the vaccine. To maximize the potential of HPV vaccines, it is important to understand challenges providers face in the clinical environment. The study sought to identify factors associated with recommendation of the HPV vaccine for low-income adolescents in the early (9-10), target (11-12), early adolescent catch-up (13-14), and late adolescent catch-up (15-17) vaccination groups. Surveys were mailed between October 2009 and April 2010 to a random sample of Florida-based physicians serving Medicaid-enrolled adolescents. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among early adolescents, discomfort discussing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with teens (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75), difficulty ensuring vaccine completion (OR = .73), and discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .44) were associated with recommendation. For target adolescents, discomfort discussing STIs with teens (OR = 2.45), time constraints (OR = .70), vaccine efficacy concerns (OR = .65), discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .33), obstetrics/gynecology (OR = .25) and family medicine (OR = .24) specialty, and non-Hispanic black patient (OR = .15) were associated with recommendation. In early catch-up adolescents, concerns that teens will practice riskier behaviors (OR = .57), discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .47), and family medicine specialty (OR = .20) were associated with recommendation. For late catch-up adolescents, family medicine specialty (OR = .13) was associated with recommendation. Modifiable factors that impede or influence provider recommendations of HPV vaccines can be addressed through intervention. Overall, findings suggest that efforts should focus on sexuality communication and family medicine specialty

  6. Nutritional Status is Associated with Faster Cognitive Decline and Worse Functional Impairment in the Progression of Dementia: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Chelsea; Behrens, Stephanie; Schwartz, Sarah; Wengreen, Heidi; Corcoran, Chris D; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Tschanz, JoAnn T

    2016-02-27

    Nutritional status may be a modifiable factor in the progression of dementia. We examined the association of nutritional status and rate of cognitive and functional decline in a U.S. population-based sample. Study design was an observational longitudinal study with annual follow-ups up to 6 years of 292 persons with dementia (72% Alzheimer's disease, 56% female) in Cache County, UT using the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-sb), and modified Mini Nutritional Assessment (mMNA). mMNA scores declined by approximately 0.50 points/year, suggesting increasing risk for malnutrition. Lower mMNA score predicted faster rate of decline on the MMSE at earlier follow-up times, but slower decline at later follow-up times, whereas higher mMNA scores had the opposite pattern (mMNA by time β= 0.22, p = 0.017; mMNA by time2 β= -0.04, p = 0.04). Lower mMNA score was associated with greater impairment on the CDR-sb over the course of dementia (β= 0.35, p <  0.001). Assessment of malnutrition may be useful in predicting rates of progression in dementia and may provide a target for clinical intervention.

  7. Nutritional status and associated factors in under five children of rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Nadeem, S.; Saif, T.; Mannan, M.; Arshad, U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is a serious child health issue throughout the developing world. Pakistan has the second highest infant and child mortality rate in South Asia. This study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age and to determine the frequency and association of malnutrition with various demographic variables in the study group. Methods: A multi-centre, cross sectional study was conducted at the immunization centres of the 3 allied hospitals of Rawalpindi Medical College during March-May 2014. Healthy children of under 5 years of age without confirmed diagnosis of any disease/ailment were included. Guardians of 100 children were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Demographic variables include age, gender, family size, family income, breast feeding, maternal education, presence of a family member with special needs and presence of siblings under 5 years in family. Weight (kg) was measured and malnutrition was assessed by weight for age. Results: Malnutrition was found to be present in 32 percentage of children. Adequately nourished children were 68 percentage, while moderately and severely malnourished children were 14 percentage and 18 percentage respectively. Our study indicated malnutrition to be significantly associated with maternal illiteracy (p=0.01) and presence of a family member with special needs (p=0.05). No significant association was found between malnutrition and gender, family size, family income, breast feeding and presence of siblings under 5 years of age. Conclusion: There is a need to plan composite interventions to elucidate the factors that place children at greater risk for malnutrition. (author)

  8. Association of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and Healthcare Provider-Identified Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rhian; Lehman, Erik; Perry, Amanda; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S.

    2018-01-01

    We examined the association of physical and non-physical IPV (intimate partner violence) with obesity. Women (n=1,179) were surveyed regarding demographics, obesity, and IPV exposure using HARK (humiliate-afraid-rape-kick), an IPV screening tool. A three-level lifetime IPV exposure variable measured physical, non-physical or no IPV. Healthcare provider-identified obesity was defined if participants were told by a medical provider within the past 5 years that they were obese. Bivariate analyses examined obesity by IPV and demographics. Multivariable logistic regression assessed odds of obesity by IPV type, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education and marital status. Among participants, 44% reported lifetime IPV (25% physical, 19% non-physical), and 24% reported healthcare provider-identified obesity. In unadjusted analyses, obesity was more prevalent among women exposed to physical IPV (30%) and non-physical IPV (27%), compared to women without IPV (20%, p=0.002). In multivariable models, women reporting physical IPV had 1.67 times greater odds of obesity (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20, 2.33), and women reporting non-physical IPV had 1.46 times greater odds of obesity (95% CI 1.01, 2.10) compared to women reporting never exposure. This study extends prior data by showing not only an association between physical IPV and obesity, but also an association between obesity and non-physical IPV. PMID:26495745

  9. Patient Satisfaction Is Associated With Time With Provider But Not Clinic Wait Time Among Orthopedic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Brendan M; Eskildsen, Scott M; Clement, R Carter; Lin, Feng-Chang; Olcott, Christopher W; Del Gaizo, Daniel J; Tennant, Joshua N

    2017-01-01

    Clinic wait time is considered an important predictor of patient satisfaction. The goal of this study was to determine whether patient satisfaction among orthopedic patients is associated with clinic wait time and time with the provider. The authors prospectively enrolled 182 patients at their outpatient orthopedic clinic. Clinic wait time was defined as the time between patient check-in and being seen by the surgeon. Time spent with the provider was defined as the total time the patient spent in the examination room with the surgeon. The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey was used to measure patient satisfaction. Factors associated with increased patient satisfaction included patient age and increased time with the surgeon (P=.024 and P=.037, respectively), but not clinic wait time (P=.625). Perceived wait time was subject to a high level of error, and most patients did not accurately report whether they had been waiting longer than 15 minutes to see a provider until they had waited at least 60 minutes (P=.007). If the results of the current study are generalizable, time with the surgeon is associated with patient satisfaction in orthopedic clinics, but wait time is not. Further, the study findings showed that patients in this setting did not have an accurate perception of actual wait time, with many patients underestimating the time they waited to see a provider. Thus, a potential strategy for improving patient satisfaction is to spend more time with each patient, even at the expense of increased wait time. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):43-48.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Biallelic and triallelic approaches of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism are associated with food intake and nutritional status in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Raquel C K; Genro, Júlia P; Campagnolo, Paula D B; Mattevi, Vanessa S; Vitolo, Márcia R; Almeida, Silvana

    2017-05-01

    The 5-HTT gene contains polymorphisms in its promoter region, the insertion/deletion (5-HTTLPR) that creates long (L) or short (S) alleles (biallelic approach) and SNP (rs25531) in L allele (triallelic approach). The aim of this study is to investigate the association of the 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms, using bi- and triallelic approach, with dietary intake and anthropometric parameters in children followed until 8 years old. The sample were 303 children who were recruited at birth and examined at 1, 3 to 4 and 7 to 8 years old. The polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase-chain-reaction-based methods. In the biallelic approach, children with the S/S genotype presented a higher body mass index Z-score in the three developmental stages and higher sum of skinfolds at 3 to 4 and 7 to 8 years old than carriers of the L allele. In the triallelic approach, S/S, Lg/S plus Lg/Lg genotypes were associated with higher energy intake daily at 1 year old and with waist circumference at 3 to 4 years old. In the biallelic approach, the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is associated with food intake, body mass index Z-score and sum of skinfolds in children, reinforcing the role of the serotonin transporter in childhood obesity. Our data indicate that the biallelic approach is more sensible than the triallelic approach for detected associations with food intake and nutritional status in childhood. Identifying susceptibility genes in early life could provide the foundations for interventions in lifestyle to prevent children to become obese adults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Association of Provider Advice and Pregnancy Weight Gain in a Predominantly Hispanic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Whitaker, Kara M; Yu, Stella M; Chao, Shin M; Lu, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether women's report of gestational weight gain (GWG) advice from a health care provider is consistent with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and the association between provider advice and women's weight gain during pregnancy. Data came from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby study (n = 3,402). The 1990 IOM GWG guidelines were used to define whether the provider's advice on weight gain and women's weight gain were below, within, or above the guidelines. Approximately 4 months after delivery, 18.8% of the women reported having not discussed weight gain with any health care providers during pregnancy. Among those who reported such discussions, 42% reported receiving weight gain advice from a health care provider within IOM guidelines, 16.5% below guidelines, and 10% above. An additional 13.5% reported the discussion but did not report the recommended weight gain amount. Compared with women who reported provider advice on weight gain within guidelines, women who reported advice below guidelines were 1.7 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.2) more likely to gain less than the IOM recommended amount. Women who reported provider advice above IOM guidelines were 2.0 times (95% CI, 1.4-2.9) more likely to exceed guidelines. There is a need for more women to receive advice consistent with the IOM GWG guidelines from their prenatal care providers. Intervention strategies are needed to educate providers about IOM guidelines and how to counsel on GWG. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors Associated with Providers' Perceptions of Mental Health Care in Santa Luzia's Family Health Strategy, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesquiere, Angela R; Pinto, Rogerio M; Rahman, Rahbel; Spector, Anya Y

    2015-12-23

    Brazil has a unique mental health care system, characterized by universal coverage delivered by interdisciplinary teams both in the community and in specialized centros de atenção psicossocial (CAPS-psychosocial care centers). Provision of patient-centered mental health care is an important principle of Brazilian mental health care, but this topic has not been well-studied. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 151 community health workers (CHWs), nurses, and physicians in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chi-squares, t-tests and multivariate regression analyses examined differences in socio-demographics, caseload, engagement in evidence-based practices (EBPs), and transdisciplinary collaboration between providers who reported providing high levels of patient-centered mental health care and those who did not. In multivariate regression models, components of transdisciplinary collaboration were significantly associated with providers' perceptions of patient-centered mental health care (p < 0.05). CHWs were also significantly more likely to report providing patient-centered care than physicians and nurses. EBP engagement and sociodemographics were not associated with perceptions. Results suggest that training efforts to improve patient-centered mental health care in Brazil could build upon CHWs' skills and focus on transdisciplinary collaboration. Findings may inform practice in other countries with similar health care systems.

  13. Associations between parents' satisfaction with provider communication and HPV vaccination behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornides, Melanie L; Fontenot, Holly B; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Panozzo, Catherine A; Gilkey, Melissa B

    2018-04-04

    Despite increasing awareness of the importance of a provider recommendation for HPV vaccine, the U.S. has yet to achieve the Healthy people 2020 goal of 80% series completion among adolescents. This failure indicates a need for further examination of the modifiable influences on parents' decision-making. Healthcare providers can influence parents' HPV vaccination decision-making, but little is known about parents' perspectives on the counseling they receive. We sought to assess U.S. parents' satisfaction with provider communication about HPV vaccine and associations with vaccination behaviors. Parents of 11-to-17-year-old adolescents who discussed HPV vaccination with a healthcare provider at least once (n = 795) completed our online survey in Fall 2016. We assessed their satisfaction with the discussion using the HPV Vaccine Communication Satisfaction Scale (α = 0.94). We examined associations between satisfaction (categorized as low, moderate, or high), and three vaccination behaviors: refusal/delay, series initiation (≥1 dose), and continuation (≥2 doses among initiators) using multivariable logistic regression. Most parents reported high (36%) or moderate (38%) satisfaction with provider communication about HPV vaccination; fewer reported low (26%) satisfaction. Moderately satisfied parents (vs. low) had lower odds of refusal/delay (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.89), and higher odds of initiation (aOR = 1.71, 95% CI:1.15-2.55) and continuation (aOR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.24-3.40). The associations were stronger for highly satisfied parents (refusal/delay aOR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.29-0.70, initiation aOR = 3.59, 95% CI: 2.23-5.78, and continuation aOR = 4.08, 95% CI: 2.38-7.01). Our study suggests that parent satisfaction with provider communication may play an important role in HPV vaccination decision-making. Yet, communication satisfaction has been largely unexamined in the HPV-vaccine literature to date. We introduce a brief, 7-item

  14. Association between nutritional status, food habits and physical activity level in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Lorene G; Cândido, Ana Paula C; Machado-Coelho, George L L; Freitas, Silvia N de

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the relation between nutritional status, food habits and physical activity level in schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 661 schoolchildren, from 6 to 14 years old, enrolled in public and private schools located in the urban area of Ouro Preto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to collect data on demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric and level of physical activity variables. Schoolchildren were classified according to criteria for body mass index by age, body fat percentage and physical activity level, respectively. Dietary data were collected through a validated food frequency questionnaire specific for children and adolescents. Food consumption was evaluated according to an adaptation of the Recommended Foods Score, whose objective is the assessment of overall diet quality with a focus on healthy food consumption. We observed high frequency of overweight according to body mass index per age (20.1%) and body fat percentage (22.8%), as well as physical inactivity (80.3%) among schoolchildren. We also found low scores on the Recommended Foods Score in 77.2% of students. There was no significant relation between overweight and physical inactivity or food consumption (p > 0.05). Schoolchildren had a high frequency of overweight, which, alone, was not associated with the high physical inactivity and the low quality diet observed. Therefore, more studies should be performed to identify other factors besides those already described, which may be influencing overweight in this population.

  15. Association between Nutritional Status and Early Childhood Caries in Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, H V N Sai; Manaswini, E; Kumar, Vijay Y; Bellamkonda, Pavani; Bhargava, A S Kalyana; Jaidupally, Ramvilas Reddy

    2017-01-01

    To assess the body mass index (BMI) status and to correlate between nutritional status and early childhood caries among 3-6-year-old children in Vikarabad, Telangana, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 350 children attending the outpatient department of Pedodontia in Sri Sai College of Dental Surgery, Vikarabad. Caries experience was recorded using dmft index (WHO 1997); various anthropometric measures, such as weight, BMI, and height, were recorded as per the standard guidelines. Pearson correlation coefficient and chi square test were used to determine significant differences. Data were analyzed using the statistical analysis software (SPSS version 17.0 Chicago IL, USA). Maximum number of participants (69%) were with normal BMI- for-age followed by underweight, overweight, and obese categories. The mean dmft values for each BMI category among the underweight, normal, overweight, and obese children were 4.9 ± 4.0, 4.6 ± 3.3, 2.7 ± 1.9, and 4.4 ± 3.0, respectively, which was statistically not significant. No significant association was found between dmft and BMI-for-age, rather a negative correlation existed between dmft and BMI-for-age ( r = -0.023), which was not statistically significant ( P = 0.66).

  16. Increased oxidative stress in patients with severe disability: Association with nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Chiharu; Morinaga, Marie; Kubota, Masaru; Saito, Hiromi; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka; Uchiike, Nobuo

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have described a role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various pediatric disorders, but investigation into oxidative stress status in patients with severe disability remains limited. The aim of the present study was therefore to clarify the oxidative stress status in patients with severe disability, focusing specifically on intake of three major nutrients and micronutrients with antioxidant activities. Thirty-one patients with severe disability (mean age, 14.1 ± 7.8 years) were enrolled. Three in vivo biomarkers, plasma biological antioxidant potential (BAP), plasma reactive oxygen metabolite-derived compounds (d-ROM), and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), were determined for evaluating oxidative status. The dietary intake of three major nutrients and various micronutrients was estimated from dietary records over a 3 day period. In patients with severe disability, BAP was significantly lower and d-ROM and 8-OHdG significantly higher than in historical controls. Among these markers, a significant positive correlation was found in BAP versus d-ROM and d-ROM versus 8-OHdG. On multiple regression analysis, a significant inverse association between 8-OHdG and carotenoid intake was seen. The oxidative/antioxidative balance shifts towards oxidative status dominance in patients with severe disability. More research is needed on nutritional intake of antioxidative nutrients to determine whether they can be used to reduce oxidative stress. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Soil nutritional status and biogeography influence rhizosphere microbial communities associated with the invasive tree Acacia dealbata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamutando, Casper N; Vikram, Surendra; Kamgan-Nkuekam, Gilbert; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Greve, Michelle; Roux, Johannes J Le; Richardson, David M; Cowan, Don; Valverde, Angel

    2017-07-26

    Invasiveness and the impacts of introduced plants are known to be mediated by plant-microbe interactions. Yet, the microbial communities associated with invasive plants are generally poorly understood. Here we report on the first comprehensive investigation of the bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting the rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil of a widespread invasive tree, Acacia dealbata. Amplicon sequencing data indicated that rhizospheric microbial communities differed significantly in structure and composition from those of the bulk soil. Two bacterial (Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria) and two fungal (Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes) classes were enriched in the rhizosphere compared with bulk soils. Changes in nutritional status, possibly induced by A. dealbata, primarily shaped rhizosphere soil communities. Despite a high degree of geographic variability in the diversity and composition of microbial communities, invasive A. dealbata populations shared a core of bacterial and fungal taxa, some of which are known to be involved in N and P cycling, while others are regarded as plant pathogens. Shotgun metagenomic analysis also showed that several functional genes related to plant growth promotion were overrepresented in the rhizospheres of A. dealbata. Overall, results suggest that rhizosphere microbes may contribute to the widespread success of this invader in novel environments.

  18. Local concentration of fast-food outlets is associated with poor nutrition and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Greenberg, Emily; Murphy, Jillian B; DiFazio, Lindsay A; Youra, Kathryn R

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of the local availability of fast-food restaurant locations with diet and obesity. We geocoded addresses of survey respondents and fast-food restaurant locations to assess the association between the local concentration of fast-food outlets, BMI, and fruit and vegetable consumption. The survey was conducted in Genesee County, Michigan. There were 1345 individuals included in this analysis, and the response rate was 25%. The Speak to Your Health! Community Survey included fruit and vegetable consumption items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, height, weight, and demographics. We used ArcGIS to map fast-food outlets and survey respondents. Stepwise linear regressions identified unique predictors of body mass index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable consumption. Survey respondents had 8 ± 7 fast-food outlets within 2 miles of their home. Individuals living in close proximity to fast-food restaurants had higher BMIs t(1342) = 3.21, p food availability, which may constrain the success of nutrition promotion efforts. Efforts to decrease the local availability of unhealthy foods as well as programs to help consumers identify strategies for obtaining healthy meals at fast-food outlets may improve health outcomes.

  19. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Provide Significant Prognostic Information in Urothelial Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna M Boström

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of carcinogenesis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs can be associated with either poor or improved prognosis, depending on their properties and polarization. Current knowledge of the prognostic significance of TAMs in bladder cancer is limited and was investigated in this study. We analyzed 184 urothelial bladder cancer patients undergoing transurethral resection of a bladder tumor or radical cystectomy. CD68 (pan-macrophage marker, MAC387 (polarized towards type 1 macrophages, and CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 (type 2 macrophages and lymphatic/blood vessels were detected immunohistochemically. The median follow-up time was 6.0 years. High macrophage counts associated with a higher pT category and grade. Among patients undergoing transurethral resection, all studied markers apart from CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 were associated with increased risk of progression and poorer disease-specific and overall survival in univariate analyses. High levels of two macrophage markers (CD68/MAC387+/+ or CD68/CLEVER-1+/+ groups had an independent prognostic role after transurethral resection in multivariate analyses. In the cystectomy cohort, MAC387, alone and in combination with CD68, was associated with poorer survival in univariate analyses, but none of the markers were independent predictors of outcome in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that macrophage phenotypes provide significant independent prognostic information, particularly in bladder cancers undergoing transurethral resection.

  20. Association between teaching and support skills and subjective effectiveness of nutritional guidance of registered dietitians at hospitals in a Japanese prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Kawamura, Masao; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the association between teaching and support skills and the subjective effectiveness of nutritional guidance of registered dietitians working at hospitals. We carried out a questionnaire survey of registered dietitians at hospitals in a Japanese prefecture. The utilization of nutritional teaching skills in nutritional guidance was investigated using a self-produced 36-item questionnaire that was designed to be mainly used for diabetic patients in 4 settings: first guidance, first assessment, contemplation stage, and preparation stage. The support skills were evaluated by Kikuchi's Scale of Social Skills: 18 items. The subjective effectiveness of nutritional guidance was defined by the behavioral change of the patients after nutritional guidance as evaluated by a registered dietitian. There were 75 respondents (response rate 46.6 %). Among the teaching skills, basic skills in an interview were often used, but some related to coaching skills were not in common use in nutritional guidance. Based on the results of principal component analysis, we created a scale for scoring the utilization of nutritional teaching skills in each setting. Multiple linear regression analysis illustrated that high subjective effectiveness of nutritional guidance was associated with high score of teaching skills in the preparation stage setting and high score of support skills. These results show that, in addition to frequent use of nutritional teaching skills, improvement of support skills is also necessary to enhance the effectiveness of nutritional guidance.

  1. Association between nutrition and the evolution of multimorbidity: the importance of fruits and vegetables and whole grain products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Guillaume; Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Zuo, Hui; Kröger, Edeltraut; Sirois, Caroline; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Taylor, Anne W

    2014-06-01

    Multimorbidity is a common health status. The impact of nutrition on the development of multimorbidity remains to be determined. The aim of this study is to determine the association between foods, macronutrients and micronutrients and the evolution of multimorbidity. Data from 1020 Chinese who participated in the Jiangsu longitudinal Nutrition Study (JIN) were collected in 2002 (baseline) and 2007 (follow-up). Three-day weighted food records and status for 11 chronic diseases was determined using biomedical measures (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and anemia) or self-reports (coronary heart disease, asthma, stroke, cancer, fracture, arthritis and hepatitis). Participants were divided in six categories of stage of evolution of multimorbidity. Association of foods, macronutrients and micronutrients at baseline with stages in the evolution of multimorbidity were determined. Data were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, marital status, sedentary lifestyle, smoking status, annual income, education and energy intake. The prevalence of multimorbidity increased from 14% to 34%. A high consumption of fruit and vegetables (p nutrition and evolution towards multimorbidity. More precisely, greater consumption of fruits and vegetable and whole grain products consumption appear to lower the risk of multimorbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. The association between adult attained height and sitting height with mortality in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawada, Norie; Wark, Petra A.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ward, Heather A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dartois, Laureen; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, María Luisa; Travier, Noemie; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Dorronsoro, Miren; Cirera, Lluis; Ardanaz, Eva; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Valanou, Elissavet; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Peeters, Petra H M; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; Silva, Marisa Da; Skeie, Guri; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J.

    2017-01-01

    Adult height and sitting height may reflect genetic and environmental factors, including early life nutrition, physical and social environments. Previous studies have reported divergent associations for height and chronic disease mortality, with positive associations observed for cancer mortality

  3. Tongue Strength is Associated with Grip Strength and Nutritional Status in Older Adult Inpatients of a Rehabilitation Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kotomi; Nakayama, Enri; Tohara, Haruka; Maeda, Tomomi; Sugimoto, Motonobu; Takehisa, Takahiro; Takehisa, Yozo; Ueda, Koichiro

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether tongue strength observed in older adult inpatients of a rehabilitation hospital is associated with muscle function, nutritional status, and dysphagia. A total of 174 older adult inpatients aged 65 years and older in rehabilitation (64 men, 110 women; median age, 84 years; interquartile range, 80-89 years) who were suspected of having reduced tongue strength due to sarcopenia were included in this study. Isometric tongue strength was measured using a device fitted with a disposable oral balloon probe. We evaluated age, muscle function as assessed by the Barthel index and grip strength, nutritional status as measured by the Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form (MNA-SF), body mass index, serum albumin, controlling nutritional status, and calf circumference and arm muscle area to assess muscle mass. In addition, the functional oral intake scale (FOIS) was used as an index of dysphagia. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that isometric tongue strength was independently associated with grip strength (coefficient = 0.33, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.54, p = 0.002), MNA-SF (coefficient = 0.74, 95 % CI 0.12-1.35, p = 0.019), and FOIS (coefficient = 0.02, 95 % CI 0.00-0.15, p = 0.047). To maintain and improve tongue strength in association with sarcopenic dysphagia, exercise therapy and nutritional therapy interventions, as well as direct interventions to address tongue strength, may be effective in dysphagia rehabilitation in older adult inpatients.

  4. Factors associated with prolonged non-nutritive sucking habits in two cohorts of Brazilian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSH) are very common during childhood. However, if these habits were maintained for 36 months of age or more, they are considered to be prolonged (PNNSH) and can cause occlusal, physiological and esthetic changes. There is controversy about their prevalence and whether perinatal, social, demographic and health characteristics influence their onset and duration. So, the objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of PNNSH and to evaluate perinatal, early life and school age factors associated with their occurrence in children. Methods A sample of 1,463 children aged 7–11 years born in Ribeirão Preto (RP-1994) and São Luís (SL-1997/98), Brazil, was reevaluated at school age in 2004/05. Birth weight, gestational age and perinatal variables were obtained at birth. Type of feeding, occurrence and duration of finger and pacifier sucking were recorded retrospectively at school age. PNNSH were defined when persisted for 36 months of age or more. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated by Poisson regression (alpha = 5%). Results Prevalence of PNNSH was higher in RP (47.6%) than in SL (20.2%) – (p < 0.001). Perinatal variables were not associated to PNNSH, whilst female sex (PR = 1.27 in RP; PR = 1.47 in SL) and bottle feeding for 24 months or more (PR = 2.24 in RP; PR = 2.49 in SL) were risk factors in both locations. Breast feeding for 12 months or more (PR = 0.53 in RP; PR = 0.31 in SL) was associated with lower prevalence of PNNSH in both places. In SL, children whose mothers lived in consensual union (PR = 1.62) and worked outside the home (PR = 1.51) showed higher prevalence of PNNSH compared to their counterparts. Conclusions Prevalence of PNNSH was high especially in RP and was not associated with perinatal variables. In both cities there was an association between female sex, shorter breast-feeding duration, longer bottle feeding duration and higher prevalence of PNNSH. PMID:25053157

  5. Maternal Factors Associated with Nutritional Status of 1-5 years Children Residing in Field Practice Area of Rural Health Training Centre Naila, Jaipur (Rajasthan) India

    OpenAIRE

    Lokesh Sonkaria, Afifa Zafer, Kusum Lata Gaur, Ravindra Kumar Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Good nutrition bene-fits families, their communities and the world as a whole. Maternal factors are important in maintaining the nutrition of 1-5 year children. Objective: To ascertain the association of maternal factors with nutrition of 1-5 year children. Materials and Methods: A community based cross sectional descriptive type of observational study was carried out in the field practice area of RHTC Naila in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. 30 Cluster sampling technique was ...

  6. Root-associated fungal microbiota of nonmycorrhizal Arabis alpina and its contribution to plant phosphorus nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, Juliana; Jeena, Ganga; Wunder, Jörg; Langen, Gregor; Zuccaro, Alga; Coupland, George; Bucher, Marcel

    2017-10-31

    Most land plants live in association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rely on this symbiosis to scavenge phosphorus (P) from soil. The ability to establish this partnership has been lost in some plant lineages like the Brassicaceae, which raises the question of what alternative nutrition strategies such plants have to grow in P-impoverished soils. To understand the contribution of plant-microbiota interactions, we studied the root-associated fungal microbiome of Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae) with the hypothesis that some of its components can promote plant P acquisition. Using amplicon sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer 2, we studied the root and rhizosphere fungal communities of A. alpina growing under natural and controlled conditions including low-P soils and identified a set of 15 fungal taxa consistently detected in its roots. This cohort included a Helotiales taxon exhibiting high abundance in roots of wild A. alpina growing in an extremely P-limited soil. Consequently, we isolated and subsequently reintroduced a specimen from this taxon into its native P-poor soil in which it improved plant growth and P uptake. The fungus exhibited mycorrhiza-like traits including colonization of the root endosphere and P transfer to the plant. Genome analysis revealed a link between its endophytic lifestyle and the expansion of its repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes. We report the discovery of a plant-fungus interaction facilitating the growth of a nonmycorrhizal plant under native P-limited conditions, thus uncovering a previously underestimated role of root fungal microbiota in P cycling.

  7. Poor nutrition status and associated feeding practices among HIV-positive children in a food secure region in Tanzania: a call for tailored nutrition training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F Sunguya

    Full Text Available METHODS: We conducted this mixed-method study among 748 children aged 6 months-14 years attending 9 of a total of 32 care and treatment centers in Tanga region, Tanzania. We collected quantitative data using a standard questionnaire and qualitative data through seven focus group discussions (FGDs. RESULTS: HIV-positive children had high magnitudes of undernutrition. Stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness were prevalent among 61.9%, 38.7%, 26.0%, and 21.1% of HIV-positive children, respectively. They also had poor feeding practices: 88.1% were fed at a frequency below the recommendations, and 62.3% had a low level of dietary diversity. Lower feeding frequency was associated with stunting (β = 0.11, p = 0.016; underweight (β = 0.12, p = 0.029; and thinness (β = 0.11, p = 0.026. Lower feeding frequency was associated with low wealth index (β = 0.06, p<0.001, food insecurity (β =  -0.05, p<0.001, and caregiver's education. In the FGDs, participants discussed the causal relationships among the key associations; undernutrition was mainly due to low feeding frequency and dietary diversity. Such poor feeding practices resulted from poor nutrition knowledge, food insecurity, low income, and poverty. CONCLUSION: Feeding practices and nutrition status were poor among HIV-positive children even in food rich areas. Improving feeding frequency may help to ameliorate undernutrition. To improve it, tailored interventions should target children of poor households, the food insecure, and caregivers who have received only a low level of education.

  8. The association between trust in health care providers and medication adherence among Black women with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie M. Abel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Black women have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world. Reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. The historical legacy of medical maltreatment of Blacks in the U.S. provides some insight into distrust in the medical profession, refusal of treatment, and poor adherence to treatment regimens.Methods: Black women (N=80 who were prescribed antihypertensive medications were recruited from urban communities in North Carolina. Study participants completed the Trust in Physician and Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy questionnaires. An exact discrete-event model was used to examine the relationship between trust and medication adherence.Results: Mean age of study participants was 48 ± 9.2 years. The majority of participants (67% were actively employed and 30% had incomes at or below the federal poverty level. Increasing levels of trust in the health care provider was independently associated with greater medication adherence (PTrend=0.015.Conclusions: Black women with hypertension who trusted their health care providers were more likely to be adherent with their prescribed antihypertensive medications than those who did not trust their health care providers. Findings suggest that trusting relationships between Black women and health care providers are important to decreasing disparate rates of hypertension.

  9. The Association Between Feeding Habits, Nutritional Parameters and Quality of Sleep in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Esra KÖSE; Kenan TURGUTALP; Ahmet KIYKIM; Fatma ÇELİK

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Poor sleep and sleep-related breathing disorders are common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, it is not well known whether there is a relation between nutritional habit and quality of sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between quality of sleep and nutritional characteristics. MATERIAL and METHODS: The study population included 84 HD patients. Data were collected with the questionnaire developed by the researchers and included questions about socio...

  10. Using Nutrition for Intervention and Prevention against Environmental Chemical Toxicity and Associated Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hennig, Bernhard; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Jandacek, Ronald J.; Koo, Sung; McClain, Craig; Seifried, Harold; Silverstone, Allen; Watkins, Bruce; Suk, William A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Nutrition and lifestyle are well-defined modulators of chronic diseases. Poor dietary habits (such as high intake of processed foods rich in fat and low intake of fruits and vegetables), as well as a sedentary lifestyle clearly contribute to today’s compromised quality of life in the United States. It is becoming increasingly clear that nutrition can modulate the toxicity of environmental pollutants. Objectives: Our goal in this commentary is to discuss the recommendation that nut...

  11. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  12. Knowledge of Critical Care Provider on Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Chiki Sherpa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in ventilated patient. Prevention of VAP in critically ill patient is significant concern for health care team in intensive care units (ICUs. Knowledge on prevention of VAP would have a significant impact on patient outcome. Aims and Objectives: To assess knowledge on prevention of VAP in critical care providers and to find the association between knowledge on prevention of VAP and educational qualification and years of experience in ICUs. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in 5 different ICUs of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, and using descriptive study design. Material and Methods: The study involved a purposive sample of 138 critical care providers. Critical care providers who were willing to participate in the study were included. Tools on demographic proforma and self-administered structured knowledge questionnaire on prevention of VAP were developed and content validity was established. The reliability of the tools was established.The data was categorized and analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The SPSS 16.0 version was used for the analysis of the study. Result: Majority 89.1% of the participant were 20-29 years, 63% unmarried 51.4% had completed diploma course and majority 81.2% were from nursing discipline. The study revealed that only 55.80% of subjects were having adequate knowledge on prevention of VAP based on median score. There was no significant association between knowledge score and educational qualification (÷²=0, p=0.833, years of experience in ICU (÷²= 2.221, p=0.329.

  13. The association between urbanization and reduced renal function: findings from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yosuke; Howard, Annie Green; Thompson, Amanda L; Mendez, Michelle A; Herring, Amy H; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-05-15

    While chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health concern in low- and middle-income countries, such as China, few studies have investigated the association between urbanization and the occurrence of CKD in those countries. We investigated the association between urbanization and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), an important CKD risk marker. Data came from the China Health and Nutrition Survey wave 2009, in which we collected fasting serum, individual and household data along with community level urbanization data, which was used to derive a study-specific urbanization measure, in 218 communities across nine provinces. A total of 3644 men and 4154 women participants aged 18 years or older were included in the analysis. Reduced renal function was defined as eGFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 measured using serum creatinine concentration (mg/dL). After adjusting for socio-demographic (e.g., age, education and household income), a sex-stratified multilevel logistic model revealed that living in a more urbanized community was associated with higher odds of reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR] = 1.38 per one-standard deviation [SD] increase in the CHNS specific urbanization index, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.73 for men; OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.11-1.62 for women). After adjusting for behavioral variables (i.e., alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity and diet), as well as obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors, the association was attenuated in men (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.98-1.59), but remained statistically significant in women (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.01-1.52). Our findings suggest that living in an urban environment is linked with higher odds of reduced renal function independently of behavioral and cardiometabolic risk factors, which have been shown to increase along with urbanization.

  14. Association of mandated language access programming and quality of care provided by mental health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Sean R; Snowden, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between language access programming and quality of psychiatric care received by persons with limited English proficiency (LEP). In 1999, the California Department of Mental Health required county Medicaid agencies to implement a "threshold language access policy" to meet the state's Title VI obligations. This policy required Medi-Cal agencies to provide language access programming, including access to interpreters and translated written material, to speakers of languages other than English if the language was spoken by at least 3,000, or 5%, of the county's Medicaid population. Using a longitudinal study design with a nonequivalent control group, this study examined the quality of care provided to Spanish speakers with LEP and a severe mental illness before and after implementation of mandatory language access programming. Quality was measured by receipt of at least two follow-up medication visits within 90 days or three visits within 180 days of an initial medication visit over a period of 38 quarter-years. On average, only 40% of Spanish-speaking clients received at least three medication follow-up visits within 180 days. In multivariate analyses, language access programming was not associated with receipt of at least two medication follow-up visits within 90 days or at least three visits within 180 days. This study found no evidence that language access programming led to increased rates of follow-up medication visits for clients with LEP.

  15. Obestatin does not modify weight and nutritional behaviour but is associated with metabolic syndrome in old women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Mireia; Granada, Maria L; Roca, Maria; Palomera, Elisabet; Puig, Rocio; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2013-06-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin have apparent opposite orexigenic and anorexigenic effects, although the latter has not been firmly demonstrated in humans. So far, little data have been reported in relation to its potential association with metabolic syndrome (MS). The objective was to study obestatin concentrations in relation to nutritional parameters and eating behaviours in old women. Prospective study; a total of 110 women (age: 76.93 ± 6.32) from the Mataró Ageing Study were included. Individuals were characterized by anthropometric variables, lipids, glucose, blood pressure, MS components (Adult Treatment Panel III criteria), anorexia and nutritional status by Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) and re-evaluated at 2-year follow-up. Obestatin was measured by IRMA. 58.2% of the subjects had MS; at 2-year follow-up 24.1% had a weight loss >5%, 7.2% >10%, and 26.4% changed their MNA-SF score to risk of malnutrition category. Anorexia was present in 38.4%. Obestatin levels were not related to either change of weight, MNA-SF or anorexia, but a positive correlation was found with the absolute difference between basal and 2-year waist circumference (WC) (r = 0.429; P nutritional parameters, weight loss or anorexia. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Elementary school participation in the United States Department of Agriculture's Team Nutrition program is associated with more healthful school lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    To assess school-level characteristics associated with Team Nutrition (TN) program participation, and compare the availability of food items in school lunches in participating vs nonparticipating schools. Cross-sectional study with a nationally representative sample of 2,489 elementary schools in the United States. A mail-back survey was used to collect school administrator-reported annual data on availability of selected healthful and unhealthful lunch items between 2006-2007 and 2009-2010. Multivariate regression analyses was used to predict the availability of food items in school lunches based on TN participation. Team Nutrition participation was higher among schools in the south, in rural areas, and in states with stronger nutrition policies. Program participation was higher in schools with mostly low-income students and where a dietitian was on staff. Participating schools were more likely to offer healthful items and less likely to serve unhealthful items during lunch. The TN program has the potential to help schools offer healthier school meals. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary Pattern Associated with Frailty: Results from Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yen-Li; Hsieh, Yao-Te; Hsu, Li-Lin; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Ching-Yu; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2017-09-01

    To investigate whether dietary patterns are associated with frailty phenotypes in an elderly Taiwanese population. Cross-sectional. Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT), 2014-2016. Noninstitutionalized Taiwanese nationals aged 65 years and older enrolled in the NAHSIT (N = 923). Dietary intake was assessed using a 79-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Presence of 5 frailty phenotypes was determined using modified Fried criteria and are summed into a frailty score. Using data from the NAHSIT (2014-15), reduced rank regression was used to find a dietary pattern that explained maximal degree of variation of the frailty scores. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between frailty and dietary pattern. The findings were validated with data from 2016. The derived dietary pattern was characterized with a high consumption of fruit, nuts and seeds, tea, vegetables, whole grains, shellfish, milk, and fish. The prevalence of frailty was 7.8% and of prefrailty was 50.8%, defined using the modified Fried criteria. Using data from the NAHSIT (2014-15), the dietary pattern score showed an inverse dose-response relationship with prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty. Individuals in the second dietary pattern tertile were one-third as likely to be frail as those in the first tertile (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.85), and those in the third tertile were 4% as likely to be frail as those in the first tertile (aOR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01-0.18). The dietary pattern score estimated using FFQ data from the NAHSIT 2016 was also significantly and inversely associated with frailty. Individuals with a dietary pattern with more phytonutrient-rich plant foods, tea, omega-3-rich deep-sea fish, and other protein-rich foods such as shellfish and milk had a reduced prevalence of frailty. Further research is necessary to confirm these findings and investigate whether related dietary interventions can reduce frailty

  18. Nutrition and health - the association between eating behavior and various health parameters: a matched sample study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie T Burkert

    Full Text Available Population-based studies have consistently shown that our diet has an influence on health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze differences between different dietary habit groups in terms of health-related variables. The sample used for this cross-sectional study was taken from the Austrian Health Interview Survey AT-HIS 2006/07. In a first step, subjects were matched according to their age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES. After matching, the total number of subjects included in the analysis was 1320 (N = 330 for each form of diet - vegetarian, carnivorous diet rich in fruits and vegetables, carnivorous diet less rich in meat, and carnivorous diet rich in meat. Analyses of variance were conducted controlling for lifestyle factors in the following domains: health (self-assessed health, impairment, number of chronic conditions, vascular risk, health care (medical treatment, vaccinations, preventive check-ups, and quality of life. In addition, differences concerning the presence of 18 chronic conditions were analyzed by means of Chi-square tests. Overall, 76.4% of all subjects were female. 40.0% of the individuals were younger than 30 years, 35.4% between 30 and 49 years, and 24.0% older than 50 years. 30.3% of the subjects had a low SES, 48.8% a middle one, and 20.9% had a high SES. Our results revealed that a vegetarian diet is related to a lower BMI and less frequent alcohol consumption. Moreover, our results showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with poorer health (higher incidences of cancer, allergies, and mental health disorders, a higher need for health care, and poorer quality of life. Therefore, public health programs are needed in order to reduce the health risk due to nutritional factors.

  19. Nutritional status of Tunisian adolescents: associated gender, environmental and socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Traissac, Pierre; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Delpeuch, Francis; Achour, Noureddine; Maire, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status of Tunisian adolescents and associated factors. A cross-sectional study based on a national stratified random cluster sample. In all, 1,295 boys and 1,577 girls aged 15-19 years, of whom 28.4 % had already left school. Socio-economic characteristics of the parents, anthropometric measurements, food behaviours and physical activity of the adolescents were recorded during home visits. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity (WHO/National Center for Health Statistics reference) were, respectively, 8.1 %, 17.4 % and 4.1 % among boys and 1.3 %, 20.7 % and 4.4 % among girls; abdominal obesity was highly prevalent among both sexes. Prevalence of overweight differed by region (from 11.5 % to 22.2 %) and was higher in urban v. rural areas for males (21.7 % v. 10.4 %) but not for females (21.7 % v. 19.2 %). These differences were partially mediated by socio-economic and lifestyle factors for males. For females, influence of cultural factors is hypothesised. In rural areas, overweight was more prevalent among boys of higher economic level households, having a working mother or a sedentary lifestyle; for girls, prevalence increased with the level of education of the mother. In urban areas, prevalence of overweight was related to eating habits: it was higher for boys with irregular snacking habits and for girls skipping daily meals. Urban girls having left school were also more overweight. Overweight and abdominal obesity in late adolescence have become a true public health problem in Tunisia with the combined effects of cultural tradition for girls in rural areas, and of rapid economic development for boys and girls in cities.

  20. Extending Our Understanding of Burnout and Its Associated Factors: Providers and Staff in Primary Care Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, William M; Fernstrom, Karl M; Galos, Dylan L; Britt, Heather R

    2016-09-01

    Burnout has been identified as an occupational hazard in the helping professions for many years and is often overlooked, as health-care systems strive to improve cost and quality. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Areas of Worklife Survey (AWS) are tools for assessing burnout prevalence and its associated factors. We describe how we used them in outpatient clinics to assess burnout for multiple job types. Traditional statistical techniques and seemingly unrelated regression were used to describe the sample and evaluate the association between work life domains and burnout. Of 838 eligible participants, 467 (55.7%) were included for analysis. Burnout prevalence varied across three job categories: providers (37.5%), clinical assistants (24.6%), and other staff (28.0%). It was not related to age, gender, or years of tenure but was lower in part-time workers (24.6%) than in full-time workers (33.9%). Analysis of the AWS subscales identified organizational correlates of burnout. Accurately identifying and defining the operative system factors associated with burnout will make it possible to create successful interventions. Using the MBI and the AWS together can highlight the relationship between system work experiences and burnout. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Interaction patterns of trauma providers are associated with length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You; Patel, Mayur B; McNaughton, Candace D; Malin, Bradley A

    2018-02-22

    Trauma-related hospitalizations drive a high percentage of health care expenditure and inpatient resource consumption, which is directly related to length of stay (LOS). Robust and reliable interactions among health care employees can reduce LOS. However, there is little known about whether certain patterns of interactions exist and how they relate to LOS and its variability. The objective of this study is to learn interaction patterns and quantify the relationship to LOS within a mature trauma system and long-standing electronic medical record (EMR). We adapted a spectral co-clustering methodology to infer the interaction patterns of health care employees based on the EMR of 5588 hospitalized adult trauma survivors. The relationship between interaction patterns and LOS was assessed via a negative binomial regression model. We further assessed the influence of potential confounders by age, number of health care encounters to date, number of access action types care providers committed to patient EMRs, month of admission, phenome-wide association study codes, procedure codes, and insurance status. Three types of interaction patterns were discovered. The first pattern exhibited the most collaboration between employees and was associated with the shortest LOS. Compared to this pattern, LOS for the second and third patterns was 0.61 days (P = 0.014) and 0.43 days (P = 0.037) longer, respectively. Although the 3 interaction patterns dealt with different numbers of patients in each admission month, our results suggest that care was provided for similar patients. The results of this study indicate there is an association between LOS and the extent to which health care employees interact in the care of an injured patient. The findings further suggest that there is merit in ascertaining the content of these interactions and the factors that induce these differences in interaction patterns within a trauma system.

  2. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Somayyeh Firouzi; Mohd Yusof Barakatun-Nisak; Kamaruddin Nor Azmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physica...

  3. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Infants Living in Arsenic-Contaminated Areas in Bangladesh and Its Association with Arsenic Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Abul Hasnat; Attia, John; Alauddin, Mohammad; McEvoy, Mark; McElduff, Patrick; Hussain, Sumaira; Akhter, Ayesha; Akter, Shahnaz; Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Iyengar, Vasu; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2018-01-02

    Data is scarce on early life exposure to arsenic and its association with malnutrition during infancy. This study followed the nutritional status of a cohort of 120 infants from birth to 9 months of age in an arsenic contaminated area in Bangladesh. Anthropometric data was collected at 3, 6 and 9 months of the infant's age for nutritional assessment whereas arsenic exposure level was assessed via tube well drinking water arsenic concentration at the initiation of the study. Weight and height measurements were converted to Z -scores of weight for age (WAZ-underweight), height for age (HAZ-stunting), weight for height (WHZ-wasting) for children by comparing with WHO growth standard. Arsenic exposure levels were categorized as <50 μg/L and ≥50 μg/L. Stunting rates (<-2 SD) were 10% at 3 months and 44% at both 6 and 9 months. Wasting rates (<-2 SD) were 23.3% at 3 months and underweight rates (<-2 SD) were 25% and 10% at 3 and 6 months of age, respectively. There was a significant association of stunting with household drinking water arsenic exposure ≥50 μg/L at age of 9 months ( p = 0.009). Except for stunting at 9 months of age, we did not find any significant changes in other nutritional indices over time or with levels of household arsenic exposure in this study. Our study suggests no association between household arsenic exposure and under-nutrition during infancy; with limiting factors being small sample size and short follow-up. Difference in stunting at 9 months by arsenic exposure at ≥50 μg/L might be a statistical incongruity. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to establish any association.

  4. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Infants Living in Arsenic-Contaminated Areas in Bangladesh and Its Association with Arsenic Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Abul Hasnat; Attia, John; Alauddin, Mohammad; McEvoy, Mark; McElduff, Patrick; Hussain, Sumaira; Akhter, Ayesha; Akter, Shahnaz; Islam, M. Munirul; Ahmed, AM Shamsir; Iyengar, Vasu; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2018-01-01

    Data is scarce on early life exposure to arsenic and its association with malnutrition during infancy. This study followed the nutritional status of a cohort of 120 infants from birth to 9 months of age in an arsenic contaminated area in Bangladesh. Anthropometric data was collected at 3, 6 and 9 months of the infant’s age for nutritional assessment whereas arsenic exposure level was assessed via tube well drinking water arsenic concentration at the initiation of the study. Weight and height measurements were converted to Z-scores of weight for age (WAZ-underweight), height for age (HAZ-stunting), weight for height (WHZ-wasting) for children by comparing with WHO growth standard. Arsenic exposure levels were categorized as <50 μg/L and ≥50 μg/L. Stunting rates (<−2 SD) were 10% at 3 months and 44% at both 6 and 9 months. Wasting rates (<−2 SD) were 23.3% at 3 months and underweight rates (<−2 SD) were 25% and 10% at 3 and 6 months of age, respectively. There was a significant association of stunting with household drinking water arsenic exposure ≥50 μg/L at age of 9 months (p = 0.009). Except for stunting at 9 months of age, we did not find any significant changes in other nutritional indices over time or with levels of household arsenic exposure in this study. Our study suggests no association between household arsenic exposure and under-nutrition during infancy; with limiting factors being small sample size and short follow-up. Difference in stunting at 9 months by arsenic exposure at ≥50 μg/L might be a statistical incongruity. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to establish any association. PMID:29301293

  5. Association of Handgrip Strength With Malnutrition-Inflammation Score as an Assessment of Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminejad, Naser; Namdari, Mina; Mahmoodi, Mohammad Reza; Bahrampour, Abbas; Azmandian, Jalal

    2016-01-01

      Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is very common in patients with chronic kidney disease and those undergoing maintenance dialysis. Reduced handgrip strength is associated with PEW and considered as a reliable nutritional parameter that reflects loss of muscle mass. This study aimed to evaluate the handgrip strength and its relationship with the Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS) among Iranian dialysis patients. The study population consisted of 83 randomly selected hemodialysis patients from the dialysis centers in Kerman, Iran. Handgrip strength was measured using a dynamometer according to the recommendations of the American Society of Hand Therapists. All the patients were interviewed and the MIS of the patients were recorded.  Results. The PEW was prevalent in Kerman hemodialysis patients, with 83% and 17% having mild and moderate PEW based on MIS, respectively. Handgrip strength was significantly associated with age, sex, height, weight, and diabetes mellitus. After adjustment for age, handgrip strength was significantly associated with nutritional assessment markers on the basis of the MIS. Handgrip strength can be incorporated as a reliable tool for assessing nutrition status in clinical practice. However, further research is needed to determine the reference values and cutoff points both in healthy people and in hemodialysis patients to classify muscle wasting.

  6. The association between worksite physical environment and employee nutrition, and physical activity behavior and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Fabio A; Wall, Sarah S; You, Wen; Harden, Samantha M; Hill, Jennie L; Krippendorf, Blake E; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2014-07-01

    To explore the relationship between worksite physical environment and employee dietary intake, physical activity behavior, and weight status. Two trained research assistants completed audits (Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites) at each worksite (n = 28). Employees (n = 6261) completed a brief health survey before participation in a weight loss program. Employees' access to outdoor areas was directly associated with lower body mass index (BMI), whereas access to workout facilities within a worksite was associated with higher BMI. The presence of a cafeteria and fewer vending machines was directly associated with better eating habits. Better eating habits and meeting physical activity recommendations were both related to lower BMI. Selected environmental factors in worksites were significantly associated with employee behaviors and weight status, providing additional intervention targets to change the worksite environment and promote employee weight loss.

  7. Nutritional clinical studies in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakou, Aikaterini I; Theodorakis, Michael J; Melnik, Bodo C; Pappas, Apostolos; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-10-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, beauty, integrity and aging through multiple pathways and cofactors implicated in skin biology. The onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, especially acne, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and hair loss, have been suggested to be critically affected by nutrition patterns and habits. The relationship between acne and diet, predominantly the role of high glycemic load diets and dairy consumption have recently gained increased interest. Abnormal nutritional conditions such as obesity or malnutrition often manifest themselves by specific cutaneous features and altered skin function. Skin photoprotection, rendered by various nutrients, is well documented and appropriate nutritional supplementation has been shown to exert beneficial effects upon impaired skin integrity, restore its appearance and promote skin health. It is our intention to provide a comprehensive review of the most recent information on the role of nutrition for common skin diseases and regulation of skin biology. Nutritional clinical studies in dermatology have been reviewed using the MedLine literature source and the terms "diet" or "nutrition" and "skin". The data on the relationship between nutrition and skin are until now controversial and much more work is needed to be done to clarify possible etiological correlations.

  8. Primary Care Tasks Associated with Provider Burnout: Findings from a Veterans Health Administration Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Linda Y; Rose, Danielle E; Soban, Lynn M; Stockdale, Susan E; Meredith, Lisa S; Edwards, Samuel T; Helfrich, Christian D; Rubenstein, Lisa V

    2018-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is a primary care delivery model predicated on shared responsibility for patient care among members of an interprofessional team. Effective task sharing may reduce burnout among primary care providers (PCPs). However, little is known about the extent to which PCPs share these responsibilities, and which, if any, of the primary care tasks performed independently by the PCPs (vs. shared with the team) are particularly associated with PCP burnout. A better understanding of the relationship between these tasks and their effects on PCP burnout may help guide focused efforts aimed at reducing burnout. To investigate (1) the extent to which PCPs share responsibility for 14 discrete primary care tasks with other team members, and (2) which, if any, of the primary care tasks performed by the PCPs (without reliance on team members) are associated with PCP burnout. Secondary data analysis of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) survey data from two time periods. 327 providers from 23 VA primary care practices within one VHA regional network. The dependent variable was PCP report of burnout. Independent variables included PCP report of the extent to which they performed 14 discrete primary care tasks without reliance on team members; team functioning; and PCP-, clinic-, and system-level variables. In adjusted models, PCP reports of intervening on patient lifestyle factors and educating patients about disease-specific self-care activities, without reliance on their teams, were significantly associated with burnout (intervening on lifestyle: b = 4.11, 95% CI = 0.39, 7.83, p = 0.03; educating patients: b = 3.83, 95% CI = 0.33, 7.32, p = 0.03). Performing behavioral counseling and self-management education tasks without relying on other team members for assistance was associated with PCP burnout. Expanding the roles of nurses and other healthcare professionals to assume responsibility for these tasks may ease PCP burden and

  9. Abdominal obesity is associated with albuminuria in women: the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong Gyu; Kim, Yang Hyun; Lee, Kyung Shik; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Do Hoon

    2014-03-01

    The effects of obesity on the kidney, apart from diabetes or hypertension, have not drawn much attention. Moreover, only a few studies have reported the relationship between obesity status and albuminuria in Asian countries, including South Korea. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between obesity status and albuminuria in Korean adults. We analyzed data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Of the 4,979 subjects included in the general-population group, 3,274 were sorted into a nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population group. Obesity status was measured by body mass index and waist circumference. Albuminuria was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Abdominally obese women were at higher risk for albuminuria than were women without abdominal obesity both in the general population (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.08 [1.04-4.16]) and in the nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population (OR [95% CI]: 6.96 [2.34-20.64]) after further adjustment for confounders. Among generally nonobese women, abdominally obese women were at higher risk for albuminuria than were women without abdominal obesity both in the general population (OR [95% CI]: 2.82 [1.51-5.29]) and in the nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population (OR [95% CI]: 5.32 [1.47-19.22]). Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk for albuminuria in Korean women, independently of diabetes or hypertension. Screening for abdominal obesity, especially in women, may therefore provide earlier identification of individuals at risk for developing renal disease and cardiovascular disease, even those who are nondiabetic and nonhypertensive.

  10. Interrelations of immunological parameters, nutrition, and healthcare-associated infections: prospective study in elderly in-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, M; Bastuji-Garin, S; Plonquet, A; Bories, P N; Le Thuaut, A; Audureau, E; Lang, P O; Nakib, S; Liuu, E; Canoui-Poitrine, F; Paillaud, E

    2015-02-01

    Healthcare-associated infections [HAI] are common in elderly individuals and may be related to both nutritional deficiencies and immunosenescence. Here, we assessed whether overall malnutrition and/or specific nutrient deficiencies were associated with HAI via alterations in immune parameters. Prospective observational cohort study in patients aged ≥ 70 years admitted to the geriatric rehabilitation unit of a teaching hospital in France between July 2006 and November 2008. Clinical and laboratory parameters reflecting nutritional status and immune function were collected at baseline. Flow cytometry was used to assess blood lymphocyte subsets including the naive CD4 T-cell count, naive and memory CD8 T-cell counts, effector CD8 T-cell count, and CD4/CD8 ratio. Patients were monitored for HAI for 3 months or until discharge from the geriatric unit or death. Of 252 consecutive in-patients aged ≥ 70 years [mean age, 85 ± 6.2 years], 181 [72%] met French National Authority for Health criteria for malnutrition and 97 [38%] experienced one or more HAI. Patients who subsequently experienced HAI had significantly lower baseline values for energy intake [odds ratio (OR), 0.76; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 0.59-0.99], serum albumin [OR, 0.43; 95%CI, 0.32-0.58], serum zinc [OR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.62-0.97], selenium [OR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.61-0.95], and vitamin C [OR, 0.71; 95%CI, 0.54-0.93]. Associations linking these five variables to HAI were not significantly changed by adjusting for flow cytometry T-cell subset values. Our results suggest a direct effect of nutritional parameters on HAI rather than an indirect effect mediated by immune parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism vs. neurotypical children, and the association with autism severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehn Eva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between relative metabolic disturbances and developmental disorders is an emerging research focus. This study compares the nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism with that of neurotypical children and investigates the possible association of autism severity with biomarkers. Method Participants were children ages 5-16 years in Arizona with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (n = 55 compared with non-sibling, neurotypical controls (n = 44 of similar age, gender and geographical distribution. Neither group had taken any vitamin/mineral supplements in the two months prior to sample collection. Autism severity was assessed using the Pervasive Development Disorder Behavior Inventory (PDD-BI, Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC, and Severity of Autism Scale (SAS. Study measurements included: vitamins, biomarkers of vitamin status, minerals, plasma amino acids, plasma glutathione, and biomarkers of oxidative stress, methylation, sulfation and energy production. Results Biomarkers of children with autism compared to those of controls using a t-test or Wilcoxon test found the following statistically significant differences (p A stepwise, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated significant associations between several groups of biomarkers with all three autism severity scales, including vitamins (adjusted R2 of 0.25-0.57, minerals (adj. R2 of 0.22-0.38, and plasma amino acids (adj. R2 of 0.22-0.39. Conclusion The autism group had many statistically significant differences in their nutritional and metabolic status, including biomarkers indicative of vitamin insufficiency, increased oxidative stress, reduced capacity for energy transport, sulfation and detoxification. Several of the biomarker groups were significantly associated with variations in the severity of autism. These nutritional and metabolic differences are generally in agreement with other published results and are likely amenable to

  12. Nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism vs. neurotypical children, and the association with autism severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James B; Audhya, Tapan; McDonough-Means, Sharon; Rubin, Robert A; Quig, David; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Loresto, Melissa; Mitchell, Jessica; Atwood, Sharon; Barnhouse, Suzanne; Lee, Wondra

    2011-06-08

    The relationship between relative metabolic disturbances and developmental disorders is an emerging research focus. This study compares the nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism with that of neurotypical children and investigates the possible association of autism severity with biomarkers. Participants were children ages 5-16 years in Arizona with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (n = 55) compared with non-sibling, neurotypical controls (n = 44) of similar age, gender and geographical distribution. Neither group had taken any vitamin/mineral supplements in the two months prior to sample collection. Autism severity was assessed using the Pervasive Development Disorder Behavior Inventory (PDD-BI), Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), and Severity of Autism Scale (SAS). Study measurements included: vitamins, biomarkers of vitamin status, minerals, plasma amino acids, plasma glutathione, and biomarkers of oxidative stress, methylation, sulfation and energy production. Biomarkers of children with autism compared to those of controls using a t-test or Wilcoxon test found the following statistically significant differences (p Autism group, mean levels of vitamins, minerals, and most amino acids commonly measured in clinical care were within published reference ranges.A stepwise, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated significant associations between several groups of biomarkers with all three autism severity scales, including vitamins (adjusted R2 of 0.25-0.57), minerals (adj. R2 of 0.22-0.38), and plasma amino acids (adj. R2 of 0.22-0.39). The autism group had many statistically significant differences in their nutritional and metabolic status, including biomarkers indicative of vitamin insufficiency, increased oxidative stress, reduced capacity for energy transport, sulfation and detoxification. Several of the biomarker groups were significantly associated with variations in the severity of autism. These nutritional and metabolic

  13. Elevated serum leptin levels are associated with good nutritional status in non-obese chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ekrem; Ahbap, Elbis; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Sakaci, Tamer; Basturk, Taner; Koc, Yener; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Ucar, Zuhal Atan; Kayalar, Arzu Ozdemir; Bayraktar, Feyza; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2015-03-01

    Leptin is a hormone and a proinflammatory cytokine secreted from adipocytes, which functions to suppress appetite in healthy persons. Serum leptin levels are significantly elevated in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) primarily due to decreased clearance by the kidneys The consequence of hyperleptinemia in ESRD is not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the association between serum leptin levels and nutrition/inflammation status in non-obese chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. 65 chronic, anuric, nonobese (body mass index (BMI) nutrition and inflammation status. Patients were classified into the 3 groups according to serum leptin levels; group 1 (low leptin, n = 9), group 2 (normal leptin, n = 31), and group 3 (high leptin, n = 25). Mean age and duration on dialysis of 65 patients (male/female: 34/31) were 51.6 ± 17.8 years and 78.0 ± 67.9 months, respectively. Serum leptin levels increased with older age, female gender, higher BMI and triceps skinfold thickness. Elevated serum leptin levels were significantly associated with good nutritional status parameters, such as higher albumin (p = 0.001), prealbumin (p = 0.033), total iron binding capacity (p = 0.045), total cholesterol (p = 0.041), and lower malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) (p = 0.002). Serum leptin levels remained a negative correlation with MIS after adjustments made for BMI. No correlation was established between leptin and inflammation parameters including ferritin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and tumor necorsis factor alpha (TNF-α). Elevated serum leptin levels seem to be associated with good nutritional status. However, there was no correlation between leptin and inflammatory status.

  14. Frailty and nutrition: searching for evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, M; Berrut, G; Lesourd, B; Ferry, M; Gilbert, T; Guérin, O; Hanon, O; Jeandel, C; Paillaud, E; Raynaud-Simon, A; Ruault, G; Rolland, Y

    2015-03-01

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that predicts disability, morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Poor nutritional status is one of the main risk factors for frailty. Macronutrients and micronutrients deficiencies are associated with frailty. Recent studies suggest that improving nutritional status for macronutrients and micronutrients may reduce the risk of frailty. Specific diets such as the Mediterranean diet rich in anti-oxidants, is currently investigated in the prevention of frailty. The aim of this paper is to summarize the current body of knowledge on the relations between nutrition and frailty, and provide recommendations for future nutritional research on the field of frailty.

  15. [Consumption of fruits and its association with nutritional status in chilean university students career of physical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Agüero, Samuel; Valdes-Badilla, Pablo; Godoy Cumillaf, Andrés; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás

    2015-05-01

    Chile is a country that reaches the highest levels of overweight and obesity worldwide (66.7% of the Chilean population), with a group of college students tending to swell these numbers considered nutritionally vulnerable group. To associate the consumption of fruits with nutritional status of Chilean university students in physical education. The study population consisted of all students of the School of Pedagogy in Physical Education from the Autonomous University of Chile, Temuco based (n = 420). The sample included 239 students (56.9%), men (76.5%) with a mean age of 21.5 ± 2.1 years. Each student nutritional status was determined and applied a validated survey eating habits. An association between fruit consumption (≥2 servings / day) in the model crude OR = 0.528 (from 0.288 to 0.965), Model 1 adjusted OR = 0.496 (0.268 to 0.916) and Model 2 adjusted OR = 0.495 is observed (0.265 to 0.924) CONCLUSION: Consumption ≥ 2 servings a day of fruits is a protective factor for a good BMI Chilean university students in physical education. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral physiology, nutrition and quality of life in diabetic patients associated or not with hypertension and beta-blockers therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L J; Foureaux, R C; Pereira, C V; Alves, M C; Campos, C H; Rodrigues Garcia, R C M; Andrade, E F; Gonçalves, T M S V

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between type 2 diabetes oral physiology, nutritional intake and quality of life has not been fully elucidated. We assessed the impact of type 2 diabetes - exclusive or associated with hypertension with beta-blockers treatment - on oral physiology, mastication, nutrition and quality of life. This cross-sectional study was performed with 78 complete dentate subjects (15 natural teeth and six masticatory units minimum; without removable or fixed prostheses), divided into three groups: diabetics (DM) (n = 20; 45·4 ± 9·5 years), diabetics with hypertension and receiving beta-blockers treatment (DMH) (n = 19; 41·1 ± 5·1 years) and controls (n = 39; 44·5 ± 11·7 years) matched for gender, age and socioeconomic status. Blood glucose, masticatory performance, swallowing threshold, taste, food intake, stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow, pH and buffering capacity of saliva were assessed. Glycemia was higher in DM than in controls (P quality of life. Both stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rate were lower in DMH (P diabetes did not alter oral physiology, nutrition or quality of life. However, when hypertension and beta-blockers treatment were associated with diabetes, the salivary flow rate, chewing cycles and number of teeth decreased. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pubertal Stress and Nutrition and their Association with Sexual Orientation and Height in the Add Health Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that gay men tend to be shorter, on average, than heterosexual men. Less evidence exists that lesbian women are taller, on average, than heterosexual women. The most popular explanation of the association between sexual orientation and height involves prenatal factors, such that, for example, gay men may have been exposed to lower than typical androgens during fetal development, which impacts their height and sexual orientation as adults. An alternative explanation involves stress, given that stress has been associated with sexual minority identification and with lower height. Another alternative explanation involves nutrition, although its relationship is less clear with sexual minority identification. Using the Add Health data, which is a large, nationally representative and longitudinal sample of American adolescents (n = 14,786), we tested a mediation model, such that sexual orientation → pubertal stress/nutrition → height. Within men, we found that gay men (n = 126) were shorter, on average, than heterosexual men (n = 6412). None of the 24 pubertal stress-related and 15 pubertal nutrition-related variables assessed in the Add Health data mediated the relationship between sexual orientation and height in men. Within women, lesbians (n = 75) did not differ significantly in stature compared to heterosexual women (n = 6267). Thus, prenatal mechanisms (e.g., hormones, maternal immune response) are likely better candidates for explaining the height difference between gay men and heterosexual men.

  18. Wall-associated kinase-like polypeptide mediates nutritional status perception and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenbiao; Karr, Stephen

    2014-02-11

    The disclosure relates to methods for modulating plant growth and organogenesis using dominant-negative receptor-like kinases. The disclosure further provides a method for increasing plant yield relative to corresponding wild type plants comprising modulating the expression in a plant of a nucleic acid encoding a Wall-Associated Kinase-like 14 polypeptide or a homolog thereof, and selecting for plants having increased yield or growth on a nutrient deficient substrate.

  19. Dietary diversity is associated with nutritional status of Orang Asli children in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey Chua, E Y; Zalilah, M S; Ys Chin, Y S; Norhasmah, S

    2012-04-01

    It is known that dietary diversity improves diet quality and nutritional status of young children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary diversity and nutritional status of Orang Asli children in Krau Wildlife Reserve. A total of 216 children from three Orang Asli sub-tribes (Jah Hut, Temuan and Che Wong) aged 1 to 6 years from 162 households in 16 villages participated in this cross-sectional study. Children and mothers were measured for body weight and height. Mothers were interviewed for household socio-demographic information and diet diversity of children in the last 7 days. Diet diversity score (DDS) was calculated based on 15 food groups. There was a high prevalence of underweight (50.9%) and stunting (61.6%) in Orang Asli children. For mothers, 11.1%, 27.8% and 7.4% were underweight, overweight and obese, respectively. Mean DDS of children was 6.38 [95% CI-6.10, 6.65] of the possible 15. Higher DDS of children was significantly related to older age (p nutrition problem among Orang Asli children living within the forest reserve. Efforts to promote dietary diversity should emphasise traditional and nutritious foods that could improve health and nutritional status of the Orang Asli children.

  20. Nutritional Status Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-School Children in the City of Montes Claros - MG, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Igor Raineh Durães; Mourão, Daniella Mota; Freitas, Daniel Antunes; Souza, Andrey George Silva; Pereira, Alessandra Ribeiro; Aidar, Felipe José; Carneiro, André Luiz Gomes

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in middle-school students in the city of Montes Claros - MG. The sample consisted of 382 students, aged 10-16 years. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Body Mass Index (BMI). Metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined as the presence of two or more criteria in accordance with definition of the International Diabetes Federation. The overall prevalence of MS was 7.9%. 9.7% of students with MS were overweight and 72.4% were obese. Therefore, it can be inferred that carrying excess weight considerably increases the chances for a child to develop MS, and concomitantly increases the child's risk for developing cardiovascular disease.

  1. Nutritional Status Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-School Children in the City of Montes Claros - Mg, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Igor Raineh Durães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in middle-school students in the city of Montes Claros - MG. The sample consisted of 382 students, aged 10-16 years. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Body Mass Index (BMI. Metabolic syndrome (MS was defined as the presence of two or more criteria in accordance with definition of the International Diabetes Federation. The overall prevalence of MS was 7.9%. 9.7% of students with MS were overweight and 72.4% were obese. Therefore, it can be inferred that carrying excess weight considerably increases the chances for a child to develop MS, and concomitantly increases the child’s risk for developing cardiovascular disease.

  2. Examining the content of weight, nutrition and physical activity advices provided by Dutch practice nurses in primary care: analysis of videotaped consultations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, S.M. van; Noordman, J.; Dulmen, S. van; Hiddink, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To examine the content of Dutch practice nurses' (PNs') advices about weight, nutrition and physical activity to overweight and obese patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A 100 videotaped real-life PN consultations (The Netherlands, 2010/2011) with overweight or obese patients were

  3. Examining the content of weight, nutrition and physical activity advices provided by Dutch practice nurses in primary care: analysis of videotaped consultations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, S.M.E. van; Noordman, J.; Dulmen, S. van; Hiddink, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective: To examine the content of Dutch practice nurses’ (PNs’) advices about weight, nutrition and physical activity to overweight and obese patients. Subjects/Methods: A 100 videotaped real-life PN consultations (The Netherlands, 2010/2011) with overweight or obese patients were

  4. [Bariatric surgery in duodenal switch procedure: weight changes and associated nutritional deficiencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella Romero, Francisco; Milla Tobarra, Marta; Alfaro Martínez, José Joaquín; García Arce, Llanos; García Gómez, Angélica; Salas Sáiz, M Ángeles; Soler Marín, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Bariatric surgery using the technique of duodenal switch is considered as one of the most effective treatments to lose weight and decrease comorbidity in morbidly obese patients. However, we have to be familiar with and adequately manage the various nutritional deficiencies that may occur as a consequence of its practice. To assess weight loss and development of nutritional deficiencies in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery through the duodenal switch procedure. One hundred and twenty-eight morbidly obese patients underwent a duodenal switch procedure at Hospital General Universitario in Albacete. Weight changes and the most important nutritional deficiencies occurring after surgery were recorded. Median follow-up time was 30 months (interquartile range, 18 months). Body weight markedly decreased, with mean body mass index (BMI) decreasing from a preoperative value of 52.9±7.7kg/m(2) to 30.8±5.2kg/m(2) 18 months after surgery. The percentage of excess weight lost (% EWL) was 81.4±16.4% in this period. Weight loss slowed down subsequently, reaching its lowest value 30 months after surgery (% EWL 82.1%±16.8, BMI 30.2±4.3kg/m(2)) and tended to stabilize in patients with longer follow-up times. Significant nutritional deficiencies requiring replacement therapy were detected in some micronutrients with iron (42.9%), zinc (38.3%), vitamin A (55.5%), and vitamin D (57.8%) deficiencies being most relevant. Duodenal switch is a very effective surgical procedure for treating morbidly obese patients because it allows for achieving a significant and sustained weight loss.Close lifetime monitoring is required in these patients because of the high prevalence of nutritional deficiencies during follow-up. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. The Potential Association of Later Initiation of Oral/Enteral Nutrition on Euthyroid Sick Syndrome in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Pérez-Guisado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition in burn patients minimizes the drop in fT3 levels, reduces the potential for euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS, and shortens the length of hospital stay (LHS. Subjects and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated the statistical association of serum fT3, fT4, and TSH at the first (2nd–5th day and second sample collection (9th–12th day after the burn injury in 152 burn patients. Three groups were established depending on time of initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition: 48 h after the injury (Group 3. Results. They were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. We found that LHS and the fT3 levels were statistically different in the 3 groups. The LHS (in days was, respectively, in each group, 16.77±4.56, 21.98±4.86, and 26.06±5.47. Despite the quantifiable drop in fT3, ESS was present only at the first sample collection (2.61±0.92 days in Group 3, but there was no group with ESS at the second sample collection (9.89±1.01 days. Our data suggest that early initiation of nutritional supplementation decreases the length of hospitalization and is associated with decreasing fT3 serum concentration depression. Conclusion. Early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition counteracts ESS and improves the LHS in burn patients.

  6. The Potential Association of Later Initiation of Oral/Enteral Nutrition on Euthyroid Sick Syndrome in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; de Haro-Padilla, Jesús M.; Rioja, Luis F.; DeRosier, Leo C.; de la Torre, Jorge I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition in burn patients minimizes the drop in fT3 levels, reduces the potential for euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), and shortens the length of hospital stay (LHS). Subjects and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated the statistical association of serum fT3, fT4, and TSH at the first (2nd–5th day) and second sample collection (9th–12th day) after the burn injury in 152 burn patients. Three groups were established depending on time of initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition: 48 h after the injury (Group 3). Results. They were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. We found that LHS and the fT3 levels were statistically different in the 3 groups. The LHS (in days) was, respectively, in each group, 16.77 ± 4.56, 21.98 ± 4.86, and 26.06 ± 5.47. Despite the quantifiable drop in fT3, ESS was present only at the first sample collection (2.61 ± 0.92 days) in Group 3, but there was no group with ESS at the second sample collection (9.89 ± 1.01 days). Our data suggest that early initiation of nutritional supplementation decreases the length of hospitalization and is associated with decreasing fT3 serum concentration depression. Conclusion. Early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition counteracts ESS and improves the LHS in burn patients. PMID:23401683

  7. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  8. The association of gastric cancer risk with plasma folate, cobalamin, and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollset, Stein Emil; Igland, Jannicke; Jenab, Mazda; Fredriksen, Ase; Meyer, Klaus; Eussen, Simone; Gjessing, Hakon K.; Ueland, Per Magne; Pera, Guillem; Sala, Nuria; Agudo, Antonio; Capella, Gabriel; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Carneiro, Fatima; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Stenling, Roger; Hallmans, Goran; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen; Quiros, Jose R.; Allen, Naomi; Key, Timothy J.; Bingham, Sheila; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Buchner, Frederike L.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lund, Eiliv; Slimani, Nadia; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations of folate intake and polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with gastric cancer risk. Our nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort is the first

  9. The association of gastric cancer risk with plasma folate, cobalamin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollset, S.E.; Igland, J.; Jenab, M.; Fredriksen, A.; Meyer, K.; Eussen, S.; Gjessing, H.K.; Ueland, P.M.; Pera, G.; Sala, N.; Agudo, A.; Capella, G.; Giudice, G. Del; Palli, D.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, C.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Carneiro, F.; Pala, V.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Berglund, G.; Manjer, J.; Stenling, R.; Hallmans, G.; Martinez, C.; Dorronsoro, M.; Barricarte, A.; Navarro, C.; Quiros, J.R.; Allen, N.; Key, T.J.; Bingham, S.; Linseisen, J.; Kaaks, R.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Buchner, F.L.; Peeters, P.H.; Numans, M.E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lund, E.; Slimani, N.; Ferrari, P.; Riboli, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations of folate intake and polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with gastric cancer risk. Our nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort is the first

  10. Canine CNGA3 Gene Mutations Provide Novel Insights into Human Achromatopsia-Associated Channelopathies and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Naoto; Dutrow, Emily V; Miyadera, Keiko; Delemotte, Lucie; MacDermaid, Christopher M; Reinstein, Shelby L; Crumley, William R; Dixon, Christopher J; Casal, Margret L; Klein, Michael L; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Tanaka, Jacqueline C; Guziewicz, Karina E

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels are key mediators underlying signal transduction in retinal and olfactory receptors. Genetic defects in CNGA3 and CNGB3, encoding two structurally related subunits of cone CNG channels, lead to achromatopsia (ACHM). ACHM is a congenital, autosomal recessive retinal disorder that manifests by cone photoreceptor dysfunction, severely reduced visual acuity, impaired or complete color blindness and photophobia. Here, we report the first canine models for CNGA3-associated channelopathy caused by R424W or V644del mutations in the canine CNGA3 ortholog that accurately mimic the clinical and molecular features of human CNGA3-associated ACHM. These two spontaneous mutations exposed CNGA3 residues essential for the preservation of channel function and biogenesis. The CNGA3-R424W results in complete loss of cone function in vivo and channel activity confirmed by in vitro electrophysiology. Structural modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations revealed R424-E306 salt bridge formation and its disruption with the R424W mutant. Reversal of charges in a CNGA3-R424E-E306R double mutant channel rescued cGMP-activated currents uncovering new insights into channel gating. The CNGA3-V644del affects the C-terminal leucine zipper (CLZ) domain destabilizing intersubunit interactions of the coiled-coil complex in the MD simulations; the in vitro experiments showed incompetent trimeric CNGA3 subunit assembly consistent with abnormal biogenesis of in vivo channels. These newly characterized large animal models not only provide a valuable system for studying cone-specific CNG channel function in health and disease, but also represent prime candidates for proof-of-concept studies of CNGA3 gene replacement therapy for ACHM patients.

  11. Canine CNGA3 Gene Mutations Provide Novel Insights into Human Achromatopsia-Associated Channelopathies and Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Tanaka

    Full Text Available Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG ion channels are key mediators underlying signal transduction in retinal and olfactory receptors. Genetic defects in CNGA3 and CNGB3, encoding two structurally related subunits of cone CNG channels, lead to achromatopsia (ACHM. ACHM is a congenital, autosomal recessive retinal disorder that manifests by cone photoreceptor dysfunction, severely reduced visual acuity, impaired or complete color blindness and photophobia. Here, we report the first canine models for CNGA3-associated channelopathy caused by R424W or V644del mutations in the canine CNGA3 ortholog that accurately mimic the clinical and molecular features of human CNGA3-associated ACHM. These two spontaneous mutations exposed CNGA3 residues essential for the preservation of channel function and biogenesis. The CNGA3-R424W results in complete loss of cone function in vivo and channel activity confirmed by in vitro electrophysiology. Structural modeling and molecular dynamics (MD simulations revealed R424-E306 salt bridge formation and its disruption with the R424W mutant. Reversal of charges in a CNGA3-R424E-E306R double mutant channel rescued cGMP-activated currents uncovering new insights into channel gating. The CNGA3-V644del affects the C-terminal leucine zipper (CLZ domain destabilizing intersubunit interactions of the coiled-coil complex in the MD simulations; the in vitro experiments showed incompetent trimeric CNGA3 subunit assembly consistent with abnormal biogenesis of in vivo channels. These newly characterized large animal models not only provide a valuable system for studying cone-specific CNG channel function in health and disease, but also represent prime candidates for proof-of-concept studies of CNGA3 gene replacement therapy for ACHM patients.

  12. Factors Associated with Effective Nutrition Interventions for Pregnant Indigenous Women: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Amy M; Brown, Leanne J; Collins, Clare E; Rollo, Megan E; Rae, Kym M

    2017-08-01

    Indigenous people continue to experience health disparities relative to non-Indigenous populations. Interventions to improve nutrition during pregnancy in these groups may improve health outcomes for mothers and their infants. The effectiveness of existing nutrition intervention programs has not been reviewed previously. The objective was to identify interventions targeting improving nutrition-related outcomes for pregnant Indigenous women residing in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, and to identify positive factors contributing to successful programs. Thirteen electronic databases were searched up until October 2015. Key words identified studies intervening to improve nutrition-related outcomes for pregnant Indigenous women. Two reviewers assessed articles for inclusion and study quality and extracted data. Only studies published in English were included. Data were summarized narratively. Abstracts and titles were screened (n=2,566) and 315 full texts were reviewed for eligibility. This review included 27 articles from 20 intervention programs from Australia, Canada, and the United States. The most prevalent measurable outcomes were birth weight (n=9) and breastfeeding initiation/duration (n=11). Programs with statistically significant results for these outcomes employed the following nutrition activities: individual counseling/education (n=8); delivery by senior Indigenous woman (n=2), peer counselor (n=3), or other Indigenous health worker (n=4); community-wide interventions (n=2); media campaigns (n=2); delivery by non-Indigenous health professional (n=3); and home visits (n=3). Heterogeneity of included studies made it challenging to make firm recommendations regarding program success. Authors of included studies recommended community consultation be included when designing studies and working with communities at all stages of the research process. Individualized counseling/education can contribute to successful program

  13. Endothelium-protective sphingosine-1-phosphate provided by HDL-associated apolipoprotein M

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christina; Obinata, Hideru; Kumaraswamy, Sunil B

    2011-01-01

    Protection of the endothelium is provided by circulating sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which maintains vascular integrity. We show that HDL-associated S1P is bound specifically to both human and murine apolipoprotein M (apoM). Thus, isolated human ApoM(+) HDL contained S1P, whereas ApoM(-) HDL did...... not. Moreover, HDL in Apom(-/-) mice contains no S1P, whereas HDL in transgenic mice overexpressing human apoM has an increased S1P content. The 1.7-Å structure of the S1P-human apoM complex reveals that S1P interacts specifically with an amphiphilic pocket in the lipocalin fold of apoM. Human ApoM......(+) HDL induced S1P(1) receptor internalization, downstream MAPK and Akt activation, endothelial cell migration, and formation of endothelial adherens junctions, whereas apoM(-) HDL did not. Importantly, lack of S1P in the HDL fraction of Apom(-/-) mice decreased basal endothelial barrier function in lung...

  14. Nutritional outcomes in survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)-factors associated with growth at one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairdain, Sigrid; Khan, Faraz A; Fisher, Jeremy; Zurakowski, David; Ariagno, Katelyn; Cauley, Ryan P; Zalieckas, Jill; Wilson, Jay M; Jaksic, Tom; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent among congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors. We aimed to describe the nutritional status and factors that impact growth over the 12-months following discharge from the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in this cohort. CDH survivors, who were discharged from the PICU from 2000 to 2010 with follow-up of at least 12months, were included. Nutritional intake, anthropometric, and clinical variables were recorded. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine factors associated with weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) at 12months. Data from 110 infants, 67% male, 50% patch repair, were analyzed. Median (IQR) WAZ for the cohort was -1.4 (-2.4 to -0.3) at PICU discharge and -0.4 (-1.3 to 0.2) at 12-months. The percentage of infants with significant malnutrition (WAZCDH survivors had a significantly improved nutritional status in the 12-months after PICU discharge. Patch repair, lower BW, and inadequate protein intake were significant predictors of lower WAZ at 12-months. A minimum protein intake in the PICU of 2.3g/kg/day was essential to ensure optimal growth in this cohort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations between Meal and Snack Frequency and Diet Quality in US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-07-01

    The associations between eating frequency and diet quality are inconclusive, which might be a result of different effects of meal frequency and snack frequency. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of eating frequency, meal frequency, and snack frequency with diet quality, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Dietary intake was assessed in 19,427 US adults aged 20 years or older, using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All eating occasions providing ≥50 kcal were divided into either meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to daily energy intake (≥15% or frequency, meal frequency, and snack frequency (independent variables) with dietary intake variables (dependent variables). Higher eating frequency was modestly and positively associated with higher HEI-2010 in both men and women; one additional eating occasion per day increased HEI-2010 by 1.77 points in men and 2.22 points in women (both Pmeal frequency and snack frequency were also modestly and positively associated with HEI-2010 in both sexes, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. However, the associations were stronger for meal frequency than for snack frequency; one additional meal per day increased HEI-2010 by 2.14 to 5.35 points, and one additional snack per day increased HEI-2010 by 1.25 to 1.97 points (all Pmeal frequency and snack frequency were modestly associated with better diet quality. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The association of soda sales tax and school nutrition laws: a concordance of policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathouse, K Leigh; Chriqui, Jamie; Moser, Richard P; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Perna, Frank M

    2014-10-01

    The current research examined the association between state disfavoured tax on soda (i.e. the difference between soda sales tax and the tax on food products generally) and a summary score representing the strength of state laws governing competitive beverages (beverages that compete with the beverages in the federally funded school lunch programme) in US schools. The Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) summary score reflected the strength of a state's laws restricting competitive beverages sold in school stores, vending machines, school fundraisers and à la carte cafeteria items. Bridging the Gap (BTG) is a nationally recognized research initiative that provided state-level soda tax data. The main study outcome was the states' competitive beverage summary scores for elementary, middle and high school grade levels, as predicted by the states' disfavoured soda tax. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, adjusting for year and state. Data from BTG and CLASS were used. BTG and CLASS data from all fifty states and the District of Columbia from 2003 to 2010 were used. A higher disfavoured soda sales tax was generally associated with an increased likelihood of having strong school beverage laws across grade levels, and especially when disfavoured soda sales tax was >5 %. These data suggest a concordance between states' soda taxes and laws governing beverages sold in schools. States with high disfavoured sales tax on soda had stronger competitive beverage laws, indicating that the state sales tax environment may be associated with laws governing beverage policy in schools.

  17. Association between nutritional status, food habits and physical activity level in schoolchildren.

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Lorene Gonçalves; Cândido, Ana Paula Carlos; Coelho, George Luiz Lins Machado; Freitas, Silvia Nascimento de

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the relation between nutritional status, food habits and physical activity level in schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 661 schoolchildren, from 6 to 14 years old, enrolled in public and private schools located in the urban area of Ouro Preto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A semistructured questionnaire was applied to collect data on demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric and level of physical activity variables. Sch...

  18. Is a Nutrition Education Intervention Associated with a Higher Intake of Fruit and Vegetables and Improved Nutritional Knowledge among Housewives in Mauritius?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-11-29

    The purpose of the study was to assess the determinants of nutrition behaviors and body mass index and determine the impact of a nutrition education intervention (NEI) among Mauritian housewives. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutrition Knowledge (NK), Nutrition Attitudes, Fruit and Vegetable Intake (FVI), body mass index (BMI). Two hundred Mauritian housewives were recruited. The NEI was in the form of a lecture and lasted for twenty minutes. Statistical tests performed revealed that the mean NK score at baseline was 65.8 ± 6.92 and a significant increase of +17.1 at post-test and +16.1 at follow-up was observed. Determinants of NK were age, presence of elderly people, and BMI. Mean nutrition attitude score at baseline was 2.37 ± 0.22 with significant increase of +0.2 (post-test) and +0.17 at follow-up. Age, level of education, presence of elders, and NK were linked to a positive attitude. FVI was predicted by age, income, presence of elders, NK, and nutrition attitudes. Baseline FVI was 4.77 ± 1.11 which increased significantly ( p nutrition behaviors.

  19. Association of dialysis adequacy with nutritional and inflammatory status in patients with chronic kidney failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemayati, Roya; Lesanpezeshki, Mahboub; Seifi, Sepideh

    2015-11-01

    The number of patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure has increased in the past years worldwide. Several parameters have been introduced for the quantitative assessment of dialysis adequacy. The National Cooperative Dialysis Study results indicated that Kt/V and time-averaged concentration of urea (TAC) are predictors of mortality in patients who receive maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Also, the protein catabolic ratio (PCR), which is an indicator of nutritional status, can predict patients' mortality. Our aim was to assess the impact of parameters that show dialysis adequacy on indices of nutrition or inflammation. A total of 46 patients were included in the study; eight patients were excluded during the course of the study and 38 patients were enrolled in the final analysis. All patients were receiving HD for at least for three months. HD was administered three times per week and the study lasted for two months. Kt/V, TAC and PCR were assessed at the beginning of the study based on patients' urea and blood urea nitrogen in the first week of our study; these calculations were repeated at the end of the first and second months using the mean of the mentioned values in the month. Both adequacy indices significantly and positively correlated with changes in PCR (P nutritional status. No correlation was observed between dialysis adequacy and inflammatory status.

  20. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle.

  1. Weight loss, mortality and associated potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors among nursing home residents--a Danish follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, A M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this follow-up study is to assess the association between different potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors; weight loss after six and 12 months and mortality. DESIGN, SETTING: A one year follow-up project among Danish nursing home residents. PARTICIPANTS......: A total of 441 nursing home resident living in 11 nursing homes. MEASUREMENTS: Odds ratio was calculated and used to assess the strength of association between different potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors and nutritional status of the participants. The difference in mortality between those...... who died versus survivors was assessed by means of Fishers Exact Test. RESULTS: Almost half experienced a loss of weight during the follow-up period. The nutritional risk factors significantly or borderline significantly associated with weight loss were; eating dependency, leaves 25% or more of food...

  2. Recent Advances in Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Rüştü Kutlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most industrialized animal production branches of ruminant production successfully requires a blending of theoretical knowledge of nutritional principles with practical stockmanship, maintaining health and dealing with numbers. It is well known that high yielding, dairy cows, require balanced diet with adequate nutrients for yielding. This is not provided with only a few feedstuffs. Milk production in dairy cows is related to the improvements in genetic merit of farm animals and also developments in feed science, feed technology and animal nutrition. In particular, feeds and feed technology studies associated with sustainability, economical perspectives and product quality in the last decade have been in advance. In the present work, recent advances in feed sources and feed technology, minerals (macro and trace minerals , vitamins and amino acids, feed additives (antibiotics alternative growth stimulants, rumen modulator, organic acids, antioxidants, enzymes, plant extracts, nutrition-products (meat-milk-progeny quality and functional food production (milk, meat nutrition-reproduction, nutrition-animal health, nutrition-environmental temperature, nutrition-global warming were evaluated.

  3. Efficacy of nutritional recommendations given by registered dietitians compared to other healthcare providers in reducing arterial blood pressure: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Glaube Raquel; Ribeiro, Paula A B; Rodrigues, Marcela Perdomo; Zuchinali, Priccila; Moreira, Leila Beltrami

    2018-04-01

    The multidisciplinary health practitioners can facilitate adherence to treatment of hypertension. Nutritional recommendations delivered by an expert in nutrition might increase the blood pressure control through a better comprehension about how nutrition plays a role on hypertension. To evaluate the effect of nutritional intervention performed by a multidisciplinary team with and without registered dietitians compared to usual care in blood pressure control of hypertensive patients. Systematic review including randomized clinical trials that assessed participants >18 years, both sexes, with blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive, ≥8 weeks duration and at least one nutritional planned intervention versus usual care. The search was conducted in July 2015 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIREME, Web of Science and LILACS without limitation to language. Outcome was defined as deltas of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Sub-group analysis was conducted according to the presence or not of the registered dietitians in the staff. The analyses were performed in RevMan 5.3 software, using random effects model with heterogeneity assessed by statistical I 2 . From 7280 identified titles, 62 studies were selected for data extraction, and 13 were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 2050 participants. There was a greater reduction in ΔSBP -2.82 mmHg (95% CI: 4.03 to -1.62) and ΔDBP -1.37 mmHg (95% CI: -2.11 to -0.62) when diet recommendations have been delivered by multi-professional team versus usual care. In stratified analyses only the subgroup of studies with registered dietitians showed statistical significant reduction in blood pressure ΔSBP -3.21 mmHg (95% CI: -4.14 to -2.27); ΔDBP -1.46 mmHg (95% CI: -2.06 to -0.86). There were significant differences between the deltas of blood pressure according to sodium restriction (ΔSBP -3.5 mmHg (95% CI: -4.52 to -2.48), ΔDBP -1.69 mmHg (95% CI: -2.36 to -1, 02)) and

  4. Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-05-28

    The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or meals and snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here.

  5. Nutritional value of grass silage of mombasa associated with additives agroindustrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of grass silage-mombasa associated with different additives in four times of opening the silo. The experiment was conducted in UFGD. After harvesting the forage, biomass in natura crushed, was taken to the lab, homogenized and enriched on the basis of natural mass, with the following additives: 5% wheat bran, 5% of waste (broken grain and soy ice cream cone of soybean, 5% urea in natural matter and the witness (without additive.The silos were opened after (unprocessed material, 15, 30 and 45 days, for the analysis of chemical composition. The data obtained were analyzed through the statistical programme SISVAR and averages were compared to 5% of probability, by Skott-Knot. The grass silage- mombasa without additive presented major (P0.05 of grass silage- mombasa associated with 5 of urea in 15 days and 45 of silage. The grass silage-mombasa with 5% urea showed the highest crude protein content at time 0 and differed from other treatments. The silage of mombasa associated with 5% urea provided greater in vitro digestibility of dry matter to 15 days of silage.

  6. Nutritional Status and Habitual Dietary Intake Are Associated with Frail Skin Conditions in Community-Dwelling Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, S; Nagata, S; Sanada, H

    2017-01-01

    Prevention of frail skin is important in older people because frail skin is associated with a risk of injury in this population. In this study, we investigated the association of nutritional status and habitual dietary intake with skin conditions in community-dwelling older people. Cross-sectional study. Three community settings in Japan from autumn to winter. Older people aged ≥65 years without care-need certification (n=118). Malnutrition and obesity were evaluated to assess the nutritional status. Nutrient and food group intakes per 1000 kcal were evaluated using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns based on food groups were evaluated by principal component analysis. Skin condition parameters, including stratum corneum hydration, appearance of xerosis (specific symptom sum score [SRRC score]), and dermal intensity by high-frequency ultrasonography, were measured on a lower leg. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with adjustment for confounders. The mean (standard deviation) age was 74.1 (4.8) years, and 83.1% of participants were female. A higher intake of plant fat (p=0.018) was associated with a lower SRRC score. Higher intakes of α-tocopherol (p=0.050) and vitamin C (p=0.017) were associated with increased dermal intensity. A body mass index ≥25 (p=0.016) was associated with decreased dermal intensity. A dietary pattern characterized by higher vegetable and fruit intake was associated with a better skin condition. Plant fat, antioxidant vitamins, and a dietary pattern characterized by vegetables and fruits showed positive and obesity showed negative associations for frail skin in community-dwelling older people.

  7. Associations Between Selected Xenobiotics and Antinuclear Antibodies in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinse, Gregg E; Jusko, Todd A; Whitt, Irene Z; Co, Caroll A; Parks, Christine G; Satoh, Minoru; Chan, Edward K L; Rose, Kathryn M; Walker, Nigel J; Birnbaum, Linda S; Zeldin, Darryl C; Weinberg, Clarice R; Miller, Frederick W

    2016-04-01

    Potential associations between background environmental chemical exposures and autoimmunity are understudied. Our exploratory study investigated exposure to individual environmental chemicals and selected mixtures in relation to the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a widely used biomarker of autoimmunity, in a representative sample of the U.S. This cross-sectional analysis used data on 4,340 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004), of whom 14% were ANA positive, to explore associations between ANA and concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorines, organophosphates, phenols, metals, and other environmental exposures and metabolites measured in participants' serum, whole blood, or urine. For dioxin-like compounds with toxic equivalency factors, we developed and applied a new statistical approach to study selected mixtures. Lognormal models and censored-data methods produced estimates of chemical associations with ANA in males, nulliparous females, and parous females; these estimates were adjusted for confounders and accommodated concentrations below detectable levels. Several associations between chemical concentration and ANA positivity were observed, but only the association in males exposed to triclosan remained statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons (mean concentration ratio = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.8, 4.5; p xenobiotic exposures typical in the U.S. population are not strongly associated with ANA. Future studies should ideally reduce exposure misclassification by including prospective measurement of the chemicals of concern and should track changes in ANA and other autoantibodies over time. Dinse GE, Jusko TA, Whitt IZ, Co CA, Parks CG, Satoh M, Chan EKL, Rose KM, Walker NJ, Birnbaum LS, Zeldin DC, Weinberg CR, Miller FW. 2016. Associations between selected xenobiotics and antinuclear antibodies in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  8. Associations Between Selected Xenobiotics and Antinuclear Antibodies in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinse, Gregg E.; Jusko, Todd A.; Whitt, Irene Z.; Co, Caroll A.; Parks, Christine G.; Satoh, Minoru; Chan, Edward K.L.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Walker, Nigel J.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Miller, Frederick W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Potential associations between background environmental chemical exposures and autoimmunity are understudied. Objectives: Our exploratory study investigated exposure to individual environmental chemicals and selected mixtures in relation to the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a widely used biomarker of autoimmunity, in a representative sample of the U.S. population. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis used data on 4,340 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004), of whom 14% were ANA positive, to explore associations between ANA and concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorines, organophosphates, phenols, metals, and other environmental exposures and metabolites measured in participants’ serum, whole blood, or urine. For dioxin-like compounds with toxic equivalency factors, we developed and applied a new statistical approach to study selected mixtures. Lognormal models and censored-data methods produced estimates of chemical associations with ANA in males, nulliparous females, and parous females; these estimates were adjusted for confounders and accommodated concentrations below detectable levels. Results: Several associations between chemical concentration and ANA positivity were observed, but only the association in males exposed to triclosan remained statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons (mean concentration ratio = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.8, 4.5; p xenobiotic exposures typical in the U.S. population are not strongly associated with ANA. Future studies should ideally reduce exposure misclassification by including prospective measurement of the chemicals of concern and should track changes in ANA and other autoantibodies over time. Citation: Dinse GE, Jusko TA, Whitt IZ, Co CA, Parks CG, Satoh M, Chan EKL, Rose KM, Walker NJ, Birnbaum LS, Zeldin DC, Weinberg CR, Miller FW. 2016. Associations between selected xenobiotics and antinuclear

  9. Nutrition-sensitive interventions and programmes: how can they help to accelerate progress in improving maternal and child nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Marie T; Alderman, Harold

    2013-08-10

    Acceleration of progress in nutrition will require effective, large-scale nutrition-sensitive programmes that address key underlying determinants of nutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions. We reviewed evidence of nutritional effects of programmes in four sectors--agriculture, social safety nets, early child development, and schooling. The need for investments to boost agricultural production, keep prices low, and increase incomes is undisputable; targeted agricultural programmes can complement these investments by supporting livelihoods, enhancing access to diverse diets in poor populations, and fostering women's empowerment. However, evidence of the nutritional effect of agricultural programmes is inconclusive--except for vitamin A from biofortification of orange sweet potatoes--largely because of poor quality evaluations. Social safety nets currently provide cash or food transfers to a billion poor people and victims of shocks (eg, natural disasters). Individual studies show some effects on younger children exposed for longer durations, but weaknesses in nutrition goals and actions, and poor service quality probably explain the scarcity of overall nutritional benefits. Combined early child development and nutrition interventions show promising additive or synergistic effects on child development--and in some cases nutrition--and could lead to substantial gains in cost, efficiency, and effectiveness, but these programmes have yet to be tested at scale. Parental schooling is strongly associated with child nutrition, and the effectiveness of emerging school nutrition education programmes needs to be tested. Many of the programmes reviewed were not originally designed to improve nutrition yet have great potential to do so. Ways to enhance programme nutrition-sensitivity include: improve targeting; use conditions to stimulate participation; strengthen nutrition goals and actions; and optimise women's nutrition, time

  10. Independent and joint associations of nutritional status indicators with mortality risk among chronic hemodialysis patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Antonio Alberto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Elder, Stacey J; Ginsberg, Nancy; Goodkin, David A; Pifer, Trinh; Lameire, Norbert; Marshall, Mark R; Asano, Yasushi; Akizawa, Tadao; Pisoni, Ronald L; Young, Eric W; Port, Friedrich K

    2010-07-01

    To consider the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommendation of using multiple nutritional measurements for patients on maintenance dialysis, we explored data for independent and joint associations of nutritional indicators with mortality risk among maintenance hemodialysis patients treated in 12 countries. Dialysis units in seven European countries, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Mortality risk. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 40,950 patients from phases I to III of the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (1996-2008). Independent and joint effects (interactions) of nutritional indicators (serum creatinine, serum albumin, normalized protein catabolic rate, body mass index [BMI]) on mortality risk were assessed by Cox regression with adjustments for demographics, years on dialysis, and comorbidities. Important variations in nutritional indicators were seen by country and patient characteristics. Poorer nutritional status assessed by each indicator was independently associated with higher mortality risk across regions. Significant multiplicative interactions (each p 10.5 mg/dL (relative risk = 0.68) but with higher mortality risk among those with creatinine nutritional indicators on mortality indicate the need to use multiple measurements when assessing the nutritional status of hemodialysis patients. Copyright 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of dialysis adequacy with nutritional and inflammatory status in patients with chronic kidney failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Hemayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure has increased in the past years worldwide. Several parameters have been introduced for the quantitative assessment of dialysis adequacy. The National Cooperative Dialysis Study results indicated that Kt/V and time-averaged concentration of urea (TAC are predictors of mortality in patients who receive maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Also, the protein catabolic ratio (PCR, which is an indicator of nutritional status, can predict patients′ mortality. Our aim was to assess the impact of parameters that show dialysis adequacy on indices of nutrition or inflammation. A total of 46 patients were included in the study; eight patients were excluded during the course of the study and 38 patients were enrolled in the final analysis. All patients were receiving HD for at least for three months. HD was administered three times per week and the study lasted for two months. Kt/V, TAC and PCR were assessed at the beginning of the study based on patients′ urea and blood urea nitrogen in the first week of our study; these calculations were repeated at the end of the first and second months using the mean of the mentioned values in the month. Both adequacy indices significantly and positively correlated with changes in PCR (P <0.001. However, no significant correlation was detectable between Kt/V and TAC with either body mass index and albumin or C-reactive protein. Based on the Kt/V values, patients with adequate dialysis had slower decrease in the PCR (P <0.001. Our results indicate that adequacy of dialysis is correlated with patients′ nutritional status. No correlation was observed between dialysis adequacy and inflammatory status.

  13. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  14. Supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a study protocol for a phase II randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ridley, Emma J.; Davies, Andrew R.; Parke, Rachael; Bailey, Michael; McArthur, Colin; Gillanders, Lyn; Cooper, David J.; McGuinness, Shay

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutrition is one of the fundamentals of care provided to critically ill adults. The volume of enteral nutrition received, however, is often much less than prescribed due to multiple functional and process issues. To deliver the prescribed volume and correct the energy deficit associated with enteral nutrition alone, parenteral nutrition can be used in combination (termed ?supplemental parenteral nutrition?), but benefits of this method have not been firmly established. A multi-cent...

  15. Nutritional components regulate the gut immune system and its association with intestinal immune disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Aayam; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Kunisawa, Jun

    2013-12-01

    The gut is equipped with a unique immune system for maintaining immunological homeostasis, and its functional immune disruption can result in the development of immune diseases such as food allergy and intestinal inflammation. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that nutritional components play an important role in the regulation of gut immune responses and also in the development of intestinal immune diseases. In this review, we focus on the immunological functions of lipids, vitamins, and nucleotides in the regulation of the intestinal immune system and as potential targets for the control of intestinal immune diseases. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Association between the level of quality of life and nutritional status in patients undergoing chronic renal hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Ana Carolina Bonelá; Machado, Manuela do Carmo; Pereira, Luciene Rabelo; Abreu, Juliana Lemos Pratti; Lyra, Marisa Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    The chronic kidney disease and undergoing hemodialysis (HD) cause limitation in patients' life interfering in their life's quality and the nutritional care is fundamental to the disease treatment. The objective is the goal is to analyze the association between quality of life through the instrument (SF-36) with dietary intake, nutritional status in patients with chronic kidney disease in HD through quantitative research and transversal. Realized valuation anthropometric, collection of the results of biochemical tests, application of the questionnaire SF-36 and dietary anamnesis (food recall of 24h). The sample consisted of thirty adult patients with age between 28 to 76 years. The disease related with chronic kidney disease was found more hypertension systemic arterial (53.3%) The average body mass index was 25.04 ± 4.50 kg/m². By fold cutaneous arm, 73.3% were in malnutrition. The end nutritional diagnosis of malnutrition was 80% among the patients studied. The time of diagnosis of renal disease had a mean of 4.84 ± 3.51 years. By the middle of biochemical tests only phosphorus creatinine were adequate. In the mean the scores of SF-36 the lowest value found was limited to physical aspects (16.67 ± 29.60) and the largest for the social aspect (68.17 ± 33.67). The average energy consumption and protein was below the recommended. Got positive correlation of calories, protein, fiber, calcium and carbohydrate, with quality of life. It was concluded that feeding is associated with quality of life of renal patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  17. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine...... strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data...... handling, this thesis also deals with biological interpretation of postprandial metabolism and trans fatty acid (TFA) intake. Two nutritional issues were objects of investigation: 1) metabolic states as a function of time since the last meal and 2) markers related to intakes of cis- and trans-fat. Plasma...

  18. Consumer-providers in assertive community treatment programs: Associations with client outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. van Vugt (Maaike); H. Kroon (Hans); P.A.E.G. Delespaul (Philippe); C.L. Mulder (Niels)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: This study examined whether employing mental health consumers as consumer-providers in assertive community treatment teams can enhance outcomes for clients with severe mental illness. Methods: In a prospective longitudinal study, presence of consumer-providers and outcomes of

  19. Associations between severe obesity and depression: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Arlene M

    2011-05-01

    My objectives were to investigate the association between obesity and depression in a representative sample of American adults, investigate sex and severity of obesity as modifiers of the association between depression and body mass index, determine whether large waist circumference is associated with depression, and explore whether specific health behaviors and poor physical health are possible mediators of the association between obesity and depression, if found. The sample consisted of 3,599 nonpregnant adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. I operationalized obesity as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference from the anthropometric measurements of participants and current depression from Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores. I ran logistic regression models with depression as the dependent variable. In unadjusted analyses, large waist circumference (≥ 88 cm for women and ≥ 102 cm for men) and class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)) were associated with higher prevalence of depression in women only. All of these associations dramatically weakened after adjusting for demographic factors, self-rated health status, and number of chronic conditions. These findings support an association between depression and obesity in women who are severely obese. Future studies should investigate poor physical health as a possible mediator of the association between obesity and depression in this population of women.

  20. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Skin Lesions Associated with Nutritional Management of Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaraspong Uaariyapanichkul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD is an inborn error of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs metabolism. We report an infant with MSUD who developed 2 episodes of cutaneous lesions as a result of isoleucine deficiency and zinc deficiency, respectively. Case Presentation. A 12-day-old male infant was presented with poor milk intake and lethargy. The diagnosis of MSUD was made based on clinical and biochemical data. Management and Outcome. Specific dietary restriction of BCAAs was given. Subsequently, natural protein was stopped as the patient developed hospital-acquired infections which resulted in an elevation of BCAAs. Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica developed and was confirmed to be from isoleucine deficiency. At the age of 6 months, the patient developed severe lethargy and was on natural protein exclusion for an extended period. Despite enteral supplementation of zinc sulfate, cutaneous manifestations due to zinc deficiency occurred. Discussion. Skin lesions in MSUD patients could arise from multiple causes. Nutritional deficiency including isoleucine and zinc deficiencies can occur and could complicate the treatment course as a result of malabsorption, even while on enteral supplementation. Parenteral nutrition should be considered and initiated accordingly. Clinical status, as well as BCAA levels, should be closely monitored in MSUD patients.

  2. Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Kiuchi; Yasushi Ohashi; Reibin Tai; Toshiyuki Aoki; Sonoo Mizuiri; Toyoko Ogura; Atsushi Aikawa; Ken Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) < 92; these patients were ...

  3. Association of meal frequency with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Lee, Ji Sung; Ahn, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin-Sun; Noh, Min Young; Lee, Ji Jeung; Lee, Eun Young; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Young Ran; Yoon, So Yoon; Kim, Chong Hwa; Cho, Dong-Hyeok; Choi, Young Sik; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2017-01-01

    Although previous studies have established a close relationship between caloric intake and metabolic syndrome, there is limited research exploring the impact of meal frequency adjusted by caloric intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS). To evaluate the association of meal frequency and MetS after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake in Korean men and women. We analyzed the national representative data of a total 12,389 adults (5171 men, 7218 women) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Subjects were categorized as eating 3 meals/day (MF3) or 2 or fewer meals/day (MF ≤ 2). Daily caloric intake was calculated using CAN-Pro 4.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul, Korea). The prevalence of components of MetS differed significantly according to meal frequency in both men and women. In an unadjusted analysis, the prevalence of MetS in women was significantly higher in the MF3 group than the MF ≤ 2 group (27.5% vs. 17.8%, P  meal frequency did not affect the risk of metabolic syndrome in women after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake (OR = 1.09, 95%, CI = 0.90-1.31). This study suggests that lower meal frequency adjusted for caloric intake, physical activity, age, smoking, alcohol, income, and education may be associated with increased risk of MetS in Korean men.

  4. Growth and nutritional status, and their association with lung function: a study from the international Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutaki, Myrofora; Halbeisen, Florian S; Spycher, Ben D; Maurer, Elisabeth; Belle, Fabiën; Amirav, Israel; Behan, Laura; Boon, Mieke; Carr, Siobhan; Casaulta, Carmen; Clement, Annick; Crowley, Suzanne; Dell, Sharon; Ferkol, Thomas; Haarman, Eric G; Karadag, Bulent; Knowles, Michael; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Leigh, Margaret W; Loebinger, Michael R; Mazurek, Henryk; Morgan, Lucy; Nielsen, Kim G; Phillipsen, Maria; Sagel, Scott D; Santamaria, Francesca; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Lucas, Jane S; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2017-12-01

    Chronic respiratory disease can affect growth and nutrition, which can influence lung function. We investigated height, body mass index (BMI), and lung function in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD).In this study, based on the international PCD (iPCD) Cohort, we calculated z-scores for height and BMI using World Health Organization (WHO) and national growth references, and assessed associations with age, sex, country, diagnostic certainty, age at diagnosis, organ laterality and lung function in multilevel regression models that accounted for repeated measurements.We analysed 6402 measurements from 1609 iPCD Cohort patients. Height was reduced compared to WHO (z-score -0.12, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.06) and national references (z-score -0.27, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.21) in male and female patients in all age groups, with variation between countries. Height and BMI were higher in patients diagnosed earlier in life (p=0.026 and pnutrition are affected adversely in PCD patients from early life and are both strongly associated with lung function. If supported by longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that early diagnosis with multidisciplinary management and nutritional advice could improve growth and delay disease progression and lung function impairment in PCD. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  5. Fluid overload in hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study to determine its association with cardiac biomarkers and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antlanger, Marlies; Hecking, Manfred; Haidinger, Michael; Werzowa, Johannes; Kovarik, Johannes J; Paul, Gernot; Eigner, Manfred; Bonderman, Diana; Hörl, Walter H; Säemann, Marcus D

    2013-12-02

    Chronic fluid overload is associated with higher mortality in dialysis patients; however, the link with cardiovascular morbidity has not formally been established and may be influenced by subclinical inflammation. We hypothesized that a relationship exists between fluid overload and [i] cardiovascular laboratory parameter as well as between fluid overload and [ii] inflammatory laboratory parameters. In addition, we aimed to confirm whether volume status correlates with nutritional status. We recorded baseline characteristics of 244 hemodialysis patients at three hemodialysis facilities in Vienna (Austria) and determined associations with volume measurements using the body composition monitor (Fresenius/Germany). In one facility comprising 126 patients, we further analyzed cardiovascular, inflammatory and nutritional parameters. We detected predialysis fluid overload (FO) in 39% of all patients (n = 95) with FO defined as ≥15% of extracellular water (ECW). In this subgroup, the absolute FO was 4.4 +/-1.5 L or 22.9 ± 4.8% of ECW. A sub-analysis of patients from one center showed that FO was negatively associated with body mass index (r = -0.371; p = <0.001), while serum albumin was significantly lower in fluid overloaded patients (p = 0.001). FO was positively associated with D-Dimer (r = 0.316; p = 0.001), troponin T (r = 0.325; p < 0.001), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (r = 0.436; p < 0.001), but not with investigated inflammatory parameters. Fluid overload in HD patients was found to be lower in patients with high body mass index, indicating that dry weight was inadequately prescribed and/or difficult to achieve in overweight patients. The association with parameters of cardiovascular compromise and/or damage suggests that fluid overload is a biomarker for cardiovascular risk. Future studies should determine if this applies to patients prior to end-stage renal disease.

  6. Facilitating Fresh: State Laws Supporting School Gardens Are Associated With Use of Garden-Grown Produce in School Nutrition Services Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Leider, Julien; Piekarz, Elizabeth; Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Merlo, Caitlin; Brener, Nancy; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether state laws are associated with the presence of school gardens and the use of garden-grown produce in school nutrition services programs. Nationally representative data from the School Health Policies and Practices Study 2014 were combined with objectively coded state law data regarding school gardens. Outcomes were: (1) the presence of a school garden at each school (n = 419 schools), and (2) the use of garden-grown items in the school nutrition services program. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine each outcome. Contextual covariates included school level, size, locale, US Census region, student race/ethnic composition, and percentage of students eligible for free and reduced-priced meals. State law was not significantly associated with whether schools had a garden, but it was associated with whether schools used garden-grown items in nutrition services programs (odds ratio, 4.21; P garden-grown items in nutrition services programs was 15.4% among schools in states with a supportive law, vs 4.4% among schools in states with no law. State laws that support school gardens may facilitate the use of garden-grown items in school nutrition service programs. Additional research is needed regarding the types of messaging that might be most effective for motivating school administrators to appreciate the value of school gardens. In addition, another area for further research pertains to scaling garden programs for broader reach. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutrition impact symptoms and associated outcomes in post-chemoradiotherapy head and neck cancer survivors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Sylvia L; Douglas, Katherine G; Yanina Pepino, M; Sarma, Kalika P; Arthur, Anna E

    2018-03-20

    It is estimated that more than 90% of head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors who underwent chemoradiotherapy experience one or more nutrition impact symptoms (NIS) in the months or years thereafter. Despite the high prevalence, there is limited research addressing long-term impact of NIS on outcomes such as nutrition and quality of life in HNC survivors treated with chemoradiotherapy. The prevalence and consequences of nutrition impact symptoms are substantial among head and neck cancer survivors beyond the acute phase of cancer treatment. Oncology clinicians should continuously monitor and manage these symptoms throughout the cancer continuum. To conduct a systematic review of the literature pertaining to the presence of nutrition impact symptoms and their associated outcomes in post-chemoradiotherapy head and neck cancer survivors. A systematic review was conducted across three databases according to PRISMA guidelines and used to identify current literature regarding NIS in HNC survivors. A keyword search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science from 2007 to 2017. Studies that met all of the following criteria were included in the review: (1) studies must include human subjects with a HNC diagnosis; (2) study participants must have received chemoradiotherapy; (3) study participants must have been post-treatment for a minimum of 3 months at the time of data collection; (4) full-text articles must have appeared in peer-reviewed journals; (5) papers must have been published in English; (6) studies must be quantitative in nature; (7) studies must have reported at least one NIS; and (8) studies must address at least one of the following outcomes: nutrition, functional status, or quality of life. Two independent reviewers assessed study quality using a predefined set of criteria. A systematic search yielded 1119 papers, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. The study reviewed existing evidence of NIS in a variety of HNC survivors ranging from 3 months to

  8. Nutrition Status Parameters and Hydration Status by Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis Were Associated With Lung Function Impairment in Children and Adolescents With Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Daniela Barbieri; Barbosa, Eliana; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Ludwig Neto, Norberto; Platt, Vanessa Borges; Piacentini Filho, Eduardo; Wazlawik, Elisabeth; Moreno, Yara Maria Franco

    2016-06-01

    (1) To compare nutrition and hydration status between a group of children/adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CFG; n = 46; median age, 8.5 years) and a control group without cystic fibrosis (CG). (2) To examine the association of nutrition and hydration status with lung function in the CFG. A cross-sectional study. Nutrition screening, anthropometric parameters, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were assessed. The z scores for body mass index for age, height for age, mid upper arm circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, mid upper arm muscle area, resistance/height, and reactance/height were calculated. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis was conducted. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second <80% was considered lung function impairment. An adjusted logistic regression was applied (P < .05). In the CFG, lung function impairment was observed in 51.1%. All anthropometric parameters were lower, and the mean z-resistance/height and z-reactance/height were higher in the CFG (P < .05) compared with the CG. In the CFG, 43% were severely/mildly dehydrated, while none were in the CG (P = .007). In the CFG, there was an association between high nutrition risk-via nutrition screening (odds ratio [OR], 22.28; P < .05), lower values of anthropometric parameters, higher z-resistance/height (OR, 2.23; P < .05) and z-reactance/height (OR, 1.81; P < .05), and dehydration (OR, 4.94; P < .05)-and lung function impairment. The CFG exhibited a compromised nutrition status assessed by anthropometric and BIA parameters. Nutrition screening, anthropometric and BIA parameters, and hydration status were associated with lung function. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. Reading nutrition labels is associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: the 2007-2008 Korean NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H-T; Shim, J-Y; Lee, Y-J; Linton, J A; Park, B-J; Lee, H-R

    2013-09-01

    Several studies demonstrated that reading nutrition labels was associated with healthier food choices, despite some controversy. This study investigated the association between the use of nutrition labels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 7756 individuals who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A self-reported questionnaire was used to determine participant's awareness of nutrition labels. Modified Asian criteria based on a harmonizing definition of MetS were adopted. Individuals in the group that read nutrition labels (the Reading Group) were youngest and leanest, but their daily caloric intake fell between that of the group that did not read nutrition labels (the Non-Reading Group) and the group that did not know about them (the Not-Knowing Group). The prevalence of MetS was 16.8% in the Reading Group, 27.2% in the Non-Reading Group, and 47.3% in the Not-Knowing Group. In comparison to participants in the Reading Group, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for MetS in the participants in the Non-Reading Group and Not-Knowing Group were 1.85 (1.60-2.14) and 4.44 (3.79-5.20), respectively, when not adjusted. The relationship between the use of nutrition labels and MetS remained statistically significant even after adjusting for covariates such as age, sex and socioeconomic status including household income and education level [1.27 (1.05-1.53) in the Non-Reading Group and 1.34 (1.05-1.70) in the Not-Knowing Group]. Reading nutrition labels appeared to be associated with a lower prevalence of MetS in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Intrahepatic cholestasis associated with parenteral nutrition: an experimental study in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Martínez, J; Morán Penco, J M; Mahedero Ruiz, G; García Gamito, F; Limón Mora, M; Maciá Botejara, E; Vinagre Velasco, L M

    1989-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis is a condition often observed in patients receiving parenteral nutrition, especially in new born babies who are underweight (taurina. This makes it impossible to achieve a correct conjugation of toxic biliary acids. The access of nutrients to the liver may have an effect on this. An experimental study on rats was performed, administering an oral diet at the expense of lipids (20% Intralipid, 60% of caloric needs) and glucose (40% of caloric needs) in one group, another group received amino acid supplements to this diet (16N) at a proteic rate of 2 gr/kg of weight and day orally, with an identical diet to the above, except that the proteic intake was intraperitoneal. Two control groups were established. We found a microvacuolization in hepatic fat with the help of an electronic microscope in the groups lacking proteins and those with oral or intraperitoneal supplements of amino acids, as well as an increase in plasmatic AST.

  11. A Low Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index Is Associated with Progression to Dialysis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ching Kuo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating nutritional status is crucial to detecting malnutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI has been associated with overall and cardiovascular mortality in the dialysis population. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the GNRI is associated with progression to dialysis in patients with moderate to advanced CKD. We enrolled 496 patients with stage 3–5 CKD who had received echocardiographic examinations, and categorized them according to baseline GNRI values calculated using the serum albumin level and body weight. The renal end-point was defined as the commencement of dialysis. During follow-up (mean, 25.2 ± 12.5 months; range, 3.3–50.1 months, 106 (21.4% of the patients progressed to dialysis. The GNRI was positively correlated with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (r = 0.111, p = 0.014, and negatively correlated with the left ventricular mass index (r = −0.116, p = 0.001, left ventricular hypertrophy (r = −0.095, p = 0.035, and LVEF < 50% (r = −0.138, p = 0.002. In multivariable Cox analysis, a low GNRI, female sex, high systolic blood pressure, high fasting glucose, and low estimated glomerular filtration rate were independently associated with progression to dialysis. A low GNRI was independently associated with progression to dialysis in our study cohort. The GNRI may be useful in predicting the risk of adverse renal outcomes in patients with CKD stages 3–5. Additional studies are needed to explore whether an improvement in GNRI delays CKD progression.

  12. Gene-associated markers provide tools for tackling illegal fishing and false eco-certification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Cariani, Alessia; Aoidh, Eoin Mac

    2012-01-01

    Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing has had a major role in the overexploitation of global fish populations. In response, international regulations have been imposed and many fisheries have been 'eco-certified' by consumer organizations, but methods for independent control of catch...... available database. Our results demonstrate how application of gene-associated markers will likely revolutionize origin assignment and become highly valuable tools for fighting illegal fishing and mislabelling worldwide....

  13. Scombroid fishes provide novel insights into the trait/rate associations of molecular evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fan; Kitchen, Andrew; Burleigh, J Gordon; Miyamoto, Michael M

    2014-06-01

    The study of which life history traits primarily affect molecular evolutionary rates is often confounded by the covariance of these traits. Scombroid fishes (billfishes, tunas, barracudas, and their relatives) are unusual in that their mass-specific metabolic rate is positively associated with body size. This study exploits this atypical pattern of trait variation, which allows for direct tests of whether mass-specific metabolic rate or body size is the more important factor of molecular evolutionary rates. We inferred a phylogeny for scombroids from a supermatrix of molecular and morphological characters and used new phylogenetic comparative approaches to assess the associations of body size and mass-specific metabolic rate with substitution rate. As predicted by the body size hypothesis, there is a negative correlation between body size and substitution rate. However, unexpectedly, we also find a negative association between mass-specific metabolic and substitution rates. These relationships are supported by analyses of the total molecular data, separate mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and individual loci, and they are robust to phylogenetic uncertainty. The molecular evolutionary rates of scombroids are primarily tied to body size. This study demonstrates that groups with novel patterns of trait variation can be particularly informative for identifying which life history traits are the primary factors of molecular evolutionary rates.

  14. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin

    2015-09-23

    No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years). Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI) status/central obesity. The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables) was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat) was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China.

  15. The association of health literacy with physical activity and nutritional behavior in older adults, and its social cognitive mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboers, Bas; de Winter, Andrea F; Luten, Karla A; Jansen, Carel J M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate health literacy is a common problem among older adults and is associated with poor health outcomes. Insight into the association between health literacy and health behaviors may support interventions to mitigate the effects of inadequate health literacy. The authors assessed the association of health literacy with physical activity and nutritional behavior in community-dwelling older adults. The authors also assessed whether the associations between health literacy and health behaviors are mediated by social cognitive factors. Data from a study among community-dwelling older adults (55 years and older) in a relatively deprived area in The Netherlands were used (baseline n=643, response: 43%). The authors obtained data on health literacy, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and potential social cognitive mediators (attitude, self-efficacy, and risk perception). After adjustment for confounders, inadequate health literacy was marginally significantly associated with poor compliance with guidelines for physical activity (OR=1.52, p=.053) but not with poor compliance with guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.20, p=.46). Self-efficacy explained 32% of the association between health literacy and compliance with physical activity guidelines. Further research may focus on self-efficacy as a target for interventions to mitigate the negative effects of inadequate health literacy.

  16. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years. Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI status/central obesity. Results: The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Conclusions: Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China.

  17. Changes in out-of-pocket charges associated with obstetric care provided under Medicare in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily; Fox, Haylee

    2018-01-12

    Recent health reforms alongside unregulated provider fees have led to increased attention being given to out-of-pocket healthcare costs. This study utilised annual statistics published by the Department of Health for services provided under the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) from 1992/3 to 2016/17 to identify changes in out-of-pocket charges for obstetric items over time, and estimate the change in demand for obstetric items in response to price increases. Since 1992/3 out-of-pocket charges increased by 1035% for out-of-hospital items and 77% for in-hospital items. Demand for obstetric items has reduced with increasing charges. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Circulating apelin level in relation to nutritional status in polycystic ovary syndrome and its association with metabolic and hormonal disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Madej, Paweł; Nylec, Marcin; Owczarek, Aleksander; Szanecki, Wojciech; Skałba, Piotr; Chudek, Jerzy

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse relationships between plasma apelin-36 and apelin-12 levels, nutritional status, insulin resistance and hormonal disturbances, as well as plasma adiponectin, leptin and resistin concentrations in PCOS women. A cross-sectional study involving 87 PCOS (48 obese) and 67 non-PCOS women (36 obese). Anthropometric parameters and body composition were determined. Serum glucose, androgens, FSH, LH, SHBG, insulin, apelin-36, apelin-12, adiponectin, leptin and resistin were measured in the fasting state. Plasma apelin-36 and apelin-12 levels were significantly higher in normal weight women than in the obese women with PCOS (3·1 ± 2·2 vs 1·2 ± 0·7 μg/l, P Nutritional status seems to have different effects on apelin release, particularly, its active isoform, in women with PCOS compared with women without PCOS. This may be partially caused by changes in leptin and resistin secretion and may enhance pituitary-ovarian axis disturbances. The association between both isoforms of apelin and insulin resistance seems to be bidirectional. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Association between nutritional status and physical abilities in children aged 6 to 18 years in Medellin (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cruz, A; Figueroa Suárez, J; Osorio Ciro, J; Rodríguez Chavarro, N; Gallo Villegas, J

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional disorders in childhood may cause a decline in motor abilities and increased morbidity and mortality in adulthood. To assess the association between nutritional status and motor abilities. A cross-sectional study was performed that included 12,872 children aged between 6 and 18 years who underwent a clinical evaluation and various physical tests. Among the children, 66% had a Tanner maturation stage 1 and 2, 6% were under-nourished, and 12.2% were at risk of overweight and obesity. The obese children had a decrease in aerobic power (in 2.72 mL O2 kg(-1)·min(-1); 95%CI: 1.89 to 3.56; Pchildren showed a decrease in speed (0.13 m·sec; 95%CI: 0.06 to 0.20; Pnutritional status and motor abilities in the children included in this study. Obese children showed the worst results in physical tests, and the under-nourished ones showed a decrease in speed, explosive strength and strength endurance. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Anatomical and nutritional factors associated with susceptibility of elms (Ulmus spp.) to the elm leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosu, Paul P; Wagner, Michael R

    2008-06-01

    A wide range of susceptibility exists across elm (Ulmus) species and hybrids to the elm leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta luteola (Müller) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We evaluated various elm species, hybrids, or cultivars (taxa) growing in an experimental plantation in the city of Holbrook, AZ, for leaf anatomical (toughness and trichome density) and nutritional (minerals and sugars) traits that may be associated with host resistance. Leaf toughness and percentage of defoliation (susceptibility) were not correlated. However, we found weak negative correlations between percentage of defoliation and density of trichomes on the leaf abaxial surface. Of the 11 leaf nutrients examined, concentrations of iron and phosphorus correlated inversely with percentage of defoliation. The remaining nine traits did not show any correlation with percentage of defoliation. We concluded that individual anatomical and nutritional traits of elm species/hybrids do not seem to create a strong barrier to elm leaf beetle defoliation. However, the results from a stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that collectively, these traits may play an important role in determining susceptibility.

  1. Metabolic risk in schoolchildren is associated with low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, obesity, and parents’ nutritional profile>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Ferreira Todendi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Verify the association between metabolic risk profile in students with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index, as well as the nutritional status of their parents. Methods A cross-sectional study comprising 1.254 schoolchildren aged between seven and 17 years. The metabolic risk profile was calculated by summing the standardized values of high density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose and systolic blood pressure. The parents’ nutritional status was evaluated by self-reported weight and height data, for body mass index calculating. The body mass index of schoolchildren was classified as underweight/normal weight and overweight/obesity. The cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by 9-minute running/walk test, being categorized as fit (good levels and unfit (low levels. Data were analyzed using prevalence ratio values (PR. Results The data indicates a higher occurrence of developing metabolic risk in schoolchildren whose mother is obese (PR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.23, and even higher for those whose father and mother are obese (PR: 2, 79, 95% CI: 1.41; 5.51. Students who have low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and overweight/obesity have higher occurrence of presenting metabolic risk profile (PR: 5.25; 95% CI: 3.31; 8.16. Conclusion the occurrence of developing metabolic risk in schoolchildren increase when they have low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and overweight/obesity, and the presence of parental obesity.

  2. The association of early life supplemental nutrition with lean body mass and grip strength in adulthood: evidence from APCAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Bharati; Kuper, Hannah; Radhakrishna, K V; Hills, Andrew P; Byrne, Nuala M; Taylor, Amy; Sullivan, Ruth; Bowen, Liza; Wells, Jonathan C; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Davey Smith, George; Ebrahim, Shah; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-03-15

    In the present study, we examined the associations of early nutrition with adult lean body mass (LBM) and muscle strength in a birth cohort that was established to assess the long-term impact of a nutrition program. Participants (n = 1,446, 32% female) were born near Hyderabad, India, in 29 villages from 1987 to 1990, during which time only intervention villages (n = 15) had a government program that offered balanced protein-calorie supplementation to pregnant women and children. Participants' LBM and appendicular skeletal muscle mass were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; grip strength and information on lifestyle indicators, including diet and physical activity level, were also obtained. Ages (mean = 20.3 years) and body mass indexes (weight (kg)/height (m)(2); mean = 19.5) of participants in 2 groups were similar. Current dietary energy intake was higher in the intervention group. Unadjusted LBM and grip strength were similar in 2 groups. After adjustment for potential confounders, the intervention group had lower LBM (β = -0.75; P = 0.03), appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and grip strength than did controls, but these differences were small in magnitude (supplementation on adult LBM and muscle strength.

  3. Decreased glutathione and elevated hair mercury levels are associated with nutritional deficiency-based autism in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Omar; Ali, Amanat; Ouhtit, Allal; Zang, Tianzhu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Deth, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    Genetic, nutrition, and environmental factors have each been implicated as sources of risk for autism. Oxidative stress, including low plasma levels of the antioxidant glutathione, has been reported by numerous autism studies, which can disrupt methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression with neurodevelopmental consequences. We investigated the status of redox and methylation metabolites, as well as the level of protein homocysteinylation and hair mercury levels, in autistic and neurotypical control Omani children, who were previously shown to exhibit significant nutritional deficiencies in serum folate and vitamin B₁₂. The serum level of glutathione in autistic subjects was significantly below control levels, while levels of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated, indicative of oxidative stress and decreased methionine synthase activity. Autistic males had lower glutathione and higher homocysteine levels than females, while homocysteinylation of serum proteins was increased in autistic males but not females. Mercury levels were markedly elevated in the hair of autistic subjects vs. control subjects, consistent with the importance of glutathione for its elimination. Thus, autism in Oman is associated with decreased antioxidant resources and decreased methylation capacity, in conjunction with elevated hair levels of mercury.

  4. Elevated Alkaline Phosphatase in Infants With Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease Reflects Bone Rather Than Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandivada, Prathima; Potemkin, Alexis K; Carlson, Sarah J; Chang, Melissa I; Cowan, Eileen; O'Loughlin, Alison A; Gura, Kathleen M; Puder, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in infants with intestinal failure (IF) can be due to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) or metabolic bone disease (MBD). The purpose of the study was to determine the utility of serum ALP in the diagnostic criteria for PNALD by measuring tissue-specific levels in infants with IF and PNALD. A retrospective review of patient data for 15 infants diagnosed with PNALD between December 2012 and August 2013 was performed. PNALD was defined as the presence of 2 consecutive direct bilirubin (DB) levels >2 mg/dL. Fractionated serum alkaline phosphatase was measured in each patient, while the DB was >2 mg/dL. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D3, calcium, and phosphate levels were recorded where available. In 15 infants with PNALD, elevation in total ALP was due to marked elevations in bone-specific ALP. The median liver-specific ALP remained within the normal range. PTH, vitamin D3, calcium, and phosphate levels were within normal limits. While elevated ALP can reflect biliary stasis, the ALP elevation observed in infants with IF and PNALD is predominantly of bone rather than hepatic origin. An elevated unfractionated ALP in infants with PNALD should therefore raise suspicion of underlying bone disease, rather than being attributed to liver disease alone. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  5. Association between the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Screening Tool and obesity severity in youth referred to weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jared M; Howard, Kathleen; Guseman, Emily H; Yee, Kimbo E; Saturley, Heather; Eisenmann, Joey C

    The Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Screening Tool (FNPA) evaluates family behavioural and environmental factors associated with pediatric obesity, but it is unknown if FNPA scores differ among youth across obesity severities. Our aim was to determine the association between the FNPA and obesity severity in youth referred to weight management. Upon initiating treatment, height, weight, and the FNPA were collected according to standard procedures. Cut-points for overweight/obesity, severe obesity (SO) class 2, and SO class 3 were calculated. FNPA scores were compared across weight status groups using analysis of covariance, and odds of SO across FNPA quartiles were evaluated with multiple logistic regression. Participants included 564 5-18year old who initiated treatment and completed the FNPA. After adjustment, FNPA scores differed by weight status with higher/healthier scores in youth with overweight/obesity (56.6±8.5) when compared to those with SO class 2 (55.0±7.1; p=0.015) or SO class 3 (53.6±9.0; pyouth in the 2nd quartile had 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) times higher odds of SO, and those in the lowest FNPA quartile had 2.1 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.4) times higher odds of SO. Youth with SO had unhealthier subscale scores among 6 of 10 constructs, including nutritional, physical activity, sedentary, and sleep behaviours. Results suggest a consistent inverse relationship between the FNPA and adiposity among youth presenting for weight management. The FNPA is a useful metric for programs and clinicians targeting family behaviours and the home environment to combat obesity. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Uncovering the Nutritional Landscape of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Sung, Jaeyun; Foo, Mathias; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Recent progresses in data-driven analysis methods, including network-based approaches, are revolutionizing many classical disciplines. These techniques can also be applied to food and nutrition, which must be studied to design healthy diets. Using nutritional information from over 1,000 raw foods, we systematically evaluated the nutrient composition of each food in regards to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. The nutrient balance of a food was quantified and termed nutritional fitness; this measure was based on the food’s frequency of occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Nutritional fitness offers a way to prioritize recommendable foods within a global network of foods, in which foods are connected based on the similarities of their nutrient compositions. We identified a number of key nutrients, such as choline and α-linolenic acid, whose levels in foods can critically affect the nutritional fitness of the foods. Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect. In fact, two nutrients can synergistically affect the nutritional fitness, although the individual nutrients alone may not have an impact. This result, involving the tendency among nutrients to exhibit correlations in their abundances across foods, implies a hidden layer of complexity when exploring for foods whose balance of nutrients within pairs holistically helps meet nutritional requirements. Interestingly, foods with high nutritional fitness successfully maintain this nutrient balance. This effect expands our scope to a diverse repertoire of nutrient-nutrient correlations, which are integrated under a common network framework that yields unexpected yet coherent associations between nutrients. Our nutrient-profiling approach combined with a network-based analysis provides a more unbiased, global view of the relationships between foods and nutrients, and can be extended towards nutritional policies, food marketing, and personalized nutrition. PMID:25768022

  7. [Association between dental caries and nutritional status of 7-and 12-years-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłapowska, Joanna; Rataj-Kulmacz, Agata; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria

    2014-01-01

    One of the etiological factors of dental caries are improper eating habits, which also influence the nutritional state of the organism. This similarity tends to establish the relationship between the intensity of tooth decay, and body weight disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in 7 and 12-year-old children, depending on the nutritional status. The study included 225 children of both sex, age 7 (132) and 12 years (93) attending to randomly selected schools in Poznań. Dental examination was performed by dentists in schools in artificial light using mirrors and dental probe (criteria according to WHO 1997 ). Based on collected data, caries frequency and caries intensity were calculated (DMF-t -7 and 12-year-olds and dmf-t 7-year olds). Anthropometric measurements such as height and weight were made by school nurses in accordance with guidelines for the performance of screening tests for people of school age. A deficiency or excess body weight in surveyed children rated BMI (Body Mass Index), including percentile ranges for the population of children in Poznań. Assessment of dental caries in groups of pupils were formed due to nutritional status of the respondents i. e. normal-weight and underweight and overweight. Caries frequency in children of normal weight in the population of 7-year-olds was 82.2% and 53.2% of children aged 12 years. In the group of 7-year-old pupils with overweight and underweight was respectively, 95.0% and 90.9%, 84.2% and 50.0% in the older group. A statistically significant difference between the attendance of dental caries in a group of 12-year-old children with overweight and normal weight and its deficiency was show. The average value of dmf-t in 7-year-old children was 4.02, and the DMF-permanent dentition - 0.19 and the children with over- and underweight respectively dmf- 4.25 and 3,82 and DMF- 0.35 and 0,27. In population of 12-year olds caries DMF was - 1.62, and for children with

  8. The association of socioeconomic status and access to low-volume service providers in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No large-scale study has explored the combined effect of patients' individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on their access to a low-volume provider for breast cancer surgery. The purpose of this study was to explore under a nationwide universal health insurance system whether breast cancer patients from a lower individual and neighborhood SES are disproportionately receiving breast cancer surgery from low-volume providers. METHODS: 5,750 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery in 2006 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the access to a low-volume provider between the different individual and neighborhood SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic was used to determine how well the model fit the data. RESULTS: Univariate analysis data shows that patients in disadvantaged neighborhood were more likely to receive breast cancer surgery at low-volume hospitals; and lower-SES patients were more likely to receive surgery from low-volume surgeons. In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for patient characteristics, the odds ratios of moderate- and low-SES patients in disadvantaged neighborhood receiving surgery at low-volume hospitals was 1.47 (95% confidence interval=1.19-1.81 and 1.31 (95% confidence interval=1.05-1.64 respectively compared with high-SES patients in advantaged neighborhood. Moderate- and low-SES patients from either advantaged or disadvantaged neighborhood had an odds ratios ranging from 1.51 to 1.80 (p0.05 that shows the model has a good fit. CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based cross-sectional study, even under a nationwide universal health insurance system, disparities in access to healthcare existed. Breast cancer patients from a lower individual and neighborhood SES are more likely to receive breast cancer surgery from low

  9. [Direct costs involved in providing medical attention associated with traffic accidents in Bogotá].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Quitian, Hoover; Maldonado, Patricia; Naranjo-Lujan, Salomé; Rondón, Martín; Acosta, Andrés; Arango-Villegas, Carlos; Hurtado, Jaime; Hernández, Juan C; Angarita, María Del Pilar; Peña, Marcela; Saavedra, Miguel Á

    2014-01-01

    To determine the cost of medical attention associated with traffic accidents in Bogotá, Colombia. Prospective observational study with data from adult patients attended to in the emergency centers of 6 hospitals. Average total cost per patient was $1'112.000 COP. Average daily cost of hospitalized patients was $1'200.000 COP. Average cost of ambulatory treated patients ascended to $247.400 COP. Cost per accident calculated was $2'333.700 COP. In the whole city during study period, total medical costs were around $2.301'028.200 COP. All data was expressed in 2011 Colombian pesos. The medical cost of transit accidents is a significant economic burden.

  10. Resistance Patterns Associated with HCV NS5A Inhibitors Provide Limited Insight into Drug Binding

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    Moheshwarnath Issur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs have significantly improved the treatment of infection with the hepatitis C virus. A promising class of novel antiviral agents targets the HCV NS5A protein. The high potency and broad genotypic coverage are favorable properties. NS5A inhibitors are currently assessed in advanced clinical trials in combination with viral polymerase inhibitors and/or viral protease inhibitors. However, the clinical use of NS5A inhibitors is also associated with new challenges. HCV variants with decreased susceptibility to these drugs can emerge and compromise therapy. In this review, we discuss resistance patterns in NS5A with focus prevalence and implications for inhibitor binding.

  11. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter concisus isolates reveals genetic diversity and provides insights into disease association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nandan P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Wilkins, Marc R; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2013-08-28

    In spite of its association with gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel diseases, the isolation of Campylobacter concisus from both diseased and healthy individuals has led to controversy regarding its role as an intestinal pathogen. One proposed reason for this is the presence of high genetic diversity among the genomes of C. concisus strains. In this study the genomes of six C. concisus strains were sequenced, assembled and annotated including two strains isolated from Crohn's disease patients (UNSW2 and UNSW3), three from gastroenteritis patients (UNSW1, UNSWCS and ATCC 51562) and one from a healthy individual (ATCC 51561). The genomes of C. concisus BAA-1457 and UNSWCD, available from NCBI, were included in subsequent comparative genomic analyses. The Pan and Core genomes for the sequenced C. concisus strains consisted of 3254 and 1556 protein coding genes, respectively. Genes were identified with specific conservation in C. concisus strains grouped by phenotypes such as invasiveness, adherence, motility and diseased states. Phylogenetic trees based on ribosomal RNA sequences and concatenated host-related pathways for the eight C. concisus strains were generated using the neighbor-joining method, of which the 16S rRNA gene and peptidoglycan biosynthesis grouped the C. concisus strains according to their pathogenic phenotypes. Furthermore, 25 non-synonymous amino acid changes with 14 affecting functional domains, were identified within proteins of conserved host-related pathways, which had possible associations with the pathogenic potential of C. concisus strains. Finally, the genomes of the eight C. concisus strains were compared to the nine available genomes of the well-established pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, which identified several important differences in the respiration pathways of these two species. Our findings indicate that C. concisus strains are genetically diverse, and suggest the genomes of this bacterium contain respiration pathways and

  12. 13 CFR 107.900 - Management fees for services provided to a Small Business by Licensee or its Associate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management fees for services... Licensees Management Services and Fees § 107.900 Management fees for services provided to a Small Business... apply to management services that you or your Associate provide to a Small Business that you do not...

  13. Renal ultrasound provides low utility in evaluating cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allen; Crawford, Todd; Pierre, Alejandro Suarez; Trent Magruder, J; Fraser, Charles; Conte, John; Whitman, Glenn; Sciortino, Christopher

    2017-09-02

    Renal ultrasonography is part of the algorithm in assessing acute kidney injury (AKI). The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of renal US in postoperative cardiac patients who develop AKI. We conducted a retrospective study of 90 postoperative cardiac surgery patients at a single institution from 1/19/2010 to 3/19/2016 who underwent renal US for AKI. We reviewed provider documentation to determine whether renal US changed management. We defined change as: administration of crystalloid or colloid, addition of inotropic or vasopressor, or procedural interventions on the renal system. Mean age of study patients was 68 ± 13 years. 48/90 patients (53.3%) had pre-existing chronic kidney disease of varying severity. 48 patients (53.3%) had normal renal US with incidental findings and 31 patients (34.4%) had US evidence of medical kidney disease. 10 patients (11.1%) had limited US results due to poor visualization and 1 patient (1.1%) had mild right-sided hydronephrosis. No patients were found to have obstructive uropathy or renal artery stenosis. Clinical management was altered in only 4/90 patients (4.4%), which included 3 patients that received a fluid bolus and 1 patient that received a fluid bolus and inotropes. No vascular or urologic procedures resulted from US findings. Although renal ultrasound is often utilized in the work-up of AKI, our study shows that renal US provides little benefit in managing postoperative cardiac patients. This diagnostic modality should be scrutinized rather than viewed as a universal measure in the cardiac surgery population.

  14. Potential of Annona muricata L. seed oil: phytochemical and nutritional characterization associated with non-toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Pinto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, phenolic compounds, fatty acid and antioxidant activity in vitro as well as a toxicological screening of A. muricata seed oil in vivo. The chemical composition and quantification of phenolic compounds were determined by the Adolfo Lutz Institute normative. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The oil was extracted by chloroform/ methanol and precipitated crude (AmPtO and supernatant oils (AmSO were obtained. The fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography and total compounds by HPLC-DAD. BALB/C mice received AmPtO and AmSO (0.5 and 1.0mL·Kg-1 for 14 days. Toxicity parameters were assessed. The major fatty acids in the oil were oleic (39.2% and linoleic (33%. HPLC-DAD suggested the presence of acetogenins (annonacin: 595 [M-H]-, with a greater presence in AmPtO. The AmPtO group showed toxicity, which may be related to the acetogenin content in AmPtO. The AmSO group showed no toxicity and this oil has potential for food or medicinal use.

  15. Enteral nutrition in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucha, R.; Lichvarova, I.; Duchon, R.; Dolnik, J.; Pindak, D.

    2011-01-01

    Enteral feeding provides physiologic, metabolic, safety, and cost benefits over parenteral nutrition. There are various ways enteral nutritional is administered and scheduled. The method of administration must be individualized to each patient's specific needs. Enteral nutrition is not only the supply of exogenous substrates and to prevent depletion of endogenous sources. Today the enteral nutrition becomes part of a therapeutic strategy to influence the severity of the disease to affect the function of GIT, and to modulate immune responses of the gut and the whole organism. Early enteral nutrition in the postoperative period reduces the risk of infectious complications. (author)

  16. Altered Phytoplankton Dynamics Associated with the North Pacific Blob Provides a Glimpse of Future Warming Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, A.; Robert, M.; Cohen, N.; Twining, B. S.; Harrison, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast Pacific is recognized as a critical region for carbon sequestration despite chronic iron limitation of phytoplankton. Although chlorophyll concentrations are relatively constant in this region, contributions of large cells (≥ 5 μm) such as diatoms versus small cells (iron inputs resulting in diatom blooms. Through a synthesis of microcosm experiments conducted over the last decade and a half, we show that the dynamics of the phytoplankton response to iron enrichment in the Northeast Pacific is primarily a function of the ambient community composition. At times when large cells initially dominate, the response to iron enrichment is large and rapid. Conversely, when small cells initially dominate, there is a delayed and curtailed response to iron enrichment. This phenomenon was most pronounced in association with the North Pacific Blob, a large feature of unusually warm water first appearing in the Fall of 2013. As perceived through RNA sequencing, the diatom community response to iron enrichment was also very different during the Blob event compared to previous years. Our findings suggest that in future warmer oceans, proportions of large cells will likely decline, substantially influencing food web dynamics and the iron-induced carbon export potential in this region.

  17. Association of provider recommendation and offer and influenza vaccination among adults aged ≥18 years - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Jun; Srivastav, Anup; Amaya, Ashley; Dever, Jill A; Roycroft, Jessica; Kurtz, Marshica Stanley; O'Halloran, Alissa; Williams, Walter W

    2018-02-01

    Influenza vaccination has been recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months since 2010. Data from the 2016 National Internet Flu Survey were analyzed to assess provider vaccination recommendations and early influenza vaccination during the 2016-17 season among adults aged ≥18 years. Predictive marginals from a multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify factors independently associated with early vaccine uptake by provider vaccination recommendation status. Overall, 24.0% visited a provider who both recommended and offered influenza vaccination, 9.0% visited a provider who only recommended but did not offer, 25.1% visited a provider who neither recommended nor offered, and 41.9% did not visit a doctor from July 1 through date of interview. Adults who reported that a provider both recommended and offered vaccine had significantly higher vaccination coverage (66.6%) compared with those who reported that a provider only recommended but did not offer (48.4%), those who neither received recommendation nor offer (32.0%), and those who did not visit a doctor during the vaccination period (28.8%). Results of multivariable logistic regression indicated that having received a provider recommendation, with or without an offer for vaccination, was significantly associated with higher vaccination coverage after controlling for demographic and access-to-care factors. Provider recommendation was significantly associated with influenza vaccination. However, overall, 67.0% of adults did not visit a doctor during the vaccination period or did visit a doctor but did not receive a provider recommendation. Evidence-based strategies such as client reminder/recall, standing orders, provider reminders, or health systems interventions in combination should be undertaken to improve provider recommendation and influenza vaccination coverage. Other factors significantly associated with a higher level of influenza vaccination included age ≥50 years, being Hispanic

  18. Associations of maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, methyl mercury, and infant development in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, J J; Davidson, Philip W; Bonham, Maxine P; Duffy, Emeir M; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Thurston, Sally W; Wallace, Julie M W; Robson, Paula J; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Georger, Lesley A; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Cernichiari, Elsa; Canfield, Richard L; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li Shan; Janciuras, Joanne; Myers, Gary J; Clarkson, Thomas W

    2008-09-01

    Fish consumption during gestation can provide the fetus with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) and other nutrients essential for growth and development of the brain. However, fish consumption also exposes the fetus to the neurotoxicant, methyl mercury (MeHg). We studied the association between these fetal exposures and early child development in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Specifically, we examined a priori models of Omega-3 and Omega-6 LCPUFA measures in maternal serum to test the hypothesis that these LCPUFA families before or after adjusting for prenatal MeHg exposure would reveal associations with child development assessed by the BSID-II at ages 9 and 30 months. There were 229 children with complete outcome and covariate data available for analysis. At 9 months, the PDI was positively associated with total Omega-3 LCPUFA and negatively associated with the ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 LCPUFA. These associations were stronger in models adjusted for prenatal MeHg exposure. Secondary models suggested that the MeHg effect at 9 months varied by the ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 LCPUFA. There were no significant associations between LCPUFA measures and the PDI at 30 months. There were significant adverse associations, however, between prenatal MeHg and the 30-month PDI when the LCPUFA measures were included in the regression analysis. The BSID-II mental developmental index (MDI) was not associated with any exposure variable. These data support the potential importance to child development of prenatal availability of Omega-3 LCPUFA present in fish and of LCPUFA in the overall diet. Furthermore, they indicate that the beneficial effects of LCPUFA can obscure the determination of adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure in longitudinal observational studies.

  19. Prenatal factors associated with birth weight and length and current nutritional status of hospitalized children aged 4-24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariante Giesta, Juliana; Ramón da Rosa, Suélen; Moura Pessoa, Juliana Salino; Lúcia Bosa, Vera

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations of prenatal factors with birth weight and length, as well as current nutritional status, of children hospitalized in southern Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 child-mother pairs. Children were between 4 and 24 months old. They were at the inpatient unit or pediatric emergency department of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Anthropometric data were collected, and a questionnaire on gestational data was answered by the children's mothers. Maternal variables of interest were: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, smoking and/or use of alcohol, use of illicit drugs, gestational diabetes and/ or high blood pressure. Children's variables of interest were: sex, gestational age, birth weight (BW) and birth length (BL), and current anthropometric data [body mass index for age (BMI/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for age (W/A)]. The gestational weight gain and smoking were associated with BW. We also found that H/A was associated with BW and BL, W/A was associated with BW, and BMI/A was associated with BL. The gestational weight gain was associated with BL, diabetes was associated with BW and BL, and high blood pressure was associated with low height in the first two years of life. We concluded that prenatal factors may have an influence on both BW and BL, causing the birth of small and large for gestational age children, and thus affecting their growth rate during the first years of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Parental perception of the nutritional quality of school meals and its association with students' school lunch participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the association between parental perception of the nutritional quality of school meals and whether students eat lunch served at school. We use data from five low-income cities in New Jersey that have high minority populations. Students whose parents perceive the quality of school meals to be healthy have greater odds of eating meals served at school. Recent changes in guidelines for the United States Department of Agriculture's National School Lunch Program met with resistance from several fronts. Advocates for and implementers of improved school meals may benefit from partnering with parents to increase the acceptance and utilization of improved school offerings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene expression profiling identifies molecular pathways associated with collagen VI deficiency and provides novel therapeutic targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Paco

    Full Text Available Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD, caused by collagen VI deficiency, is a common congenital muscular dystrophy. At present, the role of collagen VI in muscle and the mechanism of disease are not fully understood. To address this we have applied microarrays to analyse the transcriptome of UCMD muscle and compare it to healthy muscle and other muscular dystrophies. We identified 389 genes which are differentially regulated in UCMD relative to controls. In addition, there were 718 genes differentially expressed between UCMD and dystrophin deficient muscle. In contrast, only 29 genes were altered relative to other congenital muscular dystrophies. Changes in gene expression were confirmed by real-time PCR. The set of regulated genes was analysed by Gene Ontology, KEGG pathways and Ingenuity Pathway analysis to reveal the molecular functions and gene networks associated with collagen VI defects. The most significantly regulated pathways were those involved in muscle regeneration, extracellular matrix remodelling and inflammation. We characterised the immune response in UCMD biopsies as being mainly mediated via M2 macrophages and the complement pathway indicating that anti-inflammatory treatment may be beneficial to UCMD as for other dystrophies. We studied the immunolocalisation of ECM components and found that biglycan, a collagen VI interacting proteoglycan, was reduced in the basal lamina of UCMD patients. We propose that biglycan reduction is secondary to collagen VI loss and that it may be contributing towards UCMD pathophysiology. Consequently, strategies aimed at over-expressing biglycan and restore the link between the muscle cell surface and the extracellular matrix should be considered.

  2. Association between dietary fat intake and bone mineral density in Korean adults: data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2008 ∼ 2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y-M; Kim, G W; Yim, H W; Paek, Y J; Lee, K-S

    2015-03-01

    We determined the relation between dietary fat intake and bone mineral density, and our study showed that low- as well as high-fat diet was associated with the risk of osteoporosis. Our study provides significant evidence of the specific dietary components that may be important modifiable factors for the prevention of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures have become major public health problems. It is important to understand the various factors that influence bone health and to prevent osteoporosis by correcting modifiable risk factors for the disease. Previous studies suggested that dietary habits and body composition were potent factors associated with bone mineral density. The aim of this study was to determine the independent effect of dietary fat intake on bone mineral density while controlling for other possible confounders, including fat mass and lean body mass. This study was based on data obtained in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After serial exclusion of subjects according to the selection criteria, 7,192 subjects were included in our analysis. We divided the study population into quintiles according to dietary fat calorie/total calorie intake and compared the adjusted means of bone mineral density between quintiles. The bone mineral density was higher in men and women with a medium fat energy intake compared to those with a low- and high-fat energy intake, but the finding was statistically significant only in women. The results were valid after controlling for body fat percentage and lean body mass. We found that dietary fat intake is an independent modifiable risk factor for osteoporosis, regardless of body fat or lean body mass, especially in women. However, further investigations with accurate analyses of food intake and nutritional consumption, in addition to long-term follow-up data, are necessary to recommend an osteoporosis-preventive diet in Koreans.

  3. Better nutritional status in early childhood is associated with improved clinical outcomes and survival in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Elizabeth H; Quinton, Hebe; Borowitz, Drucy

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between nutritional status early in life and the timing and velocity of height growth, lung function, complications of cystic fibrosis, and survival. Prospective, observational study using data from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Registry (US) for patients born between 1989 and 1992 (n = 3142). Weight-for-age percentile (WAP) at 4 years of age was positively associated with height-for-age percentiles throughout childhood. Age 4 years WAP >10% was associated with better lung function from 6-18 years of age. In boys and girls with current WAP >50%, peak pubertal height velocities approximated but remained lower than that of the healthy reference population. By age 18 years, patients with an age 4 years WAP >50% suffered fewer acute pulmonary exacerbations, spent fewer days in the hospital, and had lower rates of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. Patients attaining higher age 4 years WAP and height-for-age percentiles had a survival advantage throughout childhood. For the population studied, greater weight at age 4 years is associated with greater height, better pulmonary function, fewer complications of cystic fibrosis, and better survival through age 18 years. Furthermore, greater weight-for-age in the peripubertal period is associated on average with improved tempo and timing of pubertal height growth. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein associated to nutritional status and biochemical profile in Mexican shoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro-Acosta, María Elena; Ruíz Esparza-Cisneros, Josefina; Delgado-Valdez, Jesús Hernán; Díaz-Molina, Raúl; Ayala-Figueroa, Rafael Iván

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific marker of inflammation with low serum levels, which are not usually detectable. In order to assess cardiovascular risk in adults apparently healthy, ultrasensitive methods are used, and the CRP measured through these techniques is known as ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP). Some researchers report an association of US-CRP with some anthropometric parameters in children with no apparent disease. The aim was to associate US-CRP with nutritional status and biochemical profiles in Mexican schoolchildren. In this cross-sectional study 300 healthy children (aged 10 to 12 years) were evaluated. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat percentage, glucose, lipid profiles and US-CRP were measured. Exclusion criteria was: US-CRP > 10mg/L. We used multivariate regression models. 53.7 % were girls and 46.3 % were boys. The US-CRP median was of 0.3 mg/L (range: 0.3 mg/L-6.8 mg/L), and it was positively and significantly correlated with BMI (ß = 0.226, p = 0.032) and LDL-C (ß = -0.267, p = 0.007) and negatively associated with cholesterol (ß = -0.267, p = 0.007). There is an association between US-CRP and cardiovascular risk indicators, such as obesity and some lipid disorder in childhood; therefore, US-CRP may be used for close examination in Mexican children.

  5. Association of heart rate with albuminuria in a general adult population: the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H S; Hong, J W; Lee, J H; Noh, J H; Kim, D J

    2015-04-01

    Albuminuria is associated with increased risk of multiple adverse health outcomes, such as progressive renal failure, cardiovascular disease and death. However, in the general population, it is uncertain whether albuminuria is associated with elevated heart rate, which is an independent and powerful risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate whether an elevated heart rate is an independent factor associated with albuminuria in the general adult population of Korea. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on 5198 Korean adults aged 19 years or older who participated in the fifth (2011) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2). The prevalence of albuminuria showed an increasing trend throughout the whole range of heart rate, even after adjusting for confounders (P = 0.002). The increment was most profound at the heart rate of 70-75 and >76 beats per minute (b.p.m.; P = 0.011). In multiple logistic regression analysis, age (P albuminuria in Korean adults. Compared with participants with heart rate ≤ 64 b.p.m., the odds ratio (95% CI) for albuminuria was 1.50 (1.15-1.96) for those with heart rate ≥ 76 b.p.m. The prevalence of albuminuria is independently associated with heart rate in the general adult population of Korea. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. Gender differences in associations of serum ferritin and diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity in the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ling-ling; Wang, Yu-xia; Li, Jia; Zhang, Xiao-lei; Bian, Che; Wang, He; Du, Shufa; Suo, Lin-na

    2014-11-01

    This study examines gender differences in associations of serum ferritin and diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity in Chinese. Based on a nationwide, population-based China Health and Nutrition survey this study included 8564 men and women aged 18 years or older. Anthropometric and fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, ferritin, and transferrin data were collected. Ferritin concentrations were higher in men than women (201.55 ± 3.6 versus 80.46 ± 1.64 ng/mL, p obesity, and overweight were 8.05, 8.97, 4.67, 25.88% among men and 14.23, 6.58, 5.81, 26.82% among women, respectively. Elevated ferritin concentrations were associated with higher body mass index, waist circumference, lipids, insulin, glucose (all p obesity (p = 0.010), overweight (p gender difference in associations between ferritin and MetS, obesity, and diabetes in Chinese adults. Further evaluations of the variation in gender on these associations are warranted to understand the mechanisms behind gender differences. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An integrated microcredit, entrepreneurial training, and nutrition education intervention is associated with better growth among preschool-aged children in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Lartey, Anna; Ahunu, Ben K; Birks, Katherine A; Butler, Lorna M; Reddy, Manju B; Jensen, Helen H; Huff-Lonergan, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Poor diet quality is a determinant of the high prevalence rates of malnutrition in Ghana. There is little evidence on the effectiveness of a multisector intervention to improve children's diets and nutritional status. The project tested whether participation in an entrepreneurial and nutrition education intervention with microcredit was associated with the nutritional status of children 2-5 y of age. A quasi-experimental 16-mo intervention was conducted with microcredit loans and weekly sessions of nutrition and entrepreneurship education for 179 women with children 2-5 y of age [intervention group (IG)]. Nonparticipating women and their children from the same villages (nonparticipant, n = 142) and from similar neighboring villages (comparison, n = 287) were enrolled. Repeated measures linear regression models were used first to examine children's weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and body mass index-for-age (BAZ) z scores at baseline and at 4 follow-up time points ∼4 mo apart. Time, intervention status, time-by-intervention interaction terms, region of residence, household wealth rank, household head occupation, number of children sex and age were included. There was a significant interaction between the IG and time for BAZ (P = 0.02) with significant Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons between the IG and comparison group (CG) at 8 mo (difference of 0.36 ± 0.09 z score, P education may improve nutritional outcomes of children living in poor, rural communities. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Review of the importance of nutrition during the first 1000 days: maternal nutritional status and its associations with fetal growth and birth, neonatal and infant outcomes among African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrottesley, S V; Lamper, C; Pisa, P T

    2016-04-01

    Maternal nutritional status (MNS) is a strong predictor of growth and development in the first 1000 days of life and may influence susceptibility to non-communicable diseases in adulthood. However, the role of nutrition during this window of developmental plasticity in Africa is unclear. This paper reviews published data to address whether maternal nutrition during the first 1000 days is important for Africa, with a focus on MNS and its associations with fetal growth and birth, neonatal and infant outcomes. A systematic approach was used to search the following databases: Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SciSearch and Cochrane Library. In all, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria for the specific objectives. MNS in Africa showed features typical of the epidemiological transition: higher prevalences of maternal overweight and obesity and lower underweight, poor diet quality 1 and high anaemia prevalence. Maternal body mass index and greater gestational weight gain (GWG) were positively associated with birth weight; however, maternal overweight and obesity were associated with increased risk of macrosomia and intrauterine growth restriction. Maternal anaemia was associated with lower birth weight. Macro- and micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy were associated with improvements in GWG, birth weight and mortality risk. Data suggest poor MNS in Africa and confirms the importance of the first 1000 days as a critical period for nutritional intervention to improve growth, birth outcomes and potential future health risk. However, there is a lack of data beyond birth and a need for longitudinal data through infancy to 2 years of age.

  9. Effects of Vegetarian Nutrition?A Nutrition Ecological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, Martina; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition. The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the eff...

  10. Nutrition Facts Panel use is associated with diet quality and dietary patterns among Latinos with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Shebl, Fatma M; Hawley, Nicola L; Damio, Grace; Chhabra, Jyoti; Vega-López, Sonia; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    The study aims were to (i) identify determinants of Nutrition Facts Panel (NFP) use and (ii) describe the association between NFP use and dietary intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Baseline cross-sectional data from a clinical trial were used to assess the association between NFP use and dietary intake. Diet was measured using two methods: (i) a diet quality score (the Healthy Eating Index-2010) derived from a single 24 h recall and (ii) dietary pattern (exploratory factor analyses) from an FFQ. Multivariable logistic and non-parametric quantile regressions were conducted, as appropriate. Settings Hartford County, Connecticut, USA. Latino adults (n 203), ≥21 years of age, with diagnosed type 2 diabetes, glycosylated Hb≥7 %, and without medical conditions limiting physical activity. Participants' education level, diabetes-related knowledge and English speaking were positively associated with NFP use. At the higher percentiles of diet quality score, NFP use was significantly associated with higher diet quality. Similarly, NFP users were more likely to consume a 'healthy' dietary pattern (P=0·003) and less likely to consume a 'fried snack' pattern (P=0·048) compared with NFP non-users. The association between reported NFP use and diet quality was positive and significantly stronger among participants who reported consuming a healthier diet. While NFP use was associated with a healthier dietary pattern, not using NFP was associated with a less-healthy, fried snack pattern. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand whether improving NFP use could be an effective intervention to improve diet quality among Latinos with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Ko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMenstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women.MethodsA total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity.ResultsSignificantly higher ORs (95% CI were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48 and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86 after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity.ConclusionWe found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

  12. Associations of metabolic syndrome with inflammation in CKD: results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Kimmel, Paul L; Ramkumar, Nirupama; Cheung, Alfred K

    2005-10-01

    Although metabolic syndrome is associated with inflammation in the general population, it is unknown whether similar associations exist in patients with chronic kidney disease. +7 cross-sectional associations of metabolic syndrome and its component conditions (diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level) with inflammation (C-reactive protein level > 3 mg/L) were examined by using logistic regression models in groups with high (>90 mL/min/1.73 m2 [>1.50 mL/s]), moderate (45 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2 [0.75 to 1.49 mL/s]), and low (creatinine clearances in 15,314 subjects participating in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Adjusted for demographics, smoking, history of myocardial infarction or stroke, exercise level, and use of cholesterol medications, the presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with greater odds for inflammation in the groups with high (odds ratio, 2.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99 to 3.27), moderate (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.81 to 2.60), and low (odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.56) creatinine clearances. When all 5 components of metabolic syndrome were included in the same model, only hypertension, abdominal obesity, and low high-density lipoprotein level were associated significantly with inflammation in all 3 groups. There also was a graded association between number of component conditions of metabolic syndrome and inflammation within each creatinine-clearance group. Metabolic syndrome is associated with inflammation in patients with varying levels of kidney function. Future studies are warranted to determine in patients with chronic kidney disease whether there is a synergistic effect of metabolic syndrome and inflammation on the incidence of atherosclerotic events and whether interventions targeted toward metabolic syndrome might modulate inflammation.

  13. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Min; Han, Kyungdo; Chung, Youn Jee; Yoon, Kun Ho; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-06-01

    Menstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women. A total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity. Significantly higher ORs (95% CI) were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48) and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86) after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity. We found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  14. Are Mothers' Working Hours Associated with General and Abdominal Obesity in Children and Adolescents? The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyeong; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, Young; Park, Sohee

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Despite an increase in the female work force and recent increase in childhood obesity, the association between working hours of mothers and childhood obesity as well as how such association differs according to mothers' weight and intake frequency of energy-dense, nutrition-poor (EDNP) foods remain unclear. Methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012) that included samples from 3914 children in 2526 households were analyzed. Two-level (household-children) mixed-effects modeling was performed to investigate the association between mothers' working hours and childhood obesity based on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Results Long working hours (h) of mothers were associated with both BMI (β = - 0.14; P = 0.324 for 1-20 h, β = 0.10; P = 0.334 for ≤ 21-40 h; β = 0.09; P = 0.429 for 41-68 h, β = 0.51; P = 0.015 for ≥ 69 h) and WC of the child (β = 0.06; P = 0.809 for 1-20 h; β = 0.46; P = 0.017 for ≤ 21-40 h; β = 0.59; P = 0.004 for 41-68 h, β = 1.35; P mothers working ≥ 69 h compared to those working 0 h. We also observed that the association between mothers' working hours and child's BMI and WC was greater for children whose mothers were either overweight or obese and frequently consumed energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods (EDNP). Conclusions for Practice Long working hours of mothers are associated with higher BMI and WC in children. Thus, it is important to improve labor welfare for mothers who work long hours, and provide interventions to promote good health behaviors in both children and working mothers.

  15. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children: Nutritional Status and Associations with Serum Leptin, Ghrelin, and IGF-1 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Gulin; Ozkan, Tanju Basarir; Ozgur, Taner; Altay, Derya; Cavun, Sinan; Goral, Guher

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, malignancy and lymphoma, and extra-gastrointestinal conditions. H. pylori infection is negatively associated with children's growth. Chronic inflammation of the stomach that results in the loss of appetite and, dysregulation of neuroendocrine hormones such as leptin, and ghrelin are the probable reasons of this negative association. The objective of this study is to determine the serum levels of leptin, ghrelin, and IGF-1 in H. pylori-infected children and their relations with growth. A hundred and sixty-one school children aged between 6 and 14 years were selected randomly from five primary schools representing a cross section of population. Demographic and sociocultural characteristics, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Serum H. pylori IgG, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, and ghrelin levels were measured in all children. The children were grouped according to the nutritional status and Helicobacter pylori seropositivity. Nutritional indices were compared among groups in association with serum leptin, ghrelin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. H. pylori IgG positivity was found in 34.2%, and 14.9% of children were malnourished. H. pylori seropositivity was significantly higher in older ages (10.32 ± 2.26 vs 9.53 ± 2.36 years, p = .036), and body weight and height Z scores were significantly lower in H. pylori-seropositive children (-0.33 ± 1.08 vs 0.04 ± 1.26, p = .044 and 0.13 ± 0.92 vs 0.23 ± 0.91, p = .018 respectively). H. pylori seropositivity was found to be an independent risk factor for shorter body height (p = .01). Serum leptin, ghrelin, and IGF-1 levels were not associated with H. pylori IgG seropositivity (0.35 vs 0.55 ng/mL, p = .3; 3267.4 ± 753.0 vs 2808.3 ± 911.4 pg/mL, p = .06; 470 ± 176 vs 521 ± 179 ng/mL, p = .32, respectively). Children infected with H. pylori are prone to short stature. This effect seems to be

  16. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

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    Ohn, Jung Hun [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, In Ho [Department of Dermatology, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Eun-Gyoung, E-mail: hegletter@hallym.or.kr [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men.

  17. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohn, Jung Hun; Kwon, In Ho; Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Hong, Eun-Gyoung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men

  18. Childhood nutrition and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M

    2000-05-01

    One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the

  19. Proposal for medical school nutrition education: topics and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Gerald; Kushner, Robert; Alger-Mayer, Sharon; Bistrian, Bruce; Gramlich, Leah; Marik, Paul E

    2010-01-01

    The mission of increasing the number of physician nutrition experts requires focused nutrition education directed at medical students across the 4-year curriculum and into postgraduate training. Courses should be horizontally and vertically integrated, bridging the basic sciences and clinical medicine. It is anticipated that the Liaison Committee on Medical Education and Association of American Medical Colleges will require competency in nutrition with emphasis on preventive and therapeutic applications. Barriers to implementation of nutrition courses can be overcome by using innovative teaching in association with cooperative course directors. Analysis of prior governmental efforts, through the Nutrition Academic Award, provides a basis for targeting fundamental knowledge and creative methods for achieving educational goals. Recommendations for short-term and long-term ideas for increasing the number of adequate physician nutrition experts are offered.

  20. Association of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-01-01

    several studies have found nutrients, including antioxidants, to be associated with sarcopenia. However, whether specific foods, such as vegetables and fruits, are associated with sarcopenia has not been studied. to examine the association of the frequency of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older people. this study used cross-sectional data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-09. Subjects were community-dwelling 823 men and 1,089 women aged ≥65 years. Frequency of food group consumption was obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and sarcopenia was defined as appendicular lean mass adjusted for height and fat mass. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of the frequency of food group consumption with sarcopenia, controlling for sociodemographics and health-related variables. dietary intake of vegetables, fruits and both vegetables and fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of sarcopenia after controlling for covariates in men (P = 0.026 for trend, P = 0.012 for trend, P = 0.003 for trend, respectively). Men in the highest quintile, compared with those in the lowest quintile, of vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.95], fruits (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) and vegetables and fruits consumption (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16-0.67) demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia. In women, high consumption of fruits demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.83). frequent vegetables and fruits consumption was inversely associated with sarcopenia in older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Sarcopenia exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Srikanthan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or older, non-pregnant (N = 14,528. Sarcopenia was identified from bioelectrical impedance measurement of muscle mass. Obesity was identified from body mass index. Outcomes were homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C, and prevalence of pre-diabetes (6.0≤ HbA1C<6.5 and not on medication and type 2 diabetes. Covariates in multiple regression were age, educational level, ethnicity and sex.Sarcopenia was associated with insulin resistance in non-obese (HOMA IR ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26 to 1.52 and obese individuals (HOMA-IR ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.18. Sarcopenia was associated with dysglycemia in obese individuals (HbA1C ratio 1.021, 95% CI 1.011 to 1.043 but not in non-obese individuals. Associations were stronger in those under 60 years of age. We acknowledge that the cross-sectional study design limits our ability to draw causal inferences.Sarcopenia, independent of obesity, is associated with adverse glucose metabolism, and the association is strongest in individuals under 60 years of age, which suggests that low muscle mass may be an early predictor of diabetes susceptibility. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, further research is urgently needed to develop interventions to prevent sarcopenic obesity and its metabolic consequences.

  2. Association between sleep quality and C-reactive protein: results from national health and nutrition examination survey, 2005-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore the association between poor sleep quality and hs_CRP in an adult U.S. population. METHODS: This study focused on 9,317 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 2005-2008 who were aged 20-85 years, completed a sleep disorder questionnaire, and had available information on serum hs_CRP. Sleep quality was classified into three categories (good, moderate, poor based on the responses of participants to the NHANES sleep disorder questionnaire. High CRP was defined as hs-CRP >1 md/dL. Linear regression model was applied to investigate the association between poor sleep quality and log-transformed hs_CRP. And logistic regression model was fitted to evaluate the association between sleep quality and the risk of high CRP. RESULTS: Females were more likely to report poor sleep quality than males (26% vs. 19%, p<0.0001. Each sleep disorder was significantly associated with increased hs_CRP and correlative to other sleep disorders. In fully-adjusted linear regression model, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with elevated hs_CRP (log transformed among the overall sample and in females only (β = 0.10, se = 0.03, p<0.01 and β = 0.13, se = 0.04, p<0.01, respectively. In fully-adjusted logistics regression model, poor sleep quality was linked with risk of high CRP(OR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.15-1.76 in overall sample and OR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.18-2.14 in females, respectively. CONCLUSION: We found that poor sleep quality was independently associated with elevated hs_CRP in females but not in males in a U.S. adult population.

  3. Metabolic syndrome in HD patients: association with body composition, nutritional status, inflammation and serum iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Perunicic, Gordana; Pljesa, Steva; Gluvic, Zoran; Ilic, Mirka; Stokić, Edith

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MeS) are common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Such metabolic and clinical abnormalities may lead to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The study group included 22 well-nourished and 20 middle- to moderate-malnourished, stable ESRD patients, with median dialysis duration of 48 months (IQR 24.5-82.0). To determine nutritional status, body composition, inflammatory biomarkers and the presence of MeS subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometrical measurements (BMI and waist circumference), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and biochemical parameters [the levels of serum albumin, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, hematocrit, hemoglobin, iron, TIBC, transferrin saturation (TSAT), ferritin, calcium, phosphorus, intact parathormone (i-PTH), TNF-alpha, IL-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)] were used. All parameters were evaluated by comparisons between two groups, with MeS (Group 2) and without it (Group 1). Logistical regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between measured variables and the presence of MeS in HD patients. Independent variables for MeS were identified by backward multivariate regress