WorldWideScience

Sample records for association learning

  1. Time and Associative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Balsam, Peter D; Drew, Michael R.; Gallistel, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    In a basic associative learning paradigm, learning is said to have occurred when the conditioned stimulus evokes an anticipatory response. This learning is widely believed to depend on the contiguous presentation of conditioned and unconditioned stimulus. However, what it means to be contiguous has not been rigorously defined. Here we examine the empirical bases for these beliefs and suggest an alternative view based on the hypothesis that learning about the temporal relationships between eve...

  2. Learning Disabilities Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... purchases to benefit LDA. Shop Now October is Learning Disabilities Awareness Month Learning Disabilities Association of America ( ... children's health and reduce toxic exposures. Learn More Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal Committed to the study ...

  3. Overcoming associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselgrove, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Thorndike (1898, 1911) rejected the idea that animal behavior was the consequence of reasoning, and suggested instead that the gradual acquisition of associations formed the basis of behavior-a contention that has had a significant impact on the development of animal learning theory. Despite this, comparative psychology provides a number of examples of behaviors that have been considered to be above and beyond the explanation of associative-, or reinforcement-learning mechanisms. These behaviors have motivated some researchers to propose higher-order cognitive abilities in animals, including (but not limited to) reasoning, sensitivity to ambiguity, and metacognition. However, other authors have questioned this claim, and provided alternative explanations for these behaviors from an associative perspective. With relevant examples, the steps that must be taken in order to overcome an associative explanation of behavior are described. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986019

  4. Overcoming associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselgrove, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Thorndike (1898, 1911) rejected the idea that animal behavior was the consequence of reasoning, and suggested instead that the gradual acquisition of associations formed the basis of behavior-a contention that has had a significant impact on the development of animal learning theory. Despite this, comparative psychology provides a number of examples of behaviors that have been considered to be above and beyond the explanation of associative-, or reinforcement-learning mechanisms. These behaviors have motivated some researchers to propose higher-order cognitive abilities in animals, including (but not limited to) reasoning, sensitivity to ambiguity, and metacognition. However, other authors have questioned this claim, and provided alternative explanations for these behaviors from an associative perspective. With relevant examples, the steps that must be taken in order to overcome an associative explanation of behavior are described. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Associative learning in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert D; Byrne, John H

    2015-05-01

    This work reviews research on neural mechanisms of two types of associative learning in the marine mollusk Aplysia, classical conditioning of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex and operant conditioning of feeding behavior. Basic classical conditioning is caused in part by activity-dependent facilitation at sensory neuron-motor neuron (SN-MN) synapses and involves a hybrid combination of activity-dependent presynaptic facilitation and Hebbian potentiation, which are coordinated by trans-synaptic signaling. Classical conditioning also shows several higher-order features, which might be explained by the known circuit connections in Aplysia. Operant conditioning is caused in part by a different type of mechanism, an intrinsic increase in excitability of an identified neuron in the central pattern generator (CPG) for feeding. However, for both classical and operant conditioning, adenylyl cyclase is a molecular site of convergence of the two signals that are associated. Learning in other invertebrate preparations also involves many of the same mechanisms, which may contribute to learning in vertebrates as well. PMID:25877219

  6. WORD ASSOCIATIONS IN VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the widespread adoption of new college Englishtextbooks,vocabulary learning seems a more important taskthan ever before for college students.This paper is about aresearch on how to help students learn English words moremeaningfully and enlarge their vocabulary more efficiently.This paper first discusses word meaning,concept,andconcept network,then explores the associative network of wordsand their associations,which corresponds to English lexicalrelations.The lexical network can be realized onto a computer tobenefit students in their learning.

  7. Associative Concept Learning in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Zentall, Thomas R; Wasserman, Edward A.; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman animals show evidence for three types of concept learning: perceptual or similarity-based in which objects/stimuli are categorized based on physical similarity; relational in which one object/stimulus is categorized relative to another (e.g., same/different); and associative in which arbitrary stimuli become interchangeable with one another by virtue of a common association with another stimulus, outcome, or response. In this article, we focus on various methods for establishing asso...

  8. Associative concept learning in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R; Wasserman, Edward A; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman animals show evidence for three types of concept learning: perceptual or similarity-based in which objects/stimuli are categorized based on physical similarity; relational in which one object/stimulus is categorized relative to another (e.g., same/different); and associative in which arbitrary stimuli become interchangeable with one another by virtue of a common association with another stimulus, outcome, or response. In this article, we focus on various methods for establishing associative concepts in nonhuman animals and evaluate data documenting the development of associative classes of stimuli. We also examine the nature of the common within-class representation of samples that have been associated with the same reinforced comparison response (i.e., many-to-one matching) by describing manipulations for distinguishing possible representations. Associative concepts provide one foundation for human language such that spoken and written words and the objects they represent become members of a class of interchangeable stimuli. The mechanisms of associative concept learning and the behavioral flexibility it allows, however, are also evident in the adaptive behaviors of animals lacking language.

  9. Stimulus control and associative learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in operant research on stimulus control has declined at the same time that much interest has burgeoned in nonoperant areas. Several examples of this shift toward traditional learning theory are considered, all of which have sponsored theoretical approaches that attempt to characterize the underlying associative units. These theoretical approaches are defended on the grounds that they have generated a deeper understanding of a variety of often puzzling phenomena. My projection is that...

  10. Online learning control by association and reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, J; Wang, Y T

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on a systematic treatment for developing a generic online learning control system based on the fundamental principle of reinforcement learning or more specifically neural dynamic programming. This online learning system improves its performance over time in two aspects: 1) it learns from its own mistakes through the reinforcement signal from the external environment and tries to reinforce its action to improve future performance; and 2) system states associated with the positive reinforcement is memorized through a network learning process where in the future, similar states will be more positively associated with a control action leading to a positive reinforcement. A successful candidate of online learning control design is introduced. Real-time learning algorithms is derived for individual components in the learning system. Some analytical insight is provided to give guidelines on the learning process took place in each module of the online learning control system. PMID:18244383

  11. Evolution of Associative Learning in Chemical Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Simon McGregor; Vera Vasas; Phil Husbands; Chrisantha Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Organisms that can learn about their environment and modify their behaviour appropriately during their lifetime are more likely to survive and reproduce than organisms that do not. While associative learning – the ability to detect correlated features of the environment – has been studied extensively in nervous systems, where the underlying mechanisms are reasonably well understood, mechanisms within single cells that could allow associative learning have received little attention. Here, usin...

  12. Prefrontal dopamine in associative learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M V; Antzoulatos, E G; Miller, E K

    2014-12-12

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulates associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. PMID:25241063

  13. Animal social learning: associations and adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Social learning, learning from others, is a powerful process known to impact the success and survival of humans and non-human animals alike. Yet we understand little about the neurocognitive and other processes that underpin social learning. Social learning has often been assumed to involve specialized, derived cognitive processes that evolve and develop independently from other processes. However, this assumption is increasingly questioned, and evidence from a variety of organisms demonstrates that current, recent, and early life experience all predict the reliance on social information and thus can potentially explain variation in social learning as a result of experiential effects rather than evolved differences. General associative learning processes, rather than adaptive specializations, may underpin much social learning, as well as social learning strategies. Uncovering these distinctions is important to a variety of fields, for example by widening current views of the possible breadth and adaptive flexibility of social learning. Nonetheless, just like adaptationist evolutionary explanations, associationist explanations for social learning cannot be assumed, and empirical work is required to uncover the mechanisms involved and their impact on the efficacy of social learning. This work is being done, but more is needed. Current evidence suggests that much social learning may be based on 'ordinary' processes but with extraordinary consequences. PMID:27635227

  14. Associative learning for a robot intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Andreae, John H

    1998-01-01

    The explanation of brain functioning in terms of the association of ideas has been popular since the 17th century. Recently, however, the process of association has been dismissed as computationally inadequate by prominent cognitive scientists. In this book, a sharper definition of the term "association" is used to revive the process by showing that associative learning can indeed be computationally powerful. Within an appropriate organization, associative learning can be embodied in a robot to realize a human-like intelligence, which sets its own goals, exhibits unique unformalizable behaviou

  15. Sense of agency, associative learning, and schizotypy

    OpenAIRE

    J. Moore; Dickinson, A.; Fletcher, P C

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that the role of learning is recognised in empirical and theoretical work on sense of agency (SoA), the nature of this learning has, rather surprisingly, received little attention. In the present study we consider the contribution of associative mechanisms to SoA. SoA can be measured quantitatively as a temporal linkage between voluntary actions and their external effects. Using an outcome blocking procedure, it was shown that training action-outcome associations under condit...

  16. Structure Learning in a Sensorimotor Association Task

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel A. Braun; Waldert, Stephan; Aertsen, Ad; Wolpert, Daniel M.; Mehring, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Learning is often understood as an organism's gradual acquisition of the association between a given sensory stimulus and the correct motor response. Mathematically, this corresponds to regressing a mapping between the set of observations and the set of actions. Recently, however, it has been shown both in cognitive and motor neuroscience that humans are not only able to learn particular stimulus-response mappings, but are also able to extract abstract structural invariants that facilitate ge...

  17. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Associative Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K.E. Koekkoek (Bas)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis primarily attempts to solve some long standing issues regarding classical eyelid conditioning. More specifically, what is the specific role of cerebellar LTD in classical eyeblink conditioning, and how does the answer change the view on cerebellar functioning on associative mot

  18. Evolution of associative learning in chemical networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon McGregor

    Full Text Available Organisms that can learn about their environment and modify their behaviour appropriately during their lifetime are more likely to survive and reproduce than organisms that do not. While associative learning - the ability to detect correlated features of the environment - has been studied extensively in nervous systems, where the underlying mechanisms are reasonably well understood, mechanisms within single cells that could allow associative learning have received little attention. Here, using in silico evolution of chemical networks, we show that there exists a diversity of remarkably simple and plausible chemical solutions to the associative learning problem, the simplest of which uses only one core chemical reaction. We then asked to what extent a linear combination of chemical concentrations in the network could approximate the ideal Bayesian posterior of an environment given the stimulus history so far? This Bayesian analysis revealed the 'memory traces' of the chemical network. The implication of this paper is that there is little reason to believe that a lack of suitable phenotypic variation would prevent associative learning from evolving in cell signalling, metabolic, gene regulatory, or a mixture of these networks in cells.

  19. Associative foundation of causal learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, Cody W; McConnell, Bridget L; Miller, Ralph R

    2013-03-01

    Are humans unique in their ability to interpret exogenous events as causes? We addressed this question by observing the behavior of rats for indications of causal learning. Within an operant motor-sensory preconditioning paradigm, associative surgical techniques revealed that rats attempted to control an outcome (i.e., a potential effect) by manipulating a potential exogenous cause (i.e., an intervention). Rats were able to generate an innocuous auditory stimulus. This stimulus was then paired with an aversive stimulus. The animals subsequently avoided potential generation of the predictive cue, but not if the aversive stimulus was subsequently devalued or the predictive cue was extinguished (Exp. 1). In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that the aversive stimulus we used was in fact aversive, that it was subject to devaluation, that the cue-aversive stimulus pairings did make the cue a conditioned stimulus, and that the cue was subject to extinction. In Experiments 3 and 4, we established that the decrease in leverpressing observed in Experiment 1 was goal-directed instrumental behavior rather than purely a product of Pavlovian conditioning. To the extent that interventions suggest causal reasoning, it appears that causal reasoning can be based on associations between contiguous exogenous events. Thus, contiguity appears capable of establishing causal relationships between exogenous events. Our results challenge the widely held view that causal learning is uniquely human, and suggest that causal learning is explicable in an associative framework. PMID:22562460

  20. Multisensory Perception as an Associative Learning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eConnolly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Suppose that you are at a live jazz show. The drummer begins a solo. You see the cymbal jolt and you hear the clang. But in addition seeing the cymbal jolt and hearing the clang, you are also aware that the jolt and the clang are part of the same event. Casey O’Callaghan (forthcoming calls this awareness intermodal feature binding awareness. Psychologists have long assumed that multimodal perceptions such as this one are the result of a subpersonal feature binding mechanism (see Vatakis and Spence, 2007, Kubovy and Schutz, 2010, Pourtois et al., 2000, and Navarra et al., 2012. I present new evidence against this. I argue that there is no automatic feature binding mechanism that couples features like the jolt and the clang together. Instead, when you experience the jolt and the clang as part of the same event, this is the result of an associative learning process. The cymbal’s jolt and the clang are best understood as a single learned perceptual unit, rather than as automatically bound. I outline the specific learning process in perception called unitization, whereby we come to chunk the world into multimodal units. Unitization has never before been applied to multimodal cases. Yet I argue that this learning process can do the same work that intermodal binding would do, and that this issue has important philosophical implications. Specifically, whether we take multimodal cases to involve a binding mechanism or an associative process will have impact on philosophical issues from Molyneux’s question to the question of how active or passive we consider perception to be.

  1. Exploration of Learning Strategies Associated With Aha Learning Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2016-01-01

    Educators recognize aha moments as powerful aspects of learning. Yet limited research has been performed regarding how to promote these learning moments. This article describes an exploratory study of aha learning moments as experienced and described by participants. Findings showed use of visuals, scenarios, storytelling, Socratic questions, and expert explanation led to aha learning moments. The findings provide guidance regarding the types of learning strategies that can be used to promote aha moments. PMID:26985751

  2. Trial Outcome and Associative Learning Signals in the Monkey Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Wirth, Sylvia; Avsar, Emin; Chiu, Cindy C.; Sharma, Varun; Smith, Anne C.; Emery N Brown; Suzuki, Wendy A.

    2009-01-01

    In tasks of associative learning, animals establish new links between unrelated items by using information about trial outcome to strengthen correct/rewarded associations and modify incorrect/unrewarded ones. To study how hippocampal neurons convey information about reward and trial outcome during new associative learning, we recorded hippocampal neurons as monkeys learned novel object-place associations. A large population of hippocampal neurons (50%) signaled trial outcome by differentiatin...

  3. Audiovisual Association Learning in the Absence of Primary Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Seirafi, Mehrdad; De Weerd, Peter; Pegna, Alan J.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Learning audiovisual associations is mediated by the primary cortical areas; however, recent animal studies suggest that such learning can take place even in the absence of the primary visual cortex. Other studies have demonstrated the involvement of extra-geniculate pathways and especially the superior colliculus (SC) in audiovisual association learning. Here, we investigated such learning in a rare human patient with complete loss of the bilateral striate cortex. We carried out an implicit ...

  4. Simple minds: a qualified defence of associative learning

    OpenAIRE

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Using cooperation in chimpanzees as a case study, this article argues that research on animal minds needs to steer a course between ‘association-blindness’—the failure to consider associative learning as a candidate explanation for complex behaviour—and ‘simple-mindedness’—the assumption that associative explanations trump more cognitive hypotheses. Association-blindness is challenged by the evidence that associative learning occurs in a wide range of taxa and functional contexts, and is a ma...

  5. Learning in rich networks involves both positive and negative associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roembke, Tanja C; Wasserman, Edward A; McMurray, Bob

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive behaviors are believed to be shaped by both positive (the strengthening of correct associations) and negative (the pruning of incorrect associations or the building of inhibitory associations) forms of associative learning. However, there has been little direct documentation of how these basic processes participate in the learning of rich associative networks that support cognitive behaviors like categorization. Although negative associative learning is an important component of theories of development, it is not clear whether it involves acquiring specific (experience-dependent) content or represents a more general aspect of (experience-expectant) development. The authors thus trained pigeons on a complex many-to-many learning paradigm previously established as an analog to human word learning. Pigeons learned to map 16 objects onto 16 distinct report tokens; the authors manipulated the amount of negative associative learning that could occur by restricting which tokens were available as incorrect options. In testing, accuracy was lower on trials with foils that had not been presented with a target than on trials with previously experienced foils. Moreover, when the correct token was withheld, pigeons preferred foils novel to the target object over previously experienced foils. A second experiment replicated these results and further found that these effects only emerged after some positive associations had been acquired. Findings indicate that the learning of rich associative networks does not depend solely on positive associative learning, but also on negative associative learning; this conclusion has important implications for basic learning theories in both animals and humans, as well as for theories of development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27336324

  6. Nicotine Enhances Context Learning but not Context-Shock Associative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, Justin W.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine has been found to enhance learning in a variety of tasks including contextual fear conditioning. During contextual fear conditioning animals have to learn the context and associate the context with an unconditioned stimulus (footshock). As both of these types of learning co-occur during fear conditioning it is not clear whether nicotine enhances one or both of these types of learning. To tease these two forms of learning apart we made use of the context pre-exposure facilitation effe...

  7. Normal brain activation in schizophrenia patients during associative emotional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Marte; Liemburg, Edith Jantine; Kortekaas, Rudie; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Emotional deficits are among the core features of schizophrenia and both associative emotional learning and the related ability to verbalize emotions can be reduced. We investigated whether schizophrenia patients demonstrated impaired function of limbic and prefrontal areas during associative emotio

  8. The Association between Learning Styles and Perception of Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Denise M.; Varhegyi, Melinda M.; Teo, Stephen T. T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although learning styles and teaching quality have been studied separately, the association between the association between the two has yet to be identified. The purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between students' learning styles with students' perceptions of teaching quality. Design/methodology/approach: The study…

  9. Two Ways of Learning Brand Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); C. Janiszewski (Chris)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractFour studies show that consumers have not one but two distinct learning processes that allow them to use brand names and other product features to predict consumption benefits. The first learning process is a relatively unfocused process in which all stimulus elements get cross-reference

  10. Stimulus Representation and Processing in Human Associative Learning: An evaluation of current elemental and configural associative learning theories

    OpenAIRE

    Thorwart, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Theories of associative learning describe learning about the relationship between two events, e.g. the eating of an apple and subsequent stomach ache. One important classification of these models is based on the stimulus representation they suppose. Whereas elemental models assume that the representations of a stimulus compound consist of representations of its components establishing associations, configural models propose that s...

  11. Audiovisual Association Learning in the Absence of Primary Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seirafi, Mehrdad; De Weerd, Peter; Pegna, Alan J; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Learning audiovisual associations is mediated by the primary cortical areas; however, recent animal studies suggest that such learning can take place even in the absence of the primary visual cortex. Other studies have demonstrated the involvement of extra-geniculate pathways and especially the superior colliculus (SC) in audiovisual association learning. Here, we investigated such learning in a rare human patient with complete loss of the bilateral striate cortex. We carried out an implicit audiovisual association learning task with two different colors of red and purple (the latter color known to minimally activate the extra-genicular pathway). Interestingly, the patient learned the association between an auditory cue and a visual stimulus only when the unseen visual stimulus was red, but not when it was purple. The current study presents the first evidence showing the possibility of audiovisual association learning in humans with lesioned striate cortex. Furthermore, in line with animal studies, it supports an important role for the SC in audiovisual associative learning.

  12. Learning a keying sequence you never executed: Evidence for independent associative and motor chunk learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, Willem B.; Wright, David L.

    2014-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has addressed how people learn and control movement sequences. Recent results suggested that practice with discrete key pressing sequences results in two types of sequence learning: associative learning and motor chunk development (Verwey & Abrahamse, 2012). In the p

  13. Evolving neural networks with iterative learning scheme for associative memory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Sh

    1995-01-01

    A locally iterative learning (LIL) rule is adapted to a model of the associative memory based on the evolving recurrent-type neural networks composed of growing neurons. There exist extremely different scale parameters of time, the individual learning time and the generation in evolution. This model allows us definite investigation on the interaction between learning and evolution. And the reinforcement of the robustness against the noise is also achieved in the evolutional scheme.

  14. Critical evidence for the prediction error theory in associative learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kanta Terao; Yukihisa Matsumoto; Makoto Mizunami

    2015-01-01

    In associative learning in mammals, it is widely accepted that the discrepancy, or error, between actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs. Complete evidence for the prediction error theory, however, has not been obtained in any learning systems: Prediction error theory stems from the finding of a blocking phenomenon, but blocking can also be accounted for by other theories, such as the attentional theory. We demonstrated blocking in classical conditioning in crickets an...

  15. I. P. PAVLOV: 100 YEARS OF RESERACH ON ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMÁN GUTIÉRREZ

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A biographical summary of Ivan Pavlov is presented, emphasizing his academic formation and achievements, and hiscontributions to general science and psychology. His main findings on associative learning are described and three areasof current development in this area are discussed: the study of behavioral mechanisms, the study of neurobiologicalmechanisms and the functional role of learning.

  16. Differential Recruitment of Distinct Amygdalar Nuclei across Appetitive Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Powell, Daniel J.; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a…

  17. Biologically Predisposed Learning and Selective Associations in Amygdalar Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ain; Barot, Sabiha K.; Kim, Jeansok J.; Bernstein, Ilene L.

    2011-01-01

    Modern views on learning and memory accept the notion of biological constraints--that the formation of association is not uniform across all stimuli. Yet cellular evidence of the encoding of selective associations is lacking. Here, conditioned stimuli (CSs) and unconditioned stimuli (USs) commonly employed in two basic associative learning…

  18. A Study of Association Strategies in Middle School Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2013-01-01

    English for a long time, they still find their vocabulary insufficient. Because of the lack of vocabulary, they cannot understand the meaning of a sentence or cannot understand what others say. And their desire to learn is very strong. Therefore, possessing the efficient strategies of vocabulary learning is especially important. From this point, according to the investigation, this paper is intended to discuss the efficiency of the association methods in middle school vocabulary learning. Only when teachers adopt the appropriate strategies can they make a productive classroom teaching and arouse students’ learning interest.

  19. Associations between the Classroom Learning Environment and Student Engagement in Learning 1: A Rasch Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Rob

    2012-01-01

    This report is about one of two phases in an investigation into associations between student engagement in classroom learning and the classroom learning environment. Both phases applied the same instrumentation to the same sample. The difference between the phases was in the measurement approach applied. This report is about application of the…

  20. Social learning of an associative foraging task in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zala, Sarah M.; Määttänen, Ilmari

    2013-05-01

    The zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is increasingly becoming an important model species for studies on the genetic and neural mechanisms controlling behaviour and cognition. Here, we utilized a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to study social learning in zebrafish. We tested whether social interactions with conditioned demonstrators enhance the ability of focal naïve individuals to learn an associative foraging task. We found that the presence of conditioned demonstrators improved focal fish foraging behaviour through the process of social transmission, whereas the presence of inexperienced demonstrators interfered with the learning of the control focal fish. Our results indicate that zebrafish use social learning for finding food and that this CPP paradigm is an efficient assay to study social learning and memory in zebrafish.

  1. Worrying Affects Associative Fear Learning: A Startle Fear Conditioning Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gazendam, F.J.; Kindt, M

    2012-01-01

    A valuable experimental model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is that they originate from a learned association between an intrinsically non-aversive event (Conditioned Stimulus, CS) and an anticipated disaster (Unconditioned Stimulus, UCS). Most anxiety disorders, however, do not evolve from a traumatic experience. Insights from neuroscience show that memory can be modified post-learning, which may elucidate how pathological fear can develop after relatively mild aversive events. W...

  2. Towards a New Study on Associative Learning in Human Fetuses: Fetal Associative Learning in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed that fetuses can learn from events in their environment. The most convincing evidence for fetal learning is habituation to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in human fetuses and classical conditioning in rat fetuses. However, these two research areas have been independent of each other. There have been few attempts at classical…

  3. No trade-off between learning speed and associative flexibility in bumblebees: a reversal learning test with multiple colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Raine, Nigel E.; Chittka, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Potential trade-offs between learning speed and memory-related performance could be important factors in the evolution of learning. Here, we test whether rapid learning interferes with the acquisition of new information using a reversal learning paradigm. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) were trained to associate yellow with a floral reward. Subsequently the association between colour and reward was reversed, meaning bees then had to learn to visit blue flowers. We demonstrate that individuals ...

  4. Worrying affects associative fear learning: a startle fear conditioning study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Gazendam; M. Kindt

    2012-01-01

    A valuable experimental model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is that they originate from a learned association between an intrinsically non-aversive event (Conditioned Stimulus, CS) and an anticipated disaster (Unconditioned Stimulus, UCS). Most anxiety disorders, however, do not evolve f

  5. Associative learning and perceptual style: Are associated events perceived analytically or as a whole?

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakanikos, Elias

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined whether the formation of associations is affected by individual differences in perceptual style (analytic vs. holistic). Ninety undergraduate students were tested on their ability to associate concurrent events (i.e. word—colour) and were assessed on measures of field dependence and intelligence. The analysis revealed that analytic perceptual style (field independence) was associated with better performance on associative learning, and that this relationship was retain...

  6. Evolutionary Pseudo-Relaxation Learning Algorithm for Bidirectional Associative Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Zhi Du; Zeng-Qiang Chen; Zhu-Zhi Yuan

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sensitivity to noise in BAM (Bidirectional Associative Memory), and then proves the noise immunity of BAM relates not only to the minimum absolute value of net inputs (MAV) but also to the variance of weights associated with synapse connections. In fact, it is a positive monotonically increasing function of the quotient of MAV divided by the variance of weights. Besides, the performance of pseudo-relaxation method depends on learning parameters (λ and ζ), but the relation of them is not linear. So it is hard to find a best combination of λ and ζ which leads to the best BAM performance. And it is obvious that pseudo-relaxation is a kind of local optimization method, so it cannot guarantee to get the global optimal solution. In this paper, a novel learning algorithm EPRBAM (evolutionary psendo-relaxation learning algorithm for bidirectional association memory) employing genetic algorithm and pseudo-relaxation method is proposed to get feasible solution of BAM weight matrix. This algorithm uses the quotient as the fitness of each individual and employs pseudo-relaxation method to adjust individual solution when it does not satisfy constraining condition any more after genetic operation. Experimental results show this algorithm improves noise immunity of BAM greatly. At the same time, EPRBAM does not depend on learning parameters and can get global optimal solution.

  7. Modeling attention in associative learning: two processes or one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pelley, M E; Haselgrove, Mark; Esber, Guillem R

    2012-09-01

    Certain studies of associative learning show that attention is more substantial to cues that have a history of being predictive of an outcome than to cues that are irrelevant. At the same time, other studies show that attention is more substantial to cues whose outcomes are uncertain than to cues whose outcomes are predictable. This has led to the suggestion of there being two kinds of attention in associative learning: one based upon a mechanism that allocates attention to a cue on the basis of its predictiveness, the other based upon a mechanism that allocates attention to a cue on the basis of its prediction error (e.g., Le Pelley, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57B, 193-243, 2004). As an alternative, it has been demonstrated that the effects of both predictiveness and uncertainty can be accounted for with only one kind of attention: one that emphasizes the role of prediction (Esber & Haselgrove, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278, 2553-2561, 2011). Here, we consider the alternative: whether the effects of predictiveness and uncertainty can be reconciled with a model of learning that emphasizes the role of prediction error (Pearce, Kaye, & Hall, 1982). Simulations of this model reveal that, in many cases, it too is able to account for the influence of predictiveness and uncertainty in associative learning. PMID:22927002

  8. No trade-off between learning speed and associative flexibility in bumblebees: a reversal learning test with multiple colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel E Raine

    Full Text Available Potential trade-offs between learning speed and memory-related performance could be important factors in the evolution of learning. Here, we test whether rapid learning interferes with the acquisition of new information using a reversal learning paradigm. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris were trained to associate yellow with a floral reward. Subsequently the association between colour and reward was reversed, meaning bees then had to learn to visit blue flowers. We demonstrate that individuals that were fast to learn yellow as a predictor of reward were also quick to reverse this association. Furthermore, overnight memory retention tests suggest that faster learning individuals are also better at retaining previously learned information. There is also an effect of relatedness: colonies whose workers were fast to learn the association between yellow and reward also reversed this association rapidly. These results are inconsistent with a trade-off between learning speed and the reversal of a previously made association. On the contrary, they suggest that differences in learning performance and cognitive (behavioural flexibility could reflect more general differences in colony learning ability. Hence, this study provides additional evidence to support the idea that rapid learning and behavioural flexibility have adaptive value.

  9. Reconciling genetic evolution and the associative learning account of mirror neurons through data-acquisition mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotem, Arnon; Kolodny, Oren

    2014-04-01

    An associative learning account of mirror neurons should not preclude genetic evolution of its underlying mechanisms. On the contrary, an associative learning framework for cognitive development should seek heritable variation in the learning rules and in the data-acquisition mechanisms that construct associative networks, demonstrating how small genetic modifications of associative elements can give rise to the evolution of complex cognition.

  10. Associative fear learning enhances sparse network coding in primary sensory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Gdalyahu, Amos; Tring, Elaine; Polack, Pierre-Olivier; Gruver, Robin; Golshani, Peyman; Fanselow, Michael S.; Silva, Alcino J.; Trachtenberg, Joshua T.

    2012-01-01

    Several models of associative learning predict that stimulus processing changes during association formation. How associative learning reconfigures neural circuits in primary sensory cortex to "learn" associative attributes of a stimulus remains unknown. Using 2-photon in-vivo calcium imaging to measure responses of networks of neurons in primary somatosensory cortex, we discovered that associative fear learning, in which whisker stimulation is paired with foot shock, enhances sparse populati...

  11. Implicit versus explicit associative learning and experimentally induced placebo hypoalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Martin-Pichora

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrea L Martin-Pichora1,2, Tsipora D. Mankovsky-Arnold3, Joel Katz11Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Centre for Student Development and Counseling, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: The present study examined whether 1 placebo hypoalgesia can be generated through implicit associative learning (ie, conditioning in the absence of conscious awareness and 2 the magnitude of placebo hypoalgesia changes when expectations about pain are made explicit. The temperature of heat pain stimuli was surreptitiously lowered during conditioning trials for the placebo cream and the magnitude of the placebo effect was assessed during a subsequent set of trials when the temperature was the same for both placebo and control conditions. To assess whether placebo hypoalgesia could be generated from an implicit tactile stimulus, a 2 × 2 design was used with direction of cream application as one factor and verbal information about which cream was being applied as the second factor. A significant placebo effect was observed when participants received verbal information about which cream was being applied but not following implicit conditioning alone. However, 87.5% of those who showed a placebo response as the result of implicit conditioning were able to accurately guess the order of cream application during the final trial, despite a lack of awareness about the sensory manipulation and low confidence in their ratings, suggesting implicit learning in some participants. In summary, implicit associative learning was evident in some participants but it was not sufficient to produce a placebo effect suggesting some level of explicit expectation or cognitive mediation may be necessary. Notably, the placebo response was abolished when expectations were made explicit, suggesting a delicate interplay between attention and expectation.Keywords: placebo hypoalgesia

  12. Worrying affects associative fear learning: a startle fear conditioning study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke J Gazendam

    Full Text Available A valuable experimental model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is that they originate from a learned association between an intrinsically non-aversive event (Conditioned Stimulus, CS and an anticipated disaster (Unconditioned Stimulus, UCS. Most anxiety disorders, however, do not evolve from a traumatic experience. Insights from neuroscience show that memory can be modified post-learning, which may elucidate how pathological fear can develop after relatively mild aversive events. Worrying--a process frequently observed in anxiety disorders--is a potential candidate to strengthen the formation of fear memory after learning. Here we tested in a discriminative fear conditioning procedure whether worry strengthens associative fear memory. Participants were randomly assigned to either a Worry (n = 23 or Control condition (n = 25. After fear acquisition, the participants in the Worry condition processed six worrisome questions regarding the personal aversive consequences of an electric stimulus (UCS, whereas the Control condition received difficult but neutral questions. Subsequently, extinction, reinstatement and re-extinction of fear were tested. Conditioned responding was measured by fear-potentiated startle (FPS, skin conductance (SCR and UCS expectancy ratings. Our main results demonstrate that worrying resulted in increased fear responses (FPS to both the feared stimulus (CS(+ and the originally safe stimulus (CS(-, whereas FPS remained unchanged in the Control condition. In addition, worrying impaired both extinction and re-extinction learning of UCS expectancy. The implication of our findings is that they show how worry may contribute to the development of anxiety disorders by affecting associative fear learning.

  13. Associative learning in ADHD: improved expression under methylphenidate

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterised by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. As might be expected of a disorder in which inhibitory deficits form part of the diagnostic criteria, deficits in response inhibition in ADHD have been evidenced in a number of studies. To date, the tasks used in such studies have required participants to inhibit the learned stimulus-response associations that result in unwanted behavior. Howe...

  14. Deciphering mirror neurons: rational decision versus associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Elias L

    2014-04-01

    The rational-decision approach is superior to the associative-learning approach of Cook et al. at explaining why mirror neurons fire or do not fire - even when the stimulus is the same. The rational-decision approach is superior because it starts with the analysis of the intention of the organism, that is, with the identification of the specific objective or goal that the organism is trying to maximize.

  15. A dual role for prediction error in associative learning

    OpenAIRE

    den Ouden, H. E. M.; Friston, K.J.; Daw, N D; McIntosh, A R; Stephan, K E

    2009-01-01

    Confronted with a rich sensory environment, the brain must learn statistical regularities across sensory domains to construct causal models of the world. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic causal modelling (DCM) to furnish neurophysiological evidence that statistical associations are learnt, even when task-irrelevant. Subjects performed an audio-visual target detection task while being exposed to distractor stimuli. Unknown to them, auditory distractors predict...

  16. Finding Influential Users in Social Media Using Association Rule Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Erlandsson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influential users play an important role in online social networks since users tend to have an impact on one other. Therefore, the proposed work analyzes users and their behavior in order to identify influential users and predict user participation. Normally, the success of a social media site is dependent on the activity level of the participating users. For both online social networking sites and individual users, it is of interest to find out if a topic will be interesting or not. In this article, we propose association learning to detect relationships between users. In order to verify the findings, several experiments were executed based on social network analysis, in which the most influential users identified from association rule learning were compared to the results from Degree Centrality and Page Rank Centrality. The results clearly indicate that it is possible to identify the most influential users using association rule learning. In addition, the results also indicate a lower execution time compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Finding Influential Users in Social Media Using Association Rule Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Fredrik; Bródka, Piotr; Borg, Anton; Johnson, Henric

    2016-04-01

    Influential users play an important role in online social networks since users tend to have an impact on one other. Therefore, the proposed work analyzes users and their behavior in order to identify influential users and predict user participation. Normally, the success of a social media site is dependent on the activity level of the participating users. For both online social networking sites and individual users, it is of interest to find out if a topic will be interesting or not. In this article, we propose association learning to detect relationships between users. In order to verify the findings, several experiments were executed based on social network analysis, in which the most influential users identified from association rule learning were compared to the results from Degree Centrality and Page Rank Centrality. The results clearly indicate that it is possible to identify the most influential users using association rule learning. In addition, the results also indicate a lower execution time compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Associative learning between odorants and mechanosensory punishment in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbach, Claire; Cano, Carmen; Haberkern, Hannah; Schraut, Karla; Guan, Chonglin; Triphan, Tilman; Gerber, Bertram

    2011-12-01

    We tested whether Drosophila larvae can associate odours with a mechanosensory disturbance as a punishment, using substrate vibration conveyed by a loudspeaker (buzz:). One odour (A) was presented with the buzz, while another odour (B) was presented without the buzz (A/B training). Then, animals were offered the choice between A and B. After reciprocal training (A/B), a second experimental group was tested in the same way. We found that larvae show conditioned escape from the previously punished odour. We further report an increase of associative performance scores with the number of punishments, and an increase according to the number of training cycles. Within the range tested (between 50 and 200 Hz), however, the pitch of the buzz does not apparently impact associative success. Last, but not least, we characterized odour-buzz memories with regard to the conditions under which they are behaviourally expressed--or not. In accordance with what has previously been found for associative learning between odours and bad taste (such as high concentration salt or quinine), we report that conditioned escape after odour-buzz learning is disabled if escape is not warranted, i.e. if no punishment to escape from is present during testing. Together with the already established paradigms for the association of odour and bad taste, the present assay offers the prospect of analysing how a relatively simple brain orchestrates memory and behaviour with regard to different kinds of 'bad' events. PMID:22071180

  19. Foreign language learning difficulties in Italian children: are they associated with other learning difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and nonverbal learning skills, such as native language reading accuracy, speed and comprehension, calculation, and attention and self-regulation. Both experiments showed that the LA group seemed at risk for reading comprehension difficulties, but its reading speed and accuracy were within the average range according to Italian norms. The results also excluded the possibility that FL learning difficulties of LA participants could be associated with a deficit in calculation. Furthermore, according to teachers' ratings, children with LA appeared at risk for attention-deficit disorder (ADD). The pattern of learning difficulties of seventh- and eighth-grade participants with LA appeared to be not completely comparable with that of high school students at risk of FL learning difficulties as described in the literature.

  20. Association learning for emotional harbinger cues: When do previous emotional associations impair and when do they facilitate subsequent learning of new associations?

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaki, Michiko; Ycaza-Herrera, Alexandra E.; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Neutral cues that predict emotional events (emotional harbingers) acquire emotional properties and attract attention. Given the importance of emotional harbingers for future survival, it is desirable to flexibly learn new facts about emotional harbingers when needed. However, recent research revealed that it is harder to learn new associations for emotional harbingers than cues that predict non-emotional events (neutral harbingers). In the current study, we addressed whether this impaired ass...

  1. Striatal Associative Learning Signals Are Tuned to In-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Katherine E; Somerville, Leah H; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

    2016-09-01

    An important feature of adaptive social behavior is the ability to flexibly modify future actions based on the successes or failures of past experiences. The ventral striatum (VS) occupies a central role in shaping behavior by using feedback to evaluate actions and guide learning. The current studies tested whether feedback indicating the need to update social knowledge would engage the VS, thereby facilitating subsequent learning. We also examined the sensitivity of these striatal signals to the value associated with social group membership. Across two fMRI studies, participants answered questions testing their knowledge about the preferences of personally relevant social groups who were high (in-group) or low (out-group) in social value. Participants received feedback indicating whether their responses were correct or incorrect on a trial-by-trial basis. After scanning, participants were given a surprise memory test examining memory for the different types of feedback. VS activity in response to social feedback correlated with subsequent memory, specifying a role for the VS in encoding and updating social knowledge. This effect was more robust in response to in-group than out-group feedback, indicating that the VS tracks variations in social value. These results provide novel evidence of a neurobiological mechanism adaptively tuned to the motivational relevance of the surrounding social environment that focuses learning efforts on the most valuable social outcomes and triggers adjustments in behavior when necessary. PMID:27082044

  2. Task-switching in pigeons: Associative learning or executive control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christina; Lea, Stephen E G; McLaren, Ian P L

    2016-04-01

    Human performance in task-switching paradigms is seen as a hallmark of executive-control processes: switching between tasks induces switch costs (such that performance when changing from Task A to Task B is worse than on trials where the task repeats), which is generally attributed to executive control suppressing one task-set and activating the other. However, even in cases where task-sets are not employed, as well as in computational modeling of task switching, switch costs can still be found. This observation has led to the hypothesis that associative-learning processes might be responsible for all or part of the switch costs in task-switching paradigms. To test which cognitive processes contribute to the presence of task-switch costs, pigeons performed two different tasks on the same set of stimuli in rapid alternation. The pigeons showed no sign of switch costs, even though performance on Trial N was influenced by Trial N - 1, showing that they were sensitive to sequential effects. Using Pearce's (1987) model for stimulus generalization, we conclude that they learned the task associatively-in particular, a form of Pavlovian-conditioned approach was involved-and that this was responsible for the lack of any detectable switch costs. Pearce's model also allows us to make interferences about the common occurrence of switch costs in the absence of task-sets in human participants and in computational models, in that they are likely due to instrumental learning and the establishment of an equivalence between cues signaling the same task. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27054382

  3. Learning to Associate Orientation with Color in Early Visual Areas by Associative Decoded fMRI Neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kaoru; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2016-07-25

    Associative learning is an essential brain process where the contingency of different items increases after training. Associative learning has been found to occur in many brain regions [1-4]. However, there is no clear evidence that associative learning of visual features occurs in early visual areas, although a number of studies have indicated that learning of a single visual feature (perceptual learning) involves early visual areas [5-8]. Here, via decoded fMRI neurofeedback termed "DecNef" [9], we tested whether associative learning of orientation and color can be created in early visual areas. During 3 days of training, DecNef induced fMRI signal patterns that corresponded to a specific target color (red) mostly in early visual areas while a vertical achromatic grating was physically presented to participants. As a result, participants came to perceive "red" significantly more frequently than "green" in an achromatic vertical grating. This effect was also observed 3-5 months after the training. These results suggest that long-term associative learning of two different visual features such as orientation and color was created, most likely in early visual areas. This newly extended technique that induces associative learning is called "A-DecNef," and it may be used as an important tool for understanding and modifying brain functions because associations are fundamental and ubiquitous functions in the brain. PMID:27374335

  4. Honeybee associative learning performance and metabolic stress resilience are positively associated.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro V Amdam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social-environmental influences can affect animal cognition and health. Also, human socio-economic status is a covariate factor connecting psychometric test-performance (a measure of cognitive ability, educational achievement, lifetime health, and survival. The complimentary hypothesis, that mechanisms in physiology can explain some covariance between the same traits, is disputed. Possible mechanisms involve metabolic biology affecting integrity and stability of physiological systems during development and ageing. Knowledge of these relationships is incomplete, and underlying processes are challenging to reveal in people. Model animals, however, can provide insights into connections between metabolic biology and physiological stability that may aid efforts to reduce human health and longevity disparities. RESULTS: We document a positive correlation between a measure of associative learning performance and the metabolic stress resilience of honeybees. This relationship is independent of social factors, and may provide basic insights into how central nervous system (CNS function and metabolic biology can be associated. Controlling for social environment, age, and learning motivation in each bee, we establish that learning in Pavlovian conditioning to an odour is positively correlated with individual survival time in hyperoxia. Hyperoxia induces oxidative metabolic damage, and provides a measure of metabolic stress resistance that is often related to overall lifespan in laboratory animals. The positive relationship between Pavlovian learning ability and stress resilience in the bee is not equally established in other model organisms so far, and contrasts with a genetic cost of improved associative learning found in Drosophila melanogaster. CONCLUSIONS: Similarities in the performances of different animals need not reflect common functional principles. A correlation of honeybee Pavlovian learning and metabolic stress resilience, thereby

  5. Language bootstrapping: learning word meanings from perception-action association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Giampiero; Montesano, Luis; Bernardino, Alexandre; Santos-Victor, José

    2012-06-01

    We address the problem of bootstrapping language acquisition for an artificial system similarly to what is observed in experiments with human infants. Our method works by associating meanings to words in manipulation tasks, as a robot interacts with objects and listens to verbal descriptions of the interactions. The model is based on an affordance network, i.e., a mapping between robot actions, robot perceptions, and the perceived effects of these actions upon objects. We extend the affordance model to incorporate spoken words, which allows us to ground the verbal symbols to the execution of actions and the perception of the environment. The model takes verbal descriptions of a task as the input and uses temporal co-occurrence to create links between speech utterances and the involved objects, actions, and effects. We show that the robot is able form useful word-to-meaning associations, even without considering grammatical structure in the learning process and in the presence of recognition errors. These word-to-meaning associations are embedded in the robot's own understanding of its actions. Thus, they can be directly used to instruct the robot to perform tasks and also allow to incorporate context in the speech recognition task. We believe that the encouraging results with our approach may afford robots with a capacity to acquire language descriptors in their operation's environment as well as to shed some light as to how this challenging process develops with human infants.

  6. You see what you have learned. Evidence for an interrelation of associative learning and visual selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Uengoer, Metin; Schubö, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Besides visual salience and observers' current intention, prior learning experience may influence deployment of visual attention. Associative learning models postulate that observers pay more attention to stimuli previously experienced as reliable predictors of specific outcomes. To investigate the impact of learning experience on deployment of attention, we combined an associative learning task with a visual search task and measured event-related potentials of the EEG as neural markers of attention deployment. In the learning task, participants categorized stimuli varying in color/shape with only one dimension being predictive of category membership. In the search task, participants searched a shape target while disregarding irrelevant color distractors. Behavioral results showed that color distractors impaired performance to a greater degree when color rather than shape was predictive in the learning task. Neurophysiological results show that the amplified distraction was due to differential attention deployment (N2pc). Experiment 2 showed that when color was predictive for learning, color distractors captured more attention in the search task (ND component) and more suppression of color distractor was required (PD component). The present results thus demonstrate that priority in visual attention is biased toward predictive stimuli, which allows learning experience to shape selection. We also show that learning experience can overrule strong top-down control (blocked tasks, Experiment 3) and that learning experience has a longer-term effect on attention deployment (tasks on two successive days, Experiment 4).

  7. You see what you have learned. Evidence for an interrelation of associative learning and visual selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Uengoer, Metin; Schubö, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Besides visual salience and observers' current intention, prior learning experience may influence deployment of visual attention. Associative learning models postulate that observers pay more attention to stimuli previously experienced as reliable predictors of specific outcomes. To investigate the impact of learning experience on deployment of attention, we combined an associative learning task with a visual search task and measured event-related potentials of the EEG as neural markers of attention deployment. In the learning task, participants categorized stimuli varying in color/shape with only one dimension being predictive of category membership. In the search task, participants searched a shape target while disregarding irrelevant color distractors. Behavioral results showed that color distractors impaired performance to a greater degree when color rather than shape was predictive in the learning task. Neurophysiological results show that the amplified distraction was due to differential attention deployment (N2pc). Experiment 2 showed that when color was predictive for learning, color distractors captured more attention in the search task (ND component) and more suppression of color distractor was required (PD component). The present results thus demonstrate that priority in visual attention is biased toward predictive stimuli, which allows learning experience to shape selection. We also show that learning experience can overrule strong top-down control (blocked tasks, Experiment 3) and that learning experience has a longer-term effect on attention deployment (tasks on two successive days, Experiment 4). PMID:26338030

  8. Associative learning in the multichamber tank: A new learning paradigm for zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yohaan M; Rampersad, Mindy; Luchiari, Ana C; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The zebrafish has been gaining prominence in the field of behavioural brain research as this species offers a good balance between system complexity and practical simplicity. While the number of studies examining the behaviour of zebrafish has exponentially increased over the past decade, the need is still substantial for paradigms capable of assessing cognitive and mnemonic characteristics of this species. Here we describe and utilize a novel visual discrimination task with which we evaluated acquisition of CS (colour)-US (sight of conspecifics) association in adult zebrafish. We report significant acquisition of CS-US association indicated by the increased time the fish spent in and the increased frequency of visits of the target chamber during a probe trial in the absence of reward. Given the simplicity of the apparatus and procedure, we conclude that the new task may be employed to assay learning and memory in adult zebrafish in an efficient manner. PMID:27345425

  9. Associations between the Classroom Learning Environment and Student Engagement in Learning 2: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, Allen G.; Cavanagh, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is about the second of two phases in an investigation into associations between student engagement in classroom learning and the classroom-learning environment. Whereas the first phase utilized Rasch modelling (Cavanagh, 2012), this report uses latent variable modelling to explore the data. The investigations in both phases of this…

  10. Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette; Abbott, Jessica K.; Philipsborn, Anne von;

    2015-01-01

    are able to learn to associate olfactory and gustatory cues with female receptivity, but the role of more arbitrary, visual cues in mate choice learning has been overlooked to date in this species. We therefore carried out a series of experiments to determine: 1) whether males had a baseline preference...... system for mate choice learning...

  11. Temporally Coordinated Deep Brain Stimulation in the Dorsal and Ventral Striatum Synergistically Enhances Associative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katnani, Husam A; Patel, Shaun R; Kwon, Churl-Su; Abdel-Aziz, Samer; Gale, John T; Eskandar, Emad N

    2016-01-04

    The primate brain has the remarkable ability of mapping sensory stimuli into motor behaviors that can lead to positive outcomes. We have previously shown that during the reinforcement of visual-motor behavior, activity in the caudate nucleus is correlated with the rate of learning. Moreover, phasic microstimulation in the caudate during the reinforcement period was shown to enhance associative learning, demonstrating the importance of temporal specificity to manipulate learning related changes. Here we present evidence that extends upon our previous finding by demonstrating that temporally coordinated phasic deep brain stimulation across both the nucleus accumbens and caudate can further enhance associative learning. Monkeys performed a visual-motor associative learning task and received stimulation at time points critical to learning related changes. Resulting performance revealed an enhancement in the rate, ceiling, and reaction times of learning. Stimulation of each brain region alone or at different time points did not generate the same effect.

  12. Temporally Coordinated Deep Brain Stimulation in the Dorsal and Ventral Striatum Synergistically Enhances Associative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katnani, Husam A; Patel, Shaun R; Kwon, Churl-Su; Abdel-Aziz, Samer; Gale, John T; Eskandar, Emad N

    2016-01-01

    The primate brain has the remarkable ability of mapping sensory stimuli into motor behaviors that can lead to positive outcomes. We have previously shown that during the reinforcement of visual-motor behavior, activity in the caudate nucleus is correlated with the rate of learning. Moreover, phasic microstimulation in the caudate during the reinforcement period was shown to enhance associative learning, demonstrating the importance of temporal specificity to manipulate learning related changes. Here we present evidence that extends upon our previous finding by demonstrating that temporally coordinated phasic deep brain stimulation across both the nucleus accumbens and caudate can further enhance associative learning. Monkeys performed a visual-motor associative learning task and received stimulation at time points critical to learning related changes. Resulting performance revealed an enhancement in the rate, ceiling, and reaction times of learning. Stimulation of each brain region alone or at different time points did not generate the same effect. PMID:26725509

  13. Disconnection of the amygdala from visual association cortex impairs visual reward-association learning in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffan, E A; Gaffan, D; Harrison, S

    1988-09-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were trained in a task that assessed their ability to associate visual stimuli with food reward. Acquisition of stimulus-reward associations was measured under 2 conditions, a 2-stimuli acquisition condition and a 1-stimulus acquisition condition. On each trial in the 2-stimuli condition, the positive (correct) and negative (incorrect) stimuli were presented side by side and the animal chose one by touching it; if the choice was correct, a food reward was dispensed. On each trial in the 1-stimulus condition, either the positive or the negative stimulus was presented alone; if the stimulus was the positive, it was followed by reward delivery, regardless of the animal's response to it, and if it was the negative, it was not followed by reward delivery. Thus, reward delivery was contingent upon the animal's response to the stimuli in the 2-stimuli condition but not in the 1-stimulus condition. The effect of acquisition trials under these 2 conditions was measured, in both conditions, by the animal's subsequent choice when presented with the 2 stimuli side by side. Following preoperative training in this task, the animals were first subjected to unilateral ablation of the inferotemporal cortex. This operation had little effect on the animals' learning ability. Then, the amygdala was ablated in the hemisphere contralateral to that in which the unilateral inferotemporal ablation had been carried out. This combination of crossed unilateral lesions of the amygdala and of the inferotemporal cortex, which disconnects the amygdala from the output of visual association cortex, produced a profound impairment in stimulus-reward-associative learning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3171671

  14. Pair-associate Learning with Modulated Spike-Time Dependent Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoff, N; Grüning, A.; Notley, S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an associative learning model using reward mod- ulated spike-time dependent plasticity in reinforcement learning paradigm. The task of learning is to associate a stimulus pair, known as the predictor− choice pair, to a target response. In our model, a generic architecture of neural network has been used, with minimal assumption about the network dynamics. We demonstrate that stimulus-stimulus-response as- sociation can be implemented in a stochastic way within a noisy setting. The ...

  15. Associative and sensorimotor learning for parenting involves mirror neurons under the influence of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S Shaun; Macdonald, Adam; Swain, James E

    2014-04-01

    Mirror neuron-based associative learning may be understood according to associative learning theories, in addition to sensorimotor learning theories. This is important for a comprehensive understanding of the role of mirror neurons and related hormone modulators, such as oxytocin, in complex social interactions such as among parent-infant dyads and in examples of mirror neuron function that involve abnormal motor systems such as depression.

  16. Associative learning down-regulates PKCβ2- and γ-immunoreactivity in astrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, E.A. van der; Kronforst-Collins, M.A.; Disterhoft, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    We showed previously that associative learning induced a twofold increase in protein kinase Cγ-immunoreactivity (PKCγ-ir) in rabbit CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas subicular neurons remained unchanged. Here, we investigated the effects of associative learning on PKC-positive astrocytes by determining

  17. Contingencies: Learning Numerical and Emotional Associations in an Uncertain World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. de Langhe (Bart)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe ability to learn about the relation or covariation between events happening in the world is probably the most critical aspect of human cognition. This dissertation examines how the human mind learns numerical and emotional relations and explores consequences for managerial and consum

  18. The Role of the Lateral Frontal Cortex in Causal Associative Learning: Exploring Preventative and Super-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Danielle C; Aitken, Michael R.F.; Shanks, David R.; Sahakian, Barbara J; Trevor W Robbins; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    Prediction error — a mismatch between expected and actual outcome — is critical to associative accounts of inferential learning. However, it has proven difficult to explore the effects of prediction error using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while excluding the confounding effects of stimulus novelty and incorrect responses. In this event-related fMRI study we used a three-stage experiment generating preventative- and super-learning conditions. In both cases, it was possible to ...

  19. Learning preference and personality type: their association in paediatric residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, L W; Goldberg, R M; Foley, R P

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the learning preferences and personality types of residents in paediatrics. As part of a study to teach residents in paediatrics how to teach, the authors administered the Learning Preference Inventory (LPI) and Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation (FIRO-B) instruments to 55 residents in paediatrics at all three levels of training. The instruments provided data that were used to provide feedback to residents on their learning preferences and interaction styles, as well as how these factors might affect teaching and learning in the clinical setting. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine relationships between the LPI and the FIRO-B. Fifty-two of the 55 residents (95%) completed the instruments. The results revealed that residents' learning preferences were significantly related to their personality types. For example, residents with high inclusion and affection scores on the FIRO-B preferred learning with others, which was significantly related to their high interpersonal scores on the LPI. Residents with low inclusion and affection scores were more likely to prefer independent learning (high individual and student-structured scores on the LPI) and abstract learning at statistically significant levels. The scores obtained by residents in paediatrics on the LPI were strongly correlated with those obtained on the FIRO-B. These data may have important implications for the way in which staff recruit, counsel and teach residents. The fact that the LPI is easy to administer and does not purport to measure personality styles makes it an acceptable educational tool that can be used in many areas of training.

  20. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects’ performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode. PMID:27314235

  1. Advanced Parkinson's disease effect on goal-directed and habitual processes involved in visuomotor associative learning

    OpenAIRE

    Fadila Hadj-Bouziane; Isabelle Benatru; Andrea Brovelli; Hélène Klinger; Stéphane Thobois

    2013-01-01

    The present behavioral study readdresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease. Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 2...

  2. University of Central Florida and the American Association of State Colleges and Universities: Blended Learning Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Blended Learning Toolkit supports the course redesign approach, and interest in its openly available clearinghouse of online tools, strategies, curricula, and other materials to support the adoption of blended learning continues to grow. When the resource originally launched in July 2011, 20 AASCU [American Association of State Colleges and…

  3. Institutional Change and Leadership Associated with Blended Learning Innovation: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, D. Randy; Vaughan, Norman D.

    2013-01-01

    This article documents the institutional change and leadership associated with blended learning innovation in higher education. Two case studies are provided that demonstrate how transformational institutional change related to blended teaching and learning approaches is predicated upon committed collaborative leadership that engages all levels of…

  4. Factors Associated with Transfer of Training in Workplace E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hye; Wentling, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of factors associated with e-learning, particularly computer attitudes and usability, on transfer of training in workplace e-learning courses. Design/methodology/approach--This study relied on quantitative data obtained from four online survey questionnaires. The sample of this study…

  5. The Smart Gut: Tracking Affective Associative Learning with Measures of "Liking", Facial Electromyography, and Preferential Looking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armel, K. Carrie; Pulido, Carmen; Wixted, John T.; Chiba, Andrea A.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate here that initially neutral items can acquire "specific" value based on their associated outcomes, and that responses of physiological systems to such previously meaningless stimuli can rapidly reflect this associative history. Each participant participated in an associative learning task in which four neutral abstract pictures were…

  6. Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  7. Adult Learning Open University Determinants study (ALOUD): Biological lifestyle factors associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants study (ALOUD): Biological lifestyle factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  8. The Association between Learning and Learning Style in Instructional Marketing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Lawrence L., Jr.; Hyatt, Eva M.; Boya, Unal O.; Ausherman, Babs

    2012-01-01

    To understand how learners of respective types respond to marketing games, a joint space generated by canonical correlation analysis is used to recreate Kolb's learning style-type plot and locate business students as points within it according to their learning style types. Two hundred twenty-three undergraduate students played The Marketing Game!…

  9. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties in Italian Children: Are They Associated with Other Learning Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and…

  10. Fear conditioning with film clips: a complex associative learning paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Kunze; A. Arntz; M. Kindt

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: We argue that the stimuli used in traditional fear conditioning paradigms are too simple to model the learning and unlearning of complex fear memories. We therefore developed and tested an adapted fear conditioning paradigm, specifically designed for the study of complex a

  11. Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette; Abbott, Jessica K.; Philipsborn, Anne von;

    2015-01-01

    are able to learn to associate olfactory and gustatory cues with female receptivity, but the role of more arbitrary, visual cues in mate choice learning has been overlooked to date in this species. We therefore carried out a series of experiments to determine: 1) whether males had a baseline preference...... of the experiment was carried out in darkness.This is, to our knowledge 1) the first evidence that male D. melanogaster can use more arbitrary cues and 2) the first evidence that males use visual cues during mate choice learning. Our findings suggest that that D. melanogaster has untapped potential as a model...... system for mate choice learning...

  12. Exploring action dynamics as an index of paired-associate learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Dale

    Full Text Available Much evidence exists supporting a richer interaction between cognition and action than commonly assumed. Such findings demonstrate that short-timescale processes, such as motor execution, may relate in systematic ways to longer-timescale cognitive processes, such as learning. We further substantiate one direction of this interaction: the flow of cognition into action systems. Two experiments explored match-to-sample paired-associate learning, in which participants learned randomized pairs of unfamiliar symbols. During the experiments, their hand movements were continuously tracked using the Nintendo Wiimote. Across learning, participant arm movements are initiated and completed more quickly, exhibit lower fluctuation, and exert more perturbation on the Wiimote during the button press. A second experiment demonstrated that action dynamics index novel learning scenarios, and not simply acclimatization to the Wiimote interface. Results support a graded and systematic covariation between cognition and action, and recommend ways in which this theoretical perspective may contribute to applied learning contexts.

  13. Using an improved association rules mining optimization algorithm in web-based mobile-learning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin; Chen, Jianhua; Xiong, Shaojun

    2009-07-01

    Mobile-Learning (M-learning) makes many learners get the advantages of both traditional learning and E-learning. Currently, Web-based Mobile-Learning Systems have created many new ways and defined new relationships between educators and learners. Association rule mining is one of the most important fields in data mining and knowledge discovery in databases. Rules explosion is a serious problem which causes great concerns, as conventional mining algorithms often produce too many rules for decision makers to digest. Since Web-based Mobile-Learning System collects vast amounts of student profile data, data mining and knowledge discovery techniques can be applied to find interesting relationships between attributes of learners, assessments, the solution strategies adopted by learners and so on. Therefore ,this paper focus on a new data-mining algorithm, combined with the advantages of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm , called ARGSA(Association rules based on an improved Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm), to mine the association rules. This paper first takes advantage of the Parallel Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Algorithm designed specifically for discovering association rules. Moreover, the analysis and experiment are also made to show the proposed method is superior to the Apriori algorithm in this Mobile-Learning system.

  14. Stimulus Processing and Associative Learning in Wistar and WKHA Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chess, Amy C.; Keene, Christopher S.; Wyzik, Elizabeth C.; Bucci, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed basic learning and attention abilities in WKHA (Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive) rats using appetitive conditioning preparations. Two measures of conditioned responding to a visual stimulus, orienting behavior (rearing on the hindlegs) and food cup behavior (placing the head inside the recessed food cup) were measured. In Experiment 1, simple conditioning but not extinction was impaired in WKHA rats compared to Wistar rats. In Experiment 2, non-reinforced presentations of the vis...

  15. Developmental emergence of fear/threat learning: neurobiology, associations and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallot, L; Doyère, V; Sullivan, R M

    2016-01-01

    Pavlovian fear or threat conditioning, where a neutral stimulus takes on aversive properties through pairing with an aversive stimulus, has been an important tool for exploring the neurobiology of learning. In the past decades, this neurobehavioral approach has been expanded to include the developing infant. Indeed, protracted postnatal brain development permits the exploration of how incorporating the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus into this learning system impacts the acquisition and expression of aversive conditioning. Here, we review the developmental trajectory of these key brain areas involved in aversive conditioning and relate it to pups' transition to independence through weaning. Overall, the data suggests that adult-like features of threat learning emerge as the relevant brain areas become incorporated into this learning. Specifically, the developmental emergence of the amygdala permits cue learning and the emergence of the hippocampus permits context learning. We also describe unique features of learning in early life that block threat learning and enhance interaction with the mother or exploration of the environment. Finally, we describe the development of a sense of time within this learning and its involvement in creating associations. Together these data suggest that the development of threat learning is a useful tool for dissecting adult-like functioning of brain circuits, as well as providing unique insights into ecologically relevant developmental changes.

  16. Quantitative trait loci associated with reversal learning and latent inhibition in honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S B; Hunt, G J; Cobey, S; Smith, B H

    2001-05-01

    A study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect learning in honeybees. Two F1 supersister queens were produced from a cross between two established lines that had been selected for differences in the speed at which they reverse a learned discrimination between odors. Different families of haploid drones from two of these F1 queens were evaluated for two kinds of learning performance--reversal learning and latent inhibition--which previously showed correlated selection responses. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were scored from recombinant, haploid drone progeny that showed extreme manifestations of learning performance. Composite interval mapping procedures identified two QTLs for reversal learning (lrn2 and lrn3: LOD, 2.45 and 2.75, respectively) and one major QTL for latent inhibition (lrn1: LOD, 6.15). The QTL for latent inhibition did not map to either of the linkage groups that were associated with reversal learning. Identification of specific genes responsible for these kinds of QTL associations will open up new windows for better understanding of genes involved in learning and memory.

  17. Second Language Idiom Learning in a Paired-Associate Paradigm: Effects of Direction of Learning, Direction of Testing, Idiom Imageability, and Idiom Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinel, Margarita P.; Hulstijn, Jan H.; Steinel, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    In a paired-associate learning (PAL) task, Dutch university students (n = 129) learned 20 English second language (L2) idioms either receptively or productively (i.e., L2-first language [L1] or L1-L2) and were tested in two directions (i.e., recognition or production) immediately after learning and 3 weeks later. Receptive and productive…

  18. An Empirical Study of Applying Associative Method in College English Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is the basis of any language learning. To many Chinese non-English majors it is difficult to memorize English words. This paper applied associative method in presenting new words to them. It is found that associative method did receive a better result both in short-term and long-term retention of English words. Compared with the…

  19. Cellular Site and Molecular Mode of Synapsin Action in Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Birgit; Chen, Yi-chun; Saumweber, Timo; Mishra, Dushyant; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Schmid, Benjamin; Engmann, Olivia; Gerber, Bertram

    2011-01-01

    Synapsin is an evolutionarily conserved, presynaptic vesicular phosphoprotein. Here, we ask where and how synapsin functions in associative behavioral plasticity. Upon loss or reduction of synapsin in a deletion mutant or via RNAi, respectively, "Drosophila" larvae are impaired in odor-sugar associative learning. Acute global expression of…

  20. Sampling Capacity Underlies Individual Differences in Human Associative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Byrom, Nicola C.; Murphy, Robin A.

    2014-01-01

    Though much work has studied how external factors, such as stimulus properties, influence generalization of associative strength, there has been limited exploration of the influence that internal dispositions may contribute to stimulus processing. Here we report 2 studies using a modified negative patterning discrimination to test the relationship between global processing and generalization. Global processing was associated with stronger negative patterning discrimination, indicative of limi...

  1. Factors associated with employment success among youths with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1991-01-01

    This follow-up study examines the employment success of young adults with learning and other mild disabilities. The study questioned the employee with disabilities, his or her parents, and the employer on a number of vocationally related items. A four-factor model is advanced to explain job success. The factors include job match and accommodation, social acceptance, work attitude, and special services. Participants in a total of 41 job situations were queried with 38 completed triads (employee with mild disability, employer, family). The method of constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data. Although an aggregate of the four factors correlated significantly (p less than .01), job match proved to have the most significant (p less than .01) relationship with the outcome variable. The results are interpreted in light of the need to deliver and understand the types of supported employment services for adults with mild disabilities.

  2. Training-dependent associative learning induced neocortical structural plasticity: a trace eyeblink conditioning analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily S Chau

    Full Text Available Studies utilizing general learning and memory tasks have suggested the importance of neocortical structural plasticity for memory consolidation. However, these learning tasks typically result in learning of multiple different tasks over several days of training, making it difficult to determine the synaptic time course mediating each learning event. The current study used trace-eyeblink conditioning to determine the time course for neocortical spine modification during learning. With eyeblink conditioning, subjects are presented with a neutral, conditioned stimulus (CS paired with a salient, unconditioned stimulus (US to elicit an unconditioned response (UR. With multiple CS-US pairings, subjects learn to associate the CS with the US and exhibit a conditioned response (CR when presented with the CS. Trace conditioning is when there is a stimulus free interval between the CS and the US. Utilizing trace-eyeblink conditioning with whisker stimulation as the CS (whisker-trace-eyeblink: WTEB, previous findings have shown that primary somatosensory (barrel cortex is required for both acquisition and retention of the trace-association. Additionally, prior findings demonstrated that WTEB acquisition results in an expansion of the cytochrome oxidase whisker representation and synaptic modification in layer IV of barrel cortex. To further explore these findings and determine the time course for neocortical learning-induced spine modification, the present study utilized WTEB conditioning to examine Golgi-Cox stained neurons in layer IV of barrel cortex. Findings from this study demonstrated a training-dependent spine proliferation in layer IV of barrel cortex during trace associative learning. Furthermore, findings from this study showing that filopodia-like spines exhibited a similar pattern to the overall spine density further suggests that reorganization of synaptic contacts set the foundation for learning-induced neocortical modifications through the

  3. Inferotemporal-frontal Disconnection: The Uncinate Fascicle and Visual Associative Learning in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacott, M. J.; Gaffan, David

    1992-01-01

    We report a series of six experiments in which we examined the behavioural effects of disconnecting the inferior temporal cortex from the prefrontal cortex in cynomolgus monkeys by sectioning the direct cortico-cortical pathway between them, the uncinate fascicle. In experiment 1, monkeys with bilateral section of the uncinate fascicle showed a marked deficit in learning visuomotor conditional problems. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that this deficit was not the result of a mild motor impairment, nor of a visual discrimination impairment. However, experiment 4 showed that the impairment extended to visual - visual conditional learning. In contrast, following bilateral section of the uncinate fascicle monkeys were unimpaired at two other tasks of visual associative learning: a reward - visual associative task (experiment 5), in which the presence or absence of a food reward served as a cue to the correct choice between two visual stimuli, and a time - visual associative task (experiment 6), in which the cue to the correct choice was the length of the intertrial interval. Thus, animals with uncinate fascicle section showed no impairment in learning to choose between visual stimuli based on their differential association with food reward or other non-visual cues, but were unable to learn to choose between visual stimuli based on their differential association with another visual stimulus. They were equally unable to choose between two motor responses on the basis of the visual cue. PMID:12106395

  4. Selective role for striatal and prefrontal regions in processing first trial feedback during single-trial associative learning

    OpenAIRE

    Eliassen, James C.; Lamy, Martine; Jane B. Allendorfer; Boespflug, Erin; Bullard, Daniel P.; Smith, Matthew; Lee, Jing-Huei; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Discrete jumps in knowledge, as exemplified by single-trial learning, are critical to survival. Despite its importance, however, one-trial learning remains understudied. We sought to better understand the brain activity adaptations that track punctuated changes in associative knowledge by studying visual-motor associative learning with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Human and primate neurophysiological studies of feedback-based learning indicate that performance feedback elicits high ...

  5. Reorganization and plastic changes of the human brain associated with skill learning and expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmin eChang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel experience and learning new skills are known as modulators of brain function. Advances in non-invasive brain imaging have provided new insight into structural and functional reorganization associated with skill learning and expertise. Especially, significant imaging evidences come from the domains of sports and music. Data from in vivo imaging studies in sports and music have provided vital information on plausible neural substrates contributing to brain reorganization underlying skill acquisition in humans. This mini review will attempt to take a narrow snapshot of imaging findings demonstrating functional and structural plasticity that mediate skill learning and expertise while identifying converging areas of interest and possible avenues for future research.

  6. The "proactive" model of learning: Integrative framework for model-free and model-based reinforcement learning utilizing the associative learning-based proactive brain concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsuga, Judit; Biro, Klara; Papp, Csaba; Tajti, Gabor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf

    2016-02-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) is a powerful concept underlying forms of associative learning governed by the use of a scalar reward signal, with learning taking place if expectations are violated. RL may be assessed using model-based and model-free approaches. Model-based reinforcement learning involves the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The model-free system involves the pedunculopontine-tegmental nucleus (PPTgN), the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the ventral striatum (VS). Based on the functional connectivity of VS, model-free and model based RL systems center on the VS that by integrating model-free signals (received as reward prediction error) and model-based reward related input computes value. Using the concept of reinforcement learning agent we propose that the VS serves as the value function component of the RL agent. Regarding the model utilized for model-based computations we turned to the proactive brain concept, which offers an ubiquitous function for the default network based on its great functional overlap with contextual associative areas. Hence, by means of the default network the brain continuously organizes its environment into context frames enabling the formulation of analogy-based association that are turned into predictions of what to expect. The OFC integrates reward-related information into context frames upon computing reward expectation by compiling stimulus-reward and context-reward information offered by the amygdala and hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore we suggest that the integration of model-based expectations regarding reward into the value signal is further supported by the efferent of the OFC that reach structures canonical for model-free learning (e.g., the PPTgN, VTA, and VS).

  7. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Visuomotor Associative Learning and the Sensitivity to Action Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Hétu, Sébastien; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Massicotte, Elsa; De Beaumont, Louis; Fecteau, Shirley; Poirier, Judes; Mercier, Catherine; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Jackson, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Motor representations in the human mirror neuron system are tuned to respond to specific observed actions. This ability is widely believed to be influenced by genetic factors, but no study has reported a genetic variant affecting this system so far. One possibility is that genetic variants might interact with visuomotor associative learning to configure the system to respond to novel observed actions. In this perspective, we conducted a candidate gene study on the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism, a genetic variant linked to motor learning in regions of the mirror neuron system, and tested the effect of this polymorphism on motor facilitation and visuomotor associative learning. In a single-pulse TMS study carried on 16 Met (Val/Met and Met/Met) and 16 Val/Val participants selected from a large pool of healthy volunteers, Met participants showed significantly less muscle-specific corticospinal sensitivity during action observation, as well as reduced visuomotor associative learning, compared to Val homozygotes. These results are the first evidence of a genetic variant tuning sensitivity to action observation and bring to light the importance of considering the intricate relation between genetics and associative learning in order to further understand the origin and function of the human mirror neuron system. PMID:27703276

  8. Associative learning on imbalanced environments: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Cleofas Sánchez, Laura; Sánchez Garreta, José Salvador; García, V.; Valdovinos, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Associative memories have emerged as a powerful computational neural network model for several pattern classification problems. Like most traditional classifiers, these models assume that the classes share similar prior probabilities. However, in many real-life applications the ratios of prior probabilities between classes are extremely skewed. Although the literature has provided numerous studies that examine the performance degradation of renowned classifiers on different imbalanced scenari...

  9. Single amino acids in sucrose rewards modulate feeding and associative learning in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Nicola K; Gray, Helen E; Wright, Geraldine A

    2014-10-01

    Obtaining the correct balance of nutrients requires that the brain integrates information about the body's nutritional state with sensory information from food to guide feeding behaviour. Learning is a mechanism that allows animals to identify cues associated with nutrients so that they can be located quickly when required. Feedback about nutritional state is essential for nutrient balancing and could influence learning. How specific this feedback is to individual nutrients has not often been examined. Here, we tested how the honeybee's nutritional state influenced the likelihood it would feed on and learn sucrose solutions containing single amino acids. Nutritional state was manipulated by pre-feeding bees with either 1M sucrose or 1M sucrose containing 100mM of isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, or methionine 24h prior to olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. We found that bees pre-fed sucrose solution consumed less of solutions containing amino acids and were also less likely to learn to associate amino acid solutions with odours. Unexpectedly, bees pre-fed solutions containing an amino acid were also less likely to learn to associate odours with sucrose the next day. Furthermore, they consumed more of and were more likely to learn when rewarded with an amino acid solution if they were pre-fed isoleucine and proline. Our data indicate that single amino acids at relatively high concentrations inhibit feeding on sucrose solutions containing them, and they can act as appetitive reinforcers during learning. Our data also suggest that select amino acids interact with mechanisms that signal nutritional sufficiency to reduce hunger. Based on these experiments, we predict that nutrient balancing for essential amino acids during learning requires integration of information about several amino acids experienced simultaneously. PMID:24819203

  10. Single amino acids in sucrose rewards modulate feeding and associative learning in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Nicola K; Gray, Helen E; Wright, Geraldine A

    2014-10-01

    Obtaining the correct balance of nutrients requires that the brain integrates information about the body's nutritional state with sensory information from food to guide feeding behaviour. Learning is a mechanism that allows animals to identify cues associated with nutrients so that they can be located quickly when required. Feedback about nutritional state is essential for nutrient balancing and could influence learning. How specific this feedback is to individual nutrients has not often been examined. Here, we tested how the honeybee's nutritional state influenced the likelihood it would feed on and learn sucrose solutions containing single amino acids. Nutritional state was manipulated by pre-feeding bees with either 1M sucrose or 1M sucrose containing 100mM of isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, or methionine 24h prior to olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. We found that bees pre-fed sucrose solution consumed less of solutions containing amino acids and were also less likely to learn to associate amino acid solutions with odours. Unexpectedly, bees pre-fed solutions containing an amino acid were also less likely to learn to associate odours with sucrose the next day. Furthermore, they consumed more of and were more likely to learn when rewarded with an amino acid solution if they were pre-fed isoleucine and proline. Our data indicate that single amino acids at relatively high concentrations inhibit feeding on sucrose solutions containing them, and they can act as appetitive reinforcers during learning. Our data also suggest that select amino acids interact with mechanisms that signal nutritional sufficiency to reduce hunger. Based on these experiments, we predict that nutrient balancing for essential amino acids during learning requires integration of information about several amino acids experienced simultaneously.

  11. Dynamically stable associative learning: a neurobiologically based ANN and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Thomas P.; Blackwell, Kim L.; Barbour, Garth; Alkon, Daniel L.

    1992-07-01

    Most currently popular artificial neural networks (ANN) are based on conceptions of neuronal properties that date back to the 1940s and 50s, i.e., to the ideas of McCullough, Pitts, and Hebb. Dystal is an ANN based on current knowledge of neurobiology at the cellular and subcellular level. Networks based on these neurobiological insights exhibit the following advantageous properties: (1) A theoretical storage capacity of bN non-orthogonal memories, where N is the number of output neurons sharing common inputs and b is the number of distinguishable (gray shade) levels. (2) The ability to learn, store, and recall associations among noisy, arbitrary patterns. (3) A local synaptic learning rule (learning depends neither on the output of the post-synaptic neuron nor on a global error term), some of whose consequences are: (4) Feed-forward, lateral, and feed-back connections (as well as time-sensitive connections) are possible without alteration of the learning algorithm; (5) Storage allocation (patch creation) proceeds dynamically as associations are learned (self- organizing); (6) The number of training set presentations required for learning is small (< 10) and does not change with pattern size or content; and (7) The network exhibits monotonic convergence, reaching equilibrium (fully trained) values without oscillating. The performance of Dystal on pattern completion tasks such as faces with different expressions and/or corrupted by noise, and on reading hand-written digits (98% accuracy) and hand-printed Japanese Kanji (90% accuracy) is demonstrated.

  12. Developmental Changes in Hippocampal CA1 Single Neuron Firing and Theta Activity during Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jangjin; Goldsberry, Mary E.; Harmon, Thomas C.; Freeman, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal development is thought to play a crucial role in the emergence of many forms of learning and memory, but ontogenetic changes in hippocampal activity during learning have not been examined thoroughly. We examined the ontogeny of hippocampal function by recording theta and single neuron activity from the dorsal hippocampal CA1 area while rat pups were trained in associative learning. Three different age groups [postnatal days (P)17-19, P21-23, and P24-26] were trained over six sessions using a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) and a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (US). Learning increased as a function of age, with the P21-23 and P24-26 groups learning faster than the P17-19 group. Age- and learning-related changes in both theta and single neuron activity were observed. CA1 pyramidal cells in the older age groups showed greater task-related activity than the P17-19 group during CS-US paired sessions. The proportion of trials with a significant theta (4–10 Hz) power change, the theta/delta ratio, and theta peak frequency also increased in an age-dependent manner. Finally, spike/theta phase-locking during the CS showed an age-related increase. The findings indicate substantial developmental changes in dorsal hippocampal function that may play a role in the ontogeny of learning and memory. PMID:27764172

  13. Does academic performance or personal growth share a stronger association with learning environment perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Sean; Wright, Scott M.; Shochet, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to characterize the relative strength of associations of learning environment perception with academic performance and with personal growth. Methods In 2012-2014 second and third year students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine completed a learning environment survey and personal growth scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was employed to determine if the proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was significantly larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance (course/clerkship grades). Results The proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance in year 2 [R2Δ of 0.09, F(1,175) = 14.99,  p perception. PMID:27570912

  14. Effect of lighting conditions on brain network complexity associated with response learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida M; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge L

    2013-10-25

    Several studies have reported the brain regions involved in response learning. However, there is discrepancy regarding the lighting conditions in the experimental setting (i.e. under dark or light conditions). In this regard, it would be relevant to know if the presence/absence of visual cues in the environment has any effect in the brain networks involved in a response learning task. Animals were trained in a water T-maze under two different lighting conditions (light versus dark). All subjects reached the learning criterion of 80% correct arm choices. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry was used as a metabolic brain mapping technique. Our results show that the ventral hippocampus and the parietal cortex are associated with the acquisition of a response learning task regardless of lighting conditions. In addition, when the same task is run in the dark, widespread recruitment of structures involving cortical, limbic and striatal regions was found. PMID:24084195

  15. Associative repetition priming as a measure of human contingency learning: evidence of forward and backward blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morís, Joaquín; Cobos, Pedro L; Luque, David; López, Francisco J

    2014-02-01

    Associative theories have been widely used to explain human contingency learning. Standard experimental procedures in the field have requested verbal judgments as a measure of the cue-outcome relationships learned. According to these theories, knowledge retrieval is based on spreading activation processes. However, verbal judgments may allow or even promote the engagement of high-order processes that may hinder the interpretation of verbal judgments as the output of automatic retrieval processes like those posited. However, previous studies on human associative memory have shown that priming tests, under the right conditions, can minimize the engagement of high-order processes and serve as a measure of low-level automatic retrieval processes. Thus, a new human contingency learning task that incorporates a recognition priming test was developed and tested here. The results showed that, as predicted by associative theories, repetition priming was found after training. In addition, the results showed that relevant learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking could also be detected using this test. Finally, training based on instructions did not modulate the priming effect. The relevance of these findings for theories of human contingency learning and priming is discussed. PMID:23230993

  16. Distinct roles of the RasGAP family proteins in C. elegans associative learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurkó, M Dávid; Csermely, Péter; Sőti, Csaba; Steták, Attila

    2015-01-01

    The Ras GTPase activating proteins (RasGAPs) are regulators of the conserved Ras/MAPK pathway. Various roles of some of the RasGAPs in learning and memory have been reported in different model systems, yet, there is no comprehensive study to characterize all gap genes in any organism. Here, using reverse genetics and neurobehavioural tests, we studied the role of all known genes of the rasgap family in C. elegans in associative learning and memory. We demonstrated that their proteins are implicated in different parts of the learning and memory processes. We show that gap-1 contribute redundantly with gap-3 to the chemosensation of volatile compounds, gap-1 plays a major role in associative learning, while gap-2 and gap-3 are predominantly required for short- and long-term associative memory. Our results also suggest that the C. elegans Ras orthologue let-60 is involved in multiple processes during learning and memory. Thus, we show that the different classes of RasGAP proteins are all involved in cognitive function and their complex interplay ensures the proper formation and storage of novel information in C. elegans. PMID:26469632

  17. The evolution of associative learning: A factor in the Cambrian explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Simona; Jablonka, Eva

    2010-09-01

    The Cambrian explosion is probably the most spectacular diversification in evolutionary history, and understanding it has been a challenge for biologists since the time of Darwin. We propose that one of the key factors that drove this great diversification was associative learning. Although the evolutionary emergence of associative learning required only small modifications in already existing memory mechanisms and may have occurred in parallel in several groups, once this type of learning appeared on the evolutionary scene, it led to extreme diversifying selection at the ecological level: it enabled animals to exploit new niches, promoted new types of relations and arms races, and led to adaptive responses that became fixed through genetic accommodation processes. This learning-based diversification was accompanied by neurohormonal stress, which led to an ongoing destabilization and re-patterning of the epigenome, which, in turn, enabled further morphological, physiological, and behavioral diversification. Our hypothesis combines several previous ideas about the dynamics of the Cambrian explosion and provides a unifying framework that includes both ecological and genomic factors. We conclude by suggesting research directions that would clarify the timing and manner in which associative learning evolved, and the effects it had on the evolution of nervous systems, genomes, and animal morphology. PMID:20558182

  18. Electrophysiological CNS-processes related to associative learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Gert R J; Schachtman, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    The neurophysiology of human associative memory has been studied with electroencephalographic techniques since the 1930s. This research has revealed that different types of electrophysiological processes in the human brain can be modified by conditioning: sensory evoked potentials, sensory induced gamma-band activity, periods of frequency-specific waves (alpha and beta waves, the sensorimotor rhythm and the mu-rhythm) and slow cortical potentials. Conditioning of these processes has been studied in experiments that either use operant conditioning or repeated contingent pairings of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (classical conditioning). In operant conditioning, the appearance of a specific brain process is paired with an external stimulus (neurofeedback) and the feedback enables subjects to obtain varying degrees of control of the CNS-process. Such acquired self-regulation of brain activity has found practical uses for instance in the amelioration of epileptic seizures, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It has also provided communicative means of assistance for tetraplegic patients through the use of brain computer interfaces. Both extra and intracortically recorded signals have been coupled with contingent external feedback. It is the aim for this review to summarize essential results on all types of electromagnetic brain processes that have been modified by classical or operant conditioning. The results are organized according to type of conditioned EEG-process, type of conditioning, and sensory modalities of the conditioning stimuli.

  19. Are Approaches to Learning in Kindergarten Associated with Academic and Social Competence Similarly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Rachel A.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approaches to learning (ATL) is a key domain of school readiness with important implications for children's academic trajectories. Interestingly, however, the impact of early ATL on children's social competence has not been examined. Objective: This study examines associations between children's ATL at age 5 and academic achievement…

  20. Learning Outcomes Associated with Classroom Implementation of a Biotechnology-Themed Video Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barko, Tim; Sadler, Troy D.

    2013-01-01

    The educational video game Mission Biotech provides a virtual experience for students in learning biotechnology materials and tools. This study explores the use of Mission Biotech and the associated curriculum by three high school teachers and their students. All three classes demonstrated gains on a curriculum-aligned test of science content.…

  1. Stimulus-Reward Association and Reversal Learning in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalla, Tiziana; Sav, Anca-Maria; Leboyer, Marion

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, performance of a group of adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) on two series of object reversal and extinction was compared with that of a group of adults with typical development. Participants were requested to learn a stimulus-reward association rule and monitor changes in reward value of stimuli in order to gain as many…

  2. Adult Learning Open University Determinants study (ALOUD): physical activity associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 23 May). Adult Learning Open University Determinants study (ALOUD): physical activity associated with study success. Poster presentation at the annual meeting of the International Society for Behaviour on Nutrition and Physical Acti

  3. Dopamine DRD2 polymorphism alters reversal learning and associated neural activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jocham, G.; Klein, T.A.; Neumann, J.; Cramon, D.Y. von; Reuter, M.; Ullsperger, M.

    2009-01-01

    In humans, presence of an A1 allele of the DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIa polymorphism is associated with reduced expression of dopamine (DA) D-2 receptors in the striatum. Recently, it was observed that carriers of the A1 allele (A1 + subjects) showed impaired learning from negative feedback in a reinforcement l

  4. Aging Affects Acquisition and Reversal of Reward-Based Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Julia A.; Bellebaum, Christian; Daum, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Reward-based associative learning is mediated by a distributed network of brain regions that are dependent on the dopaminergic system. Age-related changes in key regions of this system, the striatum and the prefrontal cortex, may adversely affect the ability to use reward information for the guidance of behavior. The present study investigated the…

  5. Associations among Sleep Problems, Learning Difficulties and Substance Use in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakier, Nuraan; Wild, Lauren G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence. Previous research suggests that these variables share an association with executive functioning deficits, and are intertwined. The sample comprised 427 adolescents (M age = 16 years) attending remedial schools and 276 adolescents…

  6. History and Culture of Alara--The Action Learning and Action Research Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Passfield, Ron

    2016-01-01

    As co-founders of the Action Learning and Action Research Association (ALARA), we tell the story of this international network organisation through our personal experience. Our history traces the evolution of ALARA from origins at the first World Congress in 1990 in Brisbane, Australia, through development over two and a half decades, to its…

  7. Learning Processes Associated with Panic-Related Symptoms in Families with and without Panic Disordered Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Munsch, Simone; Margraf, Jurgen; Schneider, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared learning processes associated with panic-related symptoms in families with and without panic disordered mothers. Using a multi-informant approach, 86 mothers [of whom 58 had a primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD)], their partners and teenage children (mean age, 16.67 years) reported about parents' behavior (modeling…

  8. The Development of Associative Word Learning in Monolingual and Bilingual Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Fennell, Christopher T.; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    Children growing up bilingual face a unique linguistic environment. The current study investigated whether early bilingual experience influences the developmental trajectory of associative word learning, a foundational mechanism for lexical acquisition. Monolingual and bilingual infants (N = 98) were tested on their ability to learn…

  9. Foraging and associative learning of visual signals in a parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetta, Patrice; Bernstein, Carlos; Théry, Marc; Lazzari, Claudio; Desouhant, Emmanuel

    2008-07-01

    To cope with environmental variability, animals should gather and use information to reduce uncertainty. In insect parasitoids, associative learning has been widely documented in the context of host foraging. However, despite its potential adaptive value, the insect food searching strategy and cues used to search are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the ability of hymenopteran Venturia canescens females to associate food to a visual cue. To broaden the scope of our results, experiments were performed with both arrhenotokous (sexual) and thelytokous (asexual) individuals. The wasps showed innate attraction for yellow and orange stimuli when presented versus blue stimuli. When trained to associate a food reward with one of the attractive colours (orange), they significantly moved from a distance towards the colour previously associated with food. The choice of the innately preferred colour (yellow) was not modified by associative learning. In the context of food foraging, this study is the first to show associative learning using visual stimuli in a parasitoid and active choice of this colour. This ability gives new insights concerning potential food sources for V. canescens in the field, since flowers are sugar sources, which emit colour signals. PMID:18274795

  10. A conserved function of C. elegans CASY-1 calsyntenin in associative learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric J Hoerndli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whole-genome association studies in humans have enabled the unbiased discovery of new genes associated with human memory performance. However, such studies do not allow for a functional or causal testing of newly identified candidate genes. Since polymorphisms in Calsyntenin 2 (CLSTN2 showed a significant association with episodic memory performance in humans, we tested the C. elegans CLSTN2 ortholog CASY-1 for possible functions in the associative behavior of C. elegans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using three different associative learning paradigms and functional rescue experiments, we show that CASY-1 plays an important role during associative learning in C. elegans. Furthermore, neuronal expression of human CLSTN2 in C. elegans rescues the learning defects of casy-1 mutants. Finally, genetic interaction studies and neuron-specific expression experiments suggest that CASY-1 may regulate AMPA-like GLR-1 glutamate receptor signaling. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our experiments demonstrate a remarkable conservation of the molecular function of Calsyntenins between nematodes and humans and point at a role of C. elegans casy-1 in regulating a glutamate receptor signaling pathway.

  11. Nicotinic modulation of hippocampal cell signaling and associated effects on learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    The hippocampus is a key brain structure involved in synaptic plasticity associated with long-term declarative memory formation. Importantly, nicotine and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can alter hippocampal plasticity and these changes may occur through modulation of hippocampal kinases and transcription factors. Hippocampal kinases such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and c-jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), and the transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) that are activated either directly or indirectly by nicotine may modulate hippocampal plasticity and in parallel hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Evidence suggests that nicotine may alter hippocampus-dependent learning by changing the time and magnitude of activation of kinases and transcription factors normally involved in learning and by recruiting additional cell signaling molecules. Understanding how nicotine alters learning and memory will advance basic understanding of the neural substrates of learning and aid in understanding mental disorders that involve cognitive and learning deficits.

  12. Taking the Operant Paradigm into the Field: Associative Learning in Wild Great Tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Morand-Ferron

    Full Text Available Associative learning is essential for resource acquisition, predator avoidance and reproduction in a wide diversity of species, and is therefore a key target for evolutionary and comparative cognition research. Automated operant devices can greatly enhance the study of associative learning and yet their use has been mainly restricted to laboratory conditions. We developed a portable, weatherproof, battery-operated operant device and conducted the first fully automated colour-associative learning experiment using free-ranging individuals in the wild. We used the device to run a colour discrimination task in a monitored population of tits (Paridae. Over two winter months, 80 individuals from four species recorded a total of 5,128 trials. Great tits (Parus major were more likely than other species to visit the devices and engage in trials, but there were no sex or personality biases in the sample of great tits landing at the devices and registering key pecks. Juveniles were more likely than adults to visit the devices and to register trials. Individuals that were successful at solving a novel technical problem in captivity (lever-pulling learned faster than non-solvers when at the operant devices in the wild, suggesting cross-contextual consistency in learning performance in very different tasks. There was no significant effect of personality or sex on learning rate, but juveniles' choice accuracy tended to improve at a faster rate than adults. We discuss how customisable automated operant devices, such as the one described here, could prove to be a powerful tool in evolutionary ecology studies of cognitive traits, especially among inquisitive species such as great tits.

  13. Effect of student emotion-associations on architectural color design of educational spaces in 3D Virtual Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Saleeb, Noha; Dafoulas, George

    2010-01-01

    Research has been previously dedicated to investigating effects of traditional classroom colors on students’ enjoyment, interactions and learning experiences. Students’ emotional reactions towards different colors were also depicted and analyzed. However sparse research has been conducted representing analogous studies of students’ color-emotional associations towards e-learning spaces in 3D virtual learning environments. This study investigates positive and negative emotional associations ex...

  14. Second-Order Systematicity of Associative Learning: A Paradox for Classical Compositionality and a Coalgebraic Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2016-01-01

    Systematicity is a property of cognitive architecture whereby having certain cognitive capacities implies having certain other "structurally related" cognitive capacities. The predominant classical explanation for systematicity appeals to a notion of common syntactic/symbolic structure among the systematically related capacities. Although learning is a (second-order) cognitive capacity of central interest to cognitive science, a systematic ability to learn certain cognitive capacities, i.e., second-order systematicity, has been given almost no attention in the literature. In this paper, we introduce learned associations as an instance of second-order systematicity that poses a paradox for classical theory, because this form of systematicity involves the kinds of associative constructions that were explicitly rejected by the classical explanation. Our category theoretic explanation of systematicity resolves this problem, because both first and second-order forms of systematicity are derived from the same categorical construction: universal morphisms, which generalize the notion of compositionality of constituent representations to (categorical) compositionality of constituent processes. We derive a model of systematic associative learning based on (co)recursion, which is an instance of a universal construction. These results provide further support for a category theory foundation for cognitive architecture. PMID:27505411

  15. Sharp wave/ripple network oscillations and learning-associated hippocampal maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csicsvari, Jozsef; Dupret, David

    2014-02-01

    Sharp wave/ripple (SWR, 150-250 Hz) hippocampal events have long been postulated to be involved in memory consolidation. However, more recent work has investigated SWRs that occur during active waking behaviour: findings that suggest that SWRs may also play a role in cell assembly strengthening or spatial working memory. Do such theories of SWR function apply to animal learning? This review discusses how general theories linking SWRs to memory-related function may explain circuit mechanisms related to rodent spatial learning and to the associated stabilization of new cognitive maps.

  16. Neuron-specific regulation of associative learning and memory by MAGI-1 in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Stetak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying the molecular mechanisms and neural circuits that control learning and memory are major challenges in neuroscience. Mammalian MAGI/S-SCAM is a multi-PDZ domain synaptic scaffolding protein that interacts with a number of postsynaptic signaling proteins and is thereby thought to regulate synaptic plasticity [1], [2], [3]. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While investigating the behavioral defects of C. elegans nematodes carrying a mutation in the single MAGI ortholog magi-1, we have identified specific neurons that require MAGI-1 function for different aspects of associative learning and memory. Various sensory stimuli and a food deprivation signal are associated in RIA interneurons during learning, while additional expression of MAGI-1 in glutamatergic AVA, AVD and possibly AVE interneurons is required for efficient memory consolidation, i.e. the ability to retain the conditioned changes in behavior over time. During associative learning, MAGI-1 in RIA neurons controls in a cell non-autonomous fashion the dynamic remodeling of AVA, AVD and AVE synapses containing the ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR GLR-1 [4]. During memory consolidation, however, MAGI-1 controls GLR-1 clustering in AVA and AVD interneurons cell-autonomously and depends on the ability to interact with the beta-catenin HMP-2. SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these results indicate that different aspects of associative learning and memory in C. elegans are likely carried out by distinct subsets of interneurons. The synaptic scaffolding protein MAGI-1 plays a critical role in these processes in part by regulating the clustering of iGluRs at synapses.

  17. Larger error signals in major depression are associated with better avoidance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F eCavanagh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is particularly reactive to signals of error, punishment, and conflict in the service of behavioral adaptation and it is consistently implicated in the etiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. This association makes conceptual sense, given that MDD has been associated with hyper-reactivity in neural systems associated with punishment processing. Yet in practice, depression-related variance in measures of mPFC functioning often fails to relate to performance. For example, neuroelectric reflections of mediofrontal error signals are often found to be larger in MDD, but a deficit in post-error performance suggests that these error signals are not being used to rapidly adapt behavior. Thus, it remains unknown if depression-related variance in error signals reflects a meaningful alteration in the use of error or punishment information. However, larger mediofrontal error signals have also been related to another behavioral tendency: increased accuracy in avoidance learning. The integrity of this error-avoidance system remains untested in MDD. In this study, EEG was recorded as 21 symptomatic, drug-free participants with current or past MDD and 24 control participants performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. Depressed participants had larger mPFC EEG responses to error feedback than controls. The direct relationship between error signal amplitudes and avoidance learning accuracy was replicated. Crucially, this relationship was stronger in depressed participants for high conflict lose-lose situations, demonstrating a selective alteration of avoidance learning. This investigation provided evidence that larger error signal amplitudes in depression are associated with increased avoidance learning, identifying a candidate mechanistic model for hypersensitivity to negative outcomes in depression.

  18. Dopamine Regulates Aversive Contextual Learning and Associated In Vivo Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, John I; Yang, Kechun; Levine, Amber T; Tsetsenis, Theodoros; Jenson, Daniel; Cao, Fei; Garcia, Isabella; Arenkiel, Benjamin R; Zhou, Fu-Ming; De Biasi, Mariella; Dani, John A

    2016-03-01

    Dopamine release during reward-driven behaviors influences synaptic plasticity. However, dopamine innervation and release in the hippocampus and its role during aversive behaviors are controversial. Here, we show that in vivo hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the CA3-CA1 circuit underlies contextual learning during inhibitory avoidance (IA) training. Immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques verified sparse dopaminergic innervation of the hippocampus from the midbrain. The long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) underlying the learning of IA was assessed with a D1-like dopamine receptor agonist or antagonist in ex vivo hippocampal slices and in vivo in freely moving mice. Inhibition of D1-like dopamine receptors impaired memory of the IA task and prevented the training-induced enhancement of both ex vivo and in vivo LTP induction. The results indicate that dopamine-receptor signaling during an aversive contextual task regulates aversive memory retention and regulates associated synaptic mechanisms in the hippocampus that likely underlie learning. PMID:26904943

  19. Disruption of ripple-associated hippocampal activity during rest impairs spatial learning in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ego-Stengel, Valérie; Wilson, Matthew A

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a key role in the acquisition of new memories for places and events. Evidence suggests that the consolidation of these memories is enhanced during sleep. At the neuronal level, reactivation of awake experience in the hippocampus during sharp-wave ripple events, characteristic of slow-wave sleep, has been proposed as a neural mechanism for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. However, a causal relation between sleep reactivation and memory consolidation has not been established. Here we show that disrupting neuronal activity during ripple events impairs spatial learning. We trained rats daily in two identical spatial navigation tasks followed each by a 1-hour rest period. After one of the tasks, stimulation of hippocampal afferents selectively disrupted neuronal activity associated with ripple events without changing the sleep-wake structure. Rats learned the control task significantly faster than the task followed by rest stimulation, indicating that interfering with hippocampal processing during sleep led to decreased learning.

  20. Selectivity in associative learning: A cognitive stage framework for blocking and cue competition phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick eBoddez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Blocking is the most important phenomenon in the history of associative learning theory: For over 40 years, blocking has inspired a whole generation of learning models. Blocking is part of a family of effects that are typically termed cue competition effects. Common amongst all cue competition effects is that a cue-outcome relation is poorly learned or poorly expressed because the cue is trained in the presence of an alternative predictor or cause of the outcome. We provide an overview of the cognitive processes involved in cue competition effects in humans and propose a stage framework that brings these processes together. The framework contends that the behavioral display of cue competition is cognitively construed following three stages that include (1 an encoding stage, (2 a retention stage, and (3 a performance stage. We argue that the stage framework supports a comprehensive understanding of cue competition effects.

  1. The real-time learning mechanism of the Scientific Research Associates Advanced Robotic System (SRAARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alexander Y.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific research associates advanced robotic system (SRAARS) is an intelligent robotic system which has autonomous learning capability in geometric reasoning. The system is equipped with one global intelligence center (GIC) and eight local intelligence centers (LICs). It controls mainly sixteen links with fourteen active joints, which constitute two articulated arms, an extensible lower body, a vision system with two CCD cameras and a mobile base. The on-board knowledge-based system supports the learning controller with model representations of both the robot and the working environment. By consecutive verifying and planning procedures, hypothesis-and-test routines and learning-by-analogy paradigm, the system would autonomously build up its own understanding of the relationship between itself (i.e., the robot) and the focused environment for the purposes of collision avoidance, motion analysis and object manipulation. The intelligence of SRAARS presents a valuable technical advantage to implement robotic systems for space exploration and space station operations.

  2. Patterns of regional brain activation associated with different forms of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M; Ghez, C; Dhawan, V; Moeller, J; Mentis, M; Nakamura, T; Antonini, A; Eidelberg, D

    2000-07-14

    To examine the variations in regional cerebral blood flow during execution and learning of reaching movements, we employed a family of kinematically and dynamically controlled motor tasks in which cognitive, mnemonic and executive features of performance were differentiated and characterized quantitatively. During 15O-labeled water positron emission tomography (PET) scans, twelve right-handed subjects moved their dominant hand on a digitizing tablet from a central location to equidistant targets displayed with a cursor on a computer screen in synchrony with a tone. In the preceding week, all subjects practiced three motor tasks: 1) movements to a predictable sequence of targets; 2) learning of new visuomotor transformations in which screen cursor motion was rotated by 30 degrees -60 degrees; 3) learning new target sequences by trial and error, by using previously acquired routines in a task placing heavy load on spatial working memory. The control condition was observing screen and audio displays. Subtraction images were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping to identify significant brain activation foci. Execution of predictable sequences was characterized by a modest decrease in movement time and spatial error. The underlying pattern of activation involved primary motor and sensory areas, cerebellum, basal ganglia. Adaptation to a rotated reference frame, a form of procedural learning, was associated with decrease in the imposed directional bias. This task was associated with activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. New sequences were learned explicitly. Significant activation was found in dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In this study, we have introduced a series of flexible motor tasks with similar kinematic characteristics and different spatial attributes. These tasks can be used to assess specific aspects of motor learning with imaging in health and disease. PMID:10882792

  3. The Value of E-Learning for the Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeau, Sonia O; Rello, Jordi; Dimopoulos, George; Lipman, Jeffrey; Sarikaya, Aklime; Oztürk, Candan; Vandijck, Dominique M; Vogelaers, Dirk; Vandewoude, Koenraad; Blot, Stijn I

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Healthcare workers (HCWs) lack familiarity with evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). There is good evidence that effective educational interventions help to facilitate guideline implementation, so we investigated whether e-learning could enhance HCW knowledge of HAI prevention guidelines. METHODS We developed an electronic course (e-course) and tested its usability and content validity. An international sample of voluntary learners submitted to a pretest (T0) that determined their baseline knowledge of guidelines, and they subsequently studied the e-course. Immediately after studying the course, posttest 1 (T1) assessed the immediate learning effect. After 3 months, during which participants had no access to the course, a second posttest (T2) evaluated the residual learning effect. RESULTS A total of 3,587 HCWs representing 79 nationalities enrolled: 2,590 HCWs (72%) completed T0; 1,410 HCWs (39%) completed T1; and 1,011 HCWs (28%) completed T2. The median study time was 193 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 96-306 minutes) The median scores were 52% (IQR, 44%-62%) for T0, 80% (IQR, 68%-88%) for T1, and 74% (IQR, 64%-84%) for T2. The immediate learning effect (T0 vs T1) was +24% (IQR, 12%-34%; P300 minutes yielded the greatest residual effect (24%). CONCLUSIONS Moderate time invested in e-learning yielded significant immediate and residual learning effects. Decision makers could consider promoting e-learning as a supporting tool in HAI prevention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:1052-1059.

  4. The Value of E-Learning for the Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeau, Sonia O; Rello, Jordi; Dimopoulos, George; Lipman, Jeffrey; Sarikaya, Aklime; Oztürk, Candan; Vandijck, Dominique M; Vogelaers, Dirk; Vandewoude, Koenraad; Blot, Stijn I

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Healthcare workers (HCWs) lack familiarity with evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). There is good evidence that effective educational interventions help to facilitate guideline implementation, so we investigated whether e-learning could enhance HCW knowledge of HAI prevention guidelines. METHODS We developed an electronic course (e-course) and tested its usability and content validity. An international sample of voluntary learners submitted to a pretest (T0) that determined their baseline knowledge of guidelines, and they subsequently studied the e-course. Immediately after studying the course, posttest 1 (T1) assessed the immediate learning effect. After 3 months, during which participants had no access to the course, a second posttest (T2) evaluated the residual learning effect. RESULTS A total of 3,587 HCWs representing 79 nationalities enrolled: 2,590 HCWs (72%) completed T0; 1,410 HCWs (39%) completed T1; and 1,011 HCWs (28%) completed T2. The median study time was 193 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 96-306 minutes) The median scores were 52% (IQR, 44%-62%) for T0, 80% (IQR, 68%-88%) for T1, and 74% (IQR, 64%-84%) for T2. The immediate learning effect (T0 vs T1) was +24% (IQR, 12%-34%; P300 minutes yielded the greatest residual effect (24%). CONCLUSIONS Moderate time invested in e-learning yielded significant immediate and residual learning effects. Decision makers could consider promoting e-learning as a supporting tool in HAI prevention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:1052-1059. PMID:27174463

  5. Is there an association between functional vision and learning to read?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Patricia M; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2001-11-01

    Background: Controversy exists about the role of visual parameters and vision in learning to read. This study aims to determine whether ocular parameters or performance on a dynamic test of visual function differs for children of differing reading ability. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-four children (mean age 9.9 +/- 1.8 years) received a vision screening emphasising binocular anomalies associated with discomfort at near (distance and near visual acuity, distance vision challenged with binocular +1 D lenses, near heterophoria, near point of convergence, stereopsis and accommodative facility). Non-verbal mentation age and reading accuracy were assessed. One hundred and six children performed a computerised task of motion coherence detection. Children were classified as normal readers (n = 195), children with dyslexia (n = 49) or learning disabled children (n = 40) based on their mentation age and their reading age. Results: There were no statistically significant differences or correlations between visual parameters and reading performance. Over thirty per cent of the children had accommodative facilities below or equal to six cycles per minute. Children with learning disabilities performed worst on the motion coherence task but this was statistically significant only when compared to the performance of dyslexics. Discussion: The lack of association between ophthalmic parameters and poor reading ability supports the view of the Committee on Children with Disabilities. However, 39 per cent of the children might be expected to experience difficulty 'reading to learn', as suggested by the American Academy of Optometry, as they showed anomalies associated with visual discomfort with prolonged reading. The motion coherence test did not differentiate dyslexics from normal readers and was worst in children with learning disability. Accommodative facility testing remained the most useful predictor of potential visual discomfort.

  6. Risk factors associated with children learning disorders at school: a socio-medical problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sabina Roméu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: At the polyclinic ´´Area I´´ in Cienfuegos there are no previous studies on learning disorders in children and no epidemiological or exploratory research on personal, family and school issues related to this problem has been conducted. Objective: To determine the differences between children with and without learning disorders in second and third grade in the schools in the area of the "Dr. José Luis Chaviano" polyclinic in Cienfuegos in order to determine the risk factors depending on the child, the school and the family. Method: A non-coupled case-control study was conducted from September 2008 to June 2009. Study group: 42 children presenting learning difficulties as to their teacher´s opinion. Control group: 40 children with normal learning selected by simple random sampling. Interviews were conducted with parents, teachers and children as well as observations of school activities. Standardized questionnaires were applied and the information obtained was processed by using the SPSS statistical program. The chi-square statistic was used and the relative risks were estimated. Results: The identified disorders were associated with mood changes, unattendance to school and poor muscle control for writing, among others mentioned by teachers. The frequent change of teachers was also an associated condition. Among the risk factors related to family issues were: parents´ low educational level, cohabitation, family history of neurotic disorders, inconsistent educational management, family violence, marginalization and understimulation at home. Conclusion: Learning disorders were associated with risk factors depending on the child, school and, in a relevant way, on the family environment factors.

  7. Stimulant drug effects on touchscreen automated paired-associates learning (PAL) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschlau, Corinna; Votteler, Angeline; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Here we tested in rats effects of the procognitive drugs modafinil and methylphenidate on post-acquisition performance in an object-location paired-associates learning (PAL) task. Modafinil (32; 64 mg/kg) was without effect, while higher (9 mg/kg) but not lower (4.5 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate impaired PAL performance. Likewise, higher but not lower doses of amphetamine (0.4; 0.8 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.08; 0.12 mg/kg) decreased PAL performance. Impaired PAL performance induced by methylphenidate, amphetamine, and MK801 most likely reflects compromised cognitive function, e.g., retrieval of learned paired associates. Our data suggest that stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate and modafinil might not facilitate performance in hippocampus-related cognitive tasks. PMID:27421894

  8. Association between classroom ventilation mode and learning outcome in Danish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Wargocki, Pawel;

    2015-01-01

    Associations between learning, ventilation mode, and other classroom characteristics were investigated with data from a Danish test scheme and two widespread cross-sectional studies examining air quality in Danish schools. An academic achievement indicator as a measure of the learning outcome...... was calculated from the scores of a standardized Danish test scheme adjusted for a socioeconomic reference index. Pupils in schools with balanced mechanical ventilation had significantly higher achievement indicators than pupils in schools with natural ventilation, where airing took place mostly by manual window...... opening. Also, the carbon dioxide concentration was lower in classrooms with balanced mechanical ventilation. There was no consistent association between the achievement indicators and the person specific room volume, construction/renovation year, or the occupancy. Measurements of carbon dioxide...

  9. Fusing Data Mining, Machine Learning and Traditional Statistics to Detect Biomarkers Associated with Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna F Dipnall

    Full Text Available Atheoretical large-scale data mining techniques using machine learning algorithms have promise in the analysis of large epidemiological datasets. This study illustrates the use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection that took account of missing data and complex survey design to identify key biomarkers associated with depression from a large epidemiological study.The study used a three-step methodology amalgamating multiple imputation, a machine learning boosted regression algorithm and logistic regression, to identify key biomarkers associated with depression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (2009-2010. Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and 67 biomarkers were analysed. Covariates in this study included gender, age, race, smoking, food security, Poverty Income Ratio, Body Mass Index, physical activity, alcohol use, medical conditions and medications. The final imputed weighted multiple logistic regression model included possible confounders and moderators.After the creation of 20 imputation data sets from multiple chained regression sequences, machine learning boosted regression initially identified 21 biomarkers associated with depression. Using traditional logistic regression methods, including controlling for possible confounders and moderators, a final set of three biomarkers were selected. The final three biomarkers from the novel hybrid variable selection methodology were red cell distribution width (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.30, serum glucose (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00, 1.01 and total bilirubin (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05, 0.28. Significant interactions were found between total bilirubin with Mexican American/Hispanic group (p = 0.016, and current smokers (p<0.001.The systematic use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection, fusing data mining techniques using a machine learning algorithm with traditional statistical modelling, accounted for missing data and complex survey sampling

  10. Synaptic neurotransmission depression in ventral tegmental dopamine neurons and cannabinoid-associated addictive learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is an association of compulsive drug use with long-term associative learning/memory. Multiple forms of learning/memory are primarily subserved by activity- or experience-dependent synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. Recent studies suggest LTP expression in locally activated glutamate synapses onto dopamine neurons (local Glu-DA synapses of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA following a single or chronic exposure to many drugs of abuse, whereas a single exposure to cannabinoid did not significantly affect synaptic plasticity at these synapses. It is unknown whether chronic exposure of cannabis (marijuana or cannabinoids, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, induce LTP or LTD at these synapses. More importantly, whether such alterations in VTA synaptic plasticity causatively contribute to drug addictive behavior has not previously been addressed. Here we show in rats that chronic cannabinoid exposure activates VTA cannabinoid CB1 receptors to induce transient neurotransmission depression at VTA local Glu-DA synapses through activation of NMDA receptors and subsequent endocytosis of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunits. A GluR2-derived peptide blocks cannabinoid-induced VTA synaptic depression and conditioned place preference, i.e., learning to associate drug exposure with environmental cues. These data not only provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic depression at VTA dopamine circuitry requires GluR2 endocytosis, but also suggest an essential contribution of such synaptic depression to cannabinoid-associated addictive learning, in addition to pointing to novel pharmacological strategies for the treatment of cannabis addiction.

  11. Inferring Association between Compound and Pathway with an Improved Ensemble Learning Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meiyue; Jiang, Zhenran

    2015-11-01

    Emergence of compound molecular data coupled to pathway information offers the possibility of using machine learning methods for compound-pathway associations' inference. To provide insights into the global relationship between compounds and their affected pathways, a improved Rotation Forest ensemble learning method called RGRF (Relief & GBSSL - Rotation Forest) was proposed to predict their potential associations. The main characteristic of the RGRF lies in using the Relief algorithm for feature extraction and regarding the Graph-Based Semi-Supervised Learning method as classifier. By incorporating the chemical structure information, drug mode of action information and genomic space information, our method can achieve a better precision and flexibility on compound-pathway prediction. Moreover, several new compound-pathway associations that having the potential for further clinical investigation have been identified by database searching. In the end, a prediction tool was developed using RGRF algorithm, which can predict the interactions between pathways and all of the compounds in cMap database. PMID:27491036

  12. Explaining neural signals in human visual cortex with an associative learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiefeng; Schmajuk, Nestor; Egner, Tobias

    2012-08-01

    "Predictive coding" models posit a key role for associative learning in visual cognition, viewing perceptual inference as a process of matching (learned) top-down predictions (or expectations) against bottom-up sensory evidence. At the neural level, these models propose that each region along the visual processing hierarchy entails one set of processing units encoding predictions of bottom-up input, and another set computing mismatches (prediction error or surprise) between predictions and evidence. This contrasts with traditional views of visual neurons operating purely as bottom-up feature detectors. In support of the predictive coding hypothesis, a recent human neuroimaging study (Egner, Monti, & Summerfield, 2010) showed that neural population responses to expected and unexpected face and house stimuli in the "fusiform face area" (FFA) could be well-described as a summation of hypothetical face-expectation and -surprise signals, but not by feature detector responses. Here, we used computer simulations to test whether these imaging data could be formally explained within the broader framework of a mathematical neural network model of associative learning (Schmajuk, Gray, & Lam, 1996). Results show that FFA responses could be fit very closely by model variables coding for conditional predictions (and their violations) of stimuli that unconditionally activate the FFA. These data document that neural population signals in the ventral visual stream that deviate from classic feature detection responses can formally be explained by associative prediction and surprise signals.

  13. Learned perceptual associations influence visuomotor programming under limited conditions: cues as surface patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffenden, Angela M; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2002-12-01

    The present set of three experiments was designed to extend the findings that visuomotor programming can make use of learned size information under some, but not all, conditions. An association was established between the size of square wooden blocks and a perceptual cue in all experiments. In Experiment 1 the perceptual cue to size was a small two-dimensional drawing of a shape affixed to the top of the blocks (e.g. triangle = large; circle = small, or vice versa). In Experiment 2 size and shape were again associated but this time a pattern of two-dimensional shapes covered the visible surface of the blocks. In Experiment 3 block size was associated with the colour of a small circle affixed to the top of the blocks (e.g. red = large; yellow = small, or vice versa). All of the subjects grasped the blocks, and on other trials estimated the size of the blocks by opening their thumb and finger a matching amount. Consistent with previous reports, in all experiments, the learned associations changed the perceived size of two test blocks halfway in size between the large and small blocks: estimations of the test block matched by shape or colour to the group of large objects were smaller than estimations of the test block matched to the group of small objects. The effect appears to result from relative-size comparisons being made between the medium-sized test blocks and the size category (large or small) associated with the matching shape or colour cue. Despite the significant effect of the learned perceptual associations on manual estimations, no effect on grip scaling was seen when the cues associated with size were single small elements centred on the top of the block (Experiment 1 and Experiment 3). Changes in grip scaling corresponded to the change in perceived size only when the cue to size covered the entire block (Experiment 2), forming a surface pattern. These findings suggest that visuomotor programming is more likely to use learned size information when the cue

  14. The speed of learning instructed stimulus-response association rules in human: experimental data and model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmann, Guido; Goslin, Jeremy; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2013-11-01

    Humans can learn associations between visual stimuli and motor responses from just a single instruction. This is known to be a fast process, but how fast is it? To answer this question, we asked participants to learn a briefly presented (200ms) stimulus-response rule, which they then had to rapidly apply after a variable delay of between 50 and 1300ms. Participants showed a longer response time with increased variability for short delays. The error rate was low and did not vary with the delay, showing that participants were able to encode the rule correctly in less than 250ms. This time is close to the fastest synaptic learning speed deemed possible by diffusive influx of AMPA receptors. Learning continued at a slower pace in the delay period and was fully completed in average 900ms after rule presentation onset, when response latencies dropped to levels consistent with basic reaction times. A neural model was proposed that explains the reduction of response times and of their variability with the delay by (i) a random synaptic learning process that generates weights of average values increasing with the learning time, followed by (ii) random crossing of the firing threshold by a leaky integrate-and-fire neuron model, and (iii) assuming that the behavioural response is initiated when all neurons in a pool of m neurons have fired their first spike after input onset. Values of m=2 or 3 were consistent with the experimental data. The proposed model is the simplest solution consistent with neurophysiological knowledge. Additional experiments are suggested to test the hypothesis underlying the model and also to explore forgetting effects for which there were indications for the longer delay conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neural Coding 2012.

  15. Neural compensation in adulthood following very preterm birth demonstrated during a visual paired associates learning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Brittain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Very preterm birth (VPT; < 33 weeks of gestation is associated with an increased risk of learning disability, which contributes to more VPT-born children repeating grades and underachieving in school. Learning problems associated with VPT birth may be caused by pathophysiological alterations in neurodevelopment resulting from perinatal brain insult; however, adaptive neuroplastic processes may subsequently occur in the developing preterm brain which ameliorate, to an extent, the potential sequelae of altered neurophysiology. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare neuronal activation in 24 VPT individuals and 22 controls (CT in young adulthood during a learning task consisting of the encoding and subsequent recognition of repeated visual paired associates. Structural MRI data were also collected and analysed in order to explore possible structure-function associations. Whilst the two groups did not differ in their learning ability, as demonstrated by their capacity to recognize previously-seen and previously–unseen visual pairs, between-group differences in linear patterns of Blood Oxygenation Level Dependant (BOLD activity were observed across the four repeated blocks of the task for both the encoding and recognition conditions, suggesting that the way learning takes place differs between the two groups. During encoding, significant between-group differences in patterns of BOLD activity were seen in clusters centred on the cerebellum, the anterior cingulate gyrus, the midbrain/substantia nigra, medial temporal (including parahippocampal gyrus and inferior and superior frontal gyri. During the recognition condition, significant between-group differences in patterns of BOLD activity were seen in clusters centred on the claustrum and the posterior cerebellum. Structural analysis revealed smaller grey matter volume in right middle temporal gyrus in VPT individuals compared to controls, however volume in this region

  16. Indicators of Early and Late Processing Reveal the Importance of Within-Trial-Time for Theories of Associative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lachnit, Harald; Thorwart, Anna; Schultheis, Holger; Lotz, Anja; Koenig, Stephan; Uengoer, Metin

    2013-01-01

    In four human learning experiments (Pavlovian skin conductance, causal learning, speeded classification task), we evaluated several associative learning theories that assume either an elemental (modified unique cue model and Harris’ model) or a configural (Pearce’s configural theory and an extension of it) form of stimulus processing. The experiments used two modified patterning problems (A/B/C+, AB/BC/AC+ vs. ABC-; A+, BC+ vs. ABC-). Pearce’s configural theory successfully predicted all of o...

  17. Associative learning changes cross-modal representations in the gustatory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincis, Roberto; Fontanini, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature has demonstrated that primary sensory cortices are not exclusively unimodal, but can respond to stimuli of different sensory modalities. However, several questions concerning the neural representation of cross-modal stimuli remain open. Indeed, it is poorly understood if cross-modal stimuli evoke unique or overlapping representations in a primary sensory cortex and whether learning can modulate these representations. Here we recorded single unit responses to auditory, visual, somatosensory, and olfactory stimuli in the gustatory cortex (GC) of alert rats before and after associative learning. We found that, in untrained rats, the majority of GC neurons were modulated by a single modality. Upon learning, both prevalence of cross-modal responsive neurons and their breadth of tuning increased, leading to a greater overlap of representations. Altogether, our results show that the gustatory cortex represents cross-modal stimuli according to their sensory identity, and that learning changes the overlap of cross-modal representations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16420.001 PMID:27572258

  18. COMT Val(158) Met genotype is associated with reward learning: a replication study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Frías, N S; Pizzagalli, D A; Carré, J M; Michalski, L J; Nikolova, Y S; Perlis, R H; Fagerness, J; Lee, M R; Conley, E Drabant; Lancaster, T M; Haddad, S; Wolf, A; Smoller, J W; Hariri, A R; Bogdan, R

    2016-06-01

    Identifying mechanisms through which individual differences in reward learning emerge offers an opportunity to understand both a fundamental form of adaptive responding as well as etiological pathways through which aberrant reward learning may contribute to maladaptive behaviors and psychopathology. One candidate mechanism through which individual differences in reward learning may emerge is variability in dopaminergic reinforcement signaling. A common functional polymorphism within the catechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT; rs4680, Val(158) Met) has been linked to reward learning, where homozygosity for the Met allele (linked to heightened prefrontal dopamine function and decreased dopamine synthesis in the midbrain) has been associated with relatively increased reward learning. Here, we used a probabilistic reward learning task to asses response bias, a behavioral form of reward learning, across three separate samples that were combined for analyses (age: 21.80 ± 3.95; n = 392; 268 female; European-American: n = 208). We replicate prior reports that COMT rs4680 Met allele homozygosity is associated with increased reward learning in European-American participants (β = 0.20, t = 2.75, P learning (95% CI -0.11 to -0.03; z = 3.2; P < 0.01). These results suggest that variability in dopamine signaling associated with COMT rs4680 influences individual differences in reward which may potentially contribute to psychopathology characterized by reward dysfunction.

  19. Reduced Calcium Channel Function in Drosophila Disrupts Associative Learning in Larva and Behavior in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Cooper

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature sensitive nature of a mutation in the Cacophony gene, which codes for the alpha subunit in the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel, reduces Ca2+ influx when exposed to non-permissive temperatures. We investigated the subtle nature in the impact for this mutation on whole animal function, in regards to learning and memory, in larvae and adults. The effects in acutely reducing evoked Ca2+ influx in nerve terminals during various behavioural assays greatly decreased the ability of larval Drosophila to learn, as demonstrated in associative learning assays. These assays are based on olfaction and gustation with association to light or dark environments with negative reinforces. Adult flies also showed defects in olfaction and sense of light when the animal is acutely depressed in normal Ca2+ influx within the nervous system. We demonstrated that this particular mutation does not alter cardiac function acutely. Thus, implying that the alpha 1 subunit mutation which retards neuronal function is not relevant for the pace maker and cardiac contractility as indexed by heart rate.

  20. ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 12 April). ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning & Cognition, He

  1. ALOUD biological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants study - Association of biological determinants with study success in formal lifelong learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 15 March). ALOUD biological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants study - Association of biological determinants with study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning & Cognitio

  2. Learning of arbitrary association between visual and auditory novel stimuli in adults: the "bond effect" of haptic exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Fredembach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well-known that human beings are able to associate stimuli (novel or not perceived in their environment. For example, this ability is used by children in reading acquisition when arbitrary associations between visual and auditory stimuli must be learned. The studies tend to consider it as an "implicit" process triggered by the learning of letter/sound correspondences. The study described in this paper examined whether the addition of the visuo-haptic exploration would help adults to learn more effectively the arbitrary association between visual and auditory novel stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adults were asked to learn 15 new arbitrary associations between visual stimuli and their corresponding sounds using two learning methods which differed according to the perceptual modalities involved in the exploration of the visual stimuli. Adults used their visual modality in the "classic" learning method and both their visual and haptic modalities in the "multisensory" learning one. After both learning methods, participants showed a similar above-chance ability to recognize the visual and auditory stimuli and the audio-visual associations. However, the ability to recognize the visual-auditory associations was better after the multisensory method than after the classic one. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study revealed that adults learned more efficiently the arbitrary association between visual and auditory novel stimuli when the visual stimuli were explored with both vision and touch. The results are discussed from the perspective of how they relate to the functional differences of the manual haptic modality and the hypothesis of a "haptic bond" between visual and auditory stimuli.

  3. Learning to play a melody: an fMRI study examining the formation of auditory-motor associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joyce L; Rae, Charlotte; Watkins, Kate E

    2012-01-16

    Interactions between the auditory and motor systems are important for music and speech, and may be especially relevant when one learns to associate sounds with movements such as when learning to play a musical instrument. However, little is known about the neural substrates underlying auditory-motor learning. This study used fMRI to investigate the formation of auditory-motor associations while participants with no musical training learned to play a melody. Listening to melodies before and after training activated the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally, but neural activity in this region was significantly reduced on the right when participants listened to the trained melody. When playing melodies and random sequences, activity in the left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) was reduced in the late compared to early phase of training; learning to play the melody was also associated with reduced neural activity in the left ventral premotor cortex (PMv). Participants with the highest performance scores for learning the melody showed more reduced neural activity in the left PMd and PMv. Learning to play a melody or random sequence involves acquiring conditional associations between key-presses and their corresponding musical pitches, and is related to activity in the PMd. Learning to play a melody additionally involves acquisition of a learned auditory-motor sequence and is related to activity in the PMv. Together, these findings demonstrate that auditory-motor learning is related to the reduction of neural activity in brain regions of the dorsal auditory action stream, which suggests increased efficiency in neural processing of a learned stimulus. PMID:21871571

  4. Learned vocal variation is associated with abrupt cryptic genetic change in a parrot species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul F H Ribot

    Full Text Available Contact zones between subspecies or closely related species offer valuable insights into speciation processes. A typical feature of such zones is the presence of clinal variation in multiple traits. The nature of these traits and the concordance among clines are expected to influence whether and how quickly speciation will proceed. Learned signals, such as vocalizations in species having vocal learning (e.g. humans, many birds, bats and cetaceans, can exhibit rapid change and may accelerate reproductive isolation between populations. Therefore, particularly strong concordance among clines in learned signals and population genetic structure may be expected, even among continuous populations in the early stages of speciation. However, empirical evidence for this pattern is often limited because differences in vocalisations between populations are driven by habitat differences or have evolved in allopatry. We tested for this pattern in a unique system where we may be able to separate effects of habitat and evolutionary history. We studied geographic variation in the vocalizations of the crimson rosella (Platycercus elegans parrot species complex. Parrots are well known for their life-long vocal learning and cognitive abilities. We analysed contact calls across a ca 1300 km transect encompassing populations that differed in neutral genetic markers and plumage colour. We found steep clinal changes in two acoustic variables (fundamental frequency and peak frequency position. The positions of the two clines in vocal traits were concordant with a steep cline in microsatellite-based genetic variation, but were discordant with the steep clines in mtDNA, plumage and habitat. Our study provides new evidence that vocal variation, in a species with vocal learning, can coincide with areas of restricted gene flow across geographically continuous populations. Our results suggest that traits that evolve culturally can be strongly associated with reduced gene flow

  5. Learning to Live Together: A Review of UNESCO's Associated Schools Project Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweisfurth, Michele

    2005-05-01

    Some 7400 schools belong to the global network of UNESCO's Associated School Project Network. They are committed to promoting ideals such as human rights, intercultural understanding, peace and environmental protection. This study is based on an extensive review undertaken in 2003. It discusses the origins and analyzes the achievements of the Associated School Project Network in bringing change to schools, communities and national policy. The analysis employs a variety of models of educational innovation and reform in order to assess the horizontal and vertical impact of the Associated School Project Network. It draws general conclusions on the usefulness of such networks for intercultural learning and educational and social change. Key issues include the commitment of stakeholders; the treatment of culturally sensitive issues; cultural interpretations of certain subjects; the value of horizontal networks; and the difficulty of achieving vertical impact on national policy-making.

  6. Optogenetic stimulation of mPFC pyramidal neurons as a conditioned stimulus supports associative learning in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Guang-yan Wu; Guo-long Liu; Hui-min Zhang; Chong Chen; Shu-lei Liu; Hua Feng; Jian-feng Sui

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the associative learning occurs when a behaviorally neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) in close temporal proximity. Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a simple form of associative learning for motor responses. Specific activation of a population of cells may be an effective and sufficient CS for establishing EBC. However, there has been no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we show in rats that opto...

  7. Incentive learning for morphine-associated stimuli during protracted abstinence increases conditioned drug preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel J; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory found that rats express increased preference for drug-paired stimuli following 2 or 5 weeks of protracted abstinence from chronic drug exposure as compared with naive animals. Here, we show that this increased morphine place preference depends upon experiencing drug-stimulus pairings specifically in the abstinent state, indicating a critical role for incentive learning. Male Sprague Dawley rats were initially conditioned for morphine place preference (8 mg/kg) and then made dependent on morphine (by subcutaneous morphine pellets) and subjected to forced abstinence. Place preference was tested every 1-2 weeks with no additional drug-cue conditioning. In this paradigm, there was no difference between morphine-pelleted (dependent) and placebo-pelleted (non-dependent) rats in place preference at any time during abstinence (up to 6 weeks). However, these same morphine-pelleted rats expressed significantly increased preference when they were subsequently re-conditioned for morphine place preference during protracted abstinence. Placebo-pelleted rats did not show enhanced preference after re-conditioning. These findings reveal that incentive learning has a key role in increased morphine place preference when drug is experienced during protracted abstinence. This indicates that incentive learning is involved not only in instrumental responding (as previously reported), but also in updating Pavlovian-conditioned responses to morphine-associated stimuli. Therefore, enhanced morphine preference is not a direct consequence of the negative affective state of abstinence, but instead reflects increased acquisition of morphine-stimulus associations during abstinence. These results indicate that, during the development of addiction in humans, drug-associated stimuli acquire increasingly stronger incentive properties each time they are re-experienced.

  8. Ventral tegmental area GABA projections pause accumbal cholinergic interneurons to enhance associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew T C; Tan, Kelly R; O'Connor, Eoin C; Nikonenko, Irina; Muller, Dominique; Lüscher, Christian

    2012-12-20

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) are essential for learning about environmental stimuli associated with motivationally relevant outcomes. The task of signalling such events, both rewarding and aversive, from the VTA to the NAc has largely been ascribed to dopamine neurons. The VTA also contains GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-releasing neurons, which provide local inhibition and also project to the NAc. However, the cellular targets and functional importance of this long-range inhibitory projection have not been ascertained. Here we show that GABA-releasing neurons of the VTA that project to the NAc (VTA GABA projection neurons) inhibit accumbal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) to enhance stimulus-outcome learning. Combining optogenetics with structural imaging and electrophysiology, we found that VTA GABA projection neurons selectively target NAc CINs, forming multiple symmetrical synaptic contacts that generated inhibitory postsynaptic currents. This is remarkable considering that CINs represent a very small population of all accumbal neurons, and provide the primary source of cholinergic tone in the NAc. Brief activation of this projection was sufficient to halt the spontaneous activity of NAc CINs, resembling the pause recorded in animals learning stimulus-outcome associations. Indeed, we found that forcing CINs to pause in behaving mice enhanced discrimination of a motivationally important stimulus that had been associated with an aversive outcome. Our results demonstrate that VTA GABA projection neurons, through their selective targeting of accumbal CINs, provide a novel route through which the VTA communicates saliency to the NAc. VTA GABA projection neurons thus emerge as orchestrators of dopaminergic and cholinergic modulation in the NAc.

  9. Fusing Data Mining, Machine Learning and Traditional Statistics to Detect Biomarkers Associated with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipnall, Joanna F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Atheoretical large-scale data mining techniques using machine learning algorithms have promise in the analysis of large epidemiological datasets. This study illustrates the use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection that took account of missing data and complex survey design to identify key biomarkers associated with depression from a large epidemiological study. Methods The study used a three-step methodology amalgamating multiple imputation, a machine learning boosted regression algorithm and logistic regression, to identify key biomarkers associated with depression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (2009–2010). Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and 67 biomarkers were analysed. Covariates in this study included gender, age, race, smoking, food security, Poverty Income Ratio, Body Mass Index, physical activity, alcohol use, medical conditions and medications. The final imputed weighted multiple logistic regression model included possible confounders and moderators. Results After the creation of 20 imputation data sets from multiple chained regression sequences, machine learning boosted regression initially identified 21 biomarkers associated with depression. Using traditional logistic regression methods, including controlling for possible confounders and moderators, a final set of three biomarkers were selected. The final three biomarkers from the novel hybrid variable selection methodology were red cell distribution width (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.30), serum glucose (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00, 1.01) and total bilirubin (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05, 0.28). Significant interactions were found between total bilirubin with Mexican American/Hispanic group (p = 0.016), and current smokers (p<0.001). Conclusion The systematic use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection, fusing data mining techniques using a machine learning algorithm with traditional statistical modelling, accounted for missing data and

  10. Task-related functional connectivity of the caudate mediates the association between trait mindfulness and implicit learning in older adults.

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    Stillman, Chelsea M; You, Xiaozhen; Seaman, Kendra L; Vaidya, Chandan J; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidence shows a positive relationship between mindfulness and explicit cognitive functioning, i.e., that which occurs with conscious intent and awareness. However, recent evidence suggests that there may be a negative relationship between mindfulness and implicit types of learning, or those that occur without conscious awareness or intent. Here we examined the neural mechanisms underlying the recently reported negative relationship between dispositional mindfulness and implicit probabilistic sequence learning in both younger and older adults. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship is mediated by communication, or functional connectivity, of brain regions once traditionally considered to be central to dissociable learning systems: the caudate, medial temporal lobe (MTL), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). We first replicated the negative relationship between mindfulness and implicit learning in a sample of healthy older adults (60-90 years old) who completed three event-related runs of an implicit sequence learning task. Then, using a seed-based connectivity approach, we identified task-related connectivity associated with individual differences in both learning and mindfulness. The main finding was that caudate-MTL connectivity (bilaterally) was positively correlated with learning and negatively correlated with mindfulness. Further, the strength of task-related connectivity between these regions mediated the negative relationship between mindfulness and learning. This pattern of results was limited to the older adults. Thus, at least in healthy older adults, the functional communication between two interactive learning-relevant systems can account for the relationship between mindfulness and implicit probabilistic sequence learning. PMID:27121302

  11. Dopamine Regulates Aversive Contextual Learning and Associated In Vivo Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus

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    John I. Broussard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine release during reward-driven behaviors influences synaptic plasticity. However, dopamine innervation and release in the hippocampus and its role during aversive behaviors are controversial. Here, we show that in vivo hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the CA3-CA1 circuit underlies contextual learning during inhibitory avoidance (IA training. Immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques verified sparse dopaminergic innervation of the hippocampus from the midbrain. The long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP underlying the learning of IA was assessed with a D1-like dopamine receptor agonist or antagonist in ex vivo hippocampal slices and in vivo in freely moving mice. Inhibition of D1-like dopamine receptors impaired memory of the IA task and prevented the training-induced enhancement of both ex vivo and in vivo LTP induction. The results indicate that dopamine-receptor signaling during an aversive contextual task regulates aversive memory retention and regulates associated synaptic mechanisms in the hippocampus that likely underlie learning.

  12. A new area in the brain associated with learning and memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new subdivision, named marginal division (MrD), consisting of spindle-shaped neurons, has been identified at the caudomedial margin of the neostriatum in the brains of the rat, cat, monkey and human. It is distinguishable from the rest of striatum by special neural connections and many intensely expressed neuropeptides and some monoamines in the fibers, terminals and neuronal somata.Three-dimensional reconstruction of the rat brain reveals that the MrD is a flat pan-shaped area between the neostriatum and globus pallidns. Chemical lesions of bilateral MrD in rats will result in severely impaired learning and memory functions, as was demonstrated by double blind Y-maze test. The function of MrD has been shown to be associated with learning and memory by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique in human brain in vivo. Functional neuronal connections are observed between the MrD and hippocampus, amygdala, as well as the basal nucleus of Meynert by chemically induced c-Fos immunohistochemical staining. MrD is a newly discovered part and a universal structure in the neostriatum of the mammalian brain. MrD might very possibly play an important role in processes of the learning and memory.

  13. Effect of Associative Learning on Memory Spine Formation in Mouse Barrel Cortex.

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    Jasinska, Malgorzata; Siucinska, Ewa; Jasek, Ewa; Litwin, Jan A; Pyza, Elzbieta; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Associative fear learning, in which stimulation of whiskers is paired with mild electric shock to the tail, modifies the barrel cortex, the functional representation of sensory receptors involved in the conditioning, by inducing formation of new inhibitory synapses on single-synapse spines of the cognate barrel hollows and thus producing double-synapse spines. In the barrel cortex of conditioned, pseudoconditioned, and untreated mice, we analyzed the number and morphological features of dendritic spines at various maturation and stability levels: sER-free spines, spines containing smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER), and spines containing spine apparatus. Using stereological analysis of serial sections examined by transmission electron microscopy, we found that the density of double-synapse spines containing spine apparatus was significantly increased in the conditioned mice. Learning also induced enhancement of the postsynaptic density area of inhibitory synapses as well as increase in the number of polyribosomes in such spines. In single-synapse spines, the effects of conditioning were less pronounced and included increase in the number of polyribosomes in sER-free spines. The results suggest that fear learning differentially affects single- and double-synapse spines in the barrel cortex: it promotes maturation and stabilization of double-synapse spines, which might possibly contribute to permanent memory formation, and upregulates protein synthesis in single-synapse spines. PMID:26819780

  14. Effect of Associative Learning on Memory Spine Formation in Mouse Barrel Cortex

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    Malgorzata Jasinska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Associative fear learning, in which stimulation of whiskers is paired with mild electric shock to the tail, modifies the barrel cortex, the functional representation of sensory receptors involved in the conditioning, by inducing formation of new inhibitory synapses on single-synapse spines of the cognate barrel hollows and thus producing double-synapse spines. In the barrel cortex of conditioned, pseudoconditioned, and untreated mice, we analyzed the number and morphological features of dendritic spines at various maturation and stability levels: sER-free spines, spines containing smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER, and spines containing spine apparatus. Using stereological analysis of serial sections examined by transmission electron microscopy, we found that the density of double-synapse spines containing spine apparatus was significantly increased in the conditioned mice. Learning also induced enhancement of the postsynaptic density area of inhibitory synapses as well as increase in the number of polyribosomes in such spines. In single-synapse spines, the effects of conditioning were less pronounced and included increase in the number of polyribosomes in sER-free spines. The results suggest that fear learning differentially affects single- and double-synapse spines in the barrel cortex: it promotes maturation and stabilization of double-synapse spines, which might possibly contribute to permanent memory formation, and upregulates protein synthesis in single-synapse spines.

  15. Health Professions Students’ Lifelong Learning Orientation: Associations with Information Skills and Self Efficacy

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    Misa Mi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study aimed to investigate the relationships among health professions students’ lifelong learning orientation, self-assessed information skills, and information self-efficacy. Methods – This was a descriptive study with a cross-sectional research design. Participants included 850 nursing students and 325 medical students. A total of 419 students responded to a survey questionnaire that was comprised of 3 parts: demographic information, the Jefferson Scale of Lifelong Learning (JeffSLL-HPS, and an information self-efficacy scale. Results – Findings of the study show a significant correlation between students’ lifelong learning orientation and information self-efficacy. Average JeffSLL-HPS total scores for undergraduate nursing students (M = 41.84 were significantly lower than the scores for graduate nursing students (M = 46.20. Average information self-efficacy total scores were significantly lower for undergraduate nursing students (M = 63.34 than the scores for graduate nursing students (M = 65.97. There were no significant differences among cohorts of medical students for JeffSLL-HPS total scores. However, for information self-efficacy, first year medical students (M = 55.62 and second year medical students (M = 58.00 had significantly lower scores than third/fourth year students (M = 64.42. Conclusion – Findings from the study suggest implications for librarians seeking ways to advance the value and utility of information literacy instruction in educational curricula. As such instruction has the potential to lead to high levels of information self-efficacy associated with lifelong learning; various strategies could be developed and incorporated into the instruction to cultivate students’ information self-efficacy.

  16. Learning Curve Associated with Complications in Biportal Endoscopic Spinal Surgery: Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Myong; Jung, Je-Tea; Lee, Sang-Jin; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Descriptions of technical strategies to overcome pitfalls associated with early learning periods in biportal endoscopic spinal surgery (BESS). Purpose To introduce BESS for lumbar spinal diseases (LSDs) and to inform certain challenges to be overcome in mastering the technique. Overview of Literature BESS has shown superior benefits including excellent magnification, a wider range of view by dynamic handling of an endoscope and instruments. Clinical reports, however, have not yet been very revealing for its new introduction into minimally invasive spine surgery. Methods To evaluate the learning curve for BESS, the procedures for various LSDs by one surgeon were analyzed in the view of shortening of the operating times and reduction of complications. Reviewing of recorded procedures helped in finding the reasons and the implemented solutions. Results The 68 cases included 25 for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), 3 for revision for recurred LDH, 39 for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and 1 for synovial cyst. The operation time for the total cases averaged 83.7±33.6 minutes. According to diagnosis, it was 68.2±23.7 minutes for LDH. After the 14th case of LDH, it was nearly constant and close to the average time. One level of LSS needed 110.4±34.4 minutes. Prolonged operation times even in some later cases of LSS were mainly from struggling against blurred vision due to epidural bleeding. There were 7 cases of complications (10.3%) including 2 cases of dural tear, 1 case of root injury, and 4 cases of incomplete decompression on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. There was no case of symptomatic hematoma or wound infection. Conclusions BESS seemed to have a relatively short learning curve period. The overall complication rate in early learning period was 10.3%. These could be avoided by magnified regional views on an endoscope and a clear surgical field by controlling epidural bleeding.

  17. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

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    Riad I. Hammoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER. VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1 a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2 an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs and targets of interest (TOIs by movement type and geolocation; and (3 a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV. VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

  18. Memory profiling with paired associate learning in Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and healthy aging.

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    Pike, K E; Rowe, C C; Moss, S A; Savage, G

    2008-11-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), but up to 40% of cases do not develop AD. Examining a case's specific memory profile may help distinguish which MCI cases will progress to AD: An encoding profile is suggestive of incipient AD, whereas a retrieval profile suggests an alternative etiology. Paired associate learning (PAL) tasks are sensitive for preclinical and early detection of AD, but existing tasks do not enable memory profiling. We developed a novel PAL task enabling the differentiation of memory profiles in 19 people with AD, 17 people with amnestic MCI, and 33 normal elderly controls. Unexpectedly, the AD group demonstrated a retrieval profile for PAL using yes-no recognition, although an encoding profile was evident for forced-choice recognition and for the California Verbal Learning Test--Second Edition (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000). There was considerable heterogeneity within the AD and MCI groups as well as intraindividual discordance for memory profiles. The findings challenge the clinical application of memory profiling in the differential diagnosis of AD, and, by extension, question its potential application in the assessment of MCI. PMID:18999345

  19. Pathological gamblers are more vulnerable to the illusion of control in a standard associative learning task

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    Cristina eOrgaz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An illusion of control is said to occur when a person believes that he or she controls an outcome that is uncontrollable. Pathological gambling has often been related to an illusion of control, but the assessment of the illusion has generally used introspective methods in domain-specific (i.e., gambling situations. The illusion of control of pathological gamblers, however, could be a more general problem, affecting other aspects of their daily life. Thus, we tested them using a standard associative learning task which is known to produce illusions of control in most people under certain conditions. The results showed that the illusion was significantly stronger in pathological gamblers than in a control undiagnosed sample. This suggests (a that the experimental tasks used in basic associative learning research could be used to detect illusions of control in gamblers in a more indirect way, as compared to introspective and domain-specific questionnaires; and (b, that in addition to gambling-specific problems, pathological gamblers may have a higher-than-normal illusion of control in their daily life.

  20. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

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    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor

  1. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenders, Gesa; Liedvogel, Miriam; Rivas, Miriam; Zapka, Manuela; Horita, Haruhito; Hara, Erina; Wada, Kazuhiro; Mouritsen, Henrik; Jarvis, Erich D

    2008-03-12

    Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor pathway that controls

  2. Amygdala's involvement in facilitating associative learning-induced plasticity: a promiscuous role for the amygdala in memory acquisition.

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    Chau, Lily S; Galvez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition and consolidation of fear-related memories. Some of the more widely employed behavioral paradigms that have assisted in solidifying the amygdala's role in fear-related memories are associative learning paradigms. With most associative learning tasks, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with a salient unconditioned stimulus (US) that elicits an unconditioned response (UR). After multiple CS-US pairings, the subject learns that the CS predicts the onset or delivery of the US, and thus elicits a learned conditioned response (CR). Most fear-related associative paradigms have suggested that an aspect of the fear association is stored in the amygdala; however, some fear-motivated associative paradigms suggest that the amygdala is not a site of storage, but rather facilitates consolidation in other brain regions. Based upon various learning theories, one of the most likely sites for storage of long-term memories is the neocortex. In support of these theories, findings from our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that trace-conditioning, an associative paradigm where there is a separation in time between the CS and US, induces learning-specific neocortical plasticity. The following review will discuss the amygdala's involvement, either as a site of storage or facilitating storage in other brain regions such as the neocortex, in fear- and non-fear-motivated associative paradigms. In this review, we will discuss recent findings suggesting a broader role for the amygdala in increasing the saliency of behaviorally relevant information, thus facilitating acquisition for all forms of memory, both fear- and non-fear-related. This proposed promiscuous role of the amygdala in facilitating acquisition for all memories further suggests a potential role of the amygdala in general learning disabilities.

  3. Amygdala’s involvement in facilitating associative learning-induced plasticity: a promiscuous role for the amygdala in memory acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily S Chau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition and consolidation of fear-related memories. Some of the more widely employed behavioral paradigms that have assisted in solidifying the amygdala’s role in fear-related memories are associative learning paradigms. With most associative learning tasks, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS is paired with a salient unconditioned stimulus (US that elicits an unconditioned response (UR. After multiple CS-US pairings, the subject learns that the CS predicts the onset or delivery of the US, and thus elicits a learned conditioned response (CR. Most fear-related associative paradigms have suggested that an aspect of the fear association is stored in the amygdala; however, some fear-motivated associative paradigms suggest that the amygdala is not a site of storage, but rather facilitates consolidation in other brain regions. Based upon various learning theories, one of the most likely sites for storage of long-term memories is the neocortex. In support of these theories, findings from our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that trace-conditioning, an associative paradigm where there is a separation in time between the CS and US, induces learning-specific neocortical plasticity. The following review will discuss the amygdala’s involvement, either as a site of storage or facilitating storage in other brain regions such as the neocortex, in fear- and non-fear-motivated associative paradigms. In this review, we will discuss recent findings suggesting a broader role for the amygdala in increasing the saliency of behaviorally relevant information, thus facilitating acquisition for all forms of memory, both fear- and non-fear-related. This proposed promiscuous role of the amygdala in facilitating acquisition for all memories further suggests a potential role of the amygdala in general learning disabilities.

  4. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  5. Grapheme learning and grapheme-color synesthesia: Toward a comprehensive model of grapheme-color association

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    Michiko eAsano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in grapheme-color synesthesia research has revealed that certain regularities, as well as individual differences, figure into grapheme-color associations. Although several factors are known to regulate grapheme-color associations, the impact of factors, including their interrelationships, on synesthesia remains unclear. We investigated determinants of synesthetic color for graphemes (characters, letters of Hiragana, a phonetic script in the Japanese language, and the English alphabet. Results revealed that grapheme ordinality was the strongest predictor of synesthetic colors for Hiragana characters, followed by character sound, and visual shape. Ordinality and visual shapes also significantly predicted synesthetic colors for English alphabet letters, however, sounds did not. The relative impact of grapheme properties on grapheme-color associations and the differences between these two writing systems are accounted for by considering the way graphemes are processed in the brain and introduced during an individual's development. A new model is proposed which takes into account the developmental process of grapheme learning. The model provides comprehensive explanation of synesthetic grapheme-color association determination processes, including the differences across writing systems.

  6. Learning democracy in a Swedish gamers’ association: Representative democracy as experiential knowledge in a liquid civil society

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    Tobias Harding

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To explore the role of civil society organizations in learning democracy this articlecombines the concept of democracy as 'phronesis' with neo-institutional theory, as well as with Hannah Pitkin's concepts of representation. It presents a case study (based on qualitative research of how democracy is learned in SVEROK, a Swedish youth organization focusing on activities such as computer and role-playing games, activities often associated with informal organization. In SVEROK they are organized in an organization sharing many features with established Swedish organizations, including hierarchic formal representative democracy. The norm in SVEROK is a pragmatic organizational knowledge focusing on substantive and formal representation. Organized education plays only a limited role. Learning is typically informal and experience-based. An organization similar to earlier national organizations is createdby self-organized and self-governing associations in government-supported cooperation. The case study supports Theda Skocpol's argument that organizationalstructure is vital to democratic learning.

  7. Advanced Parkinson’s disease effect on goal-directed and habitual processes involved in visuomotor associative learning

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    Fadila eHadj-Bouziane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present behavioral study readdresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease. Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 20 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects learned sets of 3 visuo-motor associations between complex patterns and joystick displacements during two testing sessions separated by a few hours. We distinguished errors preceding versus following the first correct response to compare patients' performance during the earliest phase of learning dominated by goal-directed actions with that observed later on, when responses start to become habitual. The disease significantly retarded both learning phases, especially in patients under sixty years of age. However, only the late phase deficit was disease severity-dependent and persisted on the second testing session. These findings provide the first corroboration in Parkinson patients of two ideas well-established in the animal literature. The first is the idea that associating visual stimuli to motor acts is a form of habit learning that engages the striatum. It is confirmed here by the global impairment in visuo-motor learning induced by Parkinson's disease. The second idea is that goal-directed behaviors are predominantly caudate-dependent whereas habitual responses are primarily putamen-dependent. At the advanced Parkinson's disease stages tested here, dopamine depletion is greater in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. Accordingly, the late phase of learning corresponding to the emergence of habitual responses was more vulnerable to the disease than the early phase dominated by goal

  8. A neural model of hippocampal-striatal interactions in associative learning and transfer generalization in various neurological and psychiatric patients.

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    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Keri, Szabolcs; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Myers, Catherine E; Gluck, Mark A

    2010-11-01

    Building on our previous neurocomputational models of basal ganglia and hippocampal region function (and their modulation by dopamine and acetylcholine, respectively), we show here how an integration of these models can inform our understanding of the interaction between the basal ganglia and hippocampal region in associative learning and transfer generalization across various patient populations. As a common test bed for exploring interactions between these brain regions and neuromodulators, we focus on the acquired equivalence task, an associative learning paradigm in which stimuli that have been associated with the same outcome acquire a functional similarity such that subsequent generalization between these stimuli increases. This task has been used to test cognitive dysfunction in various patient populations with damages to the hippocampal region and basal ganglia, including studies of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), schizophrenia, basal forebrain amnesia, and hippocampal atrophy. Simulation results show that damage to the hippocampal region-as in patients with hippocampal atrophy (HA), hypoxia, mild Alzheimer's (AD), or schizophrenia-leads to intact associative learning but impaired transfer generalization performance. Moreover, the model demonstrates how PD and anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm-two very different brain disorders that affect different neural mechanisms-can have similar effects on acquired equivalence performance. In particular, the model shows that simulating a loss of dopamine function in the basal ganglia module (as in PD) leads to slow acquisition learning but intact transfer generalization. Similarly, the model shows that simulating the loss of acetylcholine in the hippocampal region (as in ACoA aneurysm) also results in slower acquisition learning. We argue from this that changes in associative learning of stimulus-action pathways (in the basal ganglia) or changes in the learning of stimulus representations (in the

  9. Impaired Verbal Learning Is Associated with Larger Caudate Volumes in Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

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    Monica Juuhl-Langseth

    Full Text Available Both brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia. We have previously reported enlargements in subcortical brain structure volumes and impairment of neurocognitive functioning as measured by the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB in early onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOS. To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated whether neurocognitive performance and volumetric abnormalities in subcortical brain structures are related in EOS.Twenty-four patients with EOS and 33 healthy controls (HC were included in the study. Relationships between the caudate nucleus, the lateral and fourth ventricles volumes and neurocognitive performance were investigated with multivariate linear regression analyses. Intracranial volume, age, antipsychotic medication and IQ were included as independent predictor-variables.The caudate volume was negatively correlated with verbal learning performance uniquely in the EOS group (r=-.454, p=.034. There were comparable positive correlations between the lateral ventricular volume and the processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving domains for both the EOS patients and the healthy controls. Antipsychotic medication was related to ventricular enlargements, but did not affect the brain structure-function relationship.Enlargement of the caudate volume was related to poorer verbal learning performance in patients with EOS. Despite a 32% enlargement of the lateral ventricles in the EOS group, associations to processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving were similar for both the EOS and the HC groups.

  10. Negative learning bias is associated with risk aversion in a genetic animal model of depression

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    Steven John Shabel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb is activated by aversive stimuli and the omission of reward, inhibited by rewarding stimuli and is hyperactive in helpless rats – an animal model of depression. Here we test the hypothesis that congenital learned helpless (cLH rats are more sensitive to decreases in reward size and/or less sensitive to increases in reward than wild-type (WT control rats. Consistent with the hypothesis, we found that cLH rats were slower to switch preference between two responses after a small upshift in reward size on one of the responses but faster to switch their preference after a small downshift in reward size. cLH rats were also more risk-averse than WT rats – they chose a response delivering a constant amount of reward (safe response more often than a response delivering a variable amount of reward (risky response compared to WT rats. Interestingly, the level of bias towards negative events was associated with the rat’s level of risk aversion when compared across individual rats. cLH rats also showed impaired appetitive Pavlovian conditioning but more accurate responding in a two-choice sensory discrimination task. These results are consistent with a negative learning bias and risk aversion in cLH rats, suggesting abnormal processing of rewarding and aversive events in the LHb of cLH rats.

  11. Visual diet versus associative learning as mechanisms of change in body size preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda G Boothroyd

    Full Text Available Systematic differences between populations in their preferences for body size may arise as a result of an adaptive 'prepared learning' mechanism, whereby cues to health or status in the local population are internalized and affect body preferences. Alternatively, differences between populations may reflect their 'visual diet' as a cognitive byproduct of mere exposure. Here we test the relative importance of these two explanations for variation in body preferences. Two studies were conducted where female observers were exposed to pictures of high or low BMI women which were either aspirational (healthy, attractive models in high status clothes or non-aspirational (eating disordered patients in grey leotards, or to combinations thereof, in order to manipulate their body-weight preferences which were tested at baseline and at post-test. Overall, results showed good support for visual diet effects (seeing a string of small or large bodies resulted in a change from pre- to post-test whether the bodies were aspirational or not and also some support for the associative learning explanation (exposure to aspirational images of overweight women induced a towards preferring larger bodies, even when accompanied by equal exposure to lower weight bodies in the non-aspirational category. Thus, both influences may act in parallel.

  12. The relationship between visitor characteristics and learning-associated behaviors in a science museum discovery space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowski Boisvert, Dorothy; Jochums Slez, Brenda

    As informal educational institutions, science museums must do more than entertain and amaze visitors. Museum educators must design exhibits that attract and hold the attention of visitors long enough so that the visitors become engaged with the exhibits and learn from them. In order for museum educators to develop such exhibits, more information is needed about the variables associated with learning in museums. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge on informal education by examining the relationship between visitor characteristics and attraction, holding power, and visitor engagement.One hundred fifty-four visitors to a science museum discovery space were observed as they interacted freely with the exhibits. Trained volunteers recorded the subjects' movements including the exhibits at which they stopped (attraction), the amount of time spent at each exhibit (holding power), and behaviors indicative of subjects' engagement levels with the exhibits. Data indicated significant differences between age group and the holding power of exhibits. Though not significant statistically, a similar trend was noted between age group and attraction and visitor engagement level. No significant differences were found between gender or social grouping and attraction, holding power, or engagement levels.

  13. Associations between polygenic risk for schizophrenia and brain function during probabilistic learning in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Thomas M; Ihssen, Niklas; Brindley, Lisa M; Tansey, Katherine E; Mantripragada, Kiran; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Linden, David E J

    2016-02-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia liability can be explained by additive genetic factors. Risk profile scores (RPS) directly index risk using a summated total of common risk variants weighted by their effect. Previous studies suggest that schizophrenia RPS predict alterations to neural networks that support working memory and verbal fluency. In this study, we apply schizophrenia RPS to fMRI data to elucidate the effects of polygenic risk on functional brain networks during a probabilistic-learning neuroimaging paradigm. The neural networks recruited during this paradigm have previously been shown to be altered to unmedicated schizophrenia patients and relatives of schizophrenia patients, which may reflect genetic susceptibility. We created schizophrenia RPS using summary data from the Psychiatric Genetic Consortium (Schizophrenia Working Group) for 83 healthy individuals and explore associations between schizophrenia RPS and blood oxygen level dependency (BOLD) during periods of choice behavior (switch-stay) and reflection upon choice outcome (reward-punishment). We show that schizophrenia RPS is associated with alterations in the frontal pole (PWHOLE-BRAIN-CORRECTED  = 0.048) and the ventral striatum (PROI-CORRECTED  = 0.036), during choice behavior, but not choice outcome. We suggest that the common risk variants that increase susceptibility to schizophrenia can be associated with alterations in the neural circuitry that support the processing of changing reward contingencies. Hum Brain Mapp 37:491-500, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Machine learning approach identifies new pathways associated with demyelination in a viral model of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Reiner; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis is an experimentally virus-induced inflammatory demyelinating disease of the spinal cord, displaying clinical and pathological similarities to chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to identify pathways associated with chronic demyelination using an assumption-free combined microarray and immunohistology approach. Movement control as determined by rotarod assay significantly worsened in Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis -virus-infected SJL/J mice from 42 to 196 days after infection (dpi). In the spinal cords, inflammatory changes were detected 14 to 196 dpi, and demyelination progressively increased from 42 to 196 dpi. Microarray analysis revealed 1001 differentially expressed genes over the study period. The dominating changes as revealed by k-means and functional annotation clustering included up-regulations related to intrathecal antibody production and antigen processing and presentation via major histocompatibility class II molecules. A random forest machine learning algorithm revealed that down-regulated lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis, differentially expressed neurite morphogenesis and up-regulated toll-like receptor-4-induced pathways were intimately associated with demyelination as measured by immunohistology. Conclusively, although transcriptional changes were dominated by the adaptive immune response, the main pathways associated with demyelination included up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 and down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol biosynthesis is a rate limiting step of myelination and its down-regulation is suggested to be involved in chronic demyelination by an inhibition of remyelination. PMID:19183246

  15. Framework and catalogue of tools for Participatory monitoring for Farmer Family Learning Groups and Marketing Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Nalunga, Jane; Tibasiima, Thaddeo;

    2016-01-01

    of this project (2013-2015) was Farmer Family Learning Groups (FFLG) as a method for developing long-term food security through social capital building. Furthermore, another project based on the FFLG approach but focusing on the formation of Marketing Associations (MAs) contributed to this booklet. This project......This catalogue of ideas has been developed in a joint effort by six organisations (Caritas Kampala, Uganda Rural Development (URDT), Sulma Foods, Africa2000Network (A2N), National Organic Agricultural Movement of Uganda (NOGAMU), and Organic Denmark) in the project ECOSAF in Uganda. The focus...... was carried through in a joined effort between Sustainable Agricultural Trainers Network (SATNET), NOGAMU and OD. SATNET is an umbrella organization with 40 member organisations, and in the project, a number of MAs linked up to the organization as well. This catalogue is a result of inputs from more than 40...

  16. Application of two machine learning algorithms to genetic association studies in the presence of covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulkes Andrea S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based investigations aimed at uncovering genotype-trait associations often involve high-dimensional genetic polymorphism data as well as information on multiple environmental and clinical parameters. Machine learning (ML algorithms offer a straightforward analytic approach for selecting subsets of these inputs that are most predictive of a pre-defined trait. The performance of these algorithms, however, in the presence of covariates is not well characterized. Methods and Results In this manuscript, we investigate two approaches: Random Forests (RFs and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS. Through multiple simulation studies, the performance under several underlying models is evaluated. An application to a cohort of HIV-1 infected individuals receiving anti-retroviral therapies is also provided. Conclusion Consistent with more traditional regression modeling theory, our findings highlight the importance of considering the nature of underlying gene-covariate-trait relationships before applying ML algorithms, particularly when there is potential confounding or effect mediation.

  17. Experimental evolution, behavior and genetics: Associative learning as a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisabetta VERSACE

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary dynamics of behavioral traits reflect phenotypic and genetic changes.Methodological difficulties in analyzing the genetic dynamics of complex traits have left open questions on the mechanisms that have shaped complex behaviors and cognitive abilities.A strategy to investigate the change of behavior across generations is to assume that genetic constraints have a negligible role in evolution (the phenotypic gambit) and focus on the phenotype as a proxy for genetic evolution.Empirical evidence and technologic advances in genomics question the choice of neglecting the genetic underlying the dynamics of behavioral evolution.I first discuss the relevance of genetic factors-e.g.genetic variability,genetic linkage,gene interactions -in shaping evolution,showing the importance of taking genetic factors into account when dealing with evolutionary dynamics.I subsequently describe the recent advancements in genetics and genomics that make the investigation of the ongoing evolutionary process of behavioral traits finally attainable.In particular,by applying genomic resequencing to experimental evolution-a method called Evolve & Resequence-it is possible to monitor at the same time phenotypic and genomic changes in populations exposed to controlled selective pressures.Experimental evolution of associative learning,a well-known trait that promptly responds to selection,is a convenient model to illustrate this approach applied to behavior and cognition.Taking into account the recent achievements of the field,I discuss how to design and conduct an effective Evolve & Resequence study on associative learning in Drosophila.By integrating phenotypic and genomic data in the investigation of evolutionary dynamics,new insights can be gained on longstanding questions such as the modularity of mind and its evolution [Current Zoology 61 (2):226-241,2015].

  18. The Relationship between Students' Connections to Out-of-School Experiences and Factors Associated with Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Natalie A.

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' out-of-school experiences and various factors associated with science learning. Participants were 1,014 students from two urban high schools (secondary schools). They completed a survey questionnaire and science assessment describing their science learning experiences across contexts and science understanding. Using multilevel statistical modelling, accounting for the multilevel structure of the data with students (Level 1) assigned to teachers (Level 2), the results indicated that controlling for student and classroom factors, students' ability to make connections between in-school and out-of-school science experiences was associated with positive learning outcomes such as achievement, interest in science, careers in science, self-efficacy, perseverance, and effort in learning science. Teacher practice connecting to students' out-of-school experiences was negatively associated with student achievement but has no association with other outcome measures. The mixed results found in this study alert us to issues and opportunities concerning the integration of students' out-of-school experiences to classroom instruction, and ultimately improving our understanding of science learning across contexts.

  19. Verbal and novel multisensory associative learning in adults [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/12s

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne M Fifer; Ayla Barutchu; Mohit N Shivdasani; Crewther, Sheila G

    2013-01-01

    To date, few studies have focused on the behavioural differences between the learning of multisensory auditory-visual and intra-modal associations. More specifically, the relative benefits of novel auditory-visual and verbal-visual associations for learning have not been directly compared. In Experiment 1, 20 adult volunteers completed three paired associate learning tasks: non-verbal novel auditory-visual (novel-AV), verbal-visual (verbal-AV; using pseudowords), and visual-visual (shape-VV)....

  20. Childrens' learning and behaviour and the association with cheek cell polyunsaturated fatty acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A; Woodward, A; Jackson, S; Wang, Y; Crawford, M A

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of omega-3 fatty acids in relation to neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, dyslexia, autism) has occurred as a consequence of some international studies highlighting this link. In particular, some studies have shown that children with ADHD may have lower concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly omega-3, in their red blood cells and plasma, and that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may alleviate behavioural symptoms in this population. However, in order to compare levels it seems appropriate to establish fatty acid levels in a mainstream school aged population and if levels relate to learning and behaviour. To date no study has established this. For this study, cheek cell samples from 411 typically developing school children were collected and analysed for PUFA content, in order to establish the range in this population. In addition, measures of general classroom attention and behaviour were assessed in these children by teachers and parents. Cognitive performance tests were also administered in order to explore whether an association between behaviour and/or cognitive performance and PUFA levels exists. Relationships between PUFA levels and socio-economic status were also explored. Measures of reading, spelling and intelligence did not show any association with PUFA levels, but some associations were noted with the level of omega-3 fatty acids and teacher and parental reports of behaviour, with some evidence that higher omega-3 levels were associated with decreased levels of inattention, hyperactivity, emotional and conduct difficulties and increased levels of prosocial behaviour. These findings are discussed in relation to previous findings from omega-3 supplementation studies with children. PMID:20172688

  1. Within-compound associations explain potentiation and failure to overshadow learning based on geometry by discrete landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Joe M; Kosaki, Yutaka; McGregor, Anthony

    2013-07-01

    In three experiments, rats were trained to locate a submerged platform in one of the base corners of a triangular arena above each of which was suspended one of two distinctive landmarks. In Experiment 1, it was established that these landmarks differed in their salience by the differential control they gained over behavior after training in compound with geometric cues. In Experiment 2, it was shown that locating the platform beneath the less salient landmark potentiated learning based on geometry compared with control rats for which landmarks provided ambiguous information about the location of the platform. The presence of the more salient landmark above the platform for another group of animals appeared to have no effect on learning based on geometry. Experiment 3 established that these landmark and geometry cues entered into within-compound associations during compound training. We argue that these within-compound associations can account for the potentiation seen in Experiment 2, as well as previous failures to demonstrate overshadowing of geometric cues. We also suggest that these within-compound associations need not be of different magnitudes, despite the different effects of each of the landmarks on learning based on geometry seen in Experiment 2. Instead, within-compound associations appear to mitigate the overshadowing effects that traditional theories of associative learning would predict.

  2. International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology. European Regional Conference: Cognitive Development and Learning from Kindergarten to University. Program and Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hessels, Marco G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstracts and program of the 2012 European Regional Conference "Cognitive development and learning from kindergarten to university" of the International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology.

  3. Positive and negative feedback learning and associated dopamine and serotonin transporter binding after methamphetamine

    OpenAIRE

    Stolyarova, Alexandra; O’Dell, Steve J.; Marshall, John F; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Learning from mistakes and prospectively adjusting behavior in response to reward feedback is an important facet of performance monitoring. Dopamine (DA) pathways play an important role in feedback learning and a growing literature has also emerged on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in reward learning, particularly during punishment or reward omission (negative feedback). Cognitive impairments resulting from psychostimulant exposure may arise from altered patterns in feedback learning, whic...

  4. Online Learning Behaviors for Radiology Interns Based on Association Rules and Clustering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Shun; Liou, Chuen-He

    2014-01-01

    In a hospital, clinical teachers must also care for patients, so there is less time for the teaching of clinical courses, or for discussing clinical cases with interns. However, electronic learning (e-learning) can complement clinical skills education for interns in a blended-learning process. Students discuss and interact with classmates in an…

  5. Associations between Chinese EFL Graduate Students' Beliefs and Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mailing; Tian, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    This study, using Horwitz's Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory and Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning, investigated learners' beliefs about language learning and their choice of strategy categories among 546 graduate students in China. The correlation between learners' beliefs and their strategy categories…

  6. Enhanced Multisensory Integration and Motor Reactivation after Active Motor Learning of Audiovisual Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew J.; James, Thomas W.; James, Karin Harman

    2011-01-01

    Everyday experience affords us many opportunities to learn about objects through multiple senses using physical interaction. Previous work has shown that active motor learning of unisensory items enhances memory and leads to the involvement of motor systems during subsequent perception. However, the impact of active motor learning on subsequent…

  7. Associative learning in two closely related parasitoid wasps: a neuroecological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Insects are useful model organisms to study learning and memory. Their brains are less complex than vertebrate brains, but the basic mechanisms of learning and memory are similar in both taxa. In this thesis I study learning and subsequent memory formation in two parasitoid wasp species that differ

  8. Functional Specialization within the Striatum along Both the Dorsal/Ventral and Anterior/Posterior Axes during Associative Learning via Reward and Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Gluck, Mark A.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to elucidate the role of the human striatum in learning via reward and punishment during an associative learning task. Previous studies have identified the striatum as a critical component in the neural circuitry of reward-related learning. It remains unclear, however, under what task conditions, and to what…

  9. Electrophysiological correlates of associative learning in smokers: a higher-order conditioning experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littel Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical conditioning has been suggested to play an important role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of tobacco smoking. Several studies have shown that initially neutral stimuli that are directly paired with smoking are able to elicit conditioned responses. However, there have been few human studies that demonstrate the contribution of higher-order conditioning to smoking addiction, although it is assumed that higher-order conditioning predominates learning in the outside world. In the present study a higher-order conditioning task was designed in which brain responses of smokers and non-smokers were conditioned by pairing smoking-related and neutral stimuli (CS1smoke and CS1neutral with two geometrical figures (CS2smoke and CS2neutral. ERPs were recorded to all CSs. Results Data showed that the geometrical figure that was paired with smoking stimuli elicited significantly larger P2 and P3 waves than the geometrical figure that was paired with neutral stimuli. During the first half of the experiment this effect was only present in smokers whereas non-smokers displayed no significant differences between both stimuli, indicating that neutral cues paired with motivationally relevant smoking-related stimuli gain more motivational significance even though they were never paired directly with smoking. These conclusions are underscored by self-reported evidence of enhanced second-order conditioning in smokers. Conclusions It can be concluded that smokers show associative learning for higher-order smoking-related stimuli. The present study directly shows the contribution of higher-order conditioning to smoking addiction and is the first to reveal its electrophysiological correlates. Although results are preliminary, they may help in understanding the etiology of smoking addiction and its persistence.

  10. Testing the Role of Dorsal Premotor Cortex in Auditory-Motor Association Learning Using Transcranical Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, Carlotta; Stephan, Marianne A.; Zatorre, Robert J.; Penhune, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between the auditory and the motor systems are critical in music as well as in other domains, such as speech. The premotor cortex, specifically the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), seems to play a key role in auditory-motor integration, and in mapping the association between a sound and the movement used to produce it. In the present studies we tested the causal role of the dPMC in learning and applying auditory-motor associations using 1 Hz repetitive Transcranical Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). In this paradigm, non-musicians learn a set of auditory-motor associations through melody training in two contexts: first when the sound to key-press mapping was in a conventional sequential order (low to high tones mapped onto keys from left to right), and then when it was in a novel scrambled order. Participant’s ability to match the four pitches to four computer keys was tested before and after the training. In both experiments, the group that received 1 Hz rTMS over the dPMC showed no significant improvement on the pitch-matching task following training, whereas the control group (who received rTMS to visual cortex) did. Moreover, in Experiment 2 where the pitch-key mapping was novel, rTMS over the dPMC also interfered with learning. These findings suggest that rTMS over dPMC disturbs the formation of auditory-motor associations, especially when the association is novel and must be learned rather explicitly. The present results contribute to a better understanding of the role of dPMC in auditory-motor integration, suggesting a critical role of dPMC in learning the link between an action and its associated sound. PMID:27684369

  11. Predictive regulation of associative learning in a neural network by reinforcement and attentive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, S; Levine, D; Schmajuk, N

    At least four types of learning processes are relevant in the present paper: learning of conditioned reinforcement, incentive motivation, sensory expectancy, and motor command. These several types of learning processes, which operate on a slow time scale, regulate and are regulated by rapidly fluctuating limited capacity STM representations of sensory events. The theory suggest how nonlinear feedback interactions among these fast information processing mechanisms and slow learning mechanisms participate in different conditioning paradigms, and actively regulate learning and memory to generate predictive internal representations of external environmental contingencies.

  12. Identifying Configurations of Perceived Teacher Autonomy Support and Structure: Associations with Self-Regulated Learning, Motivation and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Sierens, Eline; Goossens, Luc; Soenens, Bart; Dochy, Filip; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Aelterman, Nathalie; Haerens, Leen; Beyers, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory, the aim of this study was (a) to examine naturally occurring configurations of perceived teacher autonomy support and clear expectations (i.e., a central aspect of teacher structure), and (b) to investigate associations with academic motivation, self-regulated learning, and problem behavior. Based on…

  13. Transitions between Short-Term and Long-Term Memory in Learning Meaningful Unrelated Paired Associates Using Computer Based Drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Tzvika Y.; Turnure, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of short-term and long-term memory in learning paired associates focuses on two microcomputer-based instructional design experiments with eleventh and twelfth graders that were modeled after traditional drill and practice routines. Research questions are presented, treatment conditions are explained, and additional research is…

  14. Understanding the Association between Future Time Perspective and Self-Regulated Learning through the Lens of Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bilde, Jerissa; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy

    2011-01-01

    The present cross-sectional research examined a process underlying the positive association between holding an extended future time perspective (FTP) and learning outcomes through the lens of self-determination theory. High school students and university students (N = 275) participated in the study. It was found that students with an extended FTP…

  15. Are Cardiovascular Risk Factors Associated with Verbal Learning and Memory Impairment in Patients with Schizophrenia? A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Lancon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to assess the relationships of cardiovascular risk factors with verbal learning and memory in patients with schizophrenia. Methods and Design. cross-sectional study. Inclusion Criteria. Diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Data Collection. Sociodemographic information, clinical characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood tests, and episodic memory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT. Analysis. A multivariate analysis using multiple linear regressions was performed to determine variables that are potentially associated with verbal learning and memory. Results. One hundred and sixty-eight outpatients participated in our study. An association was found between the metabolic syndrome (MetS and memory impairment on measures of verbal learning, and short- and long-term memory. Among the different components of MeTS, hypertriglycerides, abdominal obesity, and low HDL cholesterol were the only factors associated with memory impairment. Alcohol dependence or abuse was associated with a higher rate of forgetting. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that MetS and alcohol use may be linked with memory impairment in schizophrenia. These findings provide important insights into the interdependencies of cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive disorders and support novel strategies for treating and preventing cognitive disorders in patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Maximising Intercultural Learning in Short Term International Placements: Findings Associated with Orientation Programs, Guided Reflection and Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Coral J. L.; Walta, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Short-term international practicum experience is now a feature of many university education programs in Australia in an attempt to engage students with the growing multi-cultural aspects of Australian life. The stated purposes of such practicum experiences generally highlight intercultural learning, which is associated with the development of…

  17. Association of Group Learning with Mathematics Achievement and Mathematics Attitude among Eighth-Grade Students in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.; McKenna, Cornelius M.; Hines, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a large, nationally-representative sample of eighth-grade students in the US to assess how the frequency of group learning activity in mathematics classrooms was associated with mathematics achievement and three measures of attitudes toward mathematics. Results showed that moderate amounts of group work in class had positive…

  18. Variation of the gene coding for DARPP-32 (PPP1R1B) and brain connectivity during associative emotional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, Branislava; Swart, Marte; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Langers, Dave R. M.; Kema, Ido P.; Aleman, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Associative emotional learning, which is important for the social emotional functioning of individuals and is often impaired in psychiatric illnesses, is in part mediated by dopamine and glutamate pathways in the brain. The protein DARPP-32 is involved in the regulation of dopaminergic and glutamine

  19. Extensive learning is associated with gray matter changes in the right hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kathrin; Reess, Tim Jonas; Rus, Oana Georgiana; Zimmer, Claus

    2016-01-15

    Longitudinal voxel-based morphometry studies have demonstrated increases in gray matter volume in hippocampal areas following extensive cognitive learning. Moreover, there is increasing evidence for the relevance of the subiculum in the context of learning and memory. Using longitudinal FreeSurfer analyses and hippocampus subfield segmentation the present study investigated the effects of 14weeks of intensive learning on hippocampal and subicular gray matter volume in a sample of medical students compared to control subjects not engaged in any cognitive learning activities. We found that extensive learning resulted in a significant increase of right hippocampal volume. Volume of the left hippocampus and the subiculum remained unchanged. The current findings emphasize the role of the hippocampus in semantic learning and memory processes and provide further evidence for the neuroplastic ability of the hippocampus in the context of cognitive learning. PMID:26518629

  20. Extensive learning is associated with gray matter changes in the right hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kathrin; Reess, Tim Jonas; Rus, Oana Georgiana; Zimmer, Claus

    2016-01-15

    Longitudinal voxel-based morphometry studies have demonstrated increases in gray matter volume in hippocampal areas following extensive cognitive learning. Moreover, there is increasing evidence for the relevance of the subiculum in the context of learning and memory. Using longitudinal FreeSurfer analyses and hippocampus subfield segmentation the present study investigated the effects of 14weeks of intensive learning on hippocampal and subicular gray matter volume in a sample of medical students compared to control subjects not engaged in any cognitive learning activities. We found that extensive learning resulted in a significant increase of right hippocampal volume. Volume of the left hippocampus and the subiculum remained unchanged. The current findings emphasize the role of the hippocampus in semantic learning and memory processes and provide further evidence for the neuroplastic ability of the hippocampus in the context of cognitive learning.

  1. Associative learning for danger avoidance nullifies innate positive chemotaxis to host olfactory stimuli in a parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare; Giunti, Giulia; Geri, Serena; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    Animals rely on associative learning for a wide range of purposes, including danger avoidance. This has been demonstrated for several insects, including cockroaches, mosquitoes, drosophilid flies, paper wasps, stingless bees, bumblebees and honeybees, but less is known for parasitic wasps. We tested the ability of Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) females to associate different dosages of two innately attractive host-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), ethyl octanoate and decanal, with danger (electric shocks). We conducted an associative treatment involving odours and shocks and two non-associative controls involving shocks but not odours and odours but not shocks. In shock-only and odour-only trained wasps, females preferred on HIPV-treated than on blank discs. In associative-trained wasps, however, P. concolor's innate positive chemotaxis for HIPVs was nullified (lowest HIPV dosage tested) or reversed (highest HIPV dosage tested). This is the first report of associative learning of olfactory cues for danger avoidance in parasitic wasps, showing that the effects of learning can override innate positive chemotaxes.

  2. Associative learning for danger avoidance nullifies innate positive chemotaxis to host olfactory stimuli in a parasitic wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare; Giunti, Giulia; Geri, Serena; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    Animals rely on associative learning for a wide range of purposes, including danger avoidance. This has been demonstrated for several insects, including cockroaches, mosquitoes, drosophilid flies, paper wasps, stingless bees, bumblebees and honeybees, but less is known for parasitic wasps. We tested the ability of Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) females to associate different dosages of two innately attractive host-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), ethyl octanoate and decanal, with danger (electric shocks). We conducted an associative treatment involving odours and shocks and two non-associative controls involving shocks but not odours and odours but not shocks. In shock-only and odour-only trained wasps, females preferred on HIPV-treated than on blank discs. In associative-trained wasps, however, P. concolor's innate positive chemotaxis for HIPVs was nullified (lowest HIPV dosage tested) or reversed (highest HIPV dosage tested). This is the first report of associative learning of olfactory cues for danger avoidance in parasitic wasps, showing that the effects of learning can override innate positive chemotaxes.

  3. Association between learning style preferences and anatomy assessment outcomes in graduate-entry and undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Sbayeh, Amgad; Horgan, Mary; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P

    2016-07-01

    An improved understanding of the relationship between anatomy learning performance and approaches to learning can lead to the development of a more tailored approach to delivering anatomy teaching to medical students. This study investigated the relationship between learning style preferences, as measured by Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) inventory style questionnaire and Honey and Mumford's learning style questionnaire (LSQ), and anatomy and clinical skills assessment performance at an Irish medical school. Additionally, mode of entry to medical school [undergraduate/direct-entry (DEM) vs. graduate-entry (GEM)], was examined in relation to individual learning style, and assessment results. The VARK and LSQ were distributed to first and second year DEM, and first year GEM students. DEM students achieved higher clinical skills marks than GEM students, but anatomy marks did not differ between each group. Several LSQ style preferences were shown to be weakly correlated with anatomy assessment performance in a program- and year-specific manner. Specifically, the "Activist" style was negatively correlated with anatomy scores in DEM Year 2 students (rs = -0.45, P = 0.002). The "Theorist" style demonstrated a weak correlation with anatomy performance in DEM Year 2 (rs = 0.18, P = 0.003). Regression analysis revealed that, among the LSQ styles, the "Activist" was associated with poorer anatomy assessment performance (P < 0.05), while improved scores were associated with students who scored highly on the VARK "Aural" modality (P < 0.05). These data support the contention that individual student learning styles contribute little to variation in academic performance in medical students. Anat Sci Educ 9: 391-399. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26845590

  4. Literature mining of protein-residue associations with graph rules learned through distant supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar KE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We propose a method for automatic extraction of protein-specific residue mentions from the biomedical literature. The method searches text for mentions of amino acids at specific sequence positions and attempts to correctly associate each mention with a protein also named in the text. The methods presented in this work will enable improved protein functional site extraction from articles, ultimately supporting protein function prediction. Our method made use of linguistic patterns for identifying the amino acid residue mentions in text. Further, we applied an automated graph-based method to learn syntactic patterns corresponding to protein-residue pairs mentioned in the text. We finally present an approach to automated construction of relevant training and test data using the distant supervision model. Results The performance of the method was assessed by extracting protein-residue relations from a new automatically generated test set of sentences containing high confidence examples found using distant supervision. It achieved a F-measure of 0.84 on automatically created silver corpus and 0.79 on a manually annotated gold data set for this task, outperforming previous methods. Conclusions The primary contributions of this work are to (1 demonstrate the effectiveness of distant supervision for automatic creation of training data for protein-residue relation extraction, substantially reducing the effort and time involved in manual annotation of a data set and (2 show that the graph-based relation extraction approach we used generalizes well to the problem of protein-residue association extraction. This work paves the way towards effective extraction of protein functional residues from the literature.

  5. Causal reasoning versus associative learning: A useful dichotomy or a strawman battle in comparative psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The debate about whether or not one could/should ascribe reasoning abilities to animals has deep historical roots and seems very up-to-date in the light of the immense body of new empirical data originating from various species and research paradigms. Associative learning (AL) seems to be a ubiquitous low-level contender for any cognitive interpretation of animal behavior, mostly because of the assumed mechanistic simplicity and phylogenetic prevalence. However, the implicit assumption that AL is simple and therefore the most parsimonious mechanism to describe seemingly complex behavior can and must be questioned on various grounds. Using recent empirical findings with chimpanzees as an example, I argue that at times inferential reasoning might be the most likely candidate to account for performance differences between experimental and control conditions. Finally, a general conclusion drawn from the current debate(s) in the field of comparative psychology could be that a dichotomist battle of 2 conceptual camps-each of which is lacking a clear and homogeneous theoretical framework-is a scientific deadlock. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Causal reasoning versus associative learning: A useful dichotomy or a strawman battle in comparative psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The debate about whether or not one could/should ascribe reasoning abilities to animals has deep historical roots and seems very up-to-date in the light of the immense body of new empirical data originating from various species and research paradigms. Associative learning (AL) seems to be a ubiquitous low-level contender for any cognitive interpretation of animal behavior, mostly because of the assumed mechanistic simplicity and phylogenetic prevalence. However, the implicit assumption that AL is simple and therefore the most parsimonious mechanism to describe seemingly complex behavior can and must be questioned on various grounds. Using recent empirical findings with chimpanzees as an example, I argue that at times inferential reasoning might be the most likely candidate to account for performance differences between experimental and control conditions. Finally, a general conclusion drawn from the current debate(s) in the field of comparative psychology could be that a dichotomist battle of 2 conceptual camps-each of which is lacking a clear and homogeneous theoretical framework-is a scientific deadlock. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27512825

  7. Interprofessional simulated learning: short-term associations between simulation and interprofessional collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Soeren Mary

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professions education programs use simulation for teaching and maintaining clinical procedural skills. Simulated learning activities are also becoming useful methods of instruction for interprofessional education. The simulation environment for interprofessional training allows participants to explore collaborative ways of improving communicative aspects of clinical care. Simulation has shown communication improvement within and between health care professions, but the impacts of teamwork simulation on perceptions of others' interprofessional practices and one's own attitudes toward teamwork are largely unknown. Methods A single-arm intervention study tested the association between simulated team practice and measures of interprofessional collaboration, nurse-physician relationships, and attitudes toward health care teams. Participants were 154 post-licensure nurses, allied health professionals, and physicians. Self- and proxy-report survey measurements were taken before simulation training and two and six weeks after. Results Multilevel modeling revealed little change over the study period. Variation in interprofessional collaboration and attitudes was largely attributable to between-person characteristics. A constructed categorical variable indexing 'leadership capacity' found that participants with highest and lowest values were more likely to endorse shared team leadership over physician centrality. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that focusing interprofessional simulation education on shared leadership may provide the most leverage to improve interprofessional care.

  8. Associative learning and memory in Lymnaea stagnalis: how well do they remember?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowiak, Ken; Sangha, Susan; McComb, Chloe; Varshney, Nishi; Rosenegger, David; Sadamoto, Hisayo; Scheibenstock, Andi

    2003-07-01

    The search for 'the how and the where' of memory formation in the brain, the engram, is still one of the unattained 'Holy Grails' of neuroscience. Over the years, various paths have been trodden in attempts to attain this goal, and while tantalizing glimpses appear now and then on the scientific horizon, the Grail still has not been grasped. One of the paths that investigators have walked is the invertebrate 'model system' approach. Some invertebrates possess relatively simple nervous systems that mediate relatively simple behaviours that are both interesting and trainable. In this commentary, we would like to shed light on a relatively new player, the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis L., that is being used in the quest to illuminate 'the how and the where' the nervous systems encode and store memory. We will show that it is possible to demonstrate that a single neuron is a site of memory formation and storage for a form of associative learning in this lowly snail. It may be that the Grail is a little closer to being grasped.

  9. Argyris and associates' orientations towards learning collectively: Can it be measured through self reports?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schmidt

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of measuring interactional orientations towards learning collectively by means of a self report instrument. Based on the theoretical framework of Argyris and associates, a measuring instrument was constructed and subjected to statistical analysis. 317 post graduate students in the faculty of Economic and Management Sciences at the Rand Afrikaans University completed the inventory. A factor analysis yielded four second-order factors. The results of the study appear to lend statistical support to the nature of the most prevalent interactional strategies described in the literature. The implications of these findings are discussed.Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om die lewensvatbaarheid daarvan te ondersoek om interaksionele orientasies ten opsigte van kollektiewe leer deur middel van 'n selfverslaggewende instrument te meet. 'n Meetinstrument gegrond op die teoretiese raamwerk van Argyris en genote is gekonstrueer en aan statistiese ontleding onderwerp. 317 nagraadse studente in die fakulteit Ekonomiese en Bestuurswetenskappe aan die Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit het die vraelys voltooi. 'n Faktorontleding het vier tweede-orde faktore opgelewer. Die resultate van die studie blyk statistiese steun aan die aard van die mees algemene interaksionele strategieë, soos beskryf in die literatuur, te lewer. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

  10. Phoneme Awareness, Visual-Verbal Paired-Associate Learning, and Rapid Automatized Naming as Predictors of Individual Differences in Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmington, Meesha; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent relationships between phoneme awareness, visual-verbal paired-associate learning, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading skills in 7- to 11-year-old children. Path analyses showed that visual-verbal paired-associate learning and RAN, but not phoneme awareness, were unique predictors of word recognition,…

  11. Impaired associative fear learning in mice with complete loss or haploinsufficiency of AMPA GluR1 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feyder

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA glutamate receptors containing the GluR1 subunit contribute to the molecular mechanisms associated with learning. AMPA GluR1 glutamate receptor knockout mice (KO exhibit abnormal hippocampal and amygdala plasticity, and deficits on various assays for cognition including Pavlovian fear conditioning. Here we examined associative fear learning in mice with complete absence (KO or partial loss (heterozygous mutant, HET of GluR1 on multiple fear conditioning paradigms. After multi-trial delay or trace conditioning, KO displayed impaired tone and context fear recall relative to WT, whereas HET were normal. After one-trial delay conditioning, both KO and HET showed impaired tone and context recall. HET and KO showed normal nociceptive sensitivity in the hot plate and tail flick tests. These data demonstrate that the complete absence of GluR1 subunit-containing receptors prevents the formation of associative fear memories, while GluR1 haploinsufficiency is sufficient to impair one-trial fear learning. These findings support growing evidence of a major role for GluR1-containing AMPA receptors in amygdalamediated forms of learning and memory.

  12. Association of preference for modality to learning of rhythm patterns in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persellin, D C; Pierce, C

    1988-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between preferences for learning modality and the learning and short-term retention of musical rhythm patterns. 55 third graders completed the Swassing Barbe Modality Index. These students were also presented two-measure rhythm patterns through their visual, auditory, and kinesthetic modalities. Analysis indicated that children who preferred on the modality index one modality over others tended to prefer that same modality when learning simple musical rhythms. PMID:3226832

  13. Indicators of early and late processing reveal the importance of within-trial-time for theories of associative learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Lachnit

    Full Text Available In four human learning experiments (Pavlovian skin conductance, causal learning, speeded classification task, we evaluated several associative learning theories that assume either an elemental (modified unique cue model and Harris' model or a configural (Pearce's configural theory and an extension of it form of stimulus processing. The experiments used two modified patterning problems (A/B/C+, AB/BC/AC+ vs. ABC-; A+, BC+ vs. ABC-. Pearce's configural theory successfully predicted all of our data reflecting early stimulus processing, while the predictions of the elemental theories were in accord with all of our data reflecting later stages of stimulus processing. Our results suggest that the form of stimulus representation depends on the amount of time available for stimulus processing. Our findings highlight the necessity to investigate stimulus processing during conditioning on a finer time scale than usually done in contemporary research.

  14. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafto, Carissa L.; Conway, Christopher M.; Field, Suzanne L.; Houston, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that nonlinguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning (VSL) as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a…

  15. Psychological and Organizational Variables Associated with Workplace Learning in Small and Medium Manufacturing Businesses in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Se-Yeon; Na, Seung-Il

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between workplace learning and psychological variables, such as learning competency, motivation, curiosity, self-esteem and locus of control, and organizational variables, such as centralization of power, formality, merit system and communication. The studied population consisted entirely…

  16. Associative learning in degenerative neostriatal disorders: contrasts in explicit and implicit remembering between Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprengelmeyer, R; Canavan, A G; Lange, H W; Hömberg, V

    1995-01-01

    The performances of 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 16 with Huntington's disease (HD), and young and old healthy controls were assessed on a number of tests of verbal and nonverbal declarative memory, on a test of nonmotor conditional associative learning (words and colors), and on a number of reaction time (RT) tasks. The RT tasks consisted of cued simple and choice reactions. The relationship between the precue and the imperative stimulus in the S1-S2 paradigm was nonarbitrary in the first series and arbitrary in the second series. The series with arbitrary S1-S2 associations was repeated across two successive blocks of trials. The rationale of the study was to investigate the function of the basal ganglia "complex loop," and it was postulated that HD patients would show greater deficits because of greater involvement of the caudate nucleus. The patients with HD had the slowest RTs. Across the two blocks with arbitrary S1-S2 associations, the patients with HD but not PD nevertheless showed evidence of learning in their precued RTs. In contrast, the patients with PD were better able to remember the associations in free recall than were the HD patients. It is concluded that patients with PD have relatively greater deficits in procedural learning, whereas those with HD have relatively more impairments in declarative memory, and the greater level of cognitive impairment in HD overall is interpreted as being due to more serious damage to the caudate loop. PMID:7885356

  17. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  18. Protein dynamics associated with failed and rescued learning in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mahiuddin Ahmed

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is caused by an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21. Although it is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID, there are, as yet, no effective pharmacotherapies. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS is trisomic for orthologs of ∼55% of Hsa21 classical protein coding genes. These mice display many features relevant to those seen in DS, including deficits in learning and memory (L/M tasks requiring a functional hippocampus. Recently, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine, was shown to rescue performance of the Ts65Dn in several L/M tasks. These studies, however, have not been accompanied by molecular analyses. In previous work, we described changes in protein expression induced in hippocampus and cortex in control mice after exposure to context fear conditioning (CFC, with and without memantine treatment. Here, we extend this analysis to Ts65Dn mice, measuring levels of 85 proteins/protein modifications, including components of MAP kinase and MTOR pathways, and subunits of NMDA receptors, in cortex and hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice after failed learning in CFC and after learning was rescued by memantine. We show that, compared with wild type littermate controls, (i of the dynamic responses seen in control mice in normal learning, >40% also occur in Ts65Dn in failed learning or are compensated by baseline abnormalities, and thus are considered necessary but not sufficient for successful learning, and (ii treatment with memantine does not in general normalize the initial protein levels but instead induces direct and indirect responses in approximately half the proteins measured and results in normalization of the endpoint protein levels. Together, these datasets provide a first view of the complexities associated with pharmacological rescue of learning in the Ts65Dn. Extending such studies to additional drugs and mouse models of DS will aid in identifying pharmacotherapies for effective

  19. Memory-reliant Post-error Slowing Is Associated with Successful Learning and Fronto-occipital Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffler, Björn C; Almeida, Rita; Granqvist, Mathias; Bengtsson, Sara L

    2016-10-01

    Negative feedback after an action in a cognitive task can lead to devaluing that action on future trials as well as to more cautious responding when encountering that same choice again. These phenomena have been explored in the past by reinforcement learning theories and cognitive control accounts, respectively. Yet, how cognitive control interacts with value updating to give rise to adequate adaptations under uncertainty is less clear. In this fMRI study, we investigated cognitive control-based behavioral adjustments during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task and studied their influence on performance in a later test phase in which the learned value of items is tested. We provide support for the idea that functionally relevant and memory-reliant behavioral adjustments in the form of post-error slowing during reinforcement learning are associated with test performance. Adjusting response speed after negative feedback was correlated with BOLD activity in right inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle occipital cortex during the event of receiving the feedback. Bilateral middle occipital cortex activity overlapped partly with activity reflecting feedback deviance from expectations as measured by unsigned prediction error. These results suggest that cognitive control and feature processing cortical regions interact to implement feedback-congruent adaptations beneficial to learning. PMID:27243614

  20. Potential Association of Lead Exposure During Early Development of Mice With Alteration of Hippocampus Nitric Oxide Levels and Learning Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI SUN; ZHENG-YAN ZHAO; JIAN HU; XIE-LAI ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Objective Chronic lead (Pb) exposure during development is known to produce learning deficits. Nitric oxide participates in the synaptic mechanisms involved in certain forms of learning and memory. This study was designed to clarify whether Pb-induced impairment in learning and memory was associated with the changes of nitric oxide levels in mice brains.Methods Sixty Balb/c mice aged 10 days were chosen. A model of lead exposure was established by drinking 0.025%, 0.05%,0.075% lead acetate, respectively for 8 weeks. The controls were orally given distilled water. The ability to learn and memorize was examined by open field test, T-water maze test. In parallel with the behavioral data, NO level of hippocampus tissue was detected by biochemical assay. Results Compared with control groups, (1) the weight of 0.075% group was significantly reduced (P<0.05); (2) The number of times in mice attaining the required standards in T-water maze test was lower in 0.075%group (P<0.01). No significant difference was found between experimental and control groups in open field test (P>0.05); (3)NO level of mouse hippocampus tissue was decreased in 0.075% group (P<0.01). Conclusions The findings suggest that decreased hippocampus NO level may contribute to the Pb-induced deficits in learning and memory processes.

  1. Sleep spindle-related reactivation of category-specific cortical regions after learning face-scene associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til O; Mölle, Matthias; Diedrichs, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    Newly acquired declarative memory traces are believed to be reactivated during NonREM sleep to promote their hippocampo-neocortical transfer for long-term storage. Yet it remains a major challenge to unravel the underlying neuronal mechanisms. Using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG......-coupled reactivation of brain regions representing the specific task stimuli was traced during subsequent NonREM sleep with EEG-informed fMRI. Relative to the control task, learning face-scene associations triggered a stronger combined activation of neocortical and hippocampal regions during subsequent sleep. Notably......) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in humans, we show that sleep spindles play a key role in the reactivation of memory-related neocortical representations. On separate days, participants either learned face-scene associations or performed a visuomotor control task. Spindle...

  2. Protein synthesis required for long-term memory is induced by PKC activation on days before associative learning

    OpenAIRE

    Alkon, Daniel L.; Epstein, Herman; Kuzirian, Alan; Bennett, M. Catherine; Nelson, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Protein synthesis has long been known to be required for associative learning to consolidate into long-term memory. Here we demonstrate that PKC isozyme activation on days before training can induce the synthesis of proteins necessary and sufficient for subsequent long-term memory consolidation. Bryostatin (Bryo), a macrolide lactone with efficacy in subnanomolar concentrations and a potential therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease, is a potent activator of PKC, some of whose isozymes undergo pr...

  3. A neural model of hippocampal-striatal interactions in associative learning and transfer generalization in various neurological and psychiatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Moustafa; Keri, Szabolcs; Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Myers, Catherine E.; Gluck, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Building on our previous neurocomputational models of basal ganglia and hippocampal-region function (and their modulation by dopamine and acetylcholine, respectively), we show here how an integration of these models can inform our understanding of the interaction between the basal ganglia and hippocampal region in associative learning and transfer generalization across various patient populations. As a common test bed for exploring interactions between these brain regions and neuromodulators,...

  4. Fear learning increases the number of polyribosomes associated with excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the barrel cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Jasinska

    Full Text Available Associative fear learning, resulting from whisker stimulation paired with application of a mild electric shock to the tail in a classical conditioning paradigm, changes the motor behavior of mice and modifies the cortical functional representation of sensory receptors involved in the conditioning. It also induces the formation of new inhibitory synapses on double-synapse spines of the cognate barrel hollows. We studied density and distribution of polyribosomes, the putative structural markers of enhanced synaptic activation, following conditioning. By analyzing serial sections of the barrel cortex by electron microscopy and stereology, we found that the density of polyribosomes was significantly increased in dendrites of the barrel activated during conditioning. The results revealed fear learning-induced increase in the density of polyribosomes associated with both excitatory and inhibitory synapses located on dendritic spines (in both single- and double-synapse spines and only with the inhibitory synapses located on dendritic shafts. This effect was accompanied by a significant increase in the postsynaptic density area of the excitatory synapses on single-synapse spines and of the inhibitory synapses on double-synapse spines containing polyribosomes. The present results show that associative fear learning not only induces inhibitory synaptogenesis, as demonstrated in the previous studies, but also stimulates local protein synthesis and produces modifications of the synapses that indicate their potentiation.

  5. Stimulus encoding selectivity at high degrees of paired-associate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, E A; Savage, J D

    1973-12-01

    Sixty-two Ss learned six CCC trigram-digit pairs by the study-test method; 21 Ss continued the PA acquisition trials to a learning criterion of one errorless trial, while 41 Ss were carded to 300% overlearning or 24 trials, whichever came first. The Ss were then shown individual letters of the trigrams, with position cues provided, and were tested for their ability to provide the digit and produce the additional letters. Digit recall was much better to initial letters than to those in the second or third positions of the trigrams; with oveflearning, digit recall improved to the initial letters but not to letters in second and third positions. Production of additional letters of the trigrams was not appreciably related to either cue position or degree of PA learning. There was some evidence ofincreased selectivity with higher degrees of PA learning.

  6. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  7. Verbal and novel multisensory associative learning in adults [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/12s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Fifer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To date, few studies have focused on the behavioural differences between the learning of multisensory auditory-visual and intra-modal associations. More specifically, the relative benefits of novel auditory-visual and verbal-visual associations for learning have not been directly compared. In Experiment 1, 20 adult volunteers completed three paired associate learning tasks: non-verbal novel auditory-visual (novel-AV, verbal-visual (verbal-AV; using pseudowords, and visual-visual (shape-VV. Participants were directed to make a motor response to matching novel and arbitrarily related stimulus pairs. Feedback was provided to facilitate trial and error learning. The results of Signal Detection Theory analyses suggested a multisensory enhancement of learning, with significantly higher discriminability measures (d-prime in both the novel-AV and verbal-AV tasks than the shape-VV task. Motor reaction times were also significantly faster during the verbal-AV task than during the non-verbal learning tasks.  Experiment 2 (n = 12 used a forced-choice discrimination paradigm to assess whether a difference in unisensory stimulus discriminability could account for the learning trends in Experiment 1. Participants were significantly slower at discriminating unisensory pseudowords than the novel sounds and visual shapes, which was notable given that these stimuli produced superior learning. Together the findings suggest that verbal information has an added enhancing effect on multisensory associative learning in adults

  8. Verbal and novel multisensory associative learning in adults [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/p4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Fifer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, few studies have focused on the behavioural differences between the learning of multisensory auditory-visual and intra-modal associations. More specifically, the relative benefits of novel auditory-visual and verbal-visual associations for learning have not been directly compared. In Experiment 1, 20 adult volunteers completed three paired associate learning tasks: non-verbal novel auditory-visual (novel-AV, verbal-visual (verbal-AV; using pseudowords, and visual-visual (shape-VV. Participants were directed to make a motor response to matching novel and arbitrarily related stimulus pairs. Feedback was provided to facilitate trial and error learning. The results of Signal Detection Theory analyses suggested a multisensory enhancement of learning, with significantly higher discriminability measures (d-prime in both the novel-AV and verbal-AV tasks than the shape-VV task. Motor reaction times were also significantly faster during the verbal-AV task than during the non-verbal learning tasks.  Experiment 2 (n = 12 used a forced-choice discrimination paradigm to assess whether a difference in unisensory stimulus discriminability could account for the learning trends in Experiment 1. Participants were significantly slower at discriminating unisensory pseudowords than the novel sounds and visual shapes, which was notable given that these stimuli produced superior learning. Together the findings suggest that verbal information has an added enhancing effect on multisensory associative learning in adults

  9. Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Laabidi; Mohamed Jemni; Leila Jemni Ben Ayed; Hejer Ben Brahim; Amal Ben Jemaa

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-access...

  10. Visual discrimination learning in dwarf goats and associated changes in heart rate and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Jan; Nürnberg, G; Manteuffel, G

    2004-09-30

    We studied visual discrimination learning in a group of Nigerian dwarf goats using a computer-based learning device which was integrated in the animals' home pen. We conducted three consecutive learning tasks (T1, T2 and T3), each of which lasted for 13 days. In each task, a different set of four visual stimuli was presented on a computer screen in a four-choice design. Predefined sequences of stimulus combinations were presented in a pseudorandom order. Animals were rewarded with drinking water when they chose the positive stimulus by pressing a button next to it. Noninvasive measurements of goats' heartbeat intervals were carried out on the first and the last 2 days of each learning task. We analysed heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) of resting animals to study sustained physiological effects related to general learning challenge rather than acute excitement during an actual learning session. The number of trials to reach the learning criterion was 1000 in T1, when visual stimuli were presented to the goats for the first time, but decreased to 210 in T2 and 240 in T3, respectively. A stable plateau of correct choices between 70% and 80% was reached on Day 10 in T1, on Day 8 in T2 and on Day 6 in T3. We found a significant influence of the task and of the interaction between task and day on learning success. Whereas HR increased throughout T1, this relationship was inverted in T2 and T3, indicating different effects on the HR depending on how familiar goats were with the learning task. We found a significant influence of the task and the interaction between task and time within the task on HRV parameters, indicating changes of vagal activity at the heart. The results suggest that changes in HR related to learning were predominantly caused by a withdrawal of vagal activity at the heart. With regard to nonlinear processes in heartbeat regulation, increased deterministic shares of HRV indicated that the animals did not really relax until the end of T3

  11. Identifying Learning Strategies Associated with Active use of Video Annotation Software

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, Abelardo; Mirriahi, Negin; Dawson, Shane; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, An; Gasevic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The higher education sector has seen a shift in teaching approaches over the past decade with an increase in the use of video for delivering lecture content as part of a flipped classroom or blended learning model. Advances in video technologies have provided opportunities for students to now annotate videos as a strategy to support their achievement of the intended learning outcomes. However, there are few studies exploring the relationship between video annotations, student approaches to le...

  12. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that non-linguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a three-location spatiotemporal sequence of multi-colored geometric shapes. Early language skills were assessed using the MacArthur-Bates CDI. Analyses of chi...

  13. Association Rule Based Flexible Machine Learning Module for Embedded System Platforms like Android

    OpenAIRE

    Amiraj Dhawan; Shruti Bhave; Amrita Aurora; Vishwanathan Iyer

    2014-01-01

    The past few years have seen a tremendous growth in the popularity of smartphones. As newer features continue to be added to smartphones to increase their utility, their significance will only increase in future. Combining machine learning with mobile computing can enable smartphones to become 'intelligent' devices, a feature which is hitherto unseen in them. Also, the combination of machine learning and context aware computing can enable smartphones to gauge user's requirements proactively, ...

  14. Plasticity of left perisylvian white-matter tracts is associated with individual differences in math learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jolles, Dietsje; Wassermann, Demian; Chokhani, Ritika; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Bammer, Roland; Fuchs, Lynn; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity of white matter tracts is thought to be essential for cognitive development and academic skill acquisition in children. However, a dearth of high-quality diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data measuring longitudinal changes with learning, as well as methodological difficulties in multi-time point tract identification have limited our ability to investigate plasticity of specific white matter tracts. Here, we examine learning-related changes of white matter tracts innervating inferior ...

  15. How organizational learning is associated with patient rights: a qualitative content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shahin; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Ravari, Ali; Sabzevari, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Background Nowadays, patient rights, particularly receiving favorable health care based on modern knowledge, informed consent, and privacy, are important issues in health care delivery systems. Organizational learning is considered an important factor influencing health care quality and patient rights. However, there is little evidence regarding this issue. Objective The present study was conducted to explore the role of organizational learning in patient rights from clinical nurses’ viewpoint. Design This qualitative study was conducted through conventional content analysis. In total, 18 nurses who met the inclusion criteria participated in this study through purposive sampling with maximum variation. Data were gathered through 20 in-depth, semi-structured interviews, which continued until data saturation was achieved. Data collection also included constant and simultaneous comparative analyses. Results Data analysis led to four major themes: conservation of patient safety, providing favorable care, being the patient's advocate, and informing the patients. All the participants believed that organizational learning could play a vital role in respecting patient rights and interests. Conclusions Participants believed that their efforts to conduct organizational learning, tried to improve respecting the patient rights via conservation of patient safety, trying to improve quality of care, being an advocate, and informing the patient. It would be appreciable if nursing managers honored the commitment of the nurses for learning, highlight their role as defenders of patient rights, and encourage them to initiate organizational learning. PMID:27465289

  16. Adenosine A(2A) receptor modulation of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse plasticity during associative learning in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontinha, Bruno M; Delgado-García, José M; Madroñal, Noelia; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M; Gruart, Agnès

    2009-06-01

    Previous in vitro studies have characterized the electrophysiological and molecular signaling pathways of adenosine tonic modulation on long-lasting synaptic plasticity events, particularly for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). However, it remains to be elucidated whether the long-term changes produced by endogenous adenosine in the efficiency of synapses are related to those required for learning and memory formation. Our goal was to understand how endogenous activation of adenosine excitatory A(2A) receptors modulates the associative learning evolution in conscious behaving mice. We have studied here the effects of the application of a highly selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, SCH58261, upon a well-known associative learning paradigm-classical eyeblink conditioning. We used a trace paradigm, with a tone as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and an electric shock presented to the supraorbital nerve as the unconditioned stimulus (US). A single electrical pulse was presented to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway to evoke field EPSPs (fEPSPs) in the pyramidal CA1 area during the CS-US interval. In vehicle-injected animals, there was a progressive increase in the percentage of conditioning responses (CRs) and in the slope of fEPSPs through conditioning sessions, an effect that was completely prevented (and lost) in SCH58261 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) -injected animals. Moreover, experimentally evoked LTP was impaired in SCH58261-injected mice. In conclusion, the endogenous activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors plays a pivotal effect on the associative learning process and its relevant hippocampal circuits, including activity-dependent changes at the CA3-CA1 synapse.

  17. Associative concept learning, stimulus equivalence, and relational frame theory: working out the similarities and differences between human and non-human behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Sean; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    In their review article Zentall et al. propose that nonhumans can come to relate stimuli based on their physical properties (perceptual concept learning) or the relationship established between or among physically related stimuli (relational concept learning). At the same time, they draw upon findings from within the animal learning literature in order to argue that nonhumans can also derive untrained yet predictable relations between stimuli in the absence of direct training (associative con...

  18. Effects of enriched physical and social environments on motor performance, associative learning, and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Madroñal

    Full Text Available We have studied the motor abilities and associative learning capabilities of adult mice placed in different enriched environments. Three-month-old animals were maintained for a month alone (AL, alone in a physically enriched environment (PHY, and, finally, in groups in the absence (SO or presence (SOPHY of an enriched environment. The animals' capabilities were subsequently checked in the rotarod test, and for classical and instrumental learning. The PHY and SOPHY groups presented better performances in the rotarod test and in the acquisition of the instrumental learning task. In contrast, no significant differences between groups were observed for classical eyeblink conditioning. The four groups presented similar increases in the strength of field EPSPs (fEPSPs evoked at the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse across classical conditioning sessions, with no significant differences between groups. These trained animals were pulse-injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU to determine hippocampal neurogenesis. No significant differences were found in the number of NeuN/BrdU double-labeled neurons. We repeated the same BrdU study in one-month-old mice raised for an additional month in the above-mentioned four different environments. These animals were not submitted to rotarod or conditioned tests. Non-trained PHY and SOPHY groups presented more neurogenesis than the other two groups. Thus, neurogenesis seems to be related to physical enrichment at early ages, but not to learning acquisition in adult mice.

  19. DHA Depletion in Rat Brain Is Associated With Impairment on Spatial Learning and Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING XIAO; LING WANG; RUO-JUN XU; ZHEN-YU CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency in brain on spatial learning and memory in rats. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were fed with an n-3 fatty acid deficient diet for two generations to induce DHA depletion in brain. DHA in seven brain regions was analyzed using the gas-liquid chromatography. Morris water maze (MWM) was employed as an assessing index of spatial learning and memory in the n-3 fatty acid deficient adult rats of second generation. Results Feeding an n-3 deficient diet for two generations depleted DHA differently by 39%-63% in the seven brain regions including cerebellum, medulla, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, cortex and midbrain. The MWM test showed that the n-3 deficient rats took a longer time and swam a longer distance to find the escape platform than the n-3 Adq group. Conclusion The spatial learning and memory in adult rats are partially impaired by brain DHA depletion.

  20. Student outcomes associated with service-learning in a culturally relevant high school program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Lois A; Billig, Shelley H; Meyer, Stephen; Hofschire, Linda

    2006-01-01

    The Hawaiian Studies Program (HSP) integrates the learning of Hawaiian culture with more traditional secondary curriculum in science, social studies, and English. Students also participate in weekly community service-learning sessions. Fifty-five HSP students and 29 peers (who were not involved in the program), completed a survey measuring: students' connection to, pride in, and responsibility for their community; civic attitudes; and career knowledge and preparedness. HSP teachers, community members, and students were also interviewed about program outcomes. Compared to other peers, HSP students tended to report feeling more connected to their community and school and to agree that they had career-related skills. Participants believed that service- learning contributed to these outcomes by making connections between school and community life and by exposing students to a variety of careers. PMID:17000607

  1. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (Lisbon, Portugal, March 14-16, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference on Mobile Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Lisbon, Portugal, March 14-16, 2013. The Mobile Learning 2013 International Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  2. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (11th, Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the 11th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2015, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015. The Mobile Learning 2015 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  3. The role of associative and non-associative learning in the training of horses and implications for the welfare (a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Baragli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Horses were domesticated 6000 years ago and since then different types of approaches have been developed to enhance the horse's wellbeing and the human-horse relationship. Even though horse training is an increasingly important research area and many articles have been published on the subject, equitation is still the sport with the highest rate of human injuries, and a significant percentage of horses are sold or slaughtered due to behavioral problems. One explanation for this data is that the human-horse relationship is complex and the communication between humans and horses has not yet been accurately developed. Thus, this review addresses correct horse training based on scientific knowledge in animal learning and psychology. Specifically, it starts from the basic communication between humans and horses and then focuses on associative and non-associative learning, with many practical outcomes in horse management from the ground and under saddle. Finally, it highlights the common mistakes in the use of negative reinforcement, as well as all the implications that improper training could have on horse welfare. Increased levels of competence in horse training could be useful for equine technicians, owners, breeders, veterinarians, and scientists, in order to safeguard horse welfare, and also to reduce the number of human injuries and economic loss for civil society and the public health system.

  4. Developmental stress impairs performance on an association task in male and female songbirds, but impairs auditory learning in females only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Tara M; Morgan, Amanda; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    In songbirds, early-life environments critically shape song development. Many studies have demonstrated that developmental stress impairs song learning and the development of song-control regions of the brain in males. However, song has evolved through signaller-receiver networks and the effect stress has on the ability to receive auditory signals is equally important, especially for females who use song as an indicator of mate quality. Female song preferences have been the metric used to evaluate how developmental stress affects auditory learning, but preferences are shaped by many non-cognitive factors and preclude the evaluation of auditory learning abilities in males. To determine whether developmental stress specifically affects auditory learning in both sexes, we subjected juvenile European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to either an ad libitum or an unpredictable food supply treatment from 35 to 115 days of age. In adulthood, we assessed learning of both auditory and visual discrimination tasks. Females reared in the experimental group were slower than females in the control group to acquire a relative frequency auditory task, and slower than their male counterparts to acquire an absolute frequency auditory task. There was no difference in auditory performance between treatment groups for males. However, on the colour association task, birds from the experimental group committed more errors per trial than control birds. There was no correlation in performance across the cognitive tasks. Developmental stress did not affect all cognitive processes equally across the sexes. Our results suggest that the male auditory system may be more robust to developmental stress than that of females. PMID:26238792

  5. The Movement Kinematics and Learning Strategies Associated with Adopting Different Foci of Attention during Both Acquisition and Anxious Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gavin P; Gottwald, Victoria M; Khan, Michael A; Kramer, Robin S S

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that implicit strategies adopted during learning help prevent breakdown of automatic processes and subsequent performance decrements associated with the presence of pressure. According to the Constrained Action Hypothesis, automaticity of movement is promoted when adopting an external focus of attention. The purpose of the current experiment was to investigate if learning with an external focus of attention can enhance performance under subsequent pressure situations through promoting implicit learning and automaticity. Since previous research has generally used outcome measures of performance, the current study adopted measures of movement production. Specifically, we calculated within-subject variability in trajectory velocity and distance traveled every 10% of movement time. This detailed kinematic analysis allowed investigation into some of the previously unexplored mechanisms responsible for the benefits of adopting an external focus of attention. Novice participants performed a 2.5 m golf putt. Following a pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three focus groups (internal, external, control). Participants then completed 400 acquisition trials over two consecutive days before being subjected to both a low anxiety and high anxiety (HA) transfer test. Dependent variables included variability, number of successful putts and mean radial error. Results revealed that variability was greater in the internal compared to the external and control groups. Putting performance revealed that all groups increased performance following acquisition. However, only the control group demonstrated a decrement in performance in the HA transfer test. These findings suggest that adopting an appropriate focus of attention during learning can prevent choking; with an external focus inhibiting the breakdown of automatic processes and an internal focus acting as a self-focus learning strategy and thus desensitizing individuals to anxiety effects

  6. Fear conditioning in an abdominal pain model: neural responses during associative learning and extinction in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joswin Kattoor

    Full Text Available Fear conditioning is relevant for elucidating the pathophysiology of anxiety, but may also be useful in the context of chronic pain syndromes which often overlap with anxiety. Thus far, no fear conditioning studies have employed aversive visceral stimuli from the lower gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we implemented a fear conditioning paradigm to analyze the conditioned response to rectal pain stimuli using fMRI during associative learning, extinction and reinstatement. In N = 21 healthy humans, visual conditioned stimuli (CS(+ were paired with painful rectal distensions as unconditioned stimuli (US, while different visual stimuli (CS(- were presented without US. During extinction, all CSs were presented without US, whereas during reinstatement, a single, unpaired US was presented. In region-of-interest analyses, conditioned anticipatory neural activation was assessed along with perceived CS-US contingency and CS unpleasantness. Fear conditioning resulted in significant contingency awareness and valence change, i.e., learned unpleasantness of a previously neutral stimulus. This was paralleled by anticipatory activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, the somatosensory cortex and precuneus (all during early acquisition and the amygdala (late acquisition in response to the CS(+. During extinction, anticipatory activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the CS(- was observed. In the reinstatement phase, a tendency for parahippocampal activation was found. Fear conditioning with rectal pain stimuli is feasible and leads to learned unpleasantness of previously neutral stimuli. Within the brain, conditioned anticipatory activations are seen in core areas of the central fear network including the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex. During extinction, conditioned responses quickly disappear, and learning of new predictive cue properties is paralleled by prefrontal activation. A tendency for parahippocampal activation during

  7. Role of the plasticity-associated transcription factor zif268 in the early phase of instrumental learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Maroteaux

    Full Text Available Gene transcription is essential for learning, but the precise role of transcription factors that control expression of many other genes in specific learning paradigms is yet poorly understood. Zif268 (Krox24/Egr-1 is a transcription factor and an immediate-early gene associated with memory consolidation and reconsolidation, and induced in the striatum after addictive drugs exposure. In contrast, very little is known about its physiological role at early stages of operant learning. We investigated the role of Zif268 in operant conditioning for food. Zif268 expression was increased in all regions of the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens in mice subjected to the first session of operant conditioning. In contrast, Zif268 increase in the dorsomedial caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens core was not detected in yoked mice passively receiving the food reward. This indicates that Zif268 induction in these structures is linked to experiencing or learning contingency, but not to reward delivery. When the task was learned (5 sessions, Zif268 induction disappeared in the nucleus accumbens and decreased in the medial caudate-putamen, whereas it remained high in the lateral caudate-putamen, previously implicated in habit formation. In transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP in the striatonigral neurons, Zif268 induction occured after the first training session in both GFP-positive and negative neurons indicating an enhanced Zif268 expression in both striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons. Mutant mice lacking Zif268 expression obtained less rewards, but displayed a normal discrimination between reinforced and non-reinforced targets, and an unaltered approach to food delivery box. In addition, their motivation to obtain food rewards, evaluated in a progressive ratio schedule, was blunted. In conclusion, Zif268 participates in the processes underlying performance and motivation to execute food-conditioned instrumental task.

  8. Optimizing vs. matching: response strategy in a probabilistic learning task is associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Waltz, James A; Strauss, Gregory P; Frank, Michael J; Gold, James M

    2011-04-01

    Previous research indicates that behavioral performance in simple probability learning tasks can be organized into response strategy classifications that are thought to predict important personal characteristics and individual differences. Typically, relatively small proportion of subjects can be identified as optimizers for effectively exploiting the environment and choosing the more rewarding stimulus nearly all of the time. In contrast, the vast majority of subjects behaves sub-optimally and adopts the matching or super-matching strategy, apportioning their responses in a way that matches or slightly exceeds the probabilities of reinforcement. In the present study, we administered a two-choice probability learning paradigm to 51 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and 29 healthy controls (NC) to examine whether there are differences in the proportion of subjects falling into these response strategy classifications, and to determine whether task performance is differentially associated with symptom severity and neuropsychological functioning. Although the sample of SZ patients did not differ from NC in overall rate of learning or end performance, significant clinical differences emerged when patients were divided into optimizing, super-matching and matching subgroups based upon task performance. Patients classified as optimizers, who adopted the most advantageous learning strategy, exhibited higher levels of positive and negative symptoms than their matching and super-matching counterparts. Importantly, when both positive and negative symptoms were considered together, only negative symptom severity was a significant predictor of whether a subject would behave optimally, with each one standard deviation increase in negative symptoms increasing the odds of a patient being an optimizer by as much as 80%. These data provide a rare example of a greater clinical impairment being associated with better behavioral performance. PMID:21239143

  9. Optimizing vs. matching: response strategy in a probabilistic learning task is associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Waltz, James A; Strauss, Gregory P; Frank, Michael J; Gold, James M

    2011-04-01

    Previous research indicates that behavioral performance in simple probability learning tasks can be organized into response strategy classifications that are thought to predict important personal characteristics and individual differences. Typically, relatively small proportion of subjects can be identified as optimizers for effectively exploiting the environment and choosing the more rewarding stimulus nearly all of the time. In contrast, the vast majority of subjects behaves sub-optimally and adopts the matching or super-matching strategy, apportioning their responses in a way that matches or slightly exceeds the probabilities of reinforcement. In the present study, we administered a two-choice probability learning paradigm to 51 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and 29 healthy controls (NC) to examine whether there are differences in the proportion of subjects falling into these response strategy classifications, and to determine whether task performance is differentially associated with symptom severity and neuropsychological functioning. Although the sample of SZ patients did not differ from NC in overall rate of learning or end performance, significant clinical differences emerged when patients were divided into optimizing, super-matching and matching subgroups based upon task performance. Patients classified as optimizers, who adopted the most advantageous learning strategy, exhibited higher levels of positive and negative symptoms than their matching and super-matching counterparts. Importantly, when both positive and negative symptoms were considered together, only negative symptom severity was a significant predictor of whether a subject would behave optimally, with each one standard deviation increase in negative symptoms increasing the odds of a patient being an optimizer by as much as 80%. These data provide a rare example of a greater clinical impairment being associated with better behavioral performance.

  10. Associations of Teacher Credibility and Teacher Affinity with Learning Outcomes in Health Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, DeLeon L.; Anderman, Eric M.; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study (N = 633), we examine the role of teacher credibility and teacher affinity in classrooms. We explore the relations among these two characteristics and student gains in knowledge and valuing of learning about HIV and pregnancy prevention across high school classrooms. Results marshaled support for the notion that teacher…

  11. Is learning mindfulness associated with improved affect after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya J.; Brandsma, R.

    2010-01-01

    The increased popularity of mindfulness-based interventions and the growing body of empirical evidence confirming the positive effects of these interventions on well-being warrant more research to determine if the effects are indeed related to learning mindfulness. The present study extends previous

  12. Associations Between Academic and Motor Performance in a Heterogeneous Sample of Children With Learning Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuijk, Pieter Jelle; Hartman, Esther; Mombarg, Remo; Scherder, Erik; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    A heterogeneous sample of 137 school-aged children with learning disabilities (IQ > 80) attending special needs schools was examined on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). The results show that compared to the available norm scores, 52.6% of the children tested performed below the 1

  13. The Learning Environment Associated with Information Technology Education in Taiwan: Combining Psychosocial and Physical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Zandvliet, David B.; Hou, I.-Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions of senior high school students towards the Taiwanese information technology (IT) classroom with the What Is Happening in this Class? (WIHIC) survey and explored the physical learning environment of the IT classroom using the Computerised Classroom Environment Inventory (CCEI). The participants included 2,869…

  14. Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are impaired in associative learning based on external feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M. M.; den Boer, J. A.; Smid, H. G. O. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have to repeat their actions before feeling satisfied that the action reached its intended goal. Learning theory predicts that this may be due to a failure in the processing of external feedback. Method. We examined the performance of 29

  15. Associative Learning and Sensory Neuroplasticity: How Does It Happen and What Is It Good For?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the body's sensory systems have been presumed to provide the brain with raw information about the external environment, which the brain must interpret to select a behavioral response. Consequently, studies of the neurobiology of learning and memory have focused on circuitry that interfaces between sensory inputs and behavioral…

  16. Aversive Olfactory Learning and Associative Long-Term Memory in "Caenorhabditis elegans"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hisayuki; Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2011-01-01

    The nematode "Caenorhabditis elegans" ("C. elegans") adult hermaphrodite has 302 invariant neurons and is suited for cellular and molecular studies on complex behaviors including learning and memory. Here, we have developed protocols for classical conditioning of worms with 1-propanol, as a conditioned stimulus (CS), and hydrochloride (HCl) (pH…

  17. Association Rule Based Flexible Machine Learning Module for Embedded System Platforms like Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiraj Dhawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have seen a tremendous growth in the popularity of smartphones. As newer features continue to be added to smartphones to increase their utility, their significance will only increase in future. Combining machine learning with mobile computing can enable smartphones to become ‘intelligent’ devices, a feature which is hitherto unseen in them. Also, the combination of machine learning and context aware computing can enable smartphones to gauge users’ requirements proactively, depending upon their environment and context. Accordingly, necessary services can be provided to users. In this paper, we have explored the methods and applications of integrating machine learning and context aware computing on the Android platform, to provide higher utility to the users. To achieve this, we define a Machine Learning (ML module which is incorporated in the basic Android architecture. Firstly, we have outlined two major functionalities that the ML module should provide. Then, we have presented three architectures, each of which incorporates the ML module at a different level in the Android architecture. The advantages and shortcomings of each of these architectures have been evaluated. Lastly, we have explained a few applications in which our proposed system can be incorporated such that their functionality is improved.

  18. Age-Related Differences in Associative Learning of Landmarks and Heading Directions in a Virtual Navigation Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jimmy Y; Moffat, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have showed that spatial memory declines with age but have not clarified the relevance of different landmark cues for specifying heading directions among different age groups. This study examined differences between younger, middle-aged and older adults in route learning and memory tasks after they navigated a virtual maze that contained: (a) critical landmarks that were located at decision points (i.e., intersections) and (b) non-critical landmarks that were located at non-decision points (i.e., the sides of the route). Participants were given a recognition memory test for critical and non-critical landmarks and also given a landmark-direction associative learning task. Compared to younger adults, older adults committed more navigation errors during route learning and were poorer at associating the correct heading directions with both critical and non-critical landmarks. Notably, older adults exhibited a landmark-direction associative memory deficit at decision points; this was the first finding to show that an associative memory deficit exist among older adults in a navigational context for landmarks that are pertinent for reaching a goal, and suggest that older adults may expend more cognitive resources on the encoding of landmark/object features than on the binding of landmark and directional information. This study is also the first to show that older adults did not have a tendency to process non-critical landmarks, which were regarded as distractors/irrelevant cues for specifying the directions to reach the goal, to an equivalent or larger extent than younger adults. We explain this finding in view of the low number of non-critical cues in our virtual maze (relative to a real-world urban environment) that might not have evoked older adults' usual tendency toward processing or encoding distractors. We explain the age differences in navigational and cognitive performance with regards to functional and structural changes in the hippocampus and

  19. Short-term learning of a visually guided power-grip task is associated with dynamic changes in EEG oscillatory activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kranczioch, C.; Athanassiou, S.; Shen, S; G. Gao; A. Sterr

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Performing a motor task after a period of training has been associated with reduced cortical activity and changes in oscillatory brain activity. Little is known about whether learning also affects the neural network associated with motor preparation and post movement processes. Here we investigate how short-term motor learning affects oscillatory brain activity during the preparation, execution, and post-movement stage of a force-feedback task. Methods: Participants performed a vis...

  20. Edward W. Taylor / Patricia Cranton, and Associates (Hrsg.): The Handbook of Transformative Learning, Theory, Research, and Practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass 2012 [...] [Sammelrezension

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Sammelrezension von: 1. Edward W. Taylor / Patricia Cranton, and Associates (Hrsg.): The Handbook of Transformative Learning, Theory, Research, and Practice, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass 2012 (598 S.; ISBN 978-1-111-21891-4) 2. Jack Mezirow / Edward W. Taylor, and Associates (Hrsg.): Transformative Learning in Practice, Insights from Community, Workplace, and Higher Education, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass 2009 (303 S.; ISBN 978-0-470-25790-6)

  1. Sleep parameters, functional status and time post-stroke are associated with off-line motor skill learning in people with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eSiengsukon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mounting evidence demonstrates that individuals with stroke benefit from sleep to enhance learning of a motor task. While stage NREM2 sleep and REM sleep have been associated with off-line motor skill learning in neurologically-intact individuals, it remains unknown which sleep parameters or specific sleep stages are associated with off-line motor skill learning in individuals with stroke. Methods: Twenty individuals with chronic stroke (> 6 months following stroke and 10 neurologically slept for three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory with polysomnography. Participants practiced a tracking task the morning before the third night and underwent a retention test the morning following the third night. Off-line learning on the tracking task was assessed. Pearson’s correlations assessed for associations between the magnitude of off-line learning and sleep variables, age, upper extremity motor function, stroke severity, depression and time since stroke occurrence.Results: Individuals with stroke performed with significantly less error on the tracking task following a night of sleep (p=.006 while the control participants did not (p=.816. Increased sleep efficiency (r= -.285, less time spent in stage NREM3 sleep (r=.260, and more time spent in stage REM sleep (r= -.266 was weakly-to-moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Furthermore, higher upper-extremity motor function (r = -.400, lower stroke severity (r = .360, and less time since stroke occurrence (r=.311 were moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Conclusion: This study is the first study to provide insight into which sleep stages and individual characteristics may be associated with off-line learning in people with stroke. Future work should continue to understand which factors or combination of factors promote off-line motor learning in people with neurologic injury to best promote motor recovery in

  2. Neuronal representations of stimulus associations develop in the temporal lobe during learning

    OpenAIRE

    Messinger, Adam; Squire, Larry R.; Zola, Stuart M.; Albright, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    Visual stimuli that are frequently seen together become associated in long-term memory, such that the sight of one stimulus readily brings to mind the thought or image of the other. It has been hypothesized that acquisition of such long-term associative memories proceeds via the strengthening of connections between neurons representing the associated stimuli, such that a neuron initially responding only to one stimulus of an associated pair eventually comes to respond to both. Consistent with...

  3. Physical Activity Is Associated with Reduced Implicit Learning but Enhanced Relational Memory and Executive Functioning in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Jennifer C.; Grove, George A.; Wollam, Mariegold E.; Uyar, Fatma; Mataro, Maria; Cohen, Neal J.; Howard, Darlene V.; Howard, James H.; Erickson, Kirk I.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity improves explicit memory and executive cognitive functioning at the extreme ends of the lifespan (i.e., in older adults and children). However, it is unknown whether these associations hold for younger adults who are considered to be in their cognitive prime, or for implicit cognitive functions that do not depend on motor sequencing. Here we report the results of a study in which we examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and (1) explicit relational memory, (2) executive control, and (3) implicit probabilistic sequence learning in a sample of healthy, college-aged adults. The main finding was that physical activity was positively associated with explicit relational memory and executive control (replicating previous research), but negatively associated with implicit learning, particularly in females. These results raise the intriguing possibility that physical activity upregulates some cognitive processes, but downregulates others. Possible implications of this pattern of results for physical health and health habits are discussed. PMID:27584059

  4. PatternCoder: A Programming Support Tool for Learning Binary Class Associations and Design Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, J. H.; Cheng, K. F.; Haddow, J.

    2009-01-01

    PatternCoder is a software tool to aid student understanding of class associations. It has a wizard-based interface which allows students to select an appropriate binary class association or design pattern for a given problem. Java code is then generated which allows students to explore the way in which the class associations are implemented in a…

  5. Hippocampal Context Processing during Acquisition of a Predictive Learning Task Is Associated with Renewal in Extinction Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissek, Silke; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Renewal is defined as the recovery of an extinguished response if extinction and retrieval contexts differ. The context dependency of extinction, as demonstrated by renewal, has important implications for extinction-based therapies. Persons showing renewal (REN) exhibit higher hippocampal activation during extinction in associative learning than those without renewal (NOREN), demonstrating hippocampal context processing, and recruit ventromedial pFC in retrieval. Apart from these findings, brain processes generating renewal remain largely unknown. Conceivably, processing differences in task-relevant brain regions that ultimately lead to renewal may occur already in initial acquisition of associations. Therefore, in two fMRI studies, we investigated overall brain activation and hippocampal activation in REN and NOREN during acquisition of an associative learning task in response to presentation of a context alone or combined with a cue. Results of two studies demonstrated significant activation differences between the groups: In Study 1, a support vector machine classifier correctly assigned participants' brain activation patterns to REN and NOREN groups, respectively. In Study 2, REN and NOREN showed similar hippocampal involvement during context-only presentation, suggesting processing of novelty, whereas overall hippocampal activation to the context-cue compound, suggesting compound encoding, was higher in REN. Positive correlations between hippocampal activation and renewal level indicated more prominent hippocampal processing in REN. Results suggest that hippocampal processing of the context-cue compound rather than of context only during initial learning is related to a subsequent renewal effect. Presumably, REN participants use distinct encoding strategies during acquisition of context-related tasks, which reflect in their brain activation patterns and contribute to a renewal effect. PMID:26807840

  6. Building a RAPPOR with the Unknown: Privacy-Preserving Learning of Associations and Data Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanti Giulia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Techniques based on randomized response enable the collection of potentially sensitive data from clients in a privacy-preserving manner with strong local differential privacy guarantees. A recent such technology, RAPPOR [12], enables estimation of the marginal frequencies of a set of strings via privacy-preserving crowdsourcing. However, this original estimation process relies on a known dictionary of possible strings; in practice, this dictionary can be extremely large and/or unknown. In this paper, we propose a novel decoding algorithm for the RAPPOR mechanism that enables the estimation of “unknown unknowns,” i.e., strings we do not know we should be estimating. To enable learning without explicit dictionary knowledge, we develop methodology for estimating the joint distribution of multiple variables collected with RAPPOR. Our contributions are not RAPPOR-specific, and can be generalized to other local differential privacy mechanisms for learning distributions of string-valued random variables.

  7. Identifying key Effective Lifelong Learning Inventory (ELLI) dimensions associated with academic success amongst postgraduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid-Doubell, Fiza; Cuculescu-Santana, Mirela

    2012-01-01

    Many elements have been identified as contributors of academic success amongst medical students but to group these components in order to develop guidelines for intervention strategies is atypical. One such tool which could allow this possibility is the Effective Lifelong Learning Inventory (ELLI) developed by the University of Bristol. ELLI is an online self-assessment instrument which identifies and measures the dimensions of learner development. It comprises of 90 key questions used to ...

  8. Framework and catalogue of tools for Participatory monitoring for Farmer Family Learning Groups and Marketing Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Vaarst, Mette; Nalunga, Jane; Tibasiima, Thaddeo; Kizzah, Dinah; Dissing, Aage; Dissing, Inge Lis; Smolders, Gidi; Baguma, Apollo; Bogere, Godfrey; Mutebi, James; Wesonga, Yusuf; Masareka, Longino; Kitooke, Michael; Nakasi, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    This catalogue of ideas has been developed in a joint effort by six organisations (Caritas Kampala, Uganda Rural Development (URDT), Sulma Foods, Africa2000Network (A2N), National Organic and Organic Denmark) in the project ECOSAF in Uganda. The approach has been quite a lot like action research, and Development in practice. The focus of this project (2013-2015) was Farmer Family Learning Groups (FFLG) as a method for developing long-term food security through social capital building. Further...

  9. Developing Assessment at City: A Review of Learning Development Associate Projects 2010-12

    OpenAIRE

    MacLaren, J.

    2014-01-01

    City University London has a strong tradition of encouraging pedagogic practitioner-research through the sponsorship of workplace and inter-departmental project working under the auspices of the Learning Development Centre (LDC). Reflecting sector-wide issues, the University’s focus on assessment and feedback as a priority area for academic development has resulted in several studies which have shaped the university’s understanding and practices in this area. In this article I review a select...

  10. Prenatal stress produces learning deficits associated with an inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaire, V.; Koehl, M.; Le Moal, M; Abrous, D.N.

    2000-01-01

    Early experiences such as prenatal stress significantly influence the development of the brain and the organization of behavior. In particular, prenatal stress impairs memory processes but the mechanism for this effect is not known. Hippocampal granule neurons are generated throughout life and are involved in hippocampal-dependent learning. Here, we report that prenatal stress in rats induced lifespan reduction of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and produced impairme...

  11. Learning to Associate Object Categories and Label Categories: A Self-Organising Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2008-01-01

    We present a model of early lexical acquisition. Successful word learning builds on pre-existing, self-organising categorisation capacities and through joint attentional events between the infant and the caregiver. Our model successfully accounts for the emergence of a lexical constraint, taxonomic responding, as well as a steep increase in the rate of acquisition of words, without any need for a new mechanism or rule. We discuss the role played by synapto-genesis in early infancy and pruning...

  12. Extinction resistant changes in the human auditory association cortex following threat learning

    OpenAIRE

    Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Schiller, Daniela; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Research in humans has highlighted the importance of the amygdala for transient modulation of cortical areas for enhanced processing of emotional stimuli. However, non-human animal data has shown that amygdala dependent threat (fear) learning can also lead to long lasting changes in cortical sensitivity, persisting even after extinction of fear responses. The neural mechanisms of long-lasting traces of such conditioning in humans have not yet been explored. We used functional magnetic resonan...

  13. The significance of learned food aversions in the aetiology of anorexia associated with cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, J A; Emery, P W

    1987-01-01

    The results of 24 h food preference tests have suggested that learned food aversions may be involved in the development of anorexia in tumour bearing rats and in patients with cancer. We have performed similar tests over longer periods, up to 10 days, in male rats implanted with Leydig cell tumours, using semisynthetic diets containing differing proportions of fat, protein and carbohydrate. Tumour growth caused anorexia (16-30% decrease in food intake) and cachexia (78% decrease in body fat a...

  14. Foreign language learning in French speakers is associated with rhythm perception, but not with melody perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Anjali; Yeung, H Henny; Nazzi, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    There has been increasing interest in links between language and music. Here, we investigate the relation between foreign language learning and music perception. We administered tests measuring melody and rhythm perception as well as a questionnaire on musical and foreign language experience to 147 monolingual French speakers. As expected, we found that musicians had better melody and rhythm perception than nonmusicians and that, among musicians, there was a positive correlation between the total number of years of music training and test scores. Crucially, we also found a positive correlation between the total number of years learning foreign languages and rhythm perception, but we found no such relation with melody perception. Moreover, the degree to which participants were better at rhythm than melody perception was also related to foreign language experience. Results suggest that both music training and learning foreign languages (primarily English, Spanish, and German in our sample) are related to French speakers' perception of rhythm, but not to their perception of melody. These results are discussed with respect to the rhythmic properties of French and suggest a common perceptual basis for rhythm in language and music. PMID:25621578

  15. Foreign language learning in French speakers is associated with rhythm perception, but not with melody perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Anjali; Yeung, H Henny; Nazzi, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    There has been increasing interest in links between language and music. Here, we investigate the relation between foreign language learning and music perception. We administered tests measuring melody and rhythm perception as well as a questionnaire on musical and foreign language experience to 147 monolingual French speakers. As expected, we found that musicians had better melody and rhythm perception than nonmusicians and that, among musicians, there was a positive correlation between the total number of years of music training and test scores. Crucially, we also found a positive correlation between the total number of years learning foreign languages and rhythm perception, but we found no such relation with melody perception. Moreover, the degree to which participants were better at rhythm than melody perception was also related to foreign language experience. Results suggest that both music training and learning foreign languages (primarily English, Spanish, and German in our sample) are related to French speakers' perception of rhythm, but not to their perception of melody. These results are discussed with respect to the rhythmic properties of French and suggest a common perceptual basis for rhythm in language and music.

  16. A neurocomputational model of classical conditioning phenomena: a putative role for the hippocampal region in associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Myers, Catherine E; Gluck, Mark A

    2009-06-18

    Some existing models of hippocampal function simulate performance in classical conditioning tasks using the error backpropagation algorithm to guide learning (Gluck, M.A., and Myers, C.E., (1993). Hippocampal mediation of stimulus representation: a computational theory. Hippocampus, 3(4), 491-516.). This algorithm is not biologically plausible because it requires information to be passed backward through layers of nodes and assumes that the environment provides information to the brain about what correct outputs should be. Here, we show that the same information-processing function proposed for the hippocampal region in the Gluck and Myers (1993) model can also be implemented in a network without using the backpropagation algorithm. Instead, our newer instantiation of the theory uses only (a) Hebbian learning methods which match more closely with synaptic and associative learning mechanisms ascribed to the hippocampal region and (b) a more plausible representation of input stimuli. We demonstrate here that this new more biologically plausible model is able to simulate various behavioral effects, including latent inhibition, acquired equivalence, sensory preconditioning, negative patterning, and context shift effects. In addition, the newer model is able to address some new phenomena including the effect of the number of training trials on blocking and overshadowing. PMID:19379717

  17. Memory and learning sequelae in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Association with attention deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study of verbal and nonverbal memory and learning was undertaken in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia to assess the incidence and pattern of impairments and to determine the relationship between these deficits and computed tomography (CT) brain scan abnormalities. Twenty-three children who had received cranial irradiation (2,400 cGy) and intrathecal chemotherapy as central nervous system (CNS) preventive therapy and who were off all therapy for at least 4 years were evaluated. On the basis of their CT brain scan findings, patients were divided into three groups: those with intracerebral calcifications (n = 5), those with cortical atrophy (n = 8), and those with normal CT findings (n = 10). Significant deficits in verbal memory (p less than 0.025) and verbal learning (p less than 0.05) were observed that were associated with the presence and type of CT brain scan abnormalities; the greatest impairments were observed in patients with calcifications. No significant differences between CT scan groups were found for nonverbal memory and learning. Previous evaluation of attentional processing in these patients using reaction time tests had revealed the presence of deficits primarily in the ability to sustain attention. Combining those data with findings from the present study showed that memory impairments, particularly those in short-term memory, were primarily attributable to an underlying attentional defect that affect the encoding stage of memory processing

  18. Larger Error Signals in Major Depression are Associated with Better Avoidance Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanagh, James F.; Bismark, Andrew J.; Frank, Michael J.; Allen, John J. B.

    2011-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is particularly reactive to signals of error, punishment, and conflict in the service of behavioral adaptation and it is consistently implicated in the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). This association makes conceptual sense, given that MDD has been associated with hyper-reactivity in neural systems associated with punishment processing. Yet in practice, depression-related variance in measures of mPFC functioning often fails to relate to perform...

  19. Larger error signals in major depression are associated with better avoidance learning

    OpenAIRE

    James FCavanagh

    2011-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is particularly reactive to signals of error, punishment, and conflict in the service of behavioral adaptation and it is consistently implicated in the etiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). This association makes conceptual sense, given that MDD has been associated with hyper-reactivity in neural systems associated with punishment processing. Yet in practice, depression-related variance in measures of mPFC functioning often fails to relate to perfo...

  20. Production of grooming-associated sounds by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo: variation, social learning, and possible functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, David P

    2016-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use some communicative signals flexibly and voluntarily, with use influenced by learning. These signals include some vocalizations and also sounds made using the lips, oral cavity, and/or teeth, but not the vocal tract, such as "attention-getting" sounds directed at humans by captive chimpanzees and lip smacking during social grooming. Chimpanzees at Ngogo, in Kibale National Park, Uganda, make four distinct sounds while grooming others. Here, I present data on two of these ("splutters" and "teeth chomps") and consider whether social learning contributes to variation in their production and whether they serve social functions. Higher congruence in the use of these two sounds between dyads of maternal relatives than dyads of non-relatives implies that social learning occurs and mostly involves vertical transmission, but the results are not conclusive and it is unclear which learning mechanisms may be involved. In grooming between adult males, tooth chomps and splutters were more likely in long than in short bouts; in bouts that were bidirectional rather than unidirectional; in grooming directed toward high-ranking males than toward low-ranking males; and in bouts between allies than in those between non-allies. Males were also more likely to make these sounds while they were grooming other males than while they were grooming females. These results are expected if the sounds promote social bonds and induce tolerance of proximity and of grooming by high-ranking males. However, the alternative hypothesis that the sounds are merely associated with motivation to groom, with no additional social function, cannot be ruled out. Limited data showing that bouts accompanied by teeth chomping or spluttering at their initiation were longer than bouts for which this was not the case point toward a social function, but more data are needed for a definitive test. Comparison to other research sites shows that the possible existence of grooming

  1. Elemental or contextual? It depends: Individual difference in the hippocampal dependence of associative learning for a simple sensory stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Jennifer Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning theories categorize learning systems into elemental and contextual systems, the former being processed by non-hippocampal regions and the latter being processed in the hippocampus. A set of complex stimuli such as a visual background is often considered a contextual stimulus and simple sensory stimuli such as pure tone and light are considered elemental stimuli. However, this elemental-contextual categorization scheme has only been tested in limited behavioral paradigms and it is largely unknown whether it can be generalized across different learning situations. By requiring rats to respond differently to a common object in association with various types of sensory cues including contextual and elemental stimuli, we tested whether different types of elemental and contextual sensory stimuli depended on the hippocampus to different degrees. In most rats, a surrounding visual background and a tactile stimulus served as contextual (hippocampal dependent and elemental (non-hippocampal dependent stimuli, respectively. However, simple tone and light stimuli frequently used as elemental cues in traditional experiments required the hippocampus to varying degrees among rats. Specifically, one group of rats showed a normal contextual bias when both contextual and elemental cues were present. These rats effectively switched to using elemental cues when the hippocampus was inactivated. The other group showed a strong contextual bias (and hippocampal dependence because these rats were not able to use elemental cues when the hippocampus was unavailable. It is possible that the latter group of rats might have interpreted the elemental cues (light and tone as background stimuli and depended more on the hippocampus in associating the cues with choice responses. Although exact mechanisms underlying these individual variances are unclear, our findings recommend a caution for adopting a simple sensory stimulus as a non-hippocampal sensory cue only based on

  2. Association Between Dental Student-Developed Exam Questions and Learning at Higher Cognitive Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Cabezas, Carlos; Anderson, Olivia S; Wright, Mary C; Fontana, Margherita

    2015-11-01

    New dental accreditation standards emphasize that graduates must be competent in the use of critical thinking (a high cognitive-level skill). Despite this new standard, most written assessments in dental school courses are still based on low cognitive-level questions. The aim of this study was to determine if an exercise that allows students to collaboratively write exam questions would help cultivate higher cognitive levels of learning. To evaluate this exercise at one U.S. dental school, the cognitive level (according to Bloom's taxonomy) of multiple-choice exam questions and students' scores across two cohorts in a cariology course were compared. This evaluation took place using a control group in which questions were instructor-generated and an intervention group in which students worked in groups to develop questions. All students in one first-year class participated in the intervention group (n=104); all students in the first-year class two years earlier served as the control group (n=106). Among students in the intervention group, the response rate to a post-intervention survey measuring students' attitudes about the experience was 70% (N=73). The results showed that the students generating their own assessments developed higher cognitive-level exam questions than the instructor-generated assessments. The intervention group (with student-generated assessments) also performed as well or better on tests compared to the control group (with instructor-generated assessments). In the intervention group survey, the vast majority of students agreed that the exercise was helpful for their overall learning experience, but working in teams was said to be the least valuable component of the activity for their learning. This study suggests that student-driven, collaborative assessments can be an important tool for building critical thinking skills in dental classrooms and that it may be worthwhile to expand this type of exercise into other courses.

  3. Networks of Learning : Professional Association and the Continuing Education of Teachers of Mathematics in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baber, Sikunder Ali

    Importance of the professional development of teachers has been recognized and research has contributed greatly in terms of proposing variety of approaches for the development of teachers,both pre-service and in-service. Among them, networking among teachers, teacher educators,curriculum developers...... and policy makers have been recently receiving attention an innovative and flexible professional development forum for creating ownership among these stakeholders' regarding implementing change and reforms in educational landscape in different countries. The paper draws on the notion of "networking...... further support in opening up possibilities for creating other networks of learning to assist reform efforts in education throughout the world....

  4. E-Learning Practices on Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI: Report of Brazilian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo Medeiros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop a teaching and learning environment, on-line and free, to provide technical information with health professional team from Epidemiological Health Surveillance and Nosocomial Infection Control Groups in Brazil. The first Brazilian experience of e-learning was carried out through a partnership between the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA and Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP. The course supported by different approaches: internet, telephone, books and CD (compact disk. The course had five topics: legislation, epidemiological surveillance, investigation of outbreaks and prevention of infections, occupational risk and isolation, with 20 days each topic and 250 h. Each topic finished with an evaluation and one classroom course. The student’s number was 236, with 188 selected, 97.7% enrolled in the course and with 3% of non-approval. The students characteristics were: mean age 41.9 years, female gender majority 84.50 and 54.3% nursing, 15.9% physicians and 10.4% pharmacists. In Brazil, with difficulties to have access to knowledge opportunities, HAI’s course would be an alternative to teach about infection control.

  5. The timing of language learning shapes brain structure associated with articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Chen, Jen-Kai; Klein, Denise

    2016-09-01

    We compared the brain structure of highly proficient simultaneous (two languages from birth) and sequential (second language after age 5) bilinguals, who differed only in their degree of native-like accent, to determine how the brain develops when a skill is acquired from birth versus later in life. For the simultaneous bilinguals, gray matter density was increased in the left putamen, as well as in the left posterior insula, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left and right occipital cortex. For the sequential bilinguals, gray matter density was increased in the bilateral premotor cortex. Sequential bilinguals with better accents also showed greater gray matter density in the left putamen, and in several additional brain regions important for sensorimotor integration and speech-motor control. Our findings suggest that second language learning results in enhanced brain structure of specific brain areas, which depends on whether two languages are learned simultaneously or sequentially, and on the extent to which native-like proficiency is acquired. PMID:26420279

  6. An Exploratory Study of Effective Online Learning: Assessing Satisfaction Levels of Graduate Students of Mathematics Education Associated with Human and Design Factors of an Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory research project investigated graduate students' satisfaction levels with online learning associated with human (professor/instructor and instructional associate) and design factors (course structure and technical aspects) using a survey study. A total of 81 graduate students (master's students who majored in math and…

  7. A new face of sleep: The impact of post-learning sleep on recognition memory for face-name associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Leonie; Zitting, Kirsi-Marja; Elliott, Kieran; Czeisler, Charles A; Ronda, Joseph M; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2015-12-01

    Sleep has been demonstrated to improve consolidation of many types of new memories. However, few prior studies have examined how sleep impacts learning of face-name associations. The recognition of a new face along with the associated name is an important human cognitive skill. Here we investigated whether post-presentation sleep impacts recognition memory of new face-name associations in healthy adults. Fourteen participants were tested twice. Each time, they were presented 20 photos of faces with a corresponding name. Twelve hours later, they were shown each face twice, once with the correct and once with an incorrect name, and asked if each face-name combination was correct and to rate their confidence. In one condition the 12-h interval between presentation and recall included an 8-h nighttime sleep opportunity ("Sleep"), while in the other condition they remained awake ("Wake"). There were more correct and highly confident correct responses when the interval between presentation and recall included a sleep opportunity, although improvement between the "Wake" and "Sleep" conditions was not related to duration of sleep or any sleep stage. These data suggest that a nighttime sleep opportunity improves the ability to correctly recognize face-name associations. Further studies investigating the mechanism of this improvement are important, as this finding has implications for individuals with sleep disturbances and/or memory impairments.

  8. Genome wide association analysis of the 16th QTL- MAS Workshop dataset using the Random Forest machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies are now widely used in the livestock sector to estimate the association among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the whole genome and one or more trait. As computational power increases, the use of machine learning techniques to analyze large genome wide datasets becomes possible. Methods The objective of this study was to identify SNPs associated with the three traits simulated in the 16th MAS-QTL workshop dataset using the Random Forest (RF) approach. The approach was applied to single and multiple trait estimated breeding values, and on yield deviations and to compare them with the results of the GRAMMAR-CG method. Results The two QTL mapping methods used, GRAMMAR-CG and RF, were successful in identifying the main QTLs for trait 1 on chromosomes 1 and 4, for trait 2 on chromosomes 1, 4 and 5 and for trait 3 on chromosomes 1, 2 and 3. Conclusions The results of the RF approach were confirmed by the GRAMMAR-CG method and validated by the effective QTL position, even if their approach to unravel cryptic genetic structure is different. Furthermore, both methods showed complementary findings. However, when the variance explained by the QTL is low, they both failed to detect significant associations. PMID:25519518

  9. Age related-changes in the neural basis of self-generation in verbal paired associate learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vannest

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal information is better retained when it is self-generated rather than when it is received passively. The application of self-generation procedures has been found to improve memory in healthy elderly and in individuals with impaired cognition. Overall, the available studies support the notion that active participation in verbal encoding engages memory mechanisms that supplement those used during passive observation. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in the neural mechanisms involved in the encoding of paired-associates using a self-generation method that has been shown to improve memory performance across the lifespan. Subjects were 113 healthy right-handed adults (Edinburgh Handedness Inventory >50; 67 females ages 18–76, native speakers of English with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders. Subjects underwent fMRI at 3 T while performing didactic learning (“read” or self-generation learning (“generate” of 30 word pairs per condition. After fMRI, recognition memory for the second word in each pair was evaluated outside of the scanner. On the post-fMRI testing more “generate” words were correctly recognized than “read” words (p < 0.001 with older adults recognizing the “generated” words less accurately (p < 0.05. Independent component analysis of fMRI data identified task-related brain networks. Several components were positively correlated with the task reflecting multiple cognitive processes involved in self-generated encoding; other components correlated negatively with the task, including components of the default-mode network. Overall, memory performance on generated words decreased with age, but the benefit from self-generation remained consistently significant across ages. Independent component analysis of the neuroimaging data revealed an extensive set of components engaged in self-generation learning compared with didactic learning, and identified

  10. Learning Linear Spatial-Numeric Associations Improves Accuracy of Memory for Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Clarissa A; Opfer, John E

    2016-01-01

    Memory for numbers improves with age and experience. One potential source of improvement is a logarithmic-to-linear shift in children's representations of magnitude. To test this, Kindergartners and second graders estimated the location of numbers on number lines and recalled numbers presented in vignettes (Study 1). Accuracy at number-line estimation predicted memory accuracy on a numerical recall task after controlling for the effect of age and ability to approximately order magnitudes (mapper status). To test more directly whether linear numeric magnitude representations caused improvements in memory, half of children were given feedback on their number-line estimates (Study 2). As expected, learning linear representations was again linked to memory for numerical information even after controlling for age and mapper status. These results suggest that linear representations of numerical magnitude may be a causal factor in development of numeric recall accuracy.

  11. Learning linear spatial-numeric associations improves accuracy of memory for numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Ann Thompson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory for numbers improves with age and experience. One potential source of improvement is a logarithmic-to-linear shift in children’s representations of magnitude. To test this, Kindergartners and second graders estimated the location of numbers on number lines and recalled numbers presented in vignettes (Study 1. Accuracy at number-line estimation predicted memory accuracy on a numerical recall task after controlling for the effect of age and ability to approximately order magnitudes (mapper status. To test more directly whether linear numeric magnitude representations caused improvements in memory, half of children were given feedback on their number-line estimates (Study 2. As expected, learning linear representations was again linked to memory for numerical information even after controlling for age and mapper status. These results suggest that linear representations of numerical magnitude may be a causal factor in development of numeric recall accuracy.

  12. 恐惧联结的习得及其脑机制研究%Formation of Associative Learning of Fear and Its Neural Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏艳; 王倩; 胡治国

    2011-01-01

    Associative learning of fear is crucial for human survival and adaptation. In this review, we first introduced the three ways that leads to the development of associative learning of fear, including self-experiencing, social observation and verbal instruction. Secondly, we showed that the acquisition of associative learning of fear had important influence on the cognitive and social behaviors. The extant studies on the neural basis of associative learning of fear, including lesion studies, neuroimaging studies and studies on nucleus neurons in certain areas, demonstrated the crucial role of the amygdala and hippocampus in the associative learning of fear.%恐惧联结学习是保证有机体生存和适应的重要手段,主要表现为以下三种方式:亲身体验、社会观察和言语指导,习得之后会对认知和社会功能产生重要影响.脑损伤、脑功能成像及神经核团水平的研究均表明,恐惧联结的习得主要与杏仁核和海马等脑区有关.

  13. The Effect of Teaching with Stories on Associate Degree Nursing Students' Approach to Learning and Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    This action research study is the culmination of several action cycles investigating cognitive information processing and learning strategies based on students approach to learning theory and assessing students' meta-cognitive learning, motivation, and reflective development suggestive of deep learning. The study introduces a reading…

  14. Impaired contextual fear extinction learning is associated with aberrant regulation of CHD-type chromatin remodeling factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eWille

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful attenuation of fearful memories is a cognitive process requiring initiation of highly coordinated transcription programs. Chromatin-modulating mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, including acetylation, are key regulators of these processes. However, knowledge concerning the role of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (ChRFs being required for successful fear extinction is lacking. Underscoring the potential importance of these factors that alter histone-DNA contacts within nucleosomes are recent genome-wide association studies linking several ChRFs to various human cognitive and psychiatric disorders. To better understand the role of ChRFs in the brain, and since to date little is known about ChRF expression in the brain, we performed a comprehensive survey of expression levels of 24 ATP-dependent remodelers across different brain areas, and we identified several distinct high molecular weight complexes by chromatographic methods. We next aimed to gain novel insight into the potential regulation of ChRFs in different brain regions in association with normal and impaired fear extinction learning. To this end, we established the 129S1/SvImJ (S1 laboratory mouse strain as a model for compromised contextual fear extinction learning that can be rescued by dietary zinc restriction. Using this model along with genetically related but fear extinction-competent 129S6/SvEv (S6 mice as controls, we found that impaired fear extinction in S1 was associated with enhanced ventral hippocampal expression of CHD1 and reduced expression of CHD5 that was normalized following successful rescue of impaired fear extinction. Moreover, a select reduction in CHD3 expression was observed in the ventral hippocampus following successful rescue of fear extinction in S1 mice. Taken together, these data provide novel insight into the regulation of specific ChRFs following an impaired cognitive process and its rescue, and they suggest

  15. Imagery May Arise from Associations Formed through Sensory Experience: A Network of Spiking Neurons Controlling a Robot Learns Visual Sequences in Order to Perform a Mental Rotation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Jeffrey L.; Fleischer, Jason G.; Chen, Yanqing; Gall, W. Einar; Edelman, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Mental imagery occurs “when a representation of the type created during the initial phases of perception is present but the stimulus is not actually being perceived.” How does the capability to perform mental imagery arise? Extending the idea that imagery arises from learned associations, we propose that mental rotation, a specific form of imagery, could arise through the mechanism of sequence learning–that is, by learning to regenerate the sequence of mental images perceived while passively observing a rotating object. To demonstrate the feasibility of this proposal, we constructed a simulated nervous system and embedded it within a behaving humanoid robot. By observing a rotating object, the system learns the sequence of neural activity patterns generated by the visual system in response to the object. After learning, it can internally regenerate a similar sequence of neural activations upon briefly viewing the static object. This system learns to perform a mental rotation task in which the subject must determine whether two objects are identical despite differences in orientation. As with human subjects, the time taken to respond is proportional to the angular difference between the two stimuli. Moreover, as reported in humans, the system fills in intermediate angles during the task, and this putative mental rotation activates the same pathways that are activated when the system views physical rotation. This work supports the proposal that mental rotation arises through sequence learning and the idea that mental imagery aids perception through learned associations, and suggests testable predictions for biological experiments. PMID:27653977

  16. SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION IMPAIRS ATTENTION AND COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY BUT NOT ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING IN AGED RATS: Possible Implications for Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Culley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is a common and morbid condition in elderly hospitalized patients. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood but inflammation has been implicated based on a clinical association with systemic infection and surgery and preclinical data showing that systemic inflammation adversely affects hippocampus-dependent memory. However, clinical manifestations and imaging studies point to abnormalities not in the hippocampus but in cortical circuits. We therefore tested the hypothesis that systemic inflammation impairs prefrontal cortex function by assessing attention and executive function in aged animals. Aged (24-month-old Fischer-344 rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 ug/kg or saline and were tested on the attentional shifting task (AST, an index of integrity of the prefrontal cortex, on days 1-3 post-injection. Plasma and frontal cortex concentrations of the cytokine TNFα and the chemokine CCL2 were measured by ELISA in separate groups of identically treated, age-matched rats. LPS selectively impaired reversal learning and attentional shifts without affecting discrimination learning in the AST, indicating a deficit in attention and cognitive flexibility but not learning globally. LPS increased plasma TNFα and CCL2 acutely but this resolved within 24-48 h. TNFα in the frontal cortex did not change whereas CCL2 increased nearly 3-fold 2 h after LPS but normalized by the time behavioral testing started 24 h later. Together, our data indicate that systemic inflammation selectively impairs attention and executive function in aged rodents and that the cognitive deficit is independent of concurrent changes in frontal cortical TNFα and CCL2. Because inattention is a prominent feature of clinical delirium, our data support a role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of this clinical syndrome and suggest this animal model could be useful for studying that relationship further.

  17. An empirical examination of the association between multiple intelligences and language learning self-efficacy among TEFL university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moafian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the association between multiple intelligences and language learning efficacy expectations among TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language university students. To fulfill the aim of the study, 108 junior and senior TEFL students were asked to complete the "Multiple Intelligence Developmental Assessment Scales" (MIDAS (Shearer, 1996 and the "Learners' Sense of Efficacy Survey" (Gahungu, 2009. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis were employed to analyze the data. The findings of correlation analysis indicated that, among the different types of intelligences, Linguistic and Intrapersonal intelligences had strong positive correlations with learners' self-efficacy beliefs. The results of regression analysis showed that Linguistic and Intrapersonal intelligences were positive predictors of learners’ efficacy beliefs, whereas Mathematical intelligence was the negative predictor of students’ self-efficacy beliefs. All in all, the findings of the present study contribute to the understanding of the interplay between students’ multiple intelligences and their language learning self-efficacy beliefs; furthermore, they convey some implications for university teachers, material and curriculum developers and language testers.

  18. Cerebellar-dependent associative learning is preserved in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a study using delay eyeblink conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schara

    Full Text Available Besides progressive muscle weakness cognitive deficits have been reported in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Cerebellar dysfunction has been proposed to explain cognitive deficits at least in part. In animal models of DMD disturbed Purkinje cell function has been shown following loss of dystrophin. Furthermore there is increasing evidence that the lateral cerebellum contributes to cognitive processing. In the present study cerebellar-dependent delay eyeblink conditioning, a form of associative learning, was used to assess cerebellar function in DMD children.Delay eyeblink conditioning was examined in eight genetically defined male patients with DMD and in ten age-matched control subjects. Acquisition, timing and extinction of conditioned eyeblink responses (CR were assessed during a single conditioning session.Both groups showed a significant increase of CRs during the course of learning (block effect p < 0.001. CR acquisition was not impaired in DMD patients (mean total CR incidence 37.4 ± 17.6% as compared to control subjects (36.2 ± 17.3%; group effect p = 0.89; group by block effect p = 0.38; ANOVA with repeated measures. In addition, CR timing and extinction was not different from controls.Delay eyeblink conditioning was preserved in the present DMD patients. Because eyeblink conditioning depends on the integrity of the intermediate cerebellum, this older part of the cerebellum may be relatively preserved in DMD. The present findings agree with animal model data showing that the newer, lateral cerebellum is primarily affected in DMD.

  19. Selection-for-action emerges in neural networks trained to learn spatial associations between stimuli and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simione, Luca; Nolfi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    The objects present in our environment evoke multiple conflicting actions at every moment. Thus, a mechanism that resolves this conflict is needed in order to avoid the production of chaotic ineffective behaviours. A plausible candidate for such role is the selective attention, capable of inhibiting the neural representations of the objects irrelevant in the ongoing context and as a consequence the actions they afford. In this paper, we investigated whether a selective attention mechanism emerges spontaneously during the learning of context-dependent behaviour, whereas most neurocomputational models of selective attention and action selection imply the presence of architectural constraints. To this aim, we trained a deep neural network to learn context-dependent visual-action associations. Our main result was the spontaneous emergence of an inhibitory mechanism aimed to solve conflicts between multiple afforded actions by directly suppressing the irrelevant visual stimuli eliciting the incorrect actions for the current context. This suggests that such an inhibitory mechanism emerged as a result of the incorporation of context-independent probabilistic regularities occurring between stimuli and afforded actions. PMID:26232191

  20. Plasticity of cortical inhibition in dystonia is impaired after motor learning and paired-associative stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier, Sabine; Russmann, Heike; Shamim, Ejaz; Lamy, Jean-Charles; Hallett, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Artificial induction of plasticity by paired associative stimulation (PAS) in healthy volunteers (HV) demonstrates Hebbian-like plasticity in selected inhibitory networks as well as excitatory networks. In a group of 17 patients with focal hand dystonia and a group of 19 HV, we evaluated how PAS and

  1. Brain Research: Implications for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

    Brain research has illuminated several areas of the learning process: (1) learning as association; (2) learning as reinforcement; (3) learning as perception; (4) learning as imitation; (5) learning as organization; (6) learning as individual style; and (7) learning as brain activity. The classic conditioning model developed by Pavlov advanced…

  2. Self-association of TPR domains: Lessons learned from a designed, consensus-based TPR oligomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachler, Anne Marie; Sharma, Amit; Kleanthous, Colin

    2010-07-01

    The tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif is a protein-protein interaction module that acts as an organizing centre for complexes regulating a multitude of biological processes. Despite accumulating evidence for the formation of TPR oligomers as an additional level of regulation there is a lack of structural and solution data explaining TPR self-association. In the present work we characterize the trimeric TPR-containing protein YbgF, which is linked to the Tol system in Gram-negative bacteria. By subtracting previously identified TPR consensus residues required for stability of the fold from residues conserved across YbgF homologs, we identified residues involved in oligomerization of the C-terminal YbgF TPR domain. Crafting these residues, which are located in loop regions between TPR motifs, onto the monomeric consensus TPR protein CTPR3 induced the formation of oligomers. The crystal structure of this engineered oligomer shows an asymmetric trimer where stacking interactions between the introduced tyrosines and displacement of the C-terminal hydrophilic capping helix, present in most TPR domains, are key to oligomerization. Asymmetric trimerization of the YbgF TPR domain and CTPR3Y3 leads to the formation of higher order oligomers both in the crystal and in solution. However, such open-ended self-association does not occur in full-length YbgF suggesting that the protein's N-terminal coiled-coil domain restricts further oligomerization. This interpretation is borne out in experiments where the coiled-coil domain of YbgF was engineered onto the N-terminus of CTPR3Y3 and shown to block self-association beyond trimerization. Our study lays the foundations for understanding the structural basis for TPR domain self-association and how such self-association can be regulated in TPR domain-containing proteins.

  3. Service Composition Design Pattern for Autonomic Computing Systems Using Association Rule Based Learning and Service-Oriented Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnuvardhan Mannava

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will compose the design patterns which will satisfy the properties of autonomic computingsystem: for the Decision-Making phase we will introduce Case-Based Reasoning design pattern, and forReconfiguration phase we will introduce Reactor design pattern. The most important proposal in ourcomposite design pattern is that we will use the Association Rule Learning method of Data Mining to learnabout new services that can be added along with the requested service to make the service as a dynamiccomposition of two or more services. Then we will include the new service as an aspectual feature modulecode without interrupting the user.As far as we know, there are no studies on composition of designpatterns and pattern languages for autonomic computing domain. We will authenticate our work by asimple case study work. A simple Class and Sequence diagrams are depicted.

  4. Habituation: a non-associative learning rule design for spiking neurons and an autonomous mobile robots implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel bio-inspired habituation function for robots under control by an artificial spiking neural network. This non-associative learning rule is modelled at the synaptic level and validated through robotic behaviours in reaction to different stimuli patterns in a dynamical virtual 3D world. Habituation is minimally represented to show an attenuated response after exposure to and perception of persistent external stimuli. Based on current neurosciences research, the originality of this rule includes modulated response to variable frequencies of the captured stimuli. Filtering out repetitive data from the natural habituation mechanism has been demonstrated to be a key factor in the attention phenomenon, and inserting such a rule operating at multiple temporal dimensions of stimuli increases a robot's adaptive behaviours by ignoring broader contextual irrelevant information. (paper)

  5. Habituation: a non-associative learning rule design for spiking neurons and an autonomous mobile robots implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, André; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a novel bio-inspired habituation function for robots under control by an artificial spiking neural network. This non-associative learning rule is modelled at the synaptic level and validated through robotic behaviours in reaction to different stimuli patterns in a dynamical virtual 3D world. Habituation is minimally represented to show an attenuated response after exposure to and perception of persistent external stimuli. Based on current neurosciences research, the originality of this rule includes modulated response to variable frequencies of the captured stimuli. Filtering out repetitive data from the natural habituation mechanism has been demonstrated to be a key factor in the attention phenomenon, and inserting such a rule operating at multiple temporal dimensions of stimuli increases a robot's adaptive behaviours by ignoring broader contextual irrelevant information.

  6. Learning impairments identified early in life are predictive of future impairments associated with aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullinger, Rikki; Burger, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    The Morris water maze (MWM) behavioral paradigm is commonly used to measure spatial learning and memory in rodents. It is widely accepted that performance in the MWM declines with age. However, young rats ubiquitously perform very well on established versions of the water maze, suggesting that more challenging tasks may be required to reveal subtle differences in young animals. Therefore, we have used a one-day water maze and novel object recognition to test whether more sensitive paradigms of memory in young animals could identify subtle cognitive impairments early in life that might become accentuated later with senescence. We have found that these two tasks reliably separate young rats into inferior and superior learners, are highly correlated, and that performance on these tasks early in life is predictive of performance at 12 months of age. Furthermore, we have found that repeated training in this task selectively improves the performance of inferior learners, suggesting that behavioral training from an early age may provide a buffer against age-related cognitive decline. PMID:26283528

  7. Age-related difference in the effective neural connectivity associated with probabilistic category learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it is well known that explicit memory is affected by the deleterious changes in brain with aging, but effect of aging in implicit memory such as probabilistic category learning (PCL) is not clear. To identify the effect of aging on the neural interaction for successful PCL, we investigated the neural substrates of PCL and the age-related changes of the neural network between these brain regions. 23 young (age, 252 y; 11 males) and 14 elderly (673 y; 7 males) healthy subjects underwent FDG PET during a resting state and 150-trial weather prediction (WP) task. Correlations between the WP hit rates and regional glucose metabolism were assessed using SPM2 (Pdiff(37) = 142.47, P<0.005), Systematic comparisons of each path revealed that frontal crosscallosal and the frontal to parahippocampal connection were most responsible for the model differences (P<0.05). For the successful PCL, the elderly recruits the basal ganglia implicit memory system but MTL recruitment differs from the young. The inadequate MTL correlation pattern in the elderly is may be caused by the changes of the neural pathway related with explicit memory. These neural changes can explain the decreased performance of PCL in elderly subjects

  8. Drugs and toxins-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension: lessons learned and challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Perez, V; Kudelko, K; Snook, S; Zamanian, R T

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of the link between pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and exposure to certain drugs and toxins nearly fifty years ago, the expanding landscape of available pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs is further fueling this association. While some causative agents in drugs and toxins associated PAH (D&T-APAH) have been identified, little is known about the exact biology and clinical implications of the disease. In this review, we discuss the historical evidence that links PAH with exposure to anorexinogens, cocaine, and methamphetamines and concentrate on what is known about potential pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and current management. We conclude that future research should focus on studies looking at clinical outcome and susceptibility factors. PMID:21176010

  9. The Association Between Film Industry Success and Prior Career History: A Machine Learning Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tashman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    My thesis project is a means of understanding the conditions associated with success and failure in the American film industry. This is carried out by tracking the careers of several thousand actors and actresses, and the number of votes that their movies have received on IMDb. A fundamental characteristic of film career success is that of influence from prior success or failure—consider that an established “star” will almost certainly receive opportunities denied to an unknown actor, or that...

  10. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  11. A patient with bilateral facial palsy associated with hypertension and chickenpox: learning points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abadi, Eslam; Milford, David V; Smith, Martin

    2010-11-26

    Bilateral facial nerve paralysis is an uncommon presentation and even more so in children. There are reports of different causes of bilateral facial nerve palsy. It is well-established that hypertension and chickenpox causes unilateral facial paralysis and the importance of checking the blood pressure in children with facial nerve paralysis cannot be stressed enough. The authors report a boy with bilateral facial nerve paralysis in association with hypertension and having recently recovered from chickenpox. The authors review aspects of bilateral facial nerve paralysis as well as hypertension and chickenpox causing facial nerve paralysis.

  12. Identifying users of traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas: An association rule learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg L; Levin, Aron; LeVangie, Kristie; Brick, Timothy R

    2016-08-01

    Increasing home cooking while decreasing the consumption of food prepared away from home is a commonly recommended weight management strategy, however research on where individuals obtain ideas about meals to cook at home is limited. This study examined the characteristics of individuals who reported using traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas. 583 participants who were ≥50% responsible for household meal planning were recruited to approximate the 2014 United States Census distribution on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and household income. Participants reported demographic characteristics, home cooking frequency, and their use of 4 traditional resources for meal ideas (e.g., cookbooks), and 7 Internet-based resources for meal ideas (e.g., Pinterest) in an online survey. Independent samples t-tests compared home cooking frequency by resource use. Association rule learning identified those demographic characteristics that were significantly associated with resource use. Family and friends (71%), food community websites (45%), and cookbooks (41%) were the most common resources reported. Cookbook users reported preparing more meals at home per week (M = 9.65, SD = 5.28) compared to non-cookbook users (M = 8.11, SD = 4.93; t = -3.55, p < 0.001). Resource use was generally higher among parents and varied systematically with demographic characteristics. Findings suggest that home cooking interventions may benefit by modifying resources used by their target population. PMID:27067739

  13. Identifying users of traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas: An association rule learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg L; Levin, Aron; LeVangie, Kristie; Brick, Timothy R

    2016-08-01

    Increasing home cooking while decreasing the consumption of food prepared away from home is a commonly recommended weight management strategy, however research on where individuals obtain ideas about meals to cook at home is limited. This study examined the characteristics of individuals who reported using traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas. 583 participants who were ≥50% responsible for household meal planning were recruited to approximate the 2014 United States Census distribution on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and household income. Participants reported demographic characteristics, home cooking frequency, and their use of 4 traditional resources for meal ideas (e.g., cookbooks), and 7 Internet-based resources for meal ideas (e.g., Pinterest) in an online survey. Independent samples t-tests compared home cooking frequency by resource use. Association rule learning identified those demographic characteristics that were significantly associated with resource use. Family and friends (71%), food community websites (45%), and cookbooks (41%) were the most common resources reported. Cookbook users reported preparing more meals at home per week (M = 9.65, SD = 5.28) compared to non-cookbook users (M = 8.11, SD = 4.93; t = -3.55, p Resource use was generally higher among parents and varied systematically with demographic characteristics. Findings suggest that home cooking interventions may benefit by modifying resources used by their target population.

  14. Learning Stimulus-Location Associations in 8- and 11-Month-Old Infants: Multimodal versus Unimodal Information

    OpenAIRE

    ter Schure, Sophie; Mandell, Dorothy J.; Escudero, Paola; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the influence of multimodal information on infants’ learning is inconclusive. While one line of research finds that multimodal input has a negative effect on learning, another finds positive effects. The present study aims to shed some new light on this discussion by studying the influence of multimodal information and accompanying stimulus complexity on the learning process. We assessed the influence of multimodal input on the trial-by-trial learning of 8- and 11-m...

  15. "Targeting" triple-negative breast cancer: the lessons learned from BRCA1-associated breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Rita

    2011-04-01

    Breast cancer has long been recognized as a heterogeneous entity, with distinct subsets characterized by differences in tumor biology and response to therapy. With the advent of molecular profiling, we have gained a further appreciation of the heterogeneity of this complex disease. While the last decade has seen advances in the treatment of hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/erb-B2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers, outcomes for women with estrogen receptor (ER)-, progesterone receptor (PR)-, and HER2-negative-or "triple-negative"-breast cancer (TNBC) remain poor. A better understanding of the shared biology of BRCA1-associated breast cancer and sporadic TNBC holds much promise for changing the outlook for women with this aggressive disease. This review focuses on our current understanding of the clinicopathological features of TNBC, therapeutic options and ongoing research efforts.

  16. From sensorimotor learning to memory cells in prefrontal and temporal association cortex: a neurocomputational study of disembodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Garagnani, Max

    2014-08-01

    Memory cells, the ultimate neurobiological substrates of working memory, remain active for several seconds and are most commonly found in prefrontal cortex and higher multisensory areas. However, if correlated activity in "embodied" sensorimotor systems underlies the formation of memory traces, why should memory cells emerge in areas distant from their antecedent activations in sensorimotor areas, thus leading to "disembodiment" (movement away from sensorimotor systems) of memory mechanisms? We modelled the formation of memory circuits in six-area neurocomputational architectures, implementing motor and sensory primary, secondary and higher association areas in frontotemporal cortices along with known between-area neuroanatomical connections. Sensorimotor learning driven by Hebbian neuroplasticity led to formation of cell assemblies distributed across the different areas of the network. These action-perception circuits (APCs) ignited fully when stimulated, thus providing a neural basis for long-term memory (LTM) of sensorimotor information linked by learning. Subsequent to ignition, activity vanished rapidly from APC neurons in sensorimotor areas but persisted in those in multimodal prefrontal and temporal areas. Such persistent activity provides a mechanism for working memory for actions, perceptions and symbols, including short-term phonological and semantic storage. Cell assembly ignition and "disembodied" working memory retreat of activity to multimodal areas are documented in the neurocomputational models' activity dynamics, at the level of single cells, circuits, and cortical areas. Memory disembodiment is explained neuromechanistically by APC formation and structural neuroanatomical features of the model networks, especially the central role of multimodal prefrontal and temporal cortices in bridging between sensory and motor areas. These simulations answer the "where" question of cortical working memory in terms of distributed APCs and their inner structure

  17. Phenomenon of non-associative learning in Hering-Breuer reflex simulated by electrical vagal stimulation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Min; Song, Gang; Zhang, Heng

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this study was to explore learning and memory in the Hering-Breuer (HB) reflex simulated by a 60-second-long electrical stimulation of vagus nerve. The responses of phrenic nerve discharge to electrical stimulation (10-100 Hz, 20-60 muA, pulse duration 0.3 ms, for 60 s) of the vagus nerve were observed in rabbits. The results showed that 60-second-long stimulation of vagus nerve produced classic HB reflex, which is composed of two components - lung inflation reflex that is the inhibition of inspiration, and lung deflation reflex that is the facilitation of inspiration. (1) High frequency stimulation (>/=40 Hz, 60 s) of the central end of vagus nerve induced shortening of the inspiratory phase and lengthening of expiratory duration. The inhibitory effect on phrenic discharge was released gradually during sustained vagal stimulation, indicating the habituation of the inhibition. At the cessation of stimulation, the phrenic discharge showed transient post-stimulus rebound. Low frequency stimulation (end of vagus nerve caused an increase in respiratory frequency (f) and shortening of expiratory duration. The excitatory effect on phrenic discharge was also released gradually during the vagal stimulation. The phrenic discharge returned to control level gradually after the removal of the vagal stimulus, indicating short-term potentiation (STP). (2) The habituation of HB reflex was inversely dependent on stimulus intensity and frequency. With an increase in the stimulus frequency or intensity, the degree of the habituation decreased. On the other hand, with the decrease of stimulation intensity and frequency, the degree of the habituation increased. These data indicate a phenomenon of non-associative learning in HB reflex simulated by vagal stimulation. Neural synaptic plasticity and accommodation may exist in the reflex control of respiration in rabbits. PMID:16094501

  18. Machine learning based methodology to identify cell shape phenotypes associated with microenvironmental cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Desu; Sarkar, Sumona; Candia, Julián; Florczyk, Stephen J; Bodhak, Subhadip; Driscoll, Meghan K; Simon, Carl G; Dunkers, Joy P; Losert, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    Cell morphology has been identified as a potential indicator of stem cell response to biomaterials. However, determination of cell shape phenotype in biomaterials is complicated by heterogeneous cell populations, microenvironment heterogeneity, and multi-parametric definitions of cell morphology. To associate cell morphology with cell-material interactions, we developed a shape phenotyping framework based on support vector machines. A feature selection procedure was implemented to select the most significant combination of cell shape metrics to build classifiers with both accuracy and stability to identify and predict microenvironment-driven morphological differences in heterogeneous cell populations. The analysis was conducted at a multi-cell level, where a "supercell" method used average shape measurements of small groups of single cells to account for heterogeneous populations and microenvironment. A subsampling validation algorithm revealed the range of supercell sizes and sample sizes needed for classifier stability and generalization capability. As an example, the responses of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) to fibrous vs flat microenvironments were compared on day 1. Our analysis showed that 57 cells (grouped into supercells of size 4) are the minimum needed for phenotyping. The analysis identified that a combination of minor axis length, solidity, and mean negative curvature were the strongest early shape-based indicator of hBMSCs response to fibrous microenvironment. PMID:27449947

  19. Survey of teaching/learning of healthcare-associated infections in UK and Irish medical schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, D

    2009-10-01

    All medical doctors have an important role to play in the diagnosis, management and prevention of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Strengthening the contribution of medical doctors and medical students to HCAI prevention programmes should include measures that enhance knowledge, improve practice and develop appropriate attitudes to the safety and quality of patient care. The Hospital Infection Society (HIS) funded a review of medical education on HCAI throughout medical schools in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. A questionnaire was drafted and circulated to all medical schools and 31 of 38 (82%) responded. The prevalence and transmission of HCAI were taught by 97% and 100% of medical schools, respectively, but the importance of HCAI as a quality and safety issue was covered in only 60% of medical schools. Multiple choice questions (MCQs) and objective structure clinical examinations (OSCEs) were the most popular methods of assessment. Lectures, discussion of cases and practical demonstrations were considered useful by >90% of respondents and online material and log books by 67% and 60%, respectively. More than 80% were willing to share a common pool of educational resources. An agreed curriculum should be developed for educating medical students in HCAI prevention and control, to outline optimum methods for assessment and develop a shared pool of educational resources.

  20. An Exploratory Study of Effective Online Learning: Assessing Satisfaction Levels of Graduate Students of Mathematics Education Associated with Human and Design Factors of an Online Course

    OpenAIRE

    Joohi Lee

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory research project investigated graduate students’ satisfaction levels with online learning associated with human (professor/instructor and instructional associate) and design factors (course structure and technical aspects) using a survey study. A total of 81 graduate students (master’s students who majored in math and science education) enrolled in an online math methods course (Conceptual Geometry) participated in this study. According to the results of this study, student s...

  1. The effect of nonhuman's external regulation on children's responses to detect children with developmental problems (DP) associated with the natural development of self-regulation during learning tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agina, Adel M.; Kommers, Piet A.M.; Steehouder, Michaël F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the effect of the nonhuman’s external regulation on children’s responses during learning tasks to detect children with developmental problems (DP) associated with the natural development process of self-regulation. The material was an isolated, computer-based lear

  2. ALOUD: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study: Association between biological and psychological determinants and study success in adult formal distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Neroni, J., Gijselaers, J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 6 December). ALOUD: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study: Associations between biological and psychological determinants and study success in adult formal distance education. Presented at the Open University for t

  3. Conditional associative learning examined in a paralyzed patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using brain-computer interface technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birbaumer N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-computer interface methodology based on self-regulation of slow-cortical potentials (SCPs of the EEG (electroencephalogram was used to assess conditional associative learning in one severely paralyzed, late-stage ALS patient. After having been taught arbitrary stimulus relations, he was evaluated for formation of equivalence classes among the trained stimuli. Methods A monitor presented visual information in two targets. The method of teaching was matching to sample. Three types of stimuli were presented: signs (A, colored disks (B, and geometrical shapes (C. The sample was one type, and the choice was between two stimuli from another type. The patient used his SCP to steer a cursor to one of the targets. A smiley was presented as a reward when he hit the correct target. The patient was taught A-B and B-C (sample – comparison matching with three stimuli of each type. Tests for stimulus equivalence involved the untaught B-A, C-B, A-C, and C-A relations. An additional test was discrimination between all three stimuli of one equivalence class presented together versus three unrelated stimuli. The patient also had sessions with identity matching using the same stimuli. Results The patient showed high accuracy, close to 100%, on identity matching and could therefore discriminate the stimuli and control the cursor correctly. Acquisition of A-B matching took 11 sessions (of 70 trials each and had to be broken into simpler units before he could learn it. Acquisition of B-C matching took two sessions. The patient passed all equivalence class tests at 90% or higher. Conclusion The patient may have had a deficit in acquisition of the first conditional association of signs and colored disks. In contrast, the patient showed clear evidence that A-B and B-C training had resulted in formation of equivalence classes. The brain-computer interface technology combined with the matching to sample method is a useful way to assess various

  4. Self-ordered pointing and visual conditional associative learning tasks in drug-free schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galluzzo Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence of a link between schizophrenia and a deficit of working memory, but this has been derived from tasks not specifically developed to probe working memory per se. Our aim was to investigate whether working memory deficits may be detected across different paradigms using the self-ordered pointing task (SOPT and the visual conditional associative learning task (VCALT in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls. The current literature suggests deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients versus healthy controls but these studies frequently involved small samples, broad diagnostic criteria, inclusion of patients on antipsychotic medications, and were not controlled for symptom domains, severity of the disorder, etc. To overcome some of these limitations, we investigated the self-monitoring and conditional associative learning abilities of a numerically representative sample of healthy controls and a group of non-deteriorated, drug-free patients hospitalized for a schizophrenia spectrum disorder with florid, mainly positive psychotic symptoms. Methods Eighty-five patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 71 or schizophreniform disorder (n = 14 and 80 healthy controls entered the study. The clinical picture was dominated by positive symptoms. The healthy control group had a negative personal and family history of schizophrenia or mood disorder and satisfied all the inclusion and exclusion criteria other than variables related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Results Compared to controls, patients had worse performances on SOPT, VCALT and higher SOPT/VCALT ratios, not affected by demographic or clinical variables. ROC curves showed that SOPT, VCALT, and SOPT/VCALT ratio had good accuracy in discriminating patients from controls. The SOPT and VCALT scores were inter-correlated in controls but not in patients. Conclusion The

  5. Increased generalization of learned associations is related to re-experiencing symptoms in veterans with symptoms of post-traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasides, Nicole; Beck, Kevin D; Pang, Kevin C H; Servatius, Richard J; Gilbertson, Mark W; Orr, Scott P; Myers, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    One interpretation of re-experiencing symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is that memories related to emotional information are stored strongly, but with insufficient specificity, so that stimuli which are minimally related to the traumatic event are sufficient to trigger recall. If so, re-experiencing symptoms may reflect a general bias against encoding background information during a learning experience, and this tendency might not be limited to learning about traumatic or even autobiographical events. To test this possibility, we administered a discrimination-and-transfer task to 60 Veterans (11.2% female, mean age 54.0 years) self-assessed for PTSD symptoms in order to examine whether re-experiencing symptoms were associated with increased generalization following associative learning. The discrimination task involved learning to choose the rewarded object from each of six object pairs; each pair differed in color or shape but not both. In the transfer phase, the irrelevant feature in each pair was altered. Regression analysis revealed no relationships between re-experiencing symptoms and initial discrimination learning. However, re-experiencing symptom scores contributed to the prediction of transfer performance. Other PTSD symptom clusters (avoidance/numbing, hyperarousal) did not account for significant additional variance. The results are consistent with an emerging interpretation of re-experiencing symptoms as reflecting a learning bias that favors generalization at the expense of specificity. Future studies will be needed to determine whether this learning bias may pre-date and confer risk for, re-experiencing symptoms in individuals subsequently exposed to trauma, or emerges only in the wake of trauma exposure and PTSD symptom development. PMID:26372003

  6. The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 2 [of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, BE

    2003-10-07

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the project and describes the types of equipment used. Volume 1 also discusses the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the remediation effort. Volume 2 consists of the following appendixes, which are referenced in Vol. 1: A--Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; B--Annotated Bibliography; C--GAAT Equipment Matrix; D--Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; and E--Vendor List for the GAAT Remediation Project. The remediation of the GAATs was completed {approx}5.5 years ahead of schedule and {approx}$120,435K below the cost estimated in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the project. These schedule and cost savings were a direct result of the selection and use of state-of-the-art technologies and the dedication and drive of the engineers, technicians, managers, craft workers, and support personnel that made up the GAAT Remediation Project Team.

  7. Questioning short-term memory and its measurement: Why digit span measures long-term associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2015-11-01

    Traditional accounts of verbal short-term memory explain differences in performance for different types of verbal material by reference to inherent characteristics of the verbal items making up memory sequences. The role of previous experience with sequences of different types is ostensibly controlled for either by deliberate exclusion or by presenting multiple trials constructed from different random permutations. We cast doubt on this general approach in a detailed analysis of the basis for the robust finding that short-term memory for digit sequences is superior to that for other sequences of verbal material. Specifically, we show across four experiments that this advantage is not due to inherent characteristics of digits as verbal items, nor are individual digits within sequences better remembered than other types of individual verbal items. Rather, the advantage for digit sequences stems from the increased frequency, compared to other verbal material, with which digits appear in random sequences in natural language, and furthermore, relatively frequent digit sequences support better short-term serial recall than less frequent ones. We also provide corpus-based computational support for the argument that performance in a short-term memory setting is a function of basic associative learning processes operating on the linguistic experience of the rememberer. The experimental and computational results raise questions not only about the role played by measurement of digit span in cognition generally, but also about the way in which long-term memory processes impact on short-term memory functioning.

  8. Blocking in Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. The authors tested this hypothesis by conducting three category-learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking…

  9. An Exploratory Study of Effective Online Learning: Assessing Satisfaction Levels of Graduate Students of Mathematics Education Associated with Human and Design Factors of an Online Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joohi Lee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory research project investigated graduate students’ satisfaction levels with online learning associated with human (professor/instructor and instructional associate and design factors (course structure and technical aspects using a survey study. A total of 81 graduate students (master’s students who majored in math and science education enrolled in an online math methods course (Conceptual Geometry participated in this study. According to the results of this study, student satisfaction level is closely associated with clear guidelines on assignment, rubrics, and constructive feedback. In addition, student satisfaction level is related to professor’s (or course instructor’s knowledge of materials.

  10. Can convict Cichlids (Amatitlania siquia socially learn the degree of predation risk associated with novel visual cues in their environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Barks

    Full Text Available For many animals, the ability to distinguish cues indicative of predation risk from cues unrelated to predation risk is not entirely innate, but rather is learned and improved with experience. Two pathways to such learning are possible. First, an animal could initially express antipredator behaviour toward a wide range of cues and subsequently learn which of those cues are non-threatening. Alternatively, it could initially express no antipredator behaviour toward a wide range of cues and subsequently learn which of them are threatening. While the learned recognition of threatening cues may occur either through personal interaction with a cue (asocial learning or through observation of the behaviour of social companions toward a cue (social learning, the learned recognition of non-threatening cues seems to occur exclusively through habituation, a form of asocial learning. Here, we tested whether convict cichlid fish (Amatitlaniasiquia can socially learn to recognize visual cues in their environment as either threatening or non-threatening. We exposed juvenile convict cichlids simultaneously to a novel visual cue and one of three (visual social cues: a social cue indicative of non-risk (the sight of conspecifics that had previously been habituated to the novel cue, a social cue indicative of predation risk (the sight of conspecifics trained to fear the novel cue, or a control treatment with no social cue. The subsequent response of focal fish, when presented with the novel cue alone, was not influenced by the social cue that they had previously witnessed. We therefore did not find evidence that convict cichlids in our study could use social learning to recognize novel visual cues as either threatening or non-threatening. We consider alternative explanations for our findings.

  11. The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 1 [of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, BE

    2003-10-07

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. A phased and integrated approach to waste retrieval operations was used for the GAAT Remediation Project. The project promoted safety by obtaining experience from low-risk operations in the North Tank Farm before moving to higher-risk operations in the South Tank Farm. This approach allowed project personnel to become familiar with the tanks and waste, as well as the equipment, processes, procedures, and operations required to perform successful waste retrieval. By using an integrated approach to tank waste retrieval and tank waste management, the project was completed years ahead of the original baseline schedule, which resulted in avoiding millions of dollars in associated costs. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the GAAT Remediation Project. It also describes the different types of equipment and how they were used. The emphasis of Volume 1 is on the description of the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the GAAT Remediation Project. Volume 2 provides the appendixes for the report, which include the following information: (A) Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; (B) Annotated Bibliography; (C) Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; (D) GAAT Equipment Matrix; and (E) Vendor List

  12. Pre- and Postsynaptic Role of Dopamine D2 Receptor DD2R in Drosophila Olfactory Associative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cheng; Lee, Daewoo

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila play critical roles in diverse brain functions such as motor control, arousal, learning, and memory. Using genetic and behavioral approaches, it has been firmly established that proper dopamine signaling is required for olfactory classical conditioning (e.g., aversive and appetitive learning). Dopamine mediates its functions through interaction with its receptors. There are two different types of dopamine receptors in Drosophila: D1-like (dDA1, DAMB) and D2-like receptors (DD2R). Currently, no study has attempted to characterize the role of DD2R in Drosophila learning and memory. Using a DD2R-RNAi transgenic line, we have examined the role of DD2R, expressed in dopamine neurons (i.e., the presynaptic DD2R autoreceptor), in larval olfactory learning. The function of postsynaptic DD2R expressed in mushroom body (MB) was also studied as MB is the center for Drosophila learning, with a function analogous to that of the mammalian hippocampus. Our results showed that suppression of presynaptic DD2R autoreceptors impairs both appetitive and aversive learning. Similarly, postsynaptic DD2R in MB neurons appears to be involved in both appetitive and aversive learning. The data confirm, for the first time, that DD2R plays an important role in Drosophila olfactory learning. PMID:25422852

  13. Learning Stimulus-Location Associations in 8- and 11-Month-Old Infants: Multimodal Versus Unimodal Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. ter Schure; D.J. Mandell; P. Escudero; M.E.J. Raijmakers; S.P. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Research on the influence of multimodal information on infants' learning is inconclusive. While one line of research finds that multimodal input has a negative effect on learning, another finds positive effects. The present study aims to shed some new light on this discussion by studying the influen

  14. Arts and Learning Research, 1999-2000. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Liora, Ed.; Ellis, Nancy C., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This volume contains papers which encompass visual arts, drama, music, literature, and poetry education, creating a space for scholars from diverse intellectual traditions. Following editorial notes and a message from the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group Chair, David Betts, are the papers of part 1, The Interconnectedness of Issues across…

  15. Tagungsbericht: Fifth Annual Meeting of Qualitative Psychology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Learning and Instruction / First meeting of the Special Interest Group No. 17 der European Association for Research in Learning and Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Gahleitner, Silke-Birgitta; Gürtler, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Dieser Tagungsbericht gibt einen Überblick über die fünfte Tagung der Initiative Qualitative Psychologie und das erste Treffen der Interessengruppe Nr. 17 "qualitative und quantitative Methodologie" der European Association for Research in Learning and Instruction (EARLI), das vom 21.-24. Oktober 2004 in Freudenstadt vom Zentrum für Qualitative Psychologie (Tübingen) organisiert wurde. Der Schwerpunkt der internationalen von Forscher/innen unterschiedlichster Professionen besuchten jährlichen...

  16. Conference Report: 5th Annual Meeting of Qualitative Psychology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Learning and Instruction : First meeting of the Special Interest Group No. 17 of the European Association for Research in Learning and Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Gahleitner, Silke-Birgitta; Gürtler, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Dieser Tagungsbericht gibt einen Überblick über die fünfte Tagung der Initiative Qualitative Psychologie und das erste Treffen der Interessengruppe Nr. 17 "qualitative und quantitative Methodologie" der European Association for Research in Learning and Instruction (EARLI), das vom 21.-24. Oktober 2004 in Freudenstadt vom Zentrum für Qualitative Psychologie (Tübingen) organisiert wurde. Der Schwerpunkt der internationalen von Forscher/innen unterschiedlichster Professionen besuchten jährlichen...

  17. The association between dopamine receptor (DRD4) gene polymorphisms and second language learning style and behavioral variability in undergraduate students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras Atabay, Meltem; Safi Oz, Zehra; Kurtman, Elvan

    2014-08-01

    The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) encodes a receptor for dopamine, a chemical messenger used in the brain. One variant of the DRD4 gene, the 7R allele, is believed to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between repeat polymorphisms in dopamine DRD4 and second language learning styles such as visual (seeing), tactile (touching), auditory (hearing), kinesthetic (moving) and group/individual learning styles, as well as the relationships among DRD4 gene polymorphisms and ADHD in undergraduate students. A total of 227 students between the ages of 17-21 years were evaluated using the Wender Utah rating scale and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Additionally, Reid's perceptual learning style questionnaire for second language learning style was applied. In addition, these students were evaluated for social distress factors using the list of Threatening Events (TLE); having had no TLE, having had just one TLE or having had two or more TLEs within the previous 6 months before the interview. For DRD4 gene polymorphisms, DNA was extracted from whole blood using the standard phenol/chloroform method and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction. Second language learners with the DRD4.7+ repeats showed kinaesthetic and auditory learning styles, while students with DRD4.7-repeats showed visual, tactile and group learning, and also preferred the more visual learning styles [Formula: see text]. We also demonstrated that the DRD4 polymorphism significantly affected the risk effect conferred by an increasing level of exposure to TLE.

  18. Higher-order conditioning of taste-odor learning in rats: Evidence for the association between emotional aspects of gustatory information and olfactory information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Takuya; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that rats prefer an odor paired with saccharin solution to an odor paired with quinine solution (taste-odor learning). However, it remains unclear whether the odors are associated with the emotional (i.e., positive and/or negative hedonics) or qualitative (i.e., sweetness and/or bitterness) aspects of gustatory information. This study aimed to examine this question using higher-order conditioning paradigms: second-order conditioning (SOC) and sensory preconditioning (SPC). Adult Wistar rats were divided into SOC and SPC groups. Food flavors, purchased from a Japanese market, such as melon (0.05%), lemon (0.1%), vanilla (0.1%), and almond (0.1%), were randomly used as odors A, B, C, and D for each rat. The SOC group was exposed to 0.005M saccharin solutions with odor A and 0.02M quinine solutions with odor C in the first 5days of learning. Additionally, they were exposed to water with a mixture of odors A and B, and water with a mixture of odors C and D in the next 5days of learning. The order of these two learning sessions was reversed in the SPC group. We hypothesized that if odor was associated with the emotional, or qualitative, aspects of gustatory information, the SOC, or SPC groups, respectively, would prefer odor B to odor D. Our results showed that the SOC group preferred odor B to odor D, whereas the SPC group did not show any such preference. This suggests that odors may be primarily associated with emotion evoked by gustation in taste-odor learning. PMID:27342429

  19. Two memory associated genes regulated by amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain ovel insights into the pathogenesis of learning and memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuandong Zheng; Xi Gu; Zhimei Zhong; Rui Zhu; Tianming Gao; Fang Wang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we employed chromatin immunoprecipitation, a useful method for studying the locations of transcription factors bound to specific DNA regions in specific cells, to investigate amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain binding sites in chromatin DNA from hippocampal neurons of rats, and to screen out five putative genes associated with the learning and memory functions. The promoter regions of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha and glutamate receptor-2 genes were amplified by PCR from DNA products immunoprecipitated by amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and western blot analysis suggested that the promoter regions of these two genes associated with learning and memory were bound by amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain (in complex form). Our experimental findings indicate that the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain is involved in the transcriptional regulation of learning- and memory-associated genes in hippocampal neurons. These data may provide new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the symptoms of progressive memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Effects of OEF/OIF-related physical and emotional co-morbidities on associative learning: concurrent delay and trace eyeblink classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinchey, Regina E; Fortier, Catherine B; Venne, Jonathan R; Maksimovskiy, Arkadiy L; Milberg, William P

    2014-03-12

    This study examined the performance of veterans and active duty personnel who served in Operation Enduring Freedom and/or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) on a basic associative learning task. Eighty-eight individuals participated in this study. All received a comprehensive clinical evaluation to determine the presence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The eyeblink conditioning task was composed of randomly intermixed delay and trace conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) pairs (acquisition) followed by a series of CS only trials (extinction). Results revealed that those with a clinical diagnosis of PTSD or a diagnosis of PTSD with comorbid mTBI acquired delay and trace conditioned responses (CRs) to levels and at rates similar to a deployed control group, thus suggesting intact basic associative learning. Differential extinction impairment was observed in the two clinical groups. Acquisition of CRs for both delay and trace conditioning, as well as extinction of trace CRs, was associated with alcoholic behavior across all participants. These findings help characterize the learning and memory function of individuals with PTSD and mTBI from OEF/OIF and raise the alarming possibility that the use of alcohol in this group may lead to more significant cognitive dysfunction.

  1. Post-traumatic stress is associated with verbal learning, memory, and psychomotor speed in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Pyra, Maria; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) women compared with HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women, and deficits in episodic memory are a common feature of both PTSD and HIV infection. We investigated the association between a probable PTSD diagnosis using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) version and verbal learning and memory using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test in 1004 HIV+ and 496 at-risk HIV- women. HIV infection was not associated with a probable PTSD diagnosis (17% HIV+, 16% HIV-; p = 0.49) but was associated with lower verbal learning (p fine motor skills domain (p = 0.03). Among women with probable PTSD, HIV- women performed worse than HIV+ women on fine motor skills (p = 0.01), but among women without probable PTSD, there was no significant difference in performance between the groups (p = 0.59). These findings underscore the importance of considering mental health factors as correlates to cognitive deficits in women with HIV. PMID:26404435

  2. Lexical distributional cues, but not situational cues, are readily used to learn abstract locative verb-structure associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Katherine E; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben

    2016-08-01

    Children must learn the structural biases of locative verbs in order to avoid making overgeneralisation errors (e.g., (∗)I filled water into the glass). It is thought that they use linguistic and situational information to learn verb classes that encode structural biases. In addition to situational cues, we examined whether children and adults could use the lexical distribution of nouns in the post-verbal noun phrase of transitive utterances to assign novel verbs to locative classes. In Experiment 1, children and adults used lexical distributional cues to assign verb classes, but were unable to use situational cues appropriately. In Experiment 2, adults generalised distributionally-learned classes to novel verb arguments, demonstrating that distributional information can cue abstract verb classes. Taken together, these studies show that human language learners can use a lexical distributional mechanism that is similar to that used by computational linguistic systems that use large unlabelled corpora to learn verb meaning. PMID:27183399

  3. The association of academic burnout with self-efficacy and quality of learning experience among Iranian students

    OpenAIRE

    Charkhabi, Morteza; Azizi Abarghuei, Mohsen; Hayati, Davood

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between academic burnout and quality of learning experience and self-efficacy among undergraduate students. The sample consisted of 233 undergraduate students (106 men and 127 women) who were selected by stratified random sampling method. The participants completed the Quality of Learning Experience Scale, Academic Burnout scale, and General Self-Efficacy scale. This study is particularly interesting in the context of Iran, known for its equality-st...

  4. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation. PMID:26301828

  5. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation.

  6. Using a multi-port architecture of neural-net associative memory based on the equivalency paradigm for parallel cluster image analysis and self-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Lazarev, Alexander A.; Grabovlyak, Sveta K.; Nikitovich, Diana V.

    2013-01-01

    We consider equivalency models, including matrix-matrix and matrix-tensor and with the dual adaptive-weighted correlation, multi-port neural-net auto-associative and hetero-associative memory (MP NN AAM and HAP), which are equivalency paradigm and the theoretical basis of our work. We make a brief overview of the possible implementations of the MP NN AAM and of their architectures proposed and investigated earlier by us. The main base unit of such architectures is a matrix-matrix or matrix-tensor equivalentor. We show that the MP NN AAM based on the equivalency paradigm and optoelectronic architectures with space-time integration and parallel-serial 2D images processing have advantages such as increased memory capacity (more than ten times of the number of neurons!), high performance in different modes (1010 - 1012 connections per second!) And the ability to process, store and associatively recognize highly correlated images. Next, we show that with minor modifications, such MP NN AAM can be successfully used for highperformance parallel clustering processing of images. We show simulation results of using these modifications for clustering and learning models and algorithms for cluster analysis of specific images and divide them into categories of the array. Show example of a cluster division of 32 images (40x32 pixels) letters and graphics for 12 clusters with simultaneous formation of the output-weighted space allocated images for each cluster. We discuss algorithms for learning and self-learning in such structures and their comparative evaluations based on Mathcad simulations are made. It is shown that, unlike the traditional Kohonen self-organizing maps, time of learning in the proposed structures of multi-port neuronet classifier/clusterizer (MP NN C) on the basis of equivalency paradigm, due to their multi-port, decreases by orders and can be, in some cases, just a few epochs. Estimates show that in the test clustering of 32 1280- element images into 12

  7. Serum Ghrelin Is Associated with Verbal Learning and Adiposity in a Sample of Healthy, Fit Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bellar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the relationship between serum ghrelin concentrations, adiposity, and verbal learning in a group of healthy, fit older adults. Participants were 28 healthy older adults (age: yrs, BMI: . Participants reported to the laboratory and basic anthropometric data were collected, followed by a blood draw to quantify serum ghrelin. Participants then underwent cognitive testing that included the revised Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT, as well as the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE. The results of the MMSE test revealed that the volunteers were cognitively intact (MMSE . A significant correlation emerged between serum ghrelin concentrations, 2 trials of the HVLT (Trial 1: , ; Trial 2: , , and the sum of three-site skinfold analysis (. Based upon the aforementioned relationships, it appears that fasting levels of serum ghrelin are related to both verbal learning and adiposity in healthy, fit older adults.

  8. APOE status and its association to learning and memory performance in middle aged and older Norwegians seeking assessment for memory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjerstad Leif

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the hypothesis that deficits in learning, memory, and other cognitive functions are associated with the ε4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE gene in a non-demented sample with memory complaints recruited from a population with a high prevalence of this allele. Methods The study group comprised 70 consecutively referred patients aged 50–75 seeking assessment due to memory complaints. They were screened for dementia, for neurological and psychiatric disease, and for cerebral infarction using Magnet Resonance Imaging (MRI. Participants were classified as non-demented based on clinical evaluation and results on cognitive tests. Results APOE ε4 carriers (56% of the sample showed poorer performance than non-carriers on the Mini Mental State Examination, a number of measures of verbal memory function from the California Verbal Learning Test, and visual recall. In 46% of the participants, psychometric criteria for amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI were satisfied. Conclusion Findings may be partly explained by a significant number of participants being in a preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease. The observed deficits in learning performance and the lack of significant age modulation of the genetic association suggest a more general genetic effect. The findings are consistent with known neurobiological function of APOE ε4, including both increased risk of neurodegenerative disease and reduced synaptic integrity in older age.

  9. ALT-C 95: Changing Education, Changing Technology. Conference Abstracts of the Association for Learning Technology Conference (2nd, Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom, September 11-13, 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkridge, David, Ed.

    This program for the 1995 Association for Learning Technology Conference summarizes the presentations of the discussions, demonstrations, workshops, and poster sessions. Abstracts of the following papers presented at the conference are included: "New Structures for Learning" (Patrick Allen & Kate Sankey); "Multiple System Conferencing" (Susan…

  10. "Stars Shine Bright Deep in the Heart of LDA." Poster Session Abstracts of the International Conference of the Learning Disabilities Association of America (Dallas, Texas, March 6-9, 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Steven C., Comp.

    This monograph brings together 16 one- to two-page abstracts from research poster sessions held at the March 1996 international conference of the Learning Disabilities Association of America. The first section, addressing research on assessment and characteristics of students with learning disabilities, includes abstracts on the Woodcock-Johnson…

  11. Effects of low level lead exposure on associative learning and memory in the rat: Influences of sex and developmental timing of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D W; Mettil, W; Schneider, J S

    2016-03-30

    Lead (Pb) exposure during development impairs a variety of cognitive, behavioral and neurochemical processes resulting in deficits in learning, memory, attention, impulsivity and executive function. Numerous studies have attempted to model this effect of Pb in rodents, with the majority of studies focusing on hippocampus-associated spatial learning and memory processes. Using a different paradigm, trace fear conditioning, a process requiring coordinated integration of both the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, we have assessed the effects of Pb exposure on associative learning and memory. The present study examined both female and male long evans rats exposed to three environmentally relevant levels of Pb (150 ppm, 375 ppm and 750 ppm) during different developmental periods: perinatal (PERI; gestation-postnatal day 21), early postnatal (EPN; postnatal days 1-21) and late postnatal (LPN; postnatal days 1-55). Testing began at postnatal day 55 and consisted of a single day of acquisition training, and three post training time points (1, 2 and 10 days) to assess memory consolidation and recall. All animals, regardless of sex, developmental window or level of Pb-exposure, successfully acquired conditioned-unconditioned stimulus association during training. However, there were significant effects of Pb-exposure on consolidation and memory recall at days 1-10 post training. In females, EPN and LPN exposure to 150 ppm Pb (but not PERI exposure) significantly impaired recall. In contrast, only PERI 150 ppm and 750 ppm-exposed males had significant recall deficits. These data suggest a complex interaction between sex, developmental window of exposure and Pb-exposure level on consolidation and recall of associative memories.

  12. Amygdalar interaction with the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in stimulus-reward associative learning in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffan, D; Murray, E A

    1990-11-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were assessed for their ability to associate visual stimuli with food reward. They learned a series of new 2-choice visual discriminations between colored patterns displayed on a monitor screen. The feedback for correct choice was the delivery of food. In order to promote associative learning between the visual stimuli and the incentive value of the food reward, reward delivery was not accompanied by any distinctive visual feedback on the display screen. The rate of learning new problems was assessed before and after surgery in a total of 16 monkeys. Three groups of 3 monkeys received bilaterally symmetrical ablations in either the amygdala, the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, or the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. All these groups showed a severe postoperative learning impairment. Seven other animals were given a unilateral ablation in 1 of those 3 structures and a second unilateral ablation, in each case contralateral to and different from the first, in order to produce 2 groups in which a putative amygdalo-thalamo-prefrontal pathway had been disconnected by crossed unilateral lesions. One disconnection group had lesions in the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex; the other had lesions in the amygdala and the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus. The disconnection groups showed a significant impairment, but the effect of the disconnection surgeries was significantly milder than the effect of any of the 3 bilaterally symmetrical lesions. Therefore, symmetrical bilateral lesions in either the amygdala, the mediodorsal nucleus, or the ventromedial prefrontal cortex produce similar impairments in the present task, implying that these structures are functionally related to each other; but the relatively mild effect of disconnecting these structures from each other argues against the hypothesis that they are serial stages in a single, tightly linked functional pathway. PMID:2230939

  13. Use of e-learning to enhance medical students' understanding and knowledge of healthcare-associated infection prevention and control.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E

    2011-12-01

    An online infection prevention and control programme for medical students was developed and assessed. There was a statistically significant improvement (P<0.0001) in the knowledge base among 517 students after completing two modules. The majority of students who completed the evaluation were positive about the learning experience.

  14. The Role of Learned Societies in Knowledge Exchange and Dissemination: The Case of the Regional Studies Association, 1965-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of learned societies in knowledge exchange and dissemination. It attempts to "map" the organisations that are considered to reside under the term and discusses how they have developed through history. In doing so, it seeks to highlight that whilst several types of organisations inhabit the landscape of learned…

  15. Working with "Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning" (SEAL): Associations with School Ethos, Pupil Social Experiences, Attendance, and Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Weare, Katherine; Farr, William

    2014-01-01

    A programme of resources and activities relating to "Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning" (SEAL) has been rolled out nationally to primary and secondary schools in the UK, but we know little about how variations in the implementation of this work relate to key indicators of school success. In the present study, a team of experienced…

  16. The Constructivist Classroom Learning Environment and Its Associations with Critical Thinking Ability of Secondary School Students in Liberal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Yee Wan; Wong, Angela F. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated-secondary school students' perceptions of their constructivist learning environment in Liberal Studies, and whether their perceptions were related to their critical thinking ability. A convenience sample of Secondary Three students (N = 967) studying Liberal Studies in Hong Kong participated in this research by…

  17. The association of academic burnout with self-efficacy and quality of learning experience among Iranian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkhabi, Morteza; Azizi Abarghuei, Mohsen; Hayati, Davood

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between academic burnout and quality of learning experience and self-efficacy among undergraduate students. The sample consisted of 233 undergraduate students (106 men and 127 women) who were selected by stratified random sampling method. The participants completed the Quality of Learning Experience Scale, Academic Burnout scale, and General Self-Efficacy scale. This study is particularly interesting in the context of Iran, known for its equality-striving and high-quality educational system. Iranian youth, compared with youth in many other countries, have a lower level of well-being. The antecedents of academic burnout are divided into two categories: internal and external variables. In most studies regarding to the issue, one category is used to predict the dependent variable. However, in this study we utilized both ones; self-efficacy was considered as internal and quality of learning experience was used as an external predictor. Correlation coefficients indicated that all relationships between academic burnout and its components with self-efficacy were statistically significant. Furthermore, academic burnout and all of its components had significant correlations with quality of learning experience. Also, the relationship between resources with emotional exhaustion and professor-student relationship with academic inefficacy were not significant. On the basis of the results, through our research, we will expand academic burnout literature by focusing on its external and internal antecedents. In addition, we conclude with theoretical and practical implications and propose a clear horizon for future researches. PMID:24386623

  18. Academic Underachievement among Children with Epilepsy: Proportion Exceeding Psychometric Criteria for Learning Disability and Associated Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastenau, Philip S.; Shen, Jianzhao; Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed rates of learning disabilities (LD) by several psychometric definitions in children with epilepsy and identified risk factors. Participants (N = 173, ages 8-15 years) completed IQ screening, academic achievement testing, and structured interviews. Children with significant head injury, chronic physical conditions, or mental…

  19. Promoting School Readiness in the Context of Socio-Economic Adversity: Associations with Parental Demoralization and Support for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Existing research suggests that parenting stress and demoralization, as well as provision of learning activities at home, significantly affect child school readiness. However, the degree to which these dimensions of parenting uniquely influence child school readiness remains unclear. Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that…

  20. A model of the mechanism of cooperativity and associativity of long-term potentiation in the hippocampus: a fundamental mechanism of associative memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, T; Hara, K

    1991-01-01

    Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) has three properties: (1) input specificity, (2) cooperativity and (3) associativity. In a previous paper, we proposed an integrated model of the mechanisms of the induction and maintenance of LTP with input specificity. In this paper, a model of the mechanism of cooperative and associative LTP is described. According to computer simulations of the model, its mechanism is based on the spread of synaptic potentials. PMID:2049412

  1. Standardized extract of Bacopa monniera (BESEB CDRI-08) attenuates contextual associative learning deficits in the aging rat's brain induced by D-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisila Dulcy, Charles; Singh, Hemant K; Preethi, Jayakumar; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of standardized Bacopa monniera extract (BME: BESEB CDRI-08) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain aging in rats. Experimental groups were subjected to contextual-associative learning task. We found that the administration of BME in the D-gal-treated group attenuated contextual-associative learning deficits; the individuals showed more correct responses and retrieved the reward with less latency. Subsequent analysis showed that the BME administration significantly decreased advance glycation end product (AGE) in serum and increased the activity of antioxidant response element (ARE) and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), accompanied by a reduction in the level of serotonin (5-HT) in the hippocampus. The BME treatment also reversed D-gal-induced brain aging by upregulating the levels of the presynaptic proteins synaptotagmin I (SYT1) and synaptophysin (SYP) and the postsynaptic proteins Ca(2+) /calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in the hippocampus during synaptic plasticity. A significant finding is that the D-gal- + BME-treated rats exhibited more correct responses in contextual-associative learning than D-gal alone-treated rats. Our findings suggest that BME treatment attenuates D-gal-induced brain aging and regulates the level of antioxidant enzymes, Nrf2 expression, and the level of 5-HT, which was accompanied by concomitantly increased levels of synaptic proteins SYT1, SYP, αCaMKII, p-αCaMKII, and PSD-95. PMID:22715050

  2. HIPPOCAMPAL SPINE-ASSOCIATED Rap-SPECIFIC GTPase-ACTIVATING PROTEIN INDUCES ENHANCEMENT OF LEARNING AND MEMORY IN POSTNATALLY HYPOXIA-EXPOSED MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, X.-J.; Chen, X. -Q; Weng, J.; Zhang, H.-Y.; PAK, D. T.; LUO, J.-H.; DU, J.-Z.

    2009-01-01

    Spine-associated Rap-specific GTPase-activating protein (SPAR) is a postsynaptic protein that forms a complex with postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), and morphologically regulates dendritic spines. Mild intermittent hypoxia (IH, 16.0% O2, 4 h/day for 4 weeks) is known to markedly enhance spatial learning and memory in postnatal developing mice. Here, we report that this effect is correlated with persistent increases in SPAR expression as well as long-te...

  3. Gray matter volume is associated with rate of subsequent skill learning after a long term training intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Scholz, Jan; Jenkinson, Mark; Thomas, Adam G.; Filippini, Nicola; Smit, Gabrielle; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The ability to predict learning performance from brain imaging data has implications for selecting individuals for training or rehabilitation interventions. Here, we used structural MRI to test whether baseline variations in gray matter (GM) volume correlated with subsequent performance after a long-term training of a complex whole-body task. 44 naïve participants were scanned before undertaking daily juggling practice for 6 weeks, following either a high intensity or a low intensity training...

  4. Learning and memory alterations are associated with hippocampal N-acetylaspartate in a rat model of depression as measured by 1H-MRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Xi

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, are affected in depression. The present study used a rat model of depression, chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, to determine whether hippocampal volume and neurochemical changes were involved in learning and memory alterations. A further aim was to determine whether these effects could be ameliorated by escitalopram treatment, as assessed with the non-invasive techniques of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Our results demonstrated that CUMS had a dramatic influence on spatial cognitive performance in the Morris water maze task, and CUMS reduced the concentration of neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate (NAA in the hippocampus. These effects could be significantly reversed by repeated administration of escitalopram. However, neither chronic stress nor escitalopram treatment influenced hippocampal volume. Of note, the learning and memory alterations of the rats were associated with right hippocampal NAA concentration. Our results indicate that in depression, NAA may be a more sensitive measure of cognitive function than hippocampal volume.

  5. CHILDREN’S GIFTEDNESS AND ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS. THE TWICE EXCEPTIONALITY PHENOMENON. GIFTEDNESS AND LEARNING PROBLEMS. GIFTEDNESS AND ATTENTION DEFICIT/ HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (А REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pylaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with current views, giftedness are considered as the systemic psychic property developing throughout a lifetime, which determines the human possibility of achieving higher (unusual, outstanding results in one or several kinds of activities as compared to other people. People who are endowed with extraordinary abilities may be infrequently called absolutely somatically and mentally healthy. There are data that giftedness in childhood are frequently concurrent with both somatic diseases and different neurological disorders. Many gifted children are diagnosed as having left-handedness, speech disorders, and autoimmune diseases. There are scientific works on the association of giftedness with neurological and psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, learning problems (dyslexia in particular, autism (including Asperger’s syndrome, bipolar disorder, and migraine. According to the available data, approximately 3–5 % of children fall into a category of intellectually gifted ones; some children (2–5 to 20 % or more of all gifted children according to different findings may have learning problems. The terms “twice-gifted” or “twice-exceptional” are proposed to characterize children with giftedness concurrent with learning problems, attention deficit (including ADHD, or other impairments of cognitive functions and behavior (including oppositional disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. These children need the more attention of teachers and other correction approaches and adaptation methods to be elaborated as compared to the procedures used for gifted children, on the one hand, and for those with learning problems, behavioral and attention disorders, on the other hand. There is a need for the development and further strengthening of strong suits (gift and correction, adaptation of deficits in children with “twice exceptionality”. The review presents the history of studying the

  6. CHILDREN’S GIFTEDNESS AND ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS. THE TWICE EXCEPTIONALITY PHENOMENON. GIFTEDNESS AND LEARNING PROBLEMS. GIFTEDNESS AND ATTENTION DEFICIT/ HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (А REVIEW OF LITERATURE. PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pylaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with current views, giftedness are considered as the systemic psychic property developing throughout a lifetime, which determines the human possibility of achieving higher (unusual, outstanding results in one or several kinds of activities as compared to other people. People who are endowed with extraordinary abilities may be infrequently called absolutely somatically and mentally healthy. There are data that giftedness in childhood are frequently concurrent with both somatic diseases and different neurological disorders. Many gifted children are diagnosed as having left-handedness, speech disorders, and autoimmune diseases. There are scientific works on the association of giftedness with neurological and psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, learning problems (dyslexia in particular, autism (including Asperger’s syndrome, bipolar disorder, and migraine. According to the available data, approximately 3–5 % of children fall into a category of intellectually gifted ones; some children (2–5 to 20 % or more of all gifted children according to different findings may have learning problems. The terms “twice-gifted” or “twice-exceptional” are proposed to characterize children with giftedness concurrent with learning problems, attention deficit (including ADHD, or other impairments of cognitive functions and behavior (including oppositional disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. These children need the more attention of teachers and other correction approaches and adaptation methods to be elaborated as compared to the procedures used for gifted children, on the one hand, and for those with learning problems, behavioral and attention disorders, on the other hand. There is a need for the development and further strengthening of strong suits (gift and correction, adaptation of deficits in children with “twice exceptionality”. The review presents the history of studying the

  7. Behavioral stress may increase the rewarding valence of cocaine-associated cues through a dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor-mediated mechanism without affecting associative learning or memory retrieval mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Abigail G; Li, Shuang; Chavkin, Charles

    2010-08-01

    Stress exposure increases the risk of addictive drug use in human and animal models of drug addiction by mechanisms that are not completely understood. Mice subjected to repeated forced swim stress (FSS) before cocaine develop significantly greater conditioned place preference (CPP) for the drug-paired chamber than unstressed mice. Analysis of the dose dependency showed that FSS increased both the maximal CPP response and sensitivity to cocaine. To determine whether FSS potentiated CPP by enhancing associative learning mechanisms, mice were conditioned with cocaine in the absence of stress, then challenged after association was complete with the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist U50,488 or repeated FSS, before preference testing. Mice challenged with U50,488 60 min before CPP preference testing expressed significantly greater cocaine-CPP than saline-challenged mice. Potentiation by U50,488 was dose and time dependent and blocked by the KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (norBNI). Similarly, mice subjected to repeated FSS before the final preference test expressed significantly greater cocaine-CPP than unstressed controls, and FSS-induced potentiation was blocked by norBNI. Novel object recognition (NOR) performance was not affected by U50,488 given 60 min before assay, but was impaired when given 15 min before NOR assay, suggesting that KOR activation did not potentiate CPP by facilitating memory retrieval or expression. The results from this study show that the potentiation of cocaine-CPP by KOR activation does not result from an enhancement of associative learning mechanisms and that stress may instead enhance the rewarding valence of cocaine-associated cues by a dynorphin-dependent mechanism. PMID:20445500

  8. Transmission of stress-induced learning impairment and associated brain gene expression from parents to offspring in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lindqvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress influences many aspects of animal behaviour and is a major factor driving populations to adapt to changing living conditions, such as during domestication. Stress can affect offspring through non-genetic mechanisms, but recent research indicates that inherited epigenetic modifications of the genome could possibly also be involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Red junglefowl (RJF, ancestors of modern chickens and domesticated White Leghorn (WL chickens were raised in a stressful environment (unpredictable light-dark rhythm and control animals in similar pens, but on a 12/12 h light-dark rhythm. WL in both treatments had poorer spatial learning ability than RJF, and in both populations, stress caused a reduced ability to solve a spatial learning task. Offspring of stressed WL, but not RJF, raised without parental contact, had a reduced spatial learning ability compared to offspring of non-stressed animals in a similar test as that used for their parents. Offspring of stressed WL were also more competitive and grew faster than offspring of non-stressed parents. Using a whole-genome cDNA microarray, we found that in WL, the same changes in hypothalamic gene expression profile caused by stress in the parents were also found in the offspring. In offspring of stressed WL, at least 31 genes were up- or down-regulated in the hypothalamus and pituitary compared to offspring of non-stressed parents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that, in WL the gene expression response to stress, as well as some behavioural stress responses, were transmitted across generations. The ability to transmit epigenetic information and behaviour modifications between generations may therefore have been favoured by domestication. The mechanisms involved remain to be investigated; epigenetic modifications could either have been inherited or acquired de novo in the specific egg environment. In both cases, this would offer a novel explanation to

  9. A pilot study exploring the relationship between lifelong learning and factors associated with evidence-based medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halalau, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore possible relationships between residents’ lifelong learning orientation, skills in practicing evidence-based medicine (EBM), and perceptions of the environment for learning and practicing EBM. Methods This was a pilot study with a cross-sectional survey design. Out of 60 residents in a medical residency program, 29 participated in the study. Data were collected using a survey that comprised three sections: the JeffSPLL Scale, EBM Environment Scale, and an EBM skill questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS and were reported with descriptive and inferential statistics (mean, standard deviation, Pearson’s correlation, and a two-sample t-test). Results Mean scores on the JeffSPLL Scale were significantly correlated with perceptions of the EBM Scale and use of EBM resources to keep up to date or solve a specific patient care problem. There was a significant correlation between mean scores on the EBM Scale and hours per week spent in reading medical literature to solve a patient care problem. Two-sample t-tests show that residents with previous training in research methods had significantly higher scores on the JeffSPLL Scale (p=0.04), EBM Scale (p=0.006), and self-efficacy scale (p =0.024). Conclusions Given the fact that physicians are expected to be lifelong learners over the course of their professional career, developing residents’ EBM skills and creating interventions to improve specific areas in the EBM environment would likely foster residents’ lifelong learning orientation.  PMID:27372836

  10. Active learning in research methods classes is associated with higher knowledge and confidence, though not evaluations or satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter James Allen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research methods and statistics are regarded as difficult subjects to teach, fueling investigations into techniques that increase student engagement. Students enjoy active learning opportunities like hands-on demonstrations, authentic research participation, and working with real data. However, enhanced enjoyment does not always correspond with enhanced learning and performance. In this study, we developed a workshop activity in which students participated in a computer-based experiment and used class-generated data to run a range of statistical procedures. To enable evaluation, we developed a parallel, didactic/canned workshop, which was identical to the activity-based version, except that students were told about the experiment and used a pre-existing/canned dataset to perform their analyses. Tutorial groups were randomized to one of the two workshop versions, and 39 students completed a post-workshop evaluation questionnaire. A series of generalized linear mixed models suggested that, compared to the students in the didactic/canned condition, students exposed to the activity-based workshop displayed significantly greater knowledge of the methodological and statistical issues addressed in class, and were more confident about their ability to use this knowledge in the future. However, overall evaluations and satisfaction between the two groups were not reliably different. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  11. Gray matter volume is associated with rate of subsequent skill learning after a long term training intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Scholz, Jan; Jenkinson, Mark; Thomas, Adam G; Filippini, Nicola; Smit, Gabrielle; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    The ability to predict learning performance from brain imaging data has implications for selecting individuals for training or rehabilitation interventions. Here, we used structural MRI to test whether baseline variations in gray matter (GM) volume correlated with subsequent performance after a long-term training of a complex whole-body task. 44 naïve participants were scanned before undertaking daily juggling practice for 6weeks, following either a high intensity or a low intensity training regime. To assess performance across the training period participants' practice sessions were filmed. Greater GM volume in medial occipito-parietal areas at baseline correlated with steeper learning slopes. We also tested whether practice time or performance outcomes modulated the degree of structural brain change detected between the baseline scan and additional scans performed immediately after training and following a further 4weeks without training. Participants with better performance had higher increases in GM volume during the period following training (i.e., between scans 2 and 3) in dorsal parietal cortex and M1. When contrasting brain changes between the practice intensity groups, we did not find any straightforward effects of practice time though practice modulated the relationship between performance and GM volume change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that practice time and performance modulate the degree of structural brain change evoked by long-term training regimes. PMID:24680712

  12. Changes of learning and memory ability associated with neuronal nitric oxide synthase in brain tissues of rats with acute alcoholism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Li; Chunyang Xu; Dongliang Li; Xinjuan Li; Linyu Wei; Yuan Cheng

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Ethanol can influence neural development and the ability of learning and memory, but its mechanism of the neural toxicity is not clear till now. Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) as a gaseous messenger is proved to play an important role in the formation of synaptic plasticity, transference of neuronal information and the neural development, but excessive nitro oxide can result in neurotoxicity.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of acute alcoholism on the learning and memory ability and the content of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in brain tissue of rats.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Physiology, Xinxiang Medical College.MATERIALS; Eighteen male clean-degree SD rats of 18-22 weeks were raised adaptively for 2 days, and then randomly divided into control group (n = 8) and experimental group (n = 10). The nNOS immunohistochemical reagent was provided by Beijing Zhongshan Golden Bridge Biotechnology Co.,Ltd. Y-maze was produced by Suixi Zhenghua Apparatus Plant.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the laboratory of the Department of Physiology, Xinxiang Medical College from June to October in 2005. ① Rats in the experimental group were intraperitoneally injected with ethanol (2.5 g/kg) which was dissolved in normal saline (20%). The loss of righting reflex and ataxia within 5 minutes indicated the successful model. Whereas rats in the control group were given saline of the same volume. ② Examinations of learning and memory ability: The Y-maze tests for learning and memory ability were performed at 6 hours after the models establishment. The rats were put into the Y-maze separately. The test was performed in a quiet and dark room. There was a lamp at the end of each of three pathways in Y-maze and the base of maze had electric net. All the lamps of the three pathways were turned on for 3 minutes and then turned off. One lamp was turned on randomly, and the other two delayed automatically. In 5 seconds

  13. The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education – A Position Statement of the Committee for Patient Safety and Error Management of the German Association for Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Gutmann, Johanna; Drossard, Sabine; Gurrea Salas, David; Prodinger, Wolfgang; Mc Dermott, Fiona; Urban, Bert; Staender, Sven; Baschnegger, Heiko; Hoffmann, Gordon; Hübsch, Grit; Scholz, Christoph; Meier, Anke; Wegscheider, Mirko; Hoffmann, Nicolas; Ohlenbusch-Harke, Theda; Keil, Stephanie; Schirlo, Christian; Kühne-Eversmann, Lisa; Heitzmann, Nicole; Busemann, Alexandra; Koechel, Ansgar; Manser, Tanja; Welbergen, Lena; Kiesewetter, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since the report “To err is human” was published by the Institute of Medicine in the year 2000, topics regarding patient safety and error management are in the focal point of interest of science and politics. Despite international attention, a structured and comprehensive medical education regarding these topics remains to be missing. Goals: The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety described below the Committee for Patient Safety and Error Management of the German Association for Medical Education (GMA) has aimed to establish a common foundation for the structured implementation of patient safety curricula at the medical faculties in German-speaking countries. Methods: The development the Learning Objective Catalogue resulted via the participation of 13 faculties in two committee meetings, two multi-day workshops, and additional judgments of external specialists. Results: The Committee of Patient Safety and Error Management of GMA developed the present Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education, structured in three chapters: Basics, Recognize Causes as Foundation for Proactive Behavior, and Approaches for Solutions. The learning objectives within the chapters are organized on three levels with a hierarchical organization of the topics. Overall, the Learning Objective Catalogue consists of 38 learning objectives. All learning objectives are referenced with the National Competency-based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education. Discussion: The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education is a product that was developed through collaboration of members from 13 medical faculties. In the German-speaking countries, the Learning Objective Catalogue should advance discussion regarding the topics of patient safety and error management and help develop subsequent educational structures. The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety can

  14. The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education – A Position Statement of the Committee for Patient Safety and Error Management of the German Association for Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiesewetter, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the report “To err is human” was published by the Institute of Medicine in the year 2000, topics regarding patient safety and error management are in the focal point of interest of science and politics. Despite international attention, a structured and comprehensive medical education regarding these topics remains to be missing.Goals: The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety described below the Committee for Patient Safety and Error Management of the German Association for Medical Education (GMA has aimed to establish a common foundation for the structured implementation of patient safety curricula at the medical faculties in German-speaking countries. Methods: The development the Learning Objective Catalogue resulted via the participation of 13 faculties in two committee meetings, two multi-day workshops, and additional judgments of external specialists.Results: The Committee of Patient Safety and Error Management of GMA developed the present Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education, structured in three chapters: , and . The learning objectives within the chapters are organized on three levels with a hierarchical organization of the topics. Overall, the Learning Objective Catalogue consists of 38 learning objectives. All learning objectives are referenced with the National Competency-based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education.Discussion: The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education is a product that was developed through collaboration of members from 13 medical faculties. In the German-speaking countries, the Learning Objective Catalogue should advance discussion regarding the topics of patient safety and error management and help develop subsequent educational structures. The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety can serve as a common ground for an intensified, constructive, subject

  15. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Dencker, Ditte;

    2014-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) represent a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently reported that the selective M4 PAM VU0152100 produced...

  16. Association between presence in lectures and student knowledge gain in problem based learning: experience in Neuropsychiatry module, FMUI, International Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Pawitan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim This study was conducted to determine the association between presence in lecture and examination scores.Methods This was a cross sectional study, conducted in the Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, International Class Program, from November 2007 to May 2008. The subject’s inclusion criterion was FMUI International class students enrolled in the Neuropsychiatry module in 2007/2008. we excluded students who did not attend the examinations i.e. multiple choice questions (MCQ-1, -2, or essay. The data collected were presence in lecture and examination scores. Data analysis was done using SPSS linear regression to see the association between presence in lectures and exam scores.Results The results showed that the R and P of the association between presence in lectures and exam scores were (R= 0.121, P= 0.413, (R= 0.212, P= 0.148, (R= 0.260, P= 0.075, and (R= 0.280, P= 0.054 for MCQ1, MCQ2, essay, and mean exam scores respectively.Conclusion We failed to show the association between presence in lectures and student knowledge gain. This result might be due to the many factors discussed that were not analyzed in this study. (Med J Indones 2008; 18: 131-4Key words: exam, MCQ, essay

  17. The Paired Associates Learning (PAL) Test: 30 Years of CANTAB Translational Neuroscience from Laboratory to Bedside in Dementia Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jennifer H; Blackwell, Andrew D; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    The origins and rationale of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) as a cross-species translational instrument suitable for use in human neuropsychopharmacological studies are reviewed. We focus on its use for the early assessment and detection of Alzheimer's disease, in particular the Paired Associates Learning (PAL) test. We consider its psychometric properties, neural validation, and utility, including studies on large samples of healthy volunteers, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease. We demonstrate how it can be applied in cross-species studies using experimental animals to bridge the cross-species translational 'gap'. We also show how the CANTAB PAL has bridged a second translational 'gap' through its application to the early detection of memory problems in primary care clinics, using iPad technology. PMID:27646012

  18. Forward shift of feeding buzz components of dolphins and belugas during associative learning reveals a likely connection to reward expectation, pleasure and brain dopamine activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, S H; Moore, P W; Carder, D A; Romano, T A

    2014-08-15

    For many years, we heard sounds associated with reward from dolphins and belugas. We named these pulsed sounds victory squeals (VS), as they remind us of a child's squeal of delight. Here we put these sounds in context with natural and learned behavior. Like bats, echolocating cetaceans produce feeding buzzes as they approach and catch prey. Unlike bats, cetaceans continue their feeding buzzes after prey capture and the after portion is what we call the VS. Prior to training (or conditioning), the VS comes after the fish reward; with repeated trials it moves to before the reward. During training, we use a whistle or other sound to signal a correct response by the animal. This sound signal, named a secondary reinforcer (SR), leads to the primary reinforcer, fish. Trainers usually name their whistle or other SR a bridge, as it bridges the time gap between the correct response and reward delivery. During learning, the SR becomes associated with reward and the VS comes after the SR rather than after the fish. By following the SR, the VS confirms that the animal expects a reward. Results of early brain stimulation work suggest to us that SR stimulates brain dopamine release, which leads to the VS. Although there are no direct studies of dopamine release in cetaceans, we found that the timing of our VS is consistent with a response after dopamine release. We compared trained vocal responses to auditory stimuli with VS responses to SR sounds. Auditory stimuli that did not signal reward resulted in faster responses by a mean of 151 ms for dolphins and 250 ms for belugas. In laboratory animals, there is a 100 to 200 ms delay for dopamine release. VS delay in our animals is similar and consistent with vocalization after dopamine release. Our novel observation suggests that the dopamine reward system is active in cetacean brains. PMID:25122919

  19. SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION IMPAIRS ATTENTION AND COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY BUT NOT ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING IN AGED RATS: Possible Implications for Delirium

    OpenAIRE

    Culley, Deborah J.; Mary eSnayd; Baxter, Mark G.; Zhongcong eXie; In-Ho eLee; James eRudolph; Sharon eInouye; Edward eMarcantonio; Gregory eCrosby

    2014-01-01

    Delirium is a common and morbid condition in elderly hospitalized patients. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood but inflammation has been implicated based on a clinical association with systemic infection and surgery and preclinical data showing that systemic inflammation adversely affects hippocampus-dependent memory. However, clinical manifestations and imaging studies point to abnormalities not in the hippocampus but in cortical circuits. We therefore tested the hypothesis that system...

  20. Systemic Inflammation Impairs Attention and Cognitive Flexibility but Not Associative Learning in Aged Rats: Possible Implications for Delirium

    OpenAIRE

    Culley, Deborah J.; Snayd, Mary; Baxter, Mark G.; Xie, Zhongcong; Lee, In Ho; Rudolph, James; Inouye, Sharon K.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Crosby, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Delirium is a common and morbid condition in elderly hospitalized patients. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood but inflammation has been implicated based on a clinical association with systemic infection and surgery and preclinical data showing that systemic inflammation adversely affects hippocampus-dependent memory. However, clinical manifestations and imaging studies point to abnormalities not in the hippocampus but in cortical circuits. We therefore tested the hypothesis that system...

  1. Genome-Wide Locations of Potential Epimutations Associated with Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease Using a Sequential Machine Learning Prediction Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Muksitul Haque

    Full Text Available Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation involves germline transmitted epimutations. The primary epimutations identified involve altered differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs. Different environmental toxicants have been shown to promote exposure (i.e., toxicant specific signatures of germline epimutations. Analysis of genomic features associated with these epimutations identified low-density CpG regions (<3 CpG / 100bp termed CpG deserts and a number of unique DNA sequence motifs. The rat genome was annotated for these and additional relevant features. The objective of the current study was to use a machine learning computational approach to predict all potential epimutations in the genome. A number of previously identified sperm epimutations were used as training sets. A novel machine learning approach using a sequential combination of Active Learning and Imbalance Class Learner analysis was developed. The transgenerational sperm epimutation analysis identified approximately 50K individual sites with a 1 kb mean size and 3,233 regions that had a minimum of three adjacent sites with a mean size of 3.5 kb. A select number of the most relevant genomic features were identified with the low density CpG deserts being a critical genomic feature of the features selected. A similar independent analysis with transgenerational somatic cell epimutation training sets identified a smaller number of 1,503 regions of genome-wide predicted sites and differences in genomic feature contributions. The predicted genome-wide germline (sperm epimutations were found to be distinct from the predicted somatic cell epimutations. Validation of the genome-wide germline predicted sites used two recently identified transgenerational sperm epimutation signature sets from the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and methoxychlor (MXC exposure lineage F3 generation. Analysis of this positive validation

  2. Lifelong vitamin E intake retards age-associated decline of spatial learning ability in apoE-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Shelley R.; Forster, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The potential for lifelong vitamin E supplementation to delay age-associated cognitive decline was tested in apoE-deficient and wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Beginning at eight weeks of age, the mice were maintained on a control diet or diets supplemented with dl-α-tocopheryl acetate yielding approximate daily intakes of either 20 or 200 mg/kg body weight. When 6 or 18 months of age, cognitive functioning of the mice was assessed using swim maze and discriminated avoidance testing procedures. For t...

  3. Genome-wide association study of major depressive disorder: new results, meta-analysis, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, N R; Pergadia, M L; Blackwood, D H R; Penninx, B W J H; Gordon, S D; Nyholt, D R; Ripke, S; MacIntyre, D J; McGhee, K A; Maclean, A W; Smit, J H; Hottenga, J J; Willemsen, G; Middeldorp, C M; de Geus, E J C; Lewis, C M; McGuffin, P; Hickie, I B; van den Oord, E J C G; Liu, J Z; Macgregor, S; McEvoy, B P; Byrne, E M; Medland, S E; Statham, D J; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G; Boomsma, D I; Madden, P A F; Sullivan, P F

    2012-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common complex disorder with a partly genetic etiology. We conducted a genome-wide association study of the MDD2000+ sample (2431 cases, 3673 screened controls and >1 M imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)). No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance either in the MDD2000+ study, or in meta-analysis with two other studies totaling 5763 cases and 6901 controls. These results imply that common variants of intermediate or large effect do not have main effects in the genetic architecture of MDD. Suggestive but notable results were (a) gene-based tests suggesting roles for adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3, 2p23.3) and galanin (GAL, 11q13.3); published functional evidence relates both of these to MDD and serotonergic signaling; (b) support for the bipolar disorder risk variant SNP rs1006737 in CACNA1C (P=0.020, odds ratio=1.10); and (c) lack of support for rs2251219, a SNP identified in a meta-analysis of affective disorder studies (P=0.51). We estimate that sample sizes 1.8- to 2.4-fold greater are needed for association studies of MDD compared with those for schizophrenia to detect variants that explain the same proportion of total variance in liability. Larger study cohorts characterized for genetic and environmental risk factors accumulated prospectively are likely to be needed to dissect more fully the etiology of MDD. PMID:21042317

  4. Learning How To Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Demian

    2000-01-01

    In one California high school, learning to learn is a measurable outcome assessed by all students' participation in graduation by exhibition. Students must meet state requirements and demonstrate learning prowess by publicly exhibiting their skills in math, science, language arts, social science, service learning, and postgraduation planning. (MLH)

  5. Interoperability Gap Challenges for Learning Object Repositories & Learning Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    An interoperability gap exists between Learning Management Systems (LMSs) and Learning Object Repositories (LORs). Learning Objects (LOs) and the associated Learning Object Metadata (LOM) that is stored within LORs adhere to a variety of LOM standards. A common LOM standard found in LORs is the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)…

  6. Age Moderates the Association of Aerobic Exercise with Initial Learning of an Online Task Requiring Cognitive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Dishman, Rodney K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether people differed in change in performance across the first five blocks of an online flanker task and whether those trajectories of change were associated with self-reported aerobic or resistance exercise frequency according to age. A total of 8752 men and women aged 13-89 completed a lifestyle survey and five 45-s games (each game was a block of ~46 trials) of an online flanker task. Accuracy of the congruent and incongruent flanker stimuli was analyzed using latent class and growth curve modeling adjusting for time between blocks, whether the blocks occurred on the same or different days, education, smoking, sleep, caffeinated coffee and tea use, and Lumosity training status ("free play" or part of a "daily brain workout"). Aerobic and resistance exercise were unrelated to first block accuracies. For the more cognitively demanding incongruent flanker stimuli, aerobic activity was positively related to the linear increase in accuracy [B=0.577%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.112 to 1.25 per day above the weekly mean of 2.8 days] and inversely related to the quadratic deceleration of accuracy gains (B=-0.619% CI, -1.117 to -0.121 per day). An interaction of aerobic activity with age indicated that active participants younger than age 45 had a larger linear increase and a smaller quadratic deceleration compared to other participants. Age moderates the association between self-reported aerobic, but not self-reported resistance, exercise and changes in cognitive control that occur with practice during incongruent presentations across five blocks of a 45-s online, flanker task. PMID:26581792

  7. Empirical Assessment of College Student-Athletes' Persistence in E-Learning Courses: A Case Study of a U.S. National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Anthony J.; Levy, Yair

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the application of Information Technologies (IT) has fostered a tremendous growth in e-learning courses at colleges and universities in the United States. Subsequently, some colleges and universities have reported dropout rates of over 60% in e-learning courses. This research investigated persistence in e-learning courses of 187…

  8. MegaSNPHunter: a learning approach to detect disease predisposition SNPs and high level interactions in genome wide association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Hong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are highly hypothesized to affect an individual's susceptibility to complex diseases. Although many works have been done to identify and quantify the importance of multi-SNP interactions, few of them could handle the genome wide data due to the combinatorial explosive search space and the difficulty to statistically evaluate the high-order interactions given limited samples. Results Three comparative experiments are designed to evaluate the performance of MegaSNPHunter. The first experiment uses synthetic data generated on the basis of epistasis models. The second one uses a genome wide study on Parkinson disease (data acquired by using Illumina HumanHap300 SNP chips. The third one chooses the rheumatoid arthritis study from Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC using Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set. MegaSNPHunter outperforms the best solution in this area and reports many potential interactions for the two real studies. Conclusion The experimental results on both synthetic data and two real data sets demonstrate that our proposed approach outperforms the best solution that is currently available in handling large-scale SNP data both in terms of speed and in terms of detection of potential interactions that were not identified before. To our knowledge, MegaSNPHunter is the first approach that is capable of identifying the disease-associated SNP interactions from WTCCC studies and is promising for practical disease prognosis.

  9. Navigating the River: He Waka Eke Noa. Proceedings of the 2011 Annual International Conference of the Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors of Aotearoa/New Zealand (ATLAANZ) (Petone, New Zealand, November 30-December 2, 2011). Volume 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Mervyn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The 10 articles in this 7th volume comprise the refereed proceedings of the 2011 ATLAANZ (Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors Aotearoa/New Zealand) conference. In Chapter 1, Cath Fraser and Pam Simpson ("Offshore-onshore: How international students' expectations of the New Zealand academic environment compare to their lived…

  10. School Libraries Play an Active, Transformational Role in Student Learning and Achievement. A review of: Todd, Ross J. “Student Learning Through Ohio School Libraries: A Summary of the Ohio Research Study.” Ohio Educational Library Media Association 15 Dec. 2003. Ohio Educational Library Media Association (OELMA, 2004. 15 Nov. 2006 .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Bogel

    2006-12-01

    achievement and active agency in the learning process. The survey statements included a combination of conclusions based on selections from school library research studies, and the Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning from the merican Association of School Librarians’ nformation Power: Building Partnerships or Learning. The two surveys were used to triangulate multiple sources of data to illustrate the “helps” provided by the school library to student learning. Students were also given the opportunity to describe “helps” in their own words in an open‐ended critical incident question. Main results – The data showed that the selected effective school libraries were perceived as providing ‘helps’ in dynamic ways that appeared to have a transformative effect on student learning. School libraries and librarians were viewed as having an active role in the learning process. Of the students surveyed, 99.4 % believed that school libraries helped them become better learners. The results were grouped into seven blocks of ‘help’ concepts that frame the contributions of the school library and the school librarian to student learning (Table 1. Help Concept Summary of Survey Statements Block 1 Find and locate information. “How helpful the school library is with getting information you need.” Block 2 Use information to complete school work. “How helpful the school library is with using the information to complete your school work.” Block 3 School work in general. “How helpful the school library is with your school work in general.” Block 4 Using computers in the library, at school, and at home. “How helpful the school library is with using computers in the library, at school, and at home.” Block 5 General reading interests. “How helpful the school library is to you with your general reading interests.” Block 6 Outside school “How helpful the school library is to you when you are not at school.” Block 7 General school aspects

  11. Learning How to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Lauridsen, Ole

    presented in a way that suits their individual LS preferences. In this presentation you will see how we as teachers can assist students in applying LS strategies that cater to their individual learning strengths. This will be based on general recommendations for HE teaching and learning supported......Ole Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Karen M. Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Learning Styles in Higher Education – Learning How to Learn Applying learning styles (LS) in higher education...... teaching leads to positive results and enhanced student learning. However, learning styles should not only be considered a didactic matter for the teacher, but also a tool for the individual students to improve their learning capabilities – not least in contexts where information is not necessarily...

  12. Design and Implementation of C-iLearning: A Cloud-Based Intelligent Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Minjuan; Wang, Lamei; Zhu, Xiaoxiao

    2013-01-01

    The gradual development of intelligent learning (iLearning) systems has prompted the changes of teaching and learning. This paper presents the architecture of an intelligent learning (iLearning) system built upon the recursive iLearning model and the key technologies associated with this model. Based on this model and the technical structure of a…

  13. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  14. Prevention and treatment of pregnancy-associated hypertension: what have we learned in the last 10 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remuzzi, G; Ruggenenti, P

    1991-09-01

    High blood pressure (BP) complicates approximately 10% of all pregnancies. Hypertension in pregnancy falls into four categories: (1) preeclampsia-eclampsia, (2) chronic hypertension of whatever cause, (3) preeclampsia-eclampsia superimposed to chronic hypertension or renal disease, and (4) transient or late hypertension (gestational hypertension). Preeclampsia, the association of hypertension, proteinuria, and edema, accounts for more than 50% of all the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and is a major cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, distinguishing between preeclampsia and other causes of hypertension on clinical grounds can be difficult because of the lack of specific tests for differential diagnosis. Increased vascular resistance has been claimed as the primary cause of preeclampsia; however, a variable hemodynamic profile with relatively high cardiac outputs, normal filling pressures, and inappropriately high systemic vascular resistances is now reported by most investigators. Imbalance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor eicosanoids may account for platelet activation and increased responsiveness to pressor peptides. Altered prostacyclin (PGI2) to thromboxane A2 (TxA2) ratio in maternal uteroplacental vascular bed may favor local platelet activation and vasoconstriction contributing to placental insufficiency and fetal distress. Alternatively, recent evidence seems to suggest that fetal umbilical placental circulation may be the site of the primary vascular injury. Whether low-dose aspirin prevents preeclampsia because it inhibits the excessive maternal TxA2 or whether the partial inhibition of fetal TxA2 is also of therapeutic value remains to be established. Treatment of severe hypertension in pregnancy is probably important to prevent cardiac failure or cerebrovascular accidents in the mother. The need for pharmacological therapy of mild to moderate hypertension is still debated, since no formal studies are available

  15. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  16. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning. Presentation at Annual Assembly of the European Society for the Systemic Innovation of Education - ESSIE. May, 27, 2011, Leuven, Belgium: Open University in the Netherlands.

  17. In a daily time-place learning task, time is only used as a discriminative stimulus if each daily session is associated with a distinct spatial location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, Scott H; Ingram, Matthew L; Lehr, Andrew B; Martin, Hiliary C; Skinner, Darlene M; Martin, Gerard M; Hughes, Isaac M W; Thorpe, Christina M

    2014-09-01

    It is difficult for rats to acquire daily time-place (TP) learning tasks. One theory suggests that rats do not use time of day as a stimulus signaling a specific response. In the present study, we tested rats' ability to use time of day as a discriminative stimulus. A fixed-interval procedure was used in which one lever provided reinforcement on a FI-5-s schedule in morning sessions, and the same lever provided reinforcement on a FI-30-s schedule in afternoon sessions. Because only one place was used in this paradigm, the rats could only use time of day to acquire the task. Mean responses during the first 5 s of the first trial in each session indicated that the rats did not discriminate between the two sessions. In Phase II, a different lever location was used for each of the two daily sessions, which meant that both spatial and temporal information could be used to acquire the task. The rats readily acquired the task in this phase, and probe trials indicated that the rats were using a combination of spatial and temporal information to discriminate between the two different trial types. When the spatial cue was removed in Phase III, rats no longer discriminated the two sessions, suggesting that time can only be used as a discriminative stimulus when each daily session is associated with a distinct spatial location.

  18. Prospective and Retrospective Learning in Honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Giurfa, Martin; Benard, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We focus on non-elemental forms of learning in honeybees in order to answer the question of whether retrospective learning can be found in an insect. We analyze three different forms of learning: category learning, rule learning and backward blocking. We provide examples showing that honeybees demonstrate these three forms of learning and propose that causal retrospection underlies them to different extents. We argue that an elemental associative account explains category learning whereas rul...

  19. Problem-Based Learning Associated by Action-Process-Object-Schema (APOS) Theory to Enhance Students' High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrikah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    The research has shown a model of learning activities that can be used to stimulate reflective abstraction in students. Reflective abstraction as a method of constructing knowledge in the Action-Process-Object-Schema theory, and is expected to occur when students are in learning activities, will be able to encourage students to make the process of…

  20. LDA '94: A Capital IDEA. Poster Session Abstracts of the International Conference of the Learning Disabilities Association of America (Washington, D.C., March 16-19, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Steven C., Comp.

    This booklet brings together one-page to two-page abstracts from research poster sessions held at a conference on learning disabilities. The 17 research abstracts are presented within four poster session categories: (1) research on assessment and characteristics of students with learning disabilities (with abstracts on handwriting, mainstreaming…

  1. Learning Style versus Time Spent Studying and Career Choice: Which Is Associated with Success in a Combined Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J.; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n?=?492) from the fall semester course completed…

  2. Role of reuniens nucleus projections to the medial prefrontal cortex and to the hippocampal pyramidal CA1 area in associative learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndell Eleore

    Full Text Available We studied the interactions between short- and long-term plastic changes taking place during the acquisition of a classical eyeblink conditioning and following high-frequency stimulation (HFS of the reuniens nucleus in behaving mice. Synaptic changes in strength were studied at the reuniens-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and the reuniens-CA1 synapses. Input/output curves and a paired-pulse study enabled determining the functional capabilities of the two synapses and the optimal intensities to be applied at the reuniens nucleus during classical eyeblink conditioning and for HFS applied to the reuniens nucleus. Animals were conditioned using a trace paradigm, with a tone as conditioned stimulus (CS and an electric shock to the trigeminal nerve as unconditioned stimulus (US. A single pulse was presented to the reuniens nucleus to evoke field EPSPs (fEPSPs in mPFC and CA1 areas during the CS-US interval. No significant changes in synaptic strength were observed at the reuniens-mPFC and reuniens-CA1 synapses during the acquisition of eyelid conditioned responses (CRs. Two successive HFS sessions carried out during the first two conditioning days decreased the percentage of CRs, without evoking any long-term potentiation (LTP at the recording sites. HFS of the reuniens nucleus also prevented the proper acquisition of an object discrimination task. A subsequent study revealed that HFS of the reuniens nucleus evoked a significant decrease of paired-pulse facilitation. In conclusion, reuniens nucleus projections to prefrontal and hippocampal circuits seem to participate in the acquisition of associative learning through a mechanism that does not required the development of LTP.

  3. A touch-screen based paired-associates learning (PAL) task for the rat may provide a translatable pharmacological model of human cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpos, John C; Aerts, Nancy; Fellini, Laetitia; Steckler, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The use of touch-screen equipped operant boxes is an increasingly popular approach for modeling human cognition in the rodent. However little data is currently available describing the effects of pharmacological manipulations on touch-screen based tasks. Owing to the relationship between performance on visual-spatial paired associates learning (PAL) with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease one task of specific interest is the touch-screen PAL task developed for rodents (J. Talpos et al., 2009). The goal of this study was to profile a range of the commonly used pharmacological models of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to investigate the sensitivity of PAL to these models of disease. Male Lister hooded rats were trained on PAL until stable performance was obtained. The effects of PCP, ketamine, amphetamine, LSD, scopolamine, and biperiden (recently proposed as an alternative to scopolamine) were then tested on animals performing the PAL task. While all compounds influenced responding during PAL, only PCP and amphetamine impaired performance with minimal changes in secondary measures (response latencies, trials completed). Surprisingly ketamine did not cause a change in percent correct despite being an NMDA antagonist, indicating that not all NMDA antagonists are equal in the touch-screen platform. This finding is in agreement with existing literature showing differential effects of NMDA antagonists on a wide variety of behavioral assays include tasks of attention, memory, and cognitive flexibility (Gilmour et al., 2009; Dix et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2011). Moreover biperiden showed no benefit when compared to scopolamine, highlighting the current lack of an effective pharmacological model of cholinergic dysfunction in the touch-screen platform. These data demonstrate that performance on PAL can be disrupted by common pharmacological disease models, suggesting that PAL may have the sensitivity to serve as a translational test for the study of cognition in

  4. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Learning Disabilities KidsHealth > For Teens > Learning Disabilities Print A ... study engineering as he'd hoped? What Are Learning Disabilities? For someone diagnosed with a learning disability, ...

  5. Association of COMT val158met and DRD2 G>T genetic polymorphisms with individual differences in motor learning and performance in female young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Boyden, Nate B; Kwak, Youngbin; Humfleet, Jennifer; Burke, David T; Müller, Martijn L T M; Bohnen, Nico I; Seidler, Rachael D

    2014-02-01

    Individuals learn new skills at different rates. Given the involvement of corticostriatal pathways in some types of learning, variations in dopaminergic transmission may contribute to these individual differences. Genetic polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) genes partially determine cortical and striatal dopamine availability, respectively. Individuals who are homozygous for the COMT methionine (met) allele show reduced cortical COMT enzymatic activity, resulting in increased dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex as opposed to individuals who are carriers of the valine (val) allele. DRD2 G-allele homozygotes benefit from a higher striatal dopamine level compared with T-allele carriers. We hypothesized that individuals who are homozygous for COMT met and DRD2 G alleles would show higher rates of motor learning. Seventy-two young healthy females (20 ± 1.9 yr) performed a sensorimotor adaptation task and a motor sequence learning task. A nonparametric mixed model ANOVA revealed that the COMT val-val group demonstrated poorer performance in the sequence learning task compared with the met-met group and showed a learning deficit in the visuomotor adaptation task compared with both met-met and val-met groups. The DRD2 TT group showed poorer performance in the sequence learning task compared with the GT group, but there was no difference between DRD2 genotype groups in adaptation rate. Although these results did not entirely come out as one might predict based on the known contribution of corticostriatal pathways to motor sequence learning, they support the role of genetic polymorphisms of COMT val158met (rs4680) and DRD2 G>T (rs 1076560) in explaining individual differences in motor performance and motor learning, dependent on task type. PMID:24225542

  6. Learning to Learn Cooperatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Anne Hammond

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative learning, put quite simply, is a type of instruction whereby students work together in small groups to achieve a common goal. Cooperative learning has become increasingly popular as a feature of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) with benefits that include increased student interest due to the quick pace of cooperative tasks,…

  7. Learning to aid learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development.

  8. Learning to aid learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development. PMID:26975128

  9. Challenge and Hindrance Stress: Relationships with Exhaustion, Motivation to Learn, and Learning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePine, Jeffrey A.; LePine, Marcie A.; Jackson, Christine L.

    2004-01-01

    In a study of 696 learners, the authors found that stress associated with challenges in the learning environment had a positive relationship with learning performance and that stress associated with hindrances in the learning environment had a negative relationship with learning performance. They also found evidence suggesting that these…

  10. Investigating Insight as Sudden Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…

  11. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, but Not Panic Anxiety Disorder, Are Associated with Higher Sensitivity to Learning from Negative Feedback: Behavioral and Computational Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdour, Hussain Y.; Abushalbaq, Oday M.; Mughrabi, Ibrahim T.; Imam, Aya F.; Gluck, Mark A.; Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of medication-free patients with GAD, SAD, and PAD, along with matched healthy participants using a probabilistic category-learning task that allows the dissociation between positive and negative feedback learning. We also fitted all participants' data to a Q-learning model and various actor-critic models that examine learning rate parameters from positive and negative feedback to investigate effects of valence vs. action on performance. SAD and GAD patients were more sensitive to negative feedback than either PAD patients or healthy participants. PAD, SAD, and GAD patients did not differ in positive-feedback learning compared to healthy participants. We found that Q-learning models provide the simplest fit of the data in comparison to other models. However, computational analysis revealed that groups did not differ in terms of learning rate or exploration values. These findings argue that (a) not all anxiety spectrum disorders share similar cognitive correlates, but are rather different in ways that do not link them to the hallmark of anxiety (higher sensitivity to negative feedback); and (b) perception of negative consequences is the core feature of GAD and SAD, but not PAD. Further research is needed to examine the similarities and differences between anxiety spectrum disorders in other cognitive domains and potential implementation of behavioral therapy to remediate cognitive deficits.

  12. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, but Not Panic Anxiety Disorder, Are Associated with Higher Sensitivity to Learning from Negative Feedback: Behavioral and Computational Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdour, Hussain Y; Abushalbaq, Oday M; Mughrabi, Ibrahim T; Imam, Aya F; Gluck, Mark A; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of medication-free patients with GAD, SAD, and PAD, along with matched healthy participants using a probabilistic category-learning task that allows the dissociation between positive and negative feedback learning. We also fitted all participants' data to a Q-learning model and various actor-critic models that examine learning rate parameters from positive and negative feedback to investigate effects of valence vs. action on performance. SAD and GAD patients were more sensitive to negative feedback than either PAD patients or healthy participants. PAD, SAD, and GAD patients did not differ in positive-feedback learning compared to healthy participants. We found that Q-learning models provide the simplest fit of the data in comparison to other models. However, computational analysis revealed that groups did not differ in terms of learning rate or exploration values. These findings argue that (a) not all anxiety spectrum disorders share similar cognitive correlates, but are rather different in ways that do not link them to the hallmark of anxiety (higher sensitivity to negative feedback); and (b) perception of negative consequences is the core feature of GAD and SAD, but not PAD. Further research is needed to examine the similarities and differences between anxiety spectrum disorders in other cognitive domains and potential implementation of behavioral therapy to remediate cognitive deficits. PMID:27445719

  13. The Comparative Study of Learning from 1994-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Blaser, Rachel; Bellizzi, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The study of learning has long held a central position in the field of comparative psychology. Here we present a survey of the past 20 years of comparative learning research, covering publications from 1994 to 2013. We selected seven journals with a strong focus on comparative learning, and identified five major topics of study represented by the publications in those journals: non-associative learning, associative learning, perceptual/object learning, social learning, and neural correlates o...

  14. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:26558894

  15. Principal component analysis of the effects of environmental enrichment and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate on age-associated learning deficits in a mouse model of Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina eCatuara-Solarz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS individuals present increased risk for Alzheimer disease (AD neuropathology and AD-type dementia. Here, we investigated the use of green tea extracts containing (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, as co-adjuvant to enhance the effects of environmental enrichment (EE in Ts65Dn mice, a segmental trisomy model of DS that partially mimics DS/AD pathology, at the age of initiation of cognitive decline. Classical repeated measures ANOVA showed that combined EE-EGCG treatment was more efficient than EE or EGCG alone to improve specific spatial learning related variables. Using principal component analysis (PCA we found that several spatial learning parameters contributed similarly to a first PC and explained a large proportion of the variance among groups, thus representing a composite learning measure. This PC1 revealed that EGCG or EE alone had no significant effect. However, combined EE-EGCG significantly ameliorated learning alterations of middle age Ts65Dn mice. Interestingly, PCA revealed an increased variability along learning sessions with good and poor learners in Ts65Dn, and this stratification did not disappear upon treatments. Our results suggest that combining EE and EGCG represents a viable therapeutic approach for amelioration of age-related cognitive decline in DS, although its efficacy may vary across individuals.

  16. History of Illicit Stimulant Use Is Not Associated with Long-Lasting Changes in Learning of Fine Motor Skills in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Todd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the long-lasting effect of use of illicit stimulant drugs on learning of new motor skills. We hypothesised that abstinent individuals with a history of primarily methamphetamine and ecstasy use would exhibit normal learning of a visuomotor tracking task compared to controls. The study involved three groups: abstinent stimulant users (n=21; 27 ± 6 yrs and two gender-matched control groups comprising nondrug users (n=16; 22 ± 4 yrs and cannabis users (n=16; 23 ± 5 yrs. Motor learning was assessed with a three-minute visuomotor tracking task. Subjects were instructed to follow a moving target on a computer screen with movement of the index finger. Metacarpophalangeal joint angle and first dorsal interosseous electromyographic activity were recorded. Pattern matching was assessed by cross-correlation of the joint angle and target traces. Distance from the target (tracking error was also calculated. Motor learning was evident in the visuomotor task. Pattern matching improved over time (cross-correlation coefficient and tracking error decreased. However, task performance did not differ between the groups. The results suggest that learning of a new fine visuomotor skill is unchanged in individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use.

  17. History of Illicit Stimulant Use Is Not Associated with Long-Lasting Changes in Learning of Fine Motor Skills in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Gabrielle; Pearson-Dennett, Verity; Flavel, Stanley C; Haberfield, Miranda; Edwards, Hannah; White, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the long-lasting effect of use of illicit stimulant drugs on learning of new motor skills. We hypothesised that abstinent individuals with a history of primarily methamphetamine and ecstasy use would exhibit normal learning of a visuomotor tracking task compared to controls. The study involved three groups: abstinent stimulant users (n = 21; 27 ± 6 yrs) and two gender-matched control groups comprising nondrug users (n = 16; 22 ± 4 yrs) and cannabis users (n = 16; 23 ± 5 yrs). Motor learning was assessed with a three-minute visuomotor tracking task. Subjects were instructed to follow a moving target on a computer screen with movement of the index finger. Metacarpophalangeal joint angle and first dorsal interosseous electromyographic activity were recorded. Pattern matching was assessed by cross-correlation of the joint angle and target traces. Distance from the target (tracking error) was also calculated. Motor learning was evident in the visuomotor task. Pattern matching improved over time (cross-correlation coefficient) and tracking error decreased. However, task performance did not differ between the groups. The results suggest that learning of a new fine visuomotor skill is unchanged in individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use. PMID:26819778

  18. Using of Teleconference as a Medium to Establish an "E-Global-Learning-System": An Experience of 1000guru-Association on Facilitates Open and Distance Learning Activities with Schools in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Ikhfan

    2014-01-01

    Information communication and technology (ICT) has been used in various fields. The use of teleconference for teaching and learning activities is currently not a new topic in global world. In Indonesia, through IMHERE Program from Directorate of Higher Education, some universities have been connected with a network of teleconference as a medium of…

  19. A learning object success story

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, R D; Pegler, C A; Weller, M J

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines an approach to designing a course entirely in learning objects. It provides a theoretical basis for the design and then presents evaluation data from a master’s level course using this design. It also describes several re-uses of the learning objects on other courses and in different contexts. Each learning object is conceived as a whole learning experience, thus avoiding many of the problems associated with assembling components of disparate kinds.

  20. Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin (NKLM für Deutschland: Zusammenarbeit der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung (GMA und des Medizinischen Fakultätentages (MFT [National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM in Germany: Cooperation of the Association for Medical Education (GMA and the Association of Medical Faculties in Germany (MFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn, Eckhart G.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] The Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area (FQ-EHEA; Bologna Process and the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF-LLL; Lisbon Process are competence-driven frameworks for vocational and higher education programmes in need for defined learning objectives. In the field of medical education, The Netherlands and Switzerland have developed national catalogues for undergraduate medical training, which are competence-based and compatible with a two-cycle curriculum comprised of a Bachelor in Medicine and a Master in Medicine. In Germany, virtually all medical organizations, last not least the Association of Medical Faculties (MFT, have voted against the application of the two-cycle (and the three-cycle curriculum to medical undergraduate education. A standstill of the European processes will not be accepted in the political arena, and a proposition was made by the Conference of German Ministers of Higher Education to develop a medical qualification framework for Germany, asking the Association for Medical Education (GMA and the MFT to join forces. This is not possible without consented national learning objectives derived from the professional context of physicians. The GMA has teamed up with the MFT to develop National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM in Germany (see Figure 1 to fulfill these needs.

  1. Deep Extreme Learning Machine and Its Application in EEG Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Shifei Ding; Nan Zhang; Xinzheng Xu; Lili Guo; Jian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, deep learning has aroused wide interest in machine learning fields. Deep learning is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network algorithm. Deep learning has the advantage of approximating the complicated function and alleviating the optimization difficulty associated with deep models. Multilayer extreme learning machine (MLELM) is a learning algorithm of an artificial neural network which takes advantages of deep learning and extreme learning machine. Not only does MLELM appr...

  2. History of Illicit Stimulant Use Is Not Associated with Long-Lasting Changes in Learning of Fine Motor Skills in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle Todd; Verity Pearson-Dennett; Flavel, Stanley C.; Miranda Haberfield; Hannah Edwards; White, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the long-lasting effect of use of illicit stimulant drugs on learning of new motor skills. We hypothesised that abstinent individuals with a history of primarily methamphetamine and ecstasy use would exhibit normal learning of a visuomotor tracking task compared to controls. The study involved three groups: abstinent stimulant users (n = 21; 27 ± 6 yrs) and two gender-matched control groups comprising nondrug users (n = 16; 22 ± 4 yrs) and cannabis users (n = 16; 23 ± 5 ...

  3. Lifelong Open and Flexible Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    for creating a synergy network in e-learning – eventually leading to a European Learning Space that supports virtual mobility of students, staff and courses, adds an e-dimension to the Bologa process and facilitates collaboration between universities and the corporate sector.......EADTU members are universities that are dedicated to off-campus target groups using distance teaching methods as well as associations consisting of universities with mainly mainstream on-campus students but also offering education for off-campus students. Consequently our focus is on Lifelong Open...... and Flexible (LOF) learning embracing characteristics as: open learning, distance learning, e-learning, online learning, open accessibility, multimedia support, virtual mobility, learning communities, dual mode (earn & learn) approaches, and the like.In my presentation I will focus on the EADTU strategies...

  4. Implicit learning as an ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition.

  5. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they can be ... How Do I Know if I Have a Learning Disability? It's very hard for a kid to know ...

  6. Using Of Teleconference As A Medium
To Establish An “E-Global-Learning-System”: 
An Experience Of 1000guru-Association On Facilitates 
Open And Distance Learning Activities With Schools In Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    HARIS, Ikhfan

    2014-01-01

    Information communication and technology (ICT) has been used in various fields. The use of teleconference for teaching and learning activities is currently not a new topic in global world. In Indonesia, through IMHERE Program from Directorate of Higher Education, some universities have been connected with a network of teleconference as a medium of disseminate knowledge. However, when compare to university, the use of teleconference is not yet well-known in schools in Indonesia. This paper...

  7. Using Of Teleconference As A Medium
To Establish An “E-Global-Learning-System”: 
An Experience Of 1000guru-Association On Facilitates 
Open And Distance Learning Activities With Schools In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhfan HARIS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information communication and technology (ICT has been used in various fields. The use of teleconference for teaching and learning activities is currently not a new topic in global world. In Indonesia, through IMHERE Program from Directorate of Higher Education, some universities have been connected with a network of teleconference as a medium of disseminate knowledge. However, when compare to university, the use of teleconference is not yet well-known in schools in Indonesia. This paper aims at presenting the experiences on the use of Teleconference as a medium of teaching secondary school pupils new information on different subjects they discovered in international learning environment. This activity is carried out by Indonesian students who study abroad e.g. students who study in Germany, Japan, Canada, Australia and USA. This paper will also analyse the feedback from the beneficiaries of the teleconference program, to gather opinion about the prospect, challenges in the administration, organisation, and the pedagogy implication of the use of information communication and technology in schools in Indonesia. The author will also give suggestions or recommendations on the best strategies of improving the use of information technology in schools. This is important to further promote and establish the e-Global-learning-system in Indonesia.

  8. Entrepreneurial Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gijs van Popta

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on how entrepreneurs and their new ventures learn, and how they are involved in dynamic learning. A theoretical as well as an empirical analysis of the issues provides insight. We distinguish key individual and organisational learning processes from the literature. Typologies of learning entrepreneurs and organisations are presented and applied in the empirical analysis. The typology of learning entrepreneurs is derived from Kolb (1984) and the typology of learning organisa...

  9. Electroencephalographic Coherence and Learning: Distinct Patterns of Change during Word Learning and Figure Learning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Peter; Hogan, Michael; Kilmartin, Liam; Keane, Michael; Kaiser, Jochen; Fischer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    One likely mechanism in learning new skills is change in synchronous connections between distributed neural networks, which can be measured by coherence analysis of electroencephalographic patterns. This study examined coherence changes during the learning of two tasks, a word association task and a figure association task. Although learning…

  10. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Blended Learning has been implemented, evaluated and researched for the last decades within different educational areas and levels. Blended learning has been coupled with different epistemological understandings and learning theories, but the fundamental character and dimensions of learning...... in blended learning are still insufficient. Moreover, blended learning is a misleading concept described as learning, despite the fact that it fundamentally is an instructional and didactic approach (Oliver & Trigwell, 2005) addressing the learning environment (Inglis, Palipoana, Trenhom & Ward, 2011......) instead of the learning processes behind. Much of the existing research within the field seems to miss this perspective. The consequence is a lack of acknowledgement of the driven forces behind the context and the instructional design limiting the knowledge foundation of learning in blended learning. Thus...

  11. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    in blended learning are still insufficient. Moreover, blended learning is a misleading concept described as learning, despite the fact that it fundamentally is an instructional and didactic approach (Oliver & Trigwell, 2005) addressing the learning environment (Inglis, Palipoana, Trenhom & Ward, 2011......Blended Learning has been implemented, evaluated and researched for the last decades within different educational areas and levels. Blended learning has been coupled with different epistemological understandings and learning theories, but the fundamental character and dimensions of learning......) instead of the learning processes behind. Much of the existing research within the field seems to miss this perspective. The consequence is a lack of acknowledgement of the driven forces behind the context and the instructional design limiting the knowledge foundation of learning in blended learning. Thus...

  12. Peripersonal Space and Margin of Safety around the Body: Learning Visuo-Tactile Associations in a Humanoid Robot with Artificial Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncone, Alessandro; Fadiga, Luciano; Metta, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates a biologically motivated model of peripersonal space through its implementation on a humanoid robot. Guided by the present understanding of the neurophysiology of the fronto-parietal system, we developed a computational model inspired by the receptive fields of polymodal neurons identified, for example, in brain areas F4 and VIP. The experiments on the iCub humanoid robot show that the peripersonal space representation i) can be learned efficiently and in real-time via a simple interaction with the robot, ii) can lead to the generation of behaviors like avoidance and reaching, and iii) can contribute to the understanding the biological principle of motor equivalence. More specifically, with respect to i) the present model contributes to hypothesizing a learning mechanisms for peripersonal space. In relation to point ii) we show how a relatively simple controller can exploit the learned receptive fields to generate either avoidance or reaching of an incoming stimulus and for iii) we show how the robot can select arbitrary body parts as the controlled end-point of an avoidance or reaching movement. PMID:27711136

  13. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  14. Hebbian Learning is about contingency, not contiguity, and explains the emergence of predictive mirror neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Perrett, David I.; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Hebbian Learning should not be reduced to contiguity, as it detects contingency and causality. Hebbian Learning accounts of mirror neurons make predictions that differ from associative learning: Through Hebbian Learning, mirror neurons become dynamic networks that calculate predictions and predictio

  15. Learn CPR You Can Do It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Have a question about CPR? Click Here To Ask The Doctor Learn CPR is a free public service supported by the University of Washington School of Medicine . Learn the basics of CPR - cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The American Heart Association issued updated ...

  16. Learning How to Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.; Gowin, D. Bob

    This eight-chapter book clearly presents a theory of how children learn and, therefore, how teachers and others can help children think about science as well as other topics. Its ideas and techniques may be adopted for preschoolers when objects are conceptually ordered, or for theoretical physicists when findings are conceptually organized. In…

  17. 学习型组织视野下我国高校校友会组织建设的路径%A Probe into the Path of the College Alumni Association Under the Perspective of Learning Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玉敏

    2012-01-01

    Learning organization is now one of the most popular theories in the field of management, and constructing a learning organization has become the goal that social organizations are striving for. Taking this theory as its framework, and adhering to the reality of the current organizational construction of college alumni associations, the present paper makes an analysis of the questions of the organizational construction of college alumni associations.%学习型组织是当前被广泛认可的管理理论之一,构建学习型组织已经成为相关社会组织的努力方向。文章以此理论为架构,立足于当前高校校友会组织建设的实际情况,对目前高校校友会组织建设存在的问题进行分析,提出了学习型组织视野下高校校友会组织建设的主要路径。

  18. Learning to learn: theta oscillations predict new learning, which enhances related learning and neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S Nokia

    Full Text Available Animals in the natural world continuously encounter learning experiences of varying degrees of novelty. New neurons in the hippocampus are especially responsive to learning associations between novel events and more cells survive if a novel and challenging task is learned. One might wonder whether new neurons would be rescued from death upon each new learning experience or whether there is an internal control system that limits the number of cells that are retained as a function of learning. In this experiment, it was hypothesized that learning a task that was similar in content to one already learned previously would not increase cell survival. We further hypothesized that in situations in which the cells are rescued hippocampal theta oscillations (3-12 Hz would be involved and perhaps necessary for increasing cell survival. Both hypotheses were disproved. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on two similar hippocampus-dependent tasks, trace and very-long delay eyeblink conditioning, while recording hippocampal local-field potentials. Cells that were generated after training on the first task were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine and quantified after training on both tasks had ceased. Spontaneous theta activity predicted performance on the first task and the conditioned stimulus induced a theta-band response early in learning the first task. As expected, performance on the first task correlated with performance on the second task. However, theta activity did not increase during training on the second task, even though more cells were present in animals that had learned. Therefore, as long as learning occurs, relatively small changes in the environment are sufficient to increase the number of surviving neurons in the adult hippocampus and they can do so in the absence of an increase in theta activity. In conclusion, these data argue against an upper limit on the number of neurons that can be rescued from death by learning.

  19. Synergistic effects of ginseng stem and leaf-extracted ginsenoside and choline on improving learning and memory in rats Association verification experiment in animals with multiple learning and memory Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin Zhao; Hongxia Gu; Qing Li; Xianglin Xie; Zuoli Xia; Hongxin Cai; Ling Zhang; Dawei Li; Xinnong Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Ginsenoside extracted from the stem and leaf of ginseng(GSL)and choline have both been shown to improve learning and memory functions; however,further studies are needed to understand the synergistic effects of a combination of both.OBJECTIVE:To verify the combined improved synergistic effects of GSL and choline on learning and memory disorders in rats.DESIGN:Control observation.SETTING:Taishan Medical College.MATERIALS:A total of 150 male Kunming mice weighing(20±2)g and 40 healthy male Wistar rats weighing(220±20)g were provided by the Experimental Animal Department of Jilin University.Animal experimentation received confirmed consent from the local ethic committee.GSL was provided by the Department of Chemistry,Norman Bethune Medical University,and choline was provided by the Third Experiment Factory,Shanghai.METHODS:This study was performed at the Life Science Institute,Taishan Medical College from October 2006 to February 2007.①Scopolamine-induced learning and memory disorders in rats:Forty rats were randomly divided into control group,model group,combination group(400 mg/kg GSL + 200 mg/kg choline),GSL(400 mg/kg)group,and choline(200 mg/kg)group,8 rats/group.Rats were perfused and administrated in the morning,once a day for 14 successive days.Rats in the control group and model group were perfused with 20 mL/kg distilled water and underwent Morris water maze spatial resolution test 1 hour after perfusion on the 10th,11th,and 12th days after administration.Rats also underwent passive step-down avoidance test 1 hour after reperfusion on the 13th and 14th days after administration.Thirty minutes prior to experimentation,rats in the remaining three groups were intraperitoneally(I.p)injected with 2 mg/kg scopolamine,and rats in the control group were I.p.injected with 2 mL/kg saline.②Scopolamine-induced learning disorder and memory acquired disorder in mice:Fifty mice were randomly divided into control group,model group,combination group(400 mg

  20. Synergistic effects of ginseng stem and leaf-extracted ginsenoside and choline on improving learning and memory in rats Association verification experiment in animals with multiple learning and memory Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin Zhao; Hongxia Gu; Qing Li; Xianglin Xie; Zuoli Xia; Hongxin Cai; Ling Zhang; Dawei Li; Xinnong Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Ginsenoside extracted from the stem and leaf of ginseng(GSL)and choline have both been shown to improve learning and memory functions; however,further studies are needed to understand the synergistic effects of a combination of both.OBJECTIVE:To verify the combined improved synergistic effects of GSL and choline on learning and memory disorders in rats.DESIGN:Control observation.SETTING:Taishan Medical College.MATERIALS:A total of 150 male Kunming mice weighing(20±2)g and 40 healthy male Wistar rats weighing(220±20)g were provided by the Experimental Animal Department of Jilin University.Animal experimentation received confirmed consent from the local ethic committee.GSL was provided by the Department of Chemistry,Norman Bethune Medical University,and choline was provided by the Third Experiment Factory,Shanghai.METHODS:This study was performed at the Life Science Institute,Taishan Medical College from October 2006 to February 2007.①Scopolamine-induced learning and memory disorders in rats:Forty rats were randomly divided into control group,model group,combination group(400 mg/kg GSL + 200 mg/kg choline),GSL(400 mg/kg)group,and choline(200 mg/kg)group,8 rats/group.Rats were perfused and administrated in the morning,once a day for 14 successive days.Rats in the control group and model group were perfused with 20 mL/kg distilled water and underwent Morris water maze spatial resolution test 1 hour after perfusion on the 10th,11th,and 12th days after administration.Rats also underwent passive step-down avoidance test 1 hour after reperfusion on the 13th and 14th days after administration.Thirty minutes prior to experimentation,rats in the remaining three groups were intraperitoneally(I.p)injected with 2 mg/kg scopolamine,and rats in the control group were I.p.injected with 2 mL/kg saline.②Scopolamine-induced learning disorder and memory acquired disorder in mice:Fifty mice were randomly divided into control group,model group,combination group(400 mg

  1. Repurposeable Learning Objects Linked to Teaching and Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Dunning

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia learning objects are an essential component of high quality, technology-mediated instruction. Learning objects allow the student to use the content learned in a particular part of a course and; 1. demonstrate mastery of the content, 2. apply that knowledge to solving a problem, and 3. use the content in a critical thinking exercise that both demonstrates mastery and allows the student to place the content within the context of the larger topic of the course. The difficulty associated with the use of learning objects on a broad scale is that they require programming skills most professors and instructors do not possess. Learning objects also tend to be custom productions and are defined in terms of the programming and code terminology, further limiting the professor's ability to understand how they are created. Learning objects defined in terms of styles of learning and teaching allow professors and instructors to develop a deeper understanding of the learning objects and the design process. A set of learning objects has been created that are designed for some of the important styles of learning and teaching. They include; visual learning, writing skills, critical thinking, time-revealed scenarios, case studies and empirical observation. The learning objects are designed and described in terms that the average instructor can readily understand , redesign and incorporate into their own courses. They are also designed in such a way that they can readily be repurposed for new applications in other courses and subject areas, with little or no additional programming.

  2. Influence of acupuncture with exercise training on learning and memory functions, as well as microtubule-associated protein-2 and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampal CA3 region, in a rat model of cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jiang; Liubing Li; Min Yang; Yanzhen Bi; Kehui Hu; Peng Zhang; Yixin Shen; Qian Yu

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine microtubule-associated protein-2 and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampal CA3 region in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. The rats were treated with acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Qubin (GB 7), and Qianding (GV 21) points, in addition to exercise training. Results were compared with rats undergoing exercise training only. The Y-maze method and immunohistochemistry revealed decreased error frequency of passing through Y-maze, as well as significantly increased microtubule-associated protein-2 and synaptophysin expression, in the acupuncture with exercise training group compared with the model and exercise training groups after 5 weeks. Microtubule-associated protein-2 and synaptophysin expressions negatively correlated with error frequency of passing through the Y-maze. These results suggested that acupuncture combined with exercise training improved learning and memory functions in a rat model of cerebral infarction. The mechanisms of action were hypothesized to be associated with dendritic or synaptic plasticity in the ipsilateral hippocampal CA3 region.

  3. Learn to Learn English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙畅

    2012-01-01

    For many years,the reforms of college curricula have always been among the priorities of our work.English major is of no exception.However,when we approach this problem,we are stumbled as the courses have comprehensively covered the four basic abilities of language learning.Despite of great ambition of reform,we are distressed for having nothing to start with.

  4. Learning e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ZAMFIR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available What You Understand Is What Your Cognitive Integrates. Scientific research develops, as a native environment, knowledge. This environment consists of two interdependent divisions: theory and technology. First division occurs as a recursive research, while the second one becomes an application of the research activity. Over time, theories integrate methodologies and technology extends as infrastructure. The engine of this environment is learning, as the human activity of knowledge work. The threshold term of this model is the concepts map; it is based on Bloom’ taxonomy for the cognitive domain and highlights the notion of software scaffolding which is grounded in Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory with its major theme, Zone of Proximal Development. This article is designed as a conceptual paper, which analyzes specific structures of this type of educational research: the model reflects a foundation for a theory and finally, the theory evolves as groundwork for a system. The outcomes of this kind of approach are the examples, which are, theoretically, learning outcomes, and practically exist as educational objects, so-called e-learning.

  5. Transient impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in relatively low-dose of acute radiation syndrome is associated with inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which occurs constitutively, is vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), the change in the adult hippocampal function is poorly understood. This study analyzed the changes in apoptotic cell death and neurogenesis in the DGs of hippocampi from adult ICR mice with single whole-body gamma-irradiation using the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In addition, the hippocampus-dependent learning and memory tasks after single whole-body gamma-irradiation were examined in order to evaluate the hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction in the relatively low-dose exposure of ARS. The number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the dentate gyrus (DG) was increased 6-12 h after acute gamma-irradiation (a single dose of 0.5 to 4 Gy). In contrast, the number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells began to decrease significantly 6 h postirradiation, reaching its lowest level 24 h after irradiation. The level of Ki-67 and DCX immunoreactivity decreased in a dose-dependent manner within the range of irradiation applied (0-4 Gy). In passive avoidance and object recognition memory test, the mice trained 1 day after acute irradiation (2 Gy) showed significant memory deficits, compared with the sham controls. In conclusion, the pattern of the hippocampus-dependent memory dysfunction is consistent with the change in neurogenesis after acute irradiation. It is suggested that a relatively low dose of ARS in adult ICR mice is sufficiently detrimental to interrupt the functioning of the hippocampus, including learning and memory, possibly through the inhibition of neurogenesis. (author)

  6. Blended Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Baaren, John

    2009-01-01

    Van der Baaren, J. (2009). Blended Learning. Presentation given at the Mini symposium 'Blended Learning the way to go?'. November, 5, 2009, The Hague, The Netherlands: Netherlands Defence Academy (NDLA).

  7. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  8. Organisational Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢苑苑

    2014-01-01

    In the process of global economy, there is a growing demand for organisational learning. This article critically reviews four models of organisational learning and applies them to the work experience of the author.

  9. Learning tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    Tinnitus, implying the perception of sound without the presence of any acoustical stimulus, is a chronic and serious problem for about 2% of the human population. In many cases, tinnitus is a pitch-like sensation associated with a hearing loss that confines the tinnitus frequency to an interval of the tonotopic axis. Even in patients with a normal audiogram the presence of tinnitus may be associated with damage of hair-cell function in this interval. It has been suggested that homeostatic regulation and, hence, increase of activity leads to the emergence of tinnitus. For patients with hearing loss, we present spike-timing-dependent Hebbian plasticity (STDP) in conjunction with homeostasis as a mechanism for ``learning'' tinnitus in a realistic neuronal network with tonotopically arranged synaptic excitation and inhibition. In so doing we use both dynamical scaling of the synaptic strengths and altering the resting potential of the cells. The corresponding simulations are robust to parameter changes. Understanding the mechanisms of tinnitus induction, such as here, may help improving therapy. Work done in collaboration with Julie Goulet and Michael Schneider. JLvH has been supported partially by BCCN - Munich.

  10. Checking the STEP-Associated Trafficking and Internalization of Glutamate Receptors for Reduced Cognitive Deficits: A Machine Learning Approach-Based Cheminformatics Study and Its Application for Drug Repurposing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jamal

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease, a lethal neurodegenerative disorder that leads to progressive memory loss, is the most common form of dementia. Owing to the complexity of the disease, its root cause still remains unclear. The existing anti-Alzheimer's drugs are unable to cure the disease while the current therapeutic options have provided only limited help in restoring moderate memory and remain ineffective at restricting the disease's progression. The striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP has been shown to be involved in the internalization of the receptor, N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDR and thus is associated with the disease. The present study was performed using machine learning algorithms, docking protocol and molecular dynamics (MD simulations to develop STEP inhibitors, which could be novel anti-Alzheimer's molecules.The present study deals with the generation of computational predictive models based on chemical descriptors of compounds using machine learning approaches followed by substructure fragment analysis. To perform this analysis, the 2D molecular descriptors were generated and machine learning algorithms (Naïve Bayes, Random Forest and Sequential Minimization Optimization were utilized. The binding mechanisms and the molecular interactions between the predicted active compounds and the target protein were modelled using docking methods. Further, the stability of the protein-ligand complex was evaluated using MD simulation studies. The substructure fragment analysis was performed using Substructure fingerprint (SubFp, which was further explored using a predefined dictionary.The present study demonstrates that the computational methodology used can be employed to examine the biological activities of small molecules and prioritize them for experimental screening. Large unscreened chemical libraries can be screened to identify potential novel hits and accelerate the drug discovery process. Additionally, the chemical libraries can be

  11. Workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2005-01-01

    In November 2004 the Research Consortium on workplace learning under Learning Lab Denmark arranged the international conference “Workplace Learning – from the learner’s perspective”. The conference’s aim was to bring together researchers from different countries and institutions to explore...... and discuss recent developments in our understanding of workplace and work-related learning. The conference had nearly 100 participants with 59 papers presented, and among these five have been selected for presentation is this Special Issue....

  12. Risk factors associated with children learning disorders at school: a socio-medical problem. Factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos en el aprendizaje escolar: un problema sociomédico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Roméu Escobar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: At the polyclinic ´´Area I´´ in Cienfuegos there are no previous studies on learning disorders in children and no epidemiological or exploratory research on personal, family and school issues related to this problem has been conducted. Objective: To determine the differences between children with and without learning disorders in second and third grade in the schools in the area of the "Dr. José Luis Chaviano" polyclinic in Cienfuegos in order to determine the risk factors depending on the child, the school and the family. Method: A non-coupled case-control study was conducted from September 2008 to June 2009. Study group: 42 children presenting learning difficulties as to their teacher´s opinion. Control group: 40 children with normal learning selected by simple random sampling. Interviews were conducted with parents, teachers and children as well as observations of school activities. Standardized questionnaires were applied and the information obtained was processed by using the SPSS statistical program. The chi-square statistic was used and the relative risks were estimated. Results: The identified disorders were associated with mood changes, unattendance to school and poor muscle control for writing, among others mentioned by teachers. The frequent change of teachers was also an associated condition. Among the risk factors related to family issues were: parents´ low educational level, cohabitation, family history of neurotic disorders, inconsistent educational management, family violence, marginalization and understimulation at home. Conclusion: Learning disorders were associated with risk factors depending on the child, school and, in a relevant way, on the family environment factors.Fundamento: en el policlínico área I del municipio Cienfuegos, no existen estudios previos sobre los trastornos del aprendizaje en los ni

  13. The practice performance and clinical learning environment among associated degree nursing students%高职护理专业学生实习成绩与临床学习环境的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金银; 程云

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the practice performance among associated degree nursing students and their perceptions of clinical learning environment. Methods The associated degree nursing students from 36 hospitals in Zhejiang province were recruited and investigated by using Clinical Learning Environment Inventory. Their practice performance was recorded based on the practice records. Results The total score of clinical learning environment was (173.07±16.02),and the factor scores were ranked as task location (26.68 ±3.98),interpersonal relation (26.01±4.60), student participation (25.64 ±4.44),work atmosphere and team culture (25.54±4.42) ,innovation (25.41±4.60),and individuation (24.50±5.36).The students' practice performance covered from 60.00 to 99.25 points. The scores showed skewness distribution,and the coefficient of skewness was -2.22. The students' practice performance was significantly higher in upper first-class hospitals than that in middle first-class or upper second-class hospitals. No relationship was found between the practice performance and their perceptions of clinical learning environment. Conclusion The score of practice performance among associated degree nursing students is relatively high,which is not correlated with their perceptions of clinical learning environment. It is suggested to apply formative assessment and third party evaluation system,pay close attention to the training of students' individuation and innovation,and strengthen particular management and thereby to improve the effectiveness of clinical practice.%目的 了解高职护理专业学生实习成绩情况,以及其对临床学习环境的评价.方法 采用便利抽样方法,选择在浙江省36家二级甲等以上教学医院实习的高职护理学生为调查对象,应用临床学习环境(氛围)评价量表、学生成绩登记表对其进行调查.结果 学生对临床学习环境评价总分为(173.07±16.02)分,各维度评分

  14. Posthuman learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    This book shall explore the concept of learning from the new perspective of the posthuman. The vast majority of cognitive, behavioral and part of the constructionist learning theories operate with an autonomous individual who learn in a world of separate objects. Technology is (if mentioned at al...

  15. Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriale, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  16. Combating Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvensivu, Anu; Koski, Pasi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to look at workplace learning through research into sociology of work. It explores the "learning discourse" at work place level looking for possibilities to oppose learning. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on case studies conducted at six workplaces. The data on the cases include interviews…

  17. Blended Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bauerová, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on a new approach of education called blended learning. The history and developement of Blended Learning is described in the first part. Then the methods and tools of Blended Learning are evaluated and compared to the traditional methods of education. At the final part an efficient developement of the educational programs is emphasized.

  18. Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

  19. The neuroscience of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, John W

    2007-10-01

    Significant advances have been made in understanding the neurophysiological basis of learning, including the discovery of mirror neurons and the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding (CREB) protein in learning. Mirror neurons help us visually compare an observed activity with a remembered action in our memory, an ability that helps us imitate and learn through watching. Long-term potentiation, the Hebb rule, and CREB protein are associated with the formation of long-term memories. Conversely, protein phosphatase 1 and glucocorticoids are neurophysiological phenomena that limit what can be learned and cause forgetfulness. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences contends that different areas of the brain are responsible for different competencies that we all possess to varying degrees. These multiple intelligences can be used as strategies for improved learning. Repeating material, using mnemonics, and avoiding overwhelming stress are other strategies for improving learning. Imaging studies have shown that practice with resultant learning results in significantly less use of brain areas, indicating that the brain becomes more efficient. Experts have advantages over novices, including increased cognitive processing efficiency. Nurses are in a unique position to use their understanding of neurophysiological principles to implement better educational strategies to provide quality education to patients and others.

  20. The neuroscience of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, John W

    2007-10-01

    Significant advances have been made in understanding the neurophysiological basis of learning, including the discovery of mirror neurons and the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding (CREB) protein in learning. Mirror neurons help us visually compare an observed activity with a remembered action in our memory, an ability that helps us imitate and learn through watching. Long-term potentiation, the Hebb rule, and CREB protein are associated with the formation of long-term memories. Conversely, protein phosphatase 1 and glucocorticoids are neurophysiological phenomena that limit what can be learned and cause forgetfulness. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences contends that different areas of the brain are responsible for different competencies that we all possess to varying degrees. These multiple intelligences can be used as strategies for improved learning. Repeating material, using mnemonics, and avoiding overwhelming stress are other strategies for improving learning. Imaging studies have shown that practice with resultant learning results in significantly less use of brain areas, indicating that the brain becomes more efficient. Experts have advantages over novices, including increased cognitive processing efficiency. Nurses are in a unique position to use their understanding of neurophysiological principles to implement better educational strategies to provide quality education to patients and others. PMID:17966298

  1. Valuable Learning or "Spinning Their Wheels"? Understanding Excess Credits Earned by Community College Associate Degree Completers. CCRC Working Paper No. 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidenberg, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Substantial numbers of students who earn an associate degree from a community college accumulate more college credits than are required. This is an important phenomenon for at least two related reasons. First, it raises the issue of efficiency: Are students getting their degrees in the most expeditious manner, both in terms of time out of the…

  2. Centre-Embedded Structures Are a By-Product of Associative Learning and Working Memory Constraints: Evidence from Baboons ("Papio Papio")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Arnaud; Perruchet, Pierre; Fagot, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Influential theories have claimed that the ability for recursion forms the computational core of human language faculty distinguishing our communication system from that of other animals (Hauser, Chomsky, & Fitch, 2002). In the present study, we consider an alternative view on recursion by studying the contribution of associative and working…

  3. The Association of Music Experience, Pattern of Practice and Performance Anxiety with Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems (PRMP) in Children Learning Instrumental Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence supporting the social and cognitive benefits of music education. However aspects of music practice, such as an increase in frequency and intensity of practice, are associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in adult musicians, though with limited evidence in children. The aim of this study was to describe the music…

  4. Why are some people's names easier to learn than others? The effects of face similarity on memory for face-name associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantelis, Peter C.; Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Using synthetic faces that varied along four perceptual dimensions (Wilson, Loffler, & Wilkinson, 2002), we examined the effects of face similarity on memory for face-name associations. The nature of these stimuli allowed us to go beyond the categorical similarity manipulations used in previous verb

  5. The Learning Society: Two Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ya-hui

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the view that has long been fashionable in related policies and literature that the establishment of the learning society is a necessary response to changing times. This article suggests that the association between the learning society and current change may be defensible but is limited. The justification of the learning…

  6. Learning Networks for Lifelong Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Koper, Rob

    2004-01-01

    Presentation in a seminar organized by Christopher Hoadley at Penn State University, October 2004.Contains general introduction into the Learning Network Programme and a demonstration of the Netlogo Simulation of a Learning Network.

  7. Brain activation during associative learning and memory in healthy volunteers:a functional magnetic resonance imaging%联想学习记忆的脑功能磁共振成像

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金龙; 舒斯云; 刘颂豪; 吴永明; 郭周义; 包新民; 张增强; 马翰章

    2008-01-01

    目的 通过脑功能磁共振成像(functional magnetic resonance imaging,fMRI)技术检测健康人脑纹状体边缘区(marginal division of the striatum,MrD)是否参与联想学习记忆的过程.方法 对16名右利手健康志愿者进行一项配对词语联想学习记忆任务的同时,进行fMRI扫描.试验采用组块设计并选用SPM 99软件进行数据分析和脑功能区定位.结果 应用单样本t检验(SPM统计软件将体素的激活强度T值在数值上等于t检验的t值),当统计阈值设为P<0.005时,左枕叶和左额上、中回在任务编码时被显著激活(最大激活强度分别为T=13.87、9.36),左纹状体边缘区也在该阶段被明显激活(T=5.46);而左顶叶则在记忆提取阶段被显著激活(T=8.73).结论 除皮质外,皮质下结构如MrD也参与了词语联想学习记忆过程.%Objective To examine whether the marginal division of the striatum(MrD)is involved in the associative learning and memory function of human brain with the help of functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI)technique.Methods Sixteen right-handed normal volunteers participated in a test of paired-word associative learning and memory,while the fMRI data were recorded.Control tasks were performed for the block-design.Statistcs parameter mapping 99 was used to analyze the data and to obtain the activated brain regions.Results When the threshold was set as P<0.005.using a one-sample T-test,the left occipital lobe and the superior and middle gyrus of the left frontal lobe were activated remarkably during the encoding process of the paired-word associative learning and memory task,with the maximum intensity T value being 13.87 and 9.36.respectively.The left MrD was also obviously activated during this stage(T value was 5.46).But during the retrieval process,the left parietal lobe was prominently activated(T value was 8.73).Conclusion The resuhs of this study reveal that the subcortical structures such as MrD as well as the cerebral

  8. Neuroscience: Incepting Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBettencourt, Megan T; Norman, Kenneth A

    2016-07-25

    A recent study has used real-time fMRI neurofeedback to induce color-specific activity patterns in early visual cortex as participants viewed achromatic gratings. This procedure resulted in an association between the color and the displayed grating orientation, suggesting that early visual cortex can support associative learning of this type. PMID:27458913

  9. Profiles in Self-Regulated Learning in the Online Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Barnard-Brak; William Y. Lan; Valerie Osland Paton

    2010-01-01

    Individuals who are self-regulated in their learning appear to achieve more positive academic outcomes than individuals who do not exhibit self-regulated learning behaviors. We suggest that distinct profiles of self-regulated learning behaviors exist across learners. In turn, these profiles appear to be associated with significantly different academic outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether profiles for self-regulated learning skills and strategies exist among learne...

  10. Neuroserpin, a brain-associated inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator is localized primarily in neurons. Implications for the regulation of motor learning and neuronal survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, G A; Coleman, T A; Haudenschild, C C; Stefansson, S; Smith, E P; Barthlow, R; Cherry, S; Sandkvist, M; Lawrence, D A

    1997-12-26

    A cDNA clone for the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin), neuroserpin, was isolated from a human whole brain cDNA library, and recombinant protein was expressed in insect cells. The purified protein is an efficient inhibitor of tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA), having an apparent second-order rate constant of 6. 2 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 for the two-chain form. However, unlike other known plasminogen activator inhibitors, neuroserpin is a more effective inactivator of tPA than of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Neuroserpin also effectively inhibited trypsin and nerve growth factor-gamma but reacted only slowly with plasmin and thrombin. Northern blot analysis showed a 1.8 kilobase messenger RNA expressed predominantly in adult human brain and spinal cord, and immunohistochemical studies of normal mouse tissue detected strong staining primarily in neuronal cells with occasionally positive microglial cells. Staining was most prominent in the ependymal cells of the choroid plexus, Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, select neurons of the hypothalamus and hippocampus, and in the myelinated axons of the commissura. Expression of tPA within these regions is reported to be high and has previously been correlated with both motor learning and neuronal survival. Taken together, these data suggest that neuroserpin is likely to be a critical regulator of tPA activity in the central nervous system, and as such may play an important role in neuronal plasticity and/or maintenance.

  11. Centre-embedded structures are a by-product of associative learning and working memory constraints: evidence from baboons (Papio Papio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Arnaud; Perruchet, Pierre; Fagot, Joël

    2012-04-01

    Influential theories have claimed that the ability for recursion forms the computational core of human language faculty distinguishing our communication system from that of other animals (Hauser, Chomsky, & Fitch, 2002). In the present study, we consider an alternative view on recursion by studying the contribution of associative and working memory processes. After an intensive paired-associate training with visual shapes, we observed that baboons spontaneously ordered their responses in keeping with a recursive, centre-embedded structure. This result suggests that the human ability for recursion might partly if not entirely originate from fundamental processing constraints already present in nonhuman primates and that the critical distinction between animal communication and human language should more likely be found in working memory capacities than in an ability to produce recursive structures per se. PMID:22225966

  12. Centre-embedded structures are a by-product of associative learning and working memory constraints: evidence from baboons (Papio Papio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Arnaud; Perruchet, Pierre; Fagot, Joël

    2012-04-01

    Influential theories have claimed that the ability for recursion forms the computational core of human language faculty distinguishing our communication system from that of other animals (Hauser, Chomsky, & Fitch, 2002). In the present study, we consider an alternative view on recursion by studying the contribution of associative and working memory processes. After an intensive paired-associate training with visual shapes, we observed that baboons spontaneously ordered their responses in keeping with a recursive, centre-embedded structure. This result suggests that the human ability for recursion might partly if not entirely originate from fundamental processing constraints already present in nonhuman primates and that the critical distinction between animal communication and human language should more likely be found in working memory capacities than in an ability to produce recursive structures per se.

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  14. Associations of Postural Knowledge and Basic Motor Skill with Dyspraxia in Autism: Implication for Abnormalities in Distributed Connectivity and Motor Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Dowell, Lauren R.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2009-01-01

    Children with autism often have difficulty performing skilled movements. Praxis performance requires basic motor skill, knowledge of representations of the movement (mediated by parietal regions), and transcoding of these representations into movement plans (mediated by premotor circuits). The goals of this study were: (a) to determine whether dyspraxia in autism is associated with impaired representational (“postural”) knowledge, and (b) to examine the contributions of postural knowledge and...

  15. The sales learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Mark; Holloway, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    When a company launches a new product into a new market, the temptation is to immediately ramp up sales force capacity to gain customers as quickly as possible. But hiring a full sales force too early just causes the firm to burn through cash and fail to meet revenue expectations. Before it can sell an innovative product efficiently, the entire organization needs to learn how customers will acquire and use it, a process the authors call the sales learning curve. The concept of a learning curve is well understood in manufacturing. Employees transfer knowledge and experience back and forth between the production line and purchasing, manufacturing, engineering, planning, and operations. The sales learning curve unfolds similarly through the give-and-take between the company--marketing, sales, product support, and product development--and its customers. As customers adopt the product, the firm modifies both the offering and the processes associated with making and selling it. Progress along the manufacturing curve is measured by tracking cost per unit: The more a firm learns about the manufacturing process, the more efficient it becomes, and the lower the unit cost goes. Progress along the sales learning curve is measured in an analogous way: The more a company learns about the sales process, the more efficient it becomes at selling, and the higher the sales yield. As the sales yield increases, the sales learning process unfolds in three distinct phases--initiation, transition, and execution. Each phase requires a different size--and kind--of sales force and represents a different stage in a company's production, marketing, and sales strategies. Adjusting those strategies as the firm progresses along the sales learning curve allows managers to plan resource allocation more accurately, set appropriate expectations, avoid disastrous cash shortfalls, and reduce both the time and money required to turn a profit.

  16. Psychology for the Classroom: E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, John

    2011-01-01

    "Psychology for the Classroom: E-Learning" is a lively and accessible introduction to the field of technology-supported teaching and learning and the educational psychology associated with those developments. Offering a substantial and useful analysis of e-learning, this practical book includes current research, offers a grounding in both theory…

  17. E-Learning, Time and Unconscious Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, David

    2014-01-01

    This article views the temporal dimensions of e-learning through a psychoanalytic lens, and asks the reader to consider links between online learning and psychoanalysis. It argues that time and its associated philosophical puzzles impinge on both psychoanalytic theory and on e-learning at two specific points. The first is in the distinction…

  18. Prediction During Learning of Later Retrievability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Eugene A.

    Evidence was found for an ability to monitor during learning the degree of retrievability of the to-be-learned material from memory at time of a subsequent test. Students were given three successive study trials to learn either a list of 60 paired associates or a free-recall list of 60 "unrelated" words. During a fourth study trial, they rated on…

  19. Finding Funds to Move Summer Learning Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Summer learning loss creates a permanent drag on the US education system. With the generous support of the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, the National Summer Learning Association (NSLA) developed "Moving Summer Learning Forward: A Strategic Roadmap for Funding in Tough Times" to provide out-of-school time programs, school districts,…

  20. Multiple Forms of Learning Yield Temporally Distinct Electrophysiological Repetition Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Race, Elizabeth A.; Badre, David; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2009-01-01

    Prior experience with a stimulus leads to multiple forms of learning that facilitate subsequent behavior (repetition priming) and neural processing (repetition suppression). Learning can occur at the level of stimulus-specific features (stimulus learning), associations between stimuli and selected decisions (stimulus–decision learning), and associations between stimuli and selected responses (stimulus–response learning). Although recent functional magnetic resonance imaging results suggest th...